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1

A Longitudinal Study of WIC Participation on Household Food Insecurity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the association between women’s\\/children’s duration of WIC participation and household food security status. For\\u000a mothers (n = 21,863) and their children (n = 57,377) participating in WIC (2001–2006), longitudinal measures of household food security status were collected using\\u000a a subscale of the USDA Food Security Module. Using logistic regression, household food security status at the last WIC visit\\u000a was associated with measures

Kathleen S. Gorman; Parke Wilde; Jan Kallio

2011-01-01

2

"Is Theatre Necessary?": Final Exit Interviews with Sixth Grade Participants from the ASU Longitudinal Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a 7-year longitudinal study of drama at Arizona State University that involved 30 participants who started the study as kindergartners. Focuses on final exit interviews with selected participants. Concludes that theater is necessary for some children and that theater may become more valuable if children can be convinced of the personal…

Saldana, Johnny

1995-01-01

3

Almost all start but who continue? A longitudinal study of youth participation in Swedish club sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many young people in Sweden stop participating in club sports during their teens, but some continue. Drawing on a longitudinal study, the aim of this article is to highlight some of the characteristics of teenagers who continue with club sports and to discuss the relation between club-sport participation and social and cultural conditions, with the help of Bourdieu’s theoretical framework.

Britta Thedin Jakobsson; Suzanne Lundvall; Karin Redelius; Lars-Magnus Engström

2012-01-01

4

Almost All Start but Who Continue? A Longitudinal Study of Youth Participation in Swedish Club Sports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many young people in Sweden stop participating in club sports during their teens, but some continue. Drawing on a longitudinal study, the aim of this article is to highlight some of the characteristics of teenagers who continue with club sports and to discuss the relation between club-sport participation and social and cultural conditions, with…

Jakobsson, Britta Thedin; Lundvall, Suzanne; Redelius, Karin; Engstrom, Lars-Magnus

2012-01-01

5

Personality and labor force participation across the life course: A longitudinal study of women's careers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influences on and consequences of women's labor force experience are examined using data from members of the Berkeley longitudinal studies born between 1920 and 1929. In adolescence, these women were overwhelmingly oriented toward marriage and family rather than career, yet more than two-thirds eventually spent substantial time in the paid labor force. Consistent labor force participation was lower for

John A. Clausen; Martin Gilens

1990-01-01

6

Longitudinal consent-related abilities among research participants with schizophrenia: Results from the CATIE study  

PubMed Central

Objective Research participants must have adequate consent-related abilities to provide informed consent at the time of study enrollment. We sought to determine if research participants with schizophrenia maintain adequate consent-related abilities during a longitudinal study. If participants lose abilities during a trial they may not be able to judge and protect their interests. If reduced abilities are common or can be predicted, special protections can be targeted appropriately. Method We examined longitudinal consent-related abilities of participants in the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) schizophrenia study using the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool-Clinical Research (MacCAT-CR) at protocol-specified times over 18 months. Results Of 1,158 research participants in this analysis, most (n= 650, 56%) had a stable pattern of MacCAT-CR Understanding scores, 235 (20%) improved substantially with no evidence of decline, 273 (24%) had at least one assessment with substantial worsening. During the course of the trial, 43 (4%) fell below the initial threshold for adequate capacity, which was predicted by lower Understanding scores, more severe positive symptoms, and poorer neurocognitive functioning at baseline, and by increases in negative symptoms and deteriorating global status. Conclusions Most participants in this long-term study had stable or improved consent-related abilities, but almost one-fourth experienced substantial worsening and 4% of participants fell below the study’s capacity threshold for enrollment. Clinical investigators should monitor with special care individuals with marginal capacity or higher levels of psychotic symptoms at study entry and those who exhibit clinical worsening during a study. PMID:21561740

Stroup, T. Scott; Appelbaum, Paul S.; Gu, Hongbin; Hays, Spencer; Swartz, Marvin S.; Keefe, Richard S.E.; Kim, Scott; Manschreck, Theo; Boshes, Roger; McEvoy, Joseph P.; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.

2011-01-01

7

Organisational participation and health among smallholder farmers: a longitudinal study in a Latin American context  

PubMed Central

Objective To understand the impact of social organisation affiliation and farmers’ agricultural production practices on farmer health. Organisations facilitate the acquisition and exchange of forms of social capital which can influence the adoption of practices with potential health impacts. In countries such as Ecuador, smallholder agriculture is practised by socially vulnerable populations. Agricultural production often involves the use of extremely hazardous pesticides, while practices that reduce the use of chemicals through integrated pest management (IPM) remain uncommon. Design Longitudinal study (2007–2010). Setting 12 Ecuadorian communities, previously part of a participatory action research study. Participants 208 small-scale farmers. Inclusion criteria were: age between 18 and 65?years, literate and resident in the community for the previous 3?years. Primary outcomes The differential effects of the membership in social organisations (as an effect modifier), on the relationship between the implementation of IPM practices (main independent variable) and farmers’ health, measured by neurocognitive performance scores (better higher value; dependent variable). Results Among organisational participants, the coefficient of association between the implementation of IPM practices for the category good/very good (vs no use) and neurocognitive performance, when farmers were involved in organisations, was negative and moderate (?=?0.17, SE 0.21) though not significant (p>0.1); for the category little/moderate use, the coefficient was positive (?=0.34, SE 0.19) and significant. Among those who did not participate in organisations, both little/moderate use and good/very good use of IPM practices were associated with an increase in neurocognitive performance. Conclusions The effect of agricultural production practices on farmers’ health, transmitted through organisations, can be differentiated. Organisations as structures of social capital seem to be functional in the social reproduction process of the communities studied. Results highlight the need to redirect the analysis of social capital to a more integrated study of social determination of health. PMID:25344481

Orozco, Fadya; Mota, Eduardo; Cole, Donald C

2014-01-01

8

Insights from an 8-Year Longitudinal Study of Female REU Participants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long-running REU program is tacitly intended to increase retention and provide "an important educational experience" for undergraduates, particularly women, minorities and underrepresented groups. This 8-year, two-stage study was designed to explore the ways in which the REU acted as an educational experience for 51 women from a single scientific discipline. This paper describes the results of that analysis in two sections. The first section describes the results from an ex post facto longitudinal data analysis. This data included multiple interviews with each participant during their REU, annual open-ended alumni surveys, faculty interviews, and extensive field notes, over an 8-year period. As a result of this analysis, four themes emerged, related to developing understandings of the nature of professional scientific work, the nature of the scientific process, the culture of academia, and finally, an understanding of the "self." This analysis served as an initial theory that was used to design the second stage, interview protocol. In the second stage over 10 hours of interviews with 8 participants were conducted and analyzed. These 8 participants were selected to represent a variety of career stages, and for their potential to disconfirm the initial theory. Analysis of this interview data failed to provide disconfirming evidence. Results from this study indicate that the REU did not provide a substantive educational experience related to the nature of scientific work, the scientific process, or the culture of academia. Results further indicated that the REU did not serve to transform participants' conceptions about themselves as situated in science, and learning gains with regard to other aspects of the self, were somewhat limited. Instead, the data suggests that these women arrived at the REU with pre-existing and remarkably strong conceptions in these areas, and that the REU did not functional to alter those states. These conceptions were frequently the result of interactions with mentors/scientists from middle school until well into the undergraduate period. Formal and informal interactions with research scientists and instructors, in addition to family members, served as crucial forces in shaping highly developed, stable science identities. Sustained interactions with a single mentor at a home institution were particularly transformational. This study suggests further studies into the impact of long-term mentors on women in the sciences, at a variety of stages and across multiple disciplines.

Slater, S. J.

2009-12-01

9

Improving Retention of Very Old Participants in Longitudinal Research: Experiences from the Newcastle 85+ Study  

PubMed Central

Background People aged 85 and over are often excluded from research on the grounds of being difficult to recruit and problematic to retain. The Newcastle 85+ study successfully recruited a cohort of 854 85-year-olds to detailed health assessment at baseline and followed them up over 3 phases spanning 5 years. This paper describes the effectiveness of its retention strategies. Methods Primary retention strategies involved meticulous management of contact information and active maintenance of contact with participants between research visits and between phases of the study. For statistical analysis, data on post-inclusion attrition over the 3 follow-up phases was separated into ‘death’ and ‘withdrawal’ categories, with sub-categories ‘health’ and ‘non-health’ reasons created for ‘withdrawal’. Multinomial logistic regression was used to determine if particular socio-demographic and health characteristics were associated with post-inclusion attrition due to withdrawal at each of the 3 phase-to-phase transition points. Results For both sexes, at successive follow-up phases there was a decrease in attrition due to withdrawal and an increase due to death. Withdrawal was most prevalent between baseline and phase 2. Across the 5 years of the study total post-inclusion (post-baseline) attrition due to death accounted for a 40% (344/854) loss to cohort and total post-inclusion attrition due to withdraw a 19% (166/854) loss to cohort, with health reasons for withdrawal becoming more dominant over time. Adjusting for sex, parsimonious modelling showed only occupational class (National Statistics Socio-economic Classification) to be associated with withdrawal and only between baseline and phase 2 (routine/manual compared to managerial (OR 3.41; 95% CI [1.23 to 9.44]). Conclusion Following successful recruitment, we retained a high proportion of participants from a very old age group over 5 years of longitudinal research. No strong predictors of post-inclusion attrition due to withdrawal were found, suggesting the general effectiveness of our retention strategies. PMID:25302500

Davies, Karen; Kingston, Andrew; Robinson, Louise; Hughes, Joan; Hunt, Judith M.; Barker, Sally A. H.; Edwards, June; Collerton, Joanna; Jagger, Carol; Kirkwood, Thomas B. L.

2014-01-01

10

Does early sexual debut reduce teenagers' participation in tertiary education? Evidence from the SHARE longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

Negative effects of early sexual debut on academic outcomes can extend beyond secondary school, although concurrent changes in other psychosocial risk factors have not been investigated. Data from three waves of a longitudinal survey of Scottish teenagers were used to examine associations between early sexual debut (first heterosexual intercourse) and both expectations for (N = 5,061) and participation in (N = 2,130) tertiary education at college or university. Early debut was associated with reduced tertiary education, after adjusting for academic performance and wave 1 confounders relating to social background, attitudes and behaviours. Pregnancy/partner pregnancy did not explain all of this finding, as many sexually experienced teenagers opted out of tertiary education after leaving school early for other reasons. Changes in other psychosocial risk factors between waves 1 and 2 mediated much of the association found. Early sexual experience may predict disengagement from tertiary education, although further research is needed to explore causal pathways. PMID:19897236

Parkes, Alison; Wight, Daniel; Henderson, Marion; West, Patrick

2010-01-01

11

Sports Participation and Academic Performance: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has been argued that high school sports participation increases motivation and teaches teamwork and self-discipline. While several studies have shown that students who participate in athletic activities perform better in school than those who do not, it is not clear whether this association is a result of positive academic spillovers, or due to…

Rees, Daniel I.; Sabia, Joseph J.

2010-01-01

12

Sports participation and academic performance: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been argued that high school sports participation increases motivation and teaches teamwork and self-discipline. While several studies have shown that students who participate in athletic activities perform better in school than those who do not, it is not clear whether this association is a result of positive academic spillovers, or due to the influence of unobservables. Using data

Daniel I. Rees; Joseph J. Sabia

2010-01-01

13

Sport participation and alcohol and illicit drug use in adolescents and young adults: a systematic review of longitudinal studies.  

PubMed

Sport participation can play an important and positive role in the health and development of children and youth. One area that has recently been receiving greater attention is the role that sport participation might play in preventing drug and alcohol use among youth. The current study is a systematic review of 17 longitudinal studies examining the relationship between sport participation and alcohol and drug use among adolescents. Results indicated that sport participation is associated with alcohol use, with 82% of the included studies (14/17) showing a significant positive relationship. Sport participation, however, appears to be related to reduced illicit drug use, especially use of non-cannabis related drugs. Eighty percent of the studies found sport participation associated with decreased illicit drug use, while 50% of the studies found negative association between sport participation and marijuana use. Further investigation revealed that participation in sports reduced the risk of overall illicit drug use, but particularly during high school; suggesting that this may be a critical period to reduce or prevent the use of drugs through sport. Future research must better understand what conditions are necessary for sport participation to have beneficial outcomes in terms of preventing alcohol and/or illicit drug use. This has been absent in the extent literature and will be central to intervention efforts in this area. PMID:24290876

Kwan, Matthew; Bobko, Sarah; Faulkner, Guy; Donnelly, Peter; Cairney, John

2014-03-01

14

Marginalisation Processes in Inclusive Education in Norway: A Longitudinal Study of Classroom Participation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this paper is to describe the classroom participation of primary school children with disabilities who attend regular schools in Norway; to explore how relations between children with disabilities and their environment change, and further to chart how schools act in response to such change. The analyses are based on a life course study

Wendelborg, Christian; Tossebro, Jan

2010-01-01

15

A Longitudinal Study of Exercise Barriers in Colorectal Cancer Survivors Participating in a Randomized Controlled Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The Colorectal Cancer and Home-Based Physical Exercise (CAN-HOPE) trial compared the effects of a 16-week home-based exercise\\u000a program to usual care on quality of life in colorectal cancer survivors.Purpose: In this study, we report the weekly exercise barriers from the exercise group.Methods: Participants randomized to the exercise group (N = 69) were asked to report their exercise on a

Kerry S. Courneya; Christine M. Friedenreich; H. Arthur Quinney; Anthony L. A. Fields; Lee W. Jones; Jeffrey K. H. Vallance; Adrian S. Fairey

2005-01-01

16

A longitudinal study of the educational and career trajectories of female participants of an urban informal science education program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this longitudinal case study is to describe the educational trajectories of a sample of 152 young women from urban, low-income, single-parent families who participated in the Women in Natural Sciences (WINS) program during high school. Utilizing data drawn from program records, surveys, and interviews, this study also attempts to determine how the program affected the participants' educational and career choices to provide insight into the role informal science education programs play in increasing the participation of women and minorities in science, math, engineering, and technology (SMET)-related fields. Findings revealed 109 participants (93.16%) enrolled in a college program following high school completion. Careers in medical or health-related fields followed by careers in SMET emerged as the highest ranking career paths with 24 students (23.76%) and 21 students (20.79%), respectively, employed in or pursuing careers in these areas. The majority of participants perceived having staff to talk to, the job skills learned, and having the museum as a safe place to go as having influenced their educational and career decisions. These findings reflect the need for continued support of informal science education programs for urban girls and at-risk youth.

Fadigan, Kathleen A.; Hammrich, Penny L.

2004-10-01

17

Effect of living area and sports club participation on physical fitness in children: a 4 year longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

Background Cross-sectional studies detected associations between physical fitness, living area, and sports participation in children. Yet, their scientific value is limited because the identification of cause-and-effect relationships is not possible. In a longitudinal approach, we examined the effects of living area and sports club participation on physical fitness development in primary school children from classes 3 to 6. Methods One-hundred and seventy-two children (age: 9–12 years; sex: 69 girls, 103 boys) were tested for their physical fitness (i.e., endurance [9-min run], speed [50-m sprint], lower- [triple hop] and upper-extremity muscle strength [1-kg ball push], flexibility [stand-and-reach], and coordination [star coordination run]). Living area (i.e., urban or rural) and sports club participation were assessed using parent questionnaire. Results Over the 4 year study period, urban compared to rural children showed significantly better performance development for upper- (p?=?0.009, ES?=?0.16) and lower-extremity strength (p?participating in sports clubs compared to their non-participating peers. Conclusions Our findings suggest that sport club programs with appealing arrangements appear to represent a good means to promote physical fitness in children living in rural areas. PMID:24886425

2014-01-01

18

Tracing Beliefs and Behaviors of a Participant in a Longitudinal Study for the Development of Mathematical Ideas and Reasoning: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research provides an analysis of the relationship between a student's beliefs and mathematical behaviors over a seventeen-year period. Romina, the student of focus in this case study, was among the original participants in a longitudinal study which explored how students build mathematical ideas when working collaboratively on problem-solving…

Steffero, Maria

2010-01-01

19

Impact of different aspects of social participation and social capital on smoking cessation among daily smokers: a longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

Objective: To investigate differences in different aspects of social participation and social capital among baseline daily smokers that had remained daily smokers, become intermittent smokers, or stopped smoking at one year follow up. Design/setting/participants/measurements: 12 507 individuals, aged 45–69 years, interviewed at baseline between 1992 and 1994 and at a one year follow up were investigated in this longitudinal study. The three groups of baseline daily smokers were compared to the reference population (baseline intermittent smokers and non-smokers) according to different aspects of social participation and social capital. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess differences in different aspects of social participation and social capital. Results: The baseline daily smokers that remained daily smokers at the one year follow up had significantly increased odds ratios of non-participation in study circles in other places than at work, meeting of organisations other than unions, theatre/cinema, arts exhibition, church, sports events, large gatherings of relatives, and private parties compared to the reference population. The baseline daily smokers that had become intermittent smokers at the one year follow up had significantly increased odds ratios of non-participation in church services. The baseline daily smokers that had stopped smoking had increased odds ratios of non-participation in having attended a meeting of organisations other than labour unions during the past year, having been to a theatre or cinema, and of having visited an arts exhibition during the past year. All three categories of baseline daily smokers had significantly decreased odds ratios of non-participation in night club/entertainment. Conclusions: The baseline daily smokers that had remained daily smokers at the one year follow up had particularly high rates of non-participation compared to the reference population in both activities specifically related to social capital, such as other study circles, meetings of organisations other than labour unions, and church attendance and cultural activities such as theatre/cinema and arts exhibition, although significantly lower participation in cultural activities and meetings of other organisations was also observed among daily smokers that had stopped smoking. All three baseline daily smoker groups had higher rates of having visited a night club during the past year. PMID:12958387

Lindstrom, M; Isacsson, S; Elmstahl, S

2003-01-01

20

RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION ISSUES AMONG NON-WHITE PARTICIPANTS FOR A LARGE LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH  

EPA Science Inventory

An understanding of the most effective recruitment techniques and retention strategies for longitudinal, community-based, childrens environmental health studies such as the National Childrens Study (NCS) is needed. In early 2003, eighteen focus groups were conducted across the ...

21

Head Start Participation and School Readiness: Evidence from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort December 10, 2012  

PubMed Central

Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (n ? 6,950), a nationally representative sample of children born in 2001, we examined school readiness (academic skills and socio-emotional wellbeing) at kindergarten entry for children who attended Head Start compared to those who experienced other types of child care (prekindergarten, other center-based care, other non-parental care, or parental care). Using propensity score matching methods and OLS regressions with rich controls, we found that Head Start participants had higher early reading and math scores than children in other non-parental care or parental care, but also higher levels of conduct problems than those in parental care. Head Start participants had lower early reading scores compared to children in prekindergarten, and had no differences in any outcomes compared to children in other center-based care. Head Start benefits were more pronounced for children who had low initial cognitive ability or low-educated parents, or attended Head Start for more than 20 hours per week. PMID:23527496

Lee, RaeHyuck; Zhai, Fuhua; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Han, Wen-Jui; Waldfogel, Jane

2014-01-01

22

Longitudinal-Experimental Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Longitudinal-experimental studies are follow-up surveys that include an experimental intervention. The main advantage of these\\u000a surveys is that it is possible to study both the natural history of development and the impact of interventions in one research\\u000a project. This chapter focusses on large-scale community surveys with repeated personal interviews with participants spanning\\u000a at least 5 years. It reviews the advantages

David P. Farrington; Rolf Loeber; Brandon C. Welsh

23

Determinants of participation in a longitudinal two-stage study of the health consequences of the Chornobyl nuclear power plant accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The determinants of participation in long-term follow-up studies of disasters have rarely been delineated. Even less is known from studies of events that occurred in eastern Europe. We examined the factors associated with participation in a longitudinal two-stage study conducted in Kyiv following the 1986 Chornobyl nuclear power plant accident. METHODS: Six hundred child-mother dyads (300 evacuees and 300

Lin T Guey; Evelyn J Bromet; Semyon F Gluzman; Victoria Zakhozha; Vlodomyr Paniotto

2008-01-01

24

Modeling seroadaptation and sexual behavior among HIV+ study participants with a simultaneously multilevel and multivariate longitudinal count model.  

PubMed

Longitudinal behavioral intervention trials to reduce HIV transmission risk collect complex multilevel and multivariate data longitudinally for each subject with important correlation structures across time, level, and variables. Accurately assessing the effects of these trials are critical for determining which interventions are effective. Both numbers of partners and numbers of sex acts with each partner are reported at each time point. Sex acts with each partner are further differentiated into protected and unprotected acts with correspondingly differing risks of HIV/STD transmission. These trials generally also have eligibility criteria limiting enrollment to participants with some minimal level of risky sexual behavior tied directly to the outcome of interest. The combination of these factors makes it difficult to quantify sexual behaviors and the effects of intervention. We propose a multivariate multilevel count model that simultaneously models the number of partners, acts within partners, and accounts for recruitment eligibility. Our methods are useful in the evaluation of intervention trials and provide a more accurate and complete model for sexual behavior. We illustrate the contributions of our model by examining seroadaptive behavior defined as risk reducing behavior that depends on the serostatus of the partner. Several forms of seroadaptive risk reducing behavior are quantified and distinguished from nonseroadaptive risk reducing behavior. PMID:23002948

Zhu, Yuda; Weiss, Robert E

2013-03-01

25

Factors Associated with Participation and Attrition in a Longitudinal Study of Bacterial Vaginosis in Australian Women Who Have Sex with Women  

PubMed Central

Objective A number of social and sexual risk factors for bacterial vaginosis (BV) have been described. It is important to understand whether these factors are associated with non-participation or attrition of participants from longitudinal studies in order to examine potential for recruitment or attrition bias. We describe factors associated with participation and attrition in a 24-month prospective cohort study, investigating incident BV among Australian women who have sex with women. Study Design and Setting Participants negative for prevalent BV were offered enrolment in a longitudinal cohort study. Participants self-collected vaginal samples and completed questionnaires 3-monthly to endpoint (BV-positive/BV-negative by 24 months). Factors associated with participation in the cohort study were examined by logistic regression and factors associated with attrition from the cohort were examined by Cox regression. Results The cross-sectional study recruited 457 women. 334 BV-negative women were eligible for the cohort and 298 (89%, 95%CI 85, 92) enrolled. Lower educational levels (aOR 2.72, 95%CI 1.09, 6.83), smoking (aOR 2.44, 95%CI 1.13, 5.27), past BV symptoms (aOR 3.42, 95%CI 1.16, 10.10) and prior genital warts (aOR 2.71, 95%CI 1.14, 6.46) were associated with non-participation; a partner co-enrolling increased participation (aOR 3.73, 95%CI 1.43, 9.70). 248 participants (83%, 95%CI 78, 87) were retained to study endpoint (BV-negative at 24 months or BV-positive at any stage). Attrition was associated being <30 yrs (aHR 2.15, 95%CI 1.13, 4.10) and a male partner at enrolment (aHR 6.12, 95%CI 1.99, 18.82). Conclusion We achieved high participation and retention levels in a prospective cohort study and report factors influencing participation and retention of participants over a 24-month study period, which will assist in the design and implementation of future cohort studies in sexual health and disease. PMID:25412421

Forcey, Dana S.; Walker, Sandra M.; Vodstrcil, Lenka A.; Fairley, Christopher K.; Bilardi, Jade E.; Law, Matthew; Hocking, Jane S.; Fethers, Katherine A.; Petersen, Susan; Bellhouse, Clare; Chen, Marcus Y.; Bradshaw, Catriona S.

2014-01-01

26

WISCONSIN LONGITUDINAL STUDY (WLS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS) is a long-term study of a random sample of 10,317 men and women who graduated from Wisconsin high schools in 1957. The WLS provides an opportunity to study of the life course, intergenerational transfers and relationships, family functioning...

27

Intensity of Participation in Organized Youth Activities during the High School Years: Longitudinal Associations with Adjustment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this study was to explore the longitudinal associations between youth activity participation and adjustment over the high school years by examining (a) correlations between participation and adjustment growth curves, and (b) bidirectional links between participation and adjustment from one year to the next. Participation was…

Denault, Anne-Sophie; Poulin, Francois; Pedersen, Sara

2009-01-01

28

A longitudinal trend study of a university-based teacher induction program: observable behaviors of urban teachers and their perceptions of program components five years after participation  

E-print Network

This longitudinal trend study (Gall, Borg & Gall, 1996) examined the effectiveness of a one-semester university-based teacher induction program as compared to a two-semester university-based teacher induction program based on the observation scores...

Moon Merchant, Vickie V

2006-10-30

29

Longitudinal Evaluation of Multi-phasic, Odontological and Nutritional Associations in Dentists (LEMONADE Study): Study Design and Profile of Nationwide Cohort Participants at Baseline  

PubMed Central

Background To examine the association between oral health and general well-being, we are currently conducting a nationwide cohort study comprising members of the Japan Dental Association (JDA). Herein, we describe the study design and the profile of the participants at baseline. Methods From 2001 through 2006, the participants completed a baseline questionnaire that surveyed factors related to lifestyle, general health, and oral health. Morbidity and mortality have been monitored by using information from fraternal insurance programs operated by prefectural dental associations. All respondents provided written, informed consent for participation and the use of their insurance data. Results A total of 21 272 JDA members participated in the baseline survey (response rate, 36.2%). Their mean age ± SD was 52.3 ± 12.3 years; 8.0% were women. Among the respondents, 30.2% of men and 10.7% of women were current smokers; 73.5% of men and 44.8% of women were current drinkers. The cohort scored higher on oral health indices than did the general Japanese population: dentists were more likely to brush their teeth ?3 times/day, to have ?20 teeth, to have fewer lost teeth, to be free from periodontal diseases, and to have higher General Oral Health Assessment Index scores. There was, however, considerable inter-individual variation in scores on the indices. Conclusions More than one-third of JDA members participated in the study. Their oral average health status was better than that of the general population. Nevertheless, it will be possible to compare morbidity and mortality between those with better and worse scores on oral health indices. PMID:19265274

Wakai, Kenji; Naito, Mariko; Naito, Toru; Nakagaki, Haruo; Umemura, Osami; Yokota, Makoto; Hanada, Nobuhiro; Kawamura, Takashi

2009-01-01

30

A longitudinal investigation of change in teacher efficacy and perceptions of leadership following participation in a technology integration program  

E-print Network

A longitudinal study was conducted to investigate the relationship between teachersÂ? perceptions of leadership capabilities and teachersÂ? efficacy beliefs in the context of their participation in a technology integration project. Participants...

Rackley, Robin Ann

2006-04-12

31

Understanding preferences for disclosure of individual biomarker results among participants in a longitudinal birth cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundTo describe the preferences for disclosure of individual biomarker results among mothers participating in a longitudinal birth cohort.MethodsWe surveyed 343 mothers that participated in the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment Study about their biomarker disclosure preferences. Participants were told that the study was measuring pesticide metabolites in their biological specimens, and that the health effects of these low

Stephen E Wilson; Erin R Baker; Anthony C Leonard; Mark H Eckman; Bruce P Lanphear

2010-01-01

32

Development of Metacognitive Skillfulness: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study shows the results of a two-year longitudinal study where the same participants were followed for two consecutive years as they enter secondary school (aged 12-14 years). The main issue was to investigate the development of both the quantity and the quality of metacognitive skills. Another issue was to establish whether the development…

van der Stel, Manita; Veenman, Marcel V. J.

2010-01-01

33

Fostering marginalized youths' political participation: longitudinal roles of parental political socialization and youth sociopolitical development.  

PubMed

This study examines the roles of parental political socialization and the moral commitment to change social inequalities in predicting marginalized youths' (defined here as lower-SES youth of color) political participation. These issues are examined by applying structural equation modeling to a longitudinal panel of youth. Because tests of measurement invariance suggested racial/ethnic heterogeneity, the structural model was fit separately for three racial/ethnic groups. For each group, parental political socialization: discussion predicted youths' commitment to produce social change and for two groups, longitudinally predicted political participation. This study contributes to the literature by examining civic/political participation among disparate racial/ethnic groups, addresses an open scholarly question (whether youths' commitment to create social change predicts their "traditional" participation), and emphasizes parents' role in fostering marginalized youths' civic and political participation. PMID:22302436

Diemer, Matthew A

2012-09-01

34

ECEAP 1991 Longitudinal Study and Annual Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Washington State's Early Childhood Education and Assistance Program (ECEAP) provides a comprehensive, family-focused preschool program designed to help low-income children succeed in the public school system and help families support and participate in their children's success. Findings from an ongoing longitudinal study of the ECEAP program…

Washington State Office of Community Development, Olympia.

35

MPCP Longitudinal Educational Growth Study Baseline Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report focuses on the initial design, implementation and baseline results of the five-year Longitudinal Educational Growth Study (LEGS) of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP) being conducted by the School Choice Demonstration Project (SCDP). The LEGS will be the first evaluation of the participant effects of the MPCP using…

Witte, John F.; Wolf, Patrick J.; Cowen, Joshua M.; Fleming, David J.; Lucas-McLean, Juanita

2008-01-01

36

Procedures for Longitudinal Job Placement Follow-up of Former Program Participants. Adult Migrant Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A longitudinal study followed up participants of three Florida Adult Migrant Projects in order to examine project success in converting unemployable migrant and seasonal farmworker clients of Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA), Title IV-A, Section 402, into independent wage earners and to determine the extent to which employment was consistent to…

Grisham, Linda J.

37

Prevalence and Predictors of Disability 24-Months after Injury for Hospitalised and Non-Hospitalised Participants: Results from a Longitudinal Cohort Study in New Zealand  

PubMed Central

Introduction Most studies investigating disability outcomes following injury have examined hospitalised patients. It is not known whether variables associated with disability outcomes are similar for injured people who are not hospitalised. Aims This paper compares the prevalence of disability 24 months after injury for participants in the Prospective Outcomes of Injury Study who were hospitalised and those non-hospitalised, and also seeks to identify pre-injury and injury-related predictors of disability among hospitalised and non-hospitalised participants. Methods Participants, aged 18–64 years, were recruited from an injury claims register managed by New Zealand’s no-fault injury compensation insurer after referral by health care professionals. A wide range of pre-injury socio-demographic, health and psychosocial characteristics were collected, as well as injury-related characteristics; outcome is assessed using the WHODAS. Multivariable models estimating relative risks of disability for hospitalised and non-hospitalised participants were developed using Poisson regression methods. Results Of 2856 participants, analyses were restricted to 2184 (76%) participants for whom both pre-injury and 24 month WHODAS data were available. Of these, 25% were hospitalised. In both hospitalised and non-hospitalised groups, 13% experience disability (WHODAS?10) 24 months after injury; higher than pre-injury (5%). Of 28 predictor variables, seven independently placed injured participants in the hospitalised group at increased risk of disability 24 months after injury; eight in the non-hospitalised. Only four predictors (pre-injury disability, two or more pre-injury chronic conditions, pre-injury BMI?30 and trouble accessing healthcare services) were common to both the hospitalised and non-hospitalised groups. There is some evidence to suggest that among the hospitalised group, M?ori have higher risk of disability relative to non-M?ori. Conclusions At 24 months considerable disability is borne, equally, by hospitalised and non-hospitalised groups. However, predictors of disability are not necessarily consistent between the hospitalised and non-hospitalised groups, suggesting caution in generalising results from one group to the other. PMID:24278258

Derrett, Sarah; Wilson, Suzanne; Samaranayaka, Ari; Langley, John; Wyeth, Emma; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Lilley, Rebbecca; Davie, Gabrielle; Mauiliu, Melbourne

2013-01-01

38

Depression and unwanted first pregnancy: longitudinal cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To examine the outcomes of an unwanted first pregnancy (abortion v live delivery) and risk of depression and to explain discrepancies with previous research that used the same dataset. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Setting Nationally representative sample of US men and women aged 14-24 in 1979. Participants 1247 women in the US national longitudinal survey of youth who aborted

Sarah Schmiege; Nancy Felipe Russo

2005-01-01

39

Longitudinal associations between HIV risk reduction and out-of-school time program participation  

PubMed Central

Purpose The study aimed to determine the longitudinal associations between several variables assessing positive youth development and HIV risk reduction practices. Methods Participants were 329 youth enrolled in out-of-school time programs in New York City. Longitudinal data were collected in 3 waves during 2008 (baseline, 6 month follow-up and 12 month follow-up). Due to the nested nature of the data, multivariate analyses were performed using multilevel models. Results At baseline, HIV risk reduction was associated with female gender, greater individual-level program participation, and greater school connectedness. Over time, HIV risk reduction was associated with program-level participation: Individuals in groups with program-level participation scores 1 SD below the average showed significant declines in risk reduction practices over the 1-year study period compared to individuals in more participatory programs. Conclusions This study provides support for the out-of-school environment as an important context for sustaining HIV risk reduction and positive health promotion practices. PMID:23561894

Tiffany, Jennifer Sarah; Exner-Cortens, Deinera; Eckenrode, John

2013-01-01

40

The Relationship between Intensity and Breadth of After-School Program Participation and Academic Achievement: Evidence from a Short-Term Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We explored the extent to which intensity and breadth of participation in an after-school program (ASP) predicted academic achievement, as measured by changes in grades and attendance. The sample comprised 719 2nd-grade through 8th-grade Boys and Girls Clubs of Greater Dallas members during the 2009-2010 academic year. With respect to intensity,…

Springer, Ken; Diffily, Deborah

2012-01-01

41

Six year follow-up of students who participated in a school-based physical activity intervention: a longitudinal cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the long-term impact of a childhood motor skill intervention on adolescent motor skills and physical activity. METHODS: In 2006, we undertook a follow-up of motor skill proficiency (catch, kick, throw, vertical jump, side gallop) and physical activity in adolescents who had participated in a one-year primary school intervention Move It Groove

Lisa M Barnett; Eric van Beurden; Philip J Morgan; Lyndon O Brooks; Avigdor Zask; John R Beard

2009-01-01

42

A Longitudinal Study of the Talent Search Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

This longitudinal study examined the impact of participation in the federally funded Talent Search program at The University of Tennessee, Knoxville. The Talent Search program provides career exploration and counseling services to low-income students with the potential to be first-generation college graduates. Postsecondary education enrollment rates of 758 Talent Search participants were compared with enrollment rates of a control group

Ernest W. Brewer; Jama McMahan Landers

2005-01-01

43

Linking Student Achievement Growth to Professional Development Participation and Changes in Instruction: A Longitudinal Study of Elementary Students and Teachers in Title I Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background/Context: Most reforms in elementary education rely on teacher learning and improved instruction to increase student learning. This study increases our understanding of which types of professional development effectively change teaching practice in ways that boost student achievement. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study:…

Desimone, Laura; Smith, Thomas M.; Phillips, Kristie J. R.

2013-01-01

44

A Longitudinal Evaluation of the Med-Cor Program's Efforts To Improve Minority Students' Postsecondary Educational Opportunities and Health Career Participation. Part B: Graduate Follow-Up Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Medical-Counseling, Organizing, and Recruiting (Med-COR) program is a project sponsored by the University of California School of Medicine and the Los Angeles Unified School District to provide career information and experience in the health professions for middle school and high school students. This study evaluated the impact of the Med-COR…

Maddahian, Ebrahim; Barrera, Lourdes

45

A study of the HEB longitudinal dynamics  

SciTech Connect

A study of the High Energy Booster (HEB) longitudinal dynamics is presented. Full derivations of ramp dependent longitudinal variables are given. The formulas assume that the input magnetic field and beam longitudinal emittance are known as a function of time, and that either the rf voltage or the rf bucket area are known as a function of time. Once these three inputs are specified, the formulas can be used to calculate values for all other longitudinal dynamics variables. The formulas have been incorporated into a single computer code named ELVIRA: Evaluation of Longitudinal Variables in Relativistic Accelerators. The ELVIRA code is documented here in detail. The ELVIRA code is used under two initial longitudinal emittance assumptions to plot ramp functions for the longitudinal dynamics design of the HEB as of May 5, 1992.

Larson, D.J.

1993-12-01

46

A longitudinal study of urea cycle disorders.  

PubMed

The Urea Cycle Disorders Consortium (UCDC) is a member of the NIH funded Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network and is performing a longitudinal study of 8 urea cycle disorders (UCDs) with initial enrollment beginning in 2006. The consortium consists of 14 sites in the U.S., Canada and Europe. This report summarizes data mining studies of 614 patients with UCDs enrolled in the UCDC's longitudinal study protocol. The most common disorder is ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, accounting for more than half of the participants. We calculated the overall prevalence of urea cycle disorders to be 1/35,000, with 2/3rds presenting initial symptoms after the newborn period. We found the mortality rate to be 24% in neonatal onset cases and 11% in late onset cases. The most common precipitant of clinical hyperammonemic episodes in the post-neonatal period was intercurrent infections. Elevations in both blood ammonia and glutamine appeared to be biomarkers for neurocognitive outcome. In terms of chronic treatment, low protein diet appeared to result in normal weight but decreased linear growth while N-scavenger therapy with phenylbutyrate resulted in low levels of branched chain amino acids. Finally, we found an unexpectedly high risk for hepatic dysfunction in patients with ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency. This natural history study illustrates how a collaborative study of a rare genetic disorder can result in an improved understanding of morbidity and disease outcome. PMID:25135652

Batshaw, Mark L; Tuchman, Mendel; Summar, Marshall; Seminara, Jennifer

2014-01-01

47

A Longitudinal Investigation of Sport Participation, Peer Acceptance, and Self-esteem among Adolescent Girls and Boys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation was designed to explore the relations between sport participation, peer acceptance, and global self-esteem.\\u000a Peer acceptance was considered as a possible mediator of the relationship between sport participation and global self-esteem.\\u000a The sample included girls (N?=?4,689) and boys (N?=?5,811) between the ages of 12 and 21 (M?=?15 years) who were part of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent

Elizabeth Daniels; Campbell Leaper

2006-01-01

48

Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study of Reading Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary objectives of the present study are to introduce the Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study of Reading Disability, the first longitudinal twin study in which subjects have been specifically selected for having a history of reading difficulties, and to present some initial assessments of the stability of reading performance and cognitive…

Wadsworth, Sally J.; DeFries, John C.; Olson, Richard K.; Willcutt, Erik G.

