Sample records for longitudinal study participants

  1. Almost All Start but Who Continue? A Longitudinal Study of Youth Participation in Swedish Club Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakobsson, Britta Thedin; Lundvall, Suzanne; Redelius, Karin; Engstrom, Lars-Magnus

    2012-01-01

    Many young people in Sweden stop participating in club sports during their teens, but some continue. Drawing on a longitudinal study, the aim of this article is to highlight some of the characteristics of teenagers who continue with club sports and to discuss the relation between club-sport participation and social and cultural conditions, with…

  2. Longitudinal Study of Adult Literacy Participants in Tennessee. Year Two Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrifield, Juliet; And Others

    The Longitudinal Study of Adult Literacy Participants was designed to assess the long-term impacts of adult literacy programs on quality of life. During the second year, a follow-up interview was used to survey socioeconomic, personal, social, and health changes. Baseline data for Cohort 1 and Cohort 2 were compared in four major areas:…

  3. Personality and labor force participation across the life course: A longitudinal study of women's careers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John A. Clausen; Martin Gilens

    1990-01-01

    The influences on and consequences of women's labor force experience are examined using data from members of the Berkeley longitudinal studies born between 1920 and 1929. In adolescence, these women were overwhelmingly oriented toward marriage and family rather than career, yet more than two-thirds eventually spent substantial time in the paid labor force. Consistent labor force participation was lower for

  4. Playgroup Participation and Social Support Outcomes for Mothers of Young Children: A Longitudinal Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Hancock, Kirsten J.; Cunningham, Nadia K.; Lawrence, David; Zarb, David; Zubrick, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to examine friendship networks and social support outcomes for mothers according to patterns of playgroup participation. Methods Data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children were used to examine the extent to which patterns of playgroup participation across the ages of 3–19 months (Wave 1) and 2–3 years (Wave 2) were associated with social support outcomes for mothers at Wave 3 (4–5 years) and four years later at Wave 5 (8–9 years). Analyses were adjusted for initial friendship attachments at Wave 1 and other socio-demographic characteristics. Results Log-binomial regression models estimating relative risks showed that mothers who never participated in a playgroup, or who participated at either Wave 1 or Wave 2 only, were 1.7 and 1.8 times as likely to report having no support from friends when the child was 4–5 years, and 2.0 times as likely to have no support at age 8–9 years, compared with mothers who persistently participated in playgroup at both Wave 1 and Wave 2. Conclusion These results provide evidence that persistent playgroup participation may acts as a protective factor against poor social support outcomes. Socially isolated parents may find playgroups a useful resource to build their social support networks. PMID:26181426

  5. Who Participates? Longitudinal Retention in the MIDUS National Study of Health and Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Radler, Barry T.; Ryff, Carol D.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives This article uses data from MIDUS (Midlife in the United States), a national study of Americans (N = 7,108), to investigate factors that predict longitudinal retention. With its extensive age range (25–75 at Time 1) and long-term design (9- to 10-year survey interval), MIDUS is useful for investigating common sociodemographic and health predictors of continuing participation. Method The authors conducted logistic regression analyses of baseline sociodemographic and health variables predicting retention. Select interaction terms examined the interplay between targeted variables. Results Consistent with prior research, higher retention rates were found among Whites, females, and married individuals as well as those with better health and more education. Interaction analyses further clarified that (a) health status better predicted retention among older compared to younger respondents and among women compared to men, (b) marital status better predicted retention among Whites compared to non-Whites and among women compared to men, and (c) economic status better predicted retention among those with poorer functional health status. Discussion The authors’ analyses clarify that longitudinal retention varied depending on respondents’ sociodemographic characteristics and their health status. The unique contribution of this article is that factors predicting nonparticipation can be offset by, or compensated for, other factors. PMID:20103686

  6. Organisational participation and health among smallholder farmers: a longitudinal study in a Latin American context

    PubMed Central

    Orozco, Fadya; Mota, Eduardo; Cole, Donald C

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand the impact of social organisation affiliation and farmers’ agricultural production practices on farmer health. Organisations facilitate the acquisition and exchange of forms of social capital which can influence the adoption of practices with potential health impacts. In countries such as Ecuador, smallholder agriculture is practised by socially vulnerable populations. Agricultural production often involves the use of extremely hazardous pesticides, while practices that reduce the use of chemicals through integrated pest management (IPM) remain uncommon. Design Longitudinal study (2007–2010). Setting 12 Ecuadorian communities, previously part of a participatory action research study. Participants 208 small-scale farmers. Inclusion criteria were: age between 18 and 65?years, literate and resident in the community for the previous 3?years. Primary outcomes The differential effects of the membership in social organisations (as an effect modifier), on the relationship between the implementation of IPM practices (main independent variable) and farmers’ health, measured by neurocognitive performance scores (better higher value; dependent variable). Results Among organisational participants, the coefficient of association between the implementation of IPM practices for the category good/very good (vs no use) and neurocognitive performance, when farmers were involved in organisations, was negative and moderate (?=?0.17, SE 0.21) though not significant (p>0.1); for the category little/moderate use, the coefficient was positive (?=0.34, SE 0.19) and significant. Among those who did not participate in organisations, both little/moderate use and good/very good use of IPM practices were associated with an increase in neurocognitive performance. Conclusions The effect of agricultural production practices on farmers’ health, transmitted through organisations, can be differentiated. Organisations as structures of social capital seem to be functional in the social reproduction process of the communities studied. Results highlight the need to redirect the analysis of social capital to a more integrated study of social determination of health. PMID:25344481

  7. The Role of Arts Participation in Students' Academic and Nonacademic Outcomes: A Longitudinal Study of School, Home, and Community Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew J.; Mansour, Marianne; Anderson, Michael; Gibson, Robyn; Liem, Gregory A. D.; Sudmalis, David

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study draws on positive youth development frameworks and ecological models to examine the role of school-, home- and community-based arts participation in students' academic (e.g., motivation, engagement) and nonacademic (e.g., self-esteem, life satisfaction) outcomes. The study is based on 643 elementary and high school students…

  8. Insights from an 8-Year Longitudinal Study of Female REU Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, S. J.

    2009-12-01

    The long-running REU program is tacitly intended to increase retention and provide "an important educational experience" for undergraduates, particularly women, minorities and underrepresented groups. This 8-year, two-stage study was designed to explore the ways in which the REU acted as an educational experience for 51 women from a single scientific discipline. This paper describes the results of that analysis in two sections. The first section describes the results from an ex post facto longitudinal data analysis. This data included multiple interviews with each participant during their REU, annual open-ended alumni surveys, faculty interviews, and extensive field notes, over an 8-year period. As a result of this analysis, four themes emerged, related to developing understandings of the nature of professional scientific work, the nature of the scientific process, the culture of academia, and finally, an understanding of the "self." This analysis served as an initial theory that was used to design the second stage, interview protocol. In the second stage over 10 hours of interviews with 8 participants were conducted and analyzed. These 8 participants were selected to represent a variety of career stages, and for their potential to disconfirm the initial theory. Analysis of this interview data failed to provide disconfirming evidence. Results from this study indicate that the REU did not provide a substantive educational experience related to the nature of scientific work, the scientific process, or the culture of academia. Results further indicated that the REU did not serve to transform participants' conceptions about themselves as situated in science, and learning gains with regard to other aspects of the self, were somewhat limited. Instead, the data suggests that these women arrived at the REU with pre-existing and remarkably strong conceptions in these areas, and that the REU did not functional to alter those states. These conceptions were frequently the result of interactions with mentors/scientists from middle school until well into the undergraduate period. Formal and informal interactions with research scientists and instructors, in addition to family members, served as crucial forces in shaping highly developed, stable science identities. Sustained interactions with a single mentor at a home institution were particularly transformational. This study suggests further studies into the impact of long-term mentors on women in the sciences, at a variety of stages and across multiple disciplines.

  9. Longitudinal Study of Adult Literacy Participants in Tennessee. Year One Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrifield, Juliet; And Others

    In the first phase of a longitudinal study to gather information on quality-of-life outcomes of adult basic education (ABE) programs in Tennessee, adults entering literacy programs at eight sites in rural and urban Tennessee were interviewed using a baseline questionnaire covering socioeconomic, social, personal, and physical well-being. One year…

  10. Head Start Participation and School Readiness: Evidence from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, RaeHyuck; Zhai, Fuhua; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Han, Wen-Jui; Waldfogel, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (n ˜ 6,950), a nationally representative sample of children born in 2001, we examined school readiness (academic skills and socioemotional well-being) at kindergarten entry for children who attended Head Start compared with those who experienced other types of child care…

  11. Predictors of Change in Participation Rates Following Acquired Brain Injury: Results of a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anaby, Dana; Law, Mary; Hanna, Steven; DeMatteo, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was (1) to examine the changes in participation rates over 1 year among children and adolescents after acquired brain injury and (2) to explore the effect of child and family factors on these changes. Method: The participation levels of 136 children and young people (88 males; 48 females; age range 4y 11mo-17y 6mo;…

  12. Sports participation and academic performance: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel I. Rees; Joseph J. Sabia

    2010-01-01

    It has been argued that high school sports participation increases motivation and teaches teamwork and self-discipline. While several studies have shown that students who participate in athletic activities perform better in school than those who do not, it is not clear whether this association is a result of positive academic spillovers, or due to the influence of unobservables. Using data

  13. The nurse clinician as research participant recruiter: experience from a longitudinal intervention study.

    PubMed

    Morrison-Beedy, D; Aronowitz, T; Dyne, J; Mkandawire, L; Murphy, C; Martin, J

    2001-01-01

    One of the most critical phases involved in carrying out a research project is participant recruitment. Recruitment into clinical trials and health programs is a primary public health challenge, particularly among adolescents. Special skills and abilities are needed to successfully recruit participants from this developmental age group. This paper describes the similarities found between the recruitment process developed for a randomized controlled trial with adolescents and the steps of the nursing process, and demonstrates that knowledge of the nursing process can assist in successfully recruiting individuals for a research study. Even without research training, clinical nurses can play a significant role in research studies because of their skills and experiences with the nursing process. Thus, nurse scientists and clinicians can work together successfully to conduct research studies and health projects that involve challenging recruitment efforts. PMID:16052902

  14. Incidence of dementia among participants and nonparticipants in a longitudinal study of cognitive aging.

    PubMed

    Knopman, David S; Roberts, Rosebud O; Pankratz, V Shane; Cha, Ruth H; Rocca, Walter A; Mielke, Michelle M; Boeve, Bradley F; Tangalos, Eric G; Ivnik, Robert J; Geda, Yonas E; Petersen, Ronald C

    2014-08-15

    Although rates of incident dementia have been reported from several populations, the impact of nonparticipation on dementia incidence in studies of cognitive aging is unknown. In 2004, investigators with the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging selected persons aged 70-89 years from an enumeration of all Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents (age- and sex-stratified random sample). Of 4,398 potential participants, 2,050 agreed to undergo an in-person health assessment. Those participants were reevaluated in person using standard diagnostic procedures approximately every 15 months over a median follow-up period of 5.7 years (through September 15, 2013). There were 1,679 persons who refused any participation. A trained nurse abstractor reviewed the medical records of nonparticipants using the Rochester Epidemiology Project's medical record linkage system a median of 3.9 years after refusal. Nonparticipants had a higher prevalence of dementia than participants evaluated in person (6.5% vs. 3.3%; P < 0.0001). The standardized incidence of dementia was not significantly higher among the nonparticipants (23.2 per 1,000 person-years) than in those evaluated in person (19.6 per 1,000 person-years; hazard ratio = 1.17, 95% confidence interval: 0.95, 1.43 (P = 0.13); adjusted for education and sex, with age as the time scale). The small, nonsignificant impact of nonparticipation on rates of incident dementia is reassuring for future studies based on incident dementia cases. PMID:24859276

  15. A longitudinal study of the educational and career trajectories of female participants of an urban informal science education program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadigan, Kathleen Ann

    The purpose of this study is to describe the educational trajectories of a sample of young women from urban, low-income, single-parent families who participated in the Women in Natural Sciences (WINS) program during their ninth and/or tenth grade years of high school. This study also attempts to determine how the WINS program affected the participants' educational and career choices in order to provide insight into the role informal science education programs play in increasing the participation of women and minorities in science, math, engineering, and technology (SMET)-related fields. The research takes the form of a longitudinal, descriptive case study. The case is composed of 152 WINS participants who applied for, were accepted into, and completed at least one year of the program between 1992 and 1997. Data were drawn from program records, surveys, and interviews. Pre-WINS desired educational and career trajectory data were available for 152 participants. Post-WINS actual educational and career trajectory data were available for 101 of the young women in the sample. Seventy-eight women completed a WINS survey. The researcher conducted semi-structured interviews with 12 former participants. Findings revealed a 100 percent high school completion rate. A total of 109 participants (93.16%) enrolled in a college program following high school completion. Careers in medical or health-related fields followed by careers in SMET emerged as the highest ranking career paths with 24 students (23.76%) and 21 students (20.79%), respectively, employed in or pursuing careers in these areas. Taking a greater number of advanced or honors level SMET high school courses was the only contextual variable showing a significant relationship to pursuing a career in SMET. The majority of participants perceived having the WINS staff as people you could talk to, the job skills learned in WINS, and having the museum as a safe place to go as having influenced their educational and career decisions. These findings reflect the need for continued support of informal science education programs for urban girls and at-risk youth. Additional longitudinal studies of similar programs are crucial to understanding their effects on the education and career paths of young women with an initial interest in science.

  16. A longitudinal study of the educational and career trajectories of female participants of an urban informal science education program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadigan, Kathleen A.; Hammrich, Penny L.

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal case study is to describe the educational trajectories of a sample of 152 young women from urban, low-income, single-parent families who participated in the Women in Natural Sciences (WINS) program during high school. Utilizing data drawn from program records, surveys, and interviews, this study also attempts to determine how the program affected the participants' educational and career choices to provide insight into the role informal science education programs play in increasing the participation of women and minorities in science, math, engineering, and technology (SMET)-related fields. Findings revealed 109 participants (93.16%) enrolled in a college program following high school completion. Careers in medical or health-related fields followed by careers in SMET emerged as the highest ranking career paths with 24 students (23.76%) and 21 students (20.79%), respectively, employed in or pursuing careers in these areas. The majority of participants perceived having staff to talk to, the job skills learned, and having the museum as a safe place to go as having influenced their educational and career decisions. These findings reflect the need for continued support of informal science education programs for urban girls and at-risk youth.

  17. A Longitudinal Study of Mental Health Consumer/Survivor Initiatives: Part 3--A Qualitative Study of Impacts of Participation on New Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochocka, Joanna; Nelson, Geoffrey; Janzen, Rich; Trainor, John

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the outcomes of participation in mental health Consumer/Survivor Initiatives (CSIs) and identifies helpful qualities of CSIs through a longitudinal, qualitative study that involved in-depth interviews of people who experienced severe mental health challenges in Ontario, Canada. We used a nonequivalent control group design in…

  18. Detection of Outliers Due to Participants’ Non-Adherence to Protocol in a Longitudinal Study of Cognitive Decline

    PubMed Central

    Shipley, Martin J.; Welch, Catherine; Kivimaki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2015-01-01

    Background Participants’ non adherence to protocol affects data quality. In longitudinal studies, this leads to outliers that can be present at the level of the population or the individual. The purpose of the present study is to elaborate a method for detection of outliers in a study of cognitive ageing. Methods In the Whitehall II study, data on a cognitive test battery have been collected in 1997-99, 2002-04, 2007-09 and 2012-13. Outliers at the 2012-13 wave were identified using a 4-step procedure: (1) identify cognitive tests with potential non-adherence to protocol, (2) choose a prediction model between a simple model with socio-demographic covariates and one that also includes health behaviours and health measures, (3) define an outlier using a studentized residual, and (4) study the impact of exclusion of outliers by estimating the effect of age and diabetes on cognitive decline. Results 5516 participants provided cognitive data in 2012-13. Comparisons of rates of annual decline over the first three and all four waves of data suggested outliers in three of the 5 tests. Mean residuals for the 2012-13 wave were larger for the basic compared to the more complex prediction model (all p<0.001), leading us to use the latter for the identification of outliers. Residuals greater than two standard deviation of residuals identified approximately 7% of observations as being outliers. Removal of these observations from the analyses showed that both age and diabetes had associations with cognitive decline similar to that observed with the first three waves of data; these associations were weaker or absent in non-cleaned data. Conclusions Identification of outliers is important as they obscure the effects of known risk factor and introduce bias in the estimates of cognitive decline. We showed that an informed approach, using the range of data collected in a longitudinal study, may be able to identify outliers. PMID:26161552

  19. Optimal combination of number of participants and number of repeated measurements in longitudinal studies with time-varying exposure.

    PubMed

    Barrera-Gómez, Jose; Spiegelman, Donna; Basagaña, Xavier

    2013-11-30

    In the context of observational longitudinal studies, we explored the values of the number of participants and the number of repeated measurements that maximize the power to detect the hypothesized effect, given the total cost of the study. We considered two different models, one that assumes a transient effect of exposure and one that assumes a cumulative effect. Results were derived for a continuous response variable, whose covariance structure was assumed to be damped exponential, and a binary time-varying exposure. Under certain assumptions, we derived simple formulas for the approximate solution to the problem in the particular case in which the response covariance structure is assumed to be compound symmetry. Results showed the importance of the exposure intraclass correlation in determining the optimal combination of the number of participants and the number of repeated measurements, and therefore the optimized power. Thus, incorrectly assuming a time-invariant exposure leads to inefficient designs. We also analyzed the sensitivity of results to dropout, mis-specification of the response correlation structure, allowing a time-varying exposure prevalence and potential confounding impact. We illustrated some of these results in a real study. In addition, we provide software to perform all the calculations required to explore the combination of the number of participants and the number of repeated measurements. PMID:23740818

  20. RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION ISSUES AMONG NON-WHITE PARTICIPANTS FOR A LARGE LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    An understanding of the most effective recruitment techniques and retention strategies for longitudinal, community-based, childrens environmental health studies such as the National Childrens Study (NCS) is needed. In early 2003, eighteen focus groups were conducted across the ...

  1. Head Start Participation and School Readiness: Evidence from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort December 10, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Lee, RaeHyuck; Zhai, Fuhua; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Han, Wen-Jui; Waldfogel, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (n ? 6,950), a nationally representative sample of children born in 2001, we examined school readiness (academic skills and socio-emotional wellbeing) at kindergarten entry for children who attended Head Start compared to those who experienced other types of child care (prekindergarten, other center-based care, other non-parental care, or parental care). Using propensity score matching methods and OLS regressions with rich controls, we found that Head Start participants had higher early reading and math scores than children in other non-parental care or parental care, but also higher levels of conduct problems than those in parental care. Head Start participants had lower early reading scores compared to children in prekindergarten, and had no differences in any outcomes compared to children in other center-based care. Head Start benefits were more pronounced for children who had low initial cognitive ability or low-educated parents, or attended Head Start for more than 20 hours per week. PMID:23527496

  2. Determinants of participation in a longitudinal two-stage study of the health consequences of the Chornobyl nuclear power plant accident

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lin T Guey; Evelyn J Bromet; Semyon F Gluzman; Victoria Zakhozha; Vlodomyr Paniotto

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The determinants of participation in long-term follow-up studies of disasters have rarely been delineated. Even less is known from studies of events that occurred in eastern Europe. We examined the factors associated with participation in a longitudinal two-stage study conducted in Kyiv following the 1986 Chornobyl nuclear power plant accident. METHODS: Six hundred child-mother dyads (300 evacuees and 300

  3. Longitudinal Study of an Operational Model for Enhancing Central City Youth's Self-Concept, Academic Achievement, Attitude Toward School, Participation in School, and Socialization/Maturation. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logsdon, David M.; Ewert, Barbara

    This study has attempted to identify the longitudinal impact of a summer program model designed to enhance central city junior high school youth's self-concept, attitude toward school, participation in school, academic achievement, and socialization/maturation. Three sets of experimental/control groups were included in the study and after two…

  4. Study protocol: Determinants of participation and quality of life of adolescents with cerebral palsy: a longitudinal study (SPARCLE2)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allan F Colver; Heather O Dickinson

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children and adults with impairments such as cerebral palsy have lower participation in life situations than able-bodied people. Less is known about their subjective perception of their lives, called their quality of life. During adolescence, rapid physical and psychological changes occur; although these may be more difficult for disabled than for able-bodied adolescents, little research has examined the lives

  5. Salvadoran Campesinos/as' Literacy Practices and Perceptions of the Benefits of Literacy: A Longitudinal Study with Former Literacy Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prins, Esther

    2010-01-01

    This article uses data from longitudinal, ethnographic research to examine how, six years after attending literacy classes, 12 adults in rural El Salvador used literacy, their perceptions of the temporary and longer-term psychosocial and economic benefits of literacy education, and their memories of literacy classes. The findings support prior…

  6. Intensity of Participation in Organized Youth Activities during the High School Years: Longitudinal Associations with Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denault, Anne-Sophie; Poulin, Francois; Pedersen, Sara

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the longitudinal associations between youth activity participation and adjustment over the high school years by examining (a) correlations between participation and adjustment growth curves, and (b) bidirectional links between participation and adjustment from one year to the next. Participation was…

  7. WISCONSIN LONGITUDINAL STUDY (WLS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS) is a long-term study of a random sample of 10,317 men and women who graduated from Wisconsin high schools in 1957. The WLS provides an opportunity to study of the life course, intergenerational transfers and relationships, family functioning...

  8. Neuropathologic assessment of participants in two multi-center longitudinal observational studies: The Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) and the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN).

    PubMed

    Cairns, Nigel J; Perrin, Richard J; Franklin, Erin E; Carter, Deborah; Vincent, Benjamin; Xie, Mingqiang; Bateman, Randall J; Benzinger, Tammie; Friedrichsen, Karl; Brooks, William S; Halliday, Glenda M; McLean, Catriona; Ghetti, Bernardino; Morris, John C

    2015-08-01

    It has been hypothesized that the relatively rare autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD) may be a useful model of the more frequent, sporadic, late-onset AD (LOAD). Individuals with ADAD have a predictable age at onset and the biomarker profile of ADAD participants in the preclinical stage may be used to predict disease progression and clinical onset. However, the extent to which the pathogenesis and neuropathology of ADAD overlaps with that of LOAD is equivocal. To address this uncertainty, two multicenter longitudinal observational studies, the Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) and the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN), leveraged the expertise and resources of the existing Knight Alzheimer Disease Research Center (ADRC) at Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA, to establish a Neuropathology Core (NPC). The ADNI/DIAN-NPC is systematically examining the brains of all participants who come to autopsy at the 59 ADNI sites in the USA and Canada and the 14 DIAN sites in the USA (eight), Australia (three), UK (one) and Germany (two). By 2014, 41 ADNI and 24 DIAN autopsies (involving nine participants and 15 family members) had been performed. The autopsy rate in the ADNI cohort in the most recent year was 93% (total since NPC inception: 70%). In summary, the ADNI/DIAN NPC has implemented a standard protocol for all sites to solicit permission for brain autopsy and to send brain tissue to the NPC for a standardized, uniform and state-of-the-art neuropathologic assessment. The benefit to ADNI and DIAN of the implementation of the NPC is very clear. The NPC provides final "gold standard" neuropathological diagnoses and data against which the antecedent observations and measurements of ADNI and DIAN can be compared. PMID:25964057

  9. A longitudinal trend study of a university-based teacher induction program: observable behaviors of urban teachers and their perceptions of program components five years after participation 

    E-print Network

    Moon Merchant, Vickie V

    2006-10-30

    This longitudinal trend study (Gall, Borg & Gall, 1996) examined the effectiveness of a one-semester university-based teacher induction program as compared to a two-semester university-based teacher induction program based ...

  10. Participation in Physical, Social, and Religious Activity and Risk of Depression in the Elderly: A Community-Based Three-Year Longitudinal Study in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Hyun Woong; Hong, Chang Hyung; Lee, Yunhwan; Oh, Byoung Hoon; Lee, Kang Soo; Chang, Ki Jung; Kang, Dae Ryong; Kim, Jinhee; Lee, SooJin; Back, Joung Hwan; Chung, Young Ki; Lim, Ki Young; Noh, Jai Sung; Kim, Dongsoo; Son, Sang Joon

    2015-01-01

    Background We examined the longitudinal association between participation in individual or combinations of physical, social, and religious activity and risk of depression in the elderly. Methods Elderly subjects aged ?60 years who completed the Living Profiles of Older People Survey in Korea (n = 6,647) were included. The baseline assessment, Wave 1, was conducted in 2008, and a follow-up assessment, Wave 2, was conducted in 2011. We defined participation in frequent physical activity as ?3 times weekly (at least 30 minutes per activity). Frequent participation in social and religious activity was defined as ?1 activity weekly. The primary outcome was depression at 3-year follow up. Results Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that subjects who participated in frequent physical, social, and religious activity had an adjusted odds ratio of 0.81 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69–0.96), 0.87 (95% CI, 0.75–1.00), and 0.78 (95% CI, 0.67–0.90), respectively, compared with participants who did not participate in each activity. Participants who participated in only one type of activity frequently and participants who participated in two or three types of activities frequently had an adjusted odds ratio of 0.86 (95% CI, 0.75–0.98) and 0.64 (95% CI, 0.52–0.79), respectively, compared with participants who did not participate in any type of physical, social, and religious activity frequently. Conclusion Participation in physical, social, and religious activity was associated with decreased risk of depression in the elderly. In addition, risk of depression was much lower in the elderly people who participated in two or three of the above-mentioned types of activity than that in the elderly who did not. PMID:26172441

  11. Political attitudes, social participation and social mobility: a longitudinal analysis.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Lindsay

    2008-09-01

    It is often suggested that the political attitudes and social participation which have underpinned the welfare-state democracies have depended on large amounts of upward social mobility. The demographic heterogeneity of the service class, according to this view, induced in them a willingness to lead a common political project seeking to establish a common social citizenship. As the amount of upward mobility stagnates or even begins to fall, it has then further been claimed that there might emerge a degree of ideological closure in the service class that might erode their commitment to civic values. The 1958 British birth cohort study is used to investigate this question. Longitudinal data are invaluable here because they allow us to distinguish between two hypotheses: that upward mobility as such has induced in the service class certain attitudes and propensities to participate, or that the more important influence is the early socialization through which upwardly mobile people went. The conclusion of the analysis is that, although the civic values of the service class have not depended on upward mobility, this is much more true of cognitively able people than of others, and so is dependent on the somewhat meritocratic basis of selection into the salariat. PMID:18782148

  12. Fostering marginalized youths' political participation: longitudinal roles of parental political socialization and youth sociopolitical development.

    PubMed

    Diemer, Matthew A

    2012-09-01

    This study examines the roles of parental political socialization and the moral commitment to change social inequalities in predicting marginalized youths' (defined here as lower-SES youth of color) political participation. These issues are examined by applying structural equation modeling to a longitudinal panel of youth. Because tests of measurement invariance suggested racial/ethnic heterogeneity, the structural model was fit separately for three racial/ethnic groups. For each group, parental political socialization: discussion predicted youths' commitment to produce social change and for two groups, longitudinally predicted political participation. This study contributes to the literature by examining civic/political participation among disparate racial/ethnic groups, addresses an open scholarly question (whether youths' commitment to create social change predicts their "traditional" participation), and emphasizes parents' role in fostering marginalized youths' civic and political participation. PMID:22302436

  13. Sex in lasting marriages: A longitudinal study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ben N. Ard Jr

    1977-01-01

    In 1955 data were collected from 161 couples who had been married for approximately 20 years and who had been participants in a longitudinal study of marriage during the 20?year period. The data concerned the expectations, perceptions, and experiences of the couples in their sexual relationships. Results indicated that both men and women had held positive anticipations about sex from

  14. Wisconsin Longitudinal Study Tracking the Life Course

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Wisconsin Longitudinal Study Tracking the Life Course Copyright © 2006 Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. Handbook #12;Wisconsin Longitudinal Study handbook 2006 WLS Support The Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, and PO1- AG21079. #12;Wisconsin Longitudinal Study handbook 2006 Organization of the WLS Handbook

  15. Intimate Partner Violence and Welfare Participation: A Longitudinal Causal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Tyrone C.

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the temporal-ordered causal relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV), five mental disorders (depression, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, panic attack, posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]), alcohol abuse/dependence, drug abuse/ dependence, treatment seeking (from physician, counselor, and…

  16. Attrition in longitudinal studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jos Twisk; Wieke de Vente

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to illustrate the influence of missing data on the results of longitudinal statistical analyses [i.e., MANOVA for repeated measurements and Generalised Estimating Equations (GEE)] and to illustrate the influence of using different imputation methods to replace missing data. Besides a complete dataset, four incomplete datasets were considered: two datasets with 10% missing data and

  17. Ethnic Differences in Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine at Midlife: Longitudinal Results From SWAN Participants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yali A. Bair; Ellen B. Gold; Gail A. Greendale; Barbara Sternfeld; Shelley R. Adler; Rahman Azari; Martha Harkey

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the prevalence and longitudinal correlates of use of com- plementary and alternative medicine (CAM) at midlife among participants of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Methods. Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between baseline survey-reported symptoms and use of herbal, spiritual, and physical manipu- lation therapies 1 year later. Results. Almost

  18. A longitudinal investigation of change in teacher efficacy and perceptions of leadership following participation in a technology integration program 

    E-print Network

    Rackley, Robin Ann

    2006-04-12

    A longitudinal study was conducted to investigate the relationship between teachersÂ? perceptions of leadership capabilities and teachersÂ? efficacy beliefs in the context of their participation in a technology integration ...

  19. Participate in a Study

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the participants to make an informed decision. The Marfan Foundation requires that a study have IRB approval before we tell the Marfan syndrome and related disorders community about it. Before ...

  20. Prevalence and Predictors of Disability 24-Months after Injury for Hospitalised and Non-Hospitalised Participants: Results from a Longitudinal Cohort Study in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Derrett, Sarah; Wilson, Suzanne; Samaranayaka, Ari; Langley, John; Wyeth, Emma; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Lilley, Rebbecca; Davie, Gabrielle; Mauiliu, Melbourne

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Most studies investigating disability outcomes following injury have examined hospitalised patients. It is not known whether variables associated with disability outcomes are similar for injured people who are not hospitalised. Aims This paper compares the prevalence of disability 24 months after injury for participants in the Prospective Outcomes of Injury Study who were hospitalised and those non-hospitalised, and also seeks to identify pre-injury and injury-related predictors of disability among hospitalised and non-hospitalised participants. Methods Participants, aged 18–64 years, were recruited from an injury claims register managed by New Zealand’s no-fault injury compensation insurer after referral by health care professionals. A wide range of pre-injury socio-demographic, health and psychosocial characteristics were collected, as well as injury-related characteristics; outcome is assessed using the WHODAS. Multivariable models estimating relative risks of disability for hospitalised and non-hospitalised participants were developed using Poisson regression methods. Results Of 2856 participants, analyses were restricted to 2184 (76%) participants for whom both pre-injury and 24 month WHODAS data were available. Of these, 25% were hospitalised. In both hospitalised and non-hospitalised groups, 13% experience disability (WHODAS?10) 24 months after injury; higher than pre-injury (5%). Of 28 predictor variables, seven independently placed injured participants in the hospitalised group at increased risk of disability 24 months after injury; eight in the non-hospitalised. Only four predictors (pre-injury disability, two or more pre-injury chronic conditions, pre-injury BMI?30 and trouble accessing healthcare services) were common to both the hospitalised and non-hospitalised groups. There is some evidence to suggest that among the hospitalised group, M?ori have higher risk of disability relative to non-M?ori. Conclusions At 24 months considerable disability is borne, equally, by hospitalised and non-hospitalised groups. However, predictors of disability are not necessarily consistent between the hospitalised and non-hospitalised groups, suggesting caution in generalising results from one group to the other. PMID:24278258

  1. How Many Children Remain Fracture-Free During Growth? A Longitudinal Study of Children and Adolescents Participating in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. E. Jones; S. M. Williams; N. Dow; A. Goulding

    2002-01-01

    :   While much is known regarding the incidence and pattern of fractures during growth, information is sparse as to how many\\u000a children fracture repeatedly and how many remain fracture-free during growth. The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development\\u000a Study, a birth cohort, whose members were questioned regularly throughout growth (at ages 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15 and 18 years)\\u000a concerning

  2. LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF AGING (LSOA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Longitudinal Study of Aging (LSOA) is a collaborative effort of the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) and the National Institute on Aging (NIA). The Supplement on Aging (SOA), conducted in conjunction with the 1984 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), served as...

  3. Longitudinal study of fingerprint recognition

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Soweon; Jain, Anil K.

    2015-01-01

    Human identification by fingerprints is based on the fundamental premise that ridge patterns from distinct fingers are different (uniqueness) and a fingerprint pattern does not change over time (persistence). Although the uniqueness of fingerprints has been investigated by developing statistical models to estimate the probability of error in comparing two random samples of fingerprints, the persistence of fingerprints has remained a general belief based on only a few case studies. In this study, fingerprint match (similarity) scores are analyzed by multilevel statistical models with covariates such as time interval between two fingerprints in comparison, subject’s age, and fingerprint image quality. Longitudinal fingerprint records of 15,597 subjects are sampled from an operational fingerprint database such that each individual has at least five 10-print records over a minimum time span of 5 y. In regard to the persistence of fingerprints, the longitudinal analysis on a single (right index) finger demonstrates that (i) genuine match scores tend to significantly decrease when time interval between two fingerprints in comparison increases, whereas the change in impostor match scores is negligible; and (ii) fingerprint recognition accuracy at operational settings, nevertheless, tends to be stable as the time interval increases up to 12 y, the maximum time span in the dataset. However, the uncertainty of temporal stability of fingerprint recognition accuracy becomes substantially large if either of the two fingerprints being compared is of poor quality. The conclusions drawn from 10-finger fusion analysis coincide with the conclusions from single-finger analysis. PMID:26124106

  4. Linking Student Achievement Growth to Professional Development Participation and Changes in Instruction: A Longitudinal Study of Elementary Students and Teachers in Title I Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desimone, Laura; Smith, Thomas M.; Phillips, Kristie J. R.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context: Most reforms in elementary education rely on teacher learning and improved instruction to increase student learning. This study increases our understanding of which types of professional development effectively change teaching practice in ways that boost student achievement. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study:…

  5. A Longitudinal Investigation of Sport Participation, Peer Acceptance, and Self-esteem among Adolescent Girls and Boys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth Daniels; Campbell Leaper

    2006-01-01

    The present investigation was designed to explore the relations between sport participation, peer acceptance, and global self-esteem.\\u000a Peer acceptance was considered as a possible mediator of the relationship between sport participation and global self-esteem.\\u000a The sample included girls (N?=?4,689) and boys (N?=?5,811) between the ages of 12 and 21 (M?=?15 years) who were part of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent

  6. A structural equation model of activity participation and travel behavior using longitudinal data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin-Hyuk Chung; Taewan Kim; Hojong Baik; Yun-Sook Choi

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic structural equation model (SEM) that explicitly addresses complicated causal relationships among socio-demographics, activity participation, and travel behavior. The model assumes that activity participation and travel patterns in the current year are affected by those in previous years. Using the longitudinal dataset collected from Puget sound transportation panel ‘wave 3’ and ‘wave 4,’ these assumptions are

  7. Suprasegmental Phonology Development and Reading Acquisition: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calet, Nuria; Gutiérrez-Palma, Nicolás; Simpson, Ian C.; González-Trujillo, M. Carmen; Defior, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies implicate suprasegmental phonology in reading acquisition. However, little is known about how suprasegmental sensitivity develops or how it contributes to reading. Here, 130 Spanish primary-school children participated in this 2-year longitudinal study. Nonlinguistic rhythm, lexical-stress sensitivity and metrical-stress…

  8. A Longitudinal Study of Psychological Burnout in Teachers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald J. Burke; Esther Greenglass

    1995-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined antecedents and consequences of psychological burnout among human service professionals. Antecedents of psychological burnout included individual and situational characteristics, work stressors, and measures of social support. Consequences of psychological burnout emphasized satisfaction and emotional and physical well-being variables. Participants in the study were 362 school-based educators (teachers and administrators) employed by the same school board. Respondents

  9. Psychiatric resilience: longitudinal twin study

    PubMed Central

    Amstadter, Ananda B.; Myers, John M.; Kendler, Kenneth S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective There is great variability in response to stressful life events (SLEs), with some individuals demonstrating substantial psychiatric symptoms while others remain largely asymptomatic. The source of this variability is poorly understood. The present study aimed to examine the genetic and environmental underpinning of resilience, defined as the difference between the twins’ total score on a broad measure of internalizing symptoms and their predicted score based on their cumulative exposure to SLEs. Method SLE exposure and internalizing symptoms were assessed at two time points in 7,500 adult twins. Using the residual between actual and predicted internalizing symptom total score, twin modeling was conducted for each wave separately, as well as longitudinally. Quantitative and qualitative sex effects were also tested. Results Resilience was found to have a mild to moderate genetic heritability at each individual wave (~31%). Additionally, qualitative sex effects were found. Incorporating error of measurement into the model increased the estimated heritability for the latent construct of resilience (~50%). Unconfounded by measurement error and occasion specific effects, environmental influences contributed roughly equally to determining the individual level of resilience. Conclusions Genetic factors influence the level of psychiatric resilience, and are largely stable over time. The genes that impact on resilience are not entirely the same in males and females, although the degree of heritability is equal across the sexes. Environmental influences can also have an enduring effect on resilience. The present findings of the genetic and environmental influences on adaptation to SLEs clarify the sources of individual variation to environmental stressors. PMID:24723629

  10. Longitudinal Single Bunch Instability Study on BEPCII

    E-print Network

    Dou, Wang; Zhe, Duan; Na, Wang; Li, Wang; Lin, Wang; Jie, Gao

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the single bunch longitudinal instability in BEPCII, experiments on the positron ring (BPR) for the bunch lengthening phenomenon were made. By analyzing the experimental data based on Gao's theory, the longitudinal loss factor for the bunch are obtained. Also, the total wake potential and the beam current threshold are estimated.

  11. ADDHEALTH - NATIONAL LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF ADOLESCENT HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study provides a comprehensive view of the health and health behaviors of adolescents and the antecedents - personal, interpersonal, familial, and environmental of these outcomes. The study features a longitudinal, multi-level design with independent measurement at the indiv...

  12. Web-based tracking methods in longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Williams, Izaak L; O'Donnell, Clifford R

    2014-08-01

    The use of online resources to reduce the attrition of program participants in longitudinal studies is examined. Higher-risk individuals, those involved in illegal activities, and females with last name changes are typically more difficult to locate. The effectiveness of using online resources for these participants is addressed. These resources include social networking sites, people-finder search engines, telephone and address directories, judicial records, and death records. The strengths and limitations of these resources are presented and discussed. Longitudinal studies using these resources are examined to evaluate their successful follow-up rates. The results of these studies indicate that participant characteristics are more important to successful follow-up than the length of time since participation or sample size. The use of multiple online sites increased follow-up rates, especially for those who are typically difficult to locate. The variables and websites to consider are discussed, and six lessons learned are offered. The prospective use of online participant involvement is especially important for successful longitudinal evaluation and program planning. PMID:24769078

  13. Attrition in the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dorly J. H. Deeg; Theo van Tilburg; Johannes H. Smit; Edith D. de Leeuw

    2002-01-01

    This study addresses the relation between attrition and characteristics of the study protocol, specifically contact frequency, and respondent burden. The study is based on data from a longitudinal study with side studies on various topics, so that respondents have differential exposure to these study characteristics. Attrition outcomes are refusal and ineligibility through frailty. The effect of side study contact frequency

  14. Young adults with developmental coordination disorder: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Tal-Saban, Miri; Ornoy, Asher; Parush, Shula

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a longitudinal study to assess the continuing influence of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) on quality of life and participation. Ninety-six participants (25 in the DCD group, 30 in the borderline group, and 41 in the control group) ages 22-29 yr who had been screened for DCD 3-4 yr previously completed the Participation in Every Day Activities of Life, the Life-Satisfaction Questionnaire, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) instrument. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed a significant between-groups difference, F(7, 95) = 2.89, p = .001, ? = 0.173, and post hoc analyses revealed that participants in the DCD and borderline groups scored lower overall on participation, quality of life, and life satisfaction. Linear regression found the Psychological Health domain of the WHOQOL-BREF to be a significant predictor of life satisfaction (B = 0.533; p = .001). PMID:24797194

  15. Neighborhood socioeconomic status and food environment: a 20-year longitudinal latent class analysis among CARDIA participants.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Andrea S; Meyer, Katie A; Howard, Annie Green; Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Popkin, Barry M; Evenson, Kelly R; Kiefe, Catarina I; Lewis, Cora E; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2014-11-01

    Cross-sectional studies suggest that neighborhood socioeconomic (SES) disadvantage is associated with obesogenic food environments. Yet, it is unknown how exposure to neighborhood SES patterning through adulthood corresponds to food environments that also change over time. We used latent class analysis (LCA) to classify participants in the U.S.-based Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study [n=5,114 at baseline 1985-1986 to 2005-2006] according to their longitudinal neighborhood SES residency patterns (upward, downward, stable high and stable low). For most classes of residents, the availability of fast food and non-fast food restaurants and supermarkets and convenience stores increased (p<0.001). Yet, socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhood residents had fewer fast food and non-fast food restaurants, more convenience stores, and the same number of supermarkets in their neighborhoods than the advantaged residents. In addition to targeting the pervasive fast food restaurant and convenient store retail growth, improving neighborhood restaurant options for disadvantaged residents may reduce food environment disparities. PMID:25280107

  16. A Longitudinal Evaluation Study of a Science Professional Development Program for K-12 Teachers: NERDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing-Taylor, Jacque M.

    2012-01-01

    A longitudinal evaluation study of a science professional development program for K-12 teachers was conducted using the CIPP evaluation model. Eleven years of program data were described and analyzed. Elementary teachers comprised 62% of the 384 participants, 17% of all participants were middle school teachers, and 13% of all participants were…

  17. Resources for Study Staff & Participants

    Cancer.gov

    The following documents have been created by the National Cancer Institute as resources for study staff and participants. Each resource is available as a ready-to-use PDF as well as in Word format to allow users to adapt the content as desired.

  18. Longitudinal studies based on vital registration records.

    PubMed

    Fox, A J

    1989-01-01

    We describe here the increased use of routine vital event and census records to construct national follow-up and longitudinal studies. The strengths and weaknesses of these studies are discussed and examples given of their use in research into relationships between employment and mortality and socio-economic differences in mortality. PMID:2626588

  19. Longitudinal Studies--Are They Worth It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowley, Judith

    A longitudinal study of otitis media in young children, begun in 1981, aimed to provide information on the incidence and prevalence of otitis media in young children in the Newcastle (England) region and to follow their academic progress. Subjects selected for the study were kindergartners in five schools and represented an ethnically homogeneous…

  20. Participation and Performance Trends in Triple Iron Ultra-triathlon – a Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Data Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The aims of the present study were to investigate (i) the changes in participation and performance and (ii) the gender difference in Triple Iron ultra-triathlon (11.4 km swimming, 540 km cycling and 126.6 km running) across years from 1988 to 2011. Methods For the cross-sectional data analysis, the association between with overall race times and split times was investigated using simple linear regression analyses and analysis of variance. For the longitudinal data analysis, the changes in race times for the five men and women with the highest number of participations were analysed using simple linear regression analyses. Results During the studied period, the number of finishers were 824 (71.4%) for men and 80 (78.4%) for women. Participation increased for men (r 2=0.27, P<0.01) while it remained stable for women (8%). Total race times were 2,146 ± 127.3 min for men and 2,615 ± 327.2 min for women (P<0.001). Total race time decreased for men (r 2=0.17; P=0.043), while it increased for women (r 2=0.49; P=0.001) across years. The gender difference in overall race time for winners increased from 10% in 1992 to 42% in 2011 (r 2=0.63; P<0.001). The longitudinal analysis of the five women and five men with the highest number of participations showed that performance decreased in one female (r 2=0.45; P=0.01). The four other women as well as all five men showed no change in overall race times across years. Conclusions Participation increased and performance improved for male Triple Iron ultra-triathletes while participation remained unchanged and performance decreased for females between 1988 and 2011. The reasons for the increase of the gap between female and male Triple Iron ultra-triathletes need further investigations. PMID:23012633

  1. Childhood and Contemporaneous Correlates of Adolescent Leisure Time Physical Inactivity: A Longitudinal Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosalina Richards; Richie Poulton; Anthony I. Reeder; Sheila Williams

    2009-01-01

    PurposeAlthough concurrent influences on adolescent physical activity are well documented, longitudinal studies offer additional insights about early life antecedents of participation. The aim of this study was to examine associations between childhood and contemporaneous factors and patterns of physical activity participation during adolescence.

  2. Testing a Model of Participant Retention in Longitudinal Substance Abuse Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, Devin; Kuperminc, Gabriel P.

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal substance abuse research has often been compromised by high rates of attrition, thought to be the result of the lifestyle that often accompanies addiction. Several studies have used strategies including collection of locator information at the baseline assessment, verification of the information, and interim contacts prior to…

  3. Factors affecting longitudinal trajectories of plasma sphingomyelins: the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

    PubMed

    Mielke, Michelle M; Bandaru, Veera Venkata Ratnam; Han, Dingfen; An, Yang; Resnick, Susan M; Ferrucci, Luigi; Haughey, Norman J

    2015-02-01

    Sphingomyelin metabolism has been linked to several diseases and to longevity. However, few epidemiological studies have quantified individual plasma sphingomyelin species (identified by acyl-chain length and saturation) or their relationship between demographic factors and disease processes. In this study, we determined plasma concentrations of distinct sphingomyelin species in 992 individuals, aged 55 and older, enrolled in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Participants were followed, with serial measures, up to 6 visits and 38 years (3972 total samples). Quantitative analyses were performed on a high-performance liquid chromatography-coupled electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometer. Linear mixed models were used to assess variation in specific sphingomyelin species and associations with demographics, diseases, medications or lifestyle factors, and plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels. We found that most sphingomyelin species increased with age. Women had higher plasma levels of all sphingomyelin species and showed steeper trajectories of age-related increases compared to men. African Americans also showed higher circulating sphingomyelin concentrations compared to Caucasians. Diabetes, smoking, and plasma triglycerides were associated with lower levels of many sphingomyelins and dihydrosphingomyelins. Notably, these associations showed specificity to sphingomyelin acyl-chain length and saturation. These results demonstrate that longitudinal changes in circulating sphingomyelin levels are influenced by age, sex, race, lifestyle factors, and diseases. It will be important to further establish the intra-individual age- and sex-specific changes in each sphingomyelin species in relation to disease onset and progression. PMID:25345489

  4. A longitudinal study of conceptual change: Preservice elementary teachers' conceptions of moon phases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathy Cabe Trundle; Ronald K. Atwood; John E. Christopher

    2007-01-01

    This research consists of a longitudinal study of 12 female elementary preservice teachers' conceptual understanding over the course of several months. The context in which the participants received instruction was in an inquiry-based physics course, and the targeted science content was the cause of moon phases. Qualitative research methods, including observations and interviews, were used to investigate and describe participants'

  5. Recruiting and Retaining an Ethnically Diverse Sample of Older Adults in a Longitudinal Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin-Wells, Vonnette; McDougall, Graham J.; Becker, Heather

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes strategies developed to recruit and retain an ethnically diverse sample in a longitudinal intervention of 246 participants in the SeniorWISE study. The ethnic and socioeconomic differences of these participants necessitated the use of different methods of effectively communicating with this population. Recruitment benefited…

  6. Social participation reduces depressive symptoms among older adults: An 18-year longitudinal analysis in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Relatively little empirical attention has focused on the association between social participation and depressive symptoms amongst older adults in Asian nations, where persons over the age of 65 represent a rapidly growing segment of the population. This study explores the dynamic relationship between participation in social activities and trajectories of depressive symptomatology among older Taiwanese adults surveyed over 18 years. Methods Data are from a nationally representative sample of 1,388 adults aged 60-64 first surveyed in 1989 and followed over an 18-year time period for a total of six waves. Individual involvement in social activities was categorized into continuous participation, ceased participation before age 70, initiating participation in older adulthood, never participated, and dropped out before age 70. Two domains of depressive symptoms--negative affect and lack of positive affect--were measured using a 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale. Results Analyses using growth curve modeling showed that continuously participating or initiating participation in social activities later life is significantly associated with fewer depressive symptoms among older Taiwanese adults, even after controlling for the confounding effects of aging, individual demographic differences, and health status. Conclusions These findings suggest that maintaining or initiating social participation in later life benefits the mental health of older adults. Facilitating social activities among older adults is a promising direction for programs intended to promote mental health and successful aging among older adults in Taiwan. PMID:21569285

  7. Participation in Extracurricular Activities and Adolescent Adjustment: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    This study extends previous understanding of the association between adolescent extracurricular activity participation and adjustment by asking whether participation in school-based extracurricular activities is associated with lower substance use and depression, higher grades and academic aspirations, and more positive attitude toward school. In…

  8. The nutritional situation in Swedish nursing homes - a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Borgström Bolmsjö, Beata; Jakobsson, Ulf; Mölstad, Sigvard; Ostgren, Carl Johan; Midlöv, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    Poor nutritional status is widespread among the elderly and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to longitudinally describe the nutritional status in elderly people living in nursing homes. Nutritional status was recorded longitudinally in elderly people living in 11 different nursing homes in Sweden. Participants were examined at baseline by specially trained nurses who also assisted with questionnaires and collected data for current medical treatment from patient records. Nutritional status was evaluated at baseline and after 24 months with the mini nutritional assessment (MNA). The study included 318 subjects. The mean age of the participants was 85.0 years (range 65-101). At baseline, 41.6% were well nourished, 40.3% at risk of malnutrition, and 17.7% malnourished according to the MNA. Survival was significantly lower in the malnourished group. After 24 months, almost half of the population had died. The group of participants who survived at 24 months represents a population of better nutritional state, where 10.6% were malnourished at baseline increasing to 24.6% after 24 months. After 24 months, 38.7% of the participants showed a decline in nutritional state. The group with deteriorating MNA scores had higher weight, BMI values, and a higher hospitalization rate. The prevalence of malnutrition in nursing home residents increased over time and it is important to evaluate nutritional state regularly. Nutritional interventions should be considered in better nourished groups, as well as in malnourished individuals, to prevent a decline in nutritional state. PMID:25465507

  9. Social participation reduces depressive symptoms among older adults: An 18-year longitudinal analysis in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chi Chiao; Li-Jen Weng; Amanda L Botticello

    2011-01-01

    Background  Relatively little empirical attention has focused on the association between social participation and depressive symptoms\\u000a amongst older adults in Asian nations, where persons over the age of 65 represent a rapidly growing segment of the population.\\u000a This study explores the dynamic relationship between participation in social activities and trajectories of depressive symptomatology\\u000a among older Taiwanese adults surveyed over 18 years.