2007-01-01

49

Psychiatric resilience: longitudinal twin study  

PubMed Central

Objective There is great variability in response to stressful life events (SLEs), with some individuals demonstrating substantial psychiatric symptoms while others remain largely asymptomatic. The source of this variability is poorly understood. The present study aimed to examine the genetic and environmental underpinning of resilience, defined as the difference between the twins’ total score on a broad measure of internalizing symptoms and their predicted score based on their cumulative exposure to SLEs. Method SLE exposure and internalizing symptoms were assessed at two time points in 7,500 adult twins. Using the residual between actual and predicted internalizing symptom total score, twin modeling was conducted for each wave separately, as well as longitudinally. Quantitative and qualitative sex effects were also tested. Results Resilience was found to have a mild to moderate genetic heritability at each individual wave (~31%). Additionally, qualitative sex effects were found. Incorporating error of measurement into the model increased the estimated heritability for the latent construct of resilience (~50%). Unconfounded by measurement error and occasion specific effects, environmental influences contributed roughly equally to determining the individual level of resilience. Conclusions Genetic factors influence the level of psychiatric resilience, and are largely stable over time. The genes that impact on resilience are not entirely the same in males and females, although the degree of heritability is equal across the sexes. Environmental influences can also have an enduring effect on resilience. The present findings of the genetic and environmental influences on adaptation to SLEs clarify the sources of individual variation to environmental stressors. PMID:24723629

Amstadter, Ananda B.; Myers, John M.; Kendler, Kenneth S.

2014-01-01

50

Venturing a 30-Year Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Longitudinal inquiry has long been recognized as a uniquely powerful method for seeking understanding of psychological development. A 30-year longitudinal venture is described--its theoretical motivation, methodological rationale, and details of implementation. Some of the novel and implicative findings the study has generated are briefly…

Block, Jack; Block, Jeanne H.

2006-01-01

51

A Longitudinal Study of Accounting Students' Ethical Judgement Making Ability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the effect of a moral education programme on the ethical judgement making ability of university students. The programme comprises two forms of intervention: a dedicated ethics course and subsequent practical training. A total of 113 accounting students from six Malaysian universities participated in a longitudinal study including three points of data collection, prior to an ethics course,

Maisarah Mohamed Saat; Stacey Porter; Gordon Woodbine

2012-01-01

52

A Longitudinal Study of Accounting Students' Ethical Judgement Making Ability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the effect of a moral education programme on the ethical judgement making ability of university students. The programme comprises two forms of intervention: a dedicated ethics course and subsequent practical training. A total of 113 accounting students from six Malaysian universities participated in a longitudinal study including three points of data collection, prior to an ethics course,

Maisarah Mohamed Saat; Stacey Porter; Gordon Woodbine

2011-01-01

53

Participate in a Study  

MedlinePLUS

... doctors or find out more facts about the medical condition. A study may connect you with other families going through ... the study? Who will have access to my medical information? Is this study suitable for children? Is there a written guarantee ...

54

Web-based tracking methods in longitudinal studies.  

PubMed

The use of online resources to reduce the attrition of program participants in longitudinal studies is examined. Higher-risk individuals, those involved in illegal activities, and females with last name changes are typically more difficult to locate. The effectiveness of using online resources for these participants is addressed. These resources include social networking sites, people-finder search engines, telephone and address directories, judicial records, and death records. The strengths and limitations of these resources are presented and discussed. Longitudinal studies using these resources are examined to evaluate their successful follow-up rates. The results of these studies indicate that participant characteristics are more important to successful follow-up than the length of time since participation or sample size. The use of multiple online sites increased follow-up rates, especially for those who are typically difficult to locate. The variables and websites to consider are discussed, and six lessons learned are offered. The prospective use of online participant involvement is especially important for successful longitudinal evaluation and program planning. PMID:24769078

Williams, Izaak L; O'Donnell, Clifford R

2014-08-01

55

PanScan Study Participants  

Cancer.gov

The following principal investigators and studies are participating in PanScan. Note that the principal investigators for PanScan often are not the same individuals who are the principal investigators of the established cohorts.

56

Information for Participants: PPB Study  

Cancer.gov

Information for prospective participants in a clinical study of families with at least one tumor from the DICER1 syndrome spectrum. The DICER1 syndrome is characterized by rare benign and malignant tumors, such as pleuropulmonary blastoma (PPB).

57

Is extracurricular participation associated with beneficial outcomes? Concurrent and longitudinal relations.  

PubMed

The authors examined the relations between participation in a range of high school extracurricular contexts and developmental outcomes in adolescence and young adulthood among an economically diverse sample of African American and European American youths. In general, when some prior self-selection factors were controlled, 11th graders' participation in school clubs and organized sports was associated with concurrent indicators of academic and psychological adjustment and with drug and alcohol use. In addition, participation in 11th grade school clubs and prosocial activities was associated with educational status and civic engagement at 1 year after high school. A few of the concurrent and longitudinal relations between activity participation and development were moderated by race and gender. Finally, breadth of participation, or number of activity contexts, was associated with positive academic, psychological, and behavioral outcomes. PMID:16802902

Fredricks, Jennifer A; Eccles, Jacquelynne S

2006-07-01

58

Psychiatric resilience: longitudinal twin study.  

PubMed

Background The source of variability in people's response to stressful life events is poorly understood. Aims We examine the genetic and environmental underpinning of resilience (i.e. the difference between the twins' internalising symptoms and their predicted symptoms based on cumulative stressful life events). Method Stressful life event exposure and internalising symptoms were assessed at two time points in 7500 adult twins. Using the residual between actual and predicted internalising symptom total score, twin modelling was conducted for each wave separately and longitudinally. Results Resilience was found to have a moderate genetic heritability at each wave (?31%). Qualitative gender effects were found. Incorporating error of measurement into the model increased the estimated heritability for the latent construct of resilience (?50%). When measurement error and occasion-specific effects were removed, environmental influences contributed roughly equally to level of resilience. Conclusions Both genes and environment influence level of psychiatric resilience, and are largely stable over time. Environmental influences can have an enduring effect on resilience. PMID:24723629

Amstadter, Ananda B; Myers, John M; Kendler, Kenneth S

2014-10-01

59

The USA National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study (NLLFS): Homophobia, Psychological Adjustment, and Protective Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study assessed the influence of protective factors on the psychological adjustment of children who had experienced homophobia and whose mothers were participants in a longitudinal study of planned lesbian families. Data were collected as part of the National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study by interviewing the children and having the mothers complete questionnaires. No significant differences were found in the

Henny M. W. Bos; Nanette K. Gartrell; Heidi Peyser; Frank van Balen

2008-01-01

60

The Florey Adelaide Male Ageing Study (FAMAS): Design, procedures & participants  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The Florey Adelaide Male Ageing Study (FAMAS) examines the reproductive, physical and psychological health, and health service utilisation of the ageing male in Australia. We describe the rationale for the study, the methods used participant response rates, representativeness and attrition to date. METHODS: FAMAS is a longitudinal study involving approximately 1200 randomly selected men, aged 35–80 years and living

Sean A Martin; Matthew T Haren; Sue M Middleton; Gary A Wittert

2007-01-01

61

Maintaining Superior Follow-Up Rates in a Longitudinal Study: Experiences from the College Life Study  

PubMed Central

Longitudinal studies are often considered to be a gold standard for research, but the operational management of such studies is not often discussed in detail; this paper describes strategies used to track and maintain high levels of participation in a longitudinal study involving annual personal interviews with a cohort of 1,253 undergraduates (first-time, first-year students at time of enrollment) at a large public mid-Atlantic university. PMID:22247739

Vincent, Kathryn B.; Kasperski, Sarah J.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Garnier-Dykstra, Laura M.; Pinchevsky, Gillian M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Arria, Amelia M.

2011-01-01

62

Are Sibling Relationships Protective? A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Although the protective effects of familial and parental support have been studied extensively in the child psychopathology literature, few studies have explored the protective quality of positive sibling relationships. Methods: A two-wave longitudinal design was used to examine the protective effect of positive sibling relationships…

Gass, Krista; Jenkins, Jennifer; Dunn, Judy

2007-01-01

63

Resources for Study Staff & Participants  

Cancer.gov

The following documents have been created by the National Cancer Institute as resources for study staff and participants. Each resource is available as a ready-to-use PDF as well as in Word format to allow users to adapt the content as desired.

64

DROPOUTS IN LONGITUDINAL STUDIES: DEFINITIONS AND MODELS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The widely used distinction of Little and Rubin [1] about types of randomness for missing data presents difficulties in its application to dropouts in longitudinal repeated measurement studies. In its place, a new typology of randomness for dropouts is proposed that relies on using a survival model for the dropout process.In terms of a stochastic process, dropping out is a

J. K. Lindsey

2000-01-01

65

A Longitudinal Evaluation Study of a Science Professional Development Program for K-12 Teachers: NERDS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A longitudinal evaluation study of a science professional development program for K-12 teachers was conducted using the CIPP evaluation model. Eleven years of program data were described and analyzed. Elementary teachers comprised 62% of the 384 participants, 17% of all participants were middle school teachers, and 13% of all participants were…

Ewing-Taylor, Jacque M.

2012-01-01

66

Participation and Performance Trends in Triple Iron Ultra-triathlon - a Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Data Analysis  

PubMed Central

Purpose The aims of the present study were to investigate (i) the changes in participation and performance and (ii) the gender difference in Triple Iron ultra-triathlon (11.4 km swimming, 540 km cycling and 126.6 km running) across years from 1988 to 2011. Methods For the cross-sectional data analysis, the association between with overall race times and split times was investigated using simple linear regression analyses and analysis of variance. For the longitudinal data analysis, the changes in race times for the five men and women with the highest number of participations were analysed using simple linear regression analyses. Results During the studied period, the number of finishers were 824 (71.4%) for men and 80 (78.4%) for women. Participation increased for men (r 2=0.27, P<0.01) while it remained stable for women (8%). Total race times were 2,146 ± 127.3 min for men and 2,615 ± 327.2 min for women (P<0.001). Total race time decreased for men (r 2=0.17; P=0.043), while it increased for women (r 2=0.49; P=0.001) across years. The gender difference in overall race time for winners increased from 10% in 1992 to 42% in 2011 (r 2=0.63; P<0.001). The longitudinal analysis of the five women and five men with the highest number of participations showed that performance decreased in one female (r 2=0.45; P=0.01). The four other women as well as all five men showed no change in overall race times across years. Conclusions Participation increased and performance improved for male Triple Iron ultra-triathletes while participation remained unchanged and performance decreased for females between 1988 and 2011. The reasons for the increase of the gap between female and male Triple Iron ultra-triathletes need further investigations. PMID:23012633

Rust, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

2012-01-01

67

Key longitudinal-experimental studies in criminology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the tradition of Joan McCord's work, this paper reviews longitudinal-experimental studies in criminology with community samples of at least 100 persons, follow-up periods of at least 5 years, personal interviews, and measures of offending. The main advantages of such studies are in investigating both the natural history of development (including the effects of risk\\/protective factors and life events) and

David P. Farrington

2006-01-01

68

The Christian Right Thesis: Explaining Longitudinal Change in Participation among Evangelical  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many attribute George W. Bush's strong campaign performance to Republican efforts to increase turnout among evangelical Protestants by stressing issues that focus on ''moral values.'' However, most scholarly studies either focus on demonstrating that moral issues affected vote choice in recent elections or they focus on documenting longitudinal changes in party loyalty or political attitudes among Evangelicals. Our task is

Ryan L. Claassen; Andrew Povtak

69

What Can We Learn From Longitudinal Studies of Adult Development?  

PubMed Central

This article distinguishes between normal and pathological aging, provides an interdisciplinary context, and then considers a sample case of cognitive aging. Developmental influences on cognition include the physiological infrastructure, genetic predispositions, and environmental influences. Different types of longitudinal studies are distinguished, and contrasting findings of cross-sectional and longitudinal are examined in the sample case of the Seattle Longitudinal Study. Also considered is the longitudinal context for intervention studies and the role of longitudinal family studies in assessing rate of aging and generational differences in rates of aging. Finally, attention is given to the role of longitudinal studies in the early detection of risk for dementia in advanced age. PMID:16467912

Schaie, K. Warner

2005-01-01

70

LINEAR MODELS FOR THE ANALYSIS OF LONGITUDINAL STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Longitudinal investigations play an increasingly prominent role in epidemiologic research. espite the importance of the longitudinal study, satisfactory methods for the analysis of serial measurements are not readily available. ongitudinal studies typically have unbalanced design...

71

Cohort profile: Wisconsin longitudinal study (WLS).  

PubMed

The Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS) is a longitudinal study of men and women who graduated from Wisconsin high schools in 1957 and one of their randomly selected siblings. Wisconsin is located in the upper midwest of the United States and had a population of approximately 14 000 000 in 1957, making it the 14th most populous state at that time. Data spanning almost 60 years allow researchers to link family background, adolescent characteristics, educational experiences, employment experiences, income, wealth, family formation and social and religious engagement to midlife and late-life physical health, mental health, psychological well-being, cognition, end of life planning and mortality. The WLS is one of the few longitudinal data sets that include an administrative measure of cognition from childhood. Further, recently collected saliva samples allow researchers to explore the inter-relationships among genes, behaviours and environment, including genetic determinants of behaviours (e.g. educational attainment); the interactions between genes and environment; and how these interactions predict behaviours. Most panel members were born in 1939, and the sample is broadly representative of White, non-Hispanic American men and women who have completed at least a high school education. Siblings cover several adjoining cohorts: they were born primarily between 1930 and 1948. At each interview, about two-thirds of the sample lived in Wisconsin, and about one-third lived elsewhere in the United States or abroad. The data, along with documentation, are publicly accessible and can be accessed at http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/wlsresearch/. Requests for protected data or assistance should be sent to wls@ssc.wisc.edu. PMID:24585852

Herd, Pamela; Carr, Deborah; Roan, Carol

2014-02-01

72

A longitudinal study of conceptual change: Preservice elementary teachers' conceptions of moon phases  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research consists of a longitudinal study of 12 female elementary preservice teachers' conceptual understanding over the course of several months. The context in which the participants received instruction was in an inquiry-based physics course, and the targeted science content was the cause of moon phases. Qualitative research methods, including observations and interviews, were used to investigate and describe participants'

Kathy Cabe Trundle; Ronald K. Atwood; John E. Christopher

2007-01-01

73

A Longitudinal Study of Phonological Processing Skills in Children Learning to Read in a Second Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

English-speaking children (N = 122) in French immersion classes participated in a 1-year longitudinal study of the relation between phonological awareness and reading achievement in both languages. Participants were administered measures of word decoding and of phonological awareness in French and in English as well as measures of cognitive ability, speeded naming, and pseudoword repetition in English only. The relation

Liane Comeau; Pierre Cormier; Éric Grandmaison; Diane Lacroix

1999-01-01

74

Visualising and modelling changes in categorical variables in longitudinal studies  

PubMed Central

Background Graphical techniques can provide visually compelling insights into complex data patterns. In this paper we present a type of lasagne plot showing changes in categorical variables for participants measured at regular intervals over time and propose statistical models to estimate distributions of marginal and transitional probabilities. Methods The plot uses stacked bars to show the distribution of categorical variables at each time interval, with different colours to depict different categories and changes in colours showing trajectories of participants over time. The models are based on nominal logistic regression which is appropriate for both ordinal and nominal categorical variables. To illustrate the plots and models we analyse data on smoking status, body mass index (BMI) and physical activity level from a longitudinal study on women’s health. To estimate marginal distributions we fit survey wave as an explanatory variable whereas for transitional distributions we fit status of participants (e.g. smoking status) at previous surveys. Results For the illustrative data the marginal models showed BMI increasing, physical activity decreasing and smoking decreasing linearly over time at the population level. The plots and transition models showed smoking status to be highly predictable for individuals whereas BMI was only moderately predictable and physical activity was virtually unpredictable. Most of the predictive power was obtained from participant status at the previous survey. Predicted probabilities from the models mostly agreed with observed probabilities indicating adequate goodness-of-fit. Conclusions The proposed form of lasagne plot provides a simple visual aid to show transitions in categorical variables over time in longitudinal studies. The suggested models complement the plot and allow formal testing and estimation of marginal and transitional distributions. These simple tools can provide valuable insights into categorical data on individuals measured at regular intervals over time. PMID:24576041

2014-01-01

75

Cohort profile: the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Kindergarten Children (QLSKC).  

PubMed

The Quebec Longitudinal Study of Kindergarten Children (QLSKC) is an ongoing population-based prospective longitudinal study presently spanning ages 6-29 years, designed to study the prevalence, risk factors, development and consequences of behavioural and emotional problems during elementary school. Kindergarten boys and girls attending French-speaking public schools in the Canadian province of Quebec during the 1986-87 and 1987-88 school years were included in the cohort: 2000 children representative of the population and 1017 children exhibiting disruptive behaviour problems. To date, 12 waves of data have been collected, and three generations of participants have been involved in the study (i.e. the study child, his parents and the first child of the study child). Information on demographics, psycho-social and lifestyle factors, child and family member characteristics (physical and mental health), and outcomes such as psychiatric diagnoses, delinquency or school diploma were assessed during three important developmental stages (childhood, adolescence and early adulthood). Blood samples were also collected in early adulthood for genetic analyses. Information on publications, available data and access to data can be found on the following website (http://www.gripinfo.ca/Grip/Public/www/). PMID:23159828

Rouquette, Alexandra; Côté, Sylvana M; Pryor, Laura E; Carbonneau, René; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E

2014-02-01

76

A Longitudinal Study of Memory Advantages in Bilinguals  

PubMed Central

Typically, studies of cognitive advantages in bilinguals have been conducted previously by using executive and inhibitory tasks (e.g. Simon task) and applying cross-sectional designs. This study longitudinally investigated bilingual advantages on episodic memory recall, verbal letter and categorical fluency during the trajectory of life. Monolingual and bilingual participants (n?=?178) between 35–70 years at baseline were drawn from the Betula Prospective Cohort Study of aging, memory, and health. Results showed that bilinguals outperformed monolinguals at the first testing session and across time both in episodic memory recall and in letter fluency. No interaction with age was found indicating that the rate of change across ages was similar for bilinguals and monolinguals. As predicted and in line with studies applying cross-sectional designs, no advantages associated with bilingualism were found in the categorical fluency task. The results are discussed in the light of successful aging. PMID:24023803

Ljungberg, Jessica K.; Hansson, Patrik; Andres, Pilar; Josefsson, Maria; Nilsson, Lars-Goran

2013-01-01

77

Longitudinal study of workers in an aluminum smelter  

SciTech Connect

We conducted a 6-y follow-up study that included workers in an aluminum smelter in British Columbia. Of the original cohort, 951 workers left the industry and 985 workers participated in both studies. Comparison of those who left and those who remained showed that those who left were (1) older, (2) had a slightly higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms, and (3) had lower lung function; this was especially true for workers who were 50 + y of age at the time the initial study was conducted. Analyses were conducted only on 586 male workers who did not change their job location or smoking habits between the initial and the follow-up study. Potroom workers in the ''high-exposure'' group had a significant reduction in the prevalence of cough, but experienced an increase in the prevalence of wheeze. There was no significant difference in the annual decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 sec and forced vital capacity between the potroom workers and controls. In general, older workers and smokers had a greater decline in lung function compared to younger workers and nonsmokers. Leukocyte count done during the initial study was found to be an independent predictor of longitudinal decline in lung function. The lack of exposure effect on longitudinal decline in lung function could be due to ''healthy worker'' effect and improvement in the working condition of the smelter.

Chan-Yeung, M.; Enarson, D.A.; MacLean, L.; Irving, D.

1989-05-01

78

Depression and unwanted first pregnancy: longitudinal cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the outcomes of an unwanted first pregnancy (abortion v live delivery) and risk of depression and to explain discrepancies with previous research that used the same dataset. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Setting Nationally representative sample of US men and women aged 14-24 in 1979. Participants 1247 women in the US national longitudinal survey of youth who aborted or delivered an unwanted first pregnancy. Main outcome measures Clinical cut-off and continuous scores on a 1992 measure of the Center for Epidemiological Studies depression scale. Results Terminating compared with delivering an unwanted first pregnancy was not directly related to risk of clinically significant depression (odds ratio 1.19, 95% confidence interval 0.85 to 1.66). No evidence was found of a relation between pregnancy outcome and depression in analyses of subgroups known to vary in under-reporting of abortion. In analyses of the characteristics of non-respondents, refusal to provide information on abortion did not explain the lack of detecting a relation between abortion and mental health. The abortion group had a significantly higher mean education and income and lower total family size, all of which were associated with a lower risk of depression. Conclusions Evidence that choosing to terminate rather than deliver an unwanted first pregnancy puts women at higher risk of depression is inconclusive. Discrepancies between current findings and those of previous research using the same dataset primarily reflect differences in coding of a first pregnancy. PMID:16257993

Schmiege, Sarah; Russo, Nancy Felipe

2005-01-01

79

77 FR 22068 - Proposed Information Collection (Post-9/11 GI Bill Education Longitudinal Study Survey) Activity...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-New (Post-9/11 GI Bill Longitudinal Study Survey)] Proposed Information Collection (Post-9/11 GI Bill Education Longitudinal...outcomes of Veterans participating in VBA's Post-9/11GI Bill program. DATES:...

2012-04-12

80

Adolescent stress and coping: a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this longitudinal panel study was to investigate developmental and gender influences on stress and coping in adolescents attending a suburban high school in Tennessee. Data were collected from the same 167 subjects during the freshman year and again during the senior year. Life events stress was measured through the Adolescent Life Change Event Scale (ALCES) and ways of coping were categorized from data gathered from an open-ended questionnaire. Girls reported more life events stress at both testings than boys. Life events stress was greater at senior testing for both girls and boys, but girls' scores increased more. The "gender intensification" phenomenon may account for the greater disparity in types of stress reported by boys and girls as seniors. Girls generally reported more life events associated with interpersonal and family relationships. Both girls and boys reported coping with stress mostly through active distraction techniques such as exercise. However, girls' use of active distraction decreased over time, while passive distraction increased. Self-destructive and aggressive coping behaviors increased for boys. There were no relationships between amounts or types of life events stress and ways of coping for subjects at either time. PMID:1509113

Groër, M W; Thomas, S P; Shoffner, D

1992-06-01

81

Beyond Terman: Contemporary Longitudinal Studies of Giftedness and Talent.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume presents 16 papers describing recent longitudinal studies of giftedness. Papers have the following titles and authors: (1) "Longitudinal Study of Giftedness and Talent" (Rena F. Subotnik and Karen D. Arnold); (2) "The Illinois Valedictorian Project: Early Adult Careers of Academically Talented Male High School Students" (Karen D.…

Subotnik, Rena F., Ed.; Arnold, Karen D., Ed.

82

A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Adjustment Following Family Transitions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study examined the impact of family transitions, that is, parental separation, divorce, remarriage and death, upon the lives of Australian children and adolescents in a longitudinal study of temperament and development. Methods: Using longitudinal and concurrent questionnaire data, outcomes for young people experiencing…

Ruschena, Eda; Prior, Margot; Sanson, Ann; Smart, Diana

2005-01-01

83

Early Predictors of Adolescent Depression: A 7-Year Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the longitudinal relationship of early elementary predictors to adolescent depression 7 years later. The sample consisted of 938 students who have been part of a larger longitudinal study that started in 1993. Data collected from parents, teachers, and youth self-reports on early risk factors when students were in 1st and 2nd…

Mazza, James J.; Abbott, Robert D.; Fleming, Charles B.; Harachi, Tracy W.; Cortes, Rebecca C.; Park, Jisuk; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Catalano, Richard F.

2009-01-01

84

Media Exposure, Aggression and Prosocial Behavior during Early Childhood: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preschool children (N = 78) enrolled in multi-informant, multi-method longitudinal study were participants in a study designed to investigate the role of media exposure (i.e., violent and educational) on concurrent and future aggressive and prosocial behavior. Specifically, the amount of media exposure and the nature of the content was used to…

Ostrov, Jamie M.; Gentile, Douglas A.; Crick, Nicki R.

2006-01-01

85

Listening Text Comprehension in Preschoolers: A Longitudinal Study on the Role of Semantic Components  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A longitudinal study analyzed (a) which lower- and higher-level semantic components uniquely predicted listening text comprehension and (b) the nature of the relation (i.e., direct and indirect) between the predictors and listening text comprehension in preschoolers. One-hundred and fifty-two children participated in the present study (68 females;…

Florit, Elena; Roch, Maja; Levorato, M. Chiara

2014-01-01

86

A Longitudinal Study of Children of Alcoholics: Predicting Young Adult Substance Use Disorders, Anxiety, and Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested the specificity of parent alcoholism effects on young adult alcohol and drug abuse\\/dependence, anxiety, and depression, and tested whether adolescent symptomatology and substance use mediated parent alcoholism effects. Participants were from a longitudinal study in which a target child was assessed in adolescence and young adulthood with structured interview measures (N = 454 families at Time 1).

Laurie Chassin; Steven C. Pitts; Christian DeLucia; Michael Todd

1999-01-01

87

A longitudinal study of children of alcoholics: Predicting young adult substance use disorders, anxiety, and depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested the specificity of parent alcoholism effects on young adult alcohol and drug abuse\\/ dependence, anxiety, and depression, and tested whether adolescent symptomatology and substance use mediated parent alcoholism effects. Participants were from a longitudinal study in which a target child was assessed in adolescence and young adulthood with structured interview measures (N = 454 families at Time

Laurie Chassin; Steven C. Pitts; Christian DeLucia; Michael Todd

1999-01-01

88

High school students’ career decision-making process: A longitudinal study of one choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated high school students’ process of choosing a study in higher education, using a longitudinal design. A sample of 535 adolescents participated at the beginning, middle, and end of Grade 12. Latent curve modeling revealed evidence for a mean developmental increase in the career decisional tasks of orientation, exploration, decisional status, and commitment. In general, the growth trajectories

Veerle Germeijs; Karine Verschueren

2006-01-01

89

Intercalated degrees, learning styles, and career preferences: prospective longitudinal study of UK medical students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To assess the effects of taking an intercalated degree (BSc) on the study habits and learning styles of medical students and on their interest in a career in medical research. Design Longitudinal questionnaire study of medical students at application to medical school and in their final year. Setting All UK medical schools. Participants 6901 medical school applicants for admission

I C McManus; P Richards; B C Winder; Hughes Hall

1999-01-01

90

Sexual health after spinal cord injury: A longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fisher TL, Laud PW, Byfield MG, Brown TT, Hayat MJ, Fiedler IG. Sexual health after spinal cord injury: a longitudinal study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;83:1043-51. Objectives: To clarify sexuality issues after spinal cord injury (SCI) and to identify the appropriate timing of sexual health interventions. Design: Longitudinal analysis of the survey responses of persons with SCI at 4 intervals

Thomas L. Fisher; Prakash W. Laud; Margaret G. Byfield; Traci T. Brown; Matthew J. Hayat; Irma G. Fiedler

2002-01-01

91

Longitudinal Study of Reading Scores of the Stanford Achievement Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 2.5-year longitudinal study of the reading scales of the Stanford Achievement Test confirmed the redundancy in its subtests. Strong and stable test-retest reliability coefficients were evident and supported the use of the Stanford total reading scale for longitudinal evaluations. (Author)

Suddick, David E.; Bowen, Charles L.

1982-01-01

92

Longitudinal HIV Risk Behavior among the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies (DATOS) Adult Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Longitudinal trajectories for HIV risk were examined over 5 years following treatment among 1,393 patients who participated in the nationwide Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies. Both injection drug use and sexual risk behavior declined over time, with most of the decline occurring between intake and the first-year follow-up. However, results of…

Murphy, Debra A.; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Herbeck, Diane; Evans, Elizabeth; Huang, David; Hser, Yih-Ing

2008-01-01

93

Crossover of job demands and emotional exhaustion within teams: a longitudinal multilevel study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the crossover of job demands and emotional exhaustion among team members and the moderating effect of cohesiveness and social support on this process. Participants were 310 employees of an employment agency in the Netherlands, working in one of 100 teams. Multilevel analysis using a longitudinal design did not reveal a main effect of crossover. However, consistent with

Mina Westman; Arnold B. Bakker; Ilan Roziner; Sabine Sonnentag

2011-01-01

94

Depression-Related Stress Generation: A Longitudinal Study of Black Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined Hammen's (1991) model of stress generation in depression in a Black adolescent population. The longitudinal sample of 1,766 participants entered the study at ages 13 to 18. Stressful events and depressive and other symptom occurrence over a 1-year period were analyzed. Results supported the stress generation model. Depressive…

Wingate, LaRicka R.; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.

2004-01-01

95

A Longitudinal Study of the CO-OP Upward Bound Program 2003-2008  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal case study examined the effectiveness of the CO-OP Upward Bound Program activities from 2003 through 2008 applying cultural and social capital theories. The program was evaluated in order to give a local perspective to program implementation and operations in a community-based setting. The participant researcher used mixed…

Henderson, Sharmakrenia D.

2009-01-01

96

Family Demands and Job Attribute Preferences: A 4Year Longitudinal Study of Women and Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

A longitudinal data set was used to examine the relationships between family demands and job attribute preferences. Study participants were 207 students who responded to surveys upon entering the MBA program of a large university and to follow-up surveys 1, 2, and 3 years later. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that preferences for short, flexible work hours at earlier time periods

Alison M. Konrad

2003-01-01

97

Gender Differences in and Risk Factors for Depression in Adolescence: A 4-Year Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study used longitudinal data (N = 1322; 648 males, 674 females) from adolescents ages 12 to 19 years (in 1994) to investigate gender differences in and risk factors for depressive symptoms and major depressive episodes (MDEs). The sample had participated in three waves of Canada's National Population Health Survey (1994, 1996, and…

Galambos, Nancy L.; Leadbeater, Bonnie J.; Barker, Erin T.

2004-01-01

98

Practice based, longitudinal, qualitative interview study of computerised evidence based guidelines in primary care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To understand the factors influencing the adoption of a computerised clinical decision support system for two chronic diseases in general practice. Design Practice based, longitudinal, qualitative interview study. Setting Five general practices in north east England. Participants 13 respondents (two practice managers, three nurses, and eight general practitioners) gave a total of 19 semistructured interviews. 40 people in practices

Nikki Rousseau; Elaine McColl; John Newton; Jeremy Grimshaw; Martin Eccles

2003-01-01

99

Individual and Environmental Characteristics Associated with Cognitive Development in Down Syndrome: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Associations among cognitive development and intrapersonal and environmental characteristics were investigated for 89 longitudinal study participants with Down syndrome to understand developmental patterns associated with cognitive strengths and weaknesses. Materials and Methods: Subtest scores of the Stanford-Binet IV collected…

Couzens, Donna; Haynes, Michele; Cuskelly, Monica

2012-01-01

100

Women in Intercollegiate Sport. A Longitudinal Study--Twenty Three Year Update, 1977-2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents data from a longitudinal study of women in intercollegiate sports, highlighting: participation opportunities for female athletes and the status of women as head coaches, assistant coaches, administrators, sports information directors, and athletic trainers. The average number of teams for women offered per school is at an…

Acosta, R. Vivian; Carpenter, Linda Jean

101

A Longitudinal Study of Conceptual Change: Preservice Elementary Teachers' Conceptions of Moon Phases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research consists of a longitudinal study of 12 female elementary preservice teachers' conceptual understanding over the course of several months. The context in which the participants received instruction was in an inquiry-based physics course, and the targeted science content was the cause of moon phases. Qualitative research methods,…

Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Atwood, Ronald K.; Christopher, John E.

2007-01-01

102

Longitudinal Study of Equity and Satisfaction in Intimate Relationships.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The longitudinal study was aimed at illuminating some fundamental problems with respect to the application of equity theory in intimate relationships. The study first tested the relationship between perceived equity and satisfaction, and ascertained wheth...

N. W. VanYperen, B. P. Buunk

1990-01-01

103

Rationales, design and recruitment of the Taizhou Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Background Rapid economic growth in China in the past decades has been accompanied by dramatic changes in lifestyle and environmental exposures. The burdens of non-communicable diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and cancer, have also increased substantially. Methods/design We initiated a large prospective cohort–the Taizhou Longitudinal Study–in Taizhou (a medium-size city in China) to explore the environmental and genetic risk factors for common non-communicable diseases. The sample size of the cohort will be at least 100,000 adults aged 30–80 years drawn from the general residents of the districts of Hailin, Gaogang, and Taixing (sample frame, 1.8 million) of Taizhou. A three-stage stratified sampling method will be applied. Baseline investigations include interviewer-administered questionnaire, anthropometric measurements, and collection of buccal mucosal cells and blood specimens. DNA will be extracted for genetic studies and serum samples will be used for biochemical examinations. A follow-up survey will be conducted every three years to obtain information on disease occurrence and information on selected lifestyle exposures. Study participants will be followed-up indefinitely by using a chronic disease register system for morbidity and cause-specific mortality. Information on non-fatal events will be obtained for certain major categories of disease (e.g., cancer, stroke, myocardial infarction) through established registry systems. Discussion The Taizhou Longitudinal Study will provide a good basis for exploring the roles of many important environmental factors (especially those concomitant with the economic transformation in China) for common chronic diseases, solely or via interaction with genetic factors. PMID:19589173

Wang, Xiaofeng; Lu, Ming; Qian, Ji; Yang, Yajun; Li, Shilin; Lu, Daru; Yu, Shunzhang; Meng, Wei; Ye, Weimin; Jin, Li

2009-01-01

104

User Participation in Social Media: Digg Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The social news aggregator Digg allows users to submit and moderate stories by voting on (digging) them. As is true of most social sites, user participation on Digg is non-uniformly distributed, with few users contributing a disproportionate fraction of content. We studied user participation on Digg, to see whether it is motivated by competition, fueled by user ranking, or social

Kristina Lerman

2007-01-01

105

Predicting Family Poverty and Other Disadvantaged Conditions for Child Rearing from Childhood Aggression and Social Withdrawal: A 30-Year Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 30-year longitudinal study examined pathways from problematic childhood behavior patterns to future disadvantaged conditions for family environment and child rearing in adulthood. Participants were mothers (n = 328) and fathers (n = 222) with lower income backgrounds participating in the ongoing Concordia Longitudinal Risk Project. Structural…

Serbin, Lisa A.; Temcheff, Caroline E.; Cooperman, Jessica M.; Stack, Dale M.; Ledingham, Jane; Schwartzman, Alex E.

2011-01-01

106

Flowing together: a longitudinal study of collective efficacy and collective flow among workgroups.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to extend the Channel Model of Flow (Csikszentmihalyi, 1975, 1990) at the collective level (workgroups) by including collective efficacy beliefs as a predictor of collective flow based on the Social Cognitive Theory (Bandura, 1997, 2001). A two-wave longitudinal lab study was conducted with 250 participants working in 52 small groups. Longitudinal results from Structural Equation Modeling with data aggregated at the group level showed, as expected, that collective efficacy beliefs predict collective flow over time, both being related reciprocally. Findings and their theoretical and practical implications in the light of Social Cognitive Theory are discussed. PMID:24946388

Salanova, Marisa; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Alma M; Schaufeli, Wilmar B; Cifre, Eva

2014-01-01

107

Equalisation of alcohol participation among socioeconomic groups over time: an analysis based on the total differential approach and longitudinal data from Sweden  

PubMed Central

Background Health inequality and its social determinants are well-studied, but the determinants of inequality of alcohol consumption are less well-investigated. Methods The total differential approach of decomposition of changes in the concentration index of the probability of participation in alcohol consumption was applied to 8-year longitudinal data for Swedish women aged 28-76 in 1988/89. Results Alcohol consumption showed a pro-rich inequality, with income being a strong contributor. Overall participation remained fairly constant, but the inequality decreased over time as abstinence became less common among the poor and more common among the rich. This was mainly due to changes in the relative weights of certain population groups, such as a decrease in the proportional size of the oldest cohorts. Conclusions Inequality in participation in alcohol consumption is pro-rich in Sweden. This inequality has tended to decrease over time, due to changes in population composition rather than to policy intervention. PMID:21306654

2011-01-01

108

Are patients after severe injury who drop out of a longitudinal study at high risk of mental disorder?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In longitudinal studies of traumatic stress, it is particularly important to examine the data for any differences between those who drop out and those who continue to participate, because reluctance to participate might reflect symptoms of avoidance frequently seen in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, whether those who drop out are at high risk of PTSD remains unclear. Over a

Daisuke Nishi; Yutaka Matsuoka; Satomi Nakajima; Hiroko Noguchi; Yoshiharu Kim; Shigenobu Kanba; Ulrich Schnyder

2008-01-01

109

A study of participative management programs  

E-print Network

. (December 1972) Robert Arthur Harms, B. S. , Texas ARAN University Directed by: Dr. A. R. Burgess Over the past several years, as industry and business have experienced increased. difficulty in motivating their employees, participative management has... been developed to counter such trends' It is based on the idea that most people tend to be more highly motivated when they are actively involved. in helping to manage their own jobs. This study begins by sketching the background of participative...

Harms, Robert Arthur

2012-06-07

110

Is Extracurricular Participation Associated With Beneficial Outcomes? Concurrent and Longitudinal Relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examined the relations between participation in a range of high school extracurricular contexts and developmental outcomes in adolescence and young adulthood among an economically diverse sample of African American and European American youths. In general, when some prior self-selection factors were controlled, 11th graders' participation in school clubs and organized sports was associated with concurrent indicators of academic

Jennifer A. Fredricks; Jacquelynne S. Eccles

2006-01-01

111

Heritability of Delay Discounting in Adolescence: A Longitudinal Twin Study  

PubMed Central

Delay discounting (DD) refers to the preference for smaller immediate rewards over larger but delayed rewards, and is considered to be a distinct component of a broader “impulsivity” construct. Although greater propensity for discounting the value of delayed gratification has been associated with a range of problem behaviors and substance abuse, particularly in adolescents, the origins of individual differences in DD remain unclear. We examined genetic and environmental influences on a real-life behavioral measure of DD using a longitudinal twin design. Adolescent participants were asked to choose between a smaller ($7) reward available immediately and a larger ($10) reward to be received in 7 days. Biometrical genetic analysis using linear structural equation modeling showed significant heritability of DD at ages 12 and 14 (30 and 51%, respectively) and suggested that the same genetic factors influenced the trait at both ages. DD was significantly associated with symptoms of conduct disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, substance use, and with higher novelty seeking and poor self-regulation. This study provides the first evidence for heritability of DD in humans and suggests that DD can be a promising endophenotype for genetic studies of addiction and externalizing disorders. PMID:20700643

Golosheykin, Simon; Grant, Julia D.; Heath, Andrew C.

2010-01-01

112

Longitudinal interrelationships between frequent geographic relocation and personality development: results from the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study.  

PubMed

This study is part of the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study, which was undertaken to assess the long-term interrelationships between cumulative frequency of geographic relocation (CFGR) and the development of personality characteristics (i.e., Inadequacy, Rigidity, Social Inadequacy, Dominance, Self-sufficiency, Self-esteem, and Hostility). We found that participants who had more mobility experiences had lower consistency in their personality characteristics (the exception being Rigidity). Residential mobility from different life stages was positively associated with the continuity and change of Inadequacy and Dominance. In addition, young adults with higher Rigidity personality experienced fewer geographic moves during the transition from young adulthood to mid-life. Our study provides evidence that CFGR in different life stages may be associated with the development of personality characteristics from young adulthood to mid-life in different ways. Increased awareness of the potential interrelationships between frequent geographic relocation and personality development may have positive consequences for adult psychological health. PMID:21486270

Lin, Kuan-Chia; Twisk, Jos W R; Rong, Jiin-Ru

2011-04-01

113

Participant ID #_____________ THE VETERANS HEALTH STUDY  

E-print Network

162 #12;Form A Participant ID #_____________ THE VETERANS HEALTH STUDY CENTERS FOR DISEASE Service is conducting a nationwide health study of Vietnam-era Army veterans that was mandated by Congress health prob.=ms evident at birth in my child. The promise of complete confidentiality is contained

114

Parent-offspring similarity for drinking: a longitudinal adoption study.  

PubMed

Parent-offspring resemblance for drinking was investigated in a sample of 409 adopted and 208 non-adopted families participating in the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study. Drinking data was available for 1,229 offspring, assessed longitudinally up to three times in the age range from 10 to 28 years. A single drinking index was computed from four items measuring quantity, frequency and density of drinking. As expected, the mean drinking index increased with age, was greater in males as compared to females (although not at the younger ages), but did not vary significantly by adoption status. Parent-offspring correlation in drinking did not vary significantly by either offspring or parent gender but did differ significantly by adoption status. In adopted families, the parent-offspring correlation was statistically significant at all ages but decreased for the oldest age group (age 22-28). In non-adopted families, the parent-offspring correlation was statistically significant at all ages and increased in the oldest age group. Findings imply that genetic influences on drinking behavior increase with age while shared family environment influences decline, especially during the transition from late-adolescence to early adulthood. PMID:25224596

McGue, Matt; Malone, Steve; Keyes, Margaret; Iacono, William G

2014-11-01

115

Spiritual stress and coping model of divorce: a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

This study represents the first longitudinal effort to use a spiritual stress and coping model to predict adults' psychosocial adjustment following divorce. A community sample of 89 participants completed measures at the time of their divorce and 1 year later. Though the sample endorsed slightly lower levels of religiosity than the general U.S. population, most reported spiritual appraisals and positive and negative religious coping tied to divorce. Hierarchical regression analyses controlling general religiousness and nonreligious forms of coping indicated that (a) appraising divorce as a sacred loss or desecration at the time it occurred predicted more depressive symptoms and dysfunctional conflict tactics with the ex-spouse 1 year later; (b) positive religious coping reported about the year following divorce predicted greater posttraumatic growth 1 year after divorce; and (c) negative religious coping reported about the year following divorce predicted more depressive symptoms 1 year after the divorce. Bootstrapping mediation analyses indicated that negative religious coping fully mediated links between appraising the divorce as a sacred loss or desecration at the time it occurred and depressive symptoms 1 year later. In addition, moderation analyses revealed that negative religious coping is more strongly associated with depressive symptoms among those who form high versus low appraisals of their divorce as a sacred loss or desecration. These findings are relevant to divorce education and intervention provided by professionals in legal, family, mental health, and clerical roles. Implications are discussed for clinical and counseling psychology and religious communities. PMID:22004433

Krumrei, Elizabeth J; Mahoney, Annette; Pargament, Kenneth I

2011-12-01

116

Coping with Stresses and Concerns during Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although numerous cross-sectional studies have documented the coping responses of young adolescents of different ages and of both sexes, few studies have tracked the developmental stages of coping within adolescents. A longitudinal study of adolescent coping was conducted in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. During the 5-year study, 168 students…

Frydenberg, Erica; Lewis, Ramon

117

Shifting priorities in multimorbidity: a longitudinal qualitative study of patient’s prioritization of multiple conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine what influences self-management priorities for individuals with multiple long-term conditions and how this changes over time.Methods: A longitudinal qualitative study using semi-structured interviews completed with 21 participants with more than one chronic condition.Results: The study demonstrates the impact of multiple conditions on many aspects of people’s illness management. Narratives illuminated how individual’s condition priorities changed at pivotal

Rebecca L Morris; Caroline Sanders; Anne P Kennedy; Anne Rogers

2011-01-01

118

TAILOR THE LONGITUDINAL ANAYSIS FOR NIH LONGITUDINAL NORMAL BRAIN DEVELOPMENTAL STUDY  

PubMed Central

There are imminent needs for longitudinal analysis to make physiological inferences on NIH MRI study of normal brain development. But up to date, two critical aspects for longitudinal analysis, namely the selections of mean and covariance structures have not been addressed by the neuroimaging community. For the mean structure, we employed a linear free-knot B-spline regression in combination with quasi-least square estimating equations to approximate a nonlinear growth trajectory with piecewise linear segments for a friendly physiological interpretation. For covariance structure selection, we have proposed a novel time varying correlation structure considering not only the time separation between the repeated measures but also when these acquisitions occurred. We have demonstrated that the proposed covariance structure has a lower Akaike information criterion value than the commonly used Markov correlation structure.

Chen, Yasheng; An, Hongyu; Shen, Dinggang; Zhu, Hongtu; Lin, Weili

2014-01-01

119

High school athletic participation, sexual behavior and adolescent pregnancy: a regional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To determine whether high school athletic participation among adolescents in Western New York was associated with reduced rates of sexual behavior and pregnancy involvement.Methods: A secondary analysis of data from the Family and Adolescent Study, a longitudinal study of a random sample of adolescents (ages 13–16 years) from 699 families living in households in Western New York. A general

Donald F Sabo; Kathleen E Miller; Michael P Farrell; Merrill J Melnick; Grace M Barnes

1999-01-01

120

Recruitment and Retention Strategies in Longitudinal Clinical Studies with Low-Income Populations  

PubMed Central

Background Conducting longitudinal research studies with low-income and/or minority participants present a unique set of challenges and opportunities. Purpose To outline the specific strategies employed to successfully recruit and retain participants in a longitudinal study of nutritional anticipatory guidance during early childhood, conducted with a low-income, ethnically diverse, urban population of mothers. Methods We describe recruitment and retention efforts made by the research team for the ‘MOMS’ Study (Making Our Mealtimes Special). The ‘multilayered’ approach for recruitment and retention included commitment of research leadership, piloting procedures, frequent team reporting, emphasis on participant convenience, incentives, frequent contact with participants, expanded budget, clinical staff buy-in, a dedicated phone line, and the use of research project branding and logos. Results Barriers to enrollment were not encountered in this project, despite recruiting from a low-income population with a large proportion of African-American families. Process evaluation with clinic staff demonstrated the perception of the MOMS staff was very positive Participant retention rate was 75% and 64% at 6 months and 12 months post-recruitment, respectively. We attribute retention success largely to a coordinated effort between the research team and the infrastructure support at the clinical sites, as well as project branding and a dedicated phone line. Conclusions Successful participant recruitment and retention approaches need to be specific and consistent with clinical staff buy in throughout the project. PMID:21276876

Nicholson, Lisa; Schwirian, Patricia M.; Klein, Elizabeth G.; Skybo, Theresa; Murray-Johnson, Lisa; Eneli, Ihuoma; Boettner, Bethany; French, Gina; Groner, Judith A.

2011-01-01

121

Social Class Differentiation in Cognitive Development: A Longitudinal Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to isolate the emergence and causes of social class differences in intellectual performance, this longitudinal study was undertaken as a follow-up on a cross-sectional study that yielded no social class differences on the Cattell Infant Intelligence Scale for 12-, 18-, and 24-month-old black children. In the present study, 89 children…

Golden, Mark; And Others

122

A Longitudinal Study of Body Change Strategies Among Adolescent Males  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to examine the factors predicting a range of body change strategies among adolescent males over an 8-month time period. This is the first published longitudinal study of body change strategies to increase weight and muscles among males. The 5 body change strategies in the present study were eating and exercise to lose weight, increase weight, increase

Marita P. McCabe; Lina A. Ricciardelli

2003-01-01

123

Longitudinal Changes in the Study Habits of Successful College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from a longitudinal study showed that after two years of college study successful students (those completing the first two years) were less likely to report using systematic study methods than when they started college, but more likely to report using \\

Carl A. Bartling

1988-01-01

124

A study of disturbed and non disturbed adolescents: the Toronto Adolescent Longitudinal Study. I.  

PubMed

The Toronto Adolescent Longitudinal Study was undertaken to examine personality development in a non-clinical sample of children from ages 10 through 19. Fifty-nine boys and girls, selected to represent the full range of behavior presentation in regular classrooms, have participated throughout the complete study. Each year the students and at least one parent participated in a full day evaluation during which a comprehensive battery of measures was administered to assess their psychosocial characteristics. Some exemplary results are presented regarding the personality functioning and associated characteristics of the group at age 13. Our results lead us to conclude that adolescence should not be considered as a homogeneous developmental stage. Young adolescents can be differentiated along a dimension of competence in personality functioning which is associated with differences in their clinical presentation, self concept and behavior patterns. PMID:3756756

Golombek, H; Marton, P; Stein, B; Korenblum, M

1986-08-01

125

Is Extracurricular Participation Associated with Beneficial Outcomes? Concurrent and Longitudinal Relations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined the relations between participation in a range of high school extracurricular contexts and developmental outcomes in adolescence and young adulthood among an economically diverse sample of African American and European American youths. In general, when some prior self-selection factors were controlled, 11th graders'…

Fredricks, Jennifer A.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

2006-01-01

126

Relationships Between Family Connectedness and Body Satisfaction: A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Girls and Boys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the longitudinal links between perceptions of family connectedness and body satisfaction in 1,774\\u000a (52% female) adolescents. Participants (10–15 years of age at Time 1) completed self-report measures at three measurement\\u000a occasions separated by 1 year each. Mean group difference results showed that both body satisfaction levels and perceived\\u000a levels of family connectedness decreased over 2 years for the whole

Carla Crespo; Magdalena Kielpikowski; Paul E. Jose; Jan Pryor

2010-01-01

127

A Longitudinal Study of Self-Esteem, Cultural Identity, and Academic Success Among American Indian Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latent growth curve modeling was used to estimate developmental trajectories of self-esteem and cultural identity among American Indian high school students and to explore the relationships of these trajectories to personal resources, problem behaviors, and academic performance at the end of high school. The sample included 1,611 participants from the Voices of Indian Teens project, a 3-year longitudinal study of

Nancy Rumbaugh Whitesell; Christina M. Mitchell; Paul Spicer

2009-01-01

128

Childhood Personality Influences on Social–Cognitive Development: A Longitudinal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relation of childhood personality to the development of friendship understanding and moral judgment in adolescence was considered in a longitudinal study. Personality at age 7, assessed with the California Child Q-Set, was characterized in terms of ego-resiliency and ego-control. IQ and social class were also measured. Friendship understanding was assessed when the participants were ages 7, 9, 12, 15,

Daniel Hart; Monika Keller; Wolfgang Edelstein; Volker Hofmann

1998-01-01

129

A longitudinal study of work-based, adult–youth mentoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a longitudinal design, this study explored the relation of urban high school student attitudes toward school, work, and self-esteem beliefs to work-based mentoring, mentor satisfaction, and employment status. Participants included high school students taking part in a formal work-based mentoring program, students who established informal mentoring relationships at work, students who worked without a mentor, and students who were

Frank Linnehan

2003-01-01

130

A Longitudinal Study of the Impact of an Environmental Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a previous study, we investigated the impact of an awareness-raising campaign on the behaviour of secondary school children in the Centre Region of France, regarding the recycling of used batteries. But, was it a question of pro-environmental behaviour or simply an environmental action? To answer this question, a three-year longitudinal study

Rioux, Liliane; Pasquier, Daniel

2013-01-01

131

Career Trajectories of Dutch Pop Musicians: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Systematic studies of artistic careers are scarce and this is the first large-scale study on the career development of pop musicians. Using a prospective longitudinal approach we followed a sample of aspiring pop musicians in the Netherlands (N=369) over a three-year period. First we identified four groups of pop musicians with different career…

Zwaan, Koos; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Raaijmakers, Quinten

2010-01-01

132

Parental influences on adolescent physical activity: a longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity is increasing among adolescents in the U.S., especially among girls. Despite growing evidence that parents are an important influence on adolescent health, few longitudinal studies have explored the causal relationship between parental influence and physical activity. This study examines how the relationships between parental influences and adolescent physical activity differ by gender and tests whether these relationships

India J Ornelas; Krista M Perreira; Guadalupe X Ayala

2007-01-01

133

THE NATURE AND DEVELOPMENT OF GIFTEDNESS: A LONGITUDINAL STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following a short discussion of conceptual and theoretical problems of giftedness, the methodological foundations and selected results of a (presently) four year longitudinal study are presented. This study is based on a multidimensional concept of giftedness: intelligence, creativity, social competence, musical ability, psychomotor ability (or practical intelligence). Both academic achievements and leisure activities, as well as cognitive and motivational personality

Kurt A. Heller

1991-01-01

134

Investigating Sexual Abuse: Findings of a 15-Year Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: There is a lack of longitudinal large-scale studies of sexual abuse in intellectual disability services. Such studies offer opportunities to examine patterns in disclosure, investigation and outcomes, and to report on incidence and trends. Methods: All allegations of sexual abuse (n = 250) involving service users as victims or…

McCormack, Bob; Kavanagh, Denise; Caffrey, Shay; Power, Anne

2005-01-01

135

LSAC National Longitudinal Bar Passage Study. LSAC Research Report Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Law School Admission Council (LSAC) National Longitudinal Study was undertaken primarily in response to rumors and anecdotal reports suggesting bar passage rates were so low among examinees of color that potential applicants were questioning the wisdom of investing the time and resources necessary to obtain a legal education. This study

Wightman, Linda F.

136

A Longitudinal Study of Retirement in Older Male Veterans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the authors examined the effect of retirement on psychological and physical symptoms in 404 older male veterans who were taking part in an ongoing longitudinal study. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to analyze symptom trajectories from preretirement, peri-retirement, and postretirement periods in veterans with either lifetime…

Schnurr, Paula P.; Lunney, Carole A.; Sengupta, Anjana; Spiro, Avron

2005-01-01

137

Nine year longitudinal retrospective study of Taekwondo injuries  

PubMed Central

This retrospective longitudinal study aims to describe reported Taekwondo injuries and to examine associations between competitor experience level, age and gender, and the type, location, and mechanism of injury sustained. Additionally, we examined whether recent rule changes concerning increased point value of head shots in adult Taekwondo competition had affected injury incidence. This study was a summation of 9 years of data of competition injury reports, which included 904 injury reports spanning 58 individual competitions. The data was collected on standardized injury reports at time of injury during competition. Care was provided to the athletes, but the type of care provided was not included in the study. Participants included athletes injured during competition who sought care by the health care team, and for whom an injury report was filled out. The data analysis was performed at the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College. The three most common locations of presenting injury were the head (19%), foot (16%), and thigh (9%). The most common mechanism of presenting injury was found to be a defensive kick (44%), followed by an offensive kick (35%). The most commonly diagnosed injuries were contusions (36%), sprains (19%), and strains (15%). Coloured belts had a higher incidence of contusions, while black belts sustained more joint irritation injuries. Black belts were more likely to suffer multiple injuries. Colored belts suffered more injuries while receiving a kick, while black belts had a larger influence of past history of injury. We found no significant difference in location or type of injury when comparing pre versus post rule change. The most common locations of injury are head, foot, and thigh respectively, and are areas for concern when considering preventative measures. Colour belt competitors are more likely to sustain contusions, which the authors believe is due to more aggressive tactics and lack of control. Those more likely to be injured tend to be younger than 18 years. Recent rule changes have no significant effect on head injuries. PMID:20037692

Kazemi, Mohsen; Chudolinski, Artur; Turgeon, Matt; Simon, Aaron; Ho, Eric; Coombe, Lianne

2009-01-01

138

Theoretical study of transverse-longitudinal emittance coupling  

SciTech Connect

The effect of a weakly coupled periodic lattice in terms of achieving emittance exchange between the transverse and longitudinal directions is investigated using the generalized Courant-Snyder theory for coupled lattices. Recently, the concept and technique of transverse-longitudinal emittance coupling have been proposed for applications in the Linac Coherent Light Source and other free-electron lasers to reduce the transverse emittance of the electron beam. Such techniques can also be applied to the driver beams for the heavy ion fusion and beam-driven high energy density physics, where the transverse emittance budget is typically tighter than the longitudinal emittance. The proposed methods consist of one or several coupling components which completely swap the emittances of one of the transverse directions and the longitudinal direction at the exit of the coupling components. The complete emittance exchange is realized in one pass through the coupling components. In the present study, we investigate the effect of a weakly coupled periodic lattice in terms of achieving emittance exchange between the transverse and longitudinal directions. A weak coupling component is introduced at every focusing lattice, and we would like to determine if such a lattice can realize the function of emittance exchange.

Qin, H; Davidson, R C; Chung, M; Barnard, J J; Wang, T F

2011-04-14

139

Sustaining Optimal Motivation: A Longitudinal Analysis of Interventions to Broaden Participation of Underrepresented Students in STEM  

PubMed Central

The underrepresentation of racial minorities and women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines is a national concern. Goal theory provides a useful framework from which to understand issues of underrepresentation. We followed a large sample of high-achieving African American and Latino undergraduates in STEM disciplines attending 38 institutions of higher education in the United States over 3 academic years. We report on the science-related environmental factors and person factors that influence the longitudinal regulation of goal orientations. Further, we examine how goal orientations in turn influence distal academic outcomes such as performance and persistence in STEM. Using SEM-based parallel process latent growth curve modeling, we found that (a) engagement in undergraduate research was the only factor that buffered underrepresented students against an increase in performance-avoidance goals over time; (b) growth in scientific self-identity exhibited a strong positive effect on growth in task and performance-approach goals over time; (c) only task goals positively influenced students' cumulative grade point average, over and above baseline grade point average; and (d) performance-avoidance goals predicted student attrition from the STEM pipeline. We discuss the implications of these findings for underrepresented students in STEM disciplines. PMID:24273342

Hernandez, Paul R.; Schultz, P. Wesley; Estrada, Mica; Woodcock, Anna; Chance, Randie C.

2013-01-01

140

Trajectories of recovery among homeless adults with mental illness who participated in a randomised controlled trial of Housing First: a longitudinal, narrative analysis  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study used longitudinal, narrative data to identify trajectories of recovery among homeless adults with mental illness alongside the factors that contribute to positive, negative, mixed or neutral trajectories over time. We expected that participants who received Housing First (HF) would describe more positive trajectories of recovery than those who were assigned to Treatment as Usual (TAU; no housing or support provided through the study). Design Narrative interview data were collected from participants at baseline and 18?months after random assignment to HF or TAU. Setting Participants were sampled from the community in Vancouver, British Columbia. Participants Fifty-four participants were randomly and purposively selected from the larger trial; 52 were interviewed at baseline and 43 were reinterviewed 18?months after randomisation. Method Semistructured interviews were conducted at both time points. For each participant, paired baseline and follow-up narratives were classified as positive, negative, mixed or neutral trajectories of recovery, and thematic analysis was used to identify the factors underlying different trajectories. Results Participants assigned to HF (n=28) were generally classified as positive or mixed trajectories; those assigned to TAU (n=15) were generally classified as neutral or negative trajectories. Positive trajectories were characterised by a range of benefits associated with good-quality, stable housing (eg, reduced substance use, greater social support), positive expressions of identity and the willingness to self-reflect. Negative, neutral and mixed trajectories were characterised by hopelessness (‘things will never get better’) related to continued hardship (eg, eviction, substance use problems), perceived failures and loss. Conclusions HF is associated with positive trajectories of recovery among homeless adults with mental illness. Those who did not receive housing or support continued to struggle across a wide range of life domains. Findings are discussed with implications for addressing services and broader social change in order to benefit this marginalised population. PMID:24022392

Patterson, Michelle L; Rezansoff, Stefanie; Currie, Lauren; Somers, Julian M

2013-01-01

141

Exhaled carbon monoxide levels in atopic asthma: a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

Exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO) is a potential non-invasive marker of airway inflammation. We have investigated the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationship between eCO and lung function and bronchial reactivity in 69 adults with atopic asthma, in the course of participation in a 6-week randomised placebo-controlled trial of vitamin E supplementation. At baseline, there was no cross-sectional association between absolute eCO levels and either forced expiratory volume (FEV(1)), forced vital capacity (FVC) or bronchial reactivity. However, in the longitudinal analysis within the placebo group, a rise in mean eCO was significantly associated with improvement in bronchial reactivity (change in eCO (parts per million) per natural log unit change in bronchial hyperreactivity 0.498, 95% confidence interval 0.071 to 0.924, P=0.024). These findings suggest that, contrary to previous data, there is no cross-sectional relationship between eCO and lung function or bronchial reactivity, but that there may be a longitudinal trend with bronchial reactivity that is worth further investigation. PMID:16140229

Pearson, Philip; Lewis, Sarah; Britton, John; Fogarty, Andrew

2005-10-01

142

Prompting in CALL: A Longitudinal Study of Learner Uptake  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research presents a longitudinal study of learner uptake in a computer-assisted language learning (CALL) environment. Over the course of 3 semesters, 10 second language learners of German at a Canadian university used an online, parser-based CALL program that, for the purpose of this research, provided 2 different types of feedback of varying…

Heift, Trude

2010-01-01

143

Anxiety Sensitivity and Panic Attacks: A 1-Year Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The hypothesis that anxiety sensitivity (AS) is a risk factor for panic genesis has obtained compelling support, but the clinical/practical importance of AS in panic genesis has been questioned. In addition, the association between panic experience and AS increase has not been clearly demonstrated. Through this 1-year longitudinal study among…

Li, Wen; Zinbarg, Richard E.

2007-01-01

144

A Longitudinal Study of Early Adolescent Precursors to Running Away  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although previous research has examined correlates of running away among samples of currently homeless and runaway adolescents, little is known about what factors will predict the likelihood that a housed adolescent with no prior history of running away will leave home. As such, the current study uses the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine predictors of running away among

Kimberly A. Tyler; Bianca E. Bersani

2008-01-01

145

A Longitudinal Study on Internship Effectiveness in Vocational Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A cooperative education experience (or internship placement) is an essential component of the curricula of vocational higher education. The efficacy of internship placements has become one of the major concerns facing those who develop education curricula. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to explore the relationships among the…

Wan, Chin-Sheng; Yang, Jen-te; Cheng, Shu-yun; Su, Chiakai

2013-01-01

146

CHANGING OBLIGATIONS AND THE PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT: A LONGITUDINAL STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an exploratory longitudinal study of business school alumni, we investigated changes in employment obligations as perceived by em- ployees. During the first two years of employment, employees came to perceive that they owed less to their employers while seeing tbeir em- ployers as owing them more. An employer's failure to fulfill its com- mitments was found to be significantly

SANDRA L. ROBINSON; MATTHEW S. KRAATZ; DENISE M. ROUSSEAU

1994-01-01

147

Attachment from Infancy to Adulthood: The Major Longitudinal Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume provides unique and valuable firsthand accounts of the most important longitudinal studies of attachment. Presented are a range of research programs that have broadened the understanding of early close relationships and their role in individual adaptation throughout life. In addition to discussing the findings that emerged from each…

Grossmann, Klaus E., Ed.; Grossmann, Karin, Ed.; Waters, Everett, Ed.

2005-01-01

148

A Longitudinal Study of Pretend Play in Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes a longitudinal design (following subjects described in Rutherford & Rogers [2003, "Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorder", 33, 289-302]) to test for predictors of pretend play competence in a group of children with autism. We tested the hypothesis that developmental change in pretend play performance can be predicted by…

Rutherford, M. D.; Young, Gregory S.; Hepburn, Susan; Rogers, Sally J.

2007-01-01

149

Criminal Victimization and Crime Risk Perception: A Multilevel Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a national sample of the Italian population, surveyed four times between October 2002 and January 2007 (N = 2,008), we performed a multilevel longitudinal study aimed at predicting the increase in crime risk perception as a function of three families of independent variables, respectively lying at the within individual level (direct…

Russo, Silvia; Roccato, Michele; Vieno, Alessio

2013-01-01

150

Trends in Faculty Teaching Goals: A Longitudinal Study of Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal study examined changes in teaching goals over the past 2 decades. It reviewed data on trends in teaching goals obtained from national surveys of faculty conducted in 1968 by Platt, Parsons, and Kirschstein (3,045 respondents), in 1972 by the American Council on Education (42,000 respondents), in 1984 and 1989 by the Carnegie…

Trice, Andrea G.; Dey, Eric L.

151

Elementary Teachers' Ideas about Effective Science Teaching: A Longitudinal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beginning elementary teachers face numerous challenges in engaging in effective science teaching, and the expectations for elementary science teaching are becoming even more demanding. Since teachers' beliefs mediate their practice, characterizing their beliefs about effective science teaching can yield insights about ways to support beginning elementary teachers as they learn to teach science. This longitudinal study follows six elementary teachers

Elizabeth A. Davis

152

NATIONAL LONGITUDINAL MORTALITY STUDY- NATIONAL DEATH INDEX RECORD LINKAGE (NLMS)  

EPA Science Inventory

National Longitudinal Mortality Study is to investigate social, economic, demographic and occupational differentials in mortality (total and by cause) within a national sample of the U.S. population. In a collaboration begun in 1999 with the Census Bureau and other federal agenci...

153

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Longitudinal Study of Amygdala Volume and Joint  

E-print Network

behavioral features of autism. Design: Longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging study. Setting: University-Old Children With Autism Matthew W. Mosconi, PhD; Heather Cody-Hazlett, PhD; Michele D. Poe, PhD; Guido Gerig reported in 2- to 4-year-olds with autism. Little is known about the volume of subregions during

Utah, University of

154

Session 3553 A Longitudinal Study of Student Persistence in Science,  

E-print Network

higher retention rates in STEM, as well as at the University, and increased persistence toward graduationSession 3553 A Longitudinal Study of Student Persistence in Science, Technology, Engineering science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education that would increase the persistence

Knaust, Helmut

155

A Longitudinal Study of Attempted Religiously Mediated Sexual Orientation Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors conducted a quasi-experimental longitudinal study spanning 6–7 years examining attempted religiously mediated sexual orientation change from homosexual orientation to heterosexual orientation. An initial sample was formed of 72 men and 26 women who were involved in a variety of Christian ministries, with measures of sexual attraction, infatuation and fantasy, and composite measures of sexual orientation and psychological distress,

Stanton L. Jones; Mark A. Yarhouse

2011-01-01

156

A Longitudinal Study: The Literacy Development of 57 Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A longitudinal study examined the relationship between the emergent literacy knowledge of preschool entrants and their subsequent reading performance, 5 years later. Subjects were selected randomly for the preliminary class lists of 6 separate preschools located in a mid-size midwestern city. Within the first 4 weeks of preschool, 8 informal…

Smith, Susan Sidney

157

Sibling influences on adolescent delinquent behaviour: an Australian longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines sibling influences on adolescent delinquency at age 14, using data from an Australian longitudinal study of 374 same- and mixed-sex sibling pairs. Based on maternal and self-reports, a moderately strong association between siblings’ delinquency is found. The relationship remains significant controlling for childhood aggression and family environment factors measured during childhood (age 5) and adolescence (age 14),

Abigail A. Fagan; Jake M. Najman

2003-01-01

158

Early Violent Death Among Delinquent Youth: A Prospective Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Objective Youth processed in the juvenile justice system are at great risk for early violent death. Groups at greatest risk, ie, racial/ethnic minorities, male youth, and urban youth, are overrepresented in the juvenile justice system. We compared mortality rates for delinquent youth with those for the general population, controlling for differences in gender, race/ethnicity, and age. Methods This prospective longitudinal study examined mortality rates among 1829 youth (1172 male and 657 female) enrolled in the Northwestern Juvenile Project, a study of health needs and outcomes of delinquent youth. Participants, 10 to 18 years of age, were sampled randomly from intake at the Cook County Juvenile Temporary Detention Center in Chicago, Illinois, between 1995 and 1998. The sample was stratified according to gender, race/ethnicity (African American, non-Hispanic white, Hispanic, or other), age (10–13 or ?14 years), and legal status (processed as a juvenile or as an adult), to obtain enough participants for examination of key subgroups. The sample included 1005 African American (54.9%), 296 non-Hispanic white (16.2%), 524 Hispanic (28.17%), and 4 other-race/ethnicity (0.2%) subjects. The mean age at enrollment was 14.9 years (median age: 15 years). The refusal rate was 4.2%. As of March 31, 2004, we had monitored participants for 0.5 to 8.4 years (mean: 7.1 years; median: 7.2 years; interquartile range: 6.5–7.8 years); the aggregate exposure for all participants was 12 944 person-years. Data on deaths and causes of death were obtained from family reports or records and were then verified by the local medical examiner or the National Death Index. For comparisons of mortality rates for delinquents and the general population, all data were weighted according to the racial/ethnic, gender, and age characteristics of the detention center; these weighted standardized populations were used to calculate reported percentages and mortality ratios. We calculated mortality ratios by comparing our sample’s mortality rates with those for the general population of Cook County, controlling for differences in gender, race/ethnicity, and age. Results Sixty-five youth died during the follow-up period. All deaths were from external causes. As determined by using the weighted percentages to estimate causes of death, 95.5% of deaths were homicides or legal interventions (90.1% homicides and 5.4% legal interventions), 1.1% of all deaths were suicides, 1.3% were from motor vehicle accidents, 0.5% were from other accidents, and 1.6% were from other external causes. Among homicides, 93.0% were from gunshot wounds. The overall mortality rate was >4 times the general-population rate. The mortality rate among female youth was nearly 8 times the general-population rate. African American male youth had the highest mortality rate (887 deaths per 100 000 person-years). Conclusions Early violent death among delinquent and general-population youth affects racial/ethnic minorities disproportionately and should be addressed as are other health disparities. Future studies should identify the most promising modifiable risk factors and preventive interventions, explore the causes of death among delinquent female youth, and examine whether minority youth express suicidal intent by putting themselves at risk for homicide. PMID:15930220

Teplin, Linda A.; McClelland, Gary M.; Abram, Karen M.; Mileusnic, Darinka

2005-01-01

159

Pierce College Longitudinal Study: First Year Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During 1977-78 Pierce College undertook a study to (1) examine major reasons for attrition; (2) determine reasons for student attendance at Pierce; (3) determine the long-range effects of academic residence at Pierce for its students; and (4) experimentally determine the effects on retention of special treatment, through a "caring ombudsman." Each…

Sheldon, M. Stephen; Hunter, Russell

160

Tourism degree internships: a longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case study briefly reviews the development of tourism degrees in the United Kingdom before considering the experiences obtained by students on year-long internship programmes over a period of 8 years. Verbatim confidential comments, from students, are provided and specific transferable skills discussed. Whilst some skills can be developed during the course of an academic programme, it is argued that

Graham Busby

2003-01-01

161

Which emotional regulatory strategy makes Chinese adolescents happier? A longitudinal study.  

PubMed

Growing interest in emotion regulation is reflected in the studies of cognitive and social development. However, the extant studies mainly highlight how emotion regulation develops based on a western value system. This study utilised a longitudinal design to examine the development of emotion regulation and explored the contributions of different regulatory strategies to emotion experience regarding the early adolescent development period in a Chinese population. A total of 303 Chinese adolescents (age range = 10-14 years) were followed up in a three-phase longitudinal study for 3 years. In each phase of the study, participants completed Adolescents Emotion Regulation Questionnaire and Daily Emotion Scale. Results of hierarchical linear regressions revealed that Chinese adolescents reported more down-regulation. Down-regulation is more effective than up-regulation in enhancing desirable emotion experience and reducing undesirable emotion experience during adolescents' development. Also, the adaptive functions of emotional regulatory strategies in Chinese background were discussed. PMID:25355675

Sang, Biao; Deng, Xinmei; Luan, Ziyan

2014-12-01

162

Concepts for NASA longitudinal health studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Clinical data collected from a 15-year study of the homogenous group of pre-Shuttle astronauts have revealed no significant long-term effects from spaceflight. The current hypothesis suggests that repeated exposures to the space environment in the Shuttle era will similarly have no long-term health effects. However, a much more heterogenous group of astronauts and non-astronaut scientists will fly in Shuttle, and data on this group's adaptation to the space environment and readaptation to earth are currently sparse. In addition, very little information is available concerning the short- and long-term medical consequences of long duration exposure to space and subsequent readaptation to the earth environment. In this paper, retrospective clinical information on astronauts is reviewed and concepts for conducting epidemiological studies examining long-term health effects of spaceflight on humans, including associated occupational risks factors, are presented.

Nicogossian, A. E.; Pool, S. L.; Leach, C. S.; Moseley, E.; Rambaut, P. C.

1983-01-01

163

Longitudinal Study of Online Remedial Education Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a An increasing number of students are choosing to follow a bachelor or master program at a foreign university. As the transparency\\u000a in higher education is still limited, a student might make an inefficient decision when selecting a program. Several studies\\u000a have found that lack of knowledge, skills, or academic integration lead to higher drop-out rates. Although remedial programs\\u000a might mitigate

Bart Rienties; Dirk Tempelaar; Joost Dijkstra; Martin Rehm; Wim Gijselaers

164

Problems and Solutions in Longitudinal and Experimental Treatment Studies of Child Psychopathology and Delinquency  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article identifies questions in child psychopathology and delinquency that can best be answered by using longitudinal data and discusses the advantages and problems of longitudinal studies. The article also reviews methodological issues arising in longitudinal research on child psychopathology and proposes solutions to problems. Retrospective and prospective designs are contrasted with the accelerated longitudinal design. It is concluded that

Rolf Loeber; David P. Farrington

1994-01-01

165

Cannabis Use and Related Harms in the Transition to Young Adulthood: A Longitudinal Study of Australian Secondary School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study documents the changing rates of cannabis use, misuse and cannabis-related social harms among Australian adolescents as they grow into young adulthood. It utilised data from a longitudinal study of young people at ages 15, 16, 17, and 19. The rates of cannabis use were found to increase as participants aged; past year use…

Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Patton, George C.; Toumbourou, John W.