  10. Cohort profile: the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Kindergarten Children (QLSKC).

    PubMed

    Rouquette, Alexandra; Côté, Sylvana M; Pryor, Laura E; Carbonneau, René; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E

    2014-02-01

    The Quebec Longitudinal Study of Kindergarten Children (QLSKC) is an ongoing population-based prospective longitudinal study presently spanning ages 6-29 years, designed to study the prevalence, risk factors, development and consequences of behavioural and emotional problems during elementary school. Kindergarten boys and girls attending French-speaking public schools in the Canadian province of Quebec during the 1986-87 and 1987-88 school years were included in the cohort: 2000 children representative of the population and 1017 children exhibiting disruptive behaviour problems. To date, 12 waves of data have been collected, and three generations of participants have been involved in the study (i.e. the study child, his parents and the first child of the study child). Information on demographics, psycho-social and lifestyle factors, child and family member characteristics (physical and mental health), and outcomes such as psychiatric diagnoses, delinquency or school diploma were assessed during three important developmental stages (childhood, adolescence and early adulthood). Blood samples were also collected in early adulthood for genetic analyses. Information on publications, available data and access to data can be found on the following website (http://www.gripinfo.ca/Grip/Public/www/). PMID:23159828

  11. Progressive knowledge loss: a longitudinal case study.

    PubMed

    Mondini, Sara; Borgo, Francesca; Cotticelli, Biagio; Bisiacchi, Patrizia

    2006-03-01

    The evolution of the progressive loss of semantic knowledge of a patient, VZ, with lesions mainly affecting the infero-medial temporal lobes, was followed for two years. At the beginning of the study VZ's performance was mainly characterized by a category-specific deficit for living things and a modality-specific deficit for perceptual attribute knowledge. As time went on, VZ's disorder affected all categories by changing the relationship between category and attribute knowledge. Data show that dissociations may change in the course of progressive cognitive breakdown, depending on both degeneration stage and task demands. VZ's performance is discussed in the light of the most influential theoretical accounts. Methodological suggestions regarding longitudinal studies of degenerative patients are also put forward. PMID:16573861

  12. Do Career and Technical Education Programs of Study Improve Student Achievement? Preliminary Analyses from a Rigorous Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellano, Marisa; Sundell, Kirsten; Overman, Laura T.; Aliaga, Oscar A.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines the impact of programs of study on high school academic and technical achievement. Two districts are participating in experimental and quasi-experimental strands of the study. This article describes the sample selection, baseline characteristics, study design, career and technical education and academic achievement…

  13. Early Predictors of Adolescent Depression: A 7-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazza, James J.; Abbott, Robert D.; Fleming, Charles B.; Harachi, Tracy W.; Cortes, Rebecca C.; Park, Jisuk; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal relationship of early elementary predictors to adolescent depression 7 years later. The sample consisted of 938 students who have been part of a larger longitudinal study that started in 1993. Data collected from parents, teachers, and youth self-reports on early risk factors when students were in 1st and 2nd…

  14. A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Adjustment Following Family Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruschena, Eda; Prior, Margot; Sanson, Ann; Smart, Diana

    2005-01-01

    Background: This study examined the impact of family transitions, that is, parental separation, divorce, remarriage and death, upon the lives of Australian children and adolescents in a longitudinal study of temperament and development. Methods: Using longitudinal and concurrent questionnaire data, outcomes for young people experiencing…

  15. Spouse Health Status, Depressed Affect, and Resilience in Mid and Late Life: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bookwala, Jamila

    2014-01-01

    This study used longitudinal data to examine the effects of spousal illness on depressive symptoms among middle-aged and older married individuals and the extent to which the adverse effects of illness in a spouse were mitigated by 2 psychological resources, mastery and self-esteem. Using 1,704 married participants who were 51 years of age on…

  16. A Longitudinal Study of School Belonging and Academic Motivation across High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillen-O'Neel, Cari; Fuligni, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined how school belonging changes over the years of high school, and how it is associated with academic achievement and motivation. Students from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds participated ("N" = 572; age span = 13.94-19.15 years). In ninth grade, girls' school belonging was higher than boys'. Over the…

  17. The Dynamics of an Online Knowledge Building Community: A 5-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myllari, Jarkko; Ahlberg, Mauri; Dillon, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a 5-year design experiment on cumulative knowledge building as part of an international project. Through a longitudinal study and analysis of cumulative research data, we sought to answer the question, "what happened and why in knowledge building?" Research data constitute messages which participants have written into a shared…

  18. Individual and Environmental Characteristics Associated with Cognitive Development in Down Syndrome: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couzens, Donna; Haynes, Michele; Cuskelly, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Background: Associations among cognitive development and intrapersonal and environmental characteristics were investigated for 89 longitudinal study participants with Down syndrome to understand developmental patterns associated with cognitive strengths and weaknesses. Materials and Methods: Subtest scores of the Stanford-Binet IV collected…

  19. Longitudinal HIV Risk Behavior among the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies (DATOS) Adult Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Debra A.; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Herbeck, Diane; Evans, Elizabeth; Huang, David; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2008-01-01

    Longitudinal trajectories for HIV risk were examined over 5 years following treatment among 1,393 patients who participated in the nationwide Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies. Both injection drug use and sexual risk behavior declined over time, with most of the decline occurring between intake and the first-year follow-up. However, results of…

  20. Practice based, longitudinal, qualitative interview study of computerised evidence based guidelines in primary care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikki Rousseau; Elaine McColl; John Newton; Jeremy Grimshaw; Martin Eccles

    2003-01-01

    Objective To understand the factors influencing the adoption of a computerised clinical decision support system for two chronic diseases in general practice. Design Practice based, longitudinal, qualitative interview study. Setting Five general practices in north east England. Participants 13 respondents (two practice managers, three nurses, and eight general practitioners) gave a total of 19 semistructured interviews. 40 people in practices

  1. Depression-Related Stress Generation: A Longitudinal Study of Black Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingate, LaRicka R.; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined Hammen's (1991) model of stress generation in depression in a Black adolescent population. The longitudinal sample of 1,766 participants entered the study at ages 13 to 18. Stressful events and depressive and other symptom occurrence over a 1-year period were analyzed. Results supported the stress generation model. Depressive…

  2. Adolescent stress and coping: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Groër, M W; Thomas, S P; Shoffner, D

    1992-06-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal panel study was to investigate developmental and gender influences on stress and coping in adolescents attending a suburban high school in Tennessee. Data were collected from the same 167 subjects during the freshman year and again during the senior year. Life events stress was measured through the Adolescent Life Change Event Scale (ALCES) and ways of coping were categorized from data gathered from an open-ended questionnaire. Girls reported more life events stress at both testings than boys. Life events stress was greater at senior testing for both girls and boys, but girls' scores increased more. The "gender intensification" phenomenon may account for the greater disparity in types of stress reported by boys and girls as seniors. Girls generally reported more life events associated with interpersonal and family relationships. Both girls and boys reported coping with stress mostly through active distraction techniques such as exercise. However, girls' use of active distraction decreased over time, while passive distraction increased. Self-destructive and aggressive coping behaviors increased for boys. There were no relationships between amounts or types of life events stress and ways of coping for subjects at either time. PMID:1509113

  3. A longitudinal study of behavioral expectation scales: Attitudes and performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John M. Ivancevich

    1980-01-01

    Attempted to determine whether there are attitudinal improvements and performance increases associated with the use of behavioral expectation scales (BESs). A longitudinal research design using 3 data measurement points and covering 20 mo was used; 306 discipline engineers and their supervisors participated. Analysis of covariance, ANOVA with repeated measures, and planned comparison tests were used to examine the data. BES-rated

  4. Predicting Family Poverty and Other Disadvantaged Conditions for Child Rearing from Childhood Aggression and Social Withdrawal: A 30-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serbin, Lisa A.; Temcheff, Caroline E.; Cooperman, Jessica M.; Stack, Dale M.; Ledingham, Jane; Schwartzman, Alex E.

    2011-01-01

    This 30-year longitudinal study examined pathways from problematic childhood behavior patterns to future disadvantaged conditions for family environment and child rearing in adulthood. Participants were mothers (n = 328) and fathers (n = 222) with lower income backgrounds participating in the ongoing Concordia Longitudinal Risk Project. Structural…

  5. Abdominal obesity and mortality: The Pennington Center Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Katzmarzyk, P T; Mire, E; Bouchard, C

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the association between visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and all-cause mortality. The sample included 1089 white men and women 18-84 years of age from the Pennington Center Longitudinal Study, a prospective cohort of participants assessed between 1995 and 2008, and followed for mortality until 31 December 2009. Abdominal VAT was measured at the L4-L5 vertebral level using computed tomography. There were 27 deaths during an average of 9.1 years of follow-up. Abdominal VAT was significantly associated with mortality after adjustment for age, sex and year of examination (hazards ratio (HR) 1.46; 95% confidence interval 1.05-2.05). The association was stronger after the inclusion of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), smoking status, alcohol consumption and leisure-time physical activity as additional covariates (HR 1.74; 1.17-2.59). Limiting the sample to participants who were free of stroke, heart disease and cancer at baseline reduced the strength of the relationship slightly (HR 1.62; 1.07-2.47). Abdominal SAT was not associated with mortality, either alone or in combination with VAT and other covariates. The results support the assertion that abdominal VAT is an important therapeutic target for obesity reduction efforts. PMID:23168527

  6. Testing a Longitudinal Model of the Relationships Among High isk Youths' Drug Sales, Drug Use and Participation in Index Crimes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Dembo; Werner Wothke; William Seeberger; Marina Shemwell; Kimberly Pacheco; Matthew Rollie; James Schmeidler; Stephen Livingston; Amy Hartsfield

    2002-01-01

    Baseline, one-year and two-year follow-up interviews were obtained from 164 arrested youths processed at a juvenile assessment center in a prospective longitudinal study. A structural equation model that included cross-sectional and longitudinal associations among drug (alcohol and marijuana), drug sales and index offenses was supported by the data. Research, theoretical, and policy implications of the results are drawn.

  7. PROJECT LASER - LONGITUDINAL ADF STUDY EVALUATING RETENTION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicole Barton

    Personnel retention and turnover behaviour have received much attention in both the civilian and military environments as employers contend with a competitive labour market and the challenges of skill shortages and changing population demographics. To improve current personnel research in the Australian Defence Force (ADF) and subsequently, the quality of retention initiatives, a longitudinal research program based on a customized

  8. Data on pubertal development in Greek boys. A longitudinal study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyratsoula Pantsiotou

    2007-01-01

    ObJEctIVE: Longitudinal data on boys' puberty evolution are not available in Greece and very few such studies have been reported world-wide. We present data from a longitudinal study on height, weight, bMI and age at the different pubertal stages in Greek boys. DEsIGN: At the start of the study 204 prepubertal boys aged 8-10 years, were enrolled. Measurements were carried

  9. A Longitudinal Study of Overweight, Elevated Blood Pressure, and Acanthosis Nigricans among Low-Income Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopping, Dana; Nevarez, Holly; Goto, Keiko; Morgan, Irene; Frigaard, Martin; Wolff, Cindy

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the rates of overweight, elevated blood pressure, acanthosis nigricans, and their associated factors in third through fifth grade students over 4 years. Participants consisted of 279 students who participated in health screenings in 2002 and 2006. Hispanic students had significantly higher rates of overweight and…

  10. Equalisation of alcohol participation among socioeconomic groups over time: an analysis based on the total differential approach and longitudinal data from Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Health inequality and its social determinants are well-studied, but the determinants of inequality of alcohol consumption are less well-investigated. Methods The total differential approach of decomposition of changes in the concentration index of the probability of participation in alcohol consumption was applied to 8-year longitudinal data for Swedish women aged 28-76 in 1988/89. Results Alcohol consumption showed a pro-rich inequality, with income being a strong contributor. Overall participation remained fairly constant, but the inequality decreased over time as abstinence became less common among the poor and more common among the rich. This was mainly due to changes in the relative weights of certain population groups, such as a decrease in the proportional size of the oldest cohorts. Conclusions Inequality in participation in alcohol consumption is pro-rich in Sweden. This inequality has tended to decrease over time, due to changes in population composition rather than to policy intervention. PMID:21306654

  11. Whole grain intake: The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

    PubMed

    Maras, Janice E; Newby, P K; Bakun, Peter J; Ferrucci, Luigi; Tucker, Katherine L

    2009-02-01

    Our objective was to identify major dietary sources of whole grains and to describe the construction of a database of whole grain content of foods. Dietary information was collected with 7-d food records from men and women in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, mean age 62.1 +/- 16.0 years, who participated in the dietary assessment portion of the study (n = 1516), and estimates of whole grain intake were obtained from a newly developed database. The Pyramid Servings database and 1994-1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) recipe ingredients database were then used to calculate both servings and gram weights of whole grain intakes. Mean intakes of whole grains, refined grains, and total grains, as well as frequency of intake for major whole grain food groups and whole grain content for each group, were calculated. Top contributors of whole grains were ready-to-eat breakfast cereals (made with whole grain as well as bran), hot breakfast cereals (made with whole grain), multi-grain bread, and whole wheat bread. While more research is needed to better understand the benefits of whole grains, the development of research tools, including databases to accurately assess whole grain intake, is a critical step in completing such research. PMID:20126297

  12. Spiritual stress and coping model of divorce: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Krumrei, Elizabeth J; Mahoney, Annette; Pargament, Kenneth I

    2011-12-01

    This study represents the first longitudinal effort to use a spiritual stress and coping model to predict adults' psychosocial adjustment following divorce. A community sample of 89 participants completed measures at the time of their divorce and 1 year later. Though the sample endorsed slightly lower levels of religiosity than the general U.S. population, most reported spiritual appraisals and positive and negative religious coping tied to divorce. Hierarchical regression analyses controlling general religiousness and nonreligious forms of coping indicated that (a) appraising divorce as a sacred loss or desecration at the time it occurred predicted more depressive symptoms and dysfunctional conflict tactics with the ex-spouse 1 year later; (b) positive religious coping reported about the year following divorce predicted greater posttraumatic growth 1 year after divorce; and (c) negative religious coping reported about the year following divorce predicted more depressive symptoms 1 year after the divorce. Bootstrapping mediation analyses indicated that negative religious coping fully mediated links between appraising the divorce as a sacred loss or desecration at the time it occurred and depressive symptoms 1 year later. In addition, moderation analyses revealed that negative religious coping is more strongly associated with depressive symptoms among those who form high versus low appraisals of their divorce as a sacred loss or desecration. These findings are relevant to divorce education and intervention provided by professionals in legal, family, mental health, and clerical roles. Implications are discussed for clinical and counseling psychology and religious communities. PMID:22004433

  13. Flavonoid intakes in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Maras, Janice E.; Talegawkar, Sameera A.; Qiao, Ning; Lyle, Barbara; Ferrucci, Luigi; Tucker, Katherine L.

    2011-01-01

    Major sources of flavonoids were identified, and mean intakes over several decades were reported, among 1638 participants (mean age 62.1 +/? 16.0 y), of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA). Dietary data were collected using 7-day diet records during three time periods (1980s, 1990s and 2000-present), and the USDA flavonoid, proanthocyanidin and isoflavone databases were used to estimate dietary flavonoid intakes. Dietary intake data were divided according to decade of visit. Foods were matched with appropriate foods in the USDA databases. Mixed dishes were disaggregated to individual foods and a similar procedure was followed. Total flavonoids and five sub-classes of flavonoids, including flavonols, flavones, flavanones, flavan-3-ols and anthocyanidins, were computed by summing appropriate compounds. The median intakes of flavonoids and the contributions of various foods to intakes were calculated by decade. Age and sex adjusted mean (SE) daily intakes of flavonoids increased from 250 (7.4) in the 1980s to 280 (9.9) mg in the 2000s. Top contributors of flavonoids were tea, apple/pear (and juices), citrus fruits (and juices), peaches, plums, grapes, nectarines (and juices) and chocolate. The data show an increase in the consumption of flavonoids over the three decades, which appears to be related to intake of fruit. PMID:22228923

  14. Coping with Stresses and Concerns during Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frydenberg, Erica; Lewis, Ramon

    Although numerous cross-sectional studies have documented the coping responses of young adolescents of different ages and of both sexes, few studies have tracked the developmental stages of coping within adolescents. A longitudinal study of adolescent coping was conducted in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. During the 5-year study, 168 students…

  15. Retention of Children and Their Families in the Longitudinal Outcome Study of the Comprehensive Community Mental Health Services for Children and Their Families Program: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebreselassie, Tesfayi; Stephens, Robert L.; Maples, Connie J.; Johnson, Stacy F.; Tucker, Alyce L.

    2014-01-01

    Predictors of retention of participants in a longitudinal study and heterogeneity between communities were investigated using a multilevel logistic regression model. Data from the longitudinal outcome study of the national evaluation of the Comprehensive Community Mental Health Services for Children and Their Families program and information on…

  16. A Study of Expectations and the Marital Quality of Participants of a Marital Enrichment Seminar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Lee J.; Gordon, Kristina Coop; Frousakis, Nikki N.; Schumm, Jeremiah A.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the effects of expectations of effort of self and spouse on the marital quality of marital enrichment seminar participants. Self-report measures of marital quality, expectations regarding effort put into implementing what was learned during the seminar, amount of perceived effort, and satisfaction with effort…

  17. An Insight-Based Longitudinal Study of Visual Analytics

    E-print Network

    of the study was to gain basic understanding into the visual analytic process. The primary research questionsAn Insight-Based Longitudinal Study of Visual Analytics Purvi Saraiya, Chris North, Vy Lam, and Karen A. Duca Abstract--Visualization tools are typically evaluated in controlled studies that observe

  18. Longitudinal Patterns of Drug Injection Behavior in the ALIVE Study Cohort,1988-2000: Description and Determinants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Galai; M. Safaeian; D. Vlahov; A. Bolotin; D. D. Celentano

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize longitudinal patterns of drug injection behavior for individuals and to identify their early determinants. Participants were 1,339 injection drug users recruited into the AIDS Link to Intravenous Experience (ALIVE) Study in Baltimore, Maryland, through community outreach efforts. The study was initiated in 1988, and follow-up continued through 2000, with semiannual visits. Patterns

  19. Trajectories of recovery among homeless adults with mental illness who participated in a randomised controlled trial of Housing First: a longitudinal, narrative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Michelle L; Rezansoff, Stefanie; Currie, Lauren; Somers, Julian M

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study used longitudinal, narrative data to identify trajectories of recovery among homeless adults with mental illness alongside the factors that contribute to positive, negative, mixed or neutral trajectories over time. We expected that participants who received Housing First (HF) would describe more positive trajectories of recovery than those who were assigned to Treatment as Usual (TAU; no housing or support provided through the study). Design Narrative interview data were collected from participants at baseline and 18?months after random assignment to HF or TAU. Setting Participants were sampled from the community in Vancouver, British Columbia. Participants Fifty-four participants were randomly and purposively selected from the larger trial; 52 were interviewed at baseline and 43 were reinterviewed 18?months after randomisation. Method Semistructured interviews were conducted at both time points. For each participant, paired baseline and follow-up narratives were classified as positive, negative, mixed or neutral trajectories of recovery, and thematic analysis was used to identify the factors underlying different trajectories. Results Participants assigned to HF (n=28) were generally classified as positive or mixed trajectories; those assigned to TAU (n=15) were generally classified as neutral or negative trajectories. Positive trajectories were characterised by a range of benefits associated with good-quality, stable housing (eg, reduced substance use, greater social support), positive expressions of identity and the willingness to self-reflect. Negative, neutral and mixed trajectories were characterised by hopelessness (‘things will never get better’) related to continued hardship (eg, eviction, substance use problems), perceived failures and loss. Conclusions HF is associated with positive trajectories of recovery among homeless adults with mental illness. Those who did not receive housing or support continued to struggle across a wide range of life domains. Findings are discussed with implications for addressing services and broader social change in order to benefit this marginalised population. PMID:24022392

  20. Nine year longitudinal retrospective study of Taekwondo injuries

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Mohsen; Chudolinski, Artur; Turgeon, Matt; Simon, Aaron; Ho, Eric; Coombe, Lianne

    2009-01-01

    This retrospective longitudinal study aims to describe reported Taekwondo injuries and to examine associations between competitor experience level, age and gender, and the type, location, and mechanism of injury sustained. Additionally, we examined whether recent rule changes concerning increased point value of head shots in adult Taekwondo competition had affected injury incidence. This study was a summation of 9 years of data of competition injury reports, which included 904 injury reports spanning 58 individual competitions. The data was collected on standardized injury reports at time of injury during competition. Care was provided to the athletes, but the type of care provided was not included in the study. Participants included athletes injured during competition who sought care by the health care team, and for whom an injury report was filled out. The data analysis was performed at the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College. The three most common locations of presenting injury were the head (19%), foot (16%), and thigh (9%). The most common mechanism of presenting injury was found to be a defensive kick (44%), followed by an offensive kick (35%). The most commonly diagnosed injuries were contusions (36%), sprains (19%), and strains (15%). Coloured belts had a higher incidence of contusions, while black belts sustained more joint irritation injuries. Black belts were more likely to suffer multiple injuries. Colored belts suffered more injuries while receiving a kick, while black belts had a larger influence of past history of injury. We found no significant difference in location or type of injury when comparing pre versus post rule change. The most common locations of injury are head, foot, and thigh respectively, and are areas for concern when considering preventative measures. Colour belt competitors are more likely to sustain contusions, which the authors believe is due to more aggressive tactics and lack of control. Those more likely to be injured tend to be younger than 18 years. Recent rule changes have no significant effect on head injuries. PMID:20037692

  1. Longitudinal Study of Low and High Achievers in Early Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Jose I.; Aguilar, Manuel; Marchena, Esperanza; Ruiz, Gonzalo; Menacho, Inmaculada; Van Luit, Johannes E. H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Longitudinal studies allow us to identify, which specific maths skills are weak in young children, and whether there is a continuing weakness in these areas throughout their school years. Aims: This 2-year study investigated whether certain socio-demographic variables affect early mathematical competency in children aged 5-7 years.…

  2. Sex Differences in Mathematics Achievement--A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Thomas L.; Berglund, Gosta W.

    With the objective of investigating sex-typed interests as possible causes of differences in mathematics achievement between the sexes, the study made use of longitudinal data from the Growth Study begun at E. T. S. in 1961. Growth in mathematics achievement as measured by STEP Math and SCAT-Q was compared with changing interest patterns as…

  3. A Longitudinal Study of the Correlates of Children's Social Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldhusen, John F.; And Others

    Reported was an 8 year longitudinal study of social and antisocial behavioral correlates in 1550 third, sixth, and ninth grade children identified as either aggressive-disruptive or prosocial by their teachers. A more intensive study was made of 192 aggressive-disruptive and 192 prosocial children. Data included interviews, individual tests (such…

  4. Investigating Sexual Abuse: Findings of a 15-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, Bob; Kavanagh, Denise; Caffrey, Shay; Power, Anne

    2005-01-01

    Background: There is a lack of longitudinal large-scale studies of sexual abuse in intellectual disability services. Such studies offer opportunities to examine patterns in disclosure, investigation and outcomes, and to report on incidence and trends. Methods: All allegations of sexual abuse (n = 250) involving service users as victims or…

  5. Giftedness, Trauma, and Development: A Qualitative, Longitudinal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Jean Sunde

    2014-01-01

    A qualitative, longitudinal, phenomenological case study explored how a gifted female experienced various life events and aspects of development during adolescence and young adulthood (ages 15-30 years), particularly as related to multiple traumatic experiences, which were revealed late in the first year of the study. Additional experiences, well…

  6. A Longitudinal Study of Gender-Related Cognition and Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Anne; Shirley, Louisa; Candy, Julia

    2004-01-01

    Gender schema theory proposes that children's acquisition of gender labels and gender stereotypes informs gender-congruent behaviour. Most previous studies have been cross-sectional and do not address the temporal relationship between knowledge and behaviour. We report the results of a longitudinal study of gender knowledge and sex-typed behaviour…

  7. Oculomotor and linguistic determinants of reading development: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Huestegge, Lynn; Radach, Ralph; Corbic, Daniel; Huestegge, Sujata M

    2009-12-01

    We longitudinally assessed the development of oculomotor control in reading from second to fourth grade by having children read sentences with embedded target words of varying length and frequency. Additionally, participants completed oculomotor (pro-/anti-saccades) and linguistic tasks (word/picture naming), the latter containing the same item material as the reading task. Results revealed a 36% increase of reading efficiency. Younger readers utilized a global refixation strategy to gain more time for word decoding. Linguistic rather than oculomotor skills determined the development of reading abilities, although naming latencies of fourth graders did not reliably reflect word decoding processes in normal sentence reading. PMID:19781566

  8. Theoretical study of transverse-longitudinal emittance coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, H; Davidson, R C; Chung, M; Barnard, J J; Wang, T F

    2011-04-14

    The effect of a weakly coupled periodic lattice in terms of achieving emittance exchange between the transverse and longitudinal directions is investigated using the generalized Courant-Snyder theory for coupled lattices. Recently, the concept and technique of transverse-longitudinal emittance coupling have been proposed for applications in the Linac Coherent Light Source and other free-electron lasers to reduce the transverse emittance of the electron beam. Such techniques can also be applied to the driver beams for the heavy ion fusion and beam-driven high energy density physics, where the transverse emittance budget is typically tighter than the longitudinal emittance. The proposed methods consist of one or several coupling components which completely swap the emittances of one of the transverse directions and the longitudinal direction at the exit of the coupling components. The complete emittance exchange is realized in one pass through the coupling components. In the present study, we investigate the effect of a weakly coupled periodic lattice in terms of achieving emittance exchange between the transverse and longitudinal directions. A weak coupling component is introduced at every focusing lattice, and we would like to determine if such a lattice can realize the function of emittance exchange.

  9. Predicting missing biomarker data in a longitudinal study of Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Jagust, William J.; Aisen, Paul; Jack, Clifford R.; Toga, Arthur W.; Beckett, Laurel; Gamst, Anthony; Soares, Holly; C. Green, Robert; Montine, Tom; Thomas, Ronald G.; Donohue, Michael; Walter, Sarah; Dale, Anders; Bernstein, Matthew; Felmlee, Joel; Fox, Nick; Thompson, Paul; Schuff, Norbert; Alexander, Gene; DeCarli, Charles; Bandy, Dan; Chen, Kewei; Morris, John; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.; Korecka, Magdalena; Crawford, Karen; Neu, Scott; Harvey, Danielle; Kornak, John; Saykin, Andrew J.; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Potkin, Steven; Shen, Li; Buckholtz, Neil; Kaye, Jeffrey; Dolen, Sara; Quinn, Joseph; Schneider, Lon; Pawluczyk, Sonia; Spann, Bryan M.; Brewer, James; Vanderswag, Helen; Heidebrink, Judith L.; Lord, Joanne L.; Petersen, Ronald; Johnson, Kris; Doody, Rachelle S.; Villanueva-Meyer, Javier; Chowdhury, Munir; Stern, Yaakov; Honig, Lawrence S.; Bell, Karen L.; Morris, John C.; Mintun, Mark A.; Schneider, Stacy; Marson, Daniel; Griffith, Randall; Clark, David; Grossman, Hillel; Tang, Cheuk; Marzloff, George; Toledo-Morrell, Leylade; Shah, Raj C.; Duara, Ranjan; Varon, Daniel; Roberts, Peggy; Albert, Marilyn S.; Pedroso, Julia; Toroney, Jaimie; Rusinek, Henry; de Leon, Mony J; De Santi, Susan M; Doraiswamy, P. Murali; Petrella, Jeffrey R.; Aiello, Marilyn; Clark, Christopher M.; Pham, Cassie; Nunez, Jessica; Smith, Charles D.; Given, Curtis A.; Hardy, Peter; Lopez, Oscar L.; Oakley, MaryAnn; Simpson, Donna M.; Ismail, M. Saleem; Brand, Connie; Richard, Jennifer; Mulnard, Ruth A.; Thai, Gaby; Mc-Adams-Ortiz, Catherine; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Martin-Cook, Kristen; DeVous, Michael; Levey, Allan I.; Lah, James J.; Cellar, Janet S.; Burns, Jeffrey M.; Anderson, Heather S.; Laubinger, Mary M.; Bartzokis, George; Silverman, Daniel H.S.; Lu, Po H.; Graff-Radford MBBCH, Neill R; Parfitt, Francine; Johnson, Heather; Farlow, Martin; Herring, Scott; Hake, Ann M.; van Dyck, Christopher H.; MacAvoy, Martha G.; Benincasa, Amanda L.; Chertkow, Howard; Bergman, Howard; Hosein, Chris; Black, Sandra; Graham, Simon; Caldwell, Curtis; Hsiung, Ging-Yuek Robin; Feldman, Howard; Assaly, Michele; Kertesz, Andrew; Rogers, John; Trost, Dick; Bernick, Charles; Munic, Donna; Wu, Chuang-Kuo; Johnson, Nancy; Mesulam, Marsel; Sadowsky, Carl; Martinez, Walter; Villena, Teresa; Turner, Scott; Johnson, Kathleen B.; Behan, Kelly E.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Rentz, Dorene M.; Johnson, Keith A.; Rosen, Allyson; Tinklenberg, Jared; Ashford, Wes; Sabbagh, Marwan; Connor, Donald; Jacobson, Sandra; Killiany, Ronald; Norbash, Alexander; Nair, Anil; Obisesan, Thomas O.; Jayam-Trouth, Annapurni; Wang, Paul; Lerner, Alan; Hudson, Leon; Ogrocki, Paula; DeCarli, Charles; Fletcher, Evan; Carmichael, Owen; Kittur, Smita; Mirje, Seema; Borrie, Michael; Lee, T-Y; Bartha, Dr Rob; Johnson, Sterling; Asthana, Sanjay; Carlsson, Cynthia M.; Potkin, Steven G.; Preda, Adrian; Nguyen, Dana; Tariot, Pierre; Fleisher, Adam; Reeder, Stephanie; Bates, Vernice; Capote, Horacio; Rainka, Michelle; Hendin, Barry A.; Scharre, Douglas W.; Kataki, Maria; Zimmerman, Earl A.; Celmins, Dzintra; Brown, Alice D.; Gandy, Sam; Marenberg, Marjorie E.; Rovner, Barry W.; Pearlson, Godfrey; Anderson, Karen; Saykin, Andrew J.; Santulli, Robert B.; Englert, Jessica; Williamson, Jeff D.; Sink, Kaycee M.; Watkins, Franklin; Ott, Brian R.; Wu, Chuang-Kuo; Cohen, Ronald; Salloway, Stephen; Malloy, Paul; Correia, Stephen; Rosen, Howard J.; Miller, Bruce L.; Mintzer, Jacobo

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate predictors of missing data in a longitudinal study of Alzheimer disease (AD). Methods: The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) is a clinic-based, multicenter, longitudinal study with blood, CSF, PET, and MRI scans repeatedly measured in 229 participants with normal cognition (NC), 397 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 193 with mild AD during 2005–2007. We used univariate and multivariable logistic regression models to examine the associations between baseline demographic/clinical features and loss of biomarker follow-ups in ADNI. Results: CSF studies tended to recruit and retain patients with MCI with more AD-like features, including lower levels of baseline CSF A?42. Depression was the major predictor for MCI dropouts, while family history of AD kept more patients with AD enrolled in PET and MRI studies. Poor cognitive performance was associated with loss of follow-up in most biomarker studies, even among NC participants. The presence of vascular risk factors seemed more critical than cognitive function for predicting dropouts in AD. Conclusion: The missing data are not missing completely at random in ADNI and likely conditional on certain features in addition to cognitive function. Missing data predictors vary across biomarkers and even MCI and AD groups do not share the same missing data pattern. Understanding the missing data structure may help in the design of future longitudinal studies and clinical trials in AD. PMID:22491869

  10. Cannabis Use and Related Harms in the Transition to Young Adulthood: A Longitudinal Study of Australian Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Patton, George C.; Toumbourou, John W.

    2013-01-01

    The current study documents the changing rates of cannabis use, misuse and cannabis-related social harms among Australian adolescents as they grow into young adulthood. It utilised data from a longitudinal study of young people at ages 15, 16, 17, and 19. The rates of cannabis use were found to increase as participants aged; past year use…

  11. Reading Performance of Elementary Students: Results of a Five-Year Longitudinal Study of Direct Reading Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thames, Dana; Kazelskis, Richard; Kazelskis, Carolyn Reeves

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal study was to explore the impact of a direct reading instruction program, "Reading Mastery (RM)," on literacy performance of students over a five-year period. Initially, 700 students in grades K-3 were randomly selected from six elementary schools to participate in the study; an additional 100 randomly-selected…

  12. A Longitudinal Study of Science Curriculum and Practices in Elementary Schools in 10 States (1970-1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Audeh, Ghazi Rifat

    This longitudinal study was designed to: (1) identify the current status of elementary science teaching and characteristics of science teachers in a sample of 100 public elementary schools (K-6) that participated in a 1970 study; (2) investigate certain changes in the foregoing since 1970; (3) identify principal's and teacher's attitudes…

  13. Evaluating the Impact of Internships - Longitudinal Participant Tracking in the Soars Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haacker, R.; Sloan, V.

    2014-12-01

    While there is widespread agreement about the benefits of research internship experiences for students, long-term tracking of student progress beyond the summer experience is challenging. Coordinated tracking can effectively document program impact, inform programmatic improvement, and identifying gaps in the internship effort. Tracking can also strengthen diversity efforts and the retention of students from underrepresented groups. Continuous follow-up and guidance can only be provided to students if we know where they are, what they are doing and what they need in order to stay engaged in the field. The SOARS Program at the National Center for Atmospheric Research has supported undergraduate students for over 18 years to enter and succeed in graduate school. Over 85% of SOARS participants have transitioned to geoscience graduate programs or the STEM workforce. The SOARS mission is to broaden participation in the atmospheric and related sciences by engaging students from groups historically under-represented in science, including Black or African-American, American Indian or Alaska Native, Hispanic or Latino, female, first-generation college students, and students with disabilities. SOARS relies on proven intervention strategies such as multi-year research experiences, multifaceted mentoring, and a strong learning community. Fostering relationships developed during this time using a wider range of technologies and program longevity play important roles in tracking participants over time. This presentation will highlight significant program results and share the tracking and evaluation techniques utilized in SOARS.

  14. Decrease in heart rate after longitudinal participation in the Groningen Active Living Model (GALM) recreational sports programme

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johan de Jong; Koen Lemmink; Erik Scherder; Roy Stewart; Abby King; Martin Stevens

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in heart rate during submaximal exercise as an index of cardiovascular function in older adults participating in the Groningen Active Living Model recreational sports programme who were sedentary or underactive at baseline. A repeated measurement design was conducted; 151 participants were included, providing 398 heart rate files over a period of

  15. Sustaining Optimal Motivation: A Longitudinal Analysis of Interventions to Broaden Participation of Underrepresented Students in STEM

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Paul R.; Schultz, P. Wesley; Estrada, Mica; Woodcock, Anna; Chance, Randie C.

    2013-01-01

    The underrepresentation of racial minorities and women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines is a national concern. Goal theory provides a useful framework from which to understand issues of underrepresentation. We followed a large sample of high-achieving African American and Latino undergraduates in STEM disciplines attending 38 institutions of higher education in the United States over 3 academic years. We report on the science-related environmental factors and person factors that influence the longitudinal regulation of goal orientations. Further, we examine how goal orientations in turn influence distal academic outcomes such as performance and persistence in STEM. Using SEM-based parallel process latent growth curve modeling, we found that (a) engagement in undergraduate research was the only factor that buffered underrepresented students against an increase in performance-avoidance goals over time; (b) growth in scientific self-identity exhibited a strong positive effect on growth in task and performance-approach goals over time; (c) only task goals positively influenced students' cumulative grade point average, over and above baseline grade point average; and (d) performance-avoidance goals predicted student attrition from the STEM pipeline. We discuss the implications of these findings for underrepresented students in STEM disciplines. PMID:24273342

  16. Sustaining Optimal Motivation: A Longitudinal Analysis of Interventions to Broaden Participation of Underrepresented Students in STEM.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Paul R; Schultz, P Wesley; Estrada, Mica; Woodcock, Anna; Chance, Randie C

    2013-02-01

    The underrepresentation of racial minorities and women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines is a national concern. Goal theory provides a useful framework from which to understand issues of underrepresentation. We followed a large sample of high-achieving African American and Latino undergraduates in STEM disciplines attending 38 institutions of higher education in the United States over 3 academic years. We report on the science-related environmental factors and person factors that influence the longitudinal regulation of goal orientations. Further, we examine how goal orientations in turn influence distal academic outcomes such as performance and persistence in STEM. Using SEM-based parallel process latent growth curve modeling, we found that (a) engagement in undergraduate research was the only factor that buffered underrepresented students against an increase in performance-avoidance goals over time; (b) growth in scientific self-identity exhibited a strong positive effect on growth in task and performance-approach goals over time; (c) only task goals positively influenced students' cumulative grade point average, over and above baseline grade point average; and (d) performance-avoidance goals predicted student attrition from the STEM pipeline. We discuss the implications of these findings for underrepresented students in STEM disciplines. PMID:24273342

  17. Anxiety Sensitivity and Panic Attacks: A 1-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Wen; Zinbarg, Richard E.

    2007-01-01

    The hypothesis that anxiety sensitivity (AS) is a risk factor for panic genesis has obtained compelling support, but the clinical/practical importance of AS in panic genesis has been questioned. In addition, the association between panic experience and AS increase has not been clearly demonstrated. Through this 1-year longitudinal study among…

  18. Attachment from Infancy to Adulthood: The Major Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossmann, Klaus E., Ed.; Grossmann, Karin, Ed.; Waters, Everett, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This volume provides unique and valuable firsthand accounts of the most important longitudinal studies of attachment. Presented are a range of research programs that have broadened the understanding of early close relationships and their role in individual adaptation throughout life. In addition to discussing the findings that emerged from each…

  19. A Longitudinal Study of Principals' Activities and Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Henry; Huff, Jason; Goldring, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Although a substantial amount of research on school leadership has focused on what principals may do to improve teaching and learning, little of this research has explored how principals' time spent on leadership activities may relate to and possibly affect student performance. This article presents results from a 3-year longitudinal study of…

  20. Early Cognitive Profiles of Emergent Readers: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunswick, Nicola; Martin, G. Neil; Rippon, Georgina

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the contribution of phonological awareness, phonological memory, and visuospatial ability to reading development in 142 English-speaking children from the start of kindergarten to the middle of Grade 2. Partial cross-lagged analyses revealed significant relationships between early performance on block design and…

  1. Travelling the Road to Expertise: A Longitudinal Study of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacey, Kaye

    2005-01-01

    A longitudinal study of students' developing understanding of decimal notation has been conducted by testing over 3000 students in Grades 4 to 10 up to 7 times. A pencil-and-paper test based on a carefully designed set of decimal comparison items enabled students' responses to be classified into 11 codes and tracked over time. The paper reports on…

  2. NATIONAL LONGITUDINAL MORTALITY STUDY- NATIONAL DEATH INDEX RECORD LINKAGE (NLMS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    National Longitudinal Mortality Study is to investigate social, economic, demographic and occupational differentials in mortality (total and by cause) within a national sample of the U.S. population. In a collaboration begun in 1999 with the Census Bureau and other federal agenci...

  3. Session 3553 A Longitudinal Study of Student Persistence in Science,

    E-print Network

    Knaust, Helmut

    -oriented learning communities, based on their pre-college preparation in Mathematics and English. This paperSession 3553 A Longitudinal Study of Student Persistence in Science, Technology, Engineering science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education that would increase the persistence

  4. A Longitudinal Study of Achievement Trajectories: Factors Associated With Change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shane Jimerson; Byron Egeland; Adrian Teo

    1999-01-01

    Using data from a longitudinal study of high-risk children (N = 174), the authors examined deflections from predicted achievement scores on the basis of the discrepancy of observed scores from an established regression line (from first to sixth grade and first grade to age 16 years). Years in special education and socioeconomic status (SES) were related to changes in math

  5. A Longitudinal Study on Internship Effectiveness in Vocational Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wan, Chin-Sheng; Yang, Jen-te; Cheng, Shu-yun; Su, Chiakai

    2013-01-01

    A cooperative education experience (or internship placement) is an essential component of the curricula of vocational higher education. The efficacy of internship placements has become one of the major concerns facing those who develop education curricula. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to explore the relationships among the…

  6. Sociometric Status and Adjustment in Middle School: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wentzel, Kathryn R.

    2003-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined relations between sociometric status and school adjustment among middle school students. Findings indicated that sixth-grade sociometric status predicted eighth-grade adjustment when controlling for initial adjustment. Compared to average status students, controversial status students had lower classroom grades,…

  7. Longitudinal Study of Women in School Administration, 1972-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertz, Norma T.

    It is clear that women have made progress in advancing into the ranks of school administration since the passage of Title IX, and equally clear that they have not achieved parity with men. Recognizing the problems posed by the absence of reliable, comparative data, and considering the need for longitudinal studies to be able to address the…

  8. Planning Papers for the National Longitudinal Study of Chapter 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Policy Studies Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The Elementary and Secondary School Improvement Amendments of 1988 (P.L. 100-297) require the U.S. Department of Education to conduct a national longitudinal study of Chapter 1 of the Elementary Secondary Education Act (ESEA). The department commissioned the selection of experts qualified to provide design suggestions and advice for the national…

  9. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Longitudinal Study of Amygdala Volume and Joint

    E-print Network

    Utah, University of

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Longitudinal Study of Amygdala Volume and Joint Attention in 2- to 4-Year this period of de- velopment. The amygdala is hypothesized to be abnormal in volume and related to core clinical features in autism. Objectives: To examine amygdala volume at 2 years with follow-up at 4 years

  10. Pattern Recognition of Longitudinal Trial Data with Nonignorable Missingness: An Empirical Case Study.

    PubMed

    Fang, Hua; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Rizzo, Maria L; Stopp, Christian; Wiebe, Sandra A; Stroup, Walter W

    2009-09-01

    Methods for identifying meaningful growth patterns of longitudinal trial data with both nonignorable intermittent and drop-out missingness are rare. In this study, a combined approach with statistical and data mining techniques is utilized to address the nonignorable missing data issue in growth pattern recognition. First, a parallel mixture model is proposed to model the nonignorable missing information from a real-world patient-oriented study and concurrently to estimate the growth trajectories of participants. Then, based on individual growth parameter estimates and their auxiliary feature attributes, a fuzzy clustering method is incorporated to identify the growth patterns. This case study demonstrates that the combined multi-step approach can achieve both statistical gener ality and computational efficiency for growth pattern recognition in longitudinal studies with nonignorable missing data. PMID:20336179

  11. Pattern Recognition of Longitudinal Trial Data with Nonignorable Missingness: An Empirical Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Hua; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Rizzo, Maria L.; Stopp, Christian; Wiebe, Sandra A.; Stroup, Walter W.

    2010-01-01

    Methods for identifying meaningful growth patterns of longitudinal trial data with both nonignorable intermittent and drop-out missingness are rare. In this study, a combined approach with statistical and data mining techniques is utilized to address the nonignorable missing data issue in growth pattern recognition. First, a parallel mixture model is proposed to model the nonignorable missing information from a real-world patient-oriented study and concurrently to estimate the growth trajectories of participants. Then, based on individual growth parameter estimates and their auxiliary feature attributes, a fuzzy clustering method is incorporated to identify the growth patterns. This case study demonstrates that the combined multi-step approach can achieve both statistical gener ality and computational efficiency for growth pattern recognition in longitudinal studies with nonignorable missing data. PMID:20336179

  12. A Longitudinal Study of Consumer Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moschis, George P.; Moore, Roy L.

    A study examined the effects of factors (including television, family, peers, age, and socioeconomic status) on consumer socialization, the process by which individuals develop consumption-related cognitions and behaviors. The specific criterion variables studied included consumer affairs knowledge, puffery filtering, consumer finance management,…

  13. Using Biometrics for Participant Identification in a Research Study: a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Corby, Patricia M.; Schleyer, Titus; Spallek, Heiko; Hart, Thomas C.; Weyant, Robert J.; Corby, Andrea L.; Bretz, Walter A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper illustrates the use of biometrics through the application of an iris-based biometrics system for identifying twins and their parents in a longitudinal research study. It explores the use of biometrics (science of measuring physical or anatomical characteristics of individuals) as a technology for correct identification of individuals during longitudinal studies to help ensure data fidelity. Examples of these circumstances include longitudinal epidemiological and genetic studies, clinical trials, and multicenter collaborative studies where accurate identification of subjects over time can be difficult when the subject may be young or an unreliable source of identification information. The use of technology can automate the process of subject identification thereby reducing the need to depend on subject recall during repeated visits thus helping to ensure data quality. This case report provides insights that may serve as useful hints for those responsible for planning system implementation that involves participants' authentication that would require a more secure form of identification. PMID:16357359

  14. Factors Affecting Attrition in a Longitudinal Smoking Prevention Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ohidul Siddiqui; Brian R. Flay; Frank B. Hu

    1996-01-01

    Background.In longitudinal smoking prevention studies, a difficulty in evaluating treatment effects is understanding whether bias is associated with those who do not complete the study. This study presents the significant predictors of attrition and suggests how to reduce attrition bias in evaluating program effects.Methods.Survival analysis methods were used to assess factors associated with attrition at different time points of the

  15. Tourism Degree Internships: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busby, Graham

    2003-01-01

    This case study briefly reviews the development of tourism degrees in the United Kingdom before considering the experiences obtained by students on year-long internship programmes over a period of 8 years. Verbatim confidential comments, from students, are provided and specific transferable skills discussed. Whilst some skills can be developed…

  16. Method for Studying Helicopter Longitudinal Maneuver Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amer, Kenneth B

    1954-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of helicopter maneuver stability is made and the results are compared with experimental results for both a single and a tandem rotor helicopter. Techniques are described for measuring in flight the significant stability derivatives for use with the theory to aid in design studies of means for achieving marginal maneuver stability for a prototype helicopter.

  17. Concepts for NASA longitudinal health studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, A. E.; Pool, S. L.; Leach, C. S.; Moseley, E.; Rambaut, P. C.