2013-01-01

166

Recent life events preceding suicide attempts in a personality disorder sample: findings from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies have examined the relationship between life events, suicide attempts, and personality disorders (PDs), in spite of the strong associations between PDs and suicidal behavior, and the poor coping strategies often exhibited by these individuals. The authors examined whether participants with PDs who attempted suicide during the first 3 years of a prospective, longitudinal study were more likely to

Shirley Yen; Maria E. Pagano; M. Tracie Shea; Carlos M. Grilo; John G. Gunderson; Andrew E. Skodol; Thomas H. McGlashan; Charles A. Sanislow; Donna S. Bender; Mary C. Zanarini

2005-01-01

167

Longitudinal study of alexithymia and multiple sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the course of alexithymia and its relation with anxiety and depression in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), over a period of 5 years. Methods Sixty-two MS patients were examined at two timepoints, 5 years apart, and they answered questionnaires collecting socio-demographic, medical, and psychological data (depression, anxiety, alexithymia). Results Our data show that emotional disorders remain stable over time in patients with MS, particularly as regards alexithymia and anxiety. Conversely, the rate of depression decreased between the two evaluations, falling from 40% to 26%. The two dimensions of alexithymia (i.e., difficulty describing and difficulty identifying feelings) were correlated with anxiety and depression, whereas the third component of alexithymia (externally oriented thinking) was independent, and was the only component to change over time, with a significant fall observed at 5 years. Conclusion Alexithymia was associated with increased severity of anxiety and attack relapses. PMID:24653957

Chahraoui, Khadija; Duchene, Celine; Rollot, Fabien; Bonin, Bernard; Moreau, Thibault

2014-01-01

168

Pattern Recognition of Longitudinal Trial Data with Nonignorable Missingness: An Empirical Case Study  

PubMed Central

Methods for identifying meaningful growth patterns of longitudinal trial data with both nonignorable intermittent and drop-out missingness are rare. In this study, a combined approach with statistical and data mining techniques is utilized to address the nonignorable missing data issue in growth pattern recognition. First, a parallel mixture model is proposed to model the nonignorable missing information from a real-world patient-oriented study and concurrently to estimate the growth trajectories of participants. Then, based on individual growth parameter estimates and their auxiliary feature attributes, a fuzzy clustering method is incorporated to identify the growth patterns. This case study demonstrates that the combined multi-step approach can achieve both statistical gener ality and computational efficiency for growth pattern recognition in longitudinal studies with nonignorable missing data. PMID:20336179

Fang, Hua; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Rizzo, Maria L.; Stopp, Christian; Wiebe, Sandra A.; Stroup, Walter W.

2010-01-01

169

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease in childhood: A longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease in childhood: A longitudinal study. One hundred fifty–four children aged eighteen years or younger from 83 families with autosomal–dominant polycystic kidney disease were studied by ultrasonography or excretory urography. Twenty–three children had bilateral renal involvement with at least five cysts (ADPKD), 28 children were classified as suspicious (SADPKD), and 103 children had no renal involvement

Aileen Sedman; Patricia Bell; Robert Schrier; Bradley A Warady; Edward O Heard; Patricia Gabow

1987-01-01

170

SALGOT - Stroke Arm Longitudinal study at the University of Gothenburg, prospective cohort study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Recovery patterns of upper extremity motor function have been described in several longitudinal studies, but most of these studies have had selected samples, short follow up times or insufficient outcomes on motor function. The general understanding is that improvements in upper extremity occur mainly during the first month after the stroke incident and little if any, significant recovery can be gained after 3-6 months. The purpose of this study is to describe the recovery of upper extremity function longitudinally in a non-selected sample initially admitted to a stroke unit with first ever stroke, living in Gothenburg urban area. Methods/Design A sample of 120 participants with a first-ever stroke and impaired upper extremity function will be consecutively included from an acute stroke unit and followed longitudinally for one year. Assessments are performed at eight occasions: at day 3 and 10, week 3, 4 and 6, month 3, 6 and 12 after onset of stroke. The primary clinical outcome measures are Action Research Arm Test and Fugl-Meyer Assessment for Upper Extremity. As additional measures, two new computer based objective methods with kinematic analysis of arm movements are used. The ABILHAND questionnaire of manual ability, Stroke Impact Scale, grip strength, spasticity, pain, passive range of motion and cognitive function will be assessed as well. At one year follow up, two patient reported outcomes, Impact on Participation and Autonomy and EuroQol Quality of Life Scale, will be added to cover the status of participation and aspects of health related quality of life. Discussion This study comprises a non-selected population with first ever stroke and impaired arm function. Measurements are performed both using traditional clinical assessments as well as computer based measurement systems providing objective kinematic data. The ICF classification of functioning, disability and health is used as framework for the selection of assessment measures. The study design with several repeated measurements on motor function will give us more confident information about the recovery patterns after stroke. This knowledge is essential both for optimizing rehabilitation planning as well as providing important information to the patient about the recovery perspectives. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01115348 PMID:21612620

2011-01-01

171

The Seattle Longitudinal Study: Relationship Between Personality and Cognition  

PubMed Central

This article reviews the history, measures and principal findings of the Seattle Longitudinal Study. This study began in 1956 focusing upon age differences and age changes in cognitive abilities. Its sampling frame is a large HMO in the Pacific Northwest. The study has been expanded to investigate various influences on cognitive aging including, cognitive styles, personality traits, life styles, and family environment. Current interest is also in the early detection of risk for dementia. In addition, this article reports original analyses of the relation of personality dimensions to cognitive abilities (both concurrent and longitudinal). While personality remains relatively stable over the adult life span, modest proportions of variance are shared between various personality traits and the cognitive abilities. PMID:16755303

Schaie, K. Warner; Willis, Sherry L.; Caskie, Grace I.L.

2006-01-01

172

Childhood Peer Rejection and Aggression as Predictors of Adolescent Girls' Externalizing and Health Risk Behaviors: A 6-Year Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 6-year longitudinal study examined girls' peer-nominated social preference and aggression in childhood as predictors of self- and parent-reported externalizing symptoms, substance use (i.e.. cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use), and sexual risk behavior in adolescence. Participants were 148 girls from diverse ethnic backgrounds, who were…

Prinstein, Mitchell J.; La Greca, Annette M.

2004-01-01

173

Multiple Trajectories of Cigarette Smoking and the Intergenerational Transmission of Smoking: A Multigenerational, Longitudinal Study of a Midwestern Community Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the relation between developmental phenotypes of parental smoking (trajectories of smoking from adolescence to adulthood) and the intergenerational transmission of smoking to their adolescent children. Design: A longitudinal, multigenerational study of a midwestern community sample followed individuals from adolescence into adulthood and was combined with Web-based assessment of participants' spouses and adolescent children. Mixture modeling identified multiple

Laurie Chassin; Clark Presson; Dong-Chul Seo; Steven J. Sherman; Jon Macy; R. J. Wirth; Patrick Curran

2008-01-01

174

Life Satisfaction Shows Terminal Decline in Old Age: Longitudinal Evidence from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Longitudinal data spanning 22 years, obtained from deceased participants of the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP; N = 1,637; 70- to 100-year-olds), were used to examine if and how life satisfaction exhibits terminal decline at the end of life. Changes in life satisfaction were more strongly associated with distance to death than with…

Gerstorf, Denis; Ram, Nilam; Estabrook, Ryne; Schupp, Jurgen; Wagner, Gert G.; Lindenberger, Ulman

2008-01-01

175

A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Life Satisfaction and Parenting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined longitudinal relationships between adolescent life satisfaction (LS) and perceived parental support, parental\\u000a behavioral control, and parental autonomy granting. A total of 819 students in grades 6–12 completed the Students’ Life Satisfaction\\u000a Scale (Huebner 1991), the Family Support Scale (FSS; Wills and Clearly 1996), and the Parental Control and Parental Autonomy\\u000a Granting subscales of the Authoritative Parenting Measure

Runa Saha; E. Scott Huebner; Shannon M. Suldo; Robert F. Valois

2010-01-01

176

Longitudinal Study of CSF Biomarkers in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe CSF biomarkers tau and A?42 can identify patients with AD, even during the preclinical stages. However, previous studies on longitudinal changes of tau and A?42 in individual patients with AD and elderly controls report somewhat inconsistent results.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsWe investigated the levels of tau and A?42 at baseline and after 1 year in 100 patients with AD. In a second

Peder Buchhave; Kaj Blennow; Henrik Zetterberg; Erik Stomrud; Elisabet Londos; Niels Andreasen; Lennart Minthon; Oskar Hansson; Peter Heutink

2009-01-01

177

A longitudinal study of domestic water conservation behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 1988 study of a school-linked sample in a metropolitan and a regional urban area established baseline data for knowledge, attitudes, intentions, and behavior with regard to water management and conservation (Murphy, Watson, & Moore, 1991). This paper reports on a 1991 follow-up, utilising both longitudinal and cross-sectional samples of students, teachers and parents, which aimed at identifying changes within

Susan Moore; Margot Murphy; Ray Watson

1994-01-01

178

15-year longitudinal study of blood pressure and dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryBackground Vascular causes of dementia may be more common than supposed. Vascular factors may also have a role in late-onset Alzheimer's disease, but the role of hypertension in the development of dementia is unclear.Methods As part of the Longitudinal Population Study of 70-year-olds in Göteborg, Sweden, we analysed the relation between blood pressure and the development of dementia in the

I Skoog; L Nilsson; G Persson; B Lernfelt; S Landahl; B Palmertz; L-A Andreasson; A Odén; A Svanborg

1996-01-01

179

Early cognitive profiles of emergent readers: A longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This longitudinal study examined the contribution of phonological awareness, phonological memory, and visuospatial ability to reading development in 142 English-speaking children from the start of kindergarten to the middle of Grade 2. Partial cross-lagged analyses revealed significant relationships between early performance on block design and matching letter-like forms tasks and later reading ability. Rhyme awareness correlated with later reading ability

Nicola Brunswick; G. Neil Martin; Georgina Rippon

180

A longitudinal study of cyberbullying: Examining riskand protective factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the current study was to examine possible risk (school-bullying and victimization, exposure to media violence, callous-unemotional traits, impulsivity and narcissism) and protective (family, peer and school social support) factors that might be associated with cyberbullying and cyber-victimization by employing a longitudinal, two-wave design. The sample consisted of 1,416 (50.1% girls) adolescents living in Cyprus. The findings suggested

Kostas A. Fanti; Andreas G. Demetriou; Veronica V. Hawa

2012-01-01

181

Attitudes to School and Intentions for Educational Participation: An Analysis of Data from the Longitudinal Survey of Young People in England  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper investigates the attitudes of young people in England towards schooling and education and the relationship of these attitudes to intentions for educational participation and to various background characteristics of the young people. It provides an example of secondary data analysis through using the Longitudinal Survey of Young People in…

Attwood, Gaynor; Croll, Paul

2011-01-01

182

Academic Performance of Language-Minority Students and All-Day Kindergarten: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal study examined the effect of all-day kindergarten programs on the academic achievement of students from racial language minority and low socioeconomic class. The study employed a series of 3-level longitudinal multilevel analyses using a nationally representative database, the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS). The study

Chang, Mido

2012-01-01

183

Extended early childhood intervention and school achievement: age thirteen findings from the Chicago Longitudinal Study.  

PubMed

We evaluated the effects of participation in an extended program of compensatory education for 559 low-income, inner-city African American children up to seventh grade. The intervention is the federal and state-funded Chicago Child-Parent Center and Expansion Program, which began in 1967. Groups included 426 children who participated in the program from preschool to grades 2 or 3 and 133 children whose participation ceased in kindergarten. After taking into account initial differences in achievement at kindergarten entry and at the end of kindergarten, and after taking into account sample selection bias, program participation for 2 or 3 years after preschool and kindergarten was associated with significantly higher reading achievement up to seventh grade and with lower rates of cumulative grade retention and special education placement (4 to 5 years postprogram). Children participating in the follow-on program for 3 years had significantly higher reading achievement in seventh grade and a lower rate of grade retention than 3 year participants. Only 3 year participants had significantly higher math achievement than the comparison group. Study findings provide rare longitudinal evidence of the beneficial effects of a large-scale community-based program of extended early childhood intervention. PMID:9499569

Reynolds, A J; Temple, J A

1998-02-01

184

Optimal Assignment Methods in Three-Form Planned Missing Data Designs for Longitudinal Panel Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Planned missing designs are becoming increasingly popular, but because there is no consensus on how to implement them in longitudinal research, we simulated longitudinal data to distinguish between strategies of assigning items to forms and of assigning forms to participants across measurement occasions. Using relative efficiency as the criterion,…

Jorgensen, Terrence D.; Rhemtulla, Mijke; Schoemann, Alexander; McPherson, Brent; Wu, Wei; Little, Todd D.

2014-01-01

185

Multivariate nonlinear mixed model to analyze longitudinal image data: MRI study of early brain development  

Microsoft Academic Search

With great potential in studying neuro-development, neuro-degeneration, and the aging process, longitudinal image data is gaining increasing interest and attention in the neuroimaging community. In this paper, we present a parametric nonlinear model to statistically study multivariate longitudinal data with asymptotic properties. We demonstrate our preliminary results in a combined study of two longitudinal neuroimaging data sets of early brain

Shun Xu; Martin Styner; John Gilmore; Joseph Piven; Guido Gerig

2008-01-01

186

Practices of Parental Participation: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The nature of parental participation in children's education is changing rapidly. A growing body of research points to the positive effect that parental involvement has on outcomes of schooling and on children's well-being. This paper examines parental participation practices in terms of parents working together with a range of professionals,…

Hartas, Dimitra

2008-01-01

187

Predictors of Parent-Reported Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children Aged 6-7 Years: A National Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the prenatal, postnatal and demographic predictors of parent-reported attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in an Australian population-based sample. Participants were families participating in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. There were approximately even numbers of males (51%) and females (49%) in the…

Sciberras, Emma; Ukoumunne, Obioha C.; Efron, Daryl

2011-01-01

188

Longitudinal trends in gasoline price and physical activity: The CARDIA study  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate longitudinal associations between community-level gasoline price and physical activity (PA). Method In the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study, 5,115 black and white participants aged 18–30 at baseline 1985–86 were recruited from four U.S. cities (Birmingham, Chicago, Minneapolis and Oakland) and followed over time. We used data from 3 follow-up exams: 1992–93, 1995–96, and 2000–01, when the participants were located across 48 states. From questionnaire data, a total PA score was summarized in exercise units (EU) based on intensity and frequency of 13 PA categories. Using Geographic Information Systems, participants’ residential locations were linked to county-level inflation-adjusted gasoline price data collected by the Council for Community & Economic Research. We used a random-effect longitudinal regression model to examine associations between time-varying gasoline price and time-varying PA, controlling for age, race, gender, baseline study center, and time-varying education, marital status, household income, county cost of living, county bus fare, census block-group poverty, and urbanicity. Results Holding all control variables constant, a 25-cent increase in inflation-adjusted gasoline price was significantly associated with an increase of 9.9 EU in total PA (95%CI: 0.8–19.1). Conclusion Rising prices of gasoline may be associated with an unintended increase in leisure PA. PMID:21338621

Hou, Ningqi; Popkin, Barry M; Jacobs, David R; Song, Yan; Guilkey, David K; He, Ka; Lewis, Cora E.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

2011-01-01

189

A 2-D numerical simulation study on longitudinal solute transport and longitudinal dispersion coefficient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The longitudinal dispersion coefficient, DL, is a fundamental parameter of longitudinal solute transport models: the advection-dispersion (AD) model and various deadzone models. Since DL cannot be measured directly, and since its calibration using tracer test data is quite expensive and not always available, researchers have developed various methods, theoretical or empirical, for estimating DL by easier available cross-sectional hydraulic measurements (i.e., the transverse velocity profile, etc.). However, for known and unknown reasons, DL cannot be satisfactorily predicted using these theoretical/empirical formulae. Either there is very large prediction error for theoretical methods, or there is a lack of generality for the empirical formulae. Here, numerical experiments using Mike21, a software package that implements one of the most rigorous two-dimensional hydrodynamic and solute transport equations, for longitudinal solute transport in hypothetical streams, are presented. An analysis of the evolution of simulated solute clouds indicates that the two fundamental assumptions in Fischer's longitudinal transport analysis may be not reasonable. The transverse solute concentration distribution, and hence the longitudinal transport appears to be controlled by a dimensionless number ?, where Q is the average volumetric flowrate, Dt is a cross-sectional average transverse dispersion coefficient, and W is channel flow width. A simple empirical ? relationship may be established. Analysis and a revision of Fischer's theoretical formula suggest that ? influences the efficiency of transverse mixing and hence has restraining effect on longitudinal spreading. The findings presented here would improve and expand our understanding of longitudinal solute transport in open channel flow.

Zhang, Wei

2011-07-01

190

Indoor mobility-related fatigue and muscle strength in nonagenarians: a prospective longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

Background and aims Mobility-related fatigue is an important indicator of functional decline in old age, however, very little is known about fatigue in the oldest old population segment. The aim of this study was to examine the association between indoor mobility-related fatigue and muscle strength decline in nonagenarians. Methods The study is based on a prospective longitudinal study of all Danes born in 1905 and assessed in 1998, 2000 and 2003, and includes 92- to 93-year-old persons who were independent of help in basic indoor mobility at baseline (n = 1,353). Fatigue was assessed at baseline and defined as a subjective feeling of fatigue when transferring or walking indoors. The outcome measure, maximum grip strength, was measured at each measurement point. Results Grip strength declined throughout the study in participants with and without fatigue, but those reporting fatigue had significantly (P < .001) lower muscle strength during the entire study period. Longitudinal analyses indicated slightly slower decline in muscle strength among participants with fatigue compared to those without; however, observed selective dropout of participants with fatigue and poor performance at baseline needs to be considered when interpreting the results. Accordingly, participants without fatigue had significantly higher chances of being alive and having muscle strength above gender-specific median at first (RR 1.32, 95 % CI 1.07–1.58), second (RR 1.51, 1.06–1.96) and third (RR 1.39, 1.01–1.97) measurement points. Conclusions Indoor mobility-related fatigue in advanced later life should not merely be considered as an unpleasant symptom, but rather an indicator of physical impairment, and consequently declined physiological reserve. PMID:24297217

Ekmann, Anette; Thinggaard, Mikael; Christensen, Kaare; Avlund, Kirsten

2014-01-01

191

Women's reactions to interpersonal violence research: a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

This study assessed women's immediate and long-term reactions to completing self-report measures of interpersonal violence. College women completed surveys at the beginning and end of a 2-month academic quarter for course credit. Results showed that 7.7% of participants experienced immediate negative emotional reactions to research participation. Greater immediate negative reactions were related to interpersonal victimization and psychological distress variables. Attrition from the study over the 2-month follow-up was not predicted by participants' immediate negative emotional reactions to the research or anticipation of future distress. Of the participants who returned for the follow-up, 2.1% of participants reported experiencing distress over the interim period as a result of their initial participation in the study. These long-term reactions were bivariately related to a number of victimization, psychological distress, and reaction variables measured at the first study session. However, in the regression analyses, only immediate negative emotional reactions to the research and anticipation of future distress predicted long-term negative emotional reactions. PMID:22935950

Edwards, Katie M; Probst, Danielle R; Tansill, Erin C; Gidycz, Christine A

2013-01-01

192

Longitudinal Study of Urban American Indian 12-Step Attendance, Attrition, and Outcome  

PubMed Central

Objective: Strong opinions have been voiced about the “fit” between 12-step treatment, community-based 12-step practices, and American Indian beliefs and values. Little is known, however, about the relative benefit of 12-step programs for urban American Indians, although they are the most widely accessed type of treatment by American Indians. This study investigated rates of 12-step attendance, attrition, and substance use outcomes for American Indians for 9 months relative to non-Hispanic White participants. Method: This study compared urban American Indian (n = 63) and non-Hispanic White (n = 133) 12-step attendance, attrition, and substance use over 9 months. The sample was formed by merging data from two prospective single-group longitudinal studies investigating behavior change in community-based 12-step programs. Participants were interviewed at baseline and at 3-, 6-, and 9-month follow-ups. No intervention was provided. Participants were recruited from Alcoholics Anonymous meetings in the community and as they presented for outpatient substance use disorder treatment. Substance use and patterns of 12-step attendance were measured using the Form 90 calendar-based interview, and the General Alcoholics Anonymous Tools of Recovery was administered to assess the adoption of prescribed 12-step practices and beliefs. Results: Trajectories in 12-step meeting attendance over 9 months did not differ between American Indian and non-Hispanic White participants. However, American Indian participants discontinued 12-step attendance significantly less often than non-Hispanic White participants. Higher rates of 12-step attendance predicted increased alcohol abstinence and decreased drinking intensity for both American Indian and non-Hispanic White participants. Twelve-step attendance was unrelated to later illicit drug use for both American Indian and non-Hispanic White participants. Conclusions: Community-based 12-step program attendance is associated with drinking reductions among urban American Indians. PMID:23739014

Tonigan, J. Scott; Martinez-Papponi, Brenda; Hagler, Kyleei J.; Greenfield, Brenna L.; Venner, Kamilla L.

2013-01-01

193

A Longitudinal Study of Social Media Privacy Behavior  

E-print Network

Existing constructs for privacy concerns and behaviors do not adequately model deviations between user attitudes and behaviors. Although a number of studies have examined supposed deviations from rationality by online users, true explanations for these behaviors may lie in factors not previously addressed in privacy concern constructs. In particular, privacy attitudes and behavioral changes over time have not been examined within the context of an empirical study. This paper presents the results of an Agile, sprint-based longitudinal study of Social Media users conducted over a two year period between April of 2009 and March of 2011. This study combined concepts drawn from Privacy Regulation Theory with the constructs of the Internet Users' Information and Privacy Concern model to create a series of online surveys that examined changes of Social Media privacy attitudes and self-reported behaviors over time. The main findings of this study are that, over a two year period between 2009 and 2011, respondents' pr...

Boyd, Andrew W

2011-01-01

194

An Internet Study of Cybersex Participants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cybersex is a subcategory of online sexual activities (OSA) and is defined as when two or more people are engaging in sexual talk while online for the purposes of sexual pleasure and may or may not include masturbation. Cybersex is a growing phenomenon with a significant impact on participants but very little research has been done on this subject to

Kristian Daneback; Al Cooper; Sven-Axel Månsson

2005-01-01

195

A longitudinal study of epigenetic variation in twins  

PubMed Central

DNA methylation is a key epigenetic mechanism involved in the developmental regulation of gene expression. Alterations in DNA methylation are established contributors to inter-individual phenotypic variation and have been associated with disease susceptibility. The degree to which changes in loci-specific DNA methylation are under the influence of heritable and environmental factors is largely unknown. In this study, we quantitatively measured DNA methylation across the promoter regions of the dopamine receptor 4 gene (DRD4), the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4/SERT) and the X-linked monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) using DNA sampled at both ages 5 and 10 years in 46 MZ twinpairs and 45 DZ twin-pairs (total n = 182). Our data suggest that DNA methylation differences are apparent already in early childhood, even between genetically identical individuals, and that individual differences in methylation are not stable over time. Our longitudinal-developmental study suggests that environmental influences are important factors accounting for interindividual DNA methylation differences, and that these influences differ across the genome. The observation of dynamic changes in DNA methylation over time highlights the importance of longitudinal research designs for epigenetic research. PMID:20505345

Caspi, Avshalom; Williams, Benjamin; Craig, Ian W; Houts, Renate; Ambler, Antony; Moffitt, Terrie E; Mill, Jonathan

2010-01-01

196

Experimental pneumococcal otitis media: longitudinal studies in the gerbil model.  

PubMed

In order to ascertain that the Mongolian gerbil, Meriones unguiculatus, is an acceptable model for studying the development of chronic from acute otitis media, we used previously published methods for experimental otitis media in a longitudinal study of the acute disease and sequellae. The gerbil was found to be susceptible to as few as 30 viable Streptococcus pneumoniae type 3 cells, indicating that only a few viable pathogens are able to cause the disease. Untreated experimental infections with S. pneumoniae type 23 resulted in a mild, self-limiting disease with little permanent sequellae, while S. pneumoniae type 3 produced severe disease characterized by an acute phase of from 2 to 3 weeks, followed by the development of new bone formation and a vascularized granulation tissue which persisted throughout the 13-week study. Viable pneumococci could be recovered from the middle ears for only two weeks. We conclude that the gerbil is a useful model for otitis media. PMID:4077394

Fulghum, R S; Hoogmoed, R P; Brinn, J E; Smith, A M

1985-10-01

197

'Permission to participate?' A qualitative study of participation in patients from differing socio-economic backgrounds.  

PubMed

Participation in health care is an important element of self-management in chronic illness, and policy emphasises patient's choice. Evidence suggests that this may be inequitable and inadequate, since active participation is strongly associated with socio-demographic variables. This qualitative study explores the perceptions of participation in people with differing socio-economic status with themes related to health literacy and relationship with health-care professionals. Patients perceive participation in different ways, related to their prior expectations of a health-care consultation, cultural expectations and social position. Policies aimed at simply improving 'health literacy' and choice will not be successful if these broader disparities are not addressed. PMID:23104997

Protheroe, Joanne; Brooks, Helen; Chew-Graham, Carolyn; Gardner, Caroline; Rogers, Anne

2013-08-01

198

Exercise and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Graduate Students: A Longitudinal, Observational Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To evaluate cardiometabolic risk of students longitudinally and compare them with age-matched national samples. Participants: Participants are 134 graduate students enrolled between August 2005 and May 2010. Methods: Students were assessed at the beginning and end of their 3-year curriculum. Comparative samples included 966 National…

Racette, Susan B.; Inman, Cindi L.; Clark, B. Ruth; Royer, Nathaniel K.; Steger-May, Karen; Deusinger, Susan S.

2014-01-01

199

A Longitudinal Examination of Childhood Maltreatment and Adolescent Obesity: Results from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth) Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: We sought to explore the association between childhood maltreatment (e.g., neglect, physical and sexual abuse) and longitudinal growth trajectories of body mass index (BMI) from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods: We used latent curve modeling to examine data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 8,471),…

Shin, Sunny Hyucksun; Miller, Daniel P.

2012-01-01

200

Stability of Eating Disorder Diagnostic Classifications in Adolescents: Five-Year Longitudinal Findings From a Population-Based Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the stability of eating disorder (ED) classifications among a population-based sample of male and female adolescents (n = 2,516) who participated in Project EAT-II, a five-year longitudinal study. Cross-tabulations using weighted data identified diagnostic stability across six classifications (Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, Binge Eating Disorder, Binge Eating and\\/or Compensatory Behaviors not meeting ED diagnosis, Body Image Disturbance

Diann M. Ackard; Jayne A. Fulkerson; Dianne Neumark-Sztainer

2011-01-01

201

Impedance studies for the PS Finemet loaded longitudinal damper  

E-print Network

The impedance of the Finemet® loaded longitudinal damper cavity, installed in the CERN Proton Synchrotron straight section 02 during the Long Shutdown 2013-2014, has been evaluated [1]. Time domain simulations with CST Particle Studio have been performed in order to get the longitudinal and transverse impedance of the device and make a comparison with the longitudinal impedance that was measured for a single cell prototype.

Persichelli, S; Paoluzzi, M; Salvant, B

2014-01-01

202

The Association of Health and Employment in Mature Women: A Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Despite a reduction in income inequalities between men and women, there is still a large gap between income and retirement savings of Australian men and women. This is especially true for women who have health or disability problems. Mature age women are closest to retirement and, therefore, have less chance than younger women to build up enough retirement savings and may need to continue working to fund their older age. Continued workforce participation may be particularly difficult for women who are less healthy. Understanding which health problems lead to a decrease in workforce participation among mature age women is crucial. Therefore, this longitudinal study sought to identify which health problems are associated with employment among midage women over time. Methods Data were analyzed from the midage cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH), which involved 14,200 midage women (aged 45–50 years in 1996). The women have been surveyed four additional times, in 1998, 2001, 2004, and 2007. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to conduct nested multivariate longitudinal analyses. Results The percentages of women who were employed in the years 2001, 2004, and 2007 were 77%, 72%, and 68%, respectively. Results were adjusted for sociodemographic variables. Being employed decreased as physical and mental health deteriorated and with self-reported conditions: diabetes, high blood pressure, depression, anxiety, and other psychiatric conditions. Back pain, arthritis, cancer, obesity, and being a current smoker are associated with employment but not when quality of life is added to the model. Conclusions There were significant associations between health and employment. Understanding these relationships could inform policies and guidelines for preventing declines in employment in mature age women. PMID:22060315

Byles, Julie

2012-01-01

203

Individual changes in dental fear among children and parents: A longitudinal study.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective. The aim was to study longitudinal changes in dental fear among children and one of their parents separately for girls, boys, mothers and fathers over a 3.5-year period. Materials and methods. 11-12-year-old children in Pori, Finland (n = 1691) and one of their parents were invited to participate in this longitudinal study. Dental fear was measured in 2001, 2003 and 2005 when the children were 11-12, 13-14 and 15-16-years-old, respectively. The participants were asked if they were afraid of dental care (1 = 'not afraid', 2 = 'slightly afraid', 3 = 'afraid to some degree', 4 = 'quite afraid', 5 = 'very afraid' and 6 = 'I don't know'). The participants' gender was also registered. Mean values of the change scores were studied. Prevalence and incidence of dental fear and changes in dichotomized dental fear (responses 4-5 = high dental fear and responses 1-3 = low dental fear) were studied using cross-tabulations and Cochran's Q test. Results. Overall, the prevalence of dental fear slightly increased and female preponderance in dental fear became more evident during the follow-up. Of the mothers and children with high dental fear at the baseline, 24% and 56%, respectively, reported not to be fearful at the end of the follow-up. Conclusions. Dental fear seems to be more stable in adulthood than in childhood. Thus, it might be better to intervene in dental fear during childhood rather than during adulthood. PMID:24922091

Luoto, Anni; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Rantavuori, Kari; Pohjola, Vesa; Karlsson, Linnea; Lahti, Satu

2014-11-01

204

Academic performance of language-minority students and all-day kindergarten: a longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This longitudinal study examined the effect of all-day kindergarten programs on the academic achievement of students from racial language minority and low socioeconomic class. The study employed a series of 3-level longitudinal multilevel analyses using a nationally representative database, the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS). The study showed that Hispanic dual-language-speaking students who attended all-day kindergarten narrowed the achievement gap

Mido Chang

2011-01-01

205

Academic performance of language-minority students and all-day kindergarten: a longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This longitudinal study examined the effect of all-day kindergarten programs on the academic achievement of students from racial language minority and low socioeconomic class. The study employed a series of 3-level longitudinal multilevel analyses using a nationally representative database, the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS). The study showed that Hispanic dual-language-speaking students who attended all-day kindergarten narrowed the achievement gap

Mido Chang

2012-01-01

206

A longitudinal study: casino gambling attitudes, motivations, and gambling patterns among urban elders.  

PubMed

Guided by self-determination theory, the main purpose of this study was to explore demographic characteristics, attitudes toward casinos, and self-reported intrinsic and extrinsic reasons for casino gambling by urban elders. The study hypothesized that individuals would more frequently report intrinsic motivations for casino gambling (e.g., entertainment, enjoyment) rather than extrinsic motivation (e.g., financial gain). This longitudinal sample included 247 urban elders older who were 60 years and older and who had participated in surveys in 2002 and 2004. The initial survey consisted of (a) demographic items, (b) five items to measure attitudes toward casino gambling, (c) questions inquiring about motivations for casino gambling, and (d) questions about gambling frequency. The follow-up survey was an expanded questionnaire which still included these items. The sample consisted of the 247 participants, over 200 of whom were African-Americans, 188 were female, and 98 of the participants had a post graduate education. About half were widowed, and the sample generally reported a low income. The results supported the theoretical perspective underlying the project. The hypothesis that more participants would endorse intrinsic motivations for casino gambling rather than extrinsic motivations was supported. The implications of these findings represent for social workers, gambling counselors and health care services providers an important step toward understanding the attitudes, behaviors, and motivational factors involved in casino gambling among older adults. PMID:20549548

Martin, Fayetta; Lichtenberg, Peter A; Templin, Thomas N

2011-06-01

207

A Longitudinal Study: Casino Gambling Attitudes, Motivations, and Gambling Patterns Among Urban Elders  

PubMed Central

Guided by self-determination theory, the main purpose of this study was to explore demographic characteristics, attitudes toward casinos, and self-reported intrinsic and extrinsic reasons for casino gambling by urban elders. The study hypothesized that individuals would more frequently report intrinsic motivations for casino gambling (e.g., entertainment, enjoyment) rather than extrinsic motivation (e.g., financial gain). This longitudinal sample included 247 urban elders older who were 60 years and older and who had participated in surveys in 2002 and 2004. The initial survey consisted of (a) demographic items, (b) five items to measure attitudes toward casino gambling, (c) questions inquiring about motivations for casino gambling, and (d) questions about gambling frequency. The follow-up survey was an expanded questionnaire which still included these items. The sample consisted of the 247 participants, over 200 of whom were African-Americans, 188 were female, and 98 of the participants had a post graduate education. About half were widowed, and the sample generally reported a low income. The results supported the theoretical perspective underlying the project. The hypothesis that more participants would endorse intrinsic motivations for casino gambling rather than extrinsic motivations was supported. The implications of these findings represent for social workers, gambling counselors and health care services providers an important step toward understanding the attitudes, behaviors, and motivational factors involved in casino gambling among older adults. PMID:20549548

Lichtenberg, Peter A.; Templin, Thomas N.

2013-01-01

208

The wage effects of obesity: a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

We use National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) data to examine the effects of obesity on wages by gender. Sample means indicate that both men and women experience a persistent obesity wage penalty over the first two decades of their careers. We then control for a standard set of socioeconomic and familial variables but find that standard covariates do not explain why obese workers experience persistent wage penalties. This suggests that other variables -- including job discrimination, health-related factors and/or obese workers' behavior patterns -- may be the channels through which obesity adversely affects wages. The study closes with a discussion of the public policy implications suggested by these findings. PMID:15362180

Baum, Charles L; Ford, William F

2004-09-01

209

Intergenerational transmission of relationship aggression: a prospective longitudinal study.  

PubMed

The present study examined whether physical and verbal aggression in the family of origin were associated with similar patterns of aggression in young adult couples. Hypotheses were tested using a sample of 213 focal individuals who were followed from adolescence to adulthood. Results suggested that aggression in the family when focal participants were adolescents predicted aggression with romantic partners when participants were adults. The association between interparental aggression and later aggression in adult romantic unions was partially mediated through parents' aggression to focal participants when they were adolescents. Both physical and verbal aggression revealed the same pattern of findings. All together, these findings are consistent with a developmental-interactional perspective (Capaldi & Gorman-Smith, 2003) concerning the developmental origins of aggression in intimate relationships. PMID:21171767

Cui, Ming; Durtschi, Jared A; Donnellan, M Brent; Lorenz, Frederick O; Conger, Rand D

2010-12-01

210

Being a quantitative interviewer: qualitatively exploring interviewers' experiences in a longitudinal cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Many studies of health outcomes rely on data collected by interviewers administering highly-structured (quantitative) questionnaires to participants. Little appears to be known about the experiences of such interviewers. This paper explores interviewer experiences of working on a longitudinal study in New Zealand (the Prospective Outcomes of injury Study - POIS). Interviewers administer highly-structured questionnaires to participants, usually by telephone, and enter data into a secure computer program. The research team had expectations of interviewers including: consistent questionnaire administration, timeliness, proportions of potential participants recruited and an empathetic communication style. This paper presents results of a focus group to qualitatively explore with the team of interviewers their experiences, problems encountered, strategies, support systems used and training. Methods A focus group with interviewers involved in the POIS interviews was held; it was audio-recorded and transcribed. The analytical method was thematic, with output intended to be descriptive and interpretive. Results Nine interviewers participated in the focus group (average time in interviewer role was 31 months). Key themes were: 1) the positive aspects of the quantitative interviewer role (i.e. relationships and resilience, insights gained, and participants' feedback), 2) difficulties interviewers encountered and solutions identified (i.e. stories lost or incomplete, forgotten appointments, telling the stories, acknowledging distress, stories reflected and debriefing and support), and 3) meeting POIS researcher expectations (i.e. performance standards, time-keeping, dealing exclusively with the participant and maintaining privacy). Conclusions Interviewers demonstrated great skill in the way they negotiated research team expectations whilst managing the relationships with participants. Interviewers found it helpful to have a research protocol in place in the event of sensitive situations - this appeared to alleviate the pressure on interviewers to carry the burden of responsibility. Interviewers are employed to scientifically gather quantitative data, yet their effectiveness relies largely on their humanity. We propose that the personal connection generated between the interviewers and participants was important, and enabled successful follow-up rates for the study. The enjoyment of these relationships was crucial to interviewers and helped balance the negative aspects of their role. Our results suggest that experienced quantitative interviewers endeavour, as do many qualitative researchers, to carefully and respectfully negotiate the requirements of the interview within a relationship they form with participants: being sensitive to the needs of participants and respectful of their wishes - and establishing an ethical relationship. PMID:22165989

2011-01-01

211

Finding Temporal Patterns in Noisy Longitudinal Data: A Study in Diabetic  

E-print Network

. studied the nature of physical activity in groups of adolescents ([9]) and Skinner et al. studied children an extensive longitudinal study of children with "special educational needs". Longitudinal studies particularly injuries, and Levy et al. [10] studied the #12;long term effects of Alzheimer's disease. The application

Coenen, Frans

212

Dietary B vitamin intakes and urinary total arsenic concentration in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) cohort, Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the effects of dietary B vitamin intakes on creatinine-adjusted urinary total\\u000a arsenic concentration among individuals participating in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) cohort in\\u000a Araihazar, Bangladesh. Arsenic exposure is a major public health problem in Bangladesh, where nearly 77 million people have\\u000a been chronically exposed to arsenic through the consumption

Maria Argos; Paul J. Rathouz; Brandon L. Pierce; Tara Kalra; Faruque Parvez; Vesna Slavkovich; Alauddin Ahmed; Yu Chen; Habibul Ahsan

2010-01-01

213

Tracking of leisure-time physical activity during adolescence and young adulthood: a 10-year longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to show how participation in leisure-time physical activity changes between ages 13 to 23, and to what extent engaging in specific types of sports tracks into young adulthood. METHODS: The sample comprised 630 subjects who responded to questionnaires at age 13, with seven follow-ups over a 10-year period in the Norwegian Longitudinal Health

Lise Kjønniksen; Torbjørn Torsheim; Bente Wold

2008-01-01

214

Childhood Peer Rejection and Aggression as Predictors of Adolescent Girls' Externalizing and Health Risk Behaviors: A 6Year Longitudinal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This 6-year longitudinal study examined girls' peer-nominated social preference and aggression in childhood as predictors of self- and parent-reported externalizing symptoms, substance use (i.e., cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use), and sexual risk behavior in adolescence. Participants were 148 girls from diverse ethnic backgrounds, who were initially assessed in Grades 4–6 and again in Grades 10–12. Results supported a moderator model,

Mitchell J. Prinstein; Annette M. La Greca

2004-01-01

215

Parent and Child Cigarette Use: A Longitudinal, Multigenerational Study  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: Using longitudinal data from the multigenerational Youth Development Study (YDS), this article documents how parents’ long-term smoking trajectories are associated with adolescent children’s likelihood of smoking. Prospective data from the parents (from age 14–38 years) enable unique comparisons of the parents’ and children’s smoking behavior, as well as that of siblings. METHODS: Smoking trajectories are constructed using latent class analysis for the original YDS cohort (n = 1010). Multigenerational longitudinal data from 214 parents and 314 offspring ages 11 years and older are then analyzed by using logistic regression with cluster-corrected SEs. RESULTS: Four latent smoking trajectories emerged among the original cohort: stable nonsmokers (54%), early-onset light smokers who quit/reduce (16%), late-onset persistent smokers (14%), and early-onset persistent heavy smokers (16%). Although 8% of children of stable nonsmokers smoked in the last year, the other groups’ children had much higher percentages, ranging from 23% to 29%. Multivariate logistic regression models confirm that these significant differences were robust to the inclusion of myriad child- and parent-level measures (for which child age and grade point average [GPA] are significant predictors). Older sibling smoking, however, mediated the link between parental heavy smoking and child smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Even in an era of declining rates of teenage cigarette use in the United States, children of current and former smokers face an elevated risk of smoking. Prevention efforts to weaken intergenerational associations should consider parents’ long-term cigarette use, as well as the smoking behavior of older siblings in the household. PMID:23918887

Staff, Jeremy

2013-01-01

216

Drug Use Patterns and Continuous Enrollment in College:Results From a Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Objective: Few longitudinal studies have examined the relationship between illicit drug use and academic outcomes among college students. This study characterized drug use patterns of a cohort of young adults who were originally enrolled as first-time, first-year college students in a longitudinal study. It evaluated the association between these drug use patterns and continuous enrollment during college, holding constant demographic characteristics, high school grade point average, fraternity/sorority involvement, personality/temperament characteristics, nicotine dependence, and alcohol use disorder. Method: Participants (n = 1,133; 47% male) were purposively selected from one university and interviewed annually for 4 years, beginning with their first year of college, regardless of continued college attendance. Enrollment data were culled from administrative records. Group-based trajectory analyses characterized 4-year longitudinal drug use patterns. Two grouping variables were derived based on (a) marijuana use frequency and (b) number of illicit drugs used other than marijuana. Seventy-one percent of the sample was continuously enrolled in the home institution during the first 4 years of study. Results: Multivariable logistic regression models demonstrated that infrequent, increasing, and chronic/heavy marijuana use patterns were significantly associated with discontinuous enrollment (adjusted odds ratio = 1.66, 1.74, and 1.99, respectively), compared with minimal use, holding constant covariates. In separate models, drug use other than marijuana also was significantly associated with discontinuous enrollment. Conclusions: Marijuana use and other illicit drug use are both associated with a decreased likelihood of continuous enrollment in college, independent of several other possible risk factors. These findings highlight the need for early intervention with illicit drug users to mitigate possible negative academic consequences. PMID:23200152

Arria, Amelia M.; Garnier-Dykstra, Laura M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Winick, Emily R.; O'Grady, Kevin E.