    1983-01-01

    Clinical data collected from a 15-year study of the homogenous group of pre-Shuttle astronauts have revealed no significant long-term effects from spaceflight. The current hypothesis suggests that repeated exposures to the space environment in the Shuttle era will similarly have no long-term health effects. However, a much more heterogenous group of astronauts and non-astronaut scientists will fly in Shuttle, and data on this group's adaptation to the space environment and readaptation to earth are currently sparse. In addition, very little information is available concerning the short- and long-term medical consequences of long duration exposure to space and subsequent readaptation to the earth environment. In this paper, retrospective clinical information on astronauts is reviewed and concepts for conducting epidemiological studies examining long-term health effects of spaceflight on humans, including associated occupational risks factors, are presented.

  18. Longitudinal Career Pattern Study of Graduates of the University of Tennessee College of Nursing, 1954 through 1974. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Grace Spice; May, W. Theodore

    Findings on those aspects of participants' activities related to personal history and career choices both before and after graduation are reported in this second of a two-volume report on the findings of the Longitudinal Career Pattern Study of Graduates of the University of Tennessee College of Nursing, 1954-1974. The first two chapters describe…

  19. Life Satisfaction Shows Terminal Decline in Old Age: Longitudinal Evidence from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerstorf, Denis; Ram, Nilam; Estabrook, Ryne; Schupp, Jurgen; Wagner, Gert G.; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2008-01-01

    Longitudinal data spanning 22 years, obtained from deceased participants of the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP; N = 1,637; 70- to 100-year-olds), were used to examine if and how life satisfaction exhibits terminal decline at the end of life. Changes in life satisfaction were more strongly associated with distance to death than with…

  20. Non-degenerative mild cognitive impairment in elderly people and use of anticholinergic drugs: longitudinal cohort study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie L Ancelin; Sylvaine Artero; Florence Portet; Anne-Marie Dupuy; Jacques Touchon; Karen Ritchie

    2006-01-01

    Objective To assess the potential of anticholinergic drugs as a cause of non-degenerative mild cognitive impairment in elderly people. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Setting 63 randomly selected general practices in the Montpellier region of southern France. Participants 372 people aged >60 years without dementia at recruitment. Main outcome measures Anticholinergic burden from drug use, cognitive examination, and neurological assessment. Results

  1. Deaf Adults' Reasons for Genetic Testing Depend on Cultural Affiliation: Results from a Prospective, Longitudinal Genetic Counseling and Testing Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudreault, Patrick; Baldwin, Erin E.; Fox, Michelle; Dutton, Loriel; Tullis, LeeElle; Linden, Joyce; Kobayashi, Yoko; Zhou, Jin; Sinsheimer, Janet S.; Sininger, Yvonne; Grody, Wayne W.; Palmer, Christina G. S.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between cultural affiliation and deaf adults' motivations for genetic testing for deafness in the first prospective, longitudinal study to examine the impact of genetic counseling and genetic testing on deaf adults and the deaf community. Participants (n = 256), classified as affiliating with hearing, Deaf,…

  2. Childhood Peer Rejection and Aggression as Predictors of Adolescent Girls' Externalizing and Health Risk Behaviors: A 6-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prinstein, Mitchell J.; La Greca, Annette M.

    2004-01-01

    This 6-year longitudinal study examined girls' peer-nominated social preference and aggression in childhood as predictors of self- and parent-reported externalizing symptoms, substance use (i.e.. cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use), and sexual risk behavior in adolescence. Participants were 148 girls from diverse ethnic backgrounds, who were…

  3. Gender differences in smoking: A longitudinal study of beliefs predicting smoking in 11–15 year olds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah Grogan; Mark Conner; Gary Fry; Brendan Gough; Andrea Higgins

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated differences in beliefs and perceived behavioural control between smokers and non-smokers in a large sample of adolescents. Positive and negative instrumental beliefs, normative beliefs, perceived behavioural control (PBC) and smoking status were assessed in the same participants at 11, 13 and 15 years of age. Prospective analyses among non-smokers revealed that for boys, negative instrumental beliefs

  4. Neuropathologic Studies of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA)

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Richard J.; Resnick, Susan M.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Crain, Barbara J.; Pletnikova, Olga; Rudow, Gay; Iacono, Diego; Riudavets, Miguel A.; Driscoll, Ira; Price, Donald L.; Martin, Lee J.; Troncoso, Juan C.

    2010-01-01

    The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) was established in 1958 and is one the oldest prospective studies of aging in the USA and the world. The BLSA is supported by the National Institute of Aging (NIA) and its mission is to learn what happens to people as they get old and how to sort out changes due to aging and from those due to disease or other causes. In 1986, an autopsy program combined with comprehensive neurologic and cognitive evaluations was established in collaboration with the Johns Hopkins University Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center (ADRC). Since then, 211 subjects have undergone autopsy. Here we review the key clinical neuropathological correlations from this autopsy series. The focus is on the morphological and biochemical changes that occur in normal aging, and the early neuropathological changes of neurodegenerative diseases, especially Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We highlight the combined clinical, pathologic, morphometric, and biochemical evidence of asymptomatic AD, a state characterized by normal clinical evaluations in subjects with abundant AD pathology. We conclude that in some individuals, successful cognitive aging results from compensatory mechanisms that occur at the neuronal level (i.e., neuronal hypertrophy and synaptic plasticity) whereas a failure of compensation may culminate in disease. PMID:19661626

  5. Neuropathologic studies of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA).

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Richard J; Resnick, Susan M; Zonderman, Alan B; Ferrucci, Luigi; Crain, Barbara J; Pletnikova, Olga; Rudow, Gay; Iacono, Diego; Riudavets, Miguel A; Driscoll, Ira; Price, Donald L; Martin, Lee J; Troncoso, Juan C

    2009-01-01

    The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) was established in 1958 and is one the oldest prospective studies of aging in the USA and the world. The BLSA is supported by the National Institute of Aging (NIA) and its mission is to learn what happens to people as they get old and how to sort out changes due to aging from those due to disease or other causes. In 1986, an autopsy program combined with comprehensive neurologic and cognitive evaluations was established in collaboration with the Johns Hopkins University Alzheimer's Disease Research Center (ADRC). Since then, 211 subjects have undergone autopsy. Here we review the key clinical neuropathological correlations from this autopsy series. The focus is on the morphological and biochemical changes that occur in normal aging, and the early neuropathological changes of neurodegenerative diseases, especially Alzheimer's disease (AD). We highlight the combined clinical, pathologic, morphometric, and biochemical evidence of asymptomatic AD, a state characterized by normal clinical evaluations in subjects with abundant AD pathology. We conclude that in some individuals, successful cognitive aging results from compensatory mechanisms that occur at the neuronal level (i.e., neuronal hypertrophy and synaptic plasticity) whereas a failure of compensation may culminate in disease. PMID:19661626

  6. Ophthalmologic complications of meningomyelocele: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed Central

    Biglan, A W

    1990-01-01

    Patients with spina bifida have multiple ophthalmologic problems, many of which are preventable. Most of the problems are related to the hydrocephalus, which is caused by the coexisting Arnold-Chiari malformation. When patients are treated for hydrocephalus, and comprehensive eye care is available, 94% of the patients will have 6/12 visual acuity or better. Strabismus is common but it responds well to medical and surgical treatment. Children with spina bifida should have frequent examinations by an ophthalmologist who is familiar with the diagnosis and management of the defects recorded in this study. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 PMID:2095031

  7. of Affiliation with Alcoholics Anonymous A Longitudinal Study of \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harrison M. Trice; Paul M. Roman

    Summary. Alcoholics Anonymous represent one of the few clearly successful treatment approaches for alcoholism. In an attempt to delineate the dynamics of this approach, six propositions were derived from previous research on A.A. and tested in a longitudinal study of post-discharge A.A. affiliation among 378 white males treated for alcoholism in a state hospital. Unlike previous studies, the present effort

  8. Predictors of Parent-Reported Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children Aged 6-7 Years: A National Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sciberras, Emma; Ukoumunne, Obioha C.; Efron, Daryl

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the prenatal, postnatal and demographic predictors of parent-reported attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in an Australian population-based sample. Participants were families participating in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. There were approximately even numbers of males (51%) and females (49%) in the…

  9. Longitudinal Associations between Exercise and Pain in the General Population - The HUNT Pain Study

    PubMed Central

    Landmark, Tormod; Romundstad, Pål R.; Borchgrevink, Petter C.; Kaasa, Stein; Dale, Ola

    2013-01-01

    Background Population-based studies have reported conflicting findings on the relationship between physical activity and pain, and most studies reporting a relationship are cross sectional. Temporal relationships are therefore difficult to infer and associations may be subject to confounding from a variety of other factors. The aim of the current study was to investigate the association between exercise and pain longitudinally and to use within subjects analyses to remove between subjects confounding. Methods In the population-based HUNT 3 study, participants reported both pain and level of exercise. A random sub-sample of 6419 participants was in addition invited to report their last week pain and exercise every three months over a 12 month period (five measurements in total). We used multilevel mixed effects linear regression analyses to prospectively estimate the association between regular levels of exercise (measured in HUNT 3) and subsequent longitudinal reporting of pain. We also estimated within-subjects associations (i.e. the variation in pain as a function of variation in exercise, over time, within individuals) to avoid confounding from between subject factors. Results Among those invited to participate (N?=?6419), 4219 subjects returned at least two questionnaires. Compared with subjects who reported no or light exercise, those who reported moderate levels of exercise or more at baseline, reported less pain in repeated measures over a 12 month period in analyses adjusted for age, sex,education and smoking. Adjusting for baseline level of pain distinctly attenuated the findings. Within subjects, an increase in exercise was accompanied by a concurrent reduction in intensity of pain. However, we found no indication that exercise level at one occasion was related to pain reporting three months later. Conclusion This longitudinal population-based study indicates that exercise is associated with lower level of pain and that this association is close in time. PMID:23776464

  10. Managing Endings in a Longitudinal Study: Respect for Persons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss, Michael J.

    2005-03-01

    In this paper I describe and discuss the way that a book I had written on a five-year longitudinal study of school science teaching was received by the pupils and teachers it featured. By and large the pupils' reception was positive. However, one group of teachers was deeply hurt by the book. I trace this mainly to my failure to consider adequately their fears of the consequences of the book's publication and possibly to my failure to consider with them the psychological significance of my withdrawing from the school after five years of regular study. I hope that there are lessons not only for myself but also for others considering longitudinal and ethnographic research in science education and more broadly.

  11. Academic Performance of Language-Minority Students and All-Day Kindergarten: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Mido

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the effect of all-day kindergarten programs on the academic achievement of students from racial language minority and low socioeconomic class. The study employed a series of 3-level longitudinal multilevel analyses using a nationally representative database, the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS). The study

  12. A longitudinal study of domestic water conservation behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Moore; Margot Murphy; Ray Watson

    1994-01-01

    A 1988 study of a school-linked sample in a metropolitan and a regional urban area established baseline data for knowledge, attitudes, intentions, and behavior with regard to water management and conservation (Murphy, Watson, & Moore, 1991). This paper reports on a 1991 follow-up, utilising both longitudinal and cross-sectional samples of students, teachers and parents, which aimed at identifying changes within

  13. A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Life Satisfaction and Parenting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Runa Saha; E. Scott Huebner; Shannon M. Suldo; Robert F. Valois

    2010-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal relationships between adolescent life satisfaction (LS) and perceived parental support, parental\\u000a behavioral control, and parental autonomy granting. A total of 819 students in grades 6–12 completed the Students’ Life Satisfaction\\u000a Scale (Huebner 1991), the Family Support Scale (FSS; Wills and Clearly 1996), and the Parental Control and Parental Autonomy\\u000a Granting subscales of the Authoritative Parenting Measure

  14. A longitudinal study of cyberbullying: Examining riskand protective factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kostas A. Fanti; Andreas G. Demetriou; Veronica V. Hawa

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to examine possible risk (school-bullying and victimization, exposure to media violence, callous-unemotional traits, impulsivity and narcissism) and protective (family, peer and school social support) factors that might be associated with cyberbullying and cyber-victimization by employing a longitudinal, two-wave design. The sample consisted of 1,416 (50.1% girls) adolescents living in Cyprus. The findings suggested

  15. Optimal Assignment Methods in Three-Form Planned Missing Data Designs for Longitudinal Panel Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Terrence D.; Rhemtulla, Mijke; Schoemann, Alexander; McPherson, Brent; Wu, Wei; Little, Todd D.

    2014-01-01

    Planned missing designs are becoming increasingly popular, but because there is no consensus on how to implement them in longitudinal research, we simulated longitudinal data to distinguish between strategies of assigning items to forms and of assigning forms to participants across measurement occasions. Using relative efficiency as the criterion,…

  16. Practices of Parental Participation: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartas, Dimitra

    2008-01-01

    The nature of parental participation in children's education is changing rapidly. A growing body of research points to the positive effect that parental involvement has on outcomes of schooling and on children's well-being. This paper examines parental participation practices in terms of parents working together with a range of professionals,…

  17. Longitudinal Magnetic Resonance Imaging Studies of Older Adults: A Shrinking Brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan M. Resnick; Dzung L. Pham; Michael A. Kraut; Alan B. Zonderman; Christos Davatzikos

    2003-01-01

    Age-related loss of brain tissue has been inferred from cross-sectional neuroimaging studies, but direct measurements of gray and white matter changes from longitudinal studies are lacking. We quantified longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 92 non- demented older adults (age 59 - 85 years at baseline) in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging to determine the rates and regional

  18. Heritability of Parkinson disease in Swedish twins: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Wirdefeldt, Karin; Gatz, Margaret; Reynolds, Chandra A.; Prescott, Carol A.; Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2015-01-01

    Previous twin studies report no heritability of Parkinson disease (PD) based on cross-sectional information. Here, we apply a longitudinal design and re-evaluate cross-sectional data in the population-based Swedish Twin Registry (STR) using clinical as well as hospital discharge and cause of death diagnoses. In the longitudinal analyses (based on 46,436 individuals), we identified 542 twins with PD and 65 twins with parkinsonism. Concordance rates for PD were 11% for monozygotic and 4% for same-sexed dizygotic twin pairs, with a heritability estimate of 34%. Concordance rates for PD or parkinsonism were 13% for monozygotic and 5% for same-sexed dizygotic twin pairs, with a heritability estimate of 40%. In the cross-sectional analyses (based on 49,814 individuals), we identified 287 twins with PD and 79 twins with parkinsonism. Concordance rates for PD were 4% for monozygotic and same-sexed dizygotic twin pairs and zero for opposite-sexed twin pairs. Concordance rates for PD or parkinsonism were somewhat higher but the heritability estimate was non-significant. Our longitudinal analyses demonstrate that PD and parkinsonism are modestly heritable. PMID:21482443

  19. Do major life events influence physical activity among older adults: the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Major life events are associated with a change in daily routine and could thus also affect habitual levels of physical activity. Major life events remain largely unexplored as determinants of older adults’ participation in physical activity and sports. This study focused on two major life events, widowhood and retirement, and asked whether these major life events were associated with moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sports participation. Methods Data from the first (1992–93) and second (1995–96) wave of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA), a prospective cohort study among Dutch adults aged 55 and older, were used. Change in marital status and employment status between baseline and follow-up was assessed by self-report. Time spent in MVPA (min/d) and sports participation (yes/no) was calculated based on the LASA Physical Activity Questionnaire. The association of retirement and widowhood with MVPA and sports participation was assessed in separate multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses, respectively. Results Widowhood - N=136 versus 1324 stable married- was not associated with MVPA (B= 3.5 [95%CI:-57.9;64.9]) or sports participation (OR= 0.8 [95%CI:0.5;1.3]). Retired participants (N= 65) significantly increased their time spent in MVPA (B= 32.5 [95%CI:17.8;47.1]) compared to participants who continued to be employed (N= 121), but not their sports participation. Age was a significant effect modifier (B= 7.5 [90%CI:-1.1;13.8]), indicating a greater increase in MVPA in older retirees. Discussion Our results suggest that the associations found varied by the two major life events under investigation. MVPA increased after retirement, but no association with widowhood was seen. PMID:23245568

  20. Integrating Prospective Longitudinal Data: Modeling Personality and Health in the Terman Life Cycle and Hawaii Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Margaret L.; Hampson, Sarah E.; Goldberg, Lewis R.; Friedman, Howard S.

    2014-01-01

    The present study used a collaborative framework to integrate 2 long-term prospective studies: the Terman Life Cycle Study and the Hawaii Personality and Health Longitudinal Study. Within a 5-factor personality-trait framework, teacher assessments of child personality were rationally and empirically aligned to establish similar factor structures…

  1. Multivariate Nonlinear Mixed Model to Analyze Longitudinal Image Data: MRI Study of Early Brain Development

    E-print Network

    Utah, University of

    Multivariate Nonlinear Mixed Model to Analyze Longitudinal Image Data: MRI Study of Early Brain. In this paper, we present a parametric nonlinear model to statistically study multi- variate longitudinal data to any longitudinal data with nonlinear growth patterns that can not easily be modeled by linear methods

  2. Japanese Study on Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood: Study Protocol and Profiles of Participants

    PubMed Central

    Takada, Misato; Kondo, Naoki; Hashimoto, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Background The Japanese Study on Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood (J-SHINE) aims to clarify the complex associations between social factors and health from an interdisciplinary perspective and to provide a database for use in various health policy evaluations. Methods J-SHINE is an ongoing longitudinal panel study of households of adults aged 25–50 years. The wave 1 survey was carried out in 2010 among adults randomly selected from the resident registry of four urban and suburban municipalities in the greater Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan. In 2011, surveys for the participants’ spouse/partner and child were additionally conducted. The wave 2 survey was conducted in 2012 for the wave 1 participants and will be followed by the wave 2 survey for spouse/partner and child in 2013. Results Wave 1 sample sizes were 4357 for wave 1 participants (valid response rate: 31.3%; cooperation rate: 51.8%), 1873 for spouse/partner (response rate: 61.9%), and 1520 for child (response rate: 67.7%). Wave 2 captured 69.0% of wave 1 participants. Information gathered covered socio-demographics, household economy, self-reported health conditions and healthcare utilization, stress and psychological values, and developmental history. A subpopulation underwent physiological (n = 2468) and biomarker (n = 1205) measurements. Conclusions Longitudinal survey data, including repeated measures of social factors evaluated based on theories and techniques of various disciplines, like J-SHINE, should contribute toward opening a web of causality for society and health, which may have important policy implications for recent global health promotion strategies such as the World Health Organization’s Social Determinants of Health approach and the second round of Japan’s Healthy Japan 21. PMID:24814507

  3. Cohort profile: the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yaohui; Hu, Yisong; Smith, James P; Strauss, John; Yang, Gonghuan

    2014-02-01

    The China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) is a nationally representative longitudinal survey of persons in China 45 years of age or older and their spouses, including assessments of social, economic, and health circumstances of community-residents. CHARLS examines health and economic adjustments to rapid ageing of the population in China. The national baseline survey for the study was conducted between June 2011 and March 2012 and involved 17 708 respondents. CHARLS respondents are followed every 2 years, using a face-to-face computer-assisted personal interview (CAPI). Physical measurements are made at every 2-year follow-up, and blood sample collection is done once in every two follow-up periods. A pilot survey for CHARLS was conducted in two provinces of China in 2008, on 2685 individuals, who were resurveyed in 2012. To ensure the adoption of best practices and international comparability of results, CHARLS was harmonized with leading international research studies in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) model. Requests for collaborations should be directed to Dr Yaohui Zhao (yhzhao@nsd.edu.cn). All data in CHARLS are maintained at the National School of Development of Peking University and will be accessible to researchers around the world at the study website. The 2008 pilot data for CHARLS are available at: http://charls.ccer.edu.cn/charls/. National baseline data for the study are expected to be released in January 2013. PMID:23243115

  4. School Social Fragmentation, Economic Deprivation and Social Cohesion and Adolescent Physical Inactivity: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Pabayo, Roman; Janosz, Michel; Bisset, Sherri; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the independent influence of school economic deprivation, social fragmentation, and social cohesion on the likelihood of participating in no physical activity among students. Methods Data are from a large-scale longitudinal study of schools based in disadvantaged communities in Quebec, Canada. Questionnaires were administered every year between 2002 and 2008 among n?=?14,924 students aged 12 to 18 from a sample of 70 schools. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were conducted. Multilevel modeling was utilized to account for the clustering of students within schools. Schools were categorized as being low, moderate or high economic deprivation, social fragmentation and social cohesion. Those who indicated that they do no participate in any physical activity during the week were identified as being physically inactive. Results In baseline multilevel cross-sectional analyses, adolescents attending schools in the highest (compared to the lowest) levels of socioeconomic deprivation and social fragmentation were more likely to be physically inactive (OR?=?1.33, 95% CI?=?1.03, 1.72; and OR?=?1.24, 95% CI?=?0.98, 1.56, respectively). Conversely, students attending schools with the highest cohesion were less likely to be physically inactive (OR?=?0.78, 95% CI?=?0.61, 0.99). In longitudinal analysis, physically active students who attended schools with the highest social fragmentation were more likely to become physically inactive over two years (OR?=?1.65, 95% CI?=?1.09, 2.51). Conclusion The school socioeconomic environment appears to be an important contextual influence on participation in no physical activity among adolescents. Following adolescents beyond two years is necessary to determine if these environments have a lasting effect on physical activity behavior. PMID:24932679

  5. On Colour, Category Effects, and Alzheimer's Disease: A Critical Review of Studies and Further Longitudinal Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Martínez, F. Javier; Rodríguez-Rojo, Inmaculada C.

    2015-01-01

    The role of colour in object recognition is controversial; in this study, a critical review of previous studies, as well as a longitudinal study, was conducted. We examined whether colour benefits the ability of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and normal controls (NC) when naming items differing in colour diagnosticity: living things (LT) versus nonliving things (NLT). Eleven AD patients were evaluated twice with a temporal interval of 3 years; 26 NC were tested once. The participants performed a naming task (colour and greyscale photographs); the impact of nuisance variables (NVs) and potential ceiling effects were also controlled. Our results showed that (i) colour slightly favoured processing of items with higher colour diagnosticity (i.e., LT) in both groups; (ii) AD patients used colour information similarly to NC, retaining this ability over time; (iii) NVs played a significant role as naming predictors in all the participants, relegating domain to a minor plane; and (iv) category effects (better processing of NLT) were present in both groups. Finally, although patients underwent semantic longitudinal impairment, this was independent of colour deterioration. This finding provides better support to the view that colour is effective at the visual rather than at the semantic level of object processing.

  6. Constructed Response Tests in the NELS:88 High School Effectiveness Study. National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 Second Followup. Statistical Analysis Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Judith M.; And Others

    This report describes an experiment in constructed response testing undertaken in conjunction with the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88). Constructed response questions are those that require students to produce their own response rather than selecting the correct answer from several options. Participants in this experiment…

  7. Use of Missing Data Methods in Longitudinal Studies: The Persistence of Bad Practices in Developmental Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelicic, Helena; Phelps, Erin; Lerner, Richard M.

    2009-01-01

    Developmental science rests on describing, explaining, and optimizing intraindividual changes and, hence, empirically requires longitudinal research. Problems of missing data arise in most longitudinal studies, thus creating challenges for interpreting the substance and structure of intraindividual change. Using a sample of reports of longitudinal

  8. Transition to Postgraduate Study: Practice, Participation and the Widening Participation Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Victoria L.; Tobbell, Jane; Lawthom, Rebecca; Zammit, Maria

    2009-01-01

    This article explores transition to postgraduate (PG) study in terms of the widening participation (WP) agenda. The research is located within a Communities of Practice framework, allowing for explanations of transition in terms of learning, identity and participation in practices. A qualitative ethnographic methodology is employed, and analysis…

  9. Validity of Internet-Based Longitudinal Study Data: The Elephant in the Virtual Room

    PubMed Central

    Summers, Kim M; Bronsvoort, B Mark C; Handel, Ian G; Clements, Dylan N

    2015-01-01

    Background Internet-based data collection relies on well-designed and validated questionnaires. The theory behind designing and validating questionnaires is well described, but few practical examples of how to approach validation are available in the literature. Objective We aimed to validate data collected in an ongoing Internet-based longitudinal health study through direct visits to participants and recall of their health records. We demonstrate that despite extensive pre-planning, social desirability can still affect data in unexpected ways and that anticipation of poor quality data may be confounded by positive validation. Methods Dogslife is a large-scale, Web-based longitudinal study of canine health, in which owners of Labrador Retrievers were recruited and questioned at regular intervals about the lifestyle and health of their dogs using an Internet-based questionnaire. The Dogslife questionnaire predominantly consists of closed-answer questions. In our work, two separate validation methodologies were used: (1) direct interviews with 43 participants during visits to their households and (2) comparison of owner-entered health reports with 139 historical health records. Results Our results indicate that user-derived measures should not be regarded as a single category; instead, each measurement should be considered separately as each presents its own challenge to participants. We recommend trying to ascertain the extent of recall decay within a study and, if necessary, using this to guide data collection timepoints and analyses. Finally, we recommend that multiple methods of communication facilitate validation studies and aid cohort engagement. Conclusions Our study highlighted how the theory underpinning online questionnaire design and validation translates into practical data issues when applied to Internet-based studies. Validation should be regarded as an extension of questionnaire design, and that validation work should commence as soon as sufficient data are available. We believe that validation is a crucial step and hope our suggested guidelines will help facilitate validation of other Internet-based cohort studies. PMID:25887101

  10. Stability of Eating Disorder Diagnostic Classifications in Adolescents: Five-Year Longitudinal Findings From a Population-Based Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diann M. Ackard; Jayne A. Fulkerson; Dianne Neumark-Sztainer

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the stability of eating disorder (ED) classifications among a population-based sample of male and female adolescents (n = 2,516) who participated in Project EAT-II, a five-year longitudinal study. Cross-tabulations using weighted data identified diagnostic stability across six classifications (Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, Binge Eating Disorder, Binge Eating and\\/or Compensatory Behaviors not meeting ED diagnosis, Body Image Disturbance

  11. Exercise and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Graduate Students: A Longitudinal, Observational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Racette, Susan B.; Inman, Cindi L.; Clark, B. Ruth; Royer, Nathaniel K.; Steger-May, Karen; Deusinger, Susan S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate cardiometabolic risk of students longitudinally and compare them with age-matched national samples. Participants: Participants are 134 graduate students enrolled between August 2005 and May 2010. Methods: Students were assessed at the beginning and end of their 3-year curriculum. Comparative samples included 966 National…

  12. A Longitudinal Study: Casino Gambling Attitudes, Motivations, and Gambling Patterns Among Urban Elders

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenberg, Peter A.; Templin, Thomas N.

    2013-01-01

    Guided by self-determination theory, the main purpose of this study was to explore demographic characteristics, attitudes toward casinos, and self-reported intrinsic and extrinsic reasons for casino gambling by urban elders. The study hypothesized that individuals would more frequently report intrinsic motivations for casino gambling (e.g., entertainment, enjoyment) rather than extrinsic motivation (e.g., financial gain). This longitudinal sample included 247 urban elders older who were 60 years and older and who had participated in surveys in 2002 and 2004. The initial survey consisted of (a) demographic items, (b) five items to measure attitudes toward casino gambling, (c) questions inquiring about motivations for casino gambling, and (d) questions about gambling frequency. The follow-up survey was an expanded questionnaire which still included these items. The sample consisted of the 247 participants, over 200 of whom were African-Americans, 188 were female, and 98 of the participants had a post graduate education. About half were widowed, and the sample generally reported a low income. The results supported the theoretical perspective underlying the project. The hypothesis that more participants would endorse intrinsic motivations for casino gambling rather than extrinsic motivations was supported. The implications of these findings represent for social workers, gambling counselors and health care services providers an important step toward understanding the attitudes, behaviors, and motivational factors involved in casino gambling among older adults. PMID:20549548

  13. A Longitudinal Examination of Childhood Maltreatment and Adolescent Obesity: Results from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Sunny Hyucksun; Miller, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: We sought to explore the association between childhood maltreatment (e.g., neglect, physical and sexual abuse) and longitudinal growth trajectories of body mass index (BMI) from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods: We used latent curve modeling to examine data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 8,471),…

  14. Body Dissatisfaction from Adolescence to Young Adulthood: Findings from a 10-Year Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Bucchianeri, Michaela M.; Arikian, Aimee J.; Hannan, Peter J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    Given mixed findings regarding the unique trajectories of female and male adolescents’ body dissatisfaction over time, comprehensive longitudinal examinations are needed. This 10-year longitudinal, population-based study, with 1,902 participants from diverse ethnic/racial and socioeconomic backgrounds in the Minneapolis/St. Paul metropolitan area, examined changes in body dissatisfaction from adolescence to young adulthood. Results revealed that: (a) female and male participants’ body dissatisfaction increased between middle and high school,(b) body dissatisfaction increased further during the transition to young adulthood, and (c) this increase was associated with an increase in BMI over time, such that the upward trend in body dissatisfaction became non-significant when BMI was controlled. These results highlight a trend in which diverse female and male youth are increasingly dissatisfied with their bodies as their BMI increases from middle school to young adulthood, and emphasize the need for targeted prevention efforts to intervene in this trajectory and mitigate potential harm. PMID:23084464

  15. Reduced Risk of Malaria Parasitemia Following Household Screening and Treatment: A Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Sutcliffe, Catherine G.; Kobayashi, Tamaki; Hamapumbu, Harry; Shields, Timothy; Mharakurwa, Sungano; Thuma, Philip E.; Louis, Thomas A.; Glass, Gregory; Moss, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Background In regions of declining malaria transmission, new strategies for control are needed to reduce transmission and achieve elimination. Artemisinin-combination therapy (ACT) is active against immature gametocytes and can reduce the risk of transmission. We sought to determine whether household screening and treatment of infected individuals provides protection against infection for household members. Methodology/Principal Findings The study was conducted in two areas in Southern Province, Zambia in 2007 and 2008/2009. To determine the impact of proactive case detection, households were randomly selected either to join a longitudinal cohort, in which participants were repeatedly screened throughout the year and those infected treated with artemether-lumefantrine, or a cross-sectional survey, in which participants were visited only once. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted throughout the year. The prevalence of RDT positivity was compared between the longitudinal and cross-sectional households at baseline and during follow-up using multilevel logistic regression. In the 2007 study area, 174 and 156 participants enrolled in the cross-sectional and longitudinal groups, respectively. In the 2008/2009 study area, 917 and 234 participants enrolled in the cross-sectional and longitudinal groups, respectively. In both study areas, participants and households in the longitudinal and cross-sectional groups were similar on demographic characteristics and prevalence of RDT positivity at baseline (2007: OR?=?0.97; 95% CI:0.46, 2.03 | 2008/2009: OR?=?1.28; 95% CI:0.44, 3.79). After baseline, the prevalence of RDT positivity was significantly lower in longitudinal compared to cross-sectional households in both study areas (2007: OR?=?0.44; 95% CI:0.20, 0.96 | 2008/2009: OR?=?0.16; 95% CI:0.05, 0.55). Conclusions/Significance Proactive case detection, consisting of screening household members with an RDT and treating those positive with ACT, can reduce transmission and provide indirect protection to household members. A targeted test and treat strategy could contribute to the elimination of malaria in regions of low transmission. PMID:22319629

  16. Tracking of leisure-time physical activity during adolescence and young adulthood: a 10-year longitudinal study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lise Kjønniksen; Torbjørn Torsheim; Bente Wold

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to show how participation in leisure-time physical activity changes between ages 13 to 23, and to what extent engaging in specific types of sports tracks into young adulthood. METHODS: The sample comprised 630 subjects who responded to questionnaires at age 13, with seven follow-ups over a 10-year period in the Norwegian Longitudinal Health

  17. Dietary B vitamin intakes and urinary total arsenic concentration in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) cohort, Bangladesh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Argos; Paul J. Rathouz; Brandon L. Pierce; Tara Kalra; Faruque Parvez; Vesna Slavkovich; Alauddin Ahmed; Yu Chen; Habibul Ahsan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose  The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the effects of dietary B vitamin intakes on creatinine-adjusted urinary total\\u000a arsenic concentration among individuals participating in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) cohort in\\u000a Araihazar, Bangladesh. Arsenic exposure is a major public health problem in Bangladesh, where nearly 77 million people have\\u000a been chronically exposed to arsenic through the consumption

  18. Decrease in heart rate after longitudinal participation in the Groningen Active Living Model (GALM) recreational sports programme.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Johan; Lemmink, Koen; Scherder, Erik; Stewart, Roy; King, Abby; Stevens, Martin

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in heart rate during submaximal exercise as an index of cardiovascular function in older adults participating in the Groningen Active Living Model recreational sports programme who were sedentary or underactive at baseline. A repeated measurement design was conducted; 151 participants were included, providing 398 heart rate files over a period of 18 months. Multi-level analyses were conducted; growth and final models were developed. Significant decreases in mean heart rate over time were observed for all walking speeds. The covariates of sex and body mass index (BMI) were significantly related to mean heart rate at each walking speed, except for BMI at 7 km x h(-1). No significant relationships were observed between energy expenditure for recreational sports activities and leisure-time physical activities and mean heart rate, except for energy expenditure for leisure-time physical activities at 7 km x h(-1). From baseline to December 2002, decreases in predicted mean heart rate were 5.5, 6.0, 10.0, and 9.0 beats x min(-1) at walking speeds of 4, 5, 6, and 7 km x h(-1); relative decreases ranged from 5.1 to 7.4%. Significant decreases in heart rate observed during submaximal exercise reflected a potential increase in cardiovascular function after 18 months of participation in the Groningen Active Living Model recreational sports programme. PMID:19629846

  19. A Longitudinal Study of the Development of Dichhaptic Lateralization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Blerkom, Malcolm L.

    A follow-up study was made of cross-sectional research on the development of dichhaptic lateralization. One hundred and eighty students in grades 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11 from two school districts were tested. Participants were 9 boys and 9 girls from each grade level for each district. Subjects were at least 90 percent right-handed, as determined by…

  20. Academic performance of language-minority students and all-day kindergarten: a longitudinal study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mido Chang

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the effect of all-day kindergarten programs on the academic achievement of students from racial language minority and low socioeconomic class. The study employed a series of 3-level longitudinal multilevel analyses using a nationally representative database, the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS). The study showed that Hispanic dual-language-speaking students who attended all-day kindergarten narrowed the achievement gap

  1. Academic performance of language-minority students and all-day kindergarten: a longitudinal study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mido Chang

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the effect of all-day kindergarten programs on the academic achievement of students from racial language minority and low socioeconomic class. The study employed a series of 3-level longitudinal multilevel analyses using a nationally representative database, the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS). The study showed that Hispanic dual-language-speaking students who attended all-day kindergarten narrowed the achievement gap

  2. Is Social Capital a Determinant of Oral Health among Older Adults? Findings from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Rouxel, Patrick; Tsakos, Georgios; Demakakos, Panayotes; Zaninotto, Paola; Chandola, Tarani; Watt, Richard Geddie

    2015-01-01

    There are a number of studies linking social capital to oral health among older adults, although the evidence base mainly relies on cross-sectional study designs. The possibility of reverse causality is seldom discussed, even though oral health problems could potentially lead to lower social participation. Furthermore, few studies clearly distinguish between the effects of different dimensions of social capital on oral health. The objective of the study was to examine the longitudinal associations between individual social capital and oral health among older adults. We analyzed longitudinal data from the 3rd and 5th waves of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). Structural social capital was operationalized using measures of social participation, and volunteering. Number of close ties and perceived emotional support comprised the functional dimension of social capital. Oral health measures were having no natural teeth (edentate vs. dentate), self-rated oral health and oral health-related quality of life. Time-lag and autoregressive models were used to explore the longitudinal associations between social capital and oral health. We imputed all missing data, using multivariate imputation by chained equations. We found evidence of bi-directional longitudinal associations between self-rated oral health, volunteering and functional social capital. Functional social capital was a strong predictor of change in oral health-related quality of life – the adjusted odds ratio of reporting poor oral health-related quality of life was 1.75 (1.33–2.30) for older adults with low vs. high social support. However in the reverse direction, poor oral health-related quality of life was not associated with changes in social capital. This suggests that oral health may not be a determinant of social capital. In conclusion, social capital may be a determinant of subjective oral health among older adults rather than edentulousness, despite many cross-sectional studies on the latter. PMID:25992569

  3. Migration, urbanisation and mortality: 5-year longitudinal analysis of the PERU MIGRANT study

    PubMed Central

    Pena, Melissa S Burroughs; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M; Sánchez, Juan F; Quispe, Renato; Pillay, Timesh D; Málaga, Germán; Gilman, Robert H; Smeeth, Liam; Miranda, J Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare all-cause and cause-specific mortality among 3 distinct groups: within-country, rural-to-urban migrants, and rural and urban dwellers in a longitudinal cohort in Peru. Methods The PERU MIGRANT Study, a longitudinal cohort study, used an age-stratified and sex-stratified random sample of urban dwellers in a shanty town community in the capital city of Peru, rural dwellers in the Andes, and migrants from the Andes to the shanty town community. Participants underwent a questionnaire and anthropomorphic measurements at a baseline evaluation in 2007–2008 and at a follow-up visit in 2012–2013. Mortality was determined by death certificate or family interview. Results Of the 989 participants evaluated at baseline, 928 (94%) were evaluated at follow-up (mean age 48 years; 53% female). The mean follow-up time was 5.1 years, totalling 4732.8 person-years. In a multivariable survival model, and relative to urban dwellers, rural participants had lower all-cause mortality (HR=0.27; 95% CI 0.07 to 0.98), and both the rural (HR=0.07; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.87) and migrant (HR=0.13; 95% CI 0.02 to 0.81) groups had lower cardiovascular mortality. Conclusions Cardiovascular mortality of migrants remains similar to that of the rural group, suggesting that rural-to-urban migrants do not appear to catch up with urban mortality in spite of having a more urban cardiovascular risk factor profile. PMID:25987723

  4. Skin conductance fear conditioning impairments and aggression: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yu; Tuvblad, Catherine; Schell, Anne; Baker, Laura; Raine, Adrian

    2015-02-01

    Autonomic fear conditioning deficits have been linked to child aggression and adult criminal behavior. However, it is unknown if fear conditioning deficits are specific to certain subtypes of aggression, and longitudinal research is rare. In the current study, reactive and proactive aggression were assessed in a sample of males and females when aged 10, 12, 15, and 18 years old. Skin conductance fear conditioning data were collected when they were 18 years old. Individuals who were persistently high on proactive aggression measures had significantly poorer conditioned responses at 18 years old when compared to others. This association was not found for reactive aggression. Consistent with prior literature, findings suggest that persistent antisocial individuals have unique neurobiological characteristics and that poor autonomic fear conditioning is associated with the presence of increased instrumental aggressive behavior. PMID:25174802

  5. Theoretical study of the longitudinal first hyperpolarizability of polysilaacetylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacquemin, Denis; Perpète, Eric A.; André, Jean-Marie

    2004-06-01

    With the help of ab initio tools taking into account dynamic electron correlation effects, we study the longitudinal electronic first hyperpolarizability of carbon-silicon analogues to polyacetylene. It turns out that the MP2/6-31G(d)//HF/6-31G(d) scheme is suitable to obtain a semiquantitative accuracy for the first hyperpolarizability of long polysilaacetylene oligomers. The conformation of the chain has a crucial impact on its second-order nonlinear optical properties. We also show that, for some chain lengths, the frequency dispersion effects may have a huge impact, even when far away from resonance. These phenomena are rationalized in terms of delocalization and asymmetry.

  6. Longitudinal studies of luteal function by salivary progesterone determinations.

    PubMed

    Walker, S M; Walker, R F; Riad-Fahmy, D

    1984-01-01

    A 'normal range' for salivary progesterone concentrations has been established using data derived from women who were menstruating regularly and in whom dating of the cycle by accepted criteria was possible. Since these values are in agreement with those in the first 9 days of conception cycles and with those in cycles in which ovulation was confirmed by ultrasonography, they provide a reliable index of progesterone output compatible with fertility. Measurement of daily salivary progesterone values in subfertile women for time spans exceeding 3 months allowed accurate assessment of base-line ovarian activity and of the response to ovulation-induction therapy. Salivary sampling, by allowing collection of frequent samples with a minimum of time, stress and inconvenience, is ideally suited to longitudinal studies of ovarian activity. This sampling regimen is also applicable to the monitoring of progesterone output throughout pregnancy. PMID:6510896

  7. Facial expression recognition in Alzheimer's disease: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Torres, Bianca; Santos, Raquel Luiza; Sousa, Maria Fernanda Barroso de; Simões Neto, José Pedro; Nogueira, Marcela Moreira Lima; Belfort, Tatiana T; Dias, Rachel; Dourado, Marcia Cristina Nascimento

    2015-05-01

    Facial recognition is one of the most important aspects of social cognition. In this study, we investigate the patterns of change and the factors involved in the ability to recognize emotion in mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Through a longitudinal design, we assessed 30 people with AD. We used an experimental task that includes matching expressions with picture stimuli, labelling emotions and emotionally recognizing a stimulus situation. We observed a significant difference in the situational recognition task (p ? 0.05) between baseline and the second evaluation. The linear regression showed that cognition is a predictor of emotion recognition impairment (p ? 0.05). The ability to perceive emotions from facial expressions was impaired, particularly when the emotions presented were relatively subtle. Cognition is recruited to comprehend emotional situations in cases of mild dementia. PMID:26017202

  8. Attachment orientations and depression: a longitudinal study of new parents.

    PubMed

    Rholes, W Steven; Simpson, Jeffry A; Kohn, Jamie L; Wilson, Carol L; Martin, A McLeish; Tran, Sisi; Kashy, Deborah A

    2011-04-01

    In this longitudinal study, we followed a large sample of first-time parents (both partners) across the first 2 years of the transition to parenthood. Guided by attachment theory (Bowlby, 1969), we tested several predictions about how attachment anxiety and avoidance are related to the incidence, maintenance, increase, and decline of depressive symptoms in both sexes across the first 2 years of the transition. We found that (a) the association between attachment anxiety and depressive symptoms was moderated by factors related to the marital and/or romantic relationship; (b) the association between avoidance and depressive symptoms was moderated by factors related to family responsibilities; (c) styles of caregiving provided by romantic partners affected depressive symptoms differently among anxious and avoidant persons; and (d) in certain predictable situations, depressive symptoms persisted at higher levels or increased to higher levels in anxious or avoidant persons across the 2-year transition period. Important implications of these results are discussed. PMID:21443372

  9. A Longitudinal Study of Hand Preference in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, William D.; Bard, Kim A.

    2007-01-01

    A longitudinal study of hand preferences was assessed in a sample of 53 captive chimpanzees. Four measures of laterality assessed during the first 3 months of life were correlated with three measures of hand preferences assessed when the subjects were between 2 and 5 years of age. In addition, the effect of rearing environment on juvenile hand preferences was assessed in a larger sample of 83 chimpanzees. Overall, some early asymmetries were predictive of juvenile hand preferences, notably head orientation and hand-to-hand activities, and a defensive grasping response. No significant effects of rearing on hand preferences were found but males were more right-handed than females for two of the three juvenile measures. The results are discussed within the context of different developmental models of hand preference in humans. PMID:10797250

  10. Longitudinal cerebrovascular reactivity during pregnancy: a case study.

    PubMed

    Steinback, Craig D; King, Emily C; Davenport, Margie H

    2015-06-01

    Normal cerebrovascular adaptation during pregnancy is poorly understood. We document a case study of progressively increased cerebrovascular reactivity to CO2, despite no change in resting blood flow, from prepregnancy to late gestation in a 36-year-old normotensive participant. Increased cerebral reactivity was related to progressive chronic respiratory alkalosis and specifically elevated pH and reduced HCO3(-). These novel data serve as important indicators of normative maternal cerebral adaptation and highlight novel areas of future study. PMID:25923578

  11. Effects of Team and Organizational Commitment--A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neininger, Alexandra; Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Kauffeld, Simone; Henschel, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Retention management, i.e., keeping qualified employees, is a top priority for contemporary organizations. Commitment, and especially team commitment, can be the key to mastering this challenge. There is a lack of longitudinal research concerning the development and the direction of the effects of team commitment over time. In a longitudinal

  12. SYLLABUS : Spring, 2010 STATISTICS 689 : Missing Data in Longitudinal Studies

    E-print Network

    Pourahmadi, Mohsen

    ),Chapman &Hall/CRC Press. 2. (Recommended) Data Analysis Using Regression and Multilevel Data. Lang Wu (2009), Chapman & Hall /CRC Press. 4. (Recommended) Antedependence Models for Longitudinal Data. D. Zimmerman and V. Nunez-Anton, Chapman & Hall/CRC Press. 5. (Recommended) Longitudinal

  13. Legacies and Lessons: Insights from Longitudinal Studies of Educated Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuster, Diane Tickton

    Postmodern, multicultural, and feminist critiques of psychology have changed how longitudinal researchers construct their inquiries and frame their data. Also the new scholarship brings to the longitudinal investigation perspectives from other disciplines including sociology, anthropology, and history, among others. The book used as a framework…

  14. Drug Use Patterns and Continuous Enrollment in College:Results From a Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Arria, Amelia M.; Garnier-Dykstra, Laura M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Winick, Emily R.; O’Grady, Kevin E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Few longitudinal studies have examined the relationship between illicit drug use and academic outcomes among college students. This study characterized drug use patterns of a cohort of young adults who were originally enrolled as first-time, first-year college students in a longitudinal study. It evaluated the association between these drug use patterns and continuous enrollment during college, holding constant demographic characteristics, high school grade point average, fraternity/sorority involvement, personality/temperament characteristics, nicotine dependence, and alcohol use disorder. Method: Participants (n = 1,133; 47% male) were purposively selected from one university and interviewed annually for 4 years, beginning with their first year of college, regardless of continued college attendance. Enrollment data were culled from administrative records. Group-based trajectory analyses characterized 4-year longitudinal drug use patterns. Two grouping variables were derived based on (a) marijuana use frequency and (b) number of illicit drugs used other than marijuana. Seventy-one percent of the sample was continuously enrolled in the home institution during the first 4 years of study. Results: Multivariable logistic regression models demonstrated that infrequent, increasing, and chronic/heavy marijuana use patterns were significantly associated with discontinuous enrollment (adjusted odds ratio = 1.66, 1.74, and 1.99, respectively), compared with minimal use, holding constant covariates. In separate models, drug use other than marijuana also was significantly associated with discontinuous enrollment. Conclusions: Marijuana use and other illicit drug use are both associated with a decreased likelihood of continuous enrollment in college, independent of several other possible risk factors. These findings highlight the need for early intervention with illicit drug users to mitigate possible negative academic consequences. PMID:23200152

  15. Participant expectations in pulmonary hypertension-related research studies.

    PubMed

    Gray, Michael P; Aldrighetti, Rino; Fagan, Karen A

    2015-06-01

    The Pulmonary Hypertension Association (PHA) is a patient advocacy organization seeking to find ways to prevent, improve treatment for, and cure pulmonary hypertension (PH) and to provide hope for the PH community through support, education, research, advocacy, and awareness. Many patients involved with PHA are also involved in various PH-specific research studies; however, the patient expectations and priorities for PH-specific research are currently unknown or not well examined. Our objective was to identify the current modes of study entry, priorities within research, and expectations over the course of study involvement for patient constituents of PHA. A 29-question online survey was designed by PHA and disseminated to the PHA patient constituency on its Facebook page through a post on November 29, 2012. Responses were collected on SurveyMonkey through December 10, 2012. Respondents were divided into parallel survey tracks, depending on whether the respondent indicated previous participation in research studies. These two cohorts of individuals were analyzed and, where appropriate, compared with tests of association. A total of 234 respondents were included in the final data analysis, with 95 (40.6%) reporting previous participation in research studies. These respondents reported an overall positive experience in their research studies (64.9% very good, 21.3% good, 12.8% neutral, 1.1% bad). Of the respondents with previous research study participation, 91.1% indicated that receipt of the study outcome after participation would positively influence their decision to participate in future research; despite this, only 41.17% reported receiving information of this sort after their participation. Research participation is a strong interest of PHA patient constituents; clear and consistent communication from the research team is an expectation of many participants. Despite this expectation, 58.83% of respondents indicated they did not receive communication from the research team after participation. This offers an opportunity not only to improve participants' experiences but also to increase the likelihood of future study participation. PMID:26064465

  16. Participant expectations in pulmonary hypertension–related research studies

    PubMed Central

    Aldrighetti, Rino; Fagan, Karen A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Pulmonary Hypertension Association (PHA) is a patient advocacy organization seeking to find ways to prevent, improve treatment for, and cure pulmonary hypertension (PH) and to provide hope for the PH community through support, education, research, advocacy, and awareness. Many patients involved with PHA are also involved in various PH-specific research studies; however, the patient expectations and priorities for PH-specific research are currently unknown or not well examined. Our objective was to identify the current modes of study entry, priorities within research, and expectations over the course of study involvement for patient constituents of PHA. A 29-question online survey was designed by PHA and disseminated to the PHA patient constituency on its Facebook page through a post on November 29, 2012. Responses were collected on SurveyMonkey through December 10, 2012. Respondents were divided into parallel survey tracks, depending on whether the respondent indicated previous participation in research studies. These two cohorts of individuals were analyzed and, where appropriate, compared with tests of association. A total of 234 respondents were included in the final data analysis, with 95 (40.6%) reporting previous participation in research studies. These respondents reported an overall positive experience in their research studies (64.9% very good, 21.3% good, 12.8% neutral, 1.1% bad). Of the respondents with previous research study participation, 91.1% indicated that receipt of the study outcome after participation would positively influence their decision to participate in future research; despite this, only 41.17% reported receiving information of this sort after their participation. Research participation is a strong interest of PHA patient constituents; clear and consistent communication from the research team is an expectation of many participants. Despite this expectation, 58.83% of respondents indicated they did not receive communication from the research team after participation. This offers an opportunity not only to improve participants’ experiences but also to increase the likelihood of future study participation.