2013-01-01

217

Clinical management and burden of bipolar disorder: a multinational longitudinal study (WAVE-bd Study)  

PubMed Central

Background Studies in bipolar disorder (BD) to date are limited in their ability to provide a whole-disease perspective - their scope has generally been confined to a single disease phase and/or a specific treatment. Moreover, most clinical trials have focused on the manic phase of disease, and not on depression, which is associated with the greatest disease burden. There are few longitudinal studies covering both types of patients with BD (I and II) and the whole course of the disease, regardless of patients' symptomatology. Therefore, the Wide AmbispectiVE study of the clinical management and burden of Bipolar Disorder (WAVE-bd) (NCT01062607) aims to provide reliable information on the management of patients with BD in daily clinical practice. It also seeks to determine factors influencing clinical outcomes and resource use in relation to the management of BD. Methods WAVE-bd is a multinational, multicentre, non-interventional, longitudinal study. Approximately 3000 patients diagnosed with BD type I or II with at least one mood event in the preceding 12 months were recruited at centres in Austria, Belgium, Brazil, France, Germany, Portugal, Romania, Turkey, Ukraine and Venezuela. Site selection methodology aimed to provide a balanced cross-section of patients cared for by different types of providers of medical aid (e.g. academic hospitals, private practices) in each country. Target recruitment percentages were derived either from scientific publications or from expert panels in each participating country. The minimum follow-up period will be 12 months, with a maximum of 27 months, taking into account the retrospective and the prospective parts of the study. Data on demographics, diagnosis, medical history, clinical management, clinical and functional outcomes (CGI-BP and FAST scales), adherence to treatment (DAI-10 scale and Medication Possession Ratio), quality of life (EQ-5D scale), healthcare resources, and caregiver burden (BAS scale) will be collected. Descriptive analysis with common statistics will be performed. Discussion This study will provide detailed descriptions of the management of BD in different countries, particularly in terms of clinical outcomes and resources used. Thus, it should provide psychiatrists with reliable and up-to-date information about those factors associated with different management patterns of BD. Trial registration no ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01062607 PMID:21481244

2011-01-01

218

Parent Perceptions of Neighborhood Safety and Children's Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Obesity: Evidence from a National Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

We examined the relationship between parent-perceived neighborhood safety and children's physical activity, sedentary behavior, body mass, and obesity status using 9 years of longitudinal data (1999–2007) on a cohort of approximately 19,000 US kindergartners from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study. Children's height and weight measurements and parent perceptions of neighborhood safety were available in kindergarten and in the first, third, fifth, and eighth grades. Dependent variables included age- and gender-specific body mass index percentile, obesity status, and parent- or child-reported weekly physical activity and television-watching. Pooled cross-sectional and within-child longitudinal regression models that controlled for child, family, and school characteristics were fitted. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal models indicated that children whose parents perceived their neighborhoods as unsafe watched more television and participated in less physical activity, although the magnitude of this association was much weaker in longitudinal models. However, there was no significant association between parent-perceived neighborhood safety and children's body mass index. PMID:23579555

Datar, Ashlesha; Nicosia, Nancy; Shier, Victoria

2013-01-01

219

Parent perceptions of neighborhood safety and children's physical activity, sedentary behavior, and obesity: evidence from a national longitudinal study.  

PubMed

We examined the relationship between parent-perceived neighborhood safety and children's physical activity, sedentary behavior, body mass, and obesity status using 9 years of longitudinal data (1999-2007) on a cohort of approximately 19,000 US kindergartners from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study. Children's height and weight measurements and parent perceptions of neighborhood safety were available in kindergarten and in the first, third, fifth, and eighth grades. Dependent variables included age- and gender-specific body mass index percentile, obesity status, and parent- or child-reported weekly physical activity and television-watching. Pooled cross-sectional and within-child longitudinal regression models that controlled for child, family, and school characteristics were fitted. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal models indicated that children whose parents perceived their neighborhoods as unsafe watched more television and participated in less physical activity, although the magnitude of this association was much weaker in longitudinal models. However, there was no significant association between parent-perceived neighborhood safety and children's body mass index. PMID:23579555

Datar, Ashlesha; Nicosia, Nancy; Shier, Victoria

2013-05-15

220

The cognitive processes underlying affective decision-making predicting adolescent smoking behaviors in a longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

This study investigates the relationship between three different cognitive processes underlying the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and adolescent smoking behaviors in a longitudinal study. We conducted a longitudinal study of 181 Chinese adolescents in Chengdu City, China. The participants were followed from 10th to 11th grade. When they were in the 10th grade (Time 1), we tested these adolescents' decision-making using the IGT and working memory capacity using the Self-ordered Pointing Test (SOPT). Self-report questionnaires were used to assess school academic performance and smoking behaviors. The same questionnaires were completed again at the 1-year follow-up (Time 2). The Expectancy-Valence (EV) Model was applied to distill the IGT performance into three different underlying psychological components: (i) a motivational component which indicates the subjective weight the adolescents assign to gains vs. losses; (ii) a learning-rate component which indicates the sensitivity to recent outcomes vs. past experiences; and (iii) a response component which indicates how consistent the adolescents are between learning and responding. The subjective weight to gains vs. losses at Time 1 significantly predicted current smokers and current smoking levels at Time 2, controlling for demographic variables and baseline smoking behaviors. Therefore, by decomposing the IGT into three different psychological components, we found that the motivational process of weight gain vs. losses may serve as a neuropsychological marker to predict adolescent smoking behaviors in a general youth population. PMID:24101911

Xiao, Lin; Koritzky, Gilly; Johnson, C. Anderson; Bechara, Antoine

2013-01-01

221

Selling and buying sex: a longitudinal study of risk and protective factors in adolescence.  

PubMed

Engaging in trading sex is associated with many co-occurring problems, including elevated risk for sexually transmitted infections. Various dimensions of social support from parents, schools, and mentors may be protective against sex trading and may ameliorate the impact of risk factors. This study analyzes data from respondents to Waves I and III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) who had not participated in sex trading for money or drugs in Wave I so that risk and protective factors for first initiations of selling or buying sex could be examined longitudinally. About 2% of the study sample began selling sex and about 2% began buying sex between Wave I and Wave III. The respondent's sex, race/ethnicity, history of sexual abuse, shoplifting, marijuana use, and experiences of homelessness or running away were significant predictors of trading sex (p?

Kaestle, Christine E

2012-06-01

222

Psychologic Correlates of Serum Cholesterol in Man: A Longitudinal Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Twenty Navy Underwater Demolition Team (UDT) trainees were repeatedly tested during their first two months of training to obtain longitudinal information concerning the correlations of subjects' mood and feeling states of motivation, arousal, happiness, d...

R. H. Rahe, R. T. Rubin, E. K. E. Gunderson, R. J. Arthur

1971-01-01

223

[Morbidity rate and mental capacity of Moscow schoolchildren (longitudinal study)].  

PubMed

In the article there are presented data of longitudinal study of the health of Moscow schoolchildren (426 children), followed throughout from the 1st to 9th class, inclusively. Students were annually clinically examined in the school. There was performed a comprehensive study of mental health and functional state of the organism in the process of education students in high school (over 2700 pupils of 5-9th classes). The health status of students was shown to deteriorate due to the increase of the prevalence of chronic disease, the rise in occupancy of the III-IV health groups, the decrease of the number of children referred to I and II health groups. Unfavorable trends in the health state among boys are more pronounced than in girls, while they are also characterized by lower functional capabilities of the CNS and lower resistance to the development of training fatigue. Relatively favorable stage of school ontogeny is characterized by period with reduced morbidity in children studying in 4th-6th classes. Deterioration in the health of students as a significant rate of the rise of chronic diseases morbidity is observed in 7-9th classes. Along with this, in the 7th and 9th classes there is revealed the deterioration of mental capacity and high frequency of the pronounced signs of fatigue among schoolchildren. PMID:25306705

Sukhareva, L M; Rapoport, I K; Polenova, M A

2014-01-01

224

Effects of networking on career success: a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

Previous research has reported effects of networking, defined as building, maintaining, and using relationships, on career success. However, empirical studies have relied exclusively on concurrent or retrospective designs that rest upon strong assumptions about the causal direction of this relation and depict a static snapshot of the relation at a given point in time. This study provides a dynamic perspective on the effects of networking on career success and reports results of a longitudinal study. Networking was assessed with 6 subscales that resulted from combining measures of the facets of (a) internal versus external networking and (b) building versus maintaining versus using contacts. Objective (salary) and subjective (career satisfaction) measures of career success were obtained for 3 consecutive years. Multilevel analyses showed that networking is related to concurrent salary and that it is related to the growth rate of salary over time. Networking is also related to concurrent career satisfaction. As satisfaction remained stable over time, no effects of networking on the growth of career satisfaction were found. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:19186904

Wolff, Hans-Georg; Moser, Klaus

2009-01-01

225

School-level variation in health outcomes in adolescence: analysis of three longitudinal studies in England.  

PubMed

School factors are associated with many health outcomes in adolescence. However, previous studies report inconsistent findings regarding the degree of school-level variation for health outcomes, particularly for risk behaviours. This study uses data from three large longitudinal studies in England to investigate school-level variation in a range of health indicators. Participants were drawn from the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England, the Me and My School Study and the Research with East London Adolescent Community Health Survey. Outcome variables included risk behaviours (smoking, alcohol/cannabis use, sexual behaviour), behavioural difficulties and victimisation, obesity and physical activity, mental and emotional health, and educational attainment. Multi-level models were used to calculate the proportion of variance in outcomes explained at school level, expressed as intraclass correlations (ICCs) adjusted for gender, ethnicity and socio-economic status of the participants. ICCs for health outcomes ranged from nearly nil to .28 and were almost uniformly lower than for attainment (.17-.23). Most adjusted ICCs were smaller than unadjusted values, suggesting that school-level variation partly reflects differences in pupil demographics. School-level variation was highest for risk behaviours. ICCs were largely comparable across datasets, as well as across years within datasets, suggesting that school-level variation in health remains fairly constant across adolescence. School-level variation in health outcomes remains significant after adjustment for individual demographic differences between schools, confirming likely effects for school environment. Variance is highest for risk behaviours, supporting the utility of school environment interventions for these outcomes. PMID:23793374

Hale, Daniel R; Patalay, Praveetha; Fitzgerald-Yau, Natasha; Hargreaves, Dougal S; Bond, Lyndal; Görzig, Anke; Wolpert, Miranda; Stansfeld, Stephen A; Viner, Russell M

2014-08-01

226

Connections between Learning Experience, Study Behaviour and Academic Performance: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Whilst past studies have established the joint influence of student learning experience and study behaviour on academic achievement, few attempts have been made to determine their causal ordering in a longitudinal framework. Purpose: This study explored the reciprocal relationship between learning experience and study behaviour, and…

Ning, H. K.; Downing, Kevin

2010-01-01

227

Crossover of job demands and emotional exhaustion within teams: a longitudinal multilevel study.  

PubMed

This study investigated the crossover of job demands and emotional exhaustion among team members and the moderating effect of cohesiveness and social support on this process. Participants were 310 employees of an employment agency in the Netherlands, working in one of 100 teams. Multilevel analysis using a longitudinal design did not reveal a main effect of crossover. However, consistent with the study's hypotheses, the results showed a moderating effect of team cohesiveness and social support. We detected crossover of job demands and emotional exhaustion across time from the group to individual team members only in teams characterized by high levels of cohesiveness and social support. Teams characterized by low levels of cohesiveness and social support showed no crossover of job demands and exhaustion. The findings demonstrate that team-level moderators play an important role in crossover processes. Moreover, social support and cohesiveness may not always be positive. PMID:21424945

Westman, Mina; Bakker, Arnold B; Roziner, Ilan; Sonnentag, Sabine

2011-10-01

228

A longitudinal study of dental experience during the first four years of military experience.  

PubMed

This longitudinal study examined changes in oral health and emergency rates of Army, Air Force, and Navy recruits during the 4 years immediately following entry on active duty. In 1998, 1,331 dental records of recruit participants in the 1994 Tri-Service Comprehensive Oral Health Survey were located, and dental readiness classification and emergency data were analyzed. All services were successful in achieving and maintaining operational readiness among 1994 recruits who spent >93% of their first 4 years of military service in a deployable oral health status (Dental Readiness Classification 1 or 2). However, among recruits with initial Dental Readiness Classification 3, only 57.4% achieved class 1 (oral health) at any point during the 4-year study period. An annual dental emergency rate of 749 per 1000 was found among class 3 personnel, 192 per 1000 among class 2, and 85 per 1000 among class 1. PMID:18277721

York, Andrew K; Moss, David L; Martin, G

2008-01-01

229

Managing social adoption and technology adaption in longitudinal studies of mobile media applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a case study of a longitudinal in-situ observation that involves a new social application for mobile communication. Our study demonstrates the need for an adaptive approach to planning, design, and implementation that is responsive to emerging social and infrastructure conditions. This represents a shift from traditional longitudinal studies that observe prototype systems with fixed sets

Bram Lievens; Nataša Mili?-Frayling; Valentine Lerouge; Jo Pierson; Gerard Oleksik; Rachel Jones; Jamie Costello

2010-01-01

230

Stress Process of Illicit Drug Use among U.S. Immigrants' Adolescent Children: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined a full path model of stress process for predicting illicit drug use among Asian and Latino immigrants' adolescent children. Using 2-year longitudinal data (National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health) from a sample of adolescents with Asian or Latino immigrant parents (N = 2,353), the study explored structural…

Choo, Hyekyung

2012-01-01

231

Maternal acceptance and adolescents' emotional communication: a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

With substantive evidence suggesting that adolescents' disclosure is likely a protective factor against problem behaviors, as well as evidence that many adolescents will go to great lengths to avoid sharing information with parents, one may conclude that parents' face a formidable task. Previous studies have identified parental acceptance as a concurrent correlate of adolescents' behavioral disclosure, but have neglected to investigate potential ways that parents could encourage their adolescents to feel comfortable disclosing emotional information. The present study extends the literature by using a longitudinal, multi-method, multi-reporter design to examine whether maternal acceptance is predictive of emotional disclosure over time among a racially/socioeconomically diverse sample of 184 adolescents (53% female). Results indicate that adolescents who perceive their mothers as high in acceptance during early adolescence exhibit greater relative increases in both self-reported emotional communication and observed emotional disclosure to their mothers 3 years later. Interestingly, mothers' perceptions of their own acceptance does not provide any additional predictive value. These findings support the notion that adolescents' emotional disclosure is an ongoing process that can be fostered in early adolescence, and emphasize the importance of considering adolescents' perceptions of the relationship to successfully do so. PMID:20820894

Hare, Amanda L; Marston, Emily G; Allen, Joseph P

2011-06-01

232

A longitudinal study of maternal attachment and infant developmental outcomes.  

PubMed

Extant research has demonstrated that compared to adults with insecure attachment styles, more securely attached parents tend to be more responsive, sensitive, and involved parents, resulting in improved outcomes for their children. Less studied is the influence of a mother's attachment style on her attachment to her unborn child during pregnancy and the consequent developmental outcomes of the child during early childhood. Thus, the aim of this prospective longitudinal study was to examine the relationship between maternal-fetal attachment (MFA) during pregnancy and infant and toddler outcomes and the role of mothers' attachment style on early childhood developmental outcomes in an economically disadvantaged sample of women and their children. Gamma regression modeling demonstrated that an avoidant maternal attachment style (b?=?.98, 95 % CI [.97, .98], p?

Alhusen, Jeanne L; Hayat, Matthew J; Gross, Deborah

2013-12-01

233

Cortisol awakening response and subsequent depression: prospective longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

Background Some studies have found an association between elevated cortisol and subsequent depression, but findings are inconsistent. The cortisol awakening response may be a more stable measure of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function and potentially of stress reactivity. Aims To investigate whether salivary cortisol, particularly the cortisol awakening response, is associated with subsequent depression in a large population cohort. Method Young people (aged 15 years, n = 841) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) collected salivary cortisol at four time points for 3 school days. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios for developing depression meeting ICD-10 criteria at 18 years. Results We found no evidence for an association between salivary cortisol and subsequent depression. Odds ratios for the cortisol awakening response were 1.24 per standard deviation (95% CI 0.93-1.66, P = 0.14) before and 1.12 (95% CI 0.73-1.72, P = 0.61) after adjustment for confounding factors. There was no evidence that the other cortisol measures, including cortisol at each time point, diurnal drop and area under the curve, were associated with subsequent depression. Conclusions Our findings do not support the hypothesis that elevated salivary cortisol increases the short-term risk of subsequent depressive illness. The results suggest that if an association does exist, it is small and unlikely to be of clinical significance. PMID:24311550

Carnegie, Rebecca; Araya, Ricardo; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Glover, Vivette; O'Connor, Thomas G.; O'Donnell, Kieran J.; Pearson, Rebecca; Lewis, Glyn

2014-01-01

234

Longitudinal study of children exposed to sulfur oxides  

SciTech Connect

This study is a longitudinal comparison of the health of children exposed to markedly different concentrations of sulfur dioxide and moderately different concentrations of particulate sulfate. The four groups of subjects lived in two areas of one smelter town and in two other towns, one of which was also a smelter town. In the area of highest pollution, children were intermittently exposed to high SO/sub 2/ levels (peak three-hour average concentration exceeded 2,500 micrograms/m3) and moderate particulate SO/sub 4/= levels (average concentration was 10.1 micrograms/m3). When the children were grouped by the four gradients of pollution observed, the prevalence of cough (measured by questionnaire) correlated significantly with pollution levels (trend chi-square = 5.6, p = 0.02). No significant differences in the incidence of cough or other symptoms occurred among the groups of subjects over three years, and pulmonary function and lung function growth over the study were roughly equal among all the groups. These results suggest that intermittent elevations in SO/sub 2/ concentration, in the presence of moderate particulate SO/sub 4/= concentration, produced evidence of bronchial irritation in the subjects, but no chronic effect on lung function or lung function growth was detected.

Dodge, R.; Solomon, P.; Moyers, J.; Hayes, C.

1985-05-01

235

Positive parenting predicts the development of adolescent brain structure: a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

Little work has been conducted that examines the effects of positive environmental experiences on brain development to date. The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate the effects of positive (warm and supportive) maternal behavior on structural brain development during adolescence, using longitudinal structural MRI. Participants were 188 (92 female) adolescents, who were part of a longitudinal adolescent development study that involved mother-adolescent interactions and MRI scans at approximately 12 years old, and follow-up MRI scans approximately 4 years later. FreeSurfer software was used to estimate the volume of limbic-striatal regions (amygdala, hippocampus, caudate, putamen, pallidum, and nucleus accumbens) and the thickness of prefrontal regions (anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal cortices) across both time points. Higher frequency of positive maternal behavior during the interactions predicted attenuated volumetric growth in the right amygdala, and accelerated cortical thinning in the right anterior cingulate (males only) and left and right orbitofrontal cortices, between baseline and follow up. These results have implications for understanding the biological mediators of risk and protective factors for mental disorders that have onset during adolescence. PMID:24269113

Whittle, Sarah; Simmons, Julian G; Dennison, Meg; Vijayakumar, Nandita; Schwartz, Orli; Yap, Marie B H; Sheeber, Lisa; Allen, Nicholas B

2014-04-01

236

The BioCycle Study Longitudinal Study of the Estrogen and  

E-print Network

The BioCycle Study Longitudinal Study of the Estrogen and Progesterone Effects on Biomarkers Fructose and Sugar Sweetened Beverages and NAFLD markers In Progress Sunni Mumford Dietary fat and hormones, Schisterman EF. (2009) "Effect of daily fiber intake on reproductive function: the BioCycle Study". American

Rau, Don C.

237

A longitudinal study of experiential avoidance in emotional disorders.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the degree in which measurements of trait experiential avoidance (EA) are affected by current emotional disorder and whether EA is a causal factor in the course of emotional disorders (anxiety and depressive disorders) and the development of comorbidity among emotional disorders. In a sample of 2,316 adults aged 18 to 65, consisting of healthy controls, persons with a prior history of emotional disorders, and persons with a current emotional disorder, DSM-IV-based emotional disorders (CIDI: Composite Interview Diagnostic Instrument) were assessed at T2 and 2 (T4) and 4years later (T6) and experiential avoidance (AAQ: Acceptance and Action Questionnaire) at T2 and T4. Results showed that EA scores were stable over a 2-year period notwithstanding state fluctuations because of current emotional disorder. Moreover, EA scores at T2 predicted changes in distress (major depressive disorder, dysthymia, generalized anxiety disorder) and in fear disorders (social anxiety disorder, panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, agoraphobia without panic) at T4. Finally, EA at T4 mediated the longitudinal association of fear disorders at T2 with distress disorders at T6 as well as of distress disorders at T2 with fear disorders at T6. These findings suggest that EA scores are more than epiphenomena of emotional disorders and that EA may be conceptualized as a relevant transdiagnostic factor affecting the course and development of comorbidity of emotional disorders. PMID:25311292

Spinhoven, Philip; Drost, Jolijn; de Rooij, Mark; van Hemert, Albert M; Penninx, Brenda W

2014-11-01

238

A longitudinal study on the stability over time of school and teacher effects on student outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews educational effectiveness theory, concentrating on the time stability of the teacher and school effect. The contribution of longitudinal studies investigating the long?term effect of schools and teachers to modelling educational effectiveness is discussed. Findings of a longitudinal study on the progress of students (N=1681) in mathematics during their first four years at the primary school are presented.

Leonidas Kyriakides; Bert P. M. Creemers

2008-01-01

239

Peer Victimization in Childhood and Internalizing Problems in Adolescence: A Prospective Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traumatic childhood experiences have been found to predict later internalizing problems. This prospective longitudinal study investigated whether repeated and intentional harm doing by peers (peer victimization) in childhood predicts internalizing symptoms in early adolescence. 3,692 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and…

Zwierzynska, Karolina; Wolke, Dieter; Lereya, Tanya S.

2013-01-01

240

The Timing of Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Child Cognitive Development: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Maternal depression is known to be associated with impairments in child cognitive development, although the effect of timing of exposure to maternal depression is unclear. Methods: Data collected for the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a longitudinal study beginning in pregnancy, included self-report measures of…

Evans, Jonathan; Melotti, Roberto; Heron, Jon; Ramchandani, Paul; Wiles, Nicola; Murray, Lynne; Stein, Alan

2012-01-01

241

Continuity, Comorbidity and Longitudinal Associations between Depression and Antisocial Behaviour in Middle Adolescence: A 2-Year Prospective Follow-Up Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study investigated continuity, comorbidity and longitudinal associations between depression Beck depression inventory (RBDI) and antisocial behaviour Youth self-report (YSR) in middle adolescence. Data were used from a community sample of 2070 adolescents who participated in a 2-year prospective follow-up study. The results indicate that both…

Ritakallio, Minna; Koivisto, Anna-Maija; von der Pahlen, Bettina; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Marttunen, Mauri; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

2008-01-01

242

Digital Game Violence and Direct Aggression in Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study of the Roles of Sex, Age, and Parent-Child Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the roles of sex, age, and parent-child communication in moderating the association between digital game violence and direct aggression in a two-year longitudinal study. Finnish 12- and 15-year-old adolescents (N = 316) participated in the follow-up survey. As hypothesized, digital game violence was linked to direct…

Wallenius, Marjut; Punamaki, Raija-Leena

2008-01-01

243

Life Satisfaction Shows Terminal Decline in Old Age: Longitudinal Evidence from the German Socioeconomic Panel Study  

PubMed Central

Longitudinal data spanning 22 years, obtained from deceased participants of the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP; N = 1,637; 70 to 100 year olds), were used to examine if and how life satisfaction exhibits terminal decline at the end of life. Changes in life satisfaction were more strongly associated with distance to death than with distance from birth (chronological age). Multi-phase growth models were used to identify a transition point roughly four years prior to death wherein the prototypical rate of decline in life satisfaction tripled from –0.64 to –1.94 T-score units per year. Further individual-level analyses suggest that individuals dying at older ages spend more years in the terminal periods of life satisfaction decline than individuals dying at earlier ages. Overall, the evidence suggests that late-life changes in aspects of well-being are driven by mortality-related mechanisms and characterized by terminal decline. PMID:18605841

Gerstorf, Denis; Ram, Nilam; Estabrook, Ryne; Schupp, Jurgen; Wagner, Gert G.; Lindenberger, Ulman

2012-01-01

244

Moderate Alcohol Use and Depression in Young Adults: Findings From a National Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined the association between moderate alcohol use and depressive mood among young adults before and after adjustment for demographic, health, and socioeconomic factors that may act as confounders. Methods. We analyzed 2 waves of interview data collected from 13892 young adults who participated in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to compare frequency of depressive symptoms in moderate drinkers with frequency of symptoms in young adults in other alcohol use categories. Results. With adjustment for health and socioeconomic factors, frequency of depressive symptoms were similar among moderate drinkers, lifetime and long-term abstainers, and heavy/heavier moderate drinkers but remained significantly higher among heavy drinkers. Conclusions. Moderate alcohol use may have no effect on depression in young adults relative to abstinence from alcohol use. PMID:15727976

Paschall, Mallie J.; Freisthler, Bridget; Lipton, Robert I.

2005-01-01

245

An ethnographic study of the longitudinal course of substance abuse among people with severe mental illness.  

PubMed

A two-year ethnography conducted among 16 dually diagnosed clients yielded two longitudinal findings. First, four "positive quality of life" factors were strongly correlated with clients' efforts to cease using addictive substances: (1) regular engagement in an enjoyable activity; (2) decent, stable housing; (3) a loving relationship with someone sober who accepts the person's mental illness; and (4) a positive, valued relationship with a mental health professional. Second, the study revealed that five "negative background factors" in participants' childhood homes were predictive of long-term continuation of substance use: (1) substance abuse in childhood home, (2) childhood household in dire poverty, (3) "non-functional" household members, (4) reporting of abuse imputed to care-givers, and (5) serious mental illness in household. The implications of these findings for treatment are discussed. PMID:11079184

Alverson, H; Alverson, M; Drake, R E

2000-12-01

246

A longitudinal study of self-esteem, cultural identity, and academic success among American Indian adolescents  

PubMed Central

Latent growth curve modeling was used to estimate developmental trajectories of self-esteem and cultural identity among American Indian high school students and to explore the relationships of these trajectories to personal resources, problem behaviors, and academic performance at the end of high school. The sample included 1,611 participants from the Voices of Indian Teens project, a three-year longitudinal study of adolescents from three diverse American Indian cultural groups in the western U.S. Trajectories of self-esteem were clearly related to academic achievement; cultural identity, in contrast, was largely unrelated, with no direct effects and only very small indirect effects. The relationships between self-esteem and success were mediated by personal resources and problem behaviors. PMID:19209979

Whitesell, Nancy Rumbaugh; Mitchell, Christina M.; Spicer, Paul

2008-01-01

247

Predictors of Parent-Reported Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children Aged 6–7 years: A National Longitudinal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the prenatal, postnatal and demographic predictors of parent-reported attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity\\u000a disorder (ADHD) in an Australian population-based sample. Participants were families participating in the Longitudinal Study\\u000a of Australian Children. There were approximately even numbers of males (51%) and females (49%) in the sample. Predictors of\\u000a parent-reported ADHD status at Wave 2 (children aged 6–7 years) which were measured at Wave

Emma Sciberras; Obioha C. Ukoumunne; Daryl Efron

248

Participant experiences in a breastmilk biomonitoring study: A qualitative assessment  

PubMed Central

Background Biomonitoring studies can provide information about individual and population-wide exposure. However they must be designed in a way that protects the rights and welfare of participants. This descriptive qualitative study was conducted as a follow-up to a breastmilk biomonitoring study. The primary objectives were to assess participants' experiences in the study, including the report-back of individual body burden results, and to determine if participation in the study negatively affected breastfeeding rates or duration. Methods Participants of the Greater Boston PBDE Breastmilk Biomonitoring Study were contacted and asked about their experiences in the study: the impact of study recruitment materials on attitudes towards breastfeeding; if participants had wanted individual biomonitoring results; if the protocol by which individual results were distributed met participants' needs; and the impact of individual results on attitudes towards breastfeeding. Results No participants reported reducing the duration of breastfeeding because of the biomonitoring study, but some responses suggested that breastmilk biomonitoring studies have the potential to raise anxieties about breastfeeding. Almost all participants wished to obtain individual results. Although several reported some concern about individual body burden, none reported reducing the duration of breastfeeding because of biomonitoring results. The study literature and report-back method were found to mitigate potential negative impacts. Conclusion Biomonitoring study design, including clear communication about the benefits of breastfeeding and the manner in which individual results are distributed, can prevent negative impacts of biomonitoring on breastfeeding. Adoption of more specific standards for biomonitoring studies and continued study of risk communication issues related to biomonitoring will help protect participants from harm. PMID:19226469

2009-01-01

249

Childhood aggression, withdrawal and likeability, and the use of health care later: a longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

Background: Literature suggests that early patterns of aggressive behaviour in both girls and boys are predictive of a variety of health risks in adulthood. However, longitudinal examination of the predictive links between childhood aggression, negative physical health outcomes in adulthood and overall use of health care has not been done. We looked at use of health care and a variety of physical health outcomes in adulthood to extend the current body of knowledge regarding the long-term negative sequelae of childhood aggression. Methods: Participants of the Concordia Longitudinal Risk Project were eligible for the current study if they had received medical care in the province of Quebec between 1992 and 2006, and if we were able to retrieve their medical and education records. Our primary outcome was use of the health care system, as determined using records from the Régie de l’assurance maladie du Québec and the Ministère de la santé et des services sociaux. Our controlled variables were socioeconomic status of the neighbourhood in which participants lived in 1986 and level of education. We used hierarchical multiple regression to explore the association between childhood behaviour and physical health in adulthood. Results: During the 15-year period studied, childhood agression corresponded to an increase in medical visits (8.1% per 1 standard deviation increase in agression), and injuries (10.7%) or lifestyle-related illnesses (44.2%), visits to specialists (6.2%) and visits to emergency departments (12.4%). We saw a positive relation between social withdrawal during childhood and government-funded visits to dentists. Peer-rated likeability during childhood showed negative relations with use of health care (overall), medical visits due to injuries and government-funded visits to dentists. Interpretation: Childhood aggression is a health risk that should be considered when designing interventions to improve public health and diminish the costs of medical services, particularly when considering interventions targeting children and families. PMID:22083681

Temcheff, Caroline E.; Serbin, Lisa A.; Martin-Storey, Alexa; Stack, Dale M.; Hastings, Paul; Ledingham, Jane; Schwartzman, Alex E.

2011-01-01

250

Longitudinal variability of time-location/activity patterns of population at different ages: a longitudinal study in California  

PubMed Central

Background Longitudinal time-activity data are important for exposure modeling, since the extent to which short-term time-activity data represent long-term activity patterns is not well understood. This study was designed to evaluate longitudinal variations in human time-activity patterns. Method We report on 24-hour recall diaries and questionnaires collected via the internet from 151 parents of young children (mostly under age 55), and from 55 older adults of ages 55 and older, for both a weekday and a weekend day every three months over an 18-month period. Parents also provided data for their children. The self-administrated diary and questionnaire distinguished ~30 frequently visited microenvironments and ~20 activities which we selected to represent opportunities for exposure to toxic environmental compounds. Due to the non-normal distribution of time-location/activity data, we employed generalized linear mixed-distribution mixed-effect models to examine intra- and inter-individual variations. Here we describe variation in the likelihood of and time spent engaging in an activity or being in a microenvironment by age group, day-type (weekday/weekend), season (warm/cool), sex, employment status, and over the follow-up period. Results As expected, day-type and season influence time spent in many location and activity categories. Longitudinal changes were also observed, e.g., young children slept less with increasing follow-up, transit time increased, and time spent on working and shopping decreased during the study, possibly related to human physiological changes with age and changes in macro-economic factors such as gas prices and the economic recession. Conclusions This study provides valuable new information about time-activity assessed longitudinally in three major age groups and greatly expands our knowledge about intra- and inter-individual variations in time-location/activity patterns. Longitudinal variations beyond weekly and seasonal patterns should be taken into account in simulating long-term time-activity patterns in exposure modeling. PMID:21933379

2011-01-01

251

Social Strategies during University Studies Predict Early Career Work Burnout and Engagement: 18-Year Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal study spanning 18 years examined the role of social strategies in early career adaptation. The aim was to find out whether individuals' social strategies measured during their university studies had an impact on work burnout and work engagement measured 10-18 years later. A sample of 292 university students completed the SAQ…

Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Tolvanen, Asko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

2011-01-01

252

Sentence Position and Syntactic Complexity of Stuttering in Early Childhood: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present investigation was to assess longitudinal word- and sentence-level measures of stuttering in young children. Participants included 12 stuttering and non-stuttering children between 36 and 71 months of age at an initial visit who exhibited a range of stuttering rates. Parent-child spontaneous speech samples were obtained…

Buhr, Anthony; Zebrowski, Patricia

2009-01-01

253

Precursors of Language Ability and Academic Performance: An Intergenerational, Longitudinal Study of At-Risk Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current investigation examined whether inter-generational transfer of risk could be revealed through mothers' and preschool-aged children's expressive language, and whether continuity of risk persisted in these children's academic abilities, 3 years later. Participating families were drawn from the Concordia Longitudinal Risk Project, a…

Campisi, Lisa; Serbin, Lisa A.; Stack, Dale M.; Schwartzman, Alex E.; Ledingham, Jane E.