  17. Gender differences in postpartum depression: a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Artazcoz, Lucía

    2010-01-01

    Background The course of depression from pregnancy to 1?year post partum and risk factors among mothers and fathers are not known. Aims (1) To report the longitudinal patterns of depression from the third trimester of pregnancy to 1?year after childbirth; (2) to determine the gender differences between women and their partners in the effect of psychosocial and personal factors on postpartum depression. Methods A longitudinal cohort study was carried out over a consecutive sample of 769 women in their third trimester of pregnancy and their partners attending the prenatal programme in the Valencian Community (Spain) and follow-up at 3 and 12?months post partum. The outcome variable was the presence of depression at 3 or 12?months post partum measured by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Predictor variables were: psychosocial (marital dissatisfaction, confidant and affective social support) and personal (history of depression, partner's depression and negative life events, depression during the third trimester of pregnancy) variables. Logistic regression models were fitted via generalised estimating equations. Results At 3 and 12?months post partum, 9.3% and 4.4% of mothers and 3.4% and 4.0% of fathers, respectively, were newly diagnosed as having depression. Low marital satisfaction, partner's depression and depression during pregnancy increased the probability of depression during the first 12?months after birth in mothers and fathers. Negative life events increased the risk of depression only among mothers. Conclusions Psychosocial and personal factors were strong predictors of depression during the first 12?months post partum for both mothers and fathers. PMID:20515899

  18. Computer-assisted interventions targeting reading skills of children with reading disabilities - a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Fälth, Linda; Gustafson, Stefan; Tjus, Tomas; Heimann, Mikael; Svensson, Idor

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of three computerized interventions on the reading skills of children with reading disabilities in Grade 2. This longitudinal intervention study included five test sessions over 1 year. Two test points occur before the intervention, and three afterwards. The last follow-up was conducted 1 year after the first measurement. One hundred thirty children in Grade 2 participated in the study. Three groups of children with reading difficulties received computerized training programmes: one aimed at improving word decoding skills and phonological abilities, the second focused on word and sentence levels and the third was a combination of these two training programmes. A fourth group received ordinary special instruction. In addition, there was one comparison group with age-matched typical readers. All groups improved their reading skills. The group that received combined training showed greater improvement than the one with ordinary special instruction and the group of typical readers at two follow-ups. The longitudinal results indicate additional positive results for the group that received the combined training, the majority of students from that group being no longer judged to be needing special education 1 year after the intervention. PMID:23338977

  19. The disengagement of visual attention in Alzheimer's disease: a longitudinal eye-tracking study

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Trevor J.; Devereaux, Alex; Higham, Steve; Kelly, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Eye tracking provides a convenient and promising biological marker of cognitive impairment in patients with neurodegenerative disease. Here we report a longitudinal study of saccadic eye movements in a sample of patients with Alzheimer's disease and elderly control participants who were assessed at the start of the study and followed up 12-months later. Methods: Eye movements were measured in the standard gap and overlap paradigms, to examine the longitudinal trends in the ability to disengage attention from a visual target. Results: Overall patients with Alzheimer's disease had slower reaction times than the control group. However, after 12-months, both groups showed faster and comparable reductions in reaction times to the gap, compared to the overlap stimulus. Interestingly, there was a general improvement for both groups with more accurately directed saccades and speeding of reaction times after 12-months. Conclusions: These findings point to the value of longer-term studies and follow-up assessment to ascertain the effects of dementia on oculomotor control.

  20. Developmental Trajectories of Disordered Eating from Early Adolescence to Young Adulthood: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Slane, Jennifer D.; Klump, Kelly L.; McGue, Matthew; Iacono, William G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Research examining changes in eating disorder symptoms across adolescence suggests an increase in disordered eating from early to late adolescence. However, relevant studies have largely been cross-sectional in nature and most have not examined the changes in the attitudinal symptoms of eating disorders (e.g., weight concerns). This longitudinal study aimed to address gaps in the available data by examining the developmental trajectories of disordered eating in females from preadolescence into young adulthood. Method Participants were 745 same-sex female twins from the Minnesota Twin Family Study. Disordered eating was assessed using the Total Score, Body Dissatisfaction subscale, Weight Preoccupation subscale, and a combined Binge Eating and Compensatory Behavior subscale from the Minnesota Eating Behavior Survey assessed at the ages of 11, 14, 18, 21, and 25. Several latent growth models were fit to the data to identify the trajectory that most accurately captures the changes in disordered eating symptoms from 11 to 25 years. Results The best-fitting models for overall levels of disordered eating, body dissatisfaction, and weight preoccupation showed an increase in from 11 through 25 years. In contrast, bulimic behaviors increased to age of 18 and then stabilized to age of 25. Discussion The findings expanded upon extant research by investigating longitudinal, symptom specific, within-person changes and showing an increase in cognitive symptoms into young adulthood and the stability of disordered eating behaviors past late adolescence. PMID:24995824

  1. The cognitive processes underlying affective decision-making predicting adolescent smoking behaviors in a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Lin; Koritzky, Gilly; Johnson, C. Anderson; Bechara, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between three different cognitive processes underlying the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and adolescent smoking behaviors in a longitudinal study. We conducted a longitudinal study of 181 Chinese adolescents in Chengdu City, China. The participants were followed from 10th to 11th grade. When they were in the 10th grade (Time 1), we tested these adolescents' decision-making using the IGT and working memory capacity using the Self-ordered Pointing Test (SOPT). Self-report questionnaires were used to assess school academic performance and smoking behaviors. The same questionnaires were completed again at the 1-year follow-up (Time 2). The Expectancy-Valence (EV) Model was applied to distill the IGT performance into three different underlying psychological components: (i) a motivational component which indicates the subjective weight the adolescents assign to gains vs. losses; (ii) a learning-rate component which indicates the sensitivity to recent outcomes vs. past experiences; and (iii) a response component which indicates how consistent the adolescents are between learning and responding. The subjective weight to gains vs. losses at Time 1 significantly predicted current smokers and current smoking levels at Time 2, controlling for demographic variables and baseline smoking behaviors. Therefore, by decomposing the IGT into three different psychological components, we found that the motivational process of weight gain vs. losses may serve as a neuropsychological marker to predict adolescent smoking behaviors in a general youth population. PMID:24101911

  2. The cognitive processes underlying affective decision-making predicting adolescent smoking behaviors in a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Lin; Koritzky, Gilly; Johnson, C Anderson; Bechara, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between three different cognitive processes underlying the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and adolescent smoking behaviors in a longitudinal study. We conducted a longitudinal study of 181 Chinese adolescents in Chengdu City, China. The participants were followed from 10th to 11th grade. When they were in the 10th grade (Time 1), we tested these adolescents' decision-making using the IGT and working memory capacity using the Self-ordered Pointing Test (SOPT). Self-report questionnaires were used to assess school academic performance and smoking behaviors. The same questionnaires were completed again at the 1-year follow-up (Time 2). The Expectancy-Valence (EV) Model was applied to distill the IGT performance into three different underlying psychological components: (i) a motivational component which indicates the subjective weight the adolescents assign to gains vs. losses; (ii) a learning-rate component which indicates the sensitivity to recent outcomes vs. past experiences; and (iii) a response component which indicates how consistent the adolescents are between learning and responding. The subjective weight to gains vs. losses at Time 1 significantly predicted current smokers and current smoking levels at Time 2, controlling for demographic variables and baseline smoking behaviors. Therefore, by decomposing the IGT into three different psychological components, we found that the motivational process of weight gain vs. losses may serve as a neuropsychological marker to predict adolescent smoking behaviors in a general youth population. PMID:24101911

  3. Barriers and strategies for recruiting study participants in clinical settings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Sullivan-Bolyai; Carol A. Bova; Janet A. Deatrick; Kathy Knafl; Margaret Grey; Katherine Leung; Allison Trudeau

    2007-01-01

    Recruiting participants for research studies is often a challenging task. Recruitment requires careful planning, collaboration, and flexibility on the part of researchers and health care providers at the recruitment sites. This article describes six major barriers to recruiting study participants as identified from a review of the literature and from the coauthors' research experiences. These barriers include challenges related to

  4. Ethnicity in trauma and psychiatric disorders: findings from the collaborative longitudinal study of personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Pérez Benítez, Carlos I; Yen, Shirley; Shea, M Tracie; Edelen, Maria O; Markowitz, John C; McGlashan, Thomas H; Ansell, Emily B; Grilo, Carlos M; Skodol, Andrew E; Gunderson, John G; Morey, Leslie C

    2010-06-01

    The study's aims are to explore ethnic differences in rates of adverse childhood experiences and lifetime traumatic events and in rates of psychiatric disorders for patients exposed to similar traumas. Rates of these events and rates of major depressive disorder, posttraumatic stress, substance use, and borderline personality disorders were compared among 506 non-Hispanic Whites (N-HW), 108 Latina(o)s, and 94 African Americans (AA) participating in the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorder Study. We found that Whites reported higher rates of neglect than African Americans and Latina(o)s, higher rates of verbal/emotional abuse than African Americans, and higher rates of accidents and injuries/feared serious injury than Latina(o)s. African Americans had higher rates of seeing someone injured/killed than Whites. No significant interaction was observed between adverse events and ethnicity for mental disorders. PMID:20455250

  5. Continuity, Comorbidity and Longitudinal Associations between Depression and Antisocial Behaviour in Middle Adolescence: A 2-Year Prospective Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritakallio, Minna; Koivisto, Anna-Maija; von der Pahlen, Bettina; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Marttunen, Mauri; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

    2008-01-01

    The study investigated continuity, comorbidity and longitudinal associations between depression Beck depression inventory (RBDI) and antisocial behaviour Youth self-report (YSR) in middle adolescence. Data were used from a community sample of 2070 adolescents who participated in a 2-year prospective follow-up study. The results indicate that both…

  6. Digital Game Violence and Direct Aggression in Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study of the Roles of Sex, Age, and Parent-Child Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallenius, Marjut; Punamaki, Raija-Leena

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the roles of sex, age, and parent-child communication in moderating the association between digital game violence and direct aggression in a two-year longitudinal study. Finnish 12- and 15-year-old adolescents (N = 316) participated in the follow-up survey. As hypothesized, digital game violence was linked to direct…

  7. Lurking as an Active Participation Process: A Longitudinal Investigation of Engagement with an Online Cancer Support Group

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jeong Yeob; Hou, Jiran; Kim, Eunkyung; Gustafson, David H.

    2015-01-01

    To better understand participation in computer-mediated social support (CMSS) groups for breast cancer patients, this study examines two overarching questions of: 1) who are posters, lurkers, or non-users? and 2) what role do these different types of engagement play in explaining psychosocial health outcomes? This study incorporates the comprehensive model of information seeking and two competing models of social enhancement and social compensation, as well as the literature of lurking and posting behaviors in online groups to answer research questions. Our findings suggest that patterns of engagement in a CMSS group differed according to patients’ socio-demographic characteristics and psychosocial factors. In addition, we found that lurkers have a higher level of perceived functional well-being than posters at 3 months post-baseline. Theoretical and practical implications for effective online cancer support group campaigns are discussed. PMID:24345206

  8. Prospective Prediction of Nonsuicidal Self-Injury: A 1-Year Longitudinal Study in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Glenn, Catherine R.; Klonsky, E. David

    2013-01-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) has become a significant public health problem. Although numerous studies have examined cross-sectional psychological correlates of NSSI, there has been little research examining predictors of NSSI over time. The present study examined cross-sectional and longitudinal correlates of NSSI in 81 young adult self-injurers (M age = 19, 74.1% female, 51.9% Caucasian), 51 of whom were followed up 1 year later. At baseline, participants completed self-report measures of NSSI, Axis-I disorders, borderline personality disorder (BPD), and impulsivity, as well as an implicit measure of NSSI attitudes and identity. One year later, participants completed a Timeline Followback Method whereby they indicated their engagement in NSSI over the previous 12 months. Analyses replicated many known cross-sectional correlates of NSSI, including symptoms of several Axis-I disorders and BPD. However, many of these same variables failed to predict the course of NSSI over the 1-year follow-up. The only variables to prospectively predict NSSI were past NSSI (i.e., frequency, methods, and recency of NSSI), participants' behavioral forecast of their engagement in future NSSI, and BPD features. Findings suggest that many cross-sectional correlates of NSSI may not be useful for predicting subsequent NSSI. Instead, NSSI severity and BPD features appear to best predict continued engagement in NSSI. PMID:22036002

  9. Validity of self-reported history of endodontic treatment in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Maximiliano Schünke; Hugo, Fernando Neves; Hilgert, Juliana Balbinot; Padilha, Dalva Maria Pereira; Simonsick, Eleanor Marie; Ferrucci, Luigi; Reynolds, Mark Allan

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Self-reported history of endodontic treatment (SRHET) has been used as a simplified method to estimate history of endodontic disease and treatment. This study aimed to quantify the validity of SRHET, as reported in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA), as a method to: 1- identify individuals who experienced endodontic treatment (ET); and 2- identify individuals who present with apical periodontitis (AP). Methods SRHET was collected through the BLSA questionnaire in 247 participants. Data on ET and AP were determined from panoramic radiographs. The total number of ET, AP and missing teeth were recorded for each individual. Validity of SRHET was determined based on ET and AP, separately. Accuracy, efficiency, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (+PV, ?PV) and positive and negative likelihood ratios (+LR, ?LR) were calculated according to standard methods. Results After exclusions, 229 participants were available for ET analysis and 129 for AP analysis. The SRHET validity values were: sensitivity (ET=0.915; AP=0.782), specificity (ET=0.891; AP=0.689), +PV (ET=0.824; AP=0.353), ?PV (ET=0.949; AP=0.936), +LR (ET=8.394; AP=2.514) and ?LR (ET=0.095; AP=0.316). Conclusions SRHET was found to be a highly accurate method to predict ET but a weak predictor of the presence of AP among participants in the BLSA. PMID:22515884

  10. Community-based recruitment strategies for a longitudinal interventional study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. K. M. Garrett; A. P. Thomas; F. Cicuttini; C. Silagy; H. R. Taylor; J. J. McNeil

    2000-01-01

    This article examines different recruitment strategies for the VECAT Study, a 4-year, double-masked, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial of vitamin E in the prevention of cataract and age-related maculopathy. Five recruitment methods were employed: newspaper advertising, radio advertising, approaches to community groups, approaches via general practices, and an electoral roll mail-out. Participants (1204) from the community in Melbourne, Australia were recruited

  11. Combined influence of cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index on cardiovascular disease risk factors among 8–18 year old youth: The Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joey C. Eisenmann; Gregory J. Welk; Eric E. Wickel; Steven N. Blair

    2007-01-01

    Objective . The purpose of this study was to examine differences in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors across four cross-tabulated groups of cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index in 8- to 18-year-old children and adolescents. Methods. The sample included 296 boys and 188 girls (mean age \\/15.7 years) participating in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. Participants were cross tabulated into

  12. Longitudinal trajectories of arterial stiffness and the role of blood pressure: the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

    PubMed

    AlGhatrif, Majd; Strait, James B; Morrell, Chris H; Canepa, Marco; Wright, Jeanette; Elango, Palchamy; Scuteri, Angelo; Najjar, Samer S; Ferrucci, Luigi; Lakatta, Edward G

    2013-11-01

    Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), a marker of arterial stiffness, is an established independent cardiovascular risk factor. Little information is available on the pattern and determinants of the longitudinal change in PWV with aging. Such information is crucial to elucidating mechanisms underlying arterial stiffness and the design of interventions to retard it. Between 1988 and 2013, we collected 2 to 9 serial measures of PWV in 354 men and 423 women of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, who were 21 to 94 years of age and free of clinically significant cardiovascular disease. Rates of PWV increase accelerated with advancing age in men more than women, leading to sex differences in PWV after the age of 50 years. In both sexes, not only systolic blood pressure (SBP) ?140 mm?Hg but also SBP of 120 to 139 mm?Hg was associated with steeper rates of PWV increase compared with SBP<120 mm?Hg. Furthermore, there was a dose-dependent effect of SBP in men with marked acceleration in PWV rate of increase with age at SBP ?140 mm?Hg compared with SBP of 120 to 139 mm?Hg. Except for waist circumference in women, no other traditional cardiovascular risk factors predicted longitudinal PWV increase. In conclusion, the steeper longitudinal increase of PWV in men than women led to the sex difference that expanded with advancing age. Age and SBP are the main longitudinal determinants of PWV, and the effect of SBP on PWV trajectories exists even in the prehypertensive range. PMID:24001897

  13. LONGITUDINAL TRAJECTORIES OF ARTERIAL STIFFNESS AND THE ROLE OF BLOOD PRESSURE: THE BALTIMORE LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF AGING

    PubMed Central

    AlGhatrif, Majd; Strait, James B.; Morrell, Chris; Canepa, Marco; Wright, Jeanette; Elango, Palchamy; Scuteri, Angelo; Najjar, Samer S.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Lakatta, Edward G.

    2013-01-01

    Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), a marker of arterial stiffness, is an established independent cardiovascular (CV) risk factor. Little information is available on the pattern and determinants of the longitudinal change in PWV with aging. Such information is crucial to elucidating mechanisms underlying arterial stiffness and the design of interventions to retard it. Between 1988 and 2013, we collected 2 to 9 serial measures of PWV in 354 men and 423 women of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, who were 21 to 94 years of age and free of clinically significant CV disease. Rates of PWV increase accelerated with advancing age in men more than women, leading to gender differences in PWV after the age of 50. In both sexes, not only systolic blood pressure (SBP) ?140mmHg, but also SBP of 120–139mmHg was associated with steeper rates of PWV increase compared to SBP<120mmHg. Furthermore, there was a dose-dependent effect SBP in men with marked acceleration in PWV rate of increase with age at SBP ?140mmHg compared to SBP of 120–139mmHg. Except for waist circumference in women, no other traditional CV risk factors predicted longitudinal PWV increase. In conclusion, the steeper longitudinal increase of PWV in men than women led to gender difference that expanded with advancing age. Age and systolic blood pressure are the main longitudinal determinants of pulse wave velocity and the effect of systolic blood pressure on PWV trajectories exists even in the pre-hypertensive range. PMID:24001897

  14. Managing social adoption and technology adaption in longitudinal studies of mobile media applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bram Lievens; Nataša Mili?-Frayling; Valentine Lerouge; Jo Pierson; Gerard Oleksik; Rachel Jones; Jamie Costello

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a case study of a longitudinal in-situ observation that involves a new social application for mobile communication. Our study demonstrates the need for an adaptive approach to planning, design, and implementation that is responsive to emerging social and infrastructure conditions. This represents a shift from traditional longitudinal studies that observe prototype systems with fixed sets

  15. Stress Process of Illicit Drug Use among U.S. Immigrants' Adolescent Children: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choo, Hyekyung

    2012-01-01

    This study examined a full path model of stress process for predicting illicit drug use among Asian and Latino immigrants' adolescent children. Using 2-year longitudinal data (National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health) from a sample of adolescents with Asian or Latino immigrant parents (N = 2,353), the study explored structural…

  16. Positive parenting predicts the development of adolescent brain structure: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Whittle, Sarah; Simmons, Julian G; Dennison, Meg; Vijayakumar, Nandita; Schwartz, Orli; Yap, Marie B H; Sheeber, Lisa; Allen, Nicholas B

    2014-04-01

    Little work has been conducted that examines the effects of positive environmental experiences on brain development to date. The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate the effects of positive (warm and supportive) maternal behavior on structural brain development during adolescence, using longitudinal structural MRI. Participants were 188 (92 female) adolescents, who were part of a longitudinal adolescent development study that involved mother-adolescent interactions and MRI scans at approximately 12 years old, and follow-up MRI scans approximately 4 years later. FreeSurfer software was used to estimate the volume of limbic-striatal regions (amygdala, hippocampus, caudate, putamen, pallidum, and nucleus accumbens) and the thickness of prefrontal regions (anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal cortices) across both time points. Higher frequency of positive maternal behavior during the interactions predicted attenuated volumetric growth in the right amygdala, and accelerated cortical thinning in the right anterior cingulate (males only) and left and right orbitofrontal cortices, between baseline and follow up. These results have implications for understanding the biological mediators of risk and protective factors for mental disorders that have onset during adolescence. PMID:24269113

  17. Undergraduate nursing students' learning styles: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Sandra; McKee, Gabrielle; Huntley-Moore, Sylvia

    2011-07-01

    This paper reports on the main findings of a longitudinal study of the learning styles of one cohort of undergraduate pre-registration nursing students at an Irish university. The Honey and Mumford (2000a) Learning Styles Questionnaire was administered to a sample of students in their first (n=202) and final year of study (n=166), the final sample number (58) was based on matched pairs. The most common dominant learning style in first year was the dual learning category (35%) while a large proportion of the students (53%) in their final year had no dominant learning style. The preferred learning style of students in their first (69%) and final (57%) year was reflector. Learning styles were significantly different at the two time points and there was a significant relationship between some learning styles and students' age but not with academic achievement. Total scores of all learning styles showed significant improvements across the two time points of the study. An important implication for nurse education practice is the need for nurse educators to be aware of students' learning styles and in an attempt to maximise students' learning potential, utilise a range of teaching and learning methodologies and assessments that develop all learning styles. PMID:20863600

  18. Longitudinal studies 3: Data modeling using standard regression models and extensions.

    PubMed

    Ravani, Pietro; Barrett, Brendan J; Parfrey, Patrick S

    2015-01-01

    In longitudinal studies the relationship between exposure and disease can be measured once or multiple times while participants are monitored over time. Traditional regression techniques are used to model outcome data when each epidemiological unit is observed once. These models include generalized linear models for quantitative continuous, discrete, or qualitative outcome responses, and models for time-to-event data. When data come from the same subjects or group of subjects, observations are not independent and the underlying correlation needs to be addressed in the analysis. In these circumstances extended models are necessary to handle complexities related to clustered data, and repeated measurements of time-varying predictors and/or outcomes. PMID:25694306

  19. A Longitudinal Study of Lexical Development in Children Learning Vietnamese and English

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Giang; Kohnert, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study modeled lexical development among children who spoke Vietnamese as a first language (L1) and English as a second language (L2). Participants (n=33, initial mean age of 7.3 years) completed a total of eight tasks (four in each language) that measured vocabulary knowledge and lexical processing at four yearly time points. Multivariate hierarchical linear modeling was used to calculate L1 and L2 trajectories within the same model for each task. Main findings included (a) positive growth in each language, (b) greater gains in English resulting in shifts toward L2 dominance, and (c) different patterns for receptive and expressive domains. Timing of shifts to L2 dominance underscored L1 skills that are resilient and vulnerable to increases in L2 proficiency. PMID:23869741

  20. Race, Ideology, and the Tea Party: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, Eric D.; Lowery, Brian S.; Shulman, Elizabeth P.; Schaumberg, Rebecca L.

    2013-01-01

    The Tea Party movement, which rose to prominence in the United States after the election of President Barack Obama, provides an ideal context in which to examine the roles of racial concerns and ideology in politics. A three-wave longitudinal study tracked changes in White Americans’ self-identification with the Tea Party, racial concerns (prejudice and racial identification), and ideologies (libertarianism and social conservatism) over nine months. Latent Growth Modeling (LGM) was used to evaluate potential causal relationships between Tea Party identification and these factors. Across time points, racial prejudice was indirectly associated with movement identification through Whites’ assertions of national decline. Although initial levels of White identity did not predict change in Tea Party identification, initial levels of Tea Party identification predicted increases in White identity over the study period. Across the three assessments, support for the Tea Party fell among libertarians, but rose among social conservatives. Results are discussed in terms of legitimation theories of prejudice, the “racializing” power of political judgments, and the ideological dynamics of the Tea Party. PMID:23825630

  1. A longitudinal study of maternal attachment and infant developmental outcomes.

    PubMed

    Alhusen, Jeanne L; Hayat, Matthew J; Gross, Deborah

    2013-12-01

    Extant research has demonstrated that compared to adults with insecure attachment styles, more securely attached parents tend to be more responsive, sensitive, and involved parents, resulting in improved outcomes for their children. Less studied is the influence of a mother's attachment style on her attachment to her unborn child during pregnancy and the consequent developmental outcomes of the child during early childhood. Thus, the aim of this prospective longitudinal study was to examine the relationship between maternal-fetal attachment (MFA) during pregnancy and infant and toddler outcomes and the role of mothers' attachment style on early childhood developmental outcomes in an economically disadvantaged sample of women and their children. Gamma regression modeling demonstrated that an avoidant maternal attachment style (b?=?.98, 95 % CI [.97, .98], p?

  2. A longitudinal study of very young children's vowel production

    PubMed Central

    McGowan, Rebecca W.; McGowan, Richard S.; Denny, Margaret; Nittrouer, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Ecologically realistic, spontaneous adult-directed longitudinal speech data of young children was described by acoustic analyses. Method The first two formant frequencies of vowels produced by six children from different American English dialect regions were analyzed from ages 18 to 48 months. The vowels were from largely conversational contexts and were classified according to dictionary pronunciation. Results Within-subject formant frequency variability remained relatively constant for the span of ages studied here. It was often difficult to detect overall decreases in the first two formant frequencies between the ages of 30 and 48 months. A study of the movement of the corner vowels with respect to the vowel centroid showed that the shape of the vowel space remained qualitatively constant from 30 through 48 months. Conclusions The shape of the vowel space is established early in life. Some aspects of regional dialect were observed in some of the subjects at 42 months of age. The present paper adds to the existing data on the development of vowel spaces by describing ecologically realistic speech. PMID:24687464

  3. Longitudinal study of Salmonella shedding in naturally infected finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Pires, A F A; Funk, J A; Bolin, C A

    2013-09-01

    A 3-year longitudinal study was conducted on a multi-site farrow-to-finish production system. For each of 18 cohorts at three finishing sites, 50 pigs were randomly selected. Faecal samples were collected every 2 weeks for 16 weeks. Salmonella was cultured from 453 (6·6%) of 6836 faecal samples. The pig-level incidence of Salmonella was 20·8% (187/899 pigs). Salmonella prevalence varied between cohorts and within pigs. The adjusted Salmonella prevalence decreased over the finishing period from 6·4% to 0·8%. Intermittent detection of Salmonella was found in more than 50% of pigs that were positive at more than one collection. The finding that the majority of pigs shed intermittently has implications for surveillance and research study design when determining Salmonella status. The variability in shedding over time, as well as between and within cohorts and pigs suggests that there may be time-variant risk factors for Salmonella shedding in swine. PMID:23148875

  4. Cortisol awakening response and subsequent depression: prospective longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Carnegie, Rebecca; Araya, Ricardo; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Glover, Vivette; O’Connor, Thomas G.; O’Donnell, Kieran J.; Pearson, Rebecca; Lewis, Glyn

    2014-01-01

    Background Some studies have found an association between elevated cortisol and subsequent depression, but findings are inconsistent. The cortisol awakening response may be a more stable measure of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function and potentially of stress reactivity. Aims To investigate whether salivary cortisol, particularly the cortisol awakening response, is associated with subsequent depression in a large population cohort. Method Young people (aged 15 years, n = 841) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) collected salivary cortisol at four time points for 3 school days. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios for developing depression meeting ICD-10 criteria at 18 years. Results We found no evidence for an association between salivary cortisol and subsequent depression. Odds ratios for the cortisol awakening response were 1.24 per standard deviation (95% CI 0.93-1.66, P = 0.14) before and 1.12 (95% CI 0.73-1.72, P = 0.61) after adjustment for confounding factors. There was no evidence that the other cortisol measures, including cortisol at each time point, diurnal drop and area under the curve, were associated with subsequent depression. Conclusions Our findings do not support the hypothesis that elevated salivary cortisol increases the short-term risk of subsequent depressive illness. The results suggest that if an association does exist, it is small and unlikely to be of clinical significance. PMID:24311550

  5. The doubly labeled water method produces highly reproducible longitudinal results in nutrition studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The doubly labeled water (DLW) method is considered the reference method for the measurement of energy expenditure under free-living conditions. However, the reproducibility of the DLW method in longitudinal studies is not well documented. This study was designed to evaluate the longitudinal reprodu...

  6. Reducing Bias Due to Systematic Attrition in Longitudinal Studies: The Benefits of Multiple Imputation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asendorpf, Jens B.; van de Schoot, Rens; Denissen, Jaap J. A.; Hutteman, Roos

    2014-01-01

    Most longitudinal studies are plagued by drop-out related to variables at earlier assessments (systematic attrition). Although systematic attrition is often analysed in longitudinal studies, surprisingly few researchers attempt to reduce biases due to systematic attrition, even though this is possible and nowadays technically easy. This is…

  7. Physical Education and Academic Achievement in Elementary School: Data From the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan A. Carlson; Janet E. Fulton; Sarah M. Lee; L. Michele Maynard; David R. Brown; Harold W. Kohl III; William H. Dietz

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the association between time spent in physical education and academic achievement in a longitudinal study of students in kinder- garten through fifth grade. Methods. We used data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kinder- garten Class of 1998 to 1999, which employed a multistage probability design to select a nationally representative sample of students in kindergarten (analytic

  8. College Women's Female Friendships: A Longitudinal View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aleman, Ana M. Martinez

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a longitudinal qualitative study of the cognitive value of female friendships formed in college and seeks to appraise the meaning of the phenomenon for the participants. To grasp the temporal effects of the longitudinal data in this study, the author examines and assesses the relevant developmental literature, particularly…

  9. Participant evaluation results for two indoor air quality studies

    SciTech Connect

    Hawthorne, A.R.; Dudney, C.S.; Cohen, M.A.; Spengler, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    After two surveys for indoor air pollutants (radon and other chemicals) the homeowners were surveyed for their reactions. The results of these participant evaluation surveys, assuming that the participants that responded to the survey were representative, indicate that homeowners will accept a significant level of monitoring activity as part of an indoor air quality field study. Those participants completing surveys overwhelmingly enjoyed being in the studies and would do it again. We believe that the emphasis placed on positive homeowner interactions and efforts made to inform participants throughout our studies were positive factors in this result. There was no substantial differences noted in the responses between the 70-house study, which included a homeowner compensation payment of $100, and the 300-house study, which did not include a compensation payment. These results provide encouragement to conduct future complex, multipollutant indoor air quality studies when they are scientifically sound and cost effective.

  10. Study Abroad and Intercultural Development: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rexeisen, Richard J.; Anderson, Philip H.; Lawton, Leigh; Hubbard, Ann C.

    2008-01-01

    Study abroad is an expensive, resource intensive activity for both students and their home institution. With an estimated 200,000 American students studying abroad in 2006, and an annual growth rate of eight percent, program administrators and international scholars are increasingly being asked to document the learning outcomes associated with…

  11. The stability of weight status through the early to middle childhood years in Australia: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Wheaton, Nikita; Millar, Lynne; Allender, Steven; Nichols, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the sociodemographic and behavioural factors associated with incidence, persistence or remission of obesity in a longitudinal sample of Australian children aged 4–10?years. Setting Nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). Participants The sample for this analysis included all children in the Kinder cohort (aged 4–5?years at wave 1) who participated in all four waves of LSAC (wave 1, 2004, aged 4–5?years; wave 2, 2006, aged 6–7?years; wave 3, 2008, aged 8–9?years and wave 4, 2010, aged 10–11?years). Of the 4983 children who participated in the baseline (wave 1) survey, 4169 (83.7%) children completed all four waves of data collection. Primary and secondary outcome measures Movement of children between weight status categories over time and individual-level predictors of weight status change (sociodemographic characteristics, selected dietary and activity behaviours). Results The study found tracking of weight status across this period of childhood. There was an inverse association observed between socioeconomic position and persistence of overweight/obesity. Sugar-sweetened beverages and fruit and vegetable intake and screen time appeared to be important predictors of stronger tracking. Conclusions Overweight and obesity established early in childhood tracks strongly to the middle childhood years in Australia, particularly among children of lower socioeconomic position and children participating in some unhealthy behaviour patterns. PMID:25922101

  12. Descriptive Summary Report: With an Essay on Access and Choice in Postsecondary Education. National Education Longitudinal Study 1988-1994. Statistical Analysis Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Allen; And Others

    This report describes the 1994 postsecondary education assistance patterns, job experiences, lifestyles, and values of the eighth grade class of 1988. The data from the report are from the 1994 Third Follow-up of the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 which collected information on postsecondary education participation, employment,…

  13. Causal relationships of sport and exercise involvement with goal orientations, perceived competence and intrinsic motivation in physical education: A longitudinal study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Athanasios Papaioannou; Evaggelos Bebetsos; Yannis Theodorakis; Triantafyllos Christodoulidis; Olga Kouli

    2006-01-01

    Little information exists about the causal relationships of sport and exercise participation with goal orientations, perceived athletic competence and intrinsic motivation in physical education. A longitudinal study was conducted involving 882 Greek students who completed questionnaires on three occasions: 3 – 5 weeks into the academic year, 3 – 6 weeks before the end of the academic year, and 7 months later. The data

  14. Longitudinal Study of Student Attitudes in a Biology Program

    PubMed Central

    Birol, Gülnur

    2014-01-01

    This is among the first longitudinal studies to report student attitudes across 4 yr of a university program. We found that the attitudes of students in biology become significantly more expert-like from the first year to the fourth year of the program, that is, there was a significant positive shift in students’ overall percent favorable scores from 64.5 to 72%, as opposed to the expert response, which averaged 90%. There was a significant positive shift for the real world connection category (78–85%), the enjoyment (personal interest) category (74–82%), and the conceptual connections/memorization category (66–74%). Moreover, there was a significant correlation between students’ overall percent favorable scores and performance (cumulative grade point average) at the end, but not at the beginning, of the fourth year, with high-performing students having significantly more expert-like attitudes than low-performing students. The correlation between percent favorable score and performance was the strongest for the problem solving: synthesis and application category, in which the highest-performing students finished their fourth year with 90% favorable compared with 35% favorable for the lowest-performing students. A comparison of these results with previously reported results and their implications for teaching are discussed. PMID:26086663

  15. Social Strategies during University Studies Predict Early Career Work Burnout and Engagement: 18-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Tolvanen, Asko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study spanning 18 years examined the role of social strategies in early career adaptation. The aim was to find out whether individuals' social strategies measured during their university studies had an impact on work burnout and work engagement measured 10-18 years later. A sample of 292 university students completed the SAQ…

  16. Longitudinal study of habits leading to malocclusion development in childhood

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The increased prevalence of malocclusions represents a secular trend attributed to the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. The analysis of factors related to the causes of these changes is essential for planning public health policies aimed at preventing and clinically intercepting malocclusion. This study investigated the sucking habits, nocturnal mouth breathing, as well as the relation of these factors with malocclusion. Methods This is a longitudinal study in which 80 mother-child pairs were monitored from the beginning of pregnancy to the 30th month after childbirth. Home visits for interviews with the mothers were made on the 12th, 18th and 30th months of age. Finger sucking, pacifier sucking, bottle feeding, breastfeeding and nocturnal mouth breathing, were the variables studies. On the 30th month, clinical examinations were performed for overjet, overbite and posterior crossbite. A previously calibrated single examiner (Kappa coefficient?=?0.92) was responsible for all examinations. Data were analyzed using the chi-squared or Fisher’s exact tests, at a significance level of 5%. Results Bottle feeding was the most prevalent habit at 12, 18 and 30 months (87.5%; 90% and 96.25%, respectively). Breastfeeding was 40%, 25% and 12.50% at 12, 18 and 30 months, respectively. Nearly 70% of the children in this study had some sort of malocclusion. Pacifier sucking habit at 12, 18 and 30 months of age was associated with overjet and open bite; and at 30 months, an association with overbite was also observed. Finger sucking habit and breastfeeding at 12, 18 and 30 months were also associated with overjet and open bite. The posterior crossbite was associated with bottle feeding at 12 and 30 months, and nocturnal mouth breathers at 12 and 18 months. Conclusions Sucking habits, low rates of breastfeeding, and nocturnal mouth breathing were risk factors for malocclusion. PMID:25091288

  17. Exploring the beliefs of persisting secondary science teachers in general induction programs: A longitudinal study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Sissy Sze-Mun

    Experienced, prepared, and fully certified teachers have been related with higher student achievement, but teacher retention has been a challenge for many decades, especially retention of secondary science teachers. In order to support teachers and student learning, it is critical to understand what impacts secondary science teachers' decisions to persist in the field. This mixed methods study explored whether teacher beliefs were related to persistence over a three-year period. Participants were beginning secondary science teachers that participated in general induction programs provided by their school or district. These participants were selected due to their representative nature of the average beginning secondary science teacher in the United States. Participants' responses to annual semi-structured interviews were the source of data. Findings from quantitative and qualitative analyses revealed that the persisting teachers' beliefs remained stable over the three-year period. Quantitative analyses also revealed that there were no prevalent beliefs among the persisting teachers, even when the variables of gender and socioeconomic status of their schools were considered. When persisting teachers' beliefs about teaching and beliefs about learning were quantitatively analyzed, no relationship was found. Case study of one persisting teacher and one non-persisting teacher revealed that personal experiences and knowledge impacted their beliefs about teaching and learning. The persisting teacher that participated in inquiry-based experiences held student-centered beliefs, while the non-persisting teacher that participated in verification-type experiences held teacher-centered beliefs. This study contributes to the field of science education by examining science teacher persistence instead of attrition. It focused specifically on secondary science teachers while exploring their beliefs longitudinally. Implications from this study calls for teacher beliefs to be challenged during the induction phase, proper placement of new teachers into their first teaching positions, and mentoring programs that address general and content-specific needs. In order to promote retention, further studies need to be conducted on factors that impact secondary science teacher persistence. Through promoting and supporting teacher persistence, we can increase student learning and assist students in becoming scientifically literate adults.

  18. Change over Time: Conducting Longitudinal Studies of Children’s Cognitive Development

    PubMed Central

    Grammer, Jennie K.; Coffman, Jennifer L.; Ornstein, Peter A.; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental scientists have argued that the implementation of longitudinal methods is necessary for obtaining an accurate picture of the nature and sources of developmental change (Magnusson & Cairns, 1996; Morrison & Ornstein, 1996; Magnusson & Stattin, 2006). Developmentalists studying cognition have been relatively slow to embrace longitudinal research, and thus few exemplar studies have tracked individual children’s cognitive performance over time and even fewer have examined contexts that are associated with this growth. In this article we first outline some of the benefits of implementing longitudinal designs. Using illustrations from existing studies of children’s basic cognitive development and of their school-based academic performance, we discuss when it may be appropriate to employ longitudinal (versus other) methods. We then outline methods for integrating longitudinal data into one’s research portfolio, contrasting the leveraging of existing longitudinal data sets with the launching of new longitudinal studies in order to address specific questions concerning cognitive development. Finally, for those who are interested in conducting longitudinal investigations of their own, we provide practical on-the-ground guidelines for designing and carrying out such studies of cognitive development. PMID:24955035

  19. Investigating Predictors of Visiting, Using, and Revisiting an Online Health-Communication Program: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Crutzen, Rik; De Vries, Hein

    2010-01-01

    Background Online health communication has the potential to reach large audiences, with the additional advantages that it can be operational at all times and that the costs per visitor are low. Furthermore, research shows that Internet-delivered interventions can be effective in changing health behaviors. However, exposure to Internet-delivered health-communication programs is generally low. Research investigating predictors of exposure is needed to be able to effectively disseminate online interventions. Objective In the present study, the authors used a longitudinal design with the aim of identifying demographic, psychological, and behavioral predictors of visiting, using, and revisiting an online program promoting physical activity in the general population. Methods A webpage was created providing the public with information about health and healthy behavior. The website included a “physical activity check,” which consisted of a physical activity computer-tailoring expert system where visitors could check whether their physical activity levels were in line with recommendations. Visitors who consented to participate in the present study (n = 489) filled in a questionnaire that assessed demographics, mode of recruitment, current physical activity levels, and health motivation. Immediately after, participants received tailored feedback concerning their current physical activity levels and completed a questionnaire assessing affective and cognitive user experience, attitude toward being sufficiently physically active, and intention to be sufficiently physically active. Three months later, participants received an email inviting them once more to check whether their physical activity level had changed. Results Analyses of visiting showed that more women (67.5%) than men (32.5%) visited the program. With regard to continued use, native Dutch participants (odds ratio [OR] = 2.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.16-6.81, P = .02) and participants with a strong motivation to be healthy (OR = 1.46, CI = 1.03-2.07, P = .03) were most likely to continue usage of the program. With regard to revisiting, older participants (OR = 1.04, CI = 1.01-1.06, P = .01) and highly educated participants (OR = 4.69, CI = 1.44-15.22, P = .01) were more likely to revisit the program after three months. In addition, positive affective user experience predicted revisiting (OR = 1.64, CI = 1.12-2.39, P = .01). Conclusions The results suggest that online interventions could specifically target men, young people, immigrant groups, people with a low education, and people with a weak health motivation to increase exposure to these interventions. Furthermore, eliciting positive feelings in visitors may contribute to higher usage rates. PMID:20813716

  20. What works? An empirical perspective on how to retain youth in longitudinal HIV and substance risk reduction studies.

    PubMed

    Montanaro, Erika; Ewing, Sarah W Feldstein; Bryan, Angela D

    2014-10-13

    ABSTRACT Background: Low retention rates are a problem for longitudinal studies involving adolescents, and this is particularly true for justice-involved youth. Methods: This study evaluates: (1) strategies used to retain high-risk adolescents participating in a longitudinal research project, (2) the extent to which retention efforts were different in a justice-involved versus a non-justice involved (school-based) sample, and (3) differential characteristics of justice-involved versus school-based adolescents that might explain differences in retention difficulty. Results: Compared with the school-based youth, justice-involved youth required significantly more phone calls to be successfully reached. Additionally, baseline substance use (alcohol and marijuana use frequency) was higher in the justice-involved sample and significantly related to retention difficulty. Conclusions: High retention rates for justice-involved and substance-using youth are possible with focused efforts on frequent communication and effortful contact. PMID:25310226

  1. Burnout and inequity among human service professionals: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    van Dierendonck, D; Schaufeli, W B; Buunk, B P

    2001-01-01

    In a composite sample of human service professionals (N = 245), longitudinal relations across 1 year were tested between equity in the professional-recipient relationship and burnout (i.e., emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment). The 1st research question was whether inequity influenced burnout across time. The 2nd research question was whether longitudinal relations between equity and burnout were curvilinear, as predicted by equity theory. The results confirmed that inequity affects the central component of burnout (i.e., emotional exhaustion) and that this relation is curvilinear. Feeling more deprived and feeling more advantaged resulted in higher future emotional exhaustion levels. No indication was found for a longitudinal relation between inequity and depersonalization. A synchronous relation was found suggesting that personal accomplishment influences equity. PMID:11199256

  2. Changes in HRM in Europe: A Longitudinal Comparative Study among 18 European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikandrou, Irene; Apospori, Eleni; Papalexandris, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To examine HRM strategies and practices and HRM position within organizations in various cultural, economic and sociopolitical contexts from a longitudinal perspective. Design/methodology/approach: The study uses the 1995 and 1999 Cranet data in a longitudinal methodological framework to explore the changes and trends in 18 European…

  3. A Longitudinal Study of Children's Social Behaviors and Their Causal Relationship to Reading Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Hyo Jin; Kim, Junyeop

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims at investigating the causal effects of social behaviors on subsequent reading growth in elementary school, using the "Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten" ("ECLS-K") data. The sample was 8,869 subjects who provided longitudinal measures of reading IRT scores from kindergarten (1998-1999) to fifth grades (2003-2004) in…

  4. A Longitudinal Study of Midage Women with Indicators of Disordered Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairweather-Schmidt, A. Kate; Lee, Christina; Wade, Tracey D.

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study of midage women has two main aims: to examine the effect of disordered eating (DE) on quality of life (QoL) among women, including a comparison with a younger cohort and to investigate the mediating roles of both depressive symptoms and social support on the longitudinal relationship between DE and QoL as potential…

  5. Monitoring the newly qualified nurses in Sweden: the Longitudinal Analysis of Nursing Education (LANE) study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann Rudman; Marianne Omne-Pontén; Lars Wallin; Petter J Gustavsson

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Longitudinal Analysis of Nursing Education (LANE) study was initiated in 2002, with the aim of longitudinally examining a wide variety of individual and work-related variables related to psychological and physical health, as well as rates of employee and occupational turnover, and professional development among nursing students in the process of becoming registered nurses and entering working life. The

  6. Sexual Hookups and Adverse Health Outcomes: A Longitudinal Study of First-Year College Women

    PubMed Central

    Fielder, Robyn L.; Walsh, Jennifer L.; Carey, Kate B.; Carey, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    “Hookups” are sexual encounters between partners who are not in a romantic relationship and do not expect commitment. We examined the associations between sexual hookup behavior and depression, sexual victimization (SV), and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among first-year college women. In this longitudinal study, 483 women completed 13 monthly surveys assessing oral and vaginal sex with hookup and romantic partners, depression, SV, and self-reported STIs. Participants also provided biological specimens that were tested for STIs. During the study, 50% of participants reported hookup sex, and 62% reported romantic sex. Covariates included previous levels of the outcome, alcohol use, impulsivity, sensation-seeking, and romantic sex. Autoregressive cross-lagged models showed that controlling for covariates, hookup behavior during college was correlated with depression, Bs = .21, ps < .05, and SV, Bs = .19, ps < .05. Additionally, pre-college hookup behavior predicted SV early in college, B = .62, p < .05. Hookup sex, OR 1.32, p < .05, and romantic sex, OR 1.19, p < .05, were associated with STIs. Overall, sexual hookup behavior among college women was positively correlated with experiencing depression, SV, and STIs, but the nature of these associations remains unclear, and hooking up did not predict future depression. PMID:24350600

  7. “IDEAL” Aging is Associated with Lower Resting Metabolic Rate: The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Schrack, Jennifer A.; Knuth, Nicolas D.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess the associations among age, health status, and resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a large population of older adults. Design Cross-Sectional Analysis Setting Community-dwelling volunteers from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) Participants Four hundred twenty persons aged 40 – 96 (mean 68.2 ± 11.0) who underwent a comprehensive physical examination, cognitive assessment, resting metabolic rate testing, body composition assessment, and physical function testing during a three-day clinic visit. Measurements Participants were assigned to “IDEAL” (Insight into the Determination of Exceptional Aging and Longevity) or “non-IDEAL” categories based on health status. IDEAL participants were defined by the absence of: physical and cognitive impairments, chronic conditions/comorbidities and blood profile alterations. A three-stage linear regression model was used to assess the relationship between RMR and age, using IDEAL classification as a predictor, adjusting for sex and body composition. Results RMR averaged 1512.4 (± 442.9) kcal/day and was lower with advancing age (? = ?8.55, p < 0.001). After adjusting for age, sex, and body composition RMR was 109.6 kcals/day lower in IDEAL than non-IDEAL participants (p < 0.005). Conclusions Individuals who are fully functional and free of major medical conditions have lower RMR than those affected by disease and functional impairments. These findings suggest that health status plays a role in energy utilization and regulation independent of age and body composition and that elevated RMR may be a global biomarker of poor health in older persons. PMID:24635835

  8. Longitudinal pulmonary functional loss in cotton textile workers: A 5-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Kahraman, Hasan; Sucakli, Mustafa Haki; Kilic, Talat; Celik, Mustafa; Koksal, Nurhan; Ekerbicer, Hasan Cetin

    2013-01-01

    Background Occupational exposure to cotton dust causes several diseases affecting the lungs, but only limited information is available on effects of long-term exposure. In this study, we aimed to evaluate longitudinal changes in selected parameters of pulmonary function in textile workers. Material/Methods This prospective cohort study began with 196 textile workers in 2006 and was completed in 2011 with 49 workers. We used standardized tests for pulmonary function on participants on the first day of the workweek in June of 2006 and 2011. Environmental samples of cotton dust were gathered with a vertical elutriator. Loss of pulmonary function was assessed based on gender and smoking status. Results The mean number of years participants worked in the textile factory was 7.61±1.83 years, and the mean age was 35.3+5.8 years. The annual FEV1 loss of all workers was 53.2 ml, giving a ratio of annual FEV1 loss to baseline FEV1 of 1.4%. Pulmonary function parameters of all participants in 2011 were significantly lower than those in 2006 (for all, p<0.05). In both surveys, pulmonary function in current smokers was lower, but this difference was not significant (p>0.05). Conclusions This study provides the first data on pulmonary functional loss in Turkish textile workers and supports the findings of other cohort studies that workers with long-term exposure to cotton dust may lose some pulmonary function. The ratio of annual FEV1 loss to baseline FEV1 appears to be a more accurate and comparable method than annual FEV1 loss for evaluating pulmonary functional loss. PMID:24346118

  9. NASCA Report 2: Longitudinal Study of Relationship of Exposure to Space Radiation and Risk of Lens Opacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chylack, Leon T., Jr.; Peterson, Leif E.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Tung, William H.; Wear, Mary L.; Marak, Lisa J.; Hardy, Dale S.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Study of Cataract in Astronauts (NASCA) was a five-year longitudinal study of the effect of space radiation exposure on the severity/progression of nuclear (N), cortical (C), and posterior subcapsular (PSC) lens opacities. It began in 2003 and was completed in December, 2009. Participants included 171 consenting astronauts who flew at least one mission in space, and comparison subjects consisted of three groups, a) 53 astronauts who had not flown in space, b) 95 military aircrew personnel, and c) 99 non-aircrew, ground-based subjects.