2009-01-01

254

Survival after postoperative morbidity: a longitudinal observational cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have suggested that there may be long-term harm associated with postoperative complications. Uncertainty exists however, because of the need for risk adjustment and inconsistent definitions of postoperative morbidity. Methods We did a longitudinal observational cohort study of patients undergoing major surgery. Case-mix adjustment was applied and morbidity was recorded using a validated outcome measure. Cox proportional hazards modelling using time-dependent covariates was used to measure the independent relationship between prolonged postoperative morbidity and longer term survival. Results Data were analysed for 1362 patients. The median length of stay was 9 days and the median follow-up time was 6.5 yr. Independent of perioperative risk, postoperative neurological morbidity (prevalence 2.9%) was associated with a relative hazard for long-term mortality of 2.00 [P=0.001; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32–3.04]. Prolonged postoperative morbidity (prevalence 15.6%) conferred a relative hazard for death in the first 12 months after surgery of 3.51 (P<0.001; 95% CI 2.28–5.42) and for the next 2 yr of 2.44 (P<0.001; 95% CI 1.62–3.65), returning to baseline thereafter. Conclusions Prolonged morbidity after surgery is associated with a risk of premature death for a longer duration than perhaps is commonly thought; however, this risk falls with time. We suggest that prolonged postoperative morbidity measured in this way may be a valid indicator of the quality of surgical healthcare. Our findings reinforce the importance of research and quality improvement initiatives aimed at reducing the duration and severity of postoperative complications. PMID:25012586

Moonesinghe, S. R.; Harris, S.; Mythen, M. G.; Rowan, K. M.; Haddad, F. S.; Emberton, M.; Grocott, M. P. W.

2014-01-01

255

Impact of pregnancy on vitamin D status: a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

Nutritional requirements for vitamin D during pregnancy have been inadequately described, and there are conflicting data on the impact of gestation on vitamin D status. In the present study, we conducted a longitudinal analysis of total and free (unbound) serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) and albumin concentrations in a random sample of thirty women from the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints Ireland pregnancy cohort study at 15, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36 and 40 weeks of gestation and at 2 months postpartum. Concentrations of serum 25(OH)D, DBP and albumin were determined, and free 25(OH)D was calculated from the concentrations of total 25(OH)D, DBP and albumin. Serum albumin concentration decreased during pregnancy (P< 0·001), with a nadir at 36 weeks (P< 0·005), during which the concentration was approximately 80 % of the postnatal concentration. Serum DBP concentration increased during pregnancy and at 28 weeks of gestation, which was almost double the postnatal level (P< 0·001). Total and free 25(OH)D concentrations decreased (both P< 0·005) as pregnancy progressed, and both were lowest at 36 weeks of gestation. At 15 weeks, 10 and 63 % of the women had serum 25(OH)D concentration < 30 and 50 nmol/l, respectively, which increased to 53 and 80 % at 36 weeks of gestation. The time course of decreasing concentrations of 25(OH)D during gestation among women recruited during May-July, who delivered between October and November, and among those recruited in August-September, who delivered between February and March, was similar. The lower percentage of free 25(OH)D during pregnancy is mainly due to increased DBP. PMID:25159824

Zhang, Joy Y; Lucey, Alice J; Horgan, Richard; Kenny, Louise C; Kiely, Mairead

2014-10-01

256

Forward-backward eccentricity and participant-plane angle fluctuations and their influences on longitudinal dynamics of collective flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We argue that the transverse shape of the fireball created in the heavy-ion collision could be strongly influenced by event-by-event fluctuations of the eccentricity vectors for the forward-going and backward-going wounded nucleons: ??nF??nFein?n*F and ? ?nB??nBein?n*B. Due to the asymmetric energy deposition of each wounded nucleon along its direction of motion, the eccentricity vector of the produced fireball is expected to interpolate between ? ?nF and ??nB along the pseudorapidity, and hence exhibits sizable forward-backward (FB) asymmetry (?nB??nF) and/or FB twist (?n*F??n*B). A transport model calculation shows that these initial-state longitudinal fluctuations for n =2 and 3 survive the collective expansion, and result in similar FB asymmetry and/or a twist in the final-state event-plane angles. These novel event-by-event longitudinal flow fluctuations should be accessible at RHIC and the LHC using the event-shape selection technique proposed in earlier papers. If these effects are observed experimentally, it could improve our understanding of the initial-state fluctuations, particle production, and collective expansion dynamics of the heavy-ion collision.

Jia, Jiangyong; Huo, Peng

2014-09-01

257

A Study of Academically Talented Students’ Participation in Extracurricular Activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we surveyed the participation rates of academically talented students across 9 areas: dance, solo instrument, choral music, band, athletics, student government, academic clubs, ethnic\\/cultural clubs, and an “other activities” category. Participants consisted of 2 independent cohorts (Cohort 1, N = 842; Cohort 2, N = 290) attending a summer program. Results indicated that athletics was the activity

Leah B. Bucknavage; Frank C. Worrell

2005-01-01

258

A Study Of Academically Talented Students? Participation In Extracurricular Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we surveyed the participation rates of academically talented students across 9 areas: dance, solo instrument, choral music, band, athletics, student government, academic clubs, ethnic/cultural clubs, and an "other activities" category. Participants consisted of 2 independent cohorts (Cohort 1, N = 842; Cohort 2, N = 290) attending a…

Bucknavage, Leah B.; Worrell, Frank C.

2005-01-01

259

Perceived benefits from participation in sports: a gender study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the differences between 64 male and 53 female college students in their perception of various benefits of sports participation. Potential benefits of sports participation include moral reasoning (caring versus fairness), socialization, competition, health and fitness, and leadership traits (masculine versus feminine). Responses to a questionnaire indicate that there is no difference between males and females on perceived

Bonnie Kelinske; Brad W. Mayer; Kuo-Lane Chen

2001-01-01

260

Cortical Gyrification in Velo-Cardio-Facial (22q11.2 Deletion) Syndrome: A Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS) has been identified as an important risk factor for psychoses, with upto 32% of individuals with VCFS developing a psychotic illness. Individuals with VCFS thus form a unique group to identify and explore early symptoms and biological correlates of psychosis. In this study, we examined if cortical gyrification pattern, i.e. gyrification index (GI) can be a potential neurobiological marker for psychosis. Method GIs of 91 individuals with VCFS were compared with 29 siblings and 54 controls. Further, 58 participants with VCFS, 21 siblings and 18 normal controls were followed up after 3 years and longitudinal changes in GI were compared. Additionally, we also correlated longitudinal changes in GI in individuals with VCFS with prodromal symptoms of psychosis on the Scale of Prodromal Symptoms (SOPS). Result Individuals with VCFS had significantly lower GIs as compared to their siblings and normal controls. Longitudinal examination of GI did not reveal any significant group-time interactions between the three groups. Further, longitudinal change in GI scores in the VCFS group was negatively correlated with positive prodromal symptoms, with the left occipital region reaching statistical significance. Conclusion The study confirms previous reports that individuals with VCFS have reduced cortical folding as compared to normal controls. However over a period of three years, there is no difference in the rate of change of GI among both individuals with VCFS and normal controls. Finally, our results suggest that neuroanatomical alterations in areas underlying visual processing may be an early marker for psychosis. PMID:22365148

Kunwar, Arun; Ramanathan, Seethalakshmi; Nelson, Joshua; Antshel, Kevin M.; Fremont, Wanda; Higgins, Anne Marie; Shprintzen, Robert J.; Kates, Wendy R.

2012-01-01

261

A longitudinal study of risk factors in asthma and chronic bronchitis in childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence, persistence, incidence and remission rates of reported diagnosed asthma and chronic bronchitis has been studied longitudinally over ten years in a representative community sample of children and adolescents. The objectives are to evaluate the rates of change over time, the role of family history of disease, and the social risk factors in the longitudinal course of disease. The

M. D. Lebowitz; C. J. Holberg; F. D. Martinez

1990-01-01

262

Longitudinal Evaluation Methods in Human-Computer Studies and Visual Analytics  

E-print Network

children changes over the years [3] or in market research to study how people change their level, longitudinal data present information about what happened to a set of research units [in our case) was founded dealing with longitudinal research [11]. Besides several researchers are explicitly stating

Reiterer, Harald

263

Changes in HRM in Europe: A Longitudinal Comparative Study among 18 European Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To examine HRM strategies and practices and HRM position within organizations in various cultural, economic and sociopolitical contexts from a longitudinal perspective. Design/methodology/approach: The study uses the 1995 and 1999 Cranet data in a longitudinal methodological framework to explore the changes and trends in 18 European…

Nikandrou, Irene; Apospori, Eleni; Papalexandris, Nancy

2005-01-01

264

A Portable Audio/Video Recorder for Longitudinal Study of Child Development  

E-print Network

A Portable Audio/Video Recorder for Longitudinal Study of Child Development Soroush Vosoughi MIT- istic, longitudinal recordings of child development. Categories and Subject Descriptors H.5.2 [User, privacy man- agement, video recorder, audio recorder, child development 1. INTRODUCTION Collection

Roy, Deb

265

A Longitudinal Study of the Development of Creativity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To determine if creative behavior could be developed in adolescents, a longitudinal (three year) evaluation of the Living Arts Program (held in the Dayton, Ohio schools) was conducted. An experimental group of 188 eighth, ninth, and tenth graders and a matched control group were compared with analysis by sex. The experimental group had the…

Skipper, Charles E.

266

Use of Social Media by Western European Hospitals: Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Background Patients increasingly use social media to communicate. Their stories could support quality improvements in participatory health care and could support patient-centered care. Active use of social media by health care institutions could also speed up communication and information provision to patients and their families, thus increasing quality even more. Hospitals seem to be becoming aware of the benefits social media could offer. Data from the United States show that hospitals increasingly use social media, but it is unknown whether and how Western European hospitals use social media. Objective To identify to what extent Western European hospitals use social media. Methods In this longitudinal study, we explored the use of social media by hospitals in 12 Western European countries through an Internet search. We collected data for each country during the following three time periods: April to August 2009, August to December 2010, and April to July 2011. Results We included 873 hospitals from 12 Western European countries, of which 732 were general hospitals and 141 were university hospitals. The number of included hospitals per country ranged from 6 in Luxembourg to 347 in Germany. We found hospitals using social media in all countries. The use of social media increased significantly over time, especially for YouTube (n = 19, 2% to n = 172, 19.7%), LinkedIn (n =179, 20.5% to n = 278, 31.8%), and Facebook (n = 85, 10% to n = 585, 67.0%). Differences in social media usage between the included countries were significant. Conclusions Social media awareness in Western European hospitals is growing, as well as its use. Social media usage differs significantly between countries. Except for the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, the group of hospitals that is using social media remains small. Usage of LinkedIn for recruitment shows the awareness of the potential of social media. Future research is needed to investigate how social media lead to improved health care. PMID:22549016

Berben, Sivera AA; Samsom, Melvin; Engelen, Lucien JLPG; Schoonhoven, Lisette

2012-01-01

267

College students' use of cocaine: Results from a longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

College students have high rates of heavy drinking and other risky behaviors, but little is known about trends in their use of cocaine. In this longitudinal study of 1,253 college students at one large, public university in the mid-Atlantic region, annual interviews assessed opportunity to use cocaine, cocaine use, and DSM-IV criteria for cocaine abuse and dependence. Follow-up rates exceeded 87% annually. Data from the first four years of college were analyzed to detect changes over time and possible gender differences. By their fourth year of college, 36%wt of students had been offered cocaine at least once in their lifetime, and 13%wt had used cocaine. Annual prevalence of cocaine use increased significantly over time (4%wt in Year 1 to 10%wt in Year 4) and remained similar across genders. Opportunities to use cocaine were significantly more prevalent for males than females during Years 2 through 4. Cocaine use given opportunity increased significantly over time for both males and females. Among 243 cocaine users, females (n=113) had more serious use patterns than males, with higher average frequency of use (18.39 vs. 8.83 days during the peak year of use, p<.05) and greater likelihood of meeting criteria for cocaine dependence (9.3% vs. 2.5%, p<.05). Gender differences in typical cocaine dosage were not apparent. College administrators and health providers should be aware of the prevalence of cocaine use among student populations and design strategies to address the problem. PMID:21196083

Kasperski, Sarah J.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Garnier-Dykstra, Laura M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Arria, Amelia M.

2010-01-01

268

Participant evaluation results for two indoor air quality studies  

SciTech Connect

After two surveys for indoor air pollutants (radon and other chemicals) the homeowners were surveyed for their reactions. The results of these participant evaluation surveys, assuming that the participants that responded to the survey were representative, indicate that homeowners will accept a significant level of monitoring activity as part of an indoor air quality field study. Those participants completing surveys overwhelmingly enjoyed being in the studies and would do it again. We believe that the emphasis placed on positive homeowner interactions and efforts made to inform participants throughout our studies were positive factors in this result. There was no substantial differences noted in the responses between the 70-house study, which included a homeowner compensation payment of $100, and the 300-house study, which did not include a compensation payment. These results provide encouragement to conduct future complex, multipollutant indoor air quality studies when they are scientifically sound and cost effective.

Hawthorne, A.R.; Dudney, C.S.; Cohen, M.A.; Spengler, J.D.

1987-01-01

269

College Women's Female Friendships: A Longitudinal View  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a longitudinal qualitative study of the cognitive value of female friendships formed in college and seeks to appraise the meaning of the phenomenon for the participants. To grasp the temporal effects of the longitudinal data in this study, the author examines and assesses the relevant developmental literature, particularly…

Aleman, Ana M. Martinez

2010-01-01

270

Exploring the beliefs of persisting secondary science teachers in general induction programs: A longitudinal study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experienced, prepared, and fully certified teachers have been related with higher student achievement, but teacher retention has been a challenge for many decades, especially retention of secondary science teachers. In order to support teachers and student learning, it is critical to understand what impacts secondary science teachers' decisions to persist in the field. This mixed methods study explored whether teacher beliefs were related to persistence over a three-year period. Participants were beginning secondary science teachers that participated in general induction programs provided by their school or district. These participants were selected due to their representative nature of the average beginning secondary science teacher in the United States. Participants' responses to annual semi-structured interviews were the source of data. Findings from quantitative and qualitative analyses revealed that the persisting teachers' beliefs remained stable over the three-year period. Quantitative analyses also revealed that there were no prevalent beliefs among the persisting teachers, even when the variables of gender and socioeconomic status of their schools were considered. When persisting teachers' beliefs about teaching and beliefs about learning were quantitatively analyzed, no relationship was found. Case study of one persisting teacher and one non-persisting teacher revealed that personal experiences and knowledge impacted their beliefs about teaching and learning. The persisting teacher that participated in inquiry-based experiences held student-centered beliefs, while the non-persisting teacher that participated in verification-type experiences held teacher-centered beliefs. This study contributes to the field of science education by examining science teacher persistence instead of attrition. It focused specifically on secondary science teachers while exploring their beliefs longitudinally. Implications from this study calls for teacher beliefs to be challenged during the induction phase, proper placement of new teachers into their first teaching positions, and mentoring programs that address general and content-specific needs. In order to promote retention, further studies need to be conducted on factors that impact secondary science teacher persistence. Through promoting and supporting teacher persistence, we can increase student learning and assist students in becoming scientifically literate adults.

Wong, Sissy Sze-Mun

271

The influence of socioeconomic status on utilization and outcomes of elective total hip replacement: a multicity population-based longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. In countries with universal health coverage, socioeconomic status is not expected to influence access to effective treatment and its prognosis. We tested whether socioeconomic status affects the rates of elective total hip replacement and whether it plays a role in early and late outcomes. Design. Multicity population-based longitudinal study. Settings and participants. From Hospital Registries of four Italian cities

NERA AGABITI; SALLY PICCIOTTO; GIULIA CESARONI; LUIGI BISANTI; FRANCESCO FORASTIERE; ROBERTA ONORATI; BARBARA PACELLI; PAOLO PANDOLFI; ANTONIO RUSSO; TERESA SPADEA; CARLO A. PERUCCI

2006-01-01

272

Longitudinal prevalence study of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in dairy calves.  

PubMed

A longitudinal study (cohort study) elaborating 1,224 rectal swabs from 221 calves aging between 1 and 12 weeks was conducted on 11 dairy farms (i) to ascertain associations between diarrhea and shedding of diarrheagenic E. coli and (ii) to facilitate the zoonotic potential assessment of E. coli strains shed by young calves. Calves were screened weekly by PCR of swab cultures for shedding of enterotoxigenic E coli [ETEC; by detection of heat stable (est) and heat labile enterotoxin genes (elt)], diffusely adhering E. coli [DAEC; diffuse adhesion (daa)], typical enteropathogenic E. coli [EPEC; bundle-forming pili (bfpA) and intimin (eae)] as well as enterohemorrhagic E. coli [EHEC, intimin (eae) and Shiga toxin (stx)]. In addition, EHEC-hemolysin- (Hly(EHEC)) and alpha-hemolysin- (alpha-Hly) producing E. coli were detected by inoculation of blood agar plates. Within the 221 calves, prevalences were 69.7% (25.2% of the 1,224 samples) for Hly(EHEC)-producing E. coli, 55.3% (19.3%) for eae, and 18.2% (4.5%) for stx. E. coli strains exhibiting an alpha-Hly phenotype were detected in 66.5% of the calves and 21.9% of fecal samples. The est gene was detectable in 31.7% of the calves from only 9 of 11 herds and in 7.8% of the samples. Calves shedding DAEC or typical EPEC were not identified. The detection frequency of virulence traits significantly depended on the calves' age and shedding dynamics differed between the traits. A significant correlation between calf diarrhea and shedding of EHEC virulence traits was determined for several postnatal periods (1 week: Hly(EHEC); 1st & 10th week: eae; 4th week stx). Shedding of ETEC (est) was associated with diarrhea in newborn calves (1st week) only. Hly(EHEC)- and alpha-Hly-producing E. coli were shed significantly more frequently by diarrheic calves in 1st and 8th week of life, respectively. The knowledge gained in this study highlights the high prevalence of zoonotic E. coli already in calves. The age-dependent shedding dynamic of the various E. coli pathovars has to be considered regarding prophylaxis as well as planning intervention studies, both for calves and humans. PMID:17715822

Wieler, Lothar H; Sobjinski, Gisela; Schlapp, Tobias; Failing, Klaus; Weiss, Reinhard; Menge, Christian; Baljer, Georg

2007-01-01

273

Study of Achievement: An Outline of a Longitudinal Study from Junior Kindergarten through the Elementary Grades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 1964 report briefly describes a large-scale longitudinal study to assess the achievement of all students who entered the Toronto school system in either junior kindergarten (1960) or senior kindergarten (1961). To assess the effect of kindergarten on the students' later school achievement, and to examine the nature of school failure, it was…

Toronto Board of Education (Ontario). Research Dept.

274

Sexual hookups and adverse health outcomes: a longitudinal study of first-year college women.  

PubMed

"Hookups" are sexual encounters between partners who are not in a romantic relationship and do not expect commitment. We examined the associations between sexual hookup behavior and depression, sexual victimization (SV), and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among first-year college women. In this longitudinal study, 483 women completed 13 monthly surveys assessing oral and vaginal sex with hookup and romantic partners, depression, SV, and self-reported STIs. Participants also provided biological specimens that were tested for STIs. During the study, 50% of participants reported hookup sex and 62% reported romantic sex. Covariates included previous levels of the outcome, alcohol use, impulsivity, sensation seeking, and romantic sex. Autoregressive cross-lagged models showed that, controlling for covariates, hookup behavior during college was correlated with depression, Bs = .21, ps < .05, and SV, Bs = .19, ps < .05. In addition, precollege hookup behavior predicted SV early in college, B = .62, p < .05. Hookup sex, OR 1.32, p < .05, and romantic sex, OR 1.19, p < .05, were associated with STIs. Overall, sexual hookup behavior among college women was positively correlated with experiencing depression, SV, and STIs, but the nature of these associations remains unclear, and hooking up did not predict future depression. PMID:24350600

Fielder, Robyn L; Walsh, Jennifer L; Carey, Kate B; Carey, Michael P

2014-01-01

275

Predictors of health behaviors after the economic downturn: a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

Economic declines and their associated stress, shortage of financial resources, and changes in available time can impair health behaviors. This study tested the association between change in working hours, change in employment status, and financial strain and health behaviors measured after the 2008 recession after controlling for pre-recession levels of the health behaviors. The moderating influences of demographic factors and pre-recession levels of the health behaviors on the association between change in working hours and employment status and financial strain and the health behaviors were also tested. Participants (N = 3984) were from a longitudinal study of a U.S. Midwestern community-based sample. Regression analyses tested the unique relations between change in hours worked per week, change in employment status, and financial strain and five health behaviors over and above demographic factors and pre-recession levels of the same behavior. Models included predictor by covariate interactions. Participants who reported higher levels of financial strain engaged in lower levels of all but one of the five health behaviors, but there were no significant main effects of a change in the number of hours worked per week or change in employment status. Significant interactions revealed moderation of these relations by demographic characteristics, but findings differed across health behaviors. Financial strain negatively affected engagement in multiple healthy behaviors. Promoting the maintenance of healthy behaviors for disease prevention is an important public health goal during times of economic decline. PMID:23726210

Macy, Jonathan T; Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark C

2013-07-01

276

Predictors of health behaviors after the economic downturn: A longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

Economic declines and their associated stress, shortage of financial resources, and changes in available time can impair health behaviors. This study tested the association between change in working hours, change in employment status, and financial strain and health behaviors measured after the 2008 recession after controlling for pre-recession levels of the health behaviors. The moderating influences of demographic factors and pre-recession levels of the health behaviors on the association between change in working hours and employment status and financial strain and the health behaviors were also tested. Participants (N = 3984) were from a longitudinal study of a U.S. Midwestern community-based sample. Regression analyses tested the unique relations between change in hours worked per week, change in employment status, and financial strain and five health behaviors over and above demographic factors and pre-recession levels of the same behavior. Models included predictor by covariate interactions. Participants who reported higher levels of financial strain engaged in lower levels of all but one of the five health behaviors, but there were no significant main effects of a change in the number of hours worked per week or change in employment status. Significant interactions revealed moderation of these relations by demographic characteristics, but findings differed across health behaviors. Financial strain negatively affected engagement in multiple healthy behaviors. Promoting the maintenance of healthy behaviors for disease prevention is an important public health goal during times of economic decline. PMID:23726210

Macy, Jonathan T.; Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark C.

2013-01-01

277

77 FR 25152 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records-National Longitudinal Transitions Study-2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SYSTEM NAME: National Longitudinal Transitions Study--2012. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...date, and contact information; demographic information such as race, ethnicity...of services by, and outcomes of transition-age students. The study...

2012-04-27

278

HABITAT: A longitudinal multilevel study of physical activity change in mid-aged adults  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about the patterns and influences of physical activity change in mid-aged adults. This study describes the design, sampling, data collection, and analytical plan of HABITAT, an innovative study of (i) physical activity change over five years (2007–2011) in adults aged 40–65 years at baseline, and (ii) the relative contribution of psychological variables, social support, neighborhood perceptions, area-level factors, and sociodemographic characteristics to physical activity change. Methods/Design HABITAT is a longitudinal multi-level study. 1625 Census Collection Districts (CCDs) in Brisbane, Australia were ranked by their index of relative socioeconomic disadvantage score, categorized into deciles, and 20 CCDs from each decile were selected to provide 200 local areas for study inclusion. From each of the 200 CCDs, dwellings with individuals aged between 40–65 years (in 2007) were identified using electoral roll data, and approximately 85 people per CCD were selected to participate (N = 17,000). A comprehensive Geographic Information System (GIS) database has been compiled with area-level information on public transport networks, footpaths, topography, traffic volume, street lights, tree coverage, parks, public services, and recreational facilities Participants are mailed a questionnaire every two years (2007, 2009, 2011), with items assessing physical activity (general walking, moderate activity, vigorous activity, walking for transport, cycling for transport, recreational activities), sitting time, perceptions of neighborhood characteristics (traffic, pleasant surroundings, streets, footpaths, crime and safety, distance to recreational and business facilities), social support, social cohesion, activity-related cognitions (attitudes, efficacy, barriers, motivation), health, and sociodemographic characteristics. Analyses will use binary and multinomial logit regression models, as well as generalized linear latent growth models. Discussion HABITAT will provide unique information to improve our understanding of the determinants of physical activity, and to help identify "people" and "place" priority targets for public policy and health promotion aimed at increasing physical activity participation among mid-aged men and women. PMID:19265552

Burton, Nicola W; Haynes, Michele; Wilson, Lee-Ann M; Giles-Corti, Billie; Oldenburg, Brian F; Brown, Wendy J; Giskes, Katrina; Turrell, Gavin

2009-01-01

279

Longitudinal pulmonary functional loss in cotton textile workers: A 5-year follow-up study  

PubMed Central

Background Occupational exposure to cotton dust causes several diseases affecting the lungs, but only limited information is available on effects of long-term exposure. In this study, we aimed to evaluate longitudinal changes in selected parameters of pulmonary function in textile workers. Material/Methods This prospective cohort study began with 196 textile workers in 2006 and was completed in 2011 with 49 workers. We used standardized tests for pulmonary function on participants on the first day of the workweek in June of 2006 and 2011. Environmental samples of cotton dust were gathered with a vertical elutriator. Loss of pulmonary function was assessed based on gender and smoking status. Results The mean number of years participants worked in the textile factory was 7.61±1.83 years, and the mean age was 35.3+5.8 years. The annual FEV1 loss of all workers was 53.2 ml, giving a ratio of annual FEV1 loss to baseline FEV1 of 1.4%. Pulmonary function parameters of all participants in 2011 were significantly lower than those in 2006 (for all, p<0.05). In both surveys, pulmonary function in current smokers was lower, but this difference was not significant (p>0.05). Conclusions This study provides the first data on pulmonary functional loss in Turkish textile workers and supports the findings of other cohort studies that workers with long-term exposure to cotton dust may lose some pulmonary function. The ratio of annual FEV1 loss to baseline FEV1 appears to be a more accurate and comparable method than annual FEV1 loss for evaluating pulmonary functional loss. PMID:24346118

Kahraman, Hasan; Sucakli, Mustafa Haki; Kilic, Talat; Celik, Mustafa; Koksal, Nurhan; Ekerbicer, Hasan Cetin

2013-01-01

280

Psychological Distress, Depression, Anxiety, and Burnout among International Humanitarian Aid Workers: A Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Background International humanitarian aid workers providing care in emergencies are subjected to numerous chronic and traumatic stressors. Objectives To examine consequences of such experiences on aid workers' mental health and how the impact is influenced by moderating variables. Methodology We conducted a longitudinal study in a sample of international non-governmental organizations. Study outcomes included anxiety, depression, burnout, and life and job satisfaction. We performed bivariate regression analyses at three time points. We fitted generalized estimating equation multivariable regression models for the longitudinal analyses. Results Study participants from 19 NGOs were assessed at three time points: 212 participated at pre-deployment; 169 (80%) post-deployment; and 154 (73%) within 3–6 months after deployment. Prior to deployment, 12 (3.8%) participants reported anxiety symptoms, compared to 20 (11.8%) at post-deployment (p?=?0·0027); 22 (10.4%) reported depression symptoms, compared to 33 (19.5%) at post-deployment (p?=?0·0117) and 31 (20.1%) at follow-up (p?=?.00083). History of mental illness (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 4.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1·45–12·50) contributed to an increased risk for anxiety. The experience of extraordinary stress was a contributor to increased risk for burnout depersonalization (AOR 1.5; 95% CI 1.17–1.83). Higher levels of chronic stress exposure during deployment were contributors to an increased risk for depression (AOR 1·1; 95% CI 1·02–1.20) comparing post- versus pre-deployment, and increased risk for burnout emotional exhaustion (AOR 1.1; 95% CI 1.04–1.19). Social support was associated with lower levels of depression (AOR 0·9; 95% CI 0·84–0·95), psychological distress (AOR?=?0.9; [CI] 0.85–0.97), burnout lack of personal accomplishment (AOR 0·95; 95% CI 0·91–0·98), and greater life satisfaction (p?=?0.0213). Conclusions When recruiting and preparing aid workers for deployment, organizations should consider history of mental illness and take steps to decrease chronic stressors, and strengthen social support networks. PMID:22984592

Lopes Cardozo, Barbara; Gotway Crawford, Carol; Eriksson, Cynthia; Zhu, Julia; Sabin, Miriam; Ager, Alastair; Foy, David; Snider, Leslie; Scholte, Willem; Kaiser, Reinhard; Olff, Miranda; Rijnen, Bas; Simon, Winnifred

2012-01-01

281

Recruiting and Retaining Mobile Young Injection Drug Users in a Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Longitudinal studies that research homeless persons or transient drug users face particular challenges in retaining subjects. Between 2005 and 2006, 101 mobile young injection drug users were recruited in Los Angeles into a 2-year longitudinal study. Several features of ethnographic methodology, including fieldwork and qualitative interviews, and modifications to the original design, such as toll-free calls routed directly to ethnographer cell phones and wiring incentive payments, resulted in retention of 78% of subjects for the first follow-up interview. Longitudinal studies that are flexible and based upon qualitative methodologies are more likely to retain mobile subjects while also uncovering emergent research findings. PMID:20222779

Lankenau, Stephen E.; Sanders, Bill; Hathazi, Dodi; Jackson Bloom, Jennifer

2011-01-01

282

Macau, World Capital for Gambling: A Longitudinal Study of a Youth Program Designed to Instill Positive Values  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the effectiveness of a positive youth development program for Chinese Secondary 3 students in two schools, who had been followed up since their entry to Secondary 1. A mixed research method was carried out using a pre- and post-test pre-experimental design and a focus group for the participants. The subjective outcome evaluations included participants’ perceptions of the program, program instructors, benefits of the program and overall satisfaction, and were positive. The longitudinal data from the objective outcome evaluation showed some notable improvements, and the overall effect of the program was also found to be positive for newcomers in the junior secondary years. The focus group interviews revealed mostly positive feedback in terms of the students’ general impressions of the program, with the majority of participants perceiving benefits to themselves from the program. The findings offer positive evidence of the effectiveness of the program. PMID:24350227

Luk, Andrew L.; Chan, W. U.; Hu, Sydney X. X.

2013-01-01

283

High school athletic participation, sexual behavior and adolescent pregnancy: a regional study.  

PubMed

A longitudinal study using a random sample of adolescents, aged 13-16 years, was conducted in western New York to determine if athletic participation was associated with a reduced rate of sexual behavior and pregnancy. 699 families were interviewed and surveyed, and bivariate correlations were used to examine the relationships among athletic participation, demographic and control variables, and measures of sexual behavior and pregnancy rates. Findings showed that high rates of pregnancy involvement for both sexes were associated with low income and high sexual activity. Higher levels of family cohesion reduced rates of sexual activity for both sexes. Girls' athletic participation was directly proportional to reduced frequency of sexual behavior and, indirectly, to pregnancy risk. However, lower rates of sexual behavior and pregnancy involvement among adolescent male athletes were not discovered. Female adolescents who participated in sports were less likely than their nonathletic peers to engage in sexual activity and/or report a pregnancy. Among male adolescents, athletic participation was unrelated to sexual behavior and pregnancy involvement. PMID:10475497

Sabo, D F; Miller, K E; Farrell, M P; Melnick, M J; Barnes, G M

1999-09-01

284

Undertaking the role of patient advocate: a longitudinal study of nursing students.  

PubMed

Patient advocacy has been claimed as a new role for professional nurses and many codes of ethics for nurses state that they act as patient advocates. Nursing education is faced with the challenge of preparing nurses for this role. In this article we describe the results of a study that considered the tendencies of a cohort of nursing students at the Kocaeli University School of Nursing to act as advocates and to respect patients' rights, and how their capacities to do so changed (or not) as a result of their nursing education. This longitudinal study used a questionnaire consisting of 10 statements relating to patient care. It was performed both at the start (1998) and at the end (2002) of the nursing training. At the beginning of their course 77 students participated; in the study. After four years, only 55 students participated, the reason for this drop in number being unknown. The questions asked nurses if patients should have: the right to receive health care; the right to participate in the decision-making process about their treatment; the right always to be told the truth; and the right to have access to their own medical records. They were also asked: if quality of life should be a criterion for discontinuing treatment; if patients have the right to die and the right to refuse treatment; if patients should be assisted to die or helped to undergo active euthanasia; and if severely disabled newborn babies should be allowed to die. The student nurses demonstrated considerable insight into contemporary nursing issues and were ready to act as patient advocates. Professional responsibility demands that good nurses advocate strongly for patients' choices. PMID:14529113

Altun, Insaf; Ersoy, Nermin

2003-09-01

285

Cognitive Changes and Quality of Life in Neurocysticercosis: A Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Background Few studies have focused on the cognitive morbidity of neurocysticercosis (NCC), one of the most common parasitic infections of the central nervous system. We longitudinally assessed the cognitive status and quality of life (QoL) of patients with incident symptomatic NCC cases and matched controls. Methodology/Principal Findings The setting of the study was the Sabogal Hospital and Cysticercosis Unit, Department of Transmissible Diseases, National Institute of Neurological Sciences, Lima, Peru. The design was a longitudinal study of new onset NCC cases and controls. Participants included a total of 14 patients with recently diagnosed NCC along with 14 healthy neighborhood controls and 7 recently diagnosed epilepsy controls. A standardized neuropsychological battery was performed at baseline and at 6 months on NCC cases and controls. A brain MRI was performed in patients with NCC at baseline and 6 months. Neuropsychological results were compared between NCC cases and controls at both time points. At baseline, patients with NCC had lower scores on attention tasks (p<0.04) compared with epilepsy controls but no significant differences compared to healthy controls. Six months after receiving anti-parasitic treatment, the NCC group significantly improved on tasks involving psychomotor speed (p<0.02). QoL at baseline suggested impaired mental function and social function in both the NCC and epilepsy group compared with healthy controls. QoL gains in social function (p?=?0.006) were noted at 6 months in patients with NCC. Conclusions/Significance Newly diagnosed patients with NCC in this sample had mild cognitive deficits and more marked decreases in quality of life at baseline compared with controls. Improvements were found in both cognitive status and quality of life in patients with NCC after treatment. PMID:22303492

Wallin, Mitchell T.; Pretell, E. Javier; Bustos, Javier A.; Caballero, Marianella; Alfaro, Mercedes; Kane, Robert; Wilken, Jeffrey; Sullivan, Cynthia; Fratto, Timothy; Garcia, Hector H.

2012-01-01

286

Survey non-response in an internet-mediated, longitudinal autism research study  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate non-response rates to follow-up online surveys using a prospective cohort of parents raising at least one child with an autism spectrum disorder. A secondary objective was to investigate predictors of non-response over time. Materials and Methods Data were collected from a US-based online research database, the Interactive Autism Network (IAN). A total of 19?497 youths, aged 1.9–19?years (mean 9?years, SD 3.94), were included in the present study. Response to three follow-up surveys, solicited from parents after baseline enrollment, served as the outcome measures. Multivariate binary logistic regression models were then used to examine predictors of non-response. Results 31?216 survey instances were examined, of which 8772 or 28.1% were partly or completely responded to. Results from the multivariate model found non-response of baseline surveys (OR 28.0), years since enrollment in the online protocol (OR 2.06), and numerous sociodemographic characteristics were associated with non-response to follow-up surveys (all p<0.05). Discussion Consistent with the current literature, response rates to online surveys were somewhat low. While many demographic characteristics were associated with non-response, time since registration and participation at baseline played the greatest role in predicting follow-up survey non-response. Conclusion An important hazard to the generalizability of findings from research is non-response bias; however, little is known about this problem in longitudinal internet-mediated research (IMR). This study sheds new light on important predictors of longitudinal response rates that should be considered before launching a prospective IMR study. PMID:22539079

Kalb, Luther G; Cohen, Cheryl; Lehmann, Harold

2012-01-01

287

Voting and Community Volunteer Participation of 1988 Eighth Grade Social Studies Students 12 Years Later  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three voting behaviors and three types of volunteer participation were analyzed using longitudinal data from NELS:88/2000, a national sample of over 12,000 eighth graders in 1988 who were young adults in 2000. From 1994 to 2000 this cohort increased about 10% in both the three voting behaviors and the three volunteer participations. Wide…

Chapin, June R.

2005-01-01

288

Longitudinal Associations Between Types of Childhood Trauma and Suicidal Behavior Among Substance Users: A Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined the longitudinal associations between different types and severities of childhood trauma and suicide attempts among illicit drug users. Methods. Data came from 2 prospective cohort studies of illicit drug users in Vancouver, Canada, in 2005 to 2010. We used recurrent event proportional means models to estimate adjusted and weighted associations between types and severities of childhood maltreatment and suicide attempts. Results. Of 1634 participants, 411 (25.2%) reported a history of suicidal behavior at baseline. Over 5 years, 80 (4.9%) participants reported 97 suicide attempts, a rate of 2.6 per 100 person-years. Severe to extreme levels of sexual abuse (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR]?=?2.5; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?1.4, 4.4), physical abuse (AHR?=?2.0; 95% CI?=?1.1, 3.8), and emotional abuse (AHR?=?3.5; 95% CI?=?1.4, 8.7) predicted suicide attempts. Severe forms of physical and emotional neglect were not significantly associated with an increased risk of suicidal behavior. Conclusions. Severe sexual, physical, and emotional childhood abuse confer substantial risk of repeated suicidal behavior in adulthood. Illicit drug users require intensive secondary suicide prevention efforts, particularly among those with a history of childhood trauma. PMID:23865651

Galea, Sandro; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

2013-01-01

289

Integrating prospective longitudinal data: modeling personality and health in the Terman Life Cycle and Hawaii Longitudinal Studies.  