  10. Psychological Distress, Depression, Anxiety, and Burnout among International Humanitarian Aid Workers: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Lopes Cardozo, Barbara; Gotway Crawford, Carol; Eriksson, Cynthia; Zhu, Julia; Sabin, Miriam; Ager, Alastair; Foy, David; Snider, Leslie; Scholte, Willem; Kaiser, Reinhard; Olff, Miranda; Rijnen, Bas; Simon, Winnifred

    2012-01-01

    Background International humanitarian aid workers providing care in emergencies are subjected to numerous chronic and traumatic stressors. Objectives To examine consequences of such experiences on aid workers' mental health and how the impact is influenced by moderating variables. Methodology We conducted a longitudinal study in a sample of international non-governmental organizations. Study outcomes included anxiety, depression, burnout, and life and job satisfaction. We performed bivariate regression analyses at three time points. We fitted generalized estimating equation multivariable regression models for the longitudinal analyses. Results Study participants from 19 NGOs were assessed at three time points: 212 participated at pre-deployment; 169 (80%) post-deployment; and 154 (73%) within 3–6 months after deployment. Prior to deployment, 12 (3.8%) participants reported anxiety symptoms, compared to 20 (11.8%) at post-deployment (p?=?0·0027); 22 (10.4%) reported depression symptoms, compared to 33 (19.5%) at post-deployment (p?=?0·0117) and 31 (20.1%) at follow-up (p?=?.00083). History of mental illness (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 4.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1·45–12·50) contributed to an increased risk for anxiety. The experience of extraordinary stress was a contributor to increased risk for burnout depersonalization (AOR 1.5; 95% CI 1.17–1.83). Higher levels of chronic stress exposure during deployment were contributors to an increased risk for depression (AOR 1·1; 95% CI 1·02–1.20) comparing post- versus pre-deployment, and increased risk for burnout emotional exhaustion (AOR 1.1; 95% CI 1.04–1.19). Social support was associated with lower levels of depression (AOR 0·9; 95% CI 0·84–0·95), psychological distress (AOR?=?0.9; [CI] 0.85–0.97), burnout lack of personal accomplishment (AOR 0·95; 95% CI 0·91–0·98), and greater life satisfaction (p?=?0.0213). Conclusions When recruiting and preparing aid workers for deployment, organizations should consider history of mental illness and take steps to decrease chronic stressors, and strengthen social support networks. PMID:22984592

  11. Longitudinal study of physical ability in the oldest-old.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, T; Kovar, M G; Suzman, R; Kleinman, J C; Feldman, J J

    1989-01-01

    Based on 1984 data from the Longitudinal Study on Aging, one-third of White persons aged 80 or older living in the community (N = 1,791) were defined as having no difficulty in walking 1/4 of a mile, in lifting 10 pounds, in climbing 10 steps without resting, or in stooping, crouching or kneeling. Physical ability was associated with lower risk of death over two years mean follow-up; Relative odds (RO) = .4 (95 percent confidence interval = .4, .6) and in survivors, lower utilization of hospitals RO = .4 (CI = .3, .7), physicians RO = .6 (CI = .5, .8) and nursing homes RO = .3 (CI = .2, .5) compared with those having difficulty on any of the four functional measures included in the definition of physical ability. Fifty percent of the women and 42 percent of the men physically able at the time of the baseline survey in 1984 remained physically able at follow-up. Continued physical ability in this group was associated with never having had cardiovascular disease RO = 2.1, (CI = 1.2, 3.7), never having had arthritic complaints RO = 1.9 (CI = 1.2, 2.7), a body mass index less than the 75th percentile RO = 1.8 (CI = 1.2, 2.9), younger age (for each decade of age, RO = 2.0 (CI = 1.1, 3.6), and higher level of education (greater than 13 years versus 0-6 years) RO = 2.4 (CI = 1.2, 4.7). These correlates include factors amenable to preventive measures and highlight the need to consider the heterogeneity of the oldest-old in formulating programs aimed at prevention and postponement of disability. PMID:2729466

  12. Longitudinal study of leptin levels in chronic hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The influence of serum leptin levels on nutritional status and survival in chronic hemodialysis patients remained to be elucidated. We conducted a prospective longitudinal study of leptin levels and nutritional parameters to determine whether changes of serum leptin levels modify nutritional status and survival in a cohort of prevalent hemodialysis patients. Methods Leptin, dietary energy and protein intake, biochemical markers of nutrition and body composition (anthropometry and bioimpedance analysis) were measured at baseline and at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months following enrollment, in 101 prevalent hemodialysis patients (37% women) with a mean age of 64.6 ± 11.5 years. Observation of this cohort was continued over 2 additional years. Changes in repeated measures were evaluated, with adjustment for baseline differences in demographic and clinical parameters. Results Significant reduction of leptin levels with time were observed (linear estimate: -2.5010 ± 0.57 ng/ml/2y; p < 0.001) with a more rapid decline in leptin levels in the highest leptin tertile in both unadjusted (p = 0.007) and fully adjusted (p = 0.047) models. A significant reduction in body composition parameters over time was observed, but was not influenced by leptin (leptin-by-time interactions were not significant). No significant associations were noted between leptin levels and changes in dietary protein or energy intake, or laboratory nutritional markers. Finally, cumulative incidences of survival were unaffected by the baseline serum leptin levels. Conclusions Thus leptin levels reflect fat mass depots, rather than independently contributing to uremic anorexia or modifying nutritional status and/or survival in chronic hemodialysis patients. The importance of such information is high if leptin is contemplated as a potential therapeutic target in hemodialysis patients. PMID:21676262

  13. Longitudinal study of aspergillosis in sea fan corals.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kiho; Alker, Alisa P; Shuster, Kara; Quirolo, Craig; Harvell, C Drew

    2006-03-23

    Aspergillosis (a fungal disease) is affecting sea fan corals Gorgonia spp. throughout the Caribbean. To measure the impact of this disease, we established longitudinal, or in other words individual-based, monitoring studies on 3 reefs in the Florida Keys, USA, to obtain estimates of incidence, rates of disease progress, recovery, and mortality. At Western Dry Rocks (near Key West), 40 Gorgonia ventalina colonies (20 initially healthy and 20 initially diseased) were photo-monitored between June 1996 and May 1998. Additional sea fans were visually monitored during 2 localized outbreaks at Conch (May 1998 to September 1999) and Carysfort (July 2000 to May 2001) reefs located in the Upper Keys. Data from Western Dry Rocks showed that over a 2 yr period, the incidence rate was 0.58 sea fans yr(-1) and that tissue purpling can lead to tissue loss and subsequently to mortality, albeit at low frequencies. Most sea fans, once infected, maintained a low level of damage over time. Only 3 fans recovered from the disease; however 2 were subsequently re-infected. Case fatality rate was 10% (2 of 20 initially infected died), which is equivalent to 5% yr(-1). However, mortality can increase during localized outbreaks. At Conch, mortality was 46% yr(-1) among infected sea fans (compared to 8% yr(-1) at Carysfort, a less impacted site, during the same period). During an outbreak at Carysfort, mortality was 95% yr(-1) among diseased sea fans. These data clearly demonstrate the significant role aspergillosis plays in the population ecology of sea fan corals. PMID:16703771

  14. Children's Perceptions of Live Arts Performances: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiller, Wendy

    2005-01-01

    "Children?s Voices" is a longitudinal research project to document and understand children's perceptions of live arts performance and the impact on their teachers and school communities. The research conducted in South Australia with 135 5?12-year-olds in four schools involves collaboration between the South Australian Department of Education and…

  15. On Latent Change Model Choice in Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raykov, Tenko; Zajacova, Anna

    2012-01-01

    An interval estimation procedure for proportion of explained observed variance in latent curve analysis is discussed, which can be used as an aid in the process of choosing between linear and nonlinear models. The method allows obtaining confidence intervals for the R[squared] indexes associated with repeatedly followed measures in longitudinal

  16. Studies on longitudinal beam compression in induction accelerator drivers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W.-K. Mark; D. D.-M. Ho; S. T. Brandon; C.-L. Chang; A. T. Drobot; A. Faltens; E. P. Lee; G. A. Krafft

    1986-01-01

    Longitudinal beam compression is an integral part of the U.S. induction accelerator development effort for heavy ion fusion. It occurs before final focus and fusion chamber beam transport and is a key process determining initial conditions for final focus hardware. Determining the limits for maximal performance of key accelerator components is an essential element of the effort to reduce driver

  17. A longitudinal study of EEG sleep in schizophrenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matcheri S Keshavan; Charles F Reynolds; Jean M Miewald; Debra M Montrose

    1996-01-01

    Several abnormalities in sleep architecture have been described in schizophrenia. However, the question of whether sleep electroencephalographic (EEG) changes are influenced by treatment and phase of illness remains unclear. To examine the longitudinal stability of sleep data, we compared baseline sleep measures with measures obtained approximately 4 weeks and 1 year after the beginning of treatment in a series of

  18. Longitudinal Study of Bone Turnover after Acute Spinal Cord Injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID ROBERTS; WINNIFRED LEE; ROSS C. CUNEO; JOHANNES WITTMANN; GREG WARD; ROBERT FLATMAN; BRETT MCWHINNEY; PETER E. HICKMAN

    Increased bone turnover is a sequel of spinal cord injury (SCI) and predisposes to a number of clinically relevant complications, includ- ing osteoporosis and fractures. There are limited data available re- garding the changes in modern markers of bone metabolism after SCI. We report a 6-month longitudinal follow-up of biochemical markers of bone metabolism (free and total deoxypyridinoline, total pyridino-

  19. Implementing innovation management in manufacturing SMEs: a longitudinal study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodney McAdam; William Keogh; Renee S. Reid; Neil Mitchell

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this research is to evaluate the longitudinal effect of innovation programmes on improving the process of innovation in manufacturing SMEs. The process of innovation in organisations covers people, process and technology. Therefore interventions in the form of innovation improvement programmes often require high levels of complexity. This complexity is compounded in SMEs, where issues such

  20. Participants' recommendations for the ideal grief group: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Dyregrov, Kari; Dyregrov, Atle; Johnsen, Iren

    2013-01-01

    Based on the results from the qualitative part of the study "Grief Groups in Norway" conducted in 2009-2011, this article focuses on grief group participants' recommendations for good or ideal grief groups. Participants have insightful observations about grief groups and how they can be improved, and taking their point of view seriously is one important way of ensuring that users of such group get an optimal experience from joining such groups. Using their experiences to adjust the structure and function of the groups, one can allow for practical solutions for organizations that have difficulties starting up grief support groups, for example, in areas where the population density is low. A major finding in this study was that grief group participants stressed the importance of thorough information before and at the start of grief groups. This concerned information about the aim, structure, organization, and possible effects and limitations of group participation. PMID:24416876

  1. Understanding the Evolution of Multimorbidity: Evidences from the North West Adelaide Health Longitudinal Study (NWAHS)

    PubMed Central

    Ruel, Guillaume; Lévesque, Jean-Frédéric; Stocks, Nigel; Sirois, Caroline; Kroger, Edeltraut; Adams, Robert J.; Doucet, Mariève; Taylor, Anne W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to describe the evolution of multimorbidity. Study Design and Setting Data from 1854 South Australians who participated in the North West Adelaide longitudinal Health Study(NWAHS) was collected between baseline (2000–2002) and follow-up (2008–2010). Status for eight chronic diseases (CDs) was determined by biomedical measurement or self-report. Chronic disease (CD) mean age of occurrence and order of appearance was investigated. Results The prevalence of multimorbidity increased from 32% to 64% during the 7.8±1.1 years of follow-up. The estimated mean age of onset of a new CD was significantly older for hypertension, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and younger for hypercholesterolemia, asthma and other mental problem. Hypercholesterolemia was more likely to develop as a first than as a subsequent CD (39%vs.16%, p<0.0001) while CVD (1%vs.5%, p<0.0001), diabetes (5%vs.11%, p<0.001) and COPD (6%vs.16%, p<0.0001) were less likely. The presence of mood disorders at baseline was associated with an increased risk of developing other mental disorders (36%vs.12%, p<0.0001), diabetes (18%vs.9%, p<0.01) and asthma (30%vs.21%, p<0.05). Conclusion Longitudinal data could be used to study the evolution of multimorbidity and could provide information on CDs mean age of occurrence, order of appearance and impact on the development of future CDs. PMID:24798485

  2. Contribution of Central Adiposity to Left Ventricular Diastolic Function (From the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging)

    PubMed Central

    Canepa, Marco; Strait, James B.; Abramov, Dmitry; Milaneschi, Yuri; Ghatrif, Majd al; Moni, Monika; Ramachandran, Ramona; Najjar, Samer S.; Brunelli, Claudio; Abraham, Theodore P.; Lakatta, Edward G.; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    We examined relationships of central adiposity with left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction in men and women who participated in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, a prospective community-based study of older persons. The sample for this cross-sectional analysis included 399 women and 370 men. Central adiposity was estimated by waist circumference (WC) and global adiposity by body mass index (BMI). Using data from a comprehensive echocardiographic study that included tissue Doppler imaging, diastolic function was graded according to three parameters (E/A ratio, E/Em ratio and left atrial volume index). In logistic regression models adjusted for age, gender, cardiovascular risk factors and hemodynamic parameters, WC and BMI were both independently associated with LV diastolic dysfunction. However, when both WC and BMI were in the same model, only WC remained significantly associated with LV diastolic dysfunction (OR= 1.04, 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.08, p= 0.02). In gender stratified analyses, WC was found significantly associated with LV diastolic dysfunction - independently of BMI - in women (OR=1.08, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.14, p<.001) but not in men (OR= 1.00, 95% CI: 0.95 to 1.05, p= 0.91). Further adjustment for left ventricular mass index failed to modify these relations. In conclusion, the adverse effect of central adiposity on LV diastolic function was independent of general adiposity and more pronounced among women. The impact of visceral adiposity on LV diastolic dysfunction would benefit from confirmation in longitudinal studies. PMID:22257709

  3. Factors Influencing Student Participation in College Study Abroad Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandyopadhyay, Soumava; Bandyopadhyay, Kakoli

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a theoretical framework to investigate the factors that influence student participation in college study abroad programs. The authors posit that students' general perceptions regarding the study abroad experience and their expectations of intercultural awareness from study abroad programs will impact their perceptions of…

  4. A longitudinal biosocial study of cortisol and peer influence on the development of adolescent antisocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Platje, E; Vermeiren, R R J M; Raine, A; Doreleijers, T A H; Keijsers, L G M T; Branje, S J T; Popma, A; van Lier, P A C; Koot, H M; Meeus, W H J; Jansen, L M C

    2013-11-01

    It is increasingly recognized that in order to understand the complex phenomenon of antisocial behavior, interrelations between biological and social risk factors should be taken into account. In the current study, this biosocial approach was applied to examine the mediating role of deviant peers in longitudinal associations linking the level of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity to aggression and rule-breaking. Participants were 425 boys and girls from the general population, who were assessed yearly at ages 15, 16, and 17. As a measure of HPA axis activity, cortisol was assessed at awakening, 30, and 60 min later (the cortisol awakening response, CAR). Participants, as well as their best friend, reported on their own aggressive and rule-breaking behavior, thereby allowing to assess bidirectional influences within friendships. Aggression was only predicted by a decreased cortisol level at awakening, and not by aggressive behavior of their friend. Decreased levels of cortisol at awakening predicted adolescents' rule-breaking, which subsequently predicted increased rule-breaking of their best friend. The latter was only found for adolescents who changed friends, as compared to adolescents with the same friend in every year. Gender differences were not found. These findings suggest that interrelations between biological and social risk factors are different for the development of aggression versus rule-breaking. Furthermore, decreased levels of HPA axis activity may represent a susceptibility to selecting deviant peers. PMID:23927935

  5. Misattributing speech and jumping to conclusions: a longitudinal study in people at high risk of psychosis.

    PubMed

    Winton-Brown, T T; Broome, M R; Allen, P; Valli, I; Howes, O; Garety, P A; Johns, L C; McGuire, P

    2015-01-01

    Biases in cognition such as Jumping to Conclusions (JTC) and Verbal Self-Monitoring (VSM) are thought to underlie the formation of psychotic symptoms. This prospective study in people with an At Risk Mental State (ARMS) for psychosis examined how these cognitive biases changed over time, and predicted clinical and functional outcomes. Twenty-three participants were assessed at clinical presentation and a mean of 31 months later. Performance on a JTC and VSM tasks were measured at both time points. Relationships to symptom severity, level of function and the incidence of psychotic disorder were then examined. The levels of symptoms, function and VSM all improved over time, while JTC was stable. Five participants (22%) developed a psychotic disorder during the follow-up period, but the risk of transition was not related to performance on either task at baseline, or to longitudinal changes in task performance. JTC performance correlated with symptom severity at baseline and follow-up. Similarly, performance on the two tasks was not related to the level of functioning at follow-up. Thus, while the ARMS is associated with both VSM and JTC biases, neither predict the onset of psychosis or the overall functional outcome. PMID:25511317

  6. Relationship between renal volume growth and renal function in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: A longitudinal study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Godela M. Fick-Brosnahan; Mark M. Belz; Kim K. McFann; Ann M. Johnson; Robert W. Schrier

    2002-01-01

    In autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), renal function remains normal for many years into adult life while cysts form and expand progressively, starting in childhood. The longitudinal relationships between renal volume growth, hypertension, and renal function loss have not been examined in detail. At the University of Colorado (Denver, CO), 229 adult subjects with ADPKD participated in a longitudinal

  7. Reliability of neuroanatomical measurements in a multisite longitudinal study of youth at risk for psychosis.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Tyrone D; Sun, Frank; McEwen, Sarah Jacobson; Papademetris, Xenophon; He, George; van Erp, Theo G M; Jacobson, Aron; Bearden, Carrie E; Walker, Elaine; Hu, Xiaoping; Zhou, Lei; Seidman, Larry J; Thermenos, Heidi W; Cornblatt, Barbara; Olvet, Doreen M; Perkins, Diana; Belger, Aysenil; Cadenhead, Kristin; Tsuang, Ming; Mirzakhanian, Heline; Addington, Jean; Frayne, Richard; Woods, Scott W; McGlashan, Thomas H; Constable, R Todd; Qiu, Maolin; Mathalon, Daniel H; Thompson, Paul; Toga, Arthur W

    2014-05-01

    Multisite longitudinal neuroimaging designs are used to identify differential brain structural change associated with onset or progression of disease. The reliability of neuroanatomical measurements over time and across sites is a crucial aspect of power in such studies. Prior work has found that while within-site reliabilities of neuroanatomical measurements are excellent, between-site reliability is generally more modest. Factors that may increase between-site reliability include standardization of scanner platform and sequence parameters and correction for between-scanner variations in gradient nonlinearities. Factors that may improve both between- and within-site reliability include use of registration algorithms that account for individual differences in cortical patterning and shape. In this study 8 healthy volunteers were scanned twice on successive days at 8 sites participating in the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study (NAPLS). All sites employed 3 Tesla scanners and standardized acquisition parameters. Site accounted for 2 to 30% of the total variance in neuroanatomical measurements. However, site-related variations were trivial (<1%) among sites using the same scanner model and 12-channel coil or when correcting for between-scanner differences in gradient nonlinearity and scaling. Adjusting for individual differences in sulcal-gyral geometries yielded measurements with greater reliabilities than those obtained using an automated approach. Neuroimaging can be performed across multiple sites at the same level of reliability as at a single site, achieving within- and between-site reliabilities of 0.95 or greater for gray matter density in the majority of voxels in the prefrontal and temporal cortical surfaces as well as for the volumes of most subcortical structures. PMID:23982962

  8. Telephone-based Assessments to Minimize Missing Data in Longitudinal Depression Trials: A Project IMPACTS Study Report

    PubMed Central

    Claassen, Cindy; Kurian, Ben; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Grannemann, Bruce D.; Tuli, Ekta; Pipes, Ronny; Preston, Anne Marie; Flood, Ariell

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Missing data in clinical efficacy and effectiveness trials continue to be a major threat to the validity of study findings. The purpose of this report is to describe methods developed to ensure completion of outcome assessments with public mental health sector subjects participating in a longitudinal, repeated measures study for the treatment of major depressive disorder. We developed longitudinal assessment procedures that included telephone-based clinician interviews in order to minimize missing data commonly encountered with face-to-face assessment procedures. Methods A pre-planned, multi-step strategy was developed to ensure completeness of data collection. The procedure included obtaining multiple pieces of patient contact information at baseline, careful education of both staff and patients concerning the purpose of assessments, establishing good patient rapport, and finally being flexible and persistent with phone appointments to ensure the completion of telephone-based follow-up assessments. A well-developed administrative and organizational structure was also put in place prior to study implementation. Results The assessment completion rate for the primary outcome for 310 of 504 subjects who enrolled and completed 52 weeks (at the time of manuscript) of telephone-based follow-up assessments was 96.8%. Conclusion By utilizing telephone-based follow-up procedures and adapting our easy-to-use pre-defined multi-step approach, researchers can maximize patient data retention in longitudinal studies. PMID:18761427

  9. Experimental Studies of Transverse and Longitudinal Beam Dynamics in Photoinjector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinfeng Yang; Takafumi Kondoh; Youichi Yoshida; Seiichi Tagawa

    2005-01-01

    Both the transverse and longitudinal beam dynamics in a photoinjector were investigated experimentally for high-brightness electron beam generation. The transverse emittance growth and the energy spread, both due to the rf and the space-charge effects in the rf gun, were investigated with the laser injection phase. A 31.7 MeV electron beam at 1.0 nC with a normalized rms transverse emittance

  10. Reliability of an fMRI paradigm for emotional processing in a multisite longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Gee, Dylan G; McEwen, Sarah C; Forsyth, Jennifer K; Haut, Kristen M; Bearden, Carrie E; Addington, Jean; Goodyear, Bradley; Cadenhead, Kristin S; Mirzakhanian, Heline; Cornblatt, Barbara A; Olvet, Doreen; Mathalon, Daniel H; McGlashan, Thomas H; Perkins, Diana O; Belger, Aysenil; Seidman, Larry J; Thermenos, Heidi; Tsuang, Ming T; van Erp, Theo G M; Walker, Elaine F; Hamann, Stephan; Woods, Scott W; Constable, Todd; Cannon, Tyrone D

    2015-07-01

    Multisite neuroimaging studies can facilitate the investigation of brain-related changes in many contexts, including patient groups that are relatively rare in the general population. Though multisite studies have characterized the reliability of brain activation during working memory and motor functional magnetic resonance imaging tasks, emotion processing tasks, pertinent to many clinical populations, remain less explored. A traveling participants study was conducted with eight healthy volunteers scanned twice on consecutive days at each of the eight North American Longitudinal Prodrome Study sites. Tests derived from generalizability theory showed excellent reliability in the amygdala ( E?2?=?0.82), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG; E?2?=?0.83), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC; E?2?=?0.76), insula ( E?2?=?0.85), and fusiform gyrus ( E?2?=?0.91) for maximum activation and fair to excellent reliability in the amygdala ( E?2?=?0.44), IFG ( E?2?=?0.48), ACC ( E?2?=?0.55), insula ( E?2?=?0.42), and fusiform gyrus ( E?2?=?0.83) for mean activation across sites and test days. For the amygdala, habituation ( E?2?=?0.71) was more stable than mean activation. In a second investigation, data from 111 healthy individuals across sites were aggregated in a voxelwise, quantitative meta-analysis. When compared with a mixed effects model controlling for site, both approaches identified robust activation in regions consistent with expected results based on prior single-site research. Overall, regions central to emotion processing showed strong reliability in the traveling participants study and robust activation in the aggregation study. These results support the reliability of blood oxygen level-dependent signal in emotion processing areas across different sites and scanners and may inform future efforts to increase efficiency and enhance knowledge of rare conditions in the population through multisite neuroimaging paradigms. Hum Brain Mapp 36:2558-2579, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25821147

  11. Reliability of an fMRI Paradigm for Emotional Processing in a Multisite Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Gee, Dylan G.; McEwen, Sarah C.; Forsyth, Jennifer K.; Haut, Kristen M.; Bearden, Carrie E.; Addington, Jean; Goodyear, Bradley; Cadenhead, Kristin S.; Mirzakhanian, Heline; Cornblatt, Barbara A.; Olvet, Doreen; Mathalon, Daniel H.; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Perkins, Diana O.; Belger, Aysenil; Seidman, Larry J.; Thermenos, Heidi; Tsuang, Ming T.; van Erp, Theo G.M.; Walker, Elaine F.; Hamann, Stephan; Woods, Scott W.; Constable, Todd; Cannon, Tyrone D.

    2015-01-01

    Multisite neuroimaging studies can facilitate the investigation of brain-related changes in many contexts, including patient groups that are relatively rare in the general population. Though multisite studies have characterized the reliability of brain activation during working memory and motor functional magnetic resonance imaging tasks, emotion processing tasks, pertinent to many clinical populations, remain less explored. A traveling participants study was conducted with eight healthy volunteers scanned twice on consecutive days at each of the eight North American Longitudinal Prodrome Study sites. Tests derived from generalizability theory showed excellent reliability in the amygdala (E?2=0.82), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG;E?2=0.83), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC;E?2=0.76), insula (E?2=0.85), and fusiform gyrus (E?2=0.91) for maximum activation and fair to excellent reliability in the amygdala (E?2=0.44), IFG (E?2=0.48), ACC (E?2=0.55), insula (E?2=0.42), and fusiform gyrus (E?2=0.83) for mean activation across sites and test days. For the amygdala, habituation (E?2=0.71) was more stable than mean activation. In a second investigation, data from 111 healthy individuals across sites were aggregated in a voxelwise, quantitative meta-analysis. When compared with a mixed effects model controlling for site, both approaches identified robust activation in regions consistent with expected results based on prior single-site research. Overall, regions central to emotion processing showed strong reliability in the traveling participants study and robust activation in the aggregation study. These results support the reliability of blood oxygen level-dependent signal in emotion processing areas across different sites and scanners and may inform future efforts to increase efficiency and enhance knowledge of rare conditions in the population through multisite neuroimaging paradigms. PMID:25821147

  12. Neighbourhood demolition, relocation and health. A qualitative longitudinal study of housing-led urban regeneration in Glasgow, UK

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Matt; Lawson, Louise; Kearns, Ade; Conway, Ellie; Neary, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a qualitative longitudinal study to explore how adult residents of disadvantaged urban neighbourhoods (Glasgow, UK) experienced neighbourhood demolition and relocation. Data from 23 households was collected in 2011 and 2012. Some participants described moves to new or improved homes in different neighbourhoods as beneficial to their and their families’ wellbeing. Others suggested that longstanding illnesses and problems with the new home and/or neighbourhood led to more negative experiences. Individual-level contextual differences, home and neighbourhood-level factors and variations in intervention implementation influence the experiences of residents involved in relocation programmes. PMID:25814338

  13. Integrating prospective longitudinal data: modeling personality and health in the Terman Life Cycle and Hawaii Longitudinal Studies.

    PubMed

    Kern, Margaret L; Hampson, Sarah E; Goldberg, Lewis R; Friedman, Howard S

    2014-05-01

    The present study used a collaborative framework to integrate 2 long-term prospective studies: the Terman Life Cycle Study and the Hawaii Personality and Health Longitudinal Study. Within a 5-factor personality-trait framework, teacher assessments of child personality were rationally and empirically aligned to establish similar factor structures across samples. Comparable items related to adult self-rated health, education, and alcohol use were harmonized, and data were pooled on harmonized items. A structural model was estimated as a multigroup analysis. Harmonized child personality factors were then used to examine markers of physiological dysfunction in the Hawaii sample and mortality risk in the Terman sample. Harmonized conscientiousness predicted less physiological dysfunction in the Hawaii sample and lower mortality risk in the Terman sample. These results illustrate how collaborative, integrative work with multiple samples offers the exciting possibility that samples from different cohorts and ages can be linked together to directly test life span theories of personality and health. PMID:23231689

  14. The impact of sexual abuse on female development: lessons from a multigenerational, longitudinal research study.

    PubMed

    Trickett, Penelope K; Noll, Jennie G; Putnam, Frank W

    2011-05-01

    This is a report on the research design and findings of a 23-year longitudinal study of the impact of intrafamilial sexual abuse on female development. The conceptual framework integrated concepts of psychological adjustment with theory regarding how psychobiological factors might impact development. Participants included 6- to 16-year-old females with substantiated sexual abuse and a demographically similar comparison group. A cross-sequential design was used and six assessments have taken place, with participants at median age 11 at the first assessment and median age 25 at the sixth assessment. Mothers of participants took part in the early assessments and offspring took part at the sixth assessment. Results of many analyses, both within circumscribed developmental stages and across development, indicated that sexually abused females (on average) showed deleterious sequelae across a host of biopsychosocial domains including: earlier onsets of puberty, cognitive deficits, depression, dissociative symptoms, maladaptive sexual development, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal attenuation, asymmetrical stress responses, high rates of obesity, more major illnesses and healthcare utilization, dropping out of high school, persistent posttraumatic stress disorder, self-mutilation, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders diagnoses, physical and sexual revictimization, premature deliveries, teen motherhood, drug and alcohol abuse, and domestic violence. Offspring born to abused mothers were at increased risk for child maltreatment and overall maldevelopment. There was also a pattern of considerable within group variability. Based on this complex network of findings, implications for optimal treatments are elucidated. Translational aspects of extending observational research into clinical practice are discussed in terms that will likely have a sustained impact on several major public health initiatives. PMID:23786689

  15. The impact of sexual abuse on female development: Lessons from a multigenerational, longitudinal research study

    PubMed Central

    Noll, Jennie G.; Putnam, Frank W.

    2013-01-01

    This is a report on the research design and findings of a 23-year longitudinal study of the impact of intrafamilial sexual abuse on female development. The conceptual framework integrated concepts of psychological adjustment with theory regarding how psychobiological factors might impact development. Participants included 6- to 16-year-old females with substantiated sexual abuse and a demographically similar comparison group. A cross-sequential design was used and six assessments have taken place, with participants at median age 11 at the first assessment and median age 25 at the sixth assessment. Mothers of participants took part in the early assessments and offspring took part at the sixth assessment. Results of many analyses, both within circumscribed developmental stages and across development, indicated that sexually abused females (on average) showed deleterious sequelae across a host of biopsychosocial domains including: earlier onsets of puberty, cognitive deficits, depression, dissociative symptoms, maladaptive sexual development, hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal attenuation, asymmetrical stress responses, high rates of obesity, more major illnesses and healthcare utilization, dropping out of high school, persistent psottraumatic stress disorder, self-mutilation, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders diagnoses, physical and sexual revictimization, premature deliveries, teen motherhood, drug and alcohol abuse, and domestic violence. Offspring born to abused mothers were at increased risk for child maltreatment and overall maldevelopment. There was also a pattern of considerable within group variability. Based on this complex network of findings, implications for optimal treatments are elucidated. Translational aspects of extending observational research into clinical practice are discussed in terms that will likely have a sustained impact on several major public health initiatives. PMID:23786689

  16. Longitudinal cohort study of childhood IQ and survival up to age 76 

    E-print Network

    Whalley, Lawrence J; Deary, Ian J

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To test the association between childhood IQ and mortality over the normal human lifespan. Design: Longitudinal cohort study. Setting: Aberdeen. Subjects: All 2792 children in Aberdeen born in 1921 and ...

  17. DEMONSTRATION OF LOW COST, LOW BURDEN EXPOSURE MONITORING STRATEGIES FOR USE IN LONGITUDINAL COHORT STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A large longitudinal cohort study designed to evaluate the association between children's exposures to environmental agents and health outcomes presents many challenges for exposure monitoring. Exposure of the child must be measured for multiple chemicals through multiple path...

  18. RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION ISSUES FOR A LARGE LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recruitment and Retention Issues for a Large Longitudinal Study of Children's Environmental Health *D Lobdell, S Gilboa, P Mendola (US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, 27711) An understanding of the most effective recruitment techniques and rete...

  19. A longitudinal study of pubertal timing and extreme body change behaviors among adolescent boys and girls.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Marita P; Ricciardelli, Lina A

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies have examined the prevalence of disordered eating and other health risk behaviors among adolescent boys and girls. However, these studies generally have not examined predictors of these behaviors, and have not embedded the investigations within a theoretical framework. This study employed a longitudinal design to evaluate the validity of a biosocial model in explaining health risk behaviors related to extreme body change strategies (disordered eating, exercise dependence, use of food supplements, steroid use) among adolescents. The participants were 430 adolescent boys (mean age = 13.33 years) and 451 adolescent girls (mean age = 13.28 years) who completed measures of pubertal timing, perceived popularity with peers, body dissatisfaction, focus on sport, involvement in competitive sport, strategies to lose weight, strategies to increase muscle, disordered eating, use of food supplements and steroids, and exercise dependence. It was found that both early and late maturing girls were at greatest risk of engaging in health risk behaviors, whereas boys demonstrated more variability in the relationship between pubertal timing and extreme body change behaviors. The results of this study provide important insights into the role of pubertal development in the adoption of extreme body change behaviors among adolescents. PMID:15230071

  20. Recent life events preceding suicide attempts in a personality disorder sample: findings from the collaborative longitudinal personality disorders study.

    PubMed

    Yen, Shirley; Pagano, Maria E; Shea, M Tracie; Grilo, Carlos M; Gunderson, John G; Skodol, Andrew E; McGlashan, Thomas H; Sanislow, Charles A; Bender, Donna S; Zanarini, Mary C

    2005-02-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between life events, suicide attempts, and personality disorders (PDs), in spite of the strong associations between PDs and suicidal behavior, and the poor coping strategies often exhibited by these individuals. The authors examined whether participants with PDs who attempted suicide during the first 3 years of a prospective, longitudinal study were more likely to experience specific life events in the month during and preceding the suicide attempt. Of 489 participants with PDs, 61 attempted suicide during the 3-year, follow-up interval. Results indicated that negative life events, particularly those pertaining to love-marriage or crime-legal matters, were significant predictors of suicide attempts, even after controlling for baseline diagnoses of borderline PD, major depressive disorders, substance use disorders, and a history of childhood sexual abuse. Therefore, certain types of negative life events are unique risk factors for imminent suicide attempts among individuals with PDs. PMID:15709836

  1. Intimate Partner Violence and Incident Depressive Symptoms and Suicide Attempts: A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies

    PubMed Central

    Devries, Karen M.; Mak, Joelle Y.; Bacchus, Loraine J.; Child, Jennifer C.; Falder, Gail; Petzold, Max; Astbury, Jill; Watts, Charlotte H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Depression and suicide are responsible for a substantial burden of disease globally. Evidence suggests that intimate partner violence (IPV) experience is associated with increased risk of depression, but also that people with mental disorders are at increased risk of violence. We aimed to investigate the extent to which IPV experience is associated with incident depression and suicide attempts, and vice versa, in both women and men. Methods and Findings We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies published before February 1, 2013. More than 22,000 records from 20 databases were searched for studies examining physical and/or sexual intimate partner or dating violence and symptoms of depression, diagnosed major depressive disorder, dysthymia, mild depression, or suicide attempts. Random effects meta-analyses were used to generate pooled odds ratios (ORs). Sixteen studies with 36,163 participants met our inclusion criteria. All studies included female participants; four studies also included male participants. Few controlled for key potential confounders other than demographics. All but one depression study measured only depressive symptoms. For women, there was clear evidence of an association between IPV and incident depressive symptoms, with 12 of 13 studies showing a positive direction of association and 11 reaching statistical significance; pooled OR from six studies?=?1.97 (95% CI 1.56–2.48, I2?=?50.4%, pheterogeneity?=?0.073). There was also evidence of an association in the reverse direction between depressive symptoms and incident IPV (pooled OR from four studies?=?1.93, 95% CI 1.51–2.48, I2?=?0%, p?=?0.481). IPV was also associated with incident suicide attempts. For men, evidence suggested that IPV was associated with incident depressive symptoms, but there was no clear evidence of an association between IPV and suicide attempts or depression and incident IPV. Conclusions In women, IPV was associated with incident depressive symptoms, and depressive symptoms with incident IPV. IPV was associated with incident suicide attempts. In men, few studies were conducted, but evidence suggested IPV was associated with incident depressive symptoms. There was no clear evidence of association with suicide attempts. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:23671407

  2. [Information management in multicenter studies: the Brazilian longitudinal study for adult health].

    PubMed

    Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Vigo, Álvaro; Hernandez, Émerson; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Ahlert, Hubert; Bergmann, Kaiser; Mota, Eduardo

    2013-06-01

    Information management in large multicenter studies requires a specialized approach. The Estudo Longitudinal da Saúde do Adulto (ELSA-Brasil - Brazilian Longitudinal Study for Adult Health) has created a Datacenter to enter and manage its data system. The aim of this paper is to describe the steps involved, including the information entry, transmission and management methods. A web system was developed in order to allow, in a safe and confidential way, online data entry, checking and editing, as well as the incorporation of data collected on paper. Additionally, a Picture Archiving and Communication System was implemented and customized for echocardiography and retinography. It stores the images received from the Investigation Centers and makes them available at the Reading Centers. Finally, data extraction and cleaning processes were developed to create databases in formats that enable analyses in multiple statistical packages. PMID:24346726

  3. A longitudinal study of emerging networks during natural disaster

    E-print Network

    Abbasi, Alireza; Kapucu, Naim

    2015-01-01

    We present longitudinal analysis of the evolution of inter-organizational disaster coordination networks during natural disasters. We suggest that social networks are a useful paradigm for exploring this complex phenomenon from both theoretical and methodological perspective aiming to develop a quantitative assessment framework which could aid in developing a better understanding of the optimal functioning of these emerging inter-organizational networks during natural disasters. We highlight the importance of network metrics in order to investigate disaster response coordination networks. Results suggest that in disasters, rate of communication increases and creates the conditions where organizational structures need to move at that same pace to exchange new information.

  4. Clinical outcomes of traumatized youth in adolescent substance abuse treatment: a longitudinal multisite study.

    PubMed

    Williams, Julie K; Smith, Douglas C; An, Hyonggin; Hall, James A

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of outpatient substance abuse treatment for youth with high traumatic stress compared to youth without high traumatic stress in substance abuse treatment centers across the United States. The data for this study were gathered using a longitudinal survey design with purposive sampling from nine drug treatment delivery systems across the United States participating in the cooperative grant Strengthening Communities for Youth (SCY) awarded by SAMHSA's Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT) between September 2002 and June 2006. Follow-up assessments were conducted with the youth at three,six, and 12 months following intake. Traumatized youth responded to outpatient treatment in a similar pattern when compared to nontraumatized youth, although the traumatized youth had consistently higher scores on substance use frequency and substance problems scales than nontraumatized youth throughout the study. Current empirically validated treatments for adolescent substance abuse do not prepare the practitioner for trauma-informed practice or specifically address trauma-informed recovery. Based on our results, we advocate for the development and integration of trauma-informed practice within substance abuse treatment for adolescents to help them recover from trauma and substance abuse issues. PMID:18472667

  5. A Longitudinal Study of Speech Perception Skills and Device Characteristics of Adolescent Cochlear Implant Users

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Elizabeth J.; Davidson, Lisa S.; Uchanski, Rosalie M.; Brenner, Christine M.; Geers, Ann E.

    2012-01-01

    Background For pediatric cochlear implant (CI) users, CI processor technology, map characteristics and fitting strategies are known to have a substantial impact on speech perception scores at young ages. It is unknown whether these benefits continue over time as these children reach adolescence. Purpose To document changes in CI technology, map characteristics, and speech perception scores in children between elementary grades and high school, and to describe relations between map characteristics and speech perception scores over time. Research Design A longitudinal design with participants 8–9 years old at session 1 and 15–18 years old at session 2. Study Sample Participants were 82 adolescents with unilateral CIs, who are a subset of a larger longitudinal study. Mean age at implantation was 3.4 years (range: 1.7 – 5.4), and mean duration of device use was 5.5 years (range: 3.8–7.5) at session 1 and 13.3 years (range: 10.9–15) at session 2. Data Collection and Analysis Speech perception tests at sessions 1 and 2 were the Lexical Neighborhood word Test (LNT-70) and Bamford-Kowal-Bench sentences in quiet (BKB-Q), presented at 70 dB SPL. At session 2, the LNT was also administered at 50 dB SPL (LNT-50) and BKB sentences were administered in noise with a +10 dB SNR (BKB-N). CI processor technology type and CI map characteristics (coding strategy, number of electrodes, map threshold levels [T levels], and map comfort levels [C levels]) were obtained at both sessions. Electrical dynamic range [EDR] was computed [C level – T level], and descriptive statistics, correlations, and repeated-measures ANOVAs were employed. Results Participants achieved significantly higher LNT and BKB scores, at 70 dB SPL, at ages 15-18 than at ages 8-9 years. Forty-two participants had 1-3 electrodes either activated or deactivated in their map between test sessions, and 40 had no change in number of active electrodes (mean change: -0.5; range: -3 to +2). After conversion from arbitrary clinical map units to charge-per-phase in nanocoulombs (nC), no significant difference was found for T levels across time. Average C levels decreased by 19 nC. Seventy-three participants (89%) upgraded their CI processor technology type. At both sessions, significant correlations were found between EDR and all speech perception measures except LNT-50 (r range: .31 to .47; p < 0.01). Similarly, at both sessions, significant correlations were also found between C levels and all speech perception measures (r range: .29 to .49; p < 0.01). And, at session 2, a significant correlation was found between processor technology type and the LNT-50 scores (r = .38; p < 0.01). Conclusions Significant improvement in speech perception scores over time was observed between elementary grades and high school for children who had used a CI since preschool. On average, T level current requirements (nC) and electrode function remained stable for these long-term pediatric users. Analyses of maps did not allow for the determination of the exact cause of C level reductions, though power limitations in new processor systems and changes in perceived loudness over time are possible. Larger EDRs and higher map C levels were associated with better speech perception scores. Use of newer speech processor technology was associated with better speech perception scores at a softer level. PMID:22533977

  6. Successful recruitment and retention of Latino study participants.

    PubMed

    Reidy, Mary Clare; Orpinas, Pamela; Davis, Marsha

    2012-11-01

    A high prevalence of risk behaviors among the rapidly growing Latino youth population in the United States adds urgency to the need to identify effective recruitment and retention strategies for research studies and prevention programs. The objectives of this study are to (a) describe the culturally responsive recruitment and retention strategies used in the Familias Fuertes-Georgia program and (b) discuss the evaluation of the relative importance of these strategies. Familias Fuertes (i.e., Strong Families) is a community-based, primary prevention program for families in Latin America with children between the ages of 10 and 14 years. The main program goal is to reduce high-risk behaviors among adolescents by strengthening family relationships and promoting self-regulation and positive conflict resolution strategies. A pilot feasibility study was conducted to determine the appropriateness of the Familias Fuertes program for Latino families living in the United States. To promote participation, 15 culturally responsive recruitment and retention strategies were developed using a three-step process. These strategies contributed to the successful recruitment and retention of Familias Fuertes-Georgia study participants. Participating parents, the community liaison, and the community leader evaluated the relative importance of the 15 culturally responsive recruitment and retention strategies. Three of the strategies emerged as more important than others: face-to-face recruitment by the community liaison; bilingual, bicultural, and experienced facilitators; and free on-site child care. Further research is needed to develop strategies promoting the participation of male caregivers/fathers. PMID:21540195

  7. Barriers to Participation in Religious Adult Education: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selman, John Thomas, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Millions of Americans profess belief in God and follow a Protestant Christian belief system. However, very little research or literature explores their participation in religious adult education. Several areas within adult education are exhaustively researched such as health care, leisure, and career related courses, but studies within religion go…

  8. Participants' Perspectives of Training Experiences: An Exploratory Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathis, Robin Smith

    2010-01-01

    Perceptions concerning training and development continue to appear in practitioner literature; however, the fact that those perceptions are not explored in HRD literature is a problem. The purpose of this study was to examine perspectives of participants in organization-sponsored training. A general qualitative methodology was utilized in this…

  9. MELANOCYTIC NEVUS DEVELOPMENT IN COLORADO CHILDREN BORN IN 1998: A LONGITUDINAL STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Lori A.; Mokrohisky, Stefan T.; Dellavalle, Robert P.; Asdigian, Nancy; Aalborg, Jenny; Byers, Tim E.; Zeng, Chan; Barón, Anna E.; Burch, Joanna M.; Morelli, Joseph G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To describe the development of nevi from age of 3 to 8 in a birth cohort of children in Colorado, United States. Design Longitudinal observational study. Setting Large managed care organization, university, private primary care practices. Participants Annual convenience samples of children born in 1998, n= 137 to 870 (participation rates 19% to 76%). Recruitment through managed care organization, private primary care practices and community settings. Main Outcome Measures Total whole body nevus counts, nevus counts by size (< 2mm, 2 to <5 mm, ? 5mm), nevus counts for chronically and intermittently exposed body sites. Results Non-Hispanic white children had significantly more nevi than other racial/ethnic groups, and developed an average of 4-6 new nevi per year from age 3 to 8. Non-Hispanic white males had significantly more nevi than females beginning at age 6 (median 21 [inter-quartile range 12 – 30] vs. 17 [inter-quartile range 9 – 26], p=.002). This difference was due to nevi < 2mm and nevi in chronically exposed body sites. Development of new nevi leveled off in chronically exposed body sites at age 7, at a higher level for males than females. Conclusions Children in Colorado developed more small nevi and fewer larger nevi compared to children in other regions of the world, highlighting the importance of studying nevus development in various locations where sun exposure patterns and behavioral norms vary. The gender difference in nevus development could be due to variation in sun exposure and/or a biological predisposition of males to develop more nevi. Studies of nevus development can aid in the understanding of the complicated relationship between nevus development and malignant melanoma. PMID:19221259

  10. Multiple-Indicator Multilevel Growth Model: A Solution to Multiple Methodological Challenges in Longitudinal Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amery D. Wu; Yan Liu; Anne M. Gadermann; Bruno D. Zumbo

    2010-01-01

    This paper described the versatility of the multiple-indicator multilevel (MIML) model in helping to resolve four common challenges\\u000a in studying growth using longitudinal data. These challenges are (1) how to deal with changes in measurement over time and\\u000a investigate temporal measurement invariance, (2) how to model residual dependence due to the nested nature of longitudinal\\u000a data, (3) how to model

  11. Gender and the Natural History of Self-Rated Health: A 59Year Longitudinal Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael E. McCullough; Jean-Philippe Laurenceau

    2004-01-01

    Self-ratings of health are uniquely predictive of morbidity and mortality, and they encompass people's evaluations of many medical, psychological, and social conditions in their lives. However, the longitudinal trajectory of self-rated health has not been evaluated to date. In the present study, 59-year longitudinal multilevel analyses (1940–1999) of data from 1,411 men and women revealed that self-rated health was relatively

  12. Application of random-effects pattern-mixture models for missing data in longitudinal studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald Hedeker; Robert D. Gibbons

    1997-01-01

    Random-effects regression models have become increasingly popular for analysis of longitudinal data. A key advantage of the random-effects approach is that it can be applied when subjects are not measured at the same number of timepoints. In this article we describe use of random-effects pattern-mixtur e models to further handle and describe the influence of missing data in longitudinal studies.

  13. Evolution of EEG Motor Rhythms after Spinal Cord Injury: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    López-Larraz, Eduardo; Montesano, Luis; Gil-Agudo, Ángel; Minguez, Javier; Oliviero, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) does not only produce a lack of sensory and motor function caudal to the level of injury, but it also leads to a progressive brain reorganization. Chronic SCI patients attempting to move their affected limbs present a significant reduction of brain activation in the motor cortex, which has been linked to the deafferentation. The aim of this work is to study the evolution of the motor-related brain activity during the first months after SCI. Eighteen subacute SCI patients were recruited to participate in bi-weekly experimental sessions during at least two months. Their EEG was recorded to analyze the temporal evolution of the event-related desynchronization (ERD) over the motor cortex, both during motor attempt and motor imagery of their paralyzed hands. The results show that the ? and ? ERD evolution after SCI is negatively correlated with the clinical progression of the patients during the first months after the injury. This work provides the first longitudinal study of the event-related desynchronization during the subacute phase of spinal cord injury. Furthermore, our findings reveal a strong association between the ERD changes and the clinical evolution of the patients. These results help to better understand the brain transformation after SCI, which is important to characterize the neuroplasticity mechanisms involved after this lesion and may lead to new strategies for rehabilitation and motor restoration of these patients. PMID:26177457

  14. Impact of combat deployment on psychological and relationship health: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Cigrang, Jeffrey A; Talcott, G Wayne; Tatum, JoLyn; Baker, Monty; Cassidy, Daniel; Sonnek, Scott; Snyder, Douglas K; Balderrama-Durbin, Christina; Heyman, Richard E; Smith Slep, Amy M

    2014-02-01

    Although previous research has indicated an elevated prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other mental health problems among veterans of Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom following deployment, most of this research has been cross-sectional and has focused on a limited range of military groups and outcome criteria. This investigation was a longitudinal study of U.S. Air Force security forces assigned to a year-long high-threat ground mission in Iraq to determine the degree to which airmen's emotional and behavioral health and committed relationships were adversely impacted by an extended deployment to a warzone. Participants were a cohort of 164 security forces airmen tasked to a 365-day deployment to train Iraqi police. Airmen completed study measures both prior to and 6-9 months following deployment. Rates of deterioration in individual and interpersonal adjustment were both significant and medium to large in magnitude of effect, d = 0.43 to 0.90. Results suggest that the negative effects of deployment are related to levels of traumatic experiences and do not spontaneously remit within the first 6-9 months following return from deployment-particularly among those service members having relatively lower levels of social support. PMID:24464429

  15. ADHD symptoms, academic achievement, self-perception of academic competence and future orientation: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Scholtens, Sara; Rydell, Ann-Margret; Yang-Wallentin, Fan

    2013-06-01

    In the investigation of the effect of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms on school careers there is a need to study the role of adolescent and childhood ADHD symptoms and academic achievement, and to incorporate measures that include the individual's perspective. Our aim was to gain an overview of the long-term development of school careers in relation to ADHD symptoms. We studied associations between ADHD symptoms and academic achievement at different time-points and future orientation at the end of high school, and assessed the role of self-perceptions of academic competence in these associations. Participants were 192 children (47% girls) with a range of ADHD symptoms taken from a community sample. Collecting data at three time points, in 6th, 11th and 12th grade we tested a structural equation model. Results showed that ADHD symptoms in 6th grade negatively affected academic achievement concurrently and longitudinally. ADHD symptoms in 11th grade negatively affected concurrent academic achievement and academic self-perception and future orientation in 12th grade. Academic achievement had a positive influence on academic self-perception and future orientation. Given the other factors, self-perception of academic competence did not contribute to outcomes. We concluded that early ADHD symptoms may cast long shadows on young people's academic progress. This happens mainly by way of stability in symptoms and relations to early low academic achievement. PMID:23510262

  16. A longitudinal study on the development of moral judgement in Korean nursing students.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Soon; Park, Jee-Won; Son, Youn-Jung; Han, Sung-Suk

    2004-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the development of moral judgement in 37 nursin students attending a university in Suwon, Korea. The participants completed the Korean version of the Defining Issues Test to allow analysis of their level of moral judgement. The development of moral judgement was quantified using 'the moral development score' at each stage (i.e. the six stages detailed by Kohlberg) and the 'P(%) score' (a measure of the overall moral judgement level). The results were as follows: (1) the moral development score for stage 5A was consistently the highest across the four years of the students' course, showing significant differences in some sociodemographic factors including home, birth order and monthly income; and (2) the P(%) score was higher in fourth-year (47.47 +/- 11.21) than in first-year (46.13 +/- 9.73) students. There was no significant difference in the P(%) score according to sociodemographic factors. Further studies will examine in detail the correlation between curriculum and moral judgement development. We suggest that courses in ethics education should be made more relevant. PMID:15176639

  17. Thyroid Function and Body Weight: A Community-Based Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Bjergved, Lena; Jørgensen, Torben; Perrild, Hans; Laurberg, Peter; Krejbjerg, Anne; Ovesen, Lars; Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Knudsen, Nils

    2014-01-01

    Objective Body weight and overt thyroid dysfunction are associated. Cross-sectional population-based studies have repeatedly found that thyroid hormone levels, even within the normal reference range, might be associated with body weight. However, for longitudinal data, the association is less clear. Thus, we tested the association between serum thyrotropin (TSH) and body weight in a community-based sample of adult persons followed for 11 years. Methods A random sample of 4,649 persons aged 18–65 years from a general population participated in the DanThyr study in 1997–8. We included 2,102 individuals who participated at 11-year follow-up, without current or former treatment for thyroid disease and with measurements of TSH and weight at both examinations. Multiple linear regression models were used, stratified by sex and adjusted for age, smoking status, and leisure time physical activity. Results Baseline TSH concentration was not associated with change in weight (women, P?=?0.17; men, P?=?0.72), and baseline body mass index (BMI) was not associated with change in TSH (women, P?=?0.21; men, P?=?0.85). Change in serum TSH and change in weight were significantly associated in both sexes. Weight increased by 0.3 kg (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.1, 0.4, P?=?0.005) in women and 0.8 kg (95% CI 0.1, 1.4, P?=?0.02) in men for every one unit TSH (mU/L) increase. Conclusions TSH levels were not a determinant of future weight changes, and BMI was not a determinant for TSH changes, but an association between weight change and TSH change was present. PMID:24728291

  18. The longitudinal BELLA study: design, methods and first results on the course of mental health problems.

    PubMed

    Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Otto, Christiane; Kriston, Levente; Rothenberger, Aribert; Döpfner, Manfred; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Barkmann, Claus; Schön, Gerhard; Hölling, Heike; Schulte-Markwort, Michael; Klasen, Fionna

    2015-06-01

    The high prevalence of mental health problems (MHP) in childhood and adolescence is a global health challenge of the 21st century. Information about age of onset, persistence and development of MHP in young people is necessary to implement effective prevention and intervention strategies. We describe the design and methods of the longitudinal BELLA study, which investigates developmental trajectories of MHP from childhood into adulthood, their determinants, and the utilisation of mental health services. First results on the developmental course of MHP in children and adolescents are reported over a 6-year period. The BELLA study is the mental health module of the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey for children and adolescents (KiGGS). BELLA examines the mental health and well-being of children and adolescents aged 7-17 years (a representative subsample of KiGGS, n = 2,863 at baseline). Standardised screening measures served to identify MHP at baseline and at follow-ups (1, 2, and 6 years later). Among children and adolescents participating at all measurement points (n = 1,255), 10 % showed clinically significant MHP at baseline (n = 130). Over the 6-year period, 74.3 % showed no signs of MHP (n = 933), 15.5 % had remitted (n = 194), 2.9 % showed persistent (n = 36) and 7.3 % acute or recurrent MHP (n = 92). Overall, MHP were more likely to occur between the age of 7 and 12 and after the age of 19 years. Regarding mental health service use, 33 % of the participants with acute or recurrent MHP (n = 30) and 63.9 % with persistent MHP used mental health services (n = 23). Mental health problems in children and adolescents have a high risk to persist into adulthood. In children and adolescents a low rate of mental health service use was observed, even among those with mental health problems. PMID:25428179

  19. What Predicts Adjustment among College Students? A Longitudinal Panel Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Mary E.; Wilson, Gregory S.; Yamnitz, Ben

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Researchers have previously reported that law students and medical students experience significant distress during their first year. The authors suspected that freshmen undergraduates might experience similar distress in their transition to college. Participants: They surveyed 242 undergraduate freshmen at the beginning and end of their…

  20. Reasons for participating and genetic information needs among racially and ethnically diverse biobank participants: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Streicher, Samantha A; Sanderson, Saskia C; Jabs, Ethylin Wang; Diefenbach, Michael; Smirnoff, Meg; Peter, Inga; Horowitz, Carol R; Brenner, Barbara; Richardson, Lynne D

    2011-09-01

    In order for DNA biobanks to be a valuable reservoir of genetic information, large numbers of participants from all racial and ethnic backgrounds need to be recruited. This study explored reasons for participating in a new biobank among primarily Hispanic and African American individuals, as well as their general attitudes towards genetic research, and their views on obtaining genetic tests. Focus groups were conducted with Mount Sinai Biobank participants recruited from predominantly lower income, minority communities. The topic guide included questions on The Mount Sinai Biobank, genetic research, and genetic testing. All focus groups were audio recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using thematic analysis. The six focus groups comprised 43 participants: 39 females and four males, aged 27-76 years, with a median household income category of $20,000-$39,999. Twenty-one participants were Hispanic, 20 African American, one Asian, and one White. Participants' reasons for participating in the biobank included altruism, personal and family benefit, and general curiosity. Although there was evidence of conflation between genetic research and genetic testing, most participants held positive views of genetic research and expressed interest in receiving personal genetic test results. Participants wanted to learn more about genetic research and suggested various venues such as health fairs for disseminating information. Participation in biobanks by racial and ethnic minorities is apparently driven by altruism, and desire for personal or collective health benefits. Participants had generally positive attitudes, limited understanding of genetics and genetic research, and made useful suggestions regarding information dissemination mechanisms. PMID:22109822

  1. Ten-Year Retrospective Longitudinal-Study of Student Perspectives on Value of REU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, T. F.; Slater, S. J.

    2013-12-01

    For more than two decades, federal agencies have been enthusiastically supporting summer research experiences for undergraduates. These REU programs are tacitly intended to increase retention and provide "an important educational experience" for undergraduates, particularly women, minorities and underrepresented groups. Numerous authors (viz., Laursen, Lopatto, Dolan, among many others) have enthusiastically described positive impacts of summer REU programs from exit interview data. These results include enhanced persistence to pursue STEM careers and confirmed desire to attend graduate school in the field targeted by a particular REU. Perhaps surprisingly, negative student experiences are rarely described in the scholarly literature, but do appear in more informal publications (viz., Gueterma, 2007). One wonders how REU alumni, looking back over their entire collective portfolio of experiences, now perceive the educational value of their REU experience relative to their other educational experiences. To obtain a backwards-looking, reflective description from REU alumni on the value of their REU experiences, we conducted a 10-year, two-stage study was designed to explore the ways in which the REU acted as an educational experience for 51 women from a single geoscience sub-discipline. The first phase was an ex post facto longitudinal analysis of data, including multiple interviews with each participant during their REU, annual open-ended alumni surveys, faculty interviews, and extensive field notes, over a 10-year period. This analysis informed the second phase, a clinical interview. Over 10 hours of interviews with 8 participants were conducted and analyzed. These 8 participants were selected to represent a variety of career stages, and for their potential to reflect on a wide variety of educational experiences. Results from the interviews, done many years after their REU experience, indicate that the interviewees' REU did not provide a substantive educational experience related to the nature of scientific work, the scientific process, or the culture of academia when considered in a comparative context of students' other educational experiences. Results further indicated that the REU did not serve to transform participants' conceptions about themselves as situated in science, and learning gains with regard to other aspects of the self, were somewhat limited. Instead, the data suggests that these women arrived at the REU with pre-existing and remarkably strong conceptions in these areas, and that the REU did not functional to alter those states. These conceptions were frequently the result of interactions with mentors/scientists from middle school until well into the undergraduate period.

  2. Spouse health status, depressed affect, and resilience in mid and late life: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Bookwala, Jamila

    2014-04-01

    This study used longitudinal data to examine the effects of spousal illness on depressive symptoms among middle-aged and older married individuals and the extent to which the adverse effects of illness in a spouse were mitigated by 2 psychological resources, mastery and self-esteem. Using 1,704 married participants who were 51 years of age on average, depressive symptoms were compared in 4 groups varying in their experience of spousal health transitions: those whose spouse remained ill at T1 and T2, those whose spouse declined in health from T1 to T2, those whose spouse's health improved from T1 to T2, and those whose spouse remained healthy at both time points. Mixed analyses of covariance showed that, as hypothesized, having a spouse who became or remained ill over time was linked to greater depressed affect by T2, whereas having a spouse improve in health was associated with a decline in depressive symptomatology. Moderated regression analyses indicated that while higher mastery and self-esteem were linked to lower depressed affect in general, these resources were especially protective against depressed affect for those whose spouse remained ill at both time points. These findings are at the intersection of life course theory and the stress process model highlighting the contextual forces in and the interconnectedness of individual development as well as the plasticity and resilience evident in adaptation to stress during mid and late life. PMID:24364828

  3. Does Avoidant Coping Influence Young Adults’ Smoking?: A Ten-Year Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Schiff, Lara; Comstock, Bryan A.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Young adults who avoid their emotions may be at risk for starting smoking or not quitting smoking. This study investigated whether a preliminary measure of avoidant coping longitudinally predicts young adults’ smoking escalation and cessation. Methods: In a sample of the 3,305 participants, originally from Washington State, a preliminary measure of self-reported avoidant coping at age 18 was used to predict both smoking escalation and cessation at ages 20 and 28 with both probability and logistic regression models (10-year retention: 98.5%). Results: Individuals who scored high on avoidant coping at 18 were 2.52 (p = .001) times more likely to acquire smoking by 20. However, there was no evidence that avoidant coping at age 18 predicted smoking escalation at 28 or cessation for 20- and 28-year-olds. Conclusions: An avoidant coping style may have a short-term effect on young adults’ smoking acquisition. Future research using a precise and well-validated measure of avoidant coping is now needed to test this possibility. PMID:21543547

  4. Comparing Cognitive, Metacognitive, and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Models of Depression: a Longitudinal Study Survey.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Francisco J; Odriozola-González, Paula

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed the interrelationships between key constructs of cognitive therapy (CT; depressogenic schemas), metacognitive therapy (MCT; dysfunctional metacognitive beliefs), and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT; psychological inflexibility) in the prediction of depressive symptoms. With a lapse of nine months, 106 nonclinical participants responded twice to an anonymous online survey containing the following questionnaires: the Depression subscale of the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS), the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale Revised (DAS-R), the Positive beliefs, Negative beliefs and Need to control subscales of the Metacognitions Questionnaire-30 (MCQ-30), and the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire - II (AAQ-II). Results showed that when controlling for baseline levels of depressive symptoms and demographic variables, psychological inflexibility longitudinally mediated the effect of depressogenic schemas (path ab = .023, SE = .010; 95% BC CI [.008, .048]) and dysfunctional metacognitive beliefs on depressive symptoms (positive metacognitive beliefs: path ab = .052, SE = .031; 95% BC CI [.005, .134]; negative metacognitive beliefs: path ab = .087, SE = .049; 95% BC CI [.016, .214]; need to control: path ab = .087, SE = .051; 95% BC CI [.013, .220]). Results are discussed emphasizing the role of psychological inflexibility in the CT and MCT models of depression. PMID:26076977

  5. Changes in flow experience among occupational therapy students: a 1-year longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this 1-year longitudinal study is to investigate the change in flow experience among occupational therapy students (OTS). Methods: In December 2012, we prospectively recruited 97 OTS from the Department of Occupational Therapy, Kibi International University. To assess flow experience in daily life, we used the Flow Experience Checklist. Results: The dataset included 87 OTS, of which 75 participated in the assessment at 1 year (follow-up rate, 86.2%). The mean age at baseline of 45 male and 30 female OTS was 19.59±1.1 years (range, 18 to 24 years). A comparison of the ‘frequency of flow experience’ showed significant differences between baseline values and those after 1 year (December 2013) among male OTS (P<0.05). Conclusion: The present results indicate that, for male OTS, the frequency of flow was significantly reduced after 1 year compared with baseline values. This finding suggests the need for further education to increase the frequency of flow among male OTS. PMID:25043928

  6. Associations between Childhood Body Size, Composition, Blood Pressure and Adult Cardiac Structure: The Fels Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Sabo, Roy T.; Yen, Miao-Shan; Daniels, Stephen; Sun, Shumei S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether childhood body size, composition and blood pressure are associated with adult cardiac structure by estimating childhood “age of divergence.” Methods 385 female and 312 male participants in the Fels Longitudinal Study had echocardiographic measurements of left ventricular mass, relative wall thickness, and interventricular septal thickness. Also available were anthropometric measurements of body mass index, waist circumference, percentage body fat, fat free mass, total body fat, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures, taken in both childhood and adulthood. The age of divergence is estimated as the lowest age at which childhood measurements are significantly different between patients with low and high measurements of adult cardiac structure. Results Childhood body mass index is significantly associated with adult left ventricular mass (indexed by height) in men and women (ages of divergence: 7.5 years and 11.5 years, respectively), and with adult interventricular septal thickness in boys (age of divergence: 9 years). Childhood waist circumference indexed by height is associated with left ventricular mass (indexed by height) in boys (age of divergence: 8 years). Cardiac structure was in general not associated with childhood body composition and blood pressure. Conclusions Though results are affected by adult body size, composition and blood pressure, some aspects of adult cardiac structure may have their genesis in childhood body size. PMID:25191997

  7. A longitudinal study of conversations with parents about sex and dating during college.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Elizabeth M; Thorne, Avril; Zurbriggen, Eileen L

    2010-01-01

    Emerging adulthood is a time of sexual and romantic relationship development as well as change in the parent-child relationship. This study provides a longitudinal analysis of 30 young adults' (17 women, 13 men) sexual experiences, attitudes about sexuality and dating, and reported conversations with parents about sexuality and dating from the 1st and 4th years of college. Self-report questionnaires revealed increases in general closeness with parents, increases in sexual and dating experiences, and more sexually permissive as well as more gender stereotyped attitudes. Qualitative analyses of individual interviews indicated a movement from unilateral and restrictive sex-based topics to more reciprocal and relationship-focused conversations over time. Gender analyses revealed that young women reported more restrictive sex messages and young men more positive sex messages. Participants also described increased openness and comfort in talking about sexual topics with both mothers and fathers from the 1st to 4th year of college. Overall, the results suggest that prior findings of increased mutuality with parents during the college years extend to the traditionally taboo topic of sexuality. PMID:20053013

  8. Research participants' opinions on genetic research and reasons for participation: a Jackson Heart Study focus group analysis.

    PubMed

    Walker, Evelyn R; Nelson, Cheryl R; Antoine-LaVigne, Donna; Thigpen, Darcel T; Puggal, Mona A; Sarpong, Daniel E; Smith, Alice M

    2014-01-01

    The Jackson Heart Study (JHS) convened focus groups to engage the community in dialogue on participation in the National, Heart, Lung and Blood Institute's Candidate Gene Resource (CARe) project. CARe, a genome wide association and candidate gene study, required the release of participant phenotypic and genotypic data with storage at NIH for widespread distribution to qualified researchers. The authors wanted to assess the willingness of an African American community to participate in the genetics research, given the past history of bioethical misconduct in ethnic minority communities. The discussion produced the following specific issues of interest: reasons for participants' interest in genetics research; participants' knowledge about the JHS; and participants' knowledge about genetics research and its advantages and disadvantages. Training on genetic issues was also developed for the JHS community and staff. PMID:25065069

  9. Are patients after severe injury who drop out of a longitudinal study at high risk of mental disorder?

    PubMed

    Nishi, Daisuke; Matsuoka, Yutaka; Nakajima, Satomi; Noguchi, Hiroko; Kim, Yoshiharu; Kanba, Shigenobu; Schnyder, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    In longitudinal studies of traumatic stress, it is particularly important to examine the data for any differences between those who drop out and those who continue to participate, because reluctance to participate might reflect symptoms of avoidance frequently seen in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, whether those who drop out are at high risk of PTSD remains unclear. Over a 25-month period, 188 consecutive patients with motor vehicle accident (MVA)-related injuries admitted emergently were enrolled and followed for 4 to 6 weeks. Baseline characteristics were compared between subjects who did and did not participate in the follow-up study. At 4 to 6 weeks, 66 (35.1%) of the participants had dropped out. Bivariate analyses revealed that those who dropped out were likely to be men, alcohol drinkers, smokers, and unconscious just after MVA and to have fewer years of education, less severe injuries, less posttraumatic symptoms, and lower cooperativeness as assessed by the Temperament and Character Inventory. Logistic regression analysis revealed that male sex, unconsciousness during MVA, low cooperativeness, and less severe injuries were significant predictors of dropout. The literature says that male sex and unconsciousness just after MVA might be protective factors against MVA-related PTSD, whereas low cooperativeness is a risk factor for general mental problems. To summarize, it is expected that those who drop from the follow-up are unlikely to have MVA-related PTSD, but might have mental problems independent of injury. PMID:18555061

  10. Economic strain and well-being in late life: findings from an 18-year population-based longitudinal study of older Taiwanese adults

    PubMed Central

    Chiao, Chi; Weng, Li-Jen; Botticello, Amanda L.

    2012-01-01

    Background This study estimates the concurrent and longitudinal effects of perceived economic strain and socioeconomic status (SES) on well-being of older adults in Taiwan. Methods This study uses data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging, a nationally representative sample (n= 3602) of older adults aged 60 and above. Participants were interviewed and followed for 18 years. Individual well-being is measured by self-reported life satisfaction, psychological distress and perceived health status. Generalized linear modeling with the generalized estimating equation estimates is used to predict the relationships between perceived economic strain, SES and well-being cross-sectionally and longitudinally, controlling for individual background characteristics, physical health and survival status. Results Older adults who experienced economic strain had significantly poorer well-being in comparison to older adults without strain, both cross-sectionally and longitudinally, controlling for SES and other covariates. In contrast, SES indicators did not consistently predict well-being in the cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Conclusions These findings suggest a strong, cumulative, negative effect of perceived economic strain on well-being among older adults. Health-care initiatives aiming at promoting well-being among older adults should consider the impact of economic strain, which may increase at the end of the life course and threaten health and functioning. PMID:21911419

  11. Psychosocial predictors of non-adherence to chronic medication: systematic review of longitudinal studies

    PubMed Central

    Zwikker, Hanneke E; van den Bemt, Bart J; Vriezekolk, Johanna E; van den Ende, Cornelia H; van Dulmen, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Several cross-sectional studies suggest that psychosocial factors are associated with non-adherence to chronic preventive maintenance medication (CPMM); however, results from longitudinal associations have not yet been systematically summarized. Therefore, the objective of this study was to systematically synthesize evidence of longitudinal associations between psychosocial predictors and CPMM non-adherence. Materials and methods PUBMED, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsychINFO databases were searched for studies meeting our inclusion criteria. The reference lists and the ISI Web of Knowledge of the included studies were checked. Studies were included if they had an English abstract, involved adult populations using CPMM living in Western countries, and if they investigated associations between psychosocial predictors and medication non-adherence using longitudinal designs. Data were extracted according to a literature-based extraction form. Study quality was independently judged by two researchers using a framework comprising six bias domains. Studies were considered to be of high quality if ?four domains were free of bias. Psychosocial predictors for non-adherence were categorized into five pre-defined categories: beliefs/cognitions; coping styles; social influences and social support; personality traits; and psychosocial well-being. A qualitative best evidence synthesis was performed to synthesize evidence of longitudinal associations between psychosocial predictors and CPMM non-adherence. Results Of 4,732 initially-identified studies, 30 (low-quality) studies were included in the systematic review. The qualitative best evidence synthesis demonstrated limited evidence for absence of a longitudinal association between CPMM non-adherence and the psychosocial categories. The strength of evidence for the review’s findings is limited by the low quality of included studies. Conclusion The results do not provide psychosocial targets for the development of new interventions in clinical practice. This review clearly demonstrates the need for high-quality, longitudinal research to identify psychosocial predictors of medication non-adherence. PMID:24851043

  12. Cumulative Risk, Cumulative Outcome: A 20-Year Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Leslie; Beitchman, Joseph; Gonzalez, Andrea; Young, Arlene; Wilson, Beth; Escobar, Michael; Chisholm, Vivienne; Brownlie, Elizabeth; Khoury, Jennifer E.; Ludmer, Jaclyn; Villani, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Cumulative risk (CR) models provide some of the most robust findings in the developmental literature, predicting numerous and varied outcomes. Typically, however, these outcomes are predicted one at a time, across different samples, using concurrent designs, longitudinal designs of short duration, or retrospective designs. We predicted that a single CR index, applied within a single sample, would prospectively predict diverse outcomes, i.e., depression, intelligence, school dropout, arrest, smoking, and physical disease from childhood to adulthood. Further, we predicted that number of risk factors would predict number of adverse outcomes (cumulative outcome; CO). We also predicted that early CR (assessed at age 5/6) explains variance in CO above and beyond that explained by subsequent risk (assessed at ages 12/13 and 19/20). The sample consisted of 284 individuals, 48% of whom were diagnosed with a speech/language disorder. Cumulative risk, assessed at 5/6-, 12/13-, and 19/20-years-old, predicted aforementioned outcomes at age 25/26 in every instance. Furthermore, number of risk factors was positively associated with number of negative outcomes. Finally, early risk accounted for variance beyond that explained by later risk in the prediction of CO. We discuss these findings in terms of five criteria posed by these data, positing a “mediated net of adversity” model, suggesting that CR may increase some central integrative factor, simultaneously augmenting risk across cognitive, quality of life, psychiatric and physical health outcomes. PMID:26030616

  13. Cumulative risk, cumulative outcome: a 20-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Leslie; Beitchman, Joseph; Gonzalez, Andrea; Young, Arlene; Wilson, Beth; Escobar, Michael; Chisholm, Vivienne; Brownlie, Elizabeth; Khoury, Jennifer E; Ludmer, Jaclyn; Villani, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Cumulative risk (CR) models provide some of the most robust findings in the developmental literature, predicting numerous and varied outcomes. Typically, however, these outcomes are predicted one at a time, across different samples, using concurrent designs, longitudinal designs of short duration, or retrospective designs. We predicted that a single CR index, applied within a single sample, would prospectively predict diverse outcomes, i.e., depression, intelligence, school dropout, arrest, smoking, and physical disease from childhood to adulthood. Further, we predicted that number of risk factors would predict number of adverse outcomes (cumulative outcome; CO). We also predicted that early CR (assessed at age 5/6) explains variance in CO above and beyond that explained by subsequent risk (assessed at ages 12/13 and 19/20). The sample consisted of 284 individuals, 48% of whom were diagnosed with a speech/language disorder. Cumulative risk, assessed at 5/6-, 12/13-, and 19/20-years-old, predicted aforementioned outcomes at age 25/26 in every instance. Furthermore, number of risk factors was positively associated with number of negative outcomes. Finally, early risk accounted for variance beyond that explained by later risk in the prediction of CO. We discuss these findings in terms of five criteria posed by these data, positing a "mediated net of adversity" model, suggesting that CR may increase some central integrative factor, simultaneously augmenting risk across cognitive, quality of life, psychiatric and physical health outcomes. PMID:26030616

  14. Early indicators of developmental risk: Rochester Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Sameroff, A; Seifer, R; Zax, M; Barocas, R

    1987-01-01

    Early indicators of schizophrenic outcomes were sought in a group of children of chronically ill schizophrenic women. A sample of pregnant women with varying degrees of mental illness were examined during the perinatal period and recruited into a 4-year longitudinal evaluation, which included cognitive, psychomotor, social, and emotional assessments at birth, 4, 12, 30, and 48 months of age. The mothers varied on mental health dimensions of diagnosis, severity of symptomatology, and chronicity of illness. Other factors included in the analyses were socioeconomic status (SES), race, sex of child, and family size. Hypotheses were tested to determine the relative impact of three sets of variables on the child's behavior: (1) specific maternal psychiatric diagnosis, (2) severity and chronicity of disturbance independent of diagnosis, and (3) general social status. We found that a specific maternal diagnosis of schizophrenia had the least impact. Neurotic-depressive mothers produced worse development in their children than schizophrenic or personality-disordered mothers. Both social status and severity/chronicity of illness showed a greater impact on development. Children of more severely or chronically ill mothers and lower-SES black children performed most poorly. These results do not support etiological models based on simple biological or environmental transmission of schizophrenia. The role of social and family environmental factors in predicting child cognitive and social-emotional competence was further evaluated using a multiple risk index. Children with high multiple environmental risk scores had much worse outcomes than children with low multiple risk scores. PMID:3629195

  15. Forbidden fruit? A longitudinal study of Christianity, sex, and marriage.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Willy

    2014-01-01

    Does religion still play a role in explorations of romance and sexuality among adolescents and young adults in a secular society such as Norway? Does it influence the type of living arrangements chosen? A population-based sample (n = 2,454) was followed longitudinally from their midteens to their late 20s using survey and register data. Christian involvement in teenage years was associated with subsequent less "precoital" exploration, less masturbation, delayed sexual intercourse, and a smaller number of sex partners. However, there were no associations with prevalence of same-sex experiences. Christians also postponed initiating romantic relationships and chose marriage over cohabitation. Associations were reduced after controlling for confounding factors but remained significant. Some associations (for example, the form of residential union chosen) were present only in the most "active" Christians. In other areas, such as "precoital explorations" and the age at which intercourse is initiated, Christian norms seem to play a role in much broader segments of the population. The findings indicate that Christianity may continue to influence young Norwegians' experiences of sexuality and cohabitation more than has been expected. PMID:23631689

  16. BMI changes among marching artists: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Levy, Jacob J; Statham, Whitney J; VanDoren, Laura

    2013-12-01

    In a series of longitudinal analyses, we examined body mass index (BMI) of drum and bugle corps performers at the beginning (Time 1) and end (Time 2) of a competitive season and again at a 1-year follow-up (Time 3). Utilizing an archival database, BMI data were recorded for 501 marching arts performers, representing four world-class drum and bugle corps. Significant reductions in BMI were found between Time 1 and Time 2 for performers in all sections (i.e., brass, percussion, and color guard). Archival data from 92 performers, representing three world-class drum and bugle units, revealed BMI significantly increased from Time 2 to Time 3. In an effort to identify possible personal influences on the changes in BMI found between Times 2 and 3, 50 performers from one drum and bugle corps provided archival data on a measures of performers' athletic identity (i.e., the strength and exclusivity of one's identification with the athlete role) along with BMI. Correlational analyses revealed that performers' athletic identity negatively related to BMI change from Time 1 and Time 3 and Times 2 and 3 (i.e., stronger athletic identity, lower BMI change). Practical implications are discussed. PMID:24337036

  17. Determinants of workplace injury among Thai Cohort Study participants

    PubMed Central

    Berecki-Gisolf, Janneke; Tawatsupa, Benjawan; McClure, Roderick; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To explore individual determinants of workplace injury among Thai workers. Design Cross-sectional analysis of a large national cohort. Setting Thailand. Participants Thai Cohort Study participants who responded to the 2009 follow-up survey were included if they reported doing paid work or being self-employed (n=51?751). Outcome measures Self-reported injury incidence over the past 12?months was calculated. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to test associations between individual determinants and self-reported workplace injury. Results Workplace injuries were reported by 1317 study participants (2.5%); the incidence was 34 (95% CI 32 to 36)/1000 worker-years for men, and 18 (17–20) for women. Among men working ?41?h and earning <10?000 Baht, the injury rate was four times higher compared with men working <11?h and earning ?20?001 Baht; differences in injury rates were less pronounced in women. Multivariate modelling showed that working ?49?h/week (23%) and working for ?10?000 Bath/month (37%) were associated with workplace injury. The increase in injury risk with increased working hours did not exceed the risk expected from increased exposure. Conclusions Reductions in occupational injury rates could be achieved by limiting working hours to 48/week. Particularly for Thai low wage earners and those with longer workdays, there is a need for effective injury preventive programmes. PMID:23869104

  18. Family and Psychosocial Risk Factors in a Longitudinal Epidemiological Study of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuffe, Steven P.; McKeown, Robert E.; Addy, Cheryl L.; Garrison, Carol Z.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the association of family and social risk factors with psychopathology in a longitudinal study of adolescents. Method: From 1986 to 1988, 3,419 seventh through ninth graders were screened with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. The top decile scorers and a random sample of the remainder were interviewed…

  19. A Longitudinal Investigation into L2 Learners' Cognitive Processes during Study Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ren, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The present study longitudinally investigates the cognitive processes of advanced L2 learners engaged in a multimedia task that elicited status-equal and status-unequal refusals in English during their study abroad. Data were collected three times by retrospective verbal report from 20 Chinese learners who were studying abroad over the course of…

  20. Results and Implications of a 12Year Longitudinal Study of Science Concept Learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph D. Novak

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the methods and outcomes of a 12-year longitudinal study into the effects of an early intervention program, while reflecting back on changes that have occurred in approaches to research, learning and instruction since the preliminary inception stages of the study in the mid 1960s. We began the study to challenge the prevailing consensus at the time that

  1. Eighth Grade Algebra Acceleration: A Case Study of Longitudinal Effects through the High School Pipeline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partenheimer, Philip R.; Miller, Stephen K.

    This study features a program evaluation of a policy that allows gifted 8th grade mathematics students to take algebra. The study is longitudinal and looks at the effects of taking algebra in the 8th grade and the subsequent four years of mathematics in high school. Among the specific research questions in the study are: (1) To what degree do…

  2. Longitudinal Studies Using a "Natural Experiment" Design: The Case of Adoptees from Romanian Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael; Kumsta, Robert; Schlotz, Wolff; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the advantages and limitations of general population, high-risk and "natural experiment" longitudinal studies for studying psychological change. The English and Romanian Adoptees study is used as an example of a "natural experiment," and detailed findings are provided. Method: What is new is a focus on the young people who…

  3. The Skinny on Body Dissatisfaction: A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Girls and Boys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah Kate Bearman; Katherine Presnell; Erin Martinez; Eric Stice

    2006-01-01

    The present study tested whether theoretically derived risk factors predicted increases in body dissatisfaction and whether gender moderated these relations with data from a longitudinal study of 428 adolescent girls and boys because few prospective studies have examined these aims, despite evidence that body dissatisfaction increases risk for various psychiatric disturbances. Body dissatisfaction showed significant increases for girls and significant

  4. Results and Implications of a 12-Year Longitudinal Study of Science Concept Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Joseph D.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the methods and outcomes of a 12-year longitudinal study into the effects of an early intervention program, while reflecting back on changes that have occurred in approaches to research, learning and instruction since the preliminary inception stages of the study in the mid 1960s. We began the study to challenge the prevailing…

  5. A Longitudinal Study of Enhancing Critical Thinking and Reading Comprehension in Title I Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanTassel-Baska, Joyce; Bracken, Bruce; Feng, Annie; Brown, Elissa

    2009-01-01

    A longitudinal study of student growth gains was conducted in Title I schools to assess growth in reading comprehension and critical thinking. Results suggested that all students benefited from the intervention of Project Athena units of study designed for high-ability learners. In addition, the study suggested that the comparison curriculum also…

  6. A Longitudinal Study of Pubertal Timing and Extreme Body Change Behaviors among Adolescent Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Marita P.; Ricciardelli, Lina A.

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies have examined the prevalence of disordered eating and other health risk behaviors among adolescent boys and girls. However, these studies generally have not examined predictors of these behaviors, and have not embedded the investigations within a theoretical framework. This study employed a longitudinal design to evaluate the…

  7. An instrument for the assessment of diarrhoeal severity based on a longitudinal community-based study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gwenyth; Peñataro Yori, Pablo; Paredes Olortegui, Maribel; Caulfield, Laura E; Sack, David A; Fischer-Walker, Christa; Black, Robert E; Kosek, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Objective Diarrhoea is a significant contributer to morbidity and is among the leading causes of death of children living in poverty. As such, the incidence, duration and severity of diarrhoeal episodes in the household are often key variables of interest in a variety of community-based studies. However, there currently exists no means of defining diarrhoeal severity that are (A) specifically designed and adapted for community-based studies, (B) associated with poorer child outcomes and (C) agreed on by the majority of researchers. Clinical severity scores do exist and are used in healthcare settings, but these tend to focus on relatively moderate-to-severe dehydrating and dysenteric disease, require trained observation of the child and, given the variability of access and utilisation of healthcare, fail to sufficiently describe the spectrum of disease in the community setting. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Setting Santa Clara de Nanay, a rural community in the Northern Peruvian Amazon. Participants 442 infants and children 0–72?months of age. Main outcome measures Change in weight over 1-month intervals and change in length/height over 9-month intervals. Results Diarrhoeal episodes with symptoms of fever, anorexia, vomiting, greater number of liquid stools per day and greater number of total stools per day were associated with poorer weight gain compared with episodes without these symptoms. An instrument to measure the severity was constructed based on the duration of these symptoms over the course of a diarrhoeal episode. Conclusions In order to address limitations of existing diarrhoeal severity scores in the context of community-based studies, we propose an instrument comprised of diarrhoea-associated symptoms easily measured by community health workers and based on the association of these symptoms with poorer child growth. This instrument can be used to test the impact of interventions on the burden of diarrhoeal disease. PMID:24907244

  8. Predicting stress in first year medical students: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Stewart, S M; Betson, C; Lam, T H; Marshall, I B; Lee, P W; Wong, C M

    1997-05-01

    While there is ample documentation that medical training is stressful, less is known about predictive variables that might identify students who have the most difficulty in managing stress during medical training. Depression and anxiety in first year medical students were investigated in a longitudinal design. One-hundred and twenty-one medical students (81% of the class) were surveyed. The first survey took place immediately prior to the beginning of medical training (wave 1); the second survey was approximately 8 months after the beginning of classes (wave 2). Medical students who began their first year with relatively low 'A' level grades, high ratings of state anxiety and depression, high trait anxiety and low dispositional optimism, and reliance on avoidant coping strategies were found to be at higher risk for developing depression and anxiety symptoms at wave 2. Students reported increased concern about curriculum and environment, personal competence and endurance, and time to have a life outside medical school at wave 2, compared to their reports at wave 1. Increase in concerns correlated with an increase in depression and anxiety. At both surveys, use of avoidant coping strategies resulted in increased depression and anxiety; at wave 2, active coping and positive reinterpretation resulted in decreased depression and anxiety. These findings suggest characteristics of vulnerable students who might be identified early in their first year and provided with additional support. Educating students to expect an increase in concerns about environment and personal ability to manage the academic load might make these concerns less overwhelming. In addition, information about effective coping strategies (i.e. active coping efforts) and ineffective means of dealing with stress (avoidant coping efforts) might be helpful in preventing distress. PMID:9231132

  9. Psychosocial predictors of somatic symptoms in adolescents of parents with HIV: a six-year longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Bursch, B.; Lester, P.; Jiang, L.; Rotheram-Borus, M.J.; Weiss, R.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify salient parent and adolescent psychosocial factors related to somatic symptoms in adolescents. As part of a larger intervention study conducted in New York, 409 adolescents were recruited from 269 parents with HIV. A longitudinal model predicted adolescent somatization scores six years after baseline assessment. Adolescent somatic symptoms were assessed at baseline and at 3-month intervals for the first two years and then at 6-month intervals using the Brief Symptom Inventory. Baseline data from adolescents and parents were used to predict adolescent somatic symptoms. Variables related to increased adolescent somatic symptoms over six years included being younger and female; an increased number of adolescent medical hospitalizations; more stressful life events; adolescent perception of a highly rejecting parenting style; more parent-youth conflict; no experience of parental death; and parental distress over their own pain symptoms. Our findings extend the literature by virtue of the longitudinal design; inclusion of both parent and child variables in one statistical model; identification of study participants by their potentially stressful living condition rather than by disease or somatic symptom status; and inclusion of serious parental illness and death in the study. PMID:18576168

  10. Unbiased Longitudinal Processing of

    E-print Network

    Reuter, Martin

    Unbiased Longitudinal Processing of Structural MRI Data Longitudinal image processing procedures in longitudinal image processing, focusing on the introduction of bias, and describe the approaches we have taken to avoid them in the FreeSurfer longitudinal processing stream. Compared with cross-sectional studies

  11. Anticipated Survival and Health Behaviours in Older English Adults: Cross Sectional and Longitudinal Analysis of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    E-print Network

    Adams, Jean; Stamp, Elaine; Nettle, Daniel; Milne, Eugene M. G.; Jagger, Carol

    2015-03-23

    13. Marmot M, Banks J, Blundell R, Erens R, Lessof C, Nazroo J. English Longitudinal Study of Ageing: Wave 0 (1998, 1999 and 2001) and Waves 1–3 (2002–2007) [computer file]. 9th Edition Colchester, Essex: UK Data Archive [distributor]; SN: 5050; 2008... , 2007. 15. Marmot M, Banks J, Blundell R, Lessof C, Nazroo J. Health, wealth and lifestyles of the older population in England: the 2002 English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. London: Institute for Fiscal Studies, 2003. 16. Steel N, Huppert F, Mc...

  12. Large-Scale Genome-Wide Association Studies and Meta-Analyses of Longitudinal Change in Adult Lung Function

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Wenbo; Kowgier, Matthew; Loth, Daan W.; Soler Artigas, María; Joubert, Bonnie R.; Hodge, Emily; Gharib, Sina A.; Smith, Albert V.; Ruczinski, Ingo; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Mathias, Rasika A.; Harris, Tamara B.; Hansel, Nadia N.; Launer, Lenore J.; Barnes, Kathleen C.; Hansen, Joyanna G.; Albrecht, Eva; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Allerhand, Michael; Barr, R. Graham; Brusselle, Guy G.; Couper, David J.; Curjuric, Ivan; Davies, Gail; Deary, Ian J.; Dupuis, Josée; Fall, Tove; Foy, Millennia; Franceschini, Nora; Gao, Wei; Gläser, Sven; Gu, Xiangjun; Hancock, Dana B.; Heinrich, Joachim; Hofman, Albert; Imboden, Medea; Ingelsson, Erik; James, Alan; Karrasch, Stefan; Koch, Beate; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Kumar, Ashish; Lahousse, Lies; Li, Guo; Lind, Lars; Lindgren, Cecilia; Liu, Yongmei; Lohman, Kurt; Lumley, Thomas; McArdle, Wendy L.; Meibohm, Bernd; Morris, Andrew P.; Morrison, Alanna C.; Musk, Bill; North, Kari E.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rotter, Jerome I.; Schulz, Holger; Smith, Lewis J.; Sood, Akshay; Starr, John M.; Strachan, David P.; Teumer, Alexander; Uitterlinden, André G.; Völzke, Henry; Voorman, Arend; Wain, Louise V.; Wells, Martin T.; Wilk, Jemma B.; Williams, O. Dale; Heckbert, Susan R.; Stricker, Bruno H.; London, Stephanie J.; Fornage, Myriam; Tobin, Martin D.; O?Connor, George T.; Hall, Ian P.; Cassano, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous loci influencing cross-sectional lung function, but less is known about genes influencing longitudinal change in lung function. Methods We performed GWAS of the rate of change in forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) in 14 longitudinal, population-based cohort studies comprising 27,249 adults of European ancestry using linear mixed effects model and combined cohort-specific results using fixed effect meta-analysis to identify novel genetic loci associated with longitudinal change in lung function. Gene expression analyses were subsequently performed for identified genetic loci. As a secondary aim, we estimated the mean rate of decline in FEV1 by smoking pattern, irrespective of genotypes, across these 14 studies using meta-analysis. Results The overall meta-analysis produced suggestive evidence for association at the novel IL16/STARD5/TMC3 locus on chromosome 15 (P ?=? 5.71 × 10-7). In addition, meta-analysis using the five cohorts with ?3 FEV1 measurements per participant identified the novel ME3 locus on chromosome 11 (P ?=? 2.18 × 10-8) at genome-wide significance. Neither locus was associated with FEV1 decline in two additional cohort studies. We confirmed gene expression of IL16, STARD5, and ME3 in multiple lung tissues. Publicly available microarray data confirmed differential expression of all three genes in lung samples from COPD patients compared with controls. Irrespective of genotypes, the combined estimate for FEV1 decline was 26.9, 29.2 and 35.7 mL/year in never, former, and persistent smokers, respectively. Conclusions In this large-scale GWAS, we identified two novel genetic loci in association with the rate of change in FEV1 that harbor candidate genes with biologically plausible functional links to lung function. PMID:24983941

  13. LIFESPAN: A tool for the computer-aided design of longitudinal studies

    PubMed Central

    Brandmaier, Andreas M.; von Oertzen, Timo; Ghisletta, Paolo; Hertzog, Christopher; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2015-01-01

    Researchers planning a longitudinal study typically search, more or less informally, a multivariate space of possible study designs that include dimensions such as the hypothesized true variance in change, indicator reliability, the number and spacing of measurement occasions, total study time, and sample size. The main search goal is to select a research design that best addresses the guiding questions and hypotheses of the planned study while heeding applicable external conditions and constraints, including time, money, feasibility, and ethical considerations. Because longitudinal study selection ultimately requires optimization under constraints, it is amenable to the general operating principles of optimization in computer-aided design. Based on power equivalence theory (MacCallum et al., 2010; von Oertzen, 2010), we propose a computational framework to promote more systematic searches within the study design space. Starting with an initial design, the proposed framework generates a set of alternative models with equal statistical power to detect hypothesized effects, and delineates trade-off relations among relevant parameters, such as total study time and the number of measurement occasions. We present LIFESPAN (Longitudinal Interactive Front End Study Planner), which implements this framework. LIFESPAN boosts the efficiency, breadth, and precision of the search for optimal longitudinal designs. Its initial version, which is freely available at http://www.brandmaier.de/lifespan, is geared toward the power to detect variance in change as specified in a linear latent growth curve model. PMID:25852596

  14. Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study: 1996-2001 (BPS:1996/2001) Methodology Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wine, Jennifer S.; Heuer, Ruth E.; Wheeless, Sara C.; Francis, Talbric L.; Franklin, Jeff W.; Dudley, Kristin M.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the procedures and results of the full-scale Implementation of the final followup interview with the Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study 1996/2001. This study follows a cohort first interviewed in 1996 in their first year of postsecondary education. (SLD)

  15. Continuing and Ceasing Leisure Activities in Later Life: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strain, Laurel A.; Grabusic, Carmen C.; Searle, Mark S.; Dunn, Nicole J.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined changes in leisure activities of older adults over an 8-year period, and associated sociodemographic and health characteristics. Design and Methods: Data were from a longitudinal study conducted in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada; 380 respondents were interviewed in-person in both 1985 and 1993. Changes in ten specific…

  16. Evidence for a General ADHD Factor from a Longitudinal General School Population Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Normand, Sebastien; Flora, David B.; Toplak, Maggie E.; Tannock, Rosemary

    2012-01-01

    Recent factor analytic studies in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have shown that hierarchical models provide a better fit of ADHD symptoms than correlated models. A hierarchical model includes a general ADHD factor and specific factors for inattention, and hyperactivity/impulsivity. The aim of this 12-month longitudinal study was…

  17. Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence, Peer Relations, and Risk for Internalizing Behaviors: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathleen Camacho; Miriam K. Ehrensaft; Patricia Cohen

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines the quality of peer relations as a mediator between exposure to IPV (intimate partner violence) and internalizing behaviors in a sample of 129 preadolescents and adolescents (ages 10-18), who were interviewed via telephone as part of a multigenerational, prospective, longitudinal study. Relational victimization is also examined as a moderator of IPV exposure on internalizing behaviors. Results

  18. The Longitudinal Study of Adult Learning: Challenging Assumptions. Research Brief. Perspectives on Literacy and Essential Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reder, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Professor Stephen Reder presented the Longitudinal Study of Adult Learning (LSAL) at The Centre's 2011 Fall Institute--IALS: Its Meaning and Impact for Policy and Practice--whose findings had implications far beyond assessment. Based on evidence from the ten-year study of more than a thousand adult high school drop-outs, Dr. Reder challenges many…

  19. The Relationship between Working Memory for Serial Order and Numerical Development: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attout, Lucie; Noël, Marie-Pascale; Majerus, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Despite numerous studies, the link between verbal working memory (WM) and calculation abilities remains poorly understood. The present longitudinal study focuses specifically on the role of serial order retention capacities, based on recent findings suggesting a link between ordinal processing in verbal WM and numerical processing tasks. Children…

  20. Conditions for Ubiquitous Computing: What Can Be Learned from a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lei, Jing

    2010-01-01

    Based on survey data and interview data collected over four academic years, this longitudinal study examined how a ubiquitous computing project evolved along with the changes in teachers, students, the human infrastructure, and technology infrastructure in the school. This study also investigated what conditions were necessary for successful…

  1. Development of dribbling in talented youth soccer players aged 12–19 years: A longitudinal study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara C. H. Huijgen; Marije T. Elferink-Gemser; Wendy Post; Chris Visscher

    2010-01-01

    The aims of the current study were to assess the development and determine the underlying mechanisms of sprinting and dribbling needed to compete at the highest level in youth soccer. Talented soccer players aged 12–19 years (n = 267) were measured on a yearly basis in a longitudinal study over 7 years, resulting in 519 measurements. Two field tests, the Shuttle Sprint

  2. Prospective Prediction of Nonsuicidal Self-Injury: A 1-Year Longitudinal Study in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Catherine R.; Klonsky, E. David

    2011-01-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) has become a significant public health problem. Although numerous studies have examined cross-sectional psychological correlates of NSSI, there has been little research examining predictors of NSSI over time. The present study examined cross-sectional and longitudinal correlates of NSSI in 81 young adult…

  3. Computer-Assisted Interventions Targeting Reading Skills of Children with Reading Disabilities--A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falth, Linda; Gustafson, Stefan; Tjus, Tomas; Heimann, Mikael; Svensson, Idor

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of three computerized interventions on the reading skills of children with reading disabilities in Grade 2. This longitudinal intervention study included five test sessions over 1 year. Two test points occur before the intervention, and three afterwards. The last follow-up was conducted 1…

  4. Open Access Series of Imaging Studies: Longitudinal MRI Data in Nondemented and Demented Older Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel S. Marcus; Anthony F. Fotenos; John G. Csernansky; John C. Morris; Randy L. Buckner

    2010-01-01

    The Open Access Series of Imaging Studies is a series of neuroimaging data sets that are publicly available for study and analysis. The present MRI data set consists of a longitudinal collection of 150 subjects aged 60 to 96 years all acquired on the same scanner using identical sequences. Each subject was scanned on two or more visits, separated by

  5. The Stability of Genetic Determination from Age 2 to Age 9: A Longitudinal Twin Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lytton, Hugh; And Others

    A longitudinal investigation of the social and cognitive development of male twins was conducted when twins were 2.5 years of age, and again when they were 8- to 10-years-old. This study was designed to re-examine the heritability of the traits studied at the earlier age and, thus, to address the question of the stability of genetic determination.…

  6. A Longitudinal Study of Environmental and Outdoor Education: A Cultural Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tal, Tali; Morag, Orly

    2013-01-01

    In this case-study, we present a longitudinal study of one elementary (grades 1-6) school's environmental education (EE) in order to understand the ways in which the school culture supports outdoor EE as a critical component of their science education program. The school, which was known for its school-based EE curriculum that encompasses an…

  7. A Longitudinal Study of the Determinants and Outcomes of Career Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carless, Sally A.; Arnup, Jessica L.