PubMed

The present study used a collaborative framework to integrate 2 long-term prospective studies: the Terman Life Cycle Study and the Hawaii Personality and Health Longitudinal Study. Within a 5-factor personality-trait framework, teacher assessments of child personality were rationally and empirically aligned to establish similar factor structures across samples. Comparable items related to adult self-rated health, education, and alcohol use were harmonized, and data were pooled on harmonized items. A structural model was estimated as a multigroup analysis. Harmonized child personality factors were then used to examine markers of physiological dysfunction in the Hawaii sample and mortality risk in the Terman sample. Harmonized conscientiousness predicted less physiological dysfunction in the Hawaii sample and lower mortality risk in the Terman sample. These results illustrate how collaborative, integrative work with multiple samples offers the exciting possibility that samples from different cohorts and ages can be linked together to directly test life span theories of personality and health. PMID:23231689

Kern, Margaret L; Hampson, Sarah E; Goldberg, Lewis R; Friedman, Howard S

2014-05-01

290

Broadening the research on self-esteem: A new scale for longitudinal studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

When interest in self-esteem exploded in the 1980s, many longitudinal studies were already under way and thus did not administer self-esteem measures. Consequently, not much is known about the developmental course of self-esteem during adulthood. In order to facilitate life-span research using existing longitudinal studies, a new self-esteem scale (CPI-SE) was derived from the California Psychological Inventory. Study 1 documented

Virginia S. Y. Kwan; Oliver P. John; Seinenu M. Thein

2007-01-01

291

Participants' recommendations for the ideal grief group: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

Based on the results from the qualitative part of the study "Grief Groups in Norway" conducted in 2009-2011, this article focuses on grief group participants' recommendations for good or ideal grief groups. Participants have insightful observations about grief groups and how they can be improved, and taking their point of view seriously is one important way of ensuring that users of such group get an optimal experience from joining such groups. Using their experiences to adjust the structure and function of the groups, one can allow for practical solutions for organizations that have difficulties starting up grief support groups, for example, in areas where the population density is low. A major finding in this study was that grief group participants stressed the importance of thorough information before and at the start of grief groups. This concerned information about the aim, structure, organization, and possible effects and limitations of group participation. PMID:24416876

Dyregrov, Kari; Dyregrov, Atle; Johnsen, Iren

2013-01-01

292

Criminality and suicide: a longitudinal Swedish cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study aimed to investigate whether violent and non-violent offending were related to elevated risk of suicide. We also investigated whether the risk was higher among those with repeated offences and how experiences of substance misuse and suicide attempt modified the relationship. Design A nationwide prospective cohort study. Setting A register study of 48 834 conscripted men in 1969/1970 in Sweden followed up during a 35-year period in official registers. Participants A birth cohort of 48 834 men who were mandatory conscripted for military service in 1969/70 at the age of 18–20?years. Possible confounders were retrieved from psychological assessments at conscription and the cohort was linked to mortality and hospitalisation and crime records from 1970 onwards. Estimates of suicide risks were calculated as HR with 95% CIs using Cox proportional regression analyses with adjustment for potential confounding by family, psychological and behavioural factors including substance use and psychiatric disorders. Results Of the total cohort, 2671 (5.5%) persons died during the follow-up period. Of these, 615 (23%) persons died due to suicide. Non-violent criminality was evident for 29% and violent criminality for 4.7% of all the participants. In the crude model, the violent offenders had nearly five times higher risk (HR=4.69, 3.56 to 6.19) to die from suicide and non-violent criminals had about two times higher risk (HR=2.08, 1.72 to 2.52). In the fully adjusted model, the HRs were still significant for suicide in the non-violent group. Conclusions Experiences of violent or non-violent criminality were associated with increased risk of suicide. Comorbidity with alcohol and substance use and psychiatric disorders modified the risk, but the suicide risk remained significantly elevated for non-violent criminals. It is crucial to identify offenders and especially repeated offenders who also suffer from alcohol or substance misuse and psychiatric illness in clinical settings in order to prevent suicide. PMID:24491380

Stenbacka, M; Romelsjo, A; Jokinen, J

2014-01-01

293

RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION ISSUES FOR A LARGE LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH  

EPA Science Inventory

Recruitment and Retention Issues for a Large Longitudinal Study of Children's Environmental Health *D Lobdell, S Gilboa, P Mendola (US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, 27711) An understanding of the most effective recruitment techniques and rete...

294

Hostility and Depression: Longitudinal Study of Data from the National Survey of Families and Households  

E-print Network

Hostility is thought by some researchers to be a correlate of depressive symptoms and by others to be a risk factor for depression. Previous studies of longitudinal trends in depression and hostility suggest that hostility ...

Gaddy, Melinda Ann

2013-08-31

295

DEMONSTRATION OF LOW COST, LOW BURDEN EXPOSURE MONITORING STRATEGIES FOR USE IN LONGITUDINAL COHORT STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

A large longitudinal cohort study designed to evaluate the association between children's exposures to environmental agents and health outcomes presents many challenges for exposure monitoring. Exposure of the child must be measured for multiple chemicals through multiple path...

296

The role of longitudinal cohort studies in epigenetic epidemiology: challenges and opportunities  

PubMed Central

Longitudinal cohort studies are ideal for investigating how epigenetic patterns change over time and relate to changing exposure patterns and the development of disease. We highlight the challenges and opportunities in this approach. PMID:22747597

2012-01-01

297

A longitudinal study of baccalaureate nursing students' critical thinking dispositions.  

PubMed

A longitudinal descriptive design was used to examine nursing students' dispositions toward critical thinking as they progressed from the Sophomore II to Senior II semester in a baccalaureate nursing program in the midwestern United States. The California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTDI) was distributed during week 10 in the Sophomore II, Junior I, Junior II, Senior I, and Senior II semesters. Significantly higher CCTDI scores were achieved in the Junior I and Junior II semesters, but no significant differences were found when comparing the Sophomore II and Senior II semesters. No relationship was found between passing the NCLEX-RN, standardized test scores, and CCTDI scores. PMID:15719715

Stewart, Stephanie; Dempsey, Leona F

2005-02-01

298

Rape Victimization and High Risk Sexual Behaviors: Longitudinal Study of African-American Adolescent Females  

PubMed Central

Objectives: African-American women are affected by disproportionately high rates of violence and sexually transmitted infections (STI)/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. It is imperative to address the intersection of these two urgent public health issues, particularly as these affect African-American adolescent girls. This study assessed the prevalence of rape victimization (RV) among a sample of African-American adolescent females and examined the extent to which participants with a history of RV engage in STI/HIV associated risk behaviors over a 12-month time period. Methods: Three hundred sixty-seven African-American adolescent females ages 15–21, seeking sexual health services at three local teenager-oriented community health agencies in an urban area of the Southeastern United States, participated in this study. Participants were asked to complete an audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI) at baseline, 6- and 12-month follow-up. We assessed sociodemographics, history of RV and sexual practices. At baseline, participants indicating they had experienced forced sex were classified as having a history of RV. Results: Twenty-five percent of participants reported a history of RV at baseline. At 6- and 12-months, victims of RV had significantly lower proportions of condom-protected sex (p=.008), higher frequency of sex while intoxicated (p=.005), more inconsistent condom use (p=.008), less condom use at last sex (p=.017), and more sex partners (p=.0001) than non-RV victims. Over the 12-month follow-up period, of those who did not report RV at baseline, 9.5% reported that they too had experienced RV at some point during the 12-month time frame. Conclusion: African-American adolescent females who experience RV are engaging in more risky sexual behaviors over time than non-RV girls, thereby placing themselves at higher risk for contracting STIs. In light of the results from this unique longitudinal study, we discuss considerations for policies and guidelines targeting healthcare, law enforcement and educational and community settings. The complexities of RV screening in healthcare settings are examined as is the need for tighter collaboration between healthcare providers and law enforcement. Finally, we consider the role of prevention and intervention programs in increasing awareness about RV as well as serving as an additional safe environment for screening and referral. PMID:21731791

Lang, Delia L.; Sales, Jessica M.; Salazar, Laura F.; Hardin, James W.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Rose, Eve

2011-01-01

299

Longitudinal Study of Emerging Mental Health Concerns in Youth Perinatally Infected With HIV and Peer Comparisons  

PubMed Central

Objective Cross-sectional research indicates high rates of mental health concerns among youth with perinatal HIV infection (PHIV), but few studies have examined emerging psychiatric symptoms over time. Methods Youth with PHIV and peer comparisons who were HIV-exposed but uninfected or living in house-holds with HIV-infected family members (HIV-affected) and primary caregivers participated in a prospective, multisite, longitudinal cohort study. Groups were compared for differences in the incidence of emerging psychiatric symptoms during 2 years of follow-up and for differences in psychotropic drug therapy. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association of emerging symptoms with HIV status and psychosocial risk factors. Results Of 573 youth with study entry assessments, 92% attended at least 1 annual follow-up visit (PHIV: 296; comparisons: 229). A substantial percentage of youth who did not meet symptom criteria for a psychiatric disorder at study entry did so during follow-up (PHIV = 36%; comparisons = 42%). In addition, those who met criteria at study entry often met criteria during follow-up (PHIV = 41%; comparisons = 43%). Asymptomatic youth with PHIV were significantly more likely to receive psychotropic medication during follow-up than comparisons. Youth with greater HIV disease severity (entry CD4% <25% vs 25% or more) had higher probability of depression symptoms (19% vs 8%, respectively). Conclusions Many youth in families affected by HIV are at risk for development of psychiatric symptoms. PMID:22772819

Gadow, Kenneth D.; Angelidou, Konstantia; Chernoff, Miriam; Williams, Paige L.; Heston, Jerry; Hodge, Janice; Nachman, Sharon

2012-01-01

300

Interaction of longitudinal wave with a glass microballoon in syntactic foams - A numerical study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Syntactic foams are used in various weight sensitive applications due to their significant properties such as low density, high specific compressive strength [1-2], low hygrothermal absorption [3], etc. Ultrasonic testing is an efficient nondestructive technique to characterize these materials[4]. Understanding the interaction of glass microballoon present in syntactic foam with the longitudinal ultrasonic wave is important for efficient characterization of these materials. In this study, effort has been made to model the interaction of microballoon with the longitudinal wave using FEM. It has been observed that the presence of microballoon in the direction of longitudinal wave will add additional reflections to A-scan.

Mylavarapu, Phani; Boddapati, Srivathsa; Kuchipudi, Srinivas

2013-06-01

301

Inappropriate eating behavior: a longitudinal study with female adolescents  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the inappropriate eating behaviors (IEB) of female adolescents over a one-year period. Methods: 290 adolescents aged between 11 and 14 years old participated in the three research stages (T1: first four months, T2: second four months and T3: third four months). The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was applied to assess the IEB. Weight and height were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI) in the three study periods. Analysis of variance for repeated measures was used to analyze the data, adjusted for the scores of the Body Shape Questionnaire and the Brazil Economic Classification Criteria. Results: Girls at T1 showed a higher frequency of IEB compared to T2 (p=0.001) and T3 (p=0.001). The findings also indicated higher values for BMI in T3 in relation to T1 (p=0.04). The other comparisons did not show statistically significant differences. Conclusions: IEB scores of female adolescents declined over one year. PMID:24676195

Fortes, Leonardo de Sousa; Almeida, Sebastiao de Sousa; Cipriani, Flavia Marcele; Ferreira, Maria Elisa C.

2014-01-01

302

A longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging study assessing white matter fiber tracts after sports-related concussion.  

PubMed

Abstract The extent of structural injury in sports-related concussion (SRC) is central to the course of recovery, long-term effects, and the decision to return to play. In the present longitudinal study, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to assess white matter (WM) fiber tract integrity within 2 days, 2 weeks, and 2 months of concussive injury. Participants were right-handed male varsity contact-sport athletes (20.2±1.0 years of age) with a medically diagnosed SRC (no loss of consciousness). They were compared to right-handed male varsity non-contact-sport athletes serving as controls (19.9±1.7 years). We found significantly increased radial diffusivity (RD) in concussed athletes (n=12; paired t-test, tract-based spatial statistics; p<0.025) at 2 days, when compared to the 2-week postinjury time point. The increase was found in a cluster of right hemisphere voxels, spanning the posterior limb of the internal capsule (IC), the retrolenticular part of the IC, the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (sagittal stratum), and the anterior thalamic radiation. Post-hoc, univariate, between-group (controls vs. concussed), mixed-effects analysis of the cluster showed significantly higher RD at 2 days (p=0.002), as compared to the controls, with a trend in the same direction at 2 months (p=0.11). Results for fractional anisotropy (FA) in the same cluster showed a similar, but inverted, pattern; FA was decreased at 2 days and at 2 months postinjury, when compared to healthy controls. At 2 weeks postinjury, no statistical differences between concussed and control athletes were found with regard to either RD or FA. These results support the hypothesis of increased RD and reduced FA within 72?h postinjury, followed by recovery that may extend beyond 2 weeks. RD appears to be a sensitive measure of concussive injury. PMID:24786666

Murugavel, Murali; Cubon, Valerie; Putukian, Margot; Echemendia, Ruben; Cabrera, Javier; Osherson, Daniel; Dettwiler, Annegret

2014-11-15

303

Longitudinal Study of the Transition From Healthy Aging to Alzheimer Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Detection of the earliest cognitive changes signifying Alzheimer disease is difficult. Objective To model the cognitive decline in preclinical Alzheimer disease. Design Longitudinal archival study comparing individuals who became demented during follow-up and people who remained nondemented on each of 4 cognitive factors: global, verbal memory, visuospatial, and working memory. Setting Alzheimer Disease Research Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri. Participants One hundred thirty-four individuals who became demented during follow-up and 310 who remained nondemented. Main Outcome Measures Inflection point in longitudinal cognitive performance. Results The best-fitting model for each of the 4 factors in the stable group was linear, with a very slight downward trend on all but the Visuospatial factor. In contrast, a piecewise model with accelerated slope after a sharp inflection point provided the best fit for the group that progressed. The optimal inflection point for all 4 factors was prior to diagnosis of dementia: Global, 2 years; Verbal and Working Memory, 1 year; and Visuospatial, 3 years. These results were also obtained when data were limited to the subset (n=44) with autopsy-confirmed Alzheimer disease. Conclusions There is a sharp inflection point followed by accelerating decline in multiple domains of cognition, not just memory, in the preclinical period in Alzheimer disease when there is insufficient cognitive decline to warrant clinical diagnosis using conventional criteria. Early change was seen in tests of visuospatial ability, most of which were speeded. Research into early detection of cognitive disorders using only episodic memory tasks may not be sensitive to all of the early manifestations of disease. PMID:19822781

Johnson, David K.; Storandt, Martha; Morris, John C.; Galvin, James E.

2009-01-01

304

Strategies for Improving Participation in Diabetes Education. A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Objective Diabetes mellitus is highly prevalent and can lead to serious complications and mortality. Patient education can help to avoid negative outcomes, but up to half of the patients do not participate. The aim of this study was to analyze patients' attitudes towards diabetes education in order to identify barriers to participation and develop strategies for better patient education. Methods We conducted a qualitative study. Seven GP practices were purposively selected based on socio-demographic data of city districts in Hamburg, Germany. Study participants were selected by their GPs in order to increase participation. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 14 patients. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. The sample size was determined by data saturation. Data were analysed by qualitative content analysis. Categories were determined deductively and inductively. Results The interviews yielded four types of barriers: 1) Statements and behaviour of the attending physician influence the patients' decisions about diabetes education. 2) Both, a good state of health related to diabetes and physical/psychosocial comorbidity can be reasons for non-participation. 3) Manifold motivational factors were discussed. They ranged from giving low priority to diabetes to avoidance of implications of diabetes education as being confronted with illness narratives of others. 4) Barriers also include aspects of the patients' knowledge and activity. Conclusions First, physicians should encourage patients to participate in diabetes education and argue that they can profit even if actual treatment and examination results are promising. Second, patients with other priorities, psychic comorbidity or functional limitations might profit more from continuous individualized education adapted to their specific situation instead of group education. Third, it might be justified that patients do not participate in diabetes education if they have slightly increased blood sugar values only and no risk for harmful consequences or if they already have sufficient knowledge on diabetes. PMID:24733428

Schafer, Ingmar; Pawels, Marc; Kuver, Claudia; Pohontsch, Nadine Janis; Scherer, Martin; van den Bussche, Hendrik; Kaduszkiewicz, Hanna

2014-01-01

305

Clinical trial participants' experiences of completing questionnaires: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To improve clinical study developments for elderly populations, we aim to understand how they transfer their experiences into validated, standardised self-completed study measurement instruments. We analysed how women (mean 78±8?years of age) participating in a randomised controlled trial (RCT) cognised study instruments used to evaluate outcomes of the intervention. Setting The interview study was nested in an RCT on chronic neck pain using common measurement instruments situated in an elderly community in Berlin, Germany, which comprised of units for independent and assisted-living options. Participants The sample (n=20 women) was selected from the RCT sample (n=117, 95% women, mean age 76 (SD±8)?years). Interview participants were selected using a purposive sampling list based on the RCT outcomes. Outcomes We asked participants about their experiences completing the RCT questionnaires. Interviews were analysed thematically, then compared with the questionnaires. Results Interviewees had difficulties in translating complex experiences into a single value on a scale and understanding the relationship of the questionnaires to study aims. Interviewees considered important for the trial that their actual experiences were understood by trial organisers. This information was not transferrable by means of the questionnaires. To rectify these difficulties, interviewees used strategies such as adding notes, adding response categories or skipping an item. Conclusions Elderly interview participants understood the importance of completing questionnaires for trial success. This led to strategies of completing the questionnaires that resulted in ‘missing’ or ambiguous data. To improve data collection in elderly populations, educational materials addressing the differential logics should be developed and tested. Pilot testing validated instruments using cognitive interviews may be particularly important in such populations. Finally, when the target of an intervention is a subjective experience, it seems important to create a method by which participants can convey their personal experiences. These could be nested qualitative studies. Trial registration number ISRCTN77108101807. PMID:24662446

Holmberg, Christine; Karner, Julia J; Rappenecker, Julia; Witt, Claudia M

2014-01-01

306

Psychosocial Predictors of Nicotine Dependence in African American and Puerto Rican Adults: A Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

This study examined the psychosocial predictors of nicotine dependence in African Americans and Puerto Ricans. A longitudinal, prospective study design was employed. Data on five psychosocial domains was obtained from a four-wave study of tobacco use and smoking behavior; data was analyzed using logistic regression. Participants (N=475) included adult African Americans and Puerto Ricans initially recruited from urban public schools in New York City and interviewed when they were mean age 14 years, and then again when they were mean ages 19, 24, and 26. Structured interviews were administered at four points in time over a period of 12 years. Nicotine dependence was measured using a DSM-IV adapted version of the Kessler UM-CIDI nicotine dependence measure. Logistic regression analyses showed that factors in each of five psychosocial domains (personality, drug use behavior, family, peer, and environment) significantly predicted nicotine dependence. The pattern of results was similar for both African American and Puerto Rican samples. Protective factors that mitigated against nicotine dependence included achievement, ego-integration, and a positive school climate. The findings indicate that a variety of risk factors contribute to the diagnosis of nicotine dependence. When examining the causes of nicotine dependence, it is important to investigate an array of biopsychosocial and environmental factors. PMID:18584459

Brook, Judith S.; Brook, David W.; Zhang, Chenshu

2013-01-01

307

Association of Endodontic Involvement with Tooth Loss in the Veterans Affairs Dental Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction The effect of endodontic involvement on tooth loss has not been quantified, so the present study aimed to assess this relationship after controlling for other relevant risk factors for tooth loss. Methods We analyzed data from 791 participants (18,798 teeth) in the Veterans Affairs Dental Longitudinal Study. Potential tooth- and person-level covariates were fitted into marginal proportional hazards models, including both apical radiolucencies (AR) and root canal therapy (RCT) status as time-dependent variables. Survival curves were plotted for teeth according to their AR and RCT status. Results Both current AR and RCT status were associated with increased risk of tooth loss (p< 0.01), after controlling for baseline levels of periodontal disease, caries, tooth type, number of proximal contacts, number of teeth, age, education, and smoking history. Root canal filled (RCF) teeth seemed to have better survival than non-RCF teeth among teeth with AR, but worse survival than non-RCF teeth among teeth without AR. Conclusions Endodontic involvement was associated with tooth loss, controlling for other potential risk factors. Additional prospective studies are needed to provide better evidence as to the impact of endodontic involvement on tooth loss. PMID:21092810

Zhong, Yan; Garcia, Raul; Kaye, Elizabeth K; Cai, Jianwen; Kaufman, Jay S; Trope, Martin; Wilcosky, Tim; Caplan, Daniel J

2010-01-01

308

A longitudinal study of children’s social behaviors and their causal relationship to reading growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims at investigating the causal effects of social behaviors on subsequent reading growth in elementary school,\\u000a using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study—Kindergarten (ECLS-K) data. The sample was 8,869 subjects who provided longitudinal measures of reading IRT scores from kindergarten (1998–1999)\\u000a to fifth grades (2003–2004) in the United States. To examine the causal relationship, propensity score methods were used

Hyo Jin Lim; Junyeop Kim

2011-01-01

309

Palmer Quarterly - School Engagement and Language Achievement: A Longitudinal Study of Gender Differences across Secondary School  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated (1) gender differences in the longitudinal development of language achievement and school engagement (i.e., effort for language, attitude toward learning tasks, interest in learning tasks, and relationship with teachers) across secondary school (Grades 7–12, ages 12–18) and (2) gender differences in the association between these developmental processes. Data were drawn from the Longitudinal Project in Secondary

Eva Van de gaer

2009-01-01

310

School Engagement and Language Achievement: A Longitudinal Study of Gender Differences across Secondary School  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated (1) gender differences in the longitudinal development of language achievement and school engagement (i.e., effort for language, attitude toward learning tasks, interest in learning tasks, and relationship with teachers) across secondary school (Grades 7–12, ages 12–18) and (2) gender differences in the association between these developmental processes. Data were drawn from the Longitudinal Project in Secondary

Eva Van de gaer; Heidi Pustjens; Jan Van Damme; Agnes De Munter

2009-01-01

311

Parenting practices and school dropout: a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

Adolescents' perceptions of parenting style and parental involvement in their education were examined longitudinally and related to school dropout among Icelandic youth (N = 427). Results indicated that adolescents who, at age 14, characterized their parents as authoritative (showing acceptance and supervision) were more likely to have completed upper secondary school by age 22 than adolescents from non-authoritative families, controlling for adolescents' gender, socioeconomic status (SES), temperament, and parental involvement. Parenting style seems to more strongly predict school dropout than parental involvement. Further, parenting style may moderate the relationship between parental involvement and dropout, but not in all groups; only in authoritative families does parental involvement decrease the likelihood of school dropout. Furthermore, even after controlling for previous academic achievement, adolescents from authoritative families were less likely to drop out than adolescents from authoritarian and neglectful families. These findings emphasize the importance of encouraging quality parent-child relationships in order to reduce the likelihood of school dropout. PMID:20432598

Blondal, Kristjana S; Adalbjarnardottir, Sigrun

2009-01-01

312

MELANOCYTIC NEVUS DEVELOPMENT IN COLORADO CHILDREN BORN IN 1998: A LONGITUDINAL STUDY  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the development of nevi from age of 3 to 8 in a birth cohort of children in Colorado, United States. Design Longitudinal observational study. Setting Large managed care organization, university, private primary care practices. Participants Annual convenience samples of children born in 1998, n= 137 to 870 (participation rates 19% to 76%). Recruitment through managed care organization, private primary care practices and community settings. Main Outcome Measures Total whole body nevus counts, nevus counts by size (< 2mm, 2 to <5 mm, ? 5mm), nevus counts for chronically and intermittently exposed body sites. Results Non-Hispanic white children had significantly more nevi than other racial/ethnic groups, and developed an average of 4-6 new nevi per year from age 3 to 8. Non-Hispanic white males had significantly more nevi than females beginning at age 6 (median 21 [inter-quartile range 12 – 30] vs. 17 [inter-quartile range 9 – 26], p=.002). This difference was due to nevi < 2mm and nevi in chronically exposed body sites. Development of new nevi leveled off in chronically exposed body sites at age 7, at a higher level for males than females. Conclusions Children in Colorado developed more small nevi and fewer larger nevi compared to children in other regions of the world, highlighting the importance of studying nevus development in various locations where sun exposure patterns and behavioral norms vary. The gender difference in nevus development could be due to variation in sun exposure and/or a biological predisposition of males to develop more nevi. Studies of nevus development can aid in the understanding of the complicated relationship between nevus development and malignant melanoma. PMID:19221259

Crane, Lori A.; Mokrohisky, Stefan T.; Dellavalle, Robert P.; Asdigian, Nancy; Aalborg, Jenny; Byers, Tim E.; Zeng, Chan; Baron, Anna E.; Burch, Joanna M.; Morelli, Joseph G.

2010-01-01

313

Assessing Instructional Leadership: A Longitudinal Study of New Principals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Self Assessment of Leadership of Teaching and Learning (SALTAL) inventory, in conditions of repeated administration. Design/methodology/approach: In 2006 and 2007, nearly all of New Zealand's newly-appointed school principals participated in an 18 month induction…

Brown, Gavin T. L.; Chai, Constance

2012-01-01

314

Investigating the Educational Benefits of Cooperative Education: A Longitudinal Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students from the universities of British Columbia and Victoria were surveyed over a two-year period to determine the relationship between participation in a cooperative education program and academic progress (309 in co-op and 690 not in co-op). Results show better performance by cooperative education students than by those not in cooperative…

Van Gyn, Geraldine; And Others

1997-01-01

315

Family cohesion and romantic and sexual initiation: a three wave longitudinal study.  

PubMed

Although the relation between family relationships and the timing of sexual debut has been the focus of many studies, research on mediating factors is scarce. This study examines whether low levels of family cohesion result in an earlier onset of romantic and sexual experiences, and whether the link between family cohesion and an early sexual debut is mediated by early romantic initiation. A longitudinal sample of 314 adolescent girls and 222 boys, aged 12-17 at Wave 1, completed questionnaires at three measurement points with three year intervals. The results showed that sexual debut followed romantic initiation for 77% of the participants. For early adolescent females (aged 12-14), high levels of family cohesion resulted in a later sexual debut and this association was fully mediated by a delay of romantic initiation. Among boys and older girls, timing of romantic initiation did not mediate the link between family cohesion and timing of sexual initiation. Early adolescent girls who have negative relationships with their parents turn to romantic relationships for intimacy and support, which subsequently provide the opportunity for an early sexual debut. Low levels of family cohesion thus primarily precipitate romantic initiation and sexual initiation appears to be secondary to this process among girls in this age group. PMID:21853354

de Graaf, Hanneke; van de Schoot, Rens; Woertman, Liesbeth; Hawk, Skyler T; Meeus, Wim

2012-05-01

316

Longitudinal study of body weight changes in children: who is gaining and who is losing weight.  

PubMed

Cross-sectional studies have reported significant temporal increases in prevalence of childhood obesity in both genders and various racial groups, but recently the rise has subsided. Childhood obesity prevention trials suggest that, on average, overweight/obese children lose body weight and nonoverweight children gain weight. This investigation tested the hypothesis that overweight children lose body weight/fat and nonoverweight children gain body weight/fat using a longitudinal research design that did not include an obesity prevention program. The participants were 451 children in 4th to 6th grades at baseline. Height, weight, and body fat were measured at month 0 and month 28. Each child's BMI percentile score was calculated specific for their age, gender and height. Higher BMI percentile scores and percent body fat at baseline were associated with larger decreases in BMI and percent body fat after 28 months. The BMI percentile mean for African-American girls increased whereas BMI percentile means for white boys and girls and African-American boys were stable over the 28-month study period. Estimates of obesity and overweight prevalence were stable because incidence and remission were similar. These findings support the hypothesis that overweight children tend to lose body weight and nonoverweight children tend to gain body weight. PMID:20885393

Williamson, Donald A; Han, Hongmei; Johnson, William D; Stewart, Tiffany M; Harsha, David W

2011-03-01

317

Risk eating behaviors in male and female students: a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this research was to analyze changes in body mass index and risk eating behaviors in a group of students through a longitudinal study and determine the differences in risk eating behaviors between men and women with different rates of body mass. 5780 students participated, 37.5% were male and 62.5% female, mean age for each measurement times were: 15.1 years first measurement, 18.0 yearssecond measurement, 22.1 years last measurement. For purposes of this study indicators were used from automated medical examination, which serves to collect information on the physical and mental health, family and environment of students at a public university in Mexico. The measurements were made for weight and height of each student to then calculate the body mass index based on the proposal of the World Health Organization. Risk eating behaviors were evaluated with seven indicators that measure the presence or absence of such things as: the use of laxatives, vomiting after eating, exercising 2 h a day, stop eating for a day or moreover, use of pills or diuretics, being on more than two. Significant differences were found in the risk eating behavior with respect to different categories of body mass index only in the first measurement, where young people were of less underweight risk eating behavior than those who are overweight. PMID:24854813

González-González, Alejandro; Betancourt-Ocampo, Diana; Tavel-Gelrud, Daniela; Martínez-Lanz, Patricia

2014-04-01

318

Sexual abuse, family violence, and female delinquency: findings from a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

The current study examines the effects of three forms of childhood victimization on self-reported delinquency and aggression in adolescent girls. These analyses are based on a longitudinal sample of 141 mother-daughter pairs participating in a study about marital violence and child development. When the children were school aged, mothers and children provided reports describing (a) child exposure to marital violence, (b) escalated physical abuse against the child, and (c) child sexual abuse. Children were followed up into adolescence and re-interviewed. Self-reports of delinquency (violent and nonviolent), running away, and violence against parents were collected. Results indicate that out of the three forms of victimization, child sexual abuse emerged as the strongest predictor of girls' violent and nonviolent criminal behavior. Girls with a history of physical abuse in childhood were most likely to assault their parents. Witnessing marital violence failed to contribute further to delinquency, beyond the adverse association with childhood sexual abuse. Findings highlight a unique avenue for delinquency in girls via childhood sexual exploitation. PMID:12968661

Herrera, Veronica M; McCloskey, Laura Ann

2003-06-01

319

Interpersonal Trauma Exposure and Cognitive Development in Children to Age 8 Years: A Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Background Childhood trauma exposure has been associated with deficits in cognitive functioning. The influence of timing of exposure on the magnitude and persistence of deficits is not well understood. The impact of exposure in early development has been especially under-investigated. This study examined the impact of interpersonal trauma exposure (IPT) in the first years of life on childhood cognitive functioning. Methods Children (N = 206) participating in a longitudinal birth cohort study were assessed prospectively for exposure to IPT (physical or emotional abuse or neglect, sexual abuse, witnessing maternal partner violence) between birth and 64 months. Child intelligent quotient scores (IQ) were assessed at 24, 64, and 96 months of age. Race/ethnicity, gender, socioeconomic status, maternal IQ, birth complications, birthweight, and cognitive stimulation in the home were also assessed. Results IPT was significantly associated with decreased cognitive scores at all time points, even after controlling for sociodemographic factors, maternal IQ, birth complications, birthweight, and cognitive stimulation in the home. IPT in the first two years appeared to be especially detrimental. On average, compared to children not exposed to IPT in the first two years, exposed children scored one-half standard deviation lower across cognitive assessments. Conclusion IPT in early life may have adverse effects on cognitive development. IPT during the first two years may have particular impact, with effects persisting at least into later childhood. PMID:22493459

Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Egeland, Byron; Blood, Emily; Wright, Robert O.; Wright, Rosalind J.

2013-01-01

320

ADHD symptoms, academic achievement, self-perception of academic competence and future orientation: a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

In the investigation of the effect of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms on school careers there is a need to study the role of adolescent and childhood ADHD symptoms and academic achievement, and to incorporate measures that include the individual's perspective. Our aim was to gain an overview of the long-term development of school careers in relation to ADHD symptoms. We studied associations between ADHD symptoms and academic achievement at different time-points and future orientation at the end of high school, and assessed the role of self-perceptions of academic competence in these associations. Participants were 192 children (47% girls) with a range of ADHD symptoms taken from a community sample. Collecting data at three time points, in 6th, 11th and 12th grade we tested a structural equation model. Results showed that ADHD symptoms in 6th grade negatively affected academic achievement concurrently and longitudinally. ADHD symptoms in 11th grade negatively affected concurrent academic achievement and academic self-perception and future orientation in 12th grade. Academic achievement had a positive influence on academic self-perception and future orientation. Given the other factors, self-perception of academic competence did not contribute to outcomes. We concluded that early ADHD symptoms may cast long shadows on young people's academic progress. This happens mainly by way of stability in symptoms and relations to early low academic achievement. PMID:23510262

Scholtens, Sara; Rydell, Ann-Margret; Yang-Wallentin, Fan

2013-06-01

321

Impact of combat deployment on psychological and relationship health: a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

Although previous research has indicated an elevated prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other mental health problems among veterans of Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom following deployment, most of this research has been cross-sectional and has focused on a limited range of military groups and outcome criteria. This investigation was a longitudinal study of U.S. Air Force security forces assigned to a year-long high-threat ground mission in Iraq to determine the degree to which airmen's emotional and behavioral health and committed relationships were adversely impacted by an extended deployment to a warzone. Participants were a cohort of 164 security forces airmen tasked to a 365-day deployment to train Iraqi police. Airmen completed study measures both prior to and 6-9 months following deployment. Rates of deterioration in individual and interpersonal adjustment were both significant and medium to large in magnitude of effect, d = 0.43 to 0.90. Results suggest that the negative effects of deployment are related to levels of traumatic experiences and do not spontaneously remit within the first 6-9 months following return from deployment-particularly among those service members having relatively lower levels of social support. PMID:24464429

Cigrang, Jeffrey A; Talcott, G Wayne; Tatum, JoLyn; Baker, Monty; Cassidy, Daniel; Sonnek, Scott; Snyder, Douglas K; Balderrama-Durbin, Christina; Heyman, Richard E; Smith Slep, Amy M

2014-02-01

322

Cardiovascular health and arterial stiffness: the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study.  

PubMed

Ideal cardiovascular health is a recently defined construct by the American Heart Association (AHA) to promote cardiovascular disease reduction. Arterial stiffness is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The extent to which the presence of multiple prevalent cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviors is associated with arterial stiffness is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the AHA construct of cardiovascular health and arterial stiffness, as indexed by pulse wave velocity (PWV) and pulse pressure. The AHA health metrics, comprising of four health behaviors (smoking, body mass index, physical activity and diet) and three health factors (total cholesterol, blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose), were evaluated among 505 participants in the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study. Outcome measures were carotid-femoral PWV and pulse pressure measured at 4- to 5-year follow-up. Better cardiovascular health, comprising both health factors and behaviors, was associated with lower arterial stiffness, as indexed by PWV and pulse pressure. Those with at least five health metrics at ideal levels had significantly lower PWV (9.8 m s(-1)) than those with two or less ideal health metrics (11.7 m s(-1)) (P < 0.001). This finding remained with the addition of demographic and PWV-related variables (P = 0.004). PMID:24384629

Crichton, G E; Elias, M F; Robbins, M A

2014-07-01

323

Joint spatial Bayesian modeling for studies combining longitudinal and cross-sectional data.  