    2011-01-01

    The present longitudinal field study investigated the antecedents and consequences of an actual career change. The framework for this study was Rhodes and Doering's (1983) model of career change. We examined the effect of individual and organisational characteristics on career change behaviour. The individual characteristics were: traits (Openness…

  8. A Longitudinal Investigation of Project-Based Instruction and Student Achievement in High School Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Emily J.; Dickinson, Gail

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study focused on how project-based instruction (PBI) influenced secondary social studies students' academic achievement and promoted College and Career Readiness (CCR). We explored and compared student achievement in a PBI high school versus a traditional instruction high school within the same rural school district. While…

  9. Online Communication, Compulsive Internet Use, and Psychosocial Well-Being among Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.; Meerkerk, Gert-Jan; Vermulst, Ad A.; Spijkerman, Renske; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationships between adolescents' online communication and compulsive Internet use, depression, and loneliness. The study had a 2-wave longitudinal design with an interval of 6 months. The sample consisted of 663 students, 318 male and 345 female, ages 12 to 15 years. Questionnaires were administered in a…

  10. Stability of Interests after Severe Physical Disability: An 11Year Longitudinal Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel E. Rohe; J. Stuart Krause

    1998-01-01

    The longitudinal stability of vocational interests of males with traumatic spinal cord injury was studied over 11 years. In this follow-up study, a sample of 117 males with spinal cord injury who had completed the Strong Campbell Interest Inventory 11 years earlier (Rohe & Athelstan, 1985) was recontacted, and of the 96 available subjects, 79 (82%) completed the Strong Interest

  11. Information Behavior of People Diagnosed with a Chronic Serious Health Condition: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Jean, Beth Lenore

    2012-01-01

    This study consisted of a longitudinal investigation into the information behavior of people diagnosed with a particular chronic serious health condition, type 2 diabetes. This study sought to identify the factors that motivate or impede the information seeking and use of these individuals and to discover how these factors and their influences…

  12. A Longitudinal Study of English-Major Turkish Students' Pragmatic Awareness in an EFL Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulut, Dogan

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a longitudinal study which examined the development of the Turkish EFL learners' pragmatic awareness in an EFL context in a four-year period. The data which were originally collected from American native speakers and used by Bulut and Ozkan (2005) were also used in this study as the baseline to compare Turkish…

  13. Three-Year Reproducibility of Natural Head Position; A Longitudinal Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Nouri; M. Mir; A. Akbarzadeh; A. Marami

    2006-01-01

    Statement of problem: Few longitudinal studies have evaluated the reproducibility of natural head position (NHP) with more than six months follow-up. Purpose: The present investigation was conducted to estimate the reproducibility of NHP in adult cases after three years. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was performed on 27 volunteer dental students, 19-29 years of age. One radiograph and two

  14. Latino Parental Involvement in Kindergarten: Findings from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durand, Tina M.

    2011-01-01

    Parental involvement in children's schooling is an important component of children's early school success. Few studies have examined this construct exclusively among Latino families. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K), the present investigation (N = 2,051) explored relations between Latino parents' home and school…

  15. A longitudinal study of emoticon use in text messaging from smartphones Chad C. Tossell a,

    E-print Network

    Mellor-Crummey, John

    A longitudinal study of emoticon use in text messaging from smartphones Chad C. Tossell a, , Philip Text messaging Smartphone Emotion Mediated communication a b s t r a c t Our goal in the present study was to understand how emoticons are used in text messaging and, in par- ticular, how genders differed

  16. Dynamics of Complexity and Accuracy: A Longitudinal Case Study of Advanced Untutored Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polat, Brittany; Kim, Youjin

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal case study follows a dynamic systems approach to investigate an under-studied research area in second language acquisition, the development of complexity and accuracy for an advanced untutored learner of English. Using the analytical tools of dynamic systems theory (Verspoor et al. 2011) within the framework of complexity,…

  17. Nonconventional Family Life-Styles and School Achievement: A 12-Year Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisner, Thomas S.; Garnier, Helen

    1992-01-01

    The effects on children's school achievement of countercultural nonconventional family organization and parental values were studied in a 12-year longitudinal study of 146 nonconventional families and 43 2-parent conventional families. Strong commitment to meaningful values about the family lifestyle can protect children from risks that can…

  18. Longitudinal Study of Nightmares in Children: Stability and Effect of Emotional Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schredl, Michael; Fricke-Oerkermann, Leonie; Mitschke, Alexander; Wiater, Alfred; Lehmkuhl, Gerd

    2009-01-01

    Nightmares are defined as dreams with strong negative emotions which awaken the dreamer and are common during childhood: cross-sectional data shows the highest prevalence rates between the ages of five and ten. The present longitudinal study was designed to study the stability of nightmares over the course of 2 years. Sleep questionnaires and…

  19. Rates of Bullying Perpetration and Victimisation: A Longitudinal Study of Secondary School Students in Victoria, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Tollit, Michelle; Kotevski, Aneta

    2012-01-01

    Bullying perpetration and victimisation are common issues confronting schools. To understand the extent of bullying in schools and differences in the experiences of boys and girls, longitudinal studies of different subtypes of bullying perpetration and victimisation are essential. The current study aims to describe the rates of bullying…

  20. The Acquisition of Auxiliary Syntax: A Longitudinal Elicitation Study. Part 2: The Modals and Auxiliary DO

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Caroline F.; Theakston, Anna L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The study of auxiliary acquisition is central to work on language development and has attracted theoretical work from both nativist and constructivist approaches. This study is part of a 2-part companion set that represents a unique attempt to trace the development of auxiliary syntax by using a longitudinal elicitation methodology. The…

  1. A Longitudinal Study of the Social and Academic Competence of Economically Disadvantaged Bilingual Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oades-Sese, Geraldine V.; Esquivel, Giselle B.; Kaliski, Pamela K.; Maniatis, Lisette

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study was conducted to gain understanding of the social-emotional and academic development of economically disadvantaged bilingual preschool children. In Study 1, the authors combined cognitive, psychosocial, and cultural-linguistic factors to determine profiles of social competence as measured by peer play. A person-centered…

  2. Learning Styles and Motivational Styles in Different Academic Contexts: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozen, Rasit; Eren, Altay

    2009-01-01

    In this study, individual differences among the first year undergraduate students' learning styles and motivational styles were examined in two different academic contexts. Changes in students' learning styles and motivational styles were also investigated through a longitudinal design over one academic year. The results of this study showed that…

  3. Effects of Race, Class, and Gender on Writing: Report from a Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternglass, Marilyn S.

    A study examined the effects of race, class, and gender on writing. Data from the 6-year longitudinal study was carried out from 1989 to 1995 at City College of City University of New York. Subjects were African-American, Latino, Asian, and White students enrolled in three composition classes, one at each of the two levels of basic writing and one…

  4. Violence against Pregnant Women Can Increase the Risk of Child Abuse: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Ko Ling; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Fong, Daniel Y. T.; Tiwari, Agnes; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ho, Pak Chung

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women on subsequent perpetration of child abuse and neglect (CAN) by parents; and to test the mediation effect of recent IPV on the link between IPV during pregnancy and subsequent CAN. Methods: This study was a longitudinal follow-up of a population-based study on…

  5. Variability in Fundamental Frequency during Speech in Prodromal and Incipient Parkinson's Disease: A Longitudinal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harel, Brian; Cannizzaro, Michael; Snyder, Peter J.

    2004-01-01

    Nearly two centuries ago, Parkinson (1817) first observed that a particular pattern of speech changes occur in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). Numerous studies have documented these changes using a wide variety of acoustic measures, and yet few studies have attempted to quantify any such changes longitudinally, through the early…

  6. Exposure to Parental Cigarette Smoking and Child Problem Behaviors: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Judith S.; Zhang, Chenshu; Fagan, Pebbles

    2008-01-01

    This study examined exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), a major public health problem. ETS has been found to be associated with an increased risk of adverse health effects in children. This study utilizes data from a community-based, longitudinal investigation examining the relation between children's exposure to ETS and later…

  7. Early Intervention and Juvenile Delinquency Prevention: Evidence from the Chicago Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Emily A.; Reynolds, Arthur J.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the role of an early educational intervention and child-, family-, peer-, and school-level predictors on court-reported juvenile delinquency. Data were provided from the Chicago Longitudinal Study, an ongoing investigation of the scholastic and social development of more than 1,500 low-income youths (93% of whom were…

  8. Dental caries and associated factors among Brazilian adolescents: a longitudinal study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leila Grando; Amorim Mendes; Maria Gabriela Haye Biazevic; Edgard Michel-Crosato; Maria Odete Amorim Mendes

    A decrease in caries experience among children has been observed in all countries. However, this subject has yet to be further investigated in adolescents. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and incidence of caries disease and determine possible factors associated to this condition among adolescents. A 2-phase longitudinal study was performed. The first phase comprised a

  9. Selective Attrition Effects in a Longitudinal Study of Adult Intelligence: Methodological Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsiske, Michael; Willis, Sherry L.

    Selective subject attrition from longitudinal study panels can bias estimates of developmental change. Particularly in studies of older adults, sampling effects can adversely affect attempts to estimate true ontogenetic change. Selective attrition effects were examined in 636 Pennsylvania adults (138 males, 498 females), aged 58-91, who were…

  10. Power of Models in Longitudinal Study: Findings from a Full-Crossed Simulation Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fang, Hua; Brooks, Gordon P.; Rizzo, Maria L.; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Barcikowski, Robert S.

    2009-01-01

    Because the power properties of traditional repeated measures and hierarchical multivariate linear models have not been clearly determined in the balanced design for longitudinal studies in the literature, the authors present a power comparison study of traditional repeated measures and hierarchical multivariate linear models under 3…

  11. A Longitudinal Study of Career Maturity of Korean Adolescents: The Effects of Personal and Contextual Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yon, Kyu Jin; Joeng, Ju-Ri; Goh, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal study is to examine the effects of personal factors and contextual determinants on the career maturity change of Korean adolescents over a 5-year period. This study used data from the Korea Youth Panel Survey which was administered to 3,449 junior high students from Grades 8 to 12, starting in 2003. A linear…

  12. Gait energetic efficiency in older adults with and without knee pain: results from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

    PubMed

    Ko, Seung-Uk; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2015-02-01

    With aging, customary gait patterns change and energetic efficiency declines, but the relationship between these alterations is not well understood. If gait characteristics that develop with aging explain part of the decline in energetic efficiency that occur in most aging individuals, then efforts to modify these characteristics could delay or prevent mobility limitation. This study characterizes gait patterns in older persons with and without knee pain and tests the hypothesis that changes in gait characteristics due to knee pain are associated with increased energetic cost of walking in older adults. Study participants were 364 men and 170 women aged 60 to 96 years enrolled in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA), of whom 86 had prevalent knee pain. Gait patterns were assessed at participant self-selected usual pace in the gait laboratory, and the energetic cost of walking was assessed by indirect calorimetry during self-selected usual pace walking over 2.5 min in a tiled corridor using a portable equipment. Participants with knee pain were less energetically efficient than those without pain (oxygen consumption 0.97 vs. 0.88 ml/(10 m?·?100 kg); p?=?0.002) and had slower gait speed and smaller range of motion (ROM) at the hip and knee joints (p?participants with knee pain and longer double support time and higher ankle ROM in participants without knee pain were associated with lower energetic efficiency (p?

  13. Maternal depressive symptoms across early childhood and asthma in school children: findings from a Longitudinal Australian Population Based Study.

    PubMed

    Giallo, Rebecca; Bahreinian, Salma; Brown, Stephanie; Cooklin, Amanda; Kingston, Dawn; Kozyrskyj, Anita

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence attesting to links between early life exposure to stress and childhood asthma. However, available evidence is largely based on small, genetically high risk samples. The aim of this study was to explore the associations between the course of maternal depressive symptoms across early childhood and childhood asthma in a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study of Australian children. Participants were 4164 children and their biological mothers from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Latent class analysis identified three trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms across four biennial waves from the first postnatal year to when children were 6-7 years: minimal symptoms (74.6%), sub-clinical symptoms (20.8%), and persistent and increasing high symptoms (4.6%). Logistic regression analyses revealed that childhood asthma at age 6-7 years was associated with persistent and increasing high depressive symptoms after accounting for known risk factors including smoking during pregnancy and maternal history of asthma (adjusted OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.61-3.45), p.001). Our findings from a nationally representative sample of Australian children provide empirical support for a relationship between maternal depressive symptoms across the early childhood period and childhood asthma. The burden of disease from childhood asthma may be reduced by strengthening efforts to promote maternal mental health in the early years of parenting. PMID:25811851

  14. Maternal Depressive Symptoms across Early Childhood and Asthma in School Children: Findings from a Longitudinal Australian Population Based Study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence attesting to links between early life exposure to stress and childhood asthma. However, available evidence is largely based on small, genetically high risk samples. The aim of this study was to explore the associations between the course of maternal depressive symptoms across early childhood and childhood asthma in a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study of Australian children. Participants were 4164 children and their biological mothers from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Latent class analysis identified three trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms across four biennial waves from the first postnatal year to when children were 6–7 years: minimal symptoms (74.6%), sub-clinical symptoms (20.8%), and persistent and increasing high symptoms (4.6%). Logistic regression analyses revealed that childhood asthma at age 6–7 years was associated with persistent and increasing high depressive symptoms after accounting for known risk factors including smoking during pregnancy and maternal history of asthma (adjusted OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.61–3.45), p.001). Our findings from a nationally representative sample of Australian children provide empirical support for a relationship between maternal depressive symptoms across the early childhood period and childhood asthma. The burden of disease from childhood asthma may be reduced by strengthening efforts to promote maternal mental health in the early years of parenting. PMID:25811851

  15. Psychosocial predictors of the onset of anxiety disorders in women: Results from a prospective 3-year longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Calkins, Amanda W.; Otto, Michael W.; Cohen, Lee S.; Soares, Claudio N.; Vitonis, Alison F.; Hearon, Bridget A.; Harlow, Bernard L.

    2009-01-01

    In a prospective, longitudinal, population-based study of 643 women participating in the Harvard Study of Moods and Cycles we examined whether psychosocial variables predicted a new or recurrent onset of an anxiety disorder. Presence of anxiety disorders was assessed every six months over three years via structured clinical interviews. Among individuals who had a new episode of anxiety, we confirmed previous findings that history of anxiety, increased anxiety sensitivity (the fear of anxiety related sensations), and increased neuroticism were significant predictors. We also found trend level support for assertiveness as a predictor of anxiety onset. However, of these variables, only history of anxiety and anxiety sensitivity provided unique prediction. We did not find evidence for negative life events as a predictor of onset of anxiety either alone or in interaction with other variables in a diathesis-stress model. These findings from a prospective longitudinal study are discussed in relation to the potential role of such predictors in primary or relapse prevention efforts. PMID:19699609

  16. Longitudinal Changes in Left Ventricular Stiffness: A Community-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Borlaug, Barry A.; Redfield, Margaret M.; Melenovsky, Vojtech; Kane, Garvan C.; Karon, Barry L.; Jacobsen, Steven J.; Rodeheffer, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cross sectional studies suggest that left ventricular (LV) and arterial elastance (stiffness) increase with age, but data examining longitudinal changes within human subjects are lacking. Additionally it remains unknown whether age-related LV stiffening is merely a reaction to arterial stiffening or caused by other processes. Methods and Results Comprehensive echo-Doppler cardiography was performed in 1402 subjects participating in a randomly-selected community-based study at two examinations separated by 4 years. From this population, 788 subjects had adequate paired data to determine LV end-systolic elastance (Ees), end-diastolic elastance (Eed) and effective arterial elastance (Ea). Over 4 years, blood pressure, Ea and LV mass decreased, coupled with significantly greater use of antihypertensive medications. However, despite reductions in arterial load, Ees increased by 14% (2.10±0.67 to 2.26±0.70 mmHg/ml, p<0.0001) and Eed increased by 8% (0.13±0.03 to 0.14±0.04 mmHg/ml, p<0.0001). Increases in Eed were greater in women than men, whereas Ees changes were similar. Age-related increases in Ees and Eed were correlated with changes in body weight, but were similar in subjects with or without cardiovascular disease. Changes in Ees were correlated with Eed (r=0.5, p<0.0001), but not with other measures of contractility, indicating that the increase in Ees was reflective of passive stiffening rather than enhanced systolic function. Conclusions Despite reductions in arterial load with medical therapy, LV systolic and diastolic stiffness increase over time in humans, particularly in women. In addition to blood pressure control, therapies targeting load-independent ventricular stiffening may be effective to treat and prevent age-associated cardiovascular diseases such as heart failure. PMID:23811963

  17. Low birth-weight and risk for major depression: a community-based longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Levine, Stephen Z

    2014-03-30

    The current study examines the association between low birth weight and risk for major depression from early adolescence to early adulthood. It accounts for eight documented confounders, and depression within families. Data were analyzed from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 on mothers and offspring. Major depression was assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale Short-Form (CES-D-SF) among offspring (N=3398) biannually, from 2000 to 2010 (aged 14-25). Competing models were examined with survival analysis and Generalized Estimated Equations (GEE). CES-D-SF based major depression was reported by 33.46% (n=1137) of participants. Among persons with very low birth weight (<1500 g), 47.5% (n=19/40) were classified with CES-D-SF depression (OR=1.81, 95% CI=0.97, 3.39). Similar results were found with survival analysis (HR=1.97, 95% CI=0.97, 4.01). Among multiple offspring families, GEE modeling showed a similar trend. On aggregate (unadjusted OR=2.46, 95% CI=1.07, 5.63; adjusted OR=2.43, 95% CI=0.94, 6.23), and within families of mothers with CES-D-SF depression (unadjusted OR=2.54, 95% CI=0.55, 11.66; adjusted OR=1.79, 95% CI=0.28, 11.42). Compelling evidence is lacking in favor of an association between very low birth weight (<1500 g), and suspected major depression from early adolescence to early adulthood after accounting for documented confounders. PMID:24485407

  18. Making a successful return to work: the UK burden of injury multicentre longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Kendrick, Denise; Vinogradova, Yana; Coupland, Carol; Christie, Nicola; Lyons, Ronan A; Towner, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Background Injuries are common and make a significant contribution to sickness absence, but little is known about problems experienced by injured people on return to work (RTW). Aim To quantify work problems on RTW and explore predictors of such problems. Design & setting Multicentre longitudinal study in four UK hospitals. Method Prospective study of injured participants aged 16–65 years who were employed or self-employed prior to the injury and had RTW at 1 or 4 months post injury. Results At 1 month, most (59%) had only made a partial RTW. By 4 months, 80% had fully RTW. Those who had partially RTW had problems related to physical tasks (work limited for median of 25% of time at 1 month, 18% at 4 months), time management (10% at 1 month, 20% at 4 months) and output demands (10% at 1 month, 15% at 4 months). Productivity losses were significantly greater among those with partial than full RTW at 1 month (median 3.3% versus 0.9%, P<0.001) and 4 months (median 4.6% versus 1.1% P = 0.03). Moderate/severe injuries (relative risk [RR] 1.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.35 to 2.77) and sports injuries (RR 1.73, 95% CI = 1.12 to 2.67) were associated with significantly greater productivity losses at 1 month while pre-existing long-term illnesses (RR 2.12, 95% CI = 1.38 to 3.27) and upper limb injuries (RR 1.64, 95% CI = 1.06 to 2.53) were at 4 months. Conclusion Injuries impact on successful RTW for at least 4 months. Those who have only partially RTW experience the most problems and GPs should pay particular attention to identifying work problems in this group and ways of minimising such problems. PMID:22520774

  19. Cultural measures associated with risky sexual behaviors among Latino youth in Southern California: A longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Thing, James P.; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Schwartz, Seth J.; Soto, Daniel W.; Unger, Jennifer B.

    2014-01-01

    Context Cultural variables have been associated with sexual risk behaviors among Latino youth, but findings across studies are inconsistent. Methods We analyzed data from a longitudinal study of Latino youth in Southern California followed from 2005–2012 to test whether cultural variables measured in high school were associated with sexual risk behaviors in emerging adulthood, and whether gender moderated these associations. We conducted logistic and ordinal regression analyses. Participants were 995 Latino youth. Results The cultural value of respect for parents was negatively associated with an earlier age at sexual debut (odds ratio, 0.8) and not using a condom at most recent sexual intercourse (0.8). U.S. cultural practices (a measure of acculturation) was positively associated with being sexually active (1.2), having concurrent sexual partners (1.5), and among males only, with a higher number of sexual partners (1.3). Second- and third- generation immigrant youth had lower odds of not using a condom at most recent sexual intercourse when compared to first-generation youth (0.6 and 0.5, respectively). Among females, a stronger endorsement of Latino cultural practices was associated with lower odds of more sexual partners (0.8). By contrast, among males, a stronger endorsement of Latino cultural practices was associated with higher odds of more sexual partners (1.4). Conclusions The cultural measures associated with Latino youth’s sexual behaviors differed across outcomes and by gender. Understanding how culture is related to the sexual behaviors of Latino youth may help inform the development of culturally-sensitive sexual health interventions. PMID:24786352

  20. Long term prognosis in preschool children with wheeze: longitudinal postal questionnaire study 1993-2004

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To follow a population of preschool children with and without parent reported wheeze over a period of 6-11 years to determine prognosis and its important predictive factors. Design Longitudinal series of five postal surveys based on the international study of asthma and allergies in childhood questionnaire carried out between 1993 and 2004. Setting Two general practice populations, south Manchester. Participants 628 children aged less than 5 years at recruitment and those with at least six years’ follow-up data. Main outcome measures Parent completed questionnaire data for respiratory symptoms and associated features. Results Of 628 children included in the study, 201 (32%) had parent reported wheeze at the first observation (baseline), of whom 27% also reported the symptom on the second occasion (persistent asthma). The only important baseline predictors of persistent asthma were exercise induced wheeze (odds ratio 3.94, 95% confidence interval 1.72 to 9.00) and a history of atopic disorders (4.44, 1.94 to 10.13). The presence of both predictors indicated a likelihood of 53.2% of developing asthma; if only one feature was present this decreased to 17.2%, whereas if neither was present the likelihood was 10.9%. Family history of asthma was not predictive of persistent asthma among children with preschool wheeze. Conclusion Using two simple predictive factors (baseline parent reported exercise induced wheeze and a history of atopic disorders), it is possible to estimate the likelihood of future asthma in children presenting with preschool wheeze. The absence of baseline exercise induced wheeze and a history of atopic disorders reduces the likelihood of subsequent asthma by a factor of five. PMID:18558639

  1. Longitudinal assessment of awareness in early-stage Alzheimer's disease using comparable questionnaire-based and performance-based measures: A prospective one-year follow-up study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Clare; B. A. Wilson

    2006-01-01

    Few studies of awareness in dementia have taken a longitudinal perspective, yet exploring the ways in which awareness changes over time may offer important information about the processes involved and the relationship between awareness and other variables. The present study explored in detail the patterns of change in awareness scores over time for a group of 12 participants with early-stage

  2. Astronaut Health Participant Summary Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Kathy; Krog, Ralph; Rodriguez, Seth; Wear, Mary; Volpe, Robert; Trevino, Gina; Eudy, Deborah; Parisian, Diane

    2011-01-01

    The Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health (LSAH) Participant Summary software captures data based on a custom information model designed to gather all relevant, discrete medical events for its study participants. This software provides a summarized view of the study participant s entire medical record. The manual collapsing of all the data in a participant s medical record into a summarized form eliminates redundancy, and allows for the capture of entire medical events. The coding tool could be incorporated into commercial electronic medical record software for use in areas like public health surveillance, hospital systems, clinics, and medical research programs.

  3. Neuroanatomical correlates of atrial fibrillation: a longitudinal MRI study

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Adnan I; Saed, Aveen; Tasneem, Nudrat; Adil, Malik M

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose To determine baseline volume and rate of volume change of whole brain, hippocampus, and entorhinal cortex in patients with atrial fibrillation. Methods We analyzed clinical and neuroimaging data collected as part of Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative in the United States and Canada. Patients with atrial fibrillation were identified based on baseline clinical/cognitive assessments, and age and gender-matched controls without atrial fibrillations were selected (1:1 ratio). All participants underwent 1.5 T structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at specified intervals (6 or 12 months) for 2–3 years. Results A total of 33 persons with atrial fibrillation were included. There was no difference in whole brain and ventricular volumes at baseline MRI between cases and controls. There was significantly lower entorhinal cortex volume on right (p = 0.01) and left (p = 0.01) sides in patients with atrial fibrillation. There was significantly lower volume for middle temporal lobes on right (p = 0.04) and left (p = 0.001) sides. The rate of progression of atrophy in entorhinal cortex and middle temporal lobes was not different between patients with atrial fibrillation and controls. Conclusions The association of atrial fibrillation with volume loss in entorhinal cortex and middle temporal lobes may provide new insights into pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation. PMID:25566337

  4. A longitudinal study of the development of attitudes and beliefs towards physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaughter, K. A.; Bates, S. P.; Galloway, R. K.

    2012-02-01

    Student success in a physics degree has been shown to depend on more than just performance in course assessment: important additional factors include student attitudes and beliefs about their subject. We have used an instrument (CLASS) that measures how student epistemologies evolve over the course of their undergraduate degree. Our previous work has sampled a cross-section of students at all levels across the physics undergraduate programme at Edinburgh in a single academic year, and found that student attitudes and beliefs remain essentially static. Here, we present fully longitudinal data collected over the past three years, where we track the evolution of the attitudes and beliefs of one group of students. We find broadly similar results: attitudes and beliefs remain surprisingly consistent over time. This suggests that a 'cross-sectional' or 'pseudo-longitudinal' study (collecting snapshot data in one year) is a valid methodology, rather than necessarily having to wait several years to accumulate truly longitudinal data.

  5. Intensity based methods for brain MRI longitudinal registration. A study on multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Diez, Yago; Oliver, Arnau; Cabezas, Mariano; Valverde, Sergi; Martí, Robert; Vilanova, Joan Carles; Ramió-Torrentà, Lluís; Rovira, Alex; Lladó, Xavier

    2014-07-01

    Registration is a key step in many automatic brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) applications. In this work we focus on longitudinal registration of brain MRI for Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients. First of all, we analyze the effect that MS lesions have on registration by synthetically eliminating some of the lesions. Our results show how a widely used method for longitudinal registration such as rigid registration is practically unconcerned by the presence of MS lesions while several non-rigid registration methods produce outputs that are significantly different. We then focus on assessing which is the best registration method for longitudinal MRI images of MS patients. In order to analyze the results obtained for all studied criteria, we use both descriptive statistics and statistical inference: one way ANOVA, pairwise t-tests and permutation tests. PMID:24338728

  6. The Direction of Longitudinal Associations Between Sleep Problems and Depression Symptoms: A Study of Twins Aged 8 and 10 Years

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Alice M.; Rijsdijk, Früuhling V.; Lau, Jennifer Y. F.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Eley, Thalia C.

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: To establish the direction and etiology of longitudinal associations between sleep problems and depression symptoms in children. Design: Data on twins aged 8 and 10 years were obtained. At assessments, parents completed the Child Sleep Habits Questionnaire, and twins completed the Children's Depression Inventory. Setting: Participants were mainly interviewed at the Institute of Psychiatry, London. Patients or Participants: Three hundred twin pairs initially enrolled in the study. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: A genetically informative cross-lagged model examined links between sleep and depression. Sleep problems at age 8 predicted depression at age 10 (partial regression coefficient [95% confidence intervals] = 0.10 [0.01-0.18]). The converse was not found. Stability of sleep problems across time was mainly due to genes (46% of the genetic influence on sleep at 10 was due to the same genetic influence on sleep aged 8). Stability of depression was mainly due to nonshared environmental influences (19% of the nonshared environmental influence on depression at 10 was due to the same nonshared environmental influence on depression at age 8). The cross-lagged association between sleep problems at 8 and depression at 10 years was largely due to genes, although this finding was nonsignificant. Conclusions: This study adds to our understanding of the temporal precedence of sleep problems and depression and the risks underlying their associations. There are implications regarding the value of specifying genes linked to sleep problems and potential opportunities for informing early intervention strategies in high-risk groups at key points in the progression to developing more serious problems. Citation: Gregory AM; Rijsdijk FV; Lau JYF; Dahl RE; Eley TC. The direction of longitudinal associations between sleep problems and depression symptoms: a study of twins aged 8 and 10 years. SLEEP 2009;32(2):189–199. PMID:19238806

  7. Study on longitudinal dispersion relation in one-dimensional relativistic plasma: Linear theory and Vlasov simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, H.; Wu, S. Z.; Zhou, C. T.; He, X. T. [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China) [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China); Key Laboratory of HEDP of the Ministry of Education, CAPT, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhu, S. P. [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China)] [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China)

    2013-09-15

    The dispersion relation of one-dimensional longitudinal plasma waves in relativistic homogeneous plasmas is investigated with both linear theory and Vlasov simulation in this paper. From the Vlasov-Poisson equations, the linear dispersion relation is derived for the proper one-dimensional Jüttner distribution. Numerically obtained linear dispersion relation as well as an approximate formula for plasma wave frequency in the long wavelength limit is given. The dispersion of longitudinal wave is also simulated with a relativistic Vlasov code. The real and imaginary parts of dispersion relation are well studied by varying wave number and plasma temperature. Simulation results are in agreement with established linear theory.

  8. The Perceptions of Interns: A Longitudinal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Sherry J.; Parker, R. Stephen; Pettijohn, Charles E.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined students' attitudes toward specific elements of an ongoing internship program. The study sample consisted of 351 student interns from 12 different colleges and universities. The results indicate that perceptions have remained relatively constant over the 10-year time frame studied and that internships provide a…

  9. Longitudinal gray matter contraction in three variants of primary progressive aphasia: A tenser-based morphometry study

    PubMed Central

    Brambati, Simona Maria; Amici, Serena; Racine, Caroline A.; Neuhaus, John; Miller, Zachary; Ogar, Jenny; Dronkers, Nina; Miller, Bruce L.; Rosen, Howard; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the pattern of longitudinal changes in cognition and anatomy in three variants of primary progressive aphasia (PPA). Eight patients with the non-fluent variant of PPA (nfvPPA), 13 patients with the semantic variant (svPPA), seven patients with the logopenic variant (lvPPA), and 29 age-matched, neurologically healthy controls were included in the study. All participants underwent longitudinal MRI, neuropsychological and language testing at baseline and at a 1-year follow-up. Tenser-based morphometry (TBM) was applied to T1-weighted MRI images in order to map the progression of gray and white matter atrophy over a 1-year period. Results showed that each patient group was characterized by a specific pattern of cognitive and anatomical changes. Specifically, nfvPPA patients showed gray matter atrophy progression in the left frontal and subcortical areas as well as a decline in motor speech and executive functions; svPPA patients presented atrophy progression in the medial and lateral temporal lobe and decline in semantic memory abilities; and lvPPA patients showed atrophy progression in lateral/posterior temporal and medial parietal regions with a decline in memory, sentence repetition and calculations. In addition, in all three variants, the white matter fibers underlying the abovementioned cortical areas underwent significant volume contraction over a 1-year period. Overall, these results indicate that the three PPA variants present distinct patterns of neuroanatomical contraction, which reflect their clinical and cognitive progression.

  10. Energy Metabolism and the Burden of Multimorbidity in Older Adults: Results From the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

    PubMed

    Fabbri, Elisa; An, Yang; Schrack, Jennifer A; Gonzalez-Freire, Marta; Zoli, Marco; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Guralnik, Jack M; Boyd, Cynthia M; Studenski, Stephanie A; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2014-11-18

    Excessively elevated resting metabolic rate (RMR) for persons of a certain age, sex, and body composition is a mortality risk factor. Whether elevated RMR constitutes an early marker of health deterioration in older adult has not been fully investigated. Using data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, we hypothesized that higher RMR (i) was cross-sectionally associated with higher multimorbidity and (ii) predicted higher multimorbidity in subsequent follow-ups. The analysis included 695 Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging participants, aged 60 or older at baseline, of whom 248 had follow-up data available 2 years later and 109 four years later. Multimorbidity was assessed as number of chronic diseases. RMR was measured by indirect calorimetry and was tested in regression analyses adjusted for covariates age, sex, and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry-measured total body fat mass and lean mass. Baseline RMR and multimorbidity were positively associated, independent of covariates (p = .002). Moreover, in a three-wave bivariate autoregressive cross-lagged model adjusted for covariates, higher prior RMR predicted greater future multimorbidity above and beyond the cross-sectional and autoregressive associations (p = .034). RMR higher than expected, given age, sex, and body composition, predicts future higher multimorbidity in older adults and may be used as early biomarker of impending health deterioration. Replication and the development of normative data are required for clinical translation. PMID:25409892

  11. Low Levels of Vitamin D and Worsening of Knee OA: Results from Two Longitudinal Studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To confirm reports that 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH D) deficiency is associated with an increased risk of joint space narrowing or cartilage loss in osteoarthritis (OA). Methods: We measured 25-OH D levels in subjects from two longitudinal cohort studies, the Framingham Osteoarthritis Stud...

  12. Bone Mineral Acquisition in Healthy Asian, Hispanic, Black, and Caucasian Youth: A Longitudinal Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LAURA K. BACHRACH; TREVOR HASTIE; MAY-CHOO WANG; BALASUBRAMANIAN NARASIMHAN; ROBERT MARCUS

    2010-01-01

    Ethnic and gender differences in bone mineral acquisition were examined in a longitudinal study of 423 healthy Asian, black, His- panic, and white males and females (aged 9 -25 yr). Bone mass of the spine, femoral neck, total hip, and whole body was measured annually for up to 4 yr by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Age-adjusted mean bone mineral curves

  13. The Relation between Morphological Awareness and Reading and Spelling in Greek: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittas, Evdokia; Nunes, Terezinha

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study is to examine the contribution of morphological awareness to the prediction of reading and spelling in Greek. The target group (N = 404) consisted of children, aged 6-9 years at the start of the project, who learn literacy in Cyprus. Because there are no standardized measures of morphological awareness for Greek…

  14. Predictors of the Acquisition and Portability of Transferable Skills: A Longitudinal Portuguese Case Study on Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocha, Magda

    2015-01-01

    The basis for this longitudinal study was to find the predictors of transferable skills acquisition and portability among university sophomore students. The method employed was the path analysis using as variables: (1) the theoretical framework of transferable skills representations (Evers and Rush in "Manag Learn" 27(4):275-300, 1996;…

  15. A Longitudinal Study of Assessing APA Writing Competence at a BSW Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokaliari, Efrosini D.; Brainerd, Mary; Roy, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Presented is a longitudinal study evaluating a Bachelor of Social Work writing program. The independent variable is a BSW curriculum in which social work courses include American Psychological Association 5th edition writing modules. In 2005, a baseline was established. From 2006 to 2010, a writing program was implemented. Using a brief rating…

  16. Female Bisexuality from Adolescence to Adulthood: Results from a 10-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Lisa M.

    2008-01-01

    Debates persist over whether bisexuality is a temporary stage of denial or transition, a stable "3rd type" of sexual orientation, or a heightened capacity for sexual fluidity. The present study uses 5 waves of longitudinal data collected from 79 lesbian, bisexual, and "unlabeled" women to evaluate these models. Both the "3rd orientation" and…

  17. Education Longitudinal Study of 2002: Base Year Data File User's Manual. NCES 2004-405

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingels, Steven J.; Pratt, Daniel J.; Rogers, James E.; Siegel, Peter H.; Stutts, Ellen S.

    2004-01-01

    This manual has been produced to familiarize data users with the procedures followed for data collection and processing for the base year of the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS:2002). It also provides the necessary documentation for use of the public-use data files, as they appear on the ELS:2002 base year Electronic Codebook (ECB). Most…

  18. Children's Theory of Mind, Self-Perceptions, and Peer Relations: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosacki, Sandra Leanne

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study explored Theory of Mind (ToM), self-perceptions, and teacher ratings of peer relations of 91 children (52 females, ages 6-8?years) drawn from two schools situated in a mainly Euro-Canadian, middle socioeconomic status, semi-rural central Canadian context. ToM, self-perceptions, and teacher ratings of peer relations were…

  19. A Longitudinal Study of Receptive Vocabulary Breadth Knowledge Growth and Vocabulary Fluency Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xian; Lu, Xiaofei

    2014-01-01

    This article reports results of a longitudinal study of vocabulary breadth knowledge growth, vocabulary fluency development, and the relationship between the two. We administered two versions of the Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT; Nation 1983; Nation 1990; Schmitt et al. 2001) to 300 students at a Chinese university at three different time points…

  20. Impact of Curriculum on Understanding of Professional Practice: A Longitudinal Study of Students Commencing Dental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieser, Jules A.; Dall'Alba, Gloria; Livingstone, Vicki

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines changes in understanding of dental practice among a cohort of students in the early years of a dentistry programme. In their first two professional years, we identified five distinct understandings of dental practice that we have ordered from least to most comprehensive: "relieving pain or generally caring for…

  1. School Predictors of Violent Criminality in Adulthood: Findings from a Nationally Representative Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsiyannis, Antonis; Thompson, Martie P.; Barrett, David E.; Kingree, J. B.

    2013-01-01

    School-related problems such as poor academic performance, truancy, frequent suspensions, and grade repeating have been identified as risk factors for adolescent behavior problems. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effect of school-related factors on violent criminality in adulthood, based on data from the National Longitudinal

  2. Working Memory, Attention, and Mathematical Problem Solving: A Longitudinal Study of Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, H. Lee

    2011-01-01

    The role of working memory (WM) in children's growth in mathematical problem solving was examined in a longitudinal study of children (N = 127). A battery of tests was administered that assessed problem solving, achievement, WM, and cognitive processing (inhibition, speed, phonological coding) in Grade 1 children, with follow-up testing in Grades…

  3. Pre-K Longitudinal Study: Findings from the 1999-2000 School Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Gary T.; Gordon, Craig S.; Mashburn, Andrew; Ponder, Bentley D.

    The Georgia Prekindergarten Program was established in 1993 to provide the state's 4-year-olds with high-quality preschool experiences. A five-year, longitudinal study examined the ways in which differences in prekindergarten services received by 3,639 Pre-K 4-year-olds affected them during their first 3 years of elementary school and assessed the…

  4. A Longitudinal Study of Psychological Functioning and Academic Attainment at the Transition to Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riglin, Lucy; Frederickson, Norah; Shelton, Katherine H.; Rice, Frances

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study of adolescents in the first year of secondary school, examined the relationship between psychological functioning at the beginning of year 7 (mean age 11.25 years) with attainment at the end of year 7 (mean age 11.78 years). Depressive symptoms, school liking and conduct problems predicted lower attainment across time…

  5. Longitudinal Study of Student Flow and Persistence: Report on Third Phase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slark, Julie; Bateman, Harold

    This is the third report of the longitudinal study of a sample of 629 students who first enrolled at Santa Ana College in fall 1977. Included are descriptive data gathered from the third set of questionnaires completed by returning and non-returning students in fall 1978 and demographic data obtained from the college's records. Third phase data…

  6. Longitudinal Study of Student Flow and Persistence. Report on Second Phase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slark, Julie

    A longitudinal study of student flow and persistence was implemented at Santa Ana College to provide student demographic data, student evaluation of the college's services, student follow-up data, and further insight into attrition/retention factors. In the fall of 1977 a sample of 629 new students (described in the first phase report) was…

  7. A Longitudinal Study of Negative Life Events, Stress, and School Experiences of Gifted Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Jean; Duncan, Nancy; Canady, Kate

    2009-01-01

    An 11-year mixed-methods, cross-sectional longitudinal study began with a group of 121 children, identified as gifted, and followed them until high-school graduation. Parents annually identified negative life events experienced by child and family, and, at graduation, students completed an open-ended retrospective questionnaire, focusing on…

  8. Personality Differences Predict Health-Risk Behaviors in Young Adulthood: Evidence From a Longitudinal Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Avshalom Caspi; Dot Begg; Nigel Dickson; HonaLee Harrington; John Langley; Terrie E. Moffitt; Phil A. Silva

    1997-01-01

    In a longitudinal study of a birth cohort, the authors identified youth involved in each of 4 different health-risk behaviors at age 21: alcohol dependence, violent crime, unsafe sex, and dangerous driving habits. At age 18, the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ) was used to assess 10 distinct personality traits. At age 3, observational measures were used to classify children into

  9. Statewide Longitudinal Study: Report on Academic Year 1978-1979. Part II--Spring Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheldon, M. Stephen; Hunter, Russell

    This three-part report summarizes data collected during fiscal year 1978-79 in a longitudinal study of 7,957 students at l5 California community colleges. Part I compares findings for vocational and non-vocational students in terms of demographic characteristics, educational objectives, academic achievement during the 1978-79 school year,…

  10. Parental Involvement in the Development of Children's Reading Skill: A Five-Year Longitudinal Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monique Senechal; Jo-Anne LeFevre

    2002-01-01

    This article presents the findings of the final phase of a 5-year longitudinal study with 168 middle- and upper middle-class children in which the complex relations among early home literacy experiences, subsequent re- ceptive language and emergent literacy skills, and reading achievement were examined. Results showed that children's exposure to books was related to the development of vocabulary and listening

  11. Gender Differences in the Content of Preschool Children's Recollections: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tõugu, Pirko; Tulviste, Tiia; Suits, Kristi

    2014-01-01

    Personal recollections constitute autobiographical memory that develops intensively during the preschool years. The two-wave longitudinal study focuses on gender differences in preschool children's independent recollections. The same children (N = 275; 140 boys, 135 girls) were asked to talk about their previous birthday and the past weekend…

  12. From Phonological Recoding to Lexical Reading: A Longitudinal Study on Reading Development in Italian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsolini, Margherita; Fanari, Rachele; Tosi, Valeria; De Nigris, Barbara; Carrieri, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    In this longitudinal study we analyse the early phases of reading development in Italian and explore the transition from phonological to lexical reading. A group of 28 Italian children was tested in four phases. Language and cognitive skills were first assessed in the preschool. Reading performance was then tested in three different sessions, in…

  13. Factors Affecting the Implementation of Argument in the Elementary Science Classroom. A Longitudinal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Anita M.; Hand, Brian

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal case study describes the factors that affect an experienced teacher's attempt to shift her pedagogical practices in order to implement embedded elements of argument into her science classroom. Research data was accumulated over 2 years through video recordings of science classes. The Reformed Teacher Observation Protocol (RTOP)…

  14. Developing Discourses of Knowledge and Understanding: Longitudinal Studies of Ph.D. Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandiko, Camille B.; Kinchin, Ian M.

    2013-01-01

    Competing notions of what a Ph.D. has been, is and should be are undercurrents in doctoral education. A longitudinal study of Ph.D. supervision based on interviews and concept mapping was used to surface understandings of the purpose of a Ph.D. This research tracks change over time for both the student and the supervisor. The data were analysed…

  15. Four Longitudinal Studies of the Starter Approach, a Beginning Reading Strategy for Nonreaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Christy L.

    To highlight the versatility of the Starter Approach to reading, a one-on-one beginning reading strategy for use with a nonreader of any age, this document describes the approach in detail and then briefly describes four longitudinal studies that used it. The introduction notes that the procedure combines successful components of popular,…

  16. Dispositions, organisational commitment and satisfaction: A longitudinal study of MBA graduates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yingyan Wang; Charles A. OReilly III

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the relationships among dispositional sources of value preferences and personality attributes, organisational commitment and satisfaction using a longitudinal sample from MBA graduates in a US business school. After examining and comparing four types of models: (1) direct effects of dispositions on organisational commitment; (2) direct effects of dispositions on organisational satisfaction; (3) direct effects of dispositions on

  17. Early Risk Indicators of Internalizing Problems in Late Childhood: A 9-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashford, Janka; Smit, Filip; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Cuijpers, Pim; Koot, Hans M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Longitudinal studies on risk indicators of internalizing problems in childhood are in short supply, but could be valuable to identify target groups for prevention. Methods: Standardized assessments of 294 children's internalizing problems at the age of 2-3 years (parent report), 4-5 years (parent and teacher report) and 11 years…

  18. The Fullerton Longitudinal Study: A Long-Term Investigation of Intellectual and Motivational Giftedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Allen W.; Gottfried, Adele Eskeles; Guerin, Diana Wright

    2006-01-01

    The Fullerton Longitudinal Study is a contemporary prospective investigation that spans approximately a quarter of a century. Commencing at age 1, children and their families were systematically followed every 6 months from infancy through preschool and annually at ages 5 through 17. They were again assessed at age 24. The course of development…

  19. The developmental course of childhood inattention symptoms uniquely predicts educational attainment: a 16-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Côté, Sylvana M; Vitaro, Frank; Falissard, Bruno; Genolini, Christophe; Tremblay, Richard E

    2014-11-30

    In this 16-year longitudinal study, a new trajectory estimation approach was used to verify whether the developmental course of childhood inattention significantly predicted functional impairment. A rising childhood inattention trajectory significantly predicted graduation failure (OR: 1.76 [1.32-2.34]) independently of averaged inattention levels. Rising inattention is, in itself, important for prognosis. PMID:25017615

  20. From Initial Teacher Education through Induction and Beyond: A Longitudinal Study of Primary Teacher Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ní Chróinín, Déirdre; O'Sullivan, Mary

    2014-01-01

    A better understanding of the relationship between beginning teachers' beliefs and the pedagogies of teacher education (TE) programmes that support their learning across time can enhance TE programme effectiveness. This 6-year longitudinal study examined the development and change of beginning primary classroom teachers' (n = 6) beliefs…

  1. Open-Label, Longitudinal Study of Tamsulosin for Functional Bladder Outlet Obstruction in Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elisabetta Costantini; Massimo Lazzeri; Vittorio Bini; Alessandro Zucchi; Fabrizio Fioretti; Emanuela Frumenzio; Massimo Porena

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the clinical effect of tamsulosin for the treatment of functional bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) in adult women. Methods: In a prospective, longitudinal open-label study, 63 women affected by functional BOO were treated with tamsulosin. Inclusion criteria were: age >18 years, reporting voiding symptoms (intermittent stream, hesitancy, straining and\\/or a feeling of incomplete emptying), uroflowmetry maximum flow rate

  2. Conceptual Model of the National Longitudinal Study. RTI Project No. 22U-884-11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Triangle Inst., Durham, NC. Center for Educational Research and Evaluation.

    The conceptual model of the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 (NLS) has been modified from James Trent's General Educational Development Model. The NLS model is presented and briefly compared with the General Educational Development Model. The major portion of this document consists of NLS questionnaire items or…

  3. A Longitudinal Study of Narrative Development in Children and Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleave, Patricia; Bird, Elizabeth Kay-Raining; Czutrin, Rachael; Smith, Lindsey

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined narrative development in children and adolescents with Down syndrome longitudinally. Narratives were collected from 32 children and adolescents with Down syndrome three times over a 1-year period. Both micro- and macrolevel analyses were conducted. Significant growth over the 1-year period was seen in semantic complexity…

  4. A longitudinal study of moral and ego development in young adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen Strohm Kitchenerfl; Patricia M. Kingfl; Mark L. Davison; Clyde A. Parker; Phillip K. Wood

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the longitudinal changes in moral judgment and ego development in a young adult sample when a concurrent measure of verbal ability was used as a statistical control. Sixty-one late adolescents and young adults, representing three educational groups, were tested in 1977 and 1979 on the Defining Issues Tests, a measure of moral

  5. Does Money Buy Happiness? A Longitudinal Study Using Data on Windfalls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan Gardner; Andrew Oswald

    2002-01-01

    The most fundamental idea in economics is that money makes people happy. This paper constructs a test. It studies longitudinal information on the psychological health and reported happiness of approximately 9,000 randomly chosen people. In the spirit of a natural experiment, the paper shows that those in the panel who receive windfalls -- by winning lottery money or receiving an

  6. The Development of Second Language Writing Complexity in Groups and Individuals: A Longitudinal Learner Corpus Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vyatkina, Nina

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the development of multiple dimensions of linguistic complexity in the writing of beginning learners of German both as a group and as individuals. The data come from an annotated, longitudinal learner corpus. The development of lexicogrammatical complexity is explored at 2 intersections: (a) between cross-sectional trendlines…

  7. Longitudinal Study of Leptin Concentrations during Puberty: Sex Differences and Relationship to Changes in Body Composition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARION LYNN AHMED; KEN K. L. ONG; DAVID J. MORRELL; NICK DRAYER; LESLIE PERRY; MICHAEL A. PREECE; DAVID B. DUNGER

    Leptin may have a role in the initiation of puberty and the regu- lation of subsequent weight gain, but this hypothesis has not been tested by longitudinal study. We report data from 40 normal children (20 boys and 20 girls) followed from 8 -16 yr of age with hormone measurements and auxology every 6 months. Before the onset of puberty,

  8. The Home Environment and School Achievement: A Longitudinal Study of Primary School Children in Swaziland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Margaret Zoller

    In rural Swaziland, fathers often migrate for work, leaving wives and children behind. The family is denied the presence of a husband, father, and role model, as well as economic support, which fathers often fail to remit home regularly. A longitudinal study investigated the effects of parent availability and other home characteristics on the…

  9. The Impact of Parental Availability on Swazi Students' School Achievement: A Nine Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Margaret Zoller

    2003-01-01

    This paper constitutes a major part of the third phase of a longitudinal study in Swaziland investigating the short- and long-term effects of parental absence on primary children's school achievement. In 1998, 42 of the original sample of 80 students who entered grade one in 1990 were found remaining in the educational system but varied in their…

  10. Academic and Work-Related Burnout: A Longitudinal Study of Working Undergraduate University Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galbraith, Craig S.; Merrill, Gregory B.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the interaction between academic burnout and work-related burnout for a sample of working undergraduate university students. Using a longitudinal design we found that the factors of burnout (Exhaustion, Cynicism, and Efficacy) change significantly over the semester. In addition, the study suggests there are distinct differences in how…

  11. Burnout and Physical Health among Social Workers: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hansung; Ji, Juye; Kao, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    The high risk of burnout in the social work profession is well established, but little is known about burnout's impact on the physical health of social workers. This article examines the relationship between burnout and physical health, using data from a longitudinal study of social workers. California-registered social workers (N = 406) were…

  12. Longitudinal dental caries study in children 9–15 years of age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Backer Dirks

    1961-01-01

    A longitudinal caries study was carried out in a group composed of fifty girls and fifty boys. The children, who were born in the same year (1945) and permanent residents of the same town were examined at the age of 9, 11, 12, 13, 14 and 15 years. The yearly examination was done by the same dentists. Special precautions were

  13. Persistence of bullying from childhood to adolescence—a longitudinal 8-year follow-up study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andre Sourander; Leila Helstelä; Hans Helenius; Jorma Piha

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To examine factors associated with bullying and victimization from age 8 to 16.Method: An 8-year longitudinal study included questions about bullying and victimization at age 8 and 16. Children were evaluated with Rutter scales by parents and teachers and with the Child Depression Inventory filled in by the children at age 8. When the children were at the age

  14. Progressive Impairment on Neuropsychological Tasks in a Longitudinal Study of Preclinical Alzheimer's Disease

    E-print Network

    Wixted, John T.

    Progressive Impairment on Neuropsychological Tasks in a Longitudinal Study of Preclinical Alzheimer. The authors report a detailed neuropsychological evaluation of 11 patients over the course of 3 years up the neuropsychological profile of 11 preclinical patients. These individuals were among a large group of older adult

  15. School, Neighborhood, and Family Factors Are Associated with Children's Bullying Involvement: A Nationally Representative Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowes, Lucy; Arseneault, Louise; Maughan, Barbara; Taylor, Alan; Caspi, Ashalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2009-01-01

    School size and problems with neighbors is associated with a greater risk of being a bullying victim while family factors such as maltreatment and domestic violence are associated with involvement in bullying. The findings are based on the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study that involves 2,232 children.

  16. Grandfather Effects: A Longitudinal Case Study of the Phonological Acquisition of Intervocalic Consonants in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, Jessica A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, I present a longitudinal study of a child's (male, aged 3;0-3;4) acquisition of intervocalic consonants characterized within the framework of Optimality Theory (OT). At Stage I, the child presents with unusual error patterns, weakening and labial substitution, and shows evidence of phonologically opaque surface forms. These…

  17. A longitudinal study of birth control and pregnancy outcome among women in a Swedish population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerd Larsson; Febe Blohm; Gunilla Sundell; Björn Andersch; Ian Milsom

    1997-01-01

    The prevalence of contraception and pregnancy outcome in the same women, at 19, 24, and 29 years of age, was assessed in a longitudinal cohort study using a postal questionnaire technique. A one-in-four random sample of all women born in 1962 and resident in the city of Göteborg in 1981, was obtained from the population register (n = 656). Respondents

  18. The Cognitive Bases of Learning to Read and Spell in Greek: Evidence from a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikolopoulos, Dimitris; Goulandris, Nata; Hulme, Charles; Snowling, Margaret J.

    2006-01-01

    We conducted a longitudinal study examining the role of phonemic awareness, phonological processing, and grammatical skills in the development of reading and spelling abilities in Greek. A battery of cognitive, linguistic, and literacy tasks was administered to 131 primary school children (65 7-year-olds and 66 9-year-olds) and was repeated in the…

  19. Local Citizens on a High School Accreditation Visitation Team: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uphoff, James K.

    1983-01-01

    Presents a 15-year longitudinal case study of the placement of local citizens on the accreditation visiting team for Versailles High School. Examines responses to surveys conducted in 1976, 1979, and 1980 regarding the perceptions of visitation team members with respect to citizen involvement. (AYC)

  20. Psychological Distress among Nursing, Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy Students: A Longitudinal and Predictive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nerdrum, Per; Rustoen, Tone; Helge Ronnestad, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we present longitudinal data on changes in psychological distress among 232 Norwegian undergraduate students of nursing, physiotherapy, and occupational therapy. Psychological distress was assessed by applying the 12-item version of the General Health Questionnaire. Nursing students became substantially more distressed during the…

  1. Social Identities among Engineering Students and through Their Transition to Work: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jungert, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    This article draws on a longitudinal and qualitative study of students in a master's program in engineering. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to analyze annual, semi-structured interviews with ten students, from the first semester until one year after graduation. The program enjoys a high status and has a reputation of being…

  2. Does Alcohol Use during High School Affect Educational Attainment?: Evidence from the National Education Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatterji, Pinka

    2006-01-01

    This paper uses data from the National Education Longitudinal Study to estimate the association between high school alcohol use and educational attainment measured around age 26. Initially, the effect of alcohol use on educational attainment is estimated using baseline probit models, which ignore the possibility that unmeasured determinants of…

  3. A 2 year longitudinal study of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this, the first long term longitudinal study of cryptosporidiosis in cattle, 30 pure-bred Holstein female cattle on a dairy farm in Maryland were examined consecutively at weekly, biweekly, or monthly intervals from 1 week to 24 months of age for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts. Feces wer...

  4. A Longitudinal Study of the Relation between Depressive Symptomatology and Parenting Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arellano, Paula A. Errazuriz; Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Thakar, Dhara A.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined whether mothers' depressive symptomatology predicted parenting practices in a sample of 199 mothers of 3-year-old children with behavior problems who were assessed yearly until age 6. Higher maternal depressive symptoms were associated with higher overreactivity and laxness and lower warmth when children were 6…

  5. Strong Genetic Contribution to Peer Relationship Difficulties at School Entry: Findings from a Longitudinal Twin Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boivin, Michel; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Dionne, Ginette; Girard, Alain; Perusse, Daniel; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the genetic and environmental contributions to peer difficulties in the early school years. Twins' peer difficulties were assessed longitudinally in kindergarten (796 twins, "M"[subscript age] = 6.1 years), Grade 1 (948 twins, "M"[subscript age] = 7.1 years), and Grade 4 (868 twins, "M"[subscript age] = 10 years) through…

  6. RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION ISSUES FOR A LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    A better understanding of the most effective recruitment techniques and retention strategies for longitudinal, community-based, children's environmental health studies is needed. A series of 18 focus groups were conducted across the U.S. in February 2003. Pregnant women and exp...

  7. Students' Development in Self-Regulated Learning in Postgraduate Professional Education: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endedijk, Maaike D.; Vermunt, Jan D.; Meijer, Paulien C.; Brekelmans, Mieke

    2014-01-01

    One of the tasks of postgraduate education is to develop students' conceptions and skills necessary for lifelong learning in their profession. Therefore, this study aimed at identifying students' development in self-regulated learning throughout a postgraduate teacher education programme. A longitudinal design with three measurement…

  8. A Longitudinal Study of a 5th Grade Science Curriculum Based on the 5E Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Timothy P.; Schroeder, Carolyn; Tolson, Homer; Huang, Tse-Yang; Williams, Omah M.

    2014-01-01

    The Center for Mathematics and Science Education at Texas A&M University contracted with Region 4 Education Service Center (ESC) and a large, diverse school district to conduct a longitudinal study from 2005-2009. The state achievement test scores of 5th graders who were taught using a Grade 5 science textbook designed by Region 4 ESC were…

  9. Working Memory, Attention, and Mathematical Problem Solving: A Longitudinal Study of Elementary School Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Lee Swanson

    2011-01-01

    The role of working memory (WM) in children's growth in mathematical problem solving was examined in a longitudinal study of children (N = 127). A battery of tests was administered that assessed problem solving, achievement, WM, and cognitive processing (inhibition, speed, phonological coding) in Grade 1 children, with follow-up testing in Grades 2 and 3. The results were that (a)

  10. Basic Aspects of Infant-Grandparent "Interaction": An Eight-Month Longitudinal and Naturalistic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratikaki, Anastasia; Germanakis, Ioannis; Kokkinaki, Theano

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal and naturalistic study aims to describe basic aspects of early imitative exchanges in dyadic infant-grandfather and infant-grandmother free interactions, from the second to the 10th month of age. Sixteen infants were video-recorded at home in the course of spontaneous dyadic interactions with maternal grandfathers and…

  11. Young Children's Acquisition of Knowledge about the Earth: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannust, Triin; Kikas, Eve

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the acquisition of early knowledge of astronomy to determine whether children's knowledge at any point in time is consistent with a naive "mental model." Children were first assessed by means of open questions and drawing tasks at 2 and 3 years of age (N = 143). The knowledge was reassessed over the course of the…

  12. Postweaning Exposure to Aflatoxin Results in Impaired Child Growth: A Longitudinal Study in Benin, West Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yunyun Gong; Assomption Hounsa; Sharif Egal; Paul C. Turner; Anne E. Sutcliffe; Andrew J. Hall; Kitty Cardwell; Christopher P. Wild

    2004-01-01

    Aflatoxins are dietary contaminants that are hepatocarcinogenic and immunotoxic and cause growth retardation in animals, but there is little evidence concerning the latter two parameters in exposed human populations. Aflatoxin exposure of West African children is known to be high, so we conducted a longitudinal study over an 8-month period in Benin to assess the effects of expo- sure on

  13. A Longitudinal Study of Conversations with Parents about Sex and Dating during College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Elizabeth M.; Thorne, Avril; Zurbriggen, Eileen L.

    2010-01-01

    Emerging adulthood is a time of sexual and romantic relationship development as well as change in the parent-child relationship. This study provides a longitudinal analysis of 30 young adults' (17 women, 13 men) sexual experiences, attitudes about sexuality and dating, and reported conversations with parents about sexuality and dating from the 1st…

  14. How Long Does Victimization Foster Fear of Crime? A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Silvia; Roccato, Michele

    2010-01-01

    We studied the relationship between victimization and fear of crime longitudinally, analyzing data from the Observatory of the North-West (Italian national sample, N = 1,701, two waves: January 2006 and January 2007). We modeled fear of crime at T[subscript 2] using as independent variables: (a) the main sociodemographic variables and fear of…

  15. School-Based Drug Prevention Programs: A Longitudinal Study in Selected School Districts. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvia, E. Suyapa; Thorne, Judy; Tashjian, Christene A.

    Establishing school-based drug prevention programs was the aim of the Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act of 1986 (DFSCA). A summary of the findings of a longitudinal study of DFSCA is presented in this report. Revitalized in 1995 as the Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act (SDFSCA), the Act's scope was extended to include prevention…

  16. Psychological Distress Among Nursing, Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy Students: A Longitudinal and Predictive Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Per Nerdrum; Tone Rustøen; Michael Helge Rønnestad

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we present longitudinal data on changes in psychological distress among 232 Norwegian undergraduate students of nursing, physiotherapy, and occupational therapy. Psychological distress was assessed by applying the 12?item version of the General Health Questionnaire. Nursing students became substantially more distressed during the three years of their programme compared to physiotherapy and occupational therapy students. Multivariate analyses showed

  17. Longitudinal Study of Self-Regulation, Positive Parenting, and Adjustment Problems among Physically Abused Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen.; Haskett, Mary E.; Longo, Gregory S.; Nice, Rachel.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Research using normative and high-risk samples indicates a significant link between problems with self-regulation and child maladjustment. Nevertheless, little is known about the processes that may modify the link between self-regulation and maladjustment. This longitudinal study examined the joint contributions of child self-regulation…

  18. Faculty Adoption of Distance Education Innovations in a Southwestern Rural Community College: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klassen, Diane June

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal case study was to examine the faculty adoption of distance education in a rural community college over a span of ten years in the southwestern United States, beginning in 1999 with the adoption and implementation of an instructional television (ITV) system and ending in 2009 with the adoption and implementation of…

  19. Self-Rated Health and the "First Move" around Retirement: A Longitudinal Study of Older Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Nan E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: I examine whether less favorable self-rated health raises the risk of outmigration more for young-old adults (aged 53-63 at the start of the 10-year longitudinal study in 1994) in nonmetro than metro counties and increases the odds that both groups of outmigrants will choose metro over nonmetro destinations. Finally, I examine whether…

  20. Relations of Television Viewing and Reading: Findings from a 4-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ennemoser, Marco; Schneider, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study explored the long-term effects of television viewing on the development of children's reading competencies. Among 2 cohorts of German children (N[subscript 1] = 165, N[subscript 2] = 167), measures of television viewing were collected over 4 years, and tests of reading speed and reading comprehension were administered…

  1. Examining the Effects of Grade Retention on Student Reading Performance: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silberglitt, Benjamin; Appleton, James J.; Burns, Matthew K.; Jimerson, Shane R.

    2006-01-01

    Grade retention is an intervention that has received increasing scrutiny as policies, practices, and results of research diverge. This longitudinal study examines the reading growth trajectories of students (n=147) from first-through eighth-grade. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) analytic procedures provide unique insights regarding the relative…

  2. State Dependence and Trait Stability of Perfectionism: A Short-Term Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Aldea, Mirela A.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined state dependency on depression, trait stability, and state-trait characteristics of perfectionism in a short-term longitudinal study of university students. Relative stability of perfectionism was assessed with test-retest correlations across 3 time points, and results showed higher rank order and relative stability for…

  3. How Health Behaviors Relate to Academic Performance via Affect: An Intensive Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Flueckiger, Lavinia; Lieb, Roselind; Meyer, Andrea H.; Mata, Jutta

    2014-01-01

    Objective This intensive longitudinal study examined how sleep and physical activity relate to university students’ affect and academic performance during a stressful examination period. Methods On 32 consecutive days, 72 first-year students answered online questionnaires on their sleep quality, physical activity, positive and negative affect, learning goal achievement, and examination grades. First-year university students are particularly well-suited to test our hypotheses: They represent a relatively homogeneous population in a natural, but controlled setting, and simultaneously deal with similar stressors, such as examinations. Data were analyzed using multilevel structural equation models. Results Over the examination period, better average sleep quality but not physical activity predicted better learning goal achievement. Better learning goal achievement was associated with increased probability of passing all examinations. Relations of average sleep quality and average physical activity with learning goal achievement were mediated by experienced positive affect. In terms of day-to-day dynamics, on days with better sleep quality, participants reported better learning goal achievement. Day-to-day physical activity was not related to daily learning goal achievement. Daily positive and negative affect both mediated the effect of day-to-day sleep quality and physical activity on daily learning goal achievement. Conclusion Health behaviors such as sleep quality and physical activity seem important for both academic performance and affect experience, an indicator of mental health, during a stressful examination period. These results are a first step toward a better understanding of between- and within-person variations in health behaviors, affect, and academic performance, and could inform prevention and intervention programs for university students. PMID:25353638

  4. Traditional acupuncture for people with medically unexplained symptoms: a longitudinal qualitative study of patients’ experiences

    PubMed Central

    Rugg, Sue; Paterson, Charlotte; Britten, Nicky; Bridges, Jackie; Griffiths, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Background People with medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) are helped by interventions that combine physical and psychological explanations and treatment. Traditional acupuncture may offer such a perspective, but its use for these patients has not been investigated. Aim To ascertain how patients with MUPS perceive and experience five-element acupuncture treatment. Design and setting A longitudinal qualitative interview study, nested in a randomised controlled trial was carried out in four general practices in socioeconomically diverse areas of London. Method A purposive sample of 20 trial participants was interviewed twice, at the start and the end of 6 months of acupuncture treatment. Semi-structured interviews were transcribed, coded, and analysed thematically, summarising both across-case as themes and within-case individual vignettes. Results Acupuncture, initially accepted as ‘just another referral’ — one like many others that had been tried and proved unsuccessful — was valued for the amount of time allotted with a caring practitioner who listened and responded, as well as for the interactive and holistic nature of the sessions. These attributes encouraged many patients to take an active role in their treatment, including making cognitive or behavioural lifestyle changes. Interviewees cited a wide range of changes in their health that spanned physical, psychological, and social dimensions. These were largely positive and included an increase in physical and/or mental energy, as well as feelings of greater personal control, calmness, and relaxation. Three interviewees reported worsening health but did not ascribe this to acupuncture. Conclusion Many patients who were treated with five-element acupuncture perceived a range of positive effects and appeared to take on a more active role in consultations and self-care. PMID:21801509

  5. Cognitive and affective assessment in day care versus institutionalized elderly patients: a 1-year longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Maseda, Ana; Balo, Aránzazu; Lorenzo–López, Laura; Lodeiro–Fernández, Leire; Rodríguez–Villamil, José Luis; Millán–Calenti, José Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Cognitive decline and depression are two common mental health problems that may create a need for long-term care among the elderly. In the last decade, the percentage of older adults who receive health care in nursing homes, day care centers, or home support services has increased in Europe. The objectives of this descriptive and nonrandomized longitudinal study were to evaluate and to compare the cognitive and affective evolution of day care versus institutionalized older patients through a 1-year period, and to assess the presence of cognitive and affective impairment as a function of the care setting. Patients and methods Ninety-four patients were assessed at baseline, and 63 (67.0%) were reassessed 1 year later. Neuropsychological assessment included measures of cognitive performance (general cognitive status, visuospatial, and language abilities) and affective status (depressive symptoms). Results Our findings indicated that the majority of the participants (day care and institutionalized patients) had mild–moderate cognitive impairment at baseline, which significantly increased in both groups after 1-year follow-up. However, the rate of change in global cognitive function did not significantly differ between groups over time. Regarding language abilities, naming function maintained among day care patients in comparison with institutionalized patients, who showed worse performance at follow-up. As regards to affective status, results revealed that institutionalized patients had a significant reduction in depressive symptoms at follow-up, when compared to day care patients. Results also highlight the high frequency of cognitive impairment and depressive symptoms regardless of the care setting. Conclusion Our findings revealed a similar global cognitive decline rate between patients receiving day care services and those residing in a nursing home at the 1-year follow-up, and slightly different trajectories in other outcomes such as naming function and depressive symptoms. PMID:24940051

  6. A longitudinal study of risk-glorifying video games and behavioral deviance.

    PubMed

    Hull, Jay G; Brunelle, Timothy J; Prescott, Anna T; Sargent, James D

    2014-08-01

    Character-based video games do more than allow one to practice various kinds of behaviors in a virtual environment; they allow one to practice being a different kind of person. As such, we propose that games can alter self-perceptions of personal characteristics, attitudes, and values with broad consequences for behavior. In a multiwave, longitudinal study of adolescents, we examined the extent to which play of mature-rated, risk-glorifying (MRRG) games was associated with increases in alcohol use, cigarette smoking, aggression, delinquency, and risky sex as a consequence of its effects on personality, attitudes, and affiliations indicative of increased tolerance of deviance. Participants were selected with random-digit-dial procedures and followed for 4 years. Data were analyzed with linear mixed modeling to assess change over time and structural equation modeling with latent variables to test hypothesized mediational processes. Among those who play video games, playing MRRG games was associated with increases in all measures of behavioral deviance. Mediational models support the hypothesis that these effects are in part a consequence of the effects of such gameplay on sensation seeking and rebelliousness, attitudes toward deviant behavior in oneself and others, and affiliation with deviant peers. Effects were similar for males and females and were strongest for those who reported heavy play of mature-rated games and games that involved protagonists who represent nonnormative and antisocial values. In sum, the current research supports the perspective that MRRG gameplay can have consequences for deviant behavior broadly defined by affecting the personality, attitudes, and values of the player. PMID:25090130

  7. Barriers to childhood immunisation: Findings from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Anna; Marshall, Helen; Bedford, Helen; Lynch, John

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine barriers to childhood immunisation experienced by parents in Australia. Design Cross-sectional analysis of secondary data. Setting Nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). Participants Five thousand one hundred seven infants aged 3–19 months in 2004. Main outcome measure Maternal report of immunisation status: incompletely or fully immunised. Results Overall, 9.3% (473) of infants were incompletely immunised; of these just 16% had mothers who disagreed with immunisation. Remaining analyses focussed on infants whose mother did not disagree with immunisation (N = 4994) (of whom 8% [398] were incompletely immunised). Fifteen variables representing potential immunisation barriers and facilitators were available in LSAC; these were entered into a latent class model to identify distinct clusters (or ‘classes’) of barriers experienced by families. Five classes were identified: (1) ‘minimal barriers’, (2) ‘lone parent, mobile families with good support’, (3) ‘low social contact and service information; psychological distress’, (4) ‘larger families, not using formal childcare’, (5) ‘child health issues/concerns’. Compared to infants from families experiencing minimal barriers, all other barrier classes had a higher risk of incomplete immunisation. For example, the adjusted risk ratio (RR) for incomplete immunisation was 1.51 (95% confidence interval: 1.08–2.10) among those characterised by ‘low social contact and service information; psychological distress’, and 2.47 (1.87–3.25) among ‘larger families, not using formal childcare’. Conclusions Using the most recent data available for examining these issues in Australia, we found that the majority of incompletely immunised infants (in 2004) did not have a mother who disagreed with immunisation. Barriers to immunisation are heterogeneous, suggesting a need for tailored interventions. PMID:26003493

  8. Lifestyle-Related Factors Contributing to Decline in Knee Extension Strength among Elderly Women: A Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Narumi; Kim, Miji; Saito, Kyoko; Yoshida, Hideyo; Yoshida, Yuko; Hirano, Hirohiko; Obuchi, Shuichi; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Takao; Kim, Hunkyung

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional and 4-year longitudinal cohort study aimed to clarify how various lifestyle-related variables affect knee extension strength in elderly Japanese women. The participants were community-dwelling women (n = 575) living in the Itabashi Ward of Tokyo, Japan aged 75–85 years at baseline (in 2008) who returned for a follow-up examination 4 years later (in 2012). Maximum isometric knee extension strength in the dominant leg was measured during comprehensive medical check-ups at baseline and follow-up. Interviews with participants included questions on their history of 11 diseases and lifestyle-related factors such as physical activity as well as dietary, smoking, and drinking habits. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses yielded inconsistent results regarding the associations between lifestyle-related factors and knee extension strength. While going out more frequently and regular physical exercise positively affected baseline knee extension strength, they did not affect knee extension strength in the longitudinal analysis. The longitudinal analysis revealed that more frequent intake of soy products or green and yellow vegetables at baseline decreased age-related knee extension strength decline. The inconsistent results from the cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses indicate that conducting both types of analyses is crucial for researching this type of subject. The present study demonstrates that the age-related decline in muscle strength is lower in those who frequently eat soy products or green and yellow vegetables. Thus, recommending higher intake of soy products, and green and yellow vegetables for the elderly might help maintain their muscle health. PMID:26177292

  9. Longitudinal Study of Student Dropout from a Business School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangum, Wiley M.; Baugher, Dan; Winch, Janice K.; Varanelli, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors identified variables that predict college student dropout from a business school. In the 1st phase of the study, they collected information from students (N = 403) in the 2nd semester of their freshman year. Then they collected dropout data from the same students 4 semesters after the first phase. The authors used…

  10. Technology uses and student achievement: A longitudinal study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing Lei; Yong Zhao

    2007-01-01

    Based on data collected from a middle school, this study investigates how the quantity and quality of technology use affect student learning outcomes. Specifically, this study examines how technologies are used by students, what technology uses are popular among students, and what technology uses are effective for increasing student academic achievement. Results suggest that the quantity of technology use alone

  11. A Longitudinal Study of Student Understanding of Chance and Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jane; Kelly, Ben; Izard, John

    2006-01-01

    This study uses Partial Credit Rasch analysis to study a complex data set of student responses to survey items relating to chance and data. The items were administered in the classroom and collected from 1993 to 2003 in the Australian state of Tasmania. Data were collected from a total of 5514 individual students across Grades 3 to 11 over the…

  12. A Longitudinal Study of Cocaine Use among Juvenile Arrestees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dembo, Richard; Wareham, Jennifer; Schmeidler, James

    2007-01-01

    We report the results of latent growth model analyses examining the continuity of cocaine use among adolescents. This study examined a sample of 278 justice-involved juveniles completing at least one of three follow-up interviews as part of a National Institute on Drug Abuse funded study. Latent growth models were analyzed examining (1) changes in…

  13. A Longitudinal Study of Student Understanding of Chance and Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Izard

    2006-01-01

    This study uses Partial Credit Rasch analysis to study a complex data set of student responses to survey items relating to chance and data. The items were administered in the classroom and collected from 1993 to 2003 in the Australian state of Tasmania. Data were collected from a total of 5514 indi- vidual students across Grades 3 to 11 over

  14. Mortality in Autism: A Prospective Longitudinal Community-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillberg, Christopher; Billstedt, Eva; Sundh, Valter; Gillberg, I. Carina

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were to establish the mortality rate in a representative group of individuals (n = 120) born in the years 1962-1984, diagnosed with autism/atypical autism in childhood and followed up at young adult age (greater than or equal to 18 years of age), and examine the risk factors and causes of death. The study group,…

  15. A periodic analysis of longitudinal binary responses: a case study of clinical mastitis in Norwegian Red cows

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yu-mei; Gianola, Daniel; Heringstad, Bjørg; Klemetsdal, Gunnar

    2007-01-01

    A Bayesian procedure for analyzing longitudinal binary responses using a periodic cosine function was developed. It was assumed that, after adjustment for "seasonal" effects, the oscillation of the underlying latent variables for longitudinal binary responses was a stationary series. Based on this assumption, a single dimension sinusoidal analysis of longitudinal binary responses using the Gibbs sampling and Metropolis algorithms was implemented in a study of clinical mastitis records of Norwegian Red cows taken over five lactations. PMID:17433240

  16. Reasons for participating and genetic information needs among racially and ethnically diverse biobank participants: a focus group study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samantha A. Streicher; Saskia C. Sanderson; Ethylin Wang Jabs; Michael Diefenbach; Meg Smirnoff; Inga Peter; Carol R. Horowitz; Barbara Brenner; Lynne D. Richardson

    2011-01-01

    In order for DNA biobanks to be a valuable reservoir of genetic information, large numbers of participants from all racial\\u000a and ethnic backgrounds need to be recruited. This study explored reasons for participating in a new biobank among primarily\\u000a Hispanic and African American individuals, as well as their general attitudes towards genetic research, and their views on\\u000a obtaining genetic tests.

  17. Individuality and Contextual Influences in Drug Dependence: A 15 year Prospective Longitudinal Study of Adolescents from Harlem

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Judith S.; Lee, Jung Yeon; Brown, Elaine; Finch, Stephen J.; Brook, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective This 15 year longitudinal study investigated individual and contextual factors which predispose adolescents from a disadvantaged urban area to drug dependence in adulthood. Methods Adolescents were recruited from schools serving East Harlem in New York City. Of the 838 participants followed to adulthood, 59% were female, 55% African American and 45% Puerto Rican. Self-report data were obtained on externalizing and internalizing problems, substance use, and contextual influences across adolescence and young adulthood. Drug dependence was assessed in adulthood. Multivariate logistic regressions of drug dependence were performed on the whole sample and separately by gender. Results Each of the domains was associated with adult drug dependence. Although mean gender differences were found, most associations of risk factors with drug dependence did not vary significantly by gender. Conclusions Treating externalizing and internalizing problems, reducing substance use, and providing coping skills for adverse contextual influences in adolescence and young adulthood may reduce the likelihood of becoming drug dependent in adulthood. PMID:23264990

  18. A longitudinal study of the simultaneous influence of mothers' and teachers' educational expectations on low-income youth's academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Mistry, Rashmita S; White, Elizabeth S; Benner, Aprile D; Huynh, Virginia W

    2009-07-01

    This short-term longitudinal study investigated the simultaneous influences of adults' (mothers and teachers) educational expectations and youth's achievement (standardized test scores and teachers' ratings of academic performance) across a 3-year time span on youth's performance in school (GPA). Participants were an ethnically diverse sample of 426 low-income urban youth, ages 6 through 16 at T1. Results from cross-lagged and autoregressive path analyses indicated stability in adults' expectations and youth's standardized test scores; cross-lagged influences of teachers', but not mothers', expectations across time; and effects of youth's achievement outcomes on adults' expectations at T2, but not vice versa. Overall, the pattern of findings demonstrate that adults' educational expectations are dynamic and responsive to how youth are faring in school and to changes in academic performance across time. PMID:19636784

  19. Brain-Derived neurotrophic factor levels in late-life depression and comorbid mild cognitive impairment: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Diniz, Breno Satler; Reynolds, Charles F.; Begley, Amy; Dew, Mary Amanda; Anderson, Stewart J.; Lotrich, Francis; Erickson, Kirk I.; Lopez, Oscar; Aizenstein, Howard; Sibille, Etienne L.; Butters, Meryl A.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) level are implicated in the pathophysiology of cognitive decline in depression and neurodegenerative disorders in older adults. We aimed to evaluate the longitudinal association over two years between BDNF and persistent cognitive decline in individuals with remitted late-life depression and Mild Cognitive Impairment (LLD+MCI) compared to either individuals with remitted LLD and no cognitive decline (LLD+NCD) or never-depressed, cognitively normal, elderly control participants. We additionally evaluated the effect of double-blind, placebo-controlled donepezil treatment on BDNF levels in all of the remitted LLD participants (across the levels of cognitive function). We included 160 elderly participants in this study (72 LLD+NCD, 55 LLD+MCI and 33 never-depressed cognitively normal elderly participants). At the same visits, cognitive assessments were conducted and blood sampling to determine serum BDNF levels were collected at baseline assessment and after one and two years of follow-up. We utilized repeated measure, mixed effect models to assess: (1) the effects of diagnosis (LLD+MCI, LLD+NCD, and controls), time, and their interaction on BDNF levels; and (2) the effects of donepezil treatment (donepezil vs. placebo), time, baseline diagnosis (LLD+MCI vs. LLD+NCD), and interactions between these contrasts on BDNF levels. We found a significant effect of time on BDNF level (p=0.02) and a significant decline in BDNF levels over 2 years of follow-up in participants with LLD+MCI (p=0.004) and controls (p=0.04). We found no effect of donepezil treatment on BDNF level. The present results suggest that aging is an important factor related to decline in BDNF level. PMID:24290367

  20. The doubly labeled water method produces highly reproducible longitudinal results in nutrition studies.

    PubMed

    Wong, William W; Roberts, Susan B; Racette, Susan B; Das, Sai Krupa; Redman, Leanne M; Rochon, James; Bhapkar, Manjushri V; Clarke, Lucinda L; Kraus, William E

    2014-05-01

    The doubly labeled water (DLW) method is considered the reference method for the measurement of energy expenditure under free-living conditions. However, the reproducibility of the DLW method in longitudinal studies is not well documented. This study was designed to evaluate the longitudinal reproducibility of the DLW method using 2 protocols developed and implemented in a multicenter clinical trial-the Comprehensive Assessment of Long-term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy (CALERIE). To document the longitudinal reproducibility of the DLW method, 2 protocols, 1 based on repeated analysis of dose dilutions over the course of the clinical trial (dose-dilution protocol) and 1 based on repeated but blinded analysis of randomly selected DLW studies (test-retest protocol), were carried out. The dose-dilution protocol showed that the theoretical fractional turnover rates for (2)H and (18)O and the difference between the 2 fractional turnover rates were reproducible to within 1% and 5%, respectively, over 4.5 y. The Bland-Altman pair-wise comparisons of the results generated from 50 test-retest DLW studies showed that the fractional turnover rates and isotope dilution spaces for (2)H and (18)O, and total energy expenditure, were highly reproducible over 2.4 y. Our results show that the DLW method is reproducible in longitudinal studies and confirm the validity of this method to measure energy expenditure, define energy intake prescriptions, and monitor adherence and body composition changes over the period of 2.5-4.4 y. The 2 protocols can be adopted by other laboratories to document the longitudinal reproducibility of their measurements to ensure the long-term outcomes of interest are meaningful biologically. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00427193. PMID:24523488

  1. The Doubly Labeled Water Method Produces Highly Reproducible Longitudinal Results in Nutrition Studies12

    PubMed Central

    Wong, William W.; Roberts, Susan B.; Racette, Susan B.; Das, Sai Krupa; Redman, Leanne M.; Rochon, James; Bhapkar, Manjushri V.; Clarke, Lucinda L.; Kraus, William E.

    2014-01-01

    The doubly labeled water (DLW) method is considered the reference method for the measurement of energy expenditure under free-living conditions. However, the reproducibility of the DLW method in longitudinal studies is not well documented. This study was designed to evaluate the longitudinal reproducibility of the DLW method using 2 protocols developed and implemented in a multicenter clinical trial—the Comprehensive Assessment of Long-term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy (CALERIE). To document the longitudinal reproducibility of the DLW method, 2 protocols, 1 based on repeated analysis of dose dilutions over the course of the clinical trial (dose-dilution protocol) and 1 based on repeated but blinded analysis of randomly selected DLW studies (test-retest protocol), were carried out. The dose-dilution protocol showed that the theoretical fractional turnover rates for 2H and 18O and the difference between the 2 fractional turnover rates were reproducible to within 1% and 5%, respectively, over 4.5 y. The Bland-Altman pair-wise comparisons of the results generated from 50 test-retest DLW studies showed that the fractional turnover rates and isotope dilution spaces for 2H and 18O, and total energy expenditure, were highly reproducible over 2.4 y. Our results show that the DLW method is reproducible in longitudinal studies and confirm the validity of this method to measure energy expenditure, define energy intake prescriptions, and monitor adherence and body composition changes over the period of 2.5–4.4 y. The 2 protocols can be adopted by other laboratories to document the longitudinal reproducibility of their measurements to ensure the long-term outcomes of interest are meaningful biologically. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00427193. PMID:24523488

  2. Organizing Participation in Cross-Sex Jump Rope: Situating Gender Differences within Longitudinal Studies of Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Marjorie Harness

    2001-01-01

    Investigates how children use directives and forms of exclusion to organize play activity. Elementary school children of mixed ethnicity were observed playing jump rope over one month. Girls' dominance in the game was observed to change over time. The ability to use actions that tell others what to do in a very direct fashion in cross-sex…

  3. The impact of technology on leadership education: a longitudinal study 

    E-print Network

    Jones, Robert T.

    2004-11-15

    The purposes of this study were to determine the effectiveness of a computer-assisted lab environment in a course on leadership and to determine if undergraduate students believed that leadership concepts could be successfully ...

  4. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Autistic Traits in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children: Precursors and Early Signs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolton, Patrick F.; Golding, Jean; Emond, Alan; Steer, Colin D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To chart the emergence of precursors and early signs of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and autistic traits in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a prospective longitudinal cohort study of the surviving offspring of 14,541 pregnant women from southwestern England with an expected delivery date between April 1991 and…

  5. The Relationship Between Identity, Intimacy, and Midlife Well-Being: Findings From the Rochester Adult Longitudinal Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel R. Sneed; Susan Krauss Whitbourne; Seth J. Schwartz; Shi Huang

    2012-01-01

    The present study used longitudinal data on 182 adults between the ages of 20 and 54 (104 men, 78 women) from the Rochester Adult Longitudinal Study (RALS), assessed on four occasions, to test the hypothesis that identity and intimacy during the course of early and middle adulthood predict well-being at midlife. A cross-lagged panel model was estimated yielding the following

  6. Body mass index and all-cause mortality among people age 70 and over: the Longitudinal Study of Aging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DB Allison; D Gallagher; M Heo; FX Pi-Sunyer; SB Heymsfield

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the relationship between body mass index (BMI; kg\\/m2) and mortality in a large nationally representative sample of US adults over age 70 years. DESIGN: Prospective longitudinal cohort study, the Longitudinal Study of Aging (LSOA). Subjects were all those 7260 black and white people (2769 men, 4491 women) initially interviewed in 1984 for whom height and weight were

  7. Longitudinal relationships between resting heart rate and biological risk factors for cardiovascular disease: The Amsterdam Growth and Health Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Willem Van Mechelen; Jos W. R. Twisk; Frank J. Van Lenthe; G. Bertheke Post; Jan Snel; Han C. G. Kemper

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse longitudinal relationships between resting heart rate and biological risk factors for cardiovascular disease using data from the longitudinal Amsterdam Growth and Health Study (AGHS). In the AGHS, 98 females and 81 males were measured six times between 1977 and 1991. In 1977, the age of the subjects was 13 years. The variables

  8. A Longitudinal Test of Video Game Violence Influences on Dating Violence, Aggression and Bullying: A 3Year Longitudinal Study of Adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher J. Ferguson; Claudia San Miguel; Adolfo Garza; Jessica Jerabeck

    BackgroundIn 2011 the field of video game violence experienced serious reversals with repudiations of the current research by the US Supreme Court and the Australian Government as non-compelling and fundamentally flawed. Scholars too have been calling for higher quality research on this issue. The current study seeks to answer this call by providing longitudinal data on youth aggression and dating

  9. Pre-Service Teachers' Beliefs about Language Teaching and Learning: A Longitudinal Study (Creencias de profesores principiantes acerca de la enseñanza y aprendizaje de lengua: un estudio longitudinal)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cota Grijalva, Sofía D.; Ruiz-Esparza Barajas, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This paper contains the description of a research project that was carried out in the Bachelor of Arts in English Language Teaching program at a Mexican university. The study was longitudinal and it tracked fourteen students for four semesters of the eight semester program. The aim was to identify pre-service teachers' beliefs about English…

  10. Parents' assessment of parent-child interaction interventions – a longitudinal study in 101 families

    PubMed Central

    Neander, Kerstin; Engström, Ingemar

    2009-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to describe families with small children who participated in parent-child interaction interventions at four centres in Sweden, and to examine long term and short term changes regarding the parents' experience of parental stress, parental attachment patterns, the parents' mental health and life satisfaction, the parents' social support and the children's problems. Methods In this longitudinal study a consecutive sample of 101 families (94 mothers and 54 fathers) with 118 children (median age 3 years) was assessed, using self-reports, at the outset of the treatment (T1), six months later (T2) and 18 months after the beginning of treatment (T3). Analysis of the observed differences was carried out using Wilcoxon's Signed-Rank test and Cohen's d. Results The results from commencement of treatment showed that the parents had considerable problems in all areas examined. At the outset of treatment (T1) the mothers showed a higher level of problem load than the fathers on almost all scales. In the families where the children's problems have also been measured (children from the age of four) it appeared that they had problems of a nature and degree otherwise found in psychiatric populations. We found a clear general trend towards a positive development from T1 to T2 and this development was also reinforced from T2 to T3. Aggression in the child was one of the most common causes for contact. There were few undesired or unplanned interruptions of the treatment, and the attrition from the study was low. Conclusion This study has shown that it is possible to reach mothers as well as fathers with parenting problems and to create an intervention program with very low dropout levels – which is of special importance for families with small children displaying aggressive behaviour. The parents taking part in this study showed clear improvement trends after six months and this development was reinforced a year later. This study suggests the necessity of clinical development and future research concerning the role of fathers in parent-child interaction interventions. PMID:19284556

  11. Longitudinal case-studies of developmental dyslexia in Norwegian.

    PubMed

    Nergård-Nilssen, Trude

    2006-11-01

    This study examined retrospectively the preschool cognitive and linguistic profiles and emergent literacy skills in four Norwegian dyslexic children. The aim was to identify prognostic indicators that were associated with the reading impairments observed in an earlier study of these children. In comparison to a control group of at-risk children who were normal readers at age 10, three of the four dyslexic children exhibited either stagnation or a decline in speech accuracy in the presence of a vocabulary growth spurt at age 2-3 years. Skills in phonological awareness seemed to vary inconsistently with both early speech development and emergent literacy across the four cases. Delayed development in emergent literacy turned out to be the most potent prognostic indicator of later reading disorders. The study was guided by lexical restructuring theories of dyslexia. PMID:17152341

  12. A Longitudinal Analysis of Social Engagement in Late-Life Widowhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isherwood, Linda M.; King, Debra S.; Luszcz, Mary A.

    2012-01-01

    Very little is known of the longitudinal changes that occur in contact with children and participation in social activities during late-life widowhood. Using data on social networks and activities drawn from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing, trajectories of change in social engagement were modeled for 1,266 participants (mean age 76.7…

  13. Repeatability and Minimal Detectable Change in Longitudinal Median Nerve Excursion Measures During Upper Limb Neurodynamic Techniques in a Mixed Population: A Pilot Study Using Musculoskeletal Ultrasound Imaging.

    PubMed

    Paquette, Philippe; Lamontagne, Martin; Higgins, Johanne; Gagnon, Dany H

    2015-07-01

    This study determined test-retest reliability and minimum detectable change in longitudinal median nerve excursion during upper limb neurodynamic tests (ULNTs). Seven participants with unilateral or bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome and 11 healthy participants were randomly tested with two ULNTs (i.e., tensioner and slider). Each ULNT was performed three times each at 45° and 90° of shoulder abduction on two separate visits. Video sequences of median nerve excursion, recorded by a physical therapist using ultrasound imaging, were quantified using computer software. The generalizability theory, encompassing a G-Study and a D-study, measured the dependability coefficient (?) along with standard error of measurement (SEM) accuracy and allowed various testing protocols to be proposed. The highest reliability (? = 0.84) and lowest minimal measurement error (SEM = 0.58 mm) of the longitudinal median nerve excursion were reached during the ULNT-slider performed with 45° of shoulder abduction and when measures obtained from three different image sequences recorded during a single visit were averaged. It is recommended that longitudinal median nerve excursion measures computed from three separate image sequences recorded during a single visit be averaged in clinical practice. Ideally, adding a second visit (six image sequences) is also suggested in research protocols. PMID:25868536

  14. The development of young children's memory strategies: Evidence from the Würzburg Longitudinal Memory Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang Schneider; Veronika Kron-Sperl; Michael Hünnerkopf

    2009-01-01

    This article reports findings of the Würzburg Longitudinal Memory Study, which focused on children's verbal memory development. The study started with 100 kindergarten children who were tested on various memory measures, including sort-recall, text recall, short-term memory capacity, and metamemory. Assessments were repeated nine times, with adjacent measurement points separated by 6-month time intervals. The main goals of the study

  15. Oral contraceptive use by teenage women does not affect peak bone mass: a longitudinal study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom Lloyd; Denise S Taylor; Hung Mo Lin; Amy E Matthews; Douglas F Eggli; Richard S Legro

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of oral contraceptive pill (OCP) use during adolescence on peak bone mass.Design: Longitudinal observational study.Setting: Academic clinical research center.Patient(s): Sixty-two non-Hispanic, white females in The Penn State Young Women’s Health Study, who were studied for 8 years during ages 12–20.Intervention(s): There were 28 OCP users, who used OCPs for a minimum of 6 months and

  16. The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) Sibling Pairs Data

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Haberstick, Brett C.; Smolen, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the design and phenotype and genotype data available for sibling pairs with varying genetic relatedness in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Add Health is a nationally-representative longitudinal study of over 20,000 adolescents in the U.S. in 1994-95 who have been followed for fifteen years into adulthood. The Add Health design included oversamples of more than 3,000 pairs of individuals with varying genetic resemblance, ranging from monozygotic twins, dizygotic twins, full siblings, half siblings, and unrelated siblings who were raised in the same household. Add Health sibling pairs are therefore nationally representative and followed longitudinally from early adolescence into adulthood with 4 in-home interviews during the period 1994-2009. Add Health has collected rich longitudinal social, behavioral, environmental, and biological data, as well as buccal cell DNA from all sample members, including siblings pairs. Add Health has an enlightened dissemination policy and to date has released phenotype and genotype data to more than 10,000 researchers in the scientific community. PMID:23231780

  17. The global integration of diversity management: a longitudinal case study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aulikki Sippola; Adam Smale

    2007-01-01

    Whilst the extant diversity management literature has provided a comprehensive array of theoretical frameworks and empirical studies on how organizations can and have approached the management of a diverse workforce, the same cannot be said about the literature on diversity in an international setting. Indeed, from a diversity management perspective we know surprisingly little about how multinational firms are responding

  18. Job Values and Early Employment Experiences: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jepsen, David A.; Noeth, Richard J.

    A study was conducted to examine the predictive relationship between job values and early employment satisfaction and success as well as to provide information about the stability of job values over time. (Job values refer to generalized concepts of desirable future outcomes anticipated from jobs and describe qualities of satisfactions desired as…

  19. Parenting Practices and Adolescent Sexual Behavior: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bersamin, Melina; Todd, Michael; Fisher, Deborah A.; Hill, Douglas L.; Grube, Joel W.; Walker, Samantha

    2008-01-01

    The effects of parental attitudes, practices, and television mediation on adolescent sexual behaviors were investigated in a study of adolescent sexuality and media (N = 887). Confirmatory factor analyses supported an eight-factor parenting model with television mediation factors as constructs distinct from general parenting practices. Logistic…

  20. Schooling and Cognitive Development: A Longitudinal Study in Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roe, Kiki V.; Roe, Arnold

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-four Greek mountain village children were studied to examine the expectation that early, environmentally induced, cognitive retardation may be partially reversible. Children were tested at six and one-half years and again after four and one-half years of schooling. The results do not support such an expectation. (Author/PN)