PubMed

Design for intervention studies may combine longitudinal data collected from sampled locations over several survey rounds and cross-sectional data from other locations in the study area. In this case, modeling the impact of the intervention requires an approach that can accommodate both types of data, accounting for the dependence between individuals followed up over time. Inadequate modeling can mask intervention effects, with serious implications for policy making. In this paper we use data from a large-scale larviciding intervention for malaria control implemented in Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania, collected over a period of almost 5 years. We apply a longitudinal Bayesian spatial model to the Dar es Salaam data, combining follow-up and cross-sectional data, treating the correlation in longitudinal observations separately, and controlling for potential confounders. An innovative feature of this modeling is the use of Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process to model random time effects. We contrast the results with other Bayesian modeling formulations, including cross-sectional approaches that consider individual-level random effects to account for subjects followed up in two or more surveys. The longitudinal modeling approach indicates that the intervention significantly reduced the prevalence of malaria infection in Dar es Salaam by 20% whereas the joint model did not suggest significance within the results. Our results suggest that the longitudinal model is to be preferred when longitudinal information is available at the individual level. PMID:24713159

Lawson, Andrew B; Carroll, Rachel; Castro, Marcia

2014-12-01

324

Sedentary Behaviour, Visceral Fat Accumulation and Cardiometabolic Risk in Adults: A 6-Year Longitudinal Study from the Quebec Family Study  

PubMed Central

Background Sedentary behaviour has recently emerged as a unique risk factor for chronic disease morbidity and mortality. One factor that may explain this relationship is visceral adiposity, which is prospectively associated with increased cardiometabolic risk and mortality. The objective of the present study was to determine whether sedentary behaviour was associated with increased accumulation of visceral fat or other deleterious changes in cardiometabolic risk over a 6-year follow-up period among adult participants in the Quebec Family Study. Methods The current study included 123 men and 153 women between the ages of 18 and 65. Total sedentary time and physical activity were assessed by self-report questionnaire. Cross-sectional areas of visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue were assessed using computed tomography. Cardiometabolic biomarkers including fasting insulin, glucose, blood lipids, HOMA-Insulin Resistance, and oral glucose tolerance were also measured. All variables of interest were collected at both baseline and follow-up. Results After adjustment for age, sex, baseline BMI, physical activity, energy intake, smoking, education, income and menopausal status, baseline sedentary behaviour was not associated with changes in visceral adiposity or any other marker of cardiometabolic risk. In the longitudinal model which adjusted for all studied covariates, every 15-minute increase in sedentary behaviour from baseline to follow-up was associated with a 0.13 cm increase in waist circumference (95% CI?=?0.02, 0.25). However, there was no association between changes in sedentary behaviour and changes in visceral adiposity or other markers of cardiometabolic risk. Conclusion These results suggest that neither baseline sedentary behaviour nor changes in sedentary behaviour are associated with longitudinal changes in visceral adiposity in adult men and women. With the exception of waist circumference, the present study did not find evidence of a relationship between sedentary behaviour and any marker of cardiometabolic risk in this population. PMID:23326600

Saunders, Travis J.; Tremblay, Mark S.; Despres, Jean-Pierre; Bouchard, Claude; Tremblay, Angelo; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

2013-01-01

325

Participants' Perspectives of Training Experiences: An Exploratory Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perceptions concerning training and development continue to appear in practitioner literature; however, the fact that those perceptions are not explored in HRD literature is a problem. The purpose of this study was to examine perspectives of participants in organization-sponsored training. A general qualitative methodology was utilized in this…

Mathis, Robin Smith

2010-01-01

326

What is Learned from Longitudinal Studies of Advertising and Youth Drinking and Smoking? A Critical Assessment  

PubMed Central

This paper assesses the methodology employed in longitudinal studies of advertising and youth drinking and smoking behaviors. These studies often are given a causal interpretation in the psychology and public health literatures. Four issues are examined from the perspective of econometrics. First, specification and validation of empirical models. Second, empirical issues associated with measures of advertising receptivity and exposure. Third, potential endogeneity of receptivity and exposure variables. Fourth, sample selection bias in baseline and follow-up surveys. Longitudinal studies reviewed include 20 studies of youth drinking and 26 studies of youth smoking. Substantial shortcomings are found in the studies, which preclude a causal interpretation. PMID:20617009

Nelson, Jon P

2010-01-01

327

Integrative Data Analysis through Coordination of Measurement and Analysis Protocol across Independent Longitudinal Studies  

PubMed Central

Replication of research findings across independent longitudinal studies is essential for a cumulative and innovative developmental science. Meta-analysis of longitudinal studies is often limited by the amount of published information on particular research questions, the complexity of longitudinal designs and sophistication of analyses, and practical limits on full reporting of results. In many cases, cross-study differences in sample composition and measurements impede or lessen the utility of pooled data analysis. A collaborative, coordinated analysis approach can provide a broad foundation for cumulating scientific knowledge by facilitating efficient analysis of multiple studies in ways that maximize comparability of results and permit evaluation of study differences. The goal of such an approach is to maximize opportunities for replication and extension of findings across longitudinal studies through open access to analysis scripts and output for published results, permitting modification, evaluation, and extension of alternative statistical models, and application to additional data sets. Drawing on the cognitive aging literature as an example, we articulate some of the challenges of meta-analytic and pooled-data approaches and introduce a coordinated analysis approach as an important avenue for maximizing the comparability, replication, and extension of results from longitudinal studies. PMID:19485626

Hofer, Scott M.; Piccinin, Andrea M.

2009-01-01

328

From Inhumane to Humane: A Longitudinal Study of Leadership Transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenomenological interview methods were completed with 9 mental health professionals (psychologists, counselors) who volunteered as Red Cross Disaster Mental Health Workers in response to the 9\\/11 disaster in New York. Interviews were completed shortly after the disaster and repeated 5 years later to understand how 9\\/11 experiences changed participants' leadership in their work. The unprecedented characteristics of the 9\\/11 disaster

Geri Miller; Carol Marchel; Sam Gladding

2010-01-01

329

BMI changes among marching artists: a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

In a series of longitudinal analyses, we examined body mass index (BMI) of drum and bugle corps performers at the beginning (Time 1) and end (Time 2) of a competitive season and again at a 1-year follow-up (Time 3). Utilizing an archival database, BMI data were recorded for 501 marching arts performers, representing four world-class drum and bugle corps. Significant reductions in BMI were found between Time 1 and Time 2 for performers in all sections (i.e., brass, percussion, and color guard). Archival data from 92 performers, representing three world-class drum and bugle units, revealed BMI significantly increased from Time 2 to Time 3. In an effort to identify possible personal influences on the changes in BMI found between Times 2 and 3, 50 performers from one drum and bugle corps provided archival data on a measures of performers' athletic identity (i.e., the strength and exclusivity of one's identification with the athlete role) along with BMI. Correlational analyses revealed that performers' athletic identity negatively related to BMI change from Time 1 and Time 3 and Times 2 and 3 (i.e., stronger athletic identity, lower BMI change). Practical implications are discussed. PMID:24337036

Levy, Jacob J; Statham, Whitney J; VanDoren, Laura

2013-12-01

330

Forbidden fruit? A longitudinal study of Christianity, sex, and marriage.  

PubMed

Does religion still play a role in explorations of romance and sexuality among adolescents and young adults in a secular society such as Norway? Does it influence the type of living arrangements chosen? A population-based sample (n = 2,454) was followed longitudinally from their midteens to their late 20s using survey and register data. Christian involvement in teenage years was associated with subsequent less "precoital" exploration, less masturbation, delayed sexual intercourse, and a smaller number of sex partners. However, there were no associations with prevalence of same-sex experiences. Christians also postponed initiating romantic relationships and chose marriage over cohabitation. Associations were reduced after controlling for confounding factors but remained significant. Some associations (for example, the form of residential union chosen) were present only in the most "active" Christians. In other areas, such as "precoital explorations" and the age at which intercourse is initiated, Christian norms seem to play a role in much broader segments of the population. The findings indicate that Christianity may continue to influence young Norwegians' experiences of sexuality and cohabitation more than has been expected. PMID:23631689

Pedersen, Willy

2014-01-01

331

A longitudinal study of demographic factors associated with stressors and symptoms in African refugees.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to assess differences in premigration, transit, and resettlement stressor exposure and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms as a function of demographic characteristics (i.e., gender, ethnicity, age, time in United States) and to examine the concurrent and longitudinal relations between stressor exposure and PTSD symptoms. The sample consisted of adult (18-78 years) Somali and Oromo refugee men and women (N = 437). Qualitative data regarding participants' self-nominated worst stressors collected at Time 2 (T2) informed the development of quantitative scales assessing premigration, transit, and resettlement stress created using items collected at Time 1 (T1). PTSD symptoms were measured at both T1 and T2. Quantitative analyses showed that levels of stressor exposure and PTSD symptoms differed as a function of refugee demographic characteristics. For example, Oromo, more recent, women, and older refugees reported more premigration and resettlement stressors. Oromo refugees and refugee men reported more PTSD symptoms in regression analyses with other factors controlled. Premigration, transit, and resettlement stressor exposure generally was associated with higher PTSD symptom levels. Results underscore the importance of assessing stress exposure comprehensively throughout the refugee experience and caution against overgeneralizing between and within refugee groups. PMID:24164519

Perera, Sulani; Gavian, Margaret; Frazier, Patricia; Johnson, David; Spring, Marline; Westermeyer, Joseph; Butcher, James; Halcon, Linda; Robertson, Cheryl; Savik, Kay; Jaranson, James

2013-10-01

332

Neural Substrates of Cognitive Subtypes in Parkinson's Disease: A 3-Year Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Background The neuropsychological features and neuropathological progression patterns associated with rapidly evolving cognitive decline or dementia in Parkinson's disease (PD) remain to be elucidated. Methods Fifty-three PD patients without dementia were recruited to participate in a 3-year longitudinal cohort study. The patients were grouped according to the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR). Group-wise comparisons were made with regard to demographic characteristics, motor symptoms, neuropsychological performances and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. Results Patients who had memory-plus cognitive impairment (patients whose CDR was 0 at baseline and 0.5 in memory and other domains at follow-up, and those whose baseline CDR was 0.5 in memory and other domains) exhibited higher age at onset, visuoperceptual impairment, non-tremor-dominant motor disturbance, rapid symptomatic progression and posterior neocortical hypometabolism. In patients who were cognitively unimpaired and those who had memory-dominant cognitive impairment (patients whose CDR was 0 at baseline and 0.5 only in memory domain at follow-up, and those whose baseline CDR was 0.5 only in memory domain), the posterior neocortex was relatively unaffected until a later stage of the disease. Conclusions These results suggest that visuoperceptual impairment and the early involvement of the posterior neocortex may be risk factors for rapid symptomatic progression and dementia in PD. PMID:25330390

Shoji, Yumiko; Nishio, Yoshiyuki; Baba, Toru; Uchiyama, Makoto; Yokoi, Kayoko; Ishioka, Toshiyuki; Hosokai, Yoshiyuki; Hirayama, Kazumi; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Aoki, Masashi; Hasegawa, Takafumi; Takeda, Atsushi; Mori, Etsuro

2014-01-01

333

Externalizing problems, attention regulation, and household chaos: a longitudinal behavioral genetic study.  

PubMed

Previous research documented a robust link between difficulties in self-regulation and development of externalizing problems (i.e., aggression and delinquency). In this study, we examined the longitudinal additive and interactive genetic and environmental covariation underlying this well-established link using a twin design. The sample included 131 pairs of monozygotic twins and 173 pairs of same-sex dizygotic twins who participated in three waves of annual assessment. Mothers and fathers provided reports of externalizing problems. Teacher report and observer rating were used to assess twin's attention regulation. The etiology underlying the link between externalizing problems and attention regulation shifted from a common genetic mechanism to a common environmental mechanism in the transition across middle childhood. Household chaos moderated the genetic variance of and covariance between externalizing problems and attention regulation. The genetic influence on individual differences in both externalizing problems and attention regulation was stronger in more chaotic households. However, higher levels of household chaos attenuated the genetic link between externalizing problems and attention regulation. PMID:22781853

Wang, Zhe; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Petrill, Stephen A; Thompson, Lee A

2012-08-01

334

Health Care Costs and the Socioeconomic Consequences of Work Injuries in Brazil: A Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Work injuries are a worldwide public health problem but little is known about their socioeconomic impact. This prospective longitudinal study estimates the direct health care costs and socioeconomic consequences of work injuries for 406 workers identified in the emergency departments of the two largest public hospitals in Salvador, Brazil, from June through September 2005. After hospital discharge workers were followed up monthly until their return to work. Most insured workers were unaware of their rights or of how to obtain insurance benefits (81.6%). Approximately half the cases suffered loss of earnings, and women were more frequently dismissed than men. The most frequently reported family consequences were: need for a family member to act as a caregiver and difficulties with daily expenses. Total costs were US$40,077.00 but individual costs varied widely, according to injury severity. Out-of-pocket costs accounted for the highest proportion of total costs (50.5%) and increased with severity (57.6%). Most out-of-pocket costs were related to transport and purchasing medicines and other wound care products. The second largest contribution (40.6%) came from the public National Health System ? SUS. Employer participation was negligible. Health care funding must be discussed to alleviate the economic burden of work injuries on workers. PMID:23803496

SANTANA, Vilma Sousa; FERNANDES DE SOUZA, Luis Eugênio Portela; PINTO, Isabela Cardoso de Matos

2013-01-01

335

Evolution of specific cognitive subprofiles of mild cognitive impairment in a three-year longitudinal study.  

PubMed

The present work addresses one of the currently most controversial aspects of early detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementias; that is, the identification of the Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) syndrome-in some cases, prior to AD-in a sample of older subjects who are healthy from the cognitive viewpoint. In a three-year longitudinal study, we classified the participants between 58 and 90 years of age in different cognitive profiles: healthy and MCI (amnestic MCI, non-amnestic MCI, and multi-domain MCI). We followed the evolution of each one by means of the administration on three occasions of an extensive battery of neuropsychological tests. We have found a high percentage of MCI in our sample. Although some of them were amnestic MCIs, this group was not the most frequent. The multi-domain MCI is the one that evolves directly into AD, not the amnestic MCIs. We have found diverse evolutional trajectories over the past three years, some expected, others somewhat unexpected. We also point out the methodological difficulties posed by the administration of certain episodic memory tests, which is not the most appropriate to detect subclinical MCI, due to the effect of practice. PMID:21418005

Peraita, H; García-Herranz, S; Díaz-Mardomingo, C

2011-07-01

336

Predictors of eating disorder scores in children ages 6 through 14: a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to identify variables that predict higher eating disorder scores in non-clinical boys and girls ages 6 through 14. Two hundred sixteen children participated and were tested annually for 3 years. A TV-video procedure was used to measure the accuracy of body size judgments. Variables examined included demographic, familial, sociocultural, social, esteem, and clinical variables. Predictors of higher eating disorder scores for both sexes included height and weight, children's perceptions of parental concerns about their body size, low body esteem, and depression. For girls only, a larger perceived body size and smaller idealized body size were also predictors. Teasing was a predictor for boys only. An analysis of longitudinal changes suggests that low body esteem becomes a significant factor around age 9, depression emerges as a predictor at age 10, and body size judgments in perceived and ideal sizes at ages 11 and 12. Changes over 2 years in individuals' weight and height, teasing, body dissatisfaction, and eating disorder scores were also found to predict higher eating disorder scores. PMID:11110991

Gardner, R M; Stark, K; Friedman, B N; Jackson, N A

2000-09-01

337

A functional NPSR1 gene variant and environment shape personality and impulsive action: a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

Neuropeptide S and its receptor NPSR1 are involved in the regulation of arousal, attention and anxiety. We examined whether the NPSR1 gene functional polymorphism Asn¹??Ile (rs324981, A>T) influences personality, impulsivity, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-related symptoms in a population-representative sample, and whether any eventual associations depend on age, sex, family relations and stressful life events (SLE). We used self-reports or teachers' ratings for both the younger (n=593) and older (n=583) cohort of the longitudinal Estonian Children Personality, Behaviour and Health Study. Males with the TT genotype displayed more ADHD-related symptoms. Adaptive impulsivity and Extraversion increased the most from age 18 to 25. While highest increases were observed in AA men, TT women exhibited the largest decreases. For participants with the AA genotype, Warmth in family was inversely associated with Neuroticism, and positively associated with Extraversion and Adaptive impulsivity. High exposure to SLE increased impulsivity and ADHD scores in TT genotype subjects. We conclude that the NPSR1 A/T polymorphism is associated with impulsivity, ADHD symptoms and personality, mirroring the activity- and anxiety-mediating role of NPSR1. Heterozygous individuals were the least sensitive to environmental factors, whereas subjects with the AA genotype and TT genotype reacted to different types of environmental adversities. PMID:23325374

Laas, Kariina; Reif, Andreas; Kiive, Evelyn; Domschke, Katharina; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Veidebaum, Toomas; Harro, Jaanus

2014-03-01

338

Longitudinal Study of Callosal Microstructure in the Normal Adult Aging Brain Using Quantitative DTI Fiber Tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a review of neuroimaging studies of normal adult aging conducted with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and data from one of the first longitudinal studies using DTI to study normal aging. To date, virtually all DTI studies of normal adult aging have been cross-sectional and have identified several patterns of white matter microstructural sparing and compromise that differentiate regional

Edith V. Sullivan; Torsten Rohlfing; Adolf Pfefferbaum

2010-01-01

339

Children and Parents as Informants of Emotional and Behavioural Problems Predicting Female and Male Adolescent Risk Behaviour: A Longitudinal Cross-Informant Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines whether health risk behaviour in adolescence can be predicted by self- and by parental reports of psychopathology\\u000a (externalizing and internalizing symptoms) assessed two and four years earlier. A total sample of 366 fourth graders participated\\u000a in a longitudinal study with measurements taken in grades 4, 6, and 8. In grades 4 and 6 the children completed the

Marc Vierhaus; Arnold Lohaus

2008-01-01

340

A practical approach to remote longitudinal follow-up of Parkinson's disease: the FOUND study.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to examine a remote method for maintaining long-term contact with Parkinson's disease (PD) patients participating in clinical studies. Long-term follow-up of PD patients is needed to fill critical information gaps on progression, biomarkers, and treatment. Prospective in-person assessment can be costly and may be impossible for some patients. Remote assessment using mail and telephone contact may be a practical follow-up method. Patients enrolled in the multi-center Longitudinal and Biomarker Study in Parkinson's Disease (LABS-PD) in-person follow-up study in 2006 were invited to enroll in Follow-up of Persons With Neurologic Diseases (FOUND), which is overseen by a single center under a separate, central institutional review board protocol. FOUND uses mailed questionnaires and telephone interviews to assess PD status. FOUND follow-up continued when LABS-PD in-person visits ended in 2011. Retention and agreement between remote and in-person assessments were determined. In total, 422 of 499 (84.5%) of eligible patients volunteered, AND 96% of participants were retained. Of 60 patients who withdrew consent from LABS-PD, 51 were retained in FOUND. Of 341 patients who were active in LABS-PD, 340 were retained in FOUND (99.7%) when the in-person visits ceased. Exact agreement between remote and in-person assessments was ? 80% for diagnosis, disease features (eg, dyskinesias), and PD medication. Correlation between expert-rated and self-reported Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale and Movement Disorder Society Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, which were examined at times separated by several months, was moderate or substantial for most items. Retention was excellent using remote follow-up of research participants with PD, providing a safety net when combined with in-person visits, and also is effective as a stand-alone assessment method, providing a useful alternative when in-person evaluation is not feasible. PMID:24515275

Tanner, Caroline M; Meng, Cheryl C; Ravina, Bernard; Lang, Anthony; Kurlan, Roger; Marek, Kenneth; Oakes, David; Seibyl, John; Flagg, Emily; Gauger, Lisa; Guest, Dolores D; Goetz, Christopher G; Kieburtz, Karl; DiEuliis, Diane; Fahn, Stanley; Elliott, Robin A; Shoulson, Ira

2014-05-01

341

Psychosocial predictors of non-adherence to chronic medication: systematic review of longitudinal studies  

PubMed Central

Objectives Several cross-sectional studies suggest that psychosocial factors are associated with non-adherence to chronic preventive maintenance medication (CPMM); however, results from longitudinal associations have not yet been systematically summarized. Therefore, the objective of this study was to systematically synthesize evidence of longitudinal associations between psychosocial predictors and CPMM non-adherence. Materials and methods PUBMED, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsychINFO databases were searched for studies meeting our inclusion criteria. The reference lists and the ISI Web of Knowledge of the included studies were checked. Studies were included if they had an English abstract, involved adult populations using CPMM living in Western countries, and if they investigated associations between psychosocial predictors and medication non-adherence using longitudinal designs. Data were extracted according to a literature-based extraction form. Study quality was independently judged by two researchers using a framework comprising six bias domains. Studies were considered to be of high quality if ?four domains were free of bias. Psychosocial predictors for non-adherence were categorized into five pre-defined categories: beliefs/cognitions; coping styles; social influences and social support; personality traits; and psychosocial well-being. A qualitative best evidence synthesis was performed to synthesize evidence of longitudinal associations between psychosocial predictors and CPMM non-adherence. Results Of 4,732 initially-identified studies, 30 (low-quality) studies were included in the systematic review. The qualitative best evidence synthesis demonstrated limited evidence for absence of a longitudinal association between CPMM non-adherence and the psychosocial categories. The strength of evidence for the review’s findings is limited by the low quality of included studies. Conclusion The results do not provide psychosocial targets for the development of new interventions in clinical practice. This review clearly demonstrates the need for high-quality, longitudinal research to identify psychosocial predictors of medication non-adherence. PMID:24851043

Zwikker, Hanneke E; van den Bemt, Bart J; Vriezekolk, Johanna E; van den Ende, Cornelia H; van Dulmen, Sandra

2014-01-01

342

Results and Implications of a 12-Year Longitudinal Study of Science Concept Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the methods and outcomes of a 12-year longitudinal study into the effects of an early intervention program, while reflecting back on changes that have occurred in approaches to research, learning and instruction since the preliminary inception stages of the study in the mid 1960s. We began the study to challenge the prevailing…

Novak, Joseph D.

2005-01-01

343

A Prospective Longitudinal Study of High School Dropouts Examining Multiple Predictors Across Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior studies report a variety of demographic, school, individual, and family characteristics that are related to high school drop out. This study utilizes data from a 19-year prospective longitudinal study of “at-risk” children to explore multiple predictors of high school dropouts across development. The proposed model of dropping out emphasizes the importance of the early home environment and the quality

Shane Jimerson; Byron Egeland; L. Alan Sroufe; Betty Carlson

2000-01-01

344

Changes in smoking habits and risk of asthma: a longitudinal population based study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A common statement from exsmokers is that symptoms of asthma develop shortly after smoking cessation. This study, therefore, investigated the relationship between smoking cessation and development of asthma in a large cohort from the Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS). The CCHS is a longitudinal, epidemiological study of the general population from the capital of Denmark, conducted between 1976 and 1994.

N. S. Godtfredsen; P. Lange; E. Prescott; M. Osler; J. Vestbo

2001-01-01

345

A Stage-Sequential Model of Reading Transitions: Evidence from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study uses latent transition analysis to examine reading development across the kindergarten and 1st-grade year. Data include poverty status and dichotomous measures of reading at 4 time points for a large sample of children within the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study. In each of 4 waves of the study, 5 latent classes were represented in…

Kaplan, David; Walpole, Sharon

2005-01-01

346

Results and Implications of a 12Year Longitudinal Study of Science Concept Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the methods and outcomes of a 12-year longitudinal study into the effects of an early intervention program, while reflecting back on changes that have occurred in approaches to research, learning and instruction since the preliminary inception stages of the study in the mid 1960s. We began the study to challenge the prevailing consensus at the time that

Joseph D. Novak

2005-01-01

347

Correlations between mental state and quantitative neuropathology in the Vienna Longitudinal Study on Dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative clinicopathological correlation studies are one way to address the question of the relevance of morphological abnormalities in Alzheimer's dementia (AD). This paper summarizes results of the Vienna Longitudinal Study on Dementia obtained during the past few years and presents a critical discussion on the relevance of clinicopathological correlation studies for the pathogenesis of AD. Plotting of psychometric test scores

C. Bancher; K. Jellinger; H. Lassmann; P. Fischer; F. Leblhuber

1996-01-01

348

Youths' Caretaking of Their Adolescent Sisters' Children: Results from Two Longitudinal Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The extent and experiences of youths' caretaking of their adolescent sisters' children have been assessed in two longitudinal studies. The first study examines the caretaking patterns of 132 Latino and African American youth during middle and late adolescence. The second study involves 110 Latino youth whose teenage sister has recently given…

East, Patricia L.; Weisner, Thomas S.; Slonim, Ashley

2009-01-01

349

A Longitudinal Study of Enhancing Critical Thinking and Reading Comprehension in Title I Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A longitudinal study of student growth gains was conducted in Title I schools to assess growth in reading comprehension and critical thinking. Results suggested that all students benefited from the intervention of Project Athena units of study designed for high-ability learners. In addition, the study suggested that the comparison curriculum also…

VanTassel-Baska, Joyce; Bracken, Bruce; Feng, Annie; Brown, Elissa

2009-01-01

350

Longitudinal Studies Using a "Natural Experiment" Design: The Case of Adoptees from Romanian Institutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To summarize the advantages and limitations of general population, high-risk and "natural experiment" longitudinal studies for studying psychological change. The English and Romanian Adoptees study is used as an example of a "natural experiment," and detailed findings are provided. Method: What is new is a focus on the young people who…

Rutter, Michael; Kumsta, Robert; Schlotz, Wolff; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund

2012-01-01

351

The Skinny on Body Dissatisfaction: A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Girls and Boys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study tested whether theoretically derived risk factors predicted increases in body dissatisfaction and whether gender moderated these relations with data from a longitudinal study of 428 adolescent girls and boys because few prospective studies have examined these aims, despite evidence that body dissatisfaction increases risk for various psychiatric disturbances. Body dissatisfaction showed significant increases for girls and significant

Sarah Kate Bearman; Katherine Presnell; Erin Martinez; Eric Stice

2006-01-01

352

Motivation for Treatment Among Women Offenders in Prison-Based Treatment and Longitudinal Outcomes Among Those Who Participate in Community Aftercare  

PubMed Central

Participation in aftercare may reduce risk of recidivism among women offenders with substance use problems following their release to the community. This study examines motivation to participate in aftercare among women offenders and whether their participation in both in-custody and aftercare treatment reduces their risk of recidivism. Surveys were conducted with women (N = 1,158) in prison-based substance abuse treatment programs. Return-to-prison was examined among participants in community-based aftercare (N = 1,182) over 12 months following treatment discharge. Higher treatment motivation was associated with child welfare involvement, prior treatment, and use of “harder” drugs; ethnic minority women had lower treatment motivation compared with White women. Participants who completed the aftercare program, or who had longer treatment duration, and those who had participated in an in-prison program prior to parole had reduced risk of recidivism. Study findings suggest the value of community aftercare for women offenders, particularly when combined with prior in-prison treatment. PMID:22185040

Grella, Christine E.; Rodriguez, Luz

2011-01-01

353

Voting and Community Volunteer Participation of 1988 Eighth Grade Social Studies Students 12 Years Later  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three voting behaviors and three types of volunteer participation were analyzed using longitudinal data from NELS:88\\/2000, a national sample of over 12,000 eighth graders in 1988 who were young adults in 2000. From 1994 to 2000 this cohort increased about 10% in both the three voting behaviors and the three volunteer participations. Wide race\\/ethnicity and smaller gender differences favoring females

June R. Chapin

2005-01-01

354

Studies of Longitudinal Dynamics in the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring  

SciTech Connect

Two separate studies of space charge longitudinal dynamics in the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring have been completed. The first of these studies is a benchmark of a longitudinal instability caused by three ferrite inductors used in the ring to provide longitudinal space charge compensation. We use the ORBIT code to benchmark the growth time, mode spectrum, and intensity threshold of the instability. The second study concerns the 201.5 MHz linac microbunch structure of the beam. We find that this microbunch structure persists in the ring over long periods of time with no RF bunching. We show through analysis of the experimental data and simulations that space charge, coupled with energy spread effects, is responsible for the sustained structure.

Cousineau, S.; Danilov, V.; Holmes, J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN (United States); Macek, R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos NM (United States)

2005-06-08

355

Persistent pursuit of need-satisfying goals leads to increased happiness: A 6-month experimental longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

University-based community members (N = 181) participated in a four-wave, 6-month longitudinal experiment designed to increase treatment participants’ happiness\\u000a levels. Participants were randomly assigned to set goals either to improve their life circumstances (comparison condition)\\u000a or to increase their feelings of autonomy, competence, or relatedness in life (treatment conditions). We hypothesized that\\u000a sustained gains in happiness would be observed only in the

Kennon M. SheldonNeetu; Neetu Abad; Yuna Ferguson; Alexander Gunz; Linda Houser-Marko; Charles P. Nichols; Sonja Lyubomirsky

2010-01-01

356

An instrument for the assessment of diarrhoeal severity based on a longitudinal community-based study  

PubMed Central

Objective Diarrhoea is a significant contributer to morbidity and is among the leading causes of death of children living in poverty. As such, the incidence, duration and severity of diarrhoeal episodes in the household are often key variables of interest in a variety of community-based studies. However, there currently exists no means of defining diarrhoeal severity that are (A) specifically designed and adapted for community-based studies, (B) associated with poorer child outcomes and (C) agreed on by the majority of researchers. Clinical severity scores do exist and are used in healthcare settings, but these tend to focus on relatively moderate-to-severe dehydrating and dysenteric disease, require trained observation of the child and, given the variability of access and utilisation of healthcare, fail to sufficiently describe the spectrum of disease in the community setting. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Setting Santa Clara de Nanay, a rural community in the Northern Peruvian Amazon. Participants 442 infants and children 0–72?months of age. Main outcome measures Change in weight over 1-month intervals and change in length/height over 9-month intervals. Results Diarrhoeal episodes with symptoms of fever, anorexia, vomiting, greater number of liquid stools per day and greater number of total stools per day were associated with poorer weight gain compared with episodes without these symptoms. An instrument to measure the severity was constructed based on the duration of these symptoms over the course of a diarrhoeal episode. Conclusions In order to address limitations of existing diarrhoeal severity scores in the context of community-based studies, we propose an instrument comprised of diarrhoea-associated symptoms easily measured by community health workers and based on the association of these symptoms with poorer child growth. This instrument can be used to test the impact of interventions on the burden of diarrhoeal disease. PMID:24907244

Lee, Gwenyth; Penataro Yori, Pablo; Paredes Olortegui, Maribel; Caulfield, Laura E; Sack, David A; Fischer-Walker, Christa; Black, Robert E; Kosek, Margaret

2014-01-01

357

Physical activity during pregnancy in a prospective cohort of British women: results from the Avon longitudinal study of parents and children  

Microsoft Academic Search

We sought to examine the levels, types, and changes of physical activity and their correlates among pregnant women. Data came\\u000a from 9,889 pregnant women with due dates between April 1, 1991 and December 31, 1992 who were participants of the Avon Longitudinal\\u000a Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) in Bristol, Avon, Southwest England. Self-reported physical activity during pregnancy\\u000a was collected

Jihong LiuSteven; Steven N. Blair; Yanping Teng; Andrew R. Ness; Debbie A. Lawlor; Chris Riddoch

2011-01-01

358

Reactions to Research Participation in Vulnerable Subgroups  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the extent to which vulnerable individuals (defined by economic, social, psychological, physical health, and child maltreatment status) react to research participation. As part of an ongoing longitudinal study, participants (N = 896) completed a lengthy and intrusive in-person interview and provided a small amount of blood through finger pricks. At the end of the interview, participants were

CATHY SPATZ WIDOM; SALLY J. CZAJA

2005-01-01

359

Experimental study of model-based feedforward control of longitudinal wave transmission through hollow cylinders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental studies of closed-loop control of longitudinal wave transmission through a hollow cylinder are presented in this article. Model studies coupled with experimental modal analysis are used to understand and characterize the actuator-strut ensemble, and a boundary control algorithm, which falls under the class of feedforward control schemes, is experimentally implemented. The algorithm is based on a partial differential equations

Ion Pelinescu; Balakumar Balachandran

2002-01-01

360

Building a Constructivist Practice: A Longitudinal Study of Beginning History Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal interpretative case study examined the constructivist beliefs and related practices of four secondary history teachers from their teacher preparation through their first year in the classroom. The results of this study showed that issues of classroom control were major barriers for the implementation of constructivist-oriented…

Martell, Christopher C.

2014-01-01

361

Dental caries and associated factors among Brazilian adolescents: a longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A decrease in caries experience among children has been observed in all countries. However, this subject has yet to be further investigated in adolescents. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and incidence of caries disease and determine possible factors associated to this condition among adolescents. A 2-phase longitudinal study was performed. The first phase comprised a

Leila Grando; Amorim Mendes; Maria Gabriela Haye Biazevic; Edgard Michel-Crosato; Maria Odete Amorim Mendes

362

Sympathetic Nervous System and Lymphocyte Proliferation in the Fischer 344 Rat Spleen: A Longitudinal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aging is associated with reduced cellular immunity, which leads to increased rates of infectious disease, cancer and autoimmunity in the elderly. Previous findings from our laboratory revealed an age-related decline in sympathetic innervation of immune organs that affects immunity. These studies suggested potential sympathetic nervous system involvement in age-induced immune dysregulation. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to longitudinally

Denise L. Bellinger; Dorian Silva; Ashley Brooke Millar; Christine Molinaro; Mark Ghamsary; Jeff Carter; Sam Perez; Dianne Lorton; Cheri Lubahn; Gerson Araujoa; Srinivasan Thyagarajan

2008-01-01

363

America's Kindergartners. Early Childhood Longitudinal Study. Kindergarten Class of 1998-99, Fall 1998.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the first findings from a new national study of kindergartners, their schools, classrooms, teachers and families. The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998- 99 (ECLS-K), sponsored by the U.S. Department of Edu...

K. Denton, E. Germino-Hausken

2000-01-01

364

A LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF ENGINEERING STUDENT PERFORMANCE AND RETENTION. V. COMPARISONS WITH TRADITIONALLY-TAUGHT STUDENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a longitudinal study at North Carolina State University, a cohort of students took five chemical engineering courses taught by the same instructor in five consecutive semesters. The course instruction made extensive use of active and cooperative learning and a variety of other techniques designed to address a broad spectrum of learning styles. Previous reports on the study summarized the

Richard M. Felder; Gary N. Felder; E. Jacquelin Dietz

365

Language Learning at Key Stage 2: Findings from a Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses some of the findings from a 3-year longitudinal study of language learning in the upper stage of English primary schools, i.e. at Key Stage 2. This largely qualitative study (commissioned by the then Department for Children, Schools and Families) was designed to explore and document developing provision and practice in a…

Cable, Carrie; Driscoll, Patricia; Mitchell, Rosamond; Sing, Sue; Cremin, Teresa; Earl, Justine; Eyres, Ian; Holmes, Bernardette; Martin, Cynthia; Heins, Barbara

2012-01-01

366

Memory and Depressive Symptoms Are Dynamically Linked among Married Couples: Longitudinal Evidence from the AHEAD Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined dyadic interrelations between episodic memory and depressive symptom trajectories of change in old and advanced old age. The authors applied dynamic models to 10-year incomplete longitudinal data of initially 1,599 married couples from the study of Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old (M[subscript age] = 75 years at…

Gerstorf, Denis; Hoppmann, Christiane A.; Kadlec, Kelly M.; McArdle, John J.

2009-01-01

367

Characteristics of Effective Rural Schools: A Longitudinal Study of Western Australian Rural High School Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports findings from the first 2 years of a longitudinal study of school effectiveness in Western Australia called the Western Australian School Effectiveness Study (WASES). Creemer's multilevel model of educational effectiveness was used to guide the selection of variables for analysis. Data on the school environment, the classroom…

Young, Deidra J.

368

Is retirement good for your health? A systematic review of longitudinal studies  

PubMed Central

Background Several studies regarding the effect of retirement on physical as well as mental health have been performed, but the results thereof remain inconclusive. The aim of this review is to systematically summarise the literature on the health effects of retirement, describing differences in terms of voluntary, involuntary and regulatory retirement and between blue-collar and white-collar workers. Methods A search for longitudinal studies using keywords that referred to the exposure (retirement), outcome (health-related) and study design (longitudinal) was performed using several electronic databases. Articles were then selected for full text analysis and the reference lists of the selected studies were checked for relevant studies. The quality of the studies was rated based on predefined criteria. Data was analysed qualitatively by using a best evidence synthesis. When possible, pooled mean differences and effect sizes were calculated to estimate the effect of retirement on health. Results Twenty-two longitudinal studies were included, of which eleven were deemed to be of high quality. Strong evidence was found for retirement having a beneficial effect on mental health, and contradictory evidence was found for retirement having an effect on perceived general health and physical health. Few studies examined the differences between blue- and white-collar workers and between voluntary, involuntary and regulatory retirement with regards to the effect of retirement on health outcomes. Conclusions More longitudinal research on the health effects of retirement is needed, including research into potentially influencing factors such as work characteristics and the characteristics of retirement. PMID:24330730

2013-01-01

369

Simultaneous Study of Individual and Group Patterns of Latent Longitudinal Change Using Structural Equation Modeling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Structural equation modeling is used in the simultaneous study of individual and group latent change patterns on several longitudinally assessed variables. The approach, which is based on a special case of the comprehensive latent curve analysis of W. Meredith and J. Tisak (1990), is illustrated with a two-group study. (SLD)

Raykov, Tenko

1997-01-01

370

Predictors of English Fluency Among Hmong Refugees in Minnesota: A Longitudinal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to assess factors associated with later acquisition of English language fluency among Hmong refugees in Minnesota. Fluency in a society's lingua franca is a critical skill in psychosocial adaptation and mental health. A longitudinal study design was used, in which premigration and early postmigration factors were related to subsequent English fluency. The first group

Joseph Westermeyer; Cheng Her

1996-01-01

371

A longitudinal study of tremor frequencies in Parkinson's disease and essential tremor  

E-print Network

A longitudinal study of tremor frequencies in Parkinson's disease and essential tremor B. Hellwig a November 2008 Available online 19 December 2008 Keywords: Parkinson's disease Essential tremor Tremor) decreases with time. Lon- gitudinal studies on the evolution of tremor frequencies in Parkinson's disease

Timmer, Jens

372

Conditions for Ubiquitous Computing: What Can Be Learned from a Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on survey data and interview data collected over four academic years, this longitudinal study examined how a ubiquitous computing project evolved along with the changes in teachers, students, the human infrastructure, and technology infrastructure in the school. This study also investigated what conditions were necessary for successful…

Lei, Jing

2010-01-01

373

Longitudinal population-based studies of affective disorders: Where to from here?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Longitudinal, population-based, research is important if we are to better characterize the lifetime patterns and determinants of affective disorders. While studies of this type are becoming increasingly prevalent, there has been little discussion about the limitations of the methods commonly used. METHODS: Discussion paper including a brief review of key prospective population-based studies as the basis for a critical

John R Beard; Sandro Galea; David Vlahov

2008-01-01

374

Online Communication, Compulsive Internet Use, and Psychosocial Well-Being among Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated the relationships between adolescents' online communication and compulsive Internet use, depression, and loneliness. The study had a 2-wave longitudinal design with an interval of 6 months. The sample consisted of 663 students, 318 male and 345 female, ages 12 to 15 years. Questionnaires were administered in a…

van den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.; Meerkerk, Gert-Jan; Vermulst, Ad A.; Spijkerman, Renske; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

2008-01-01

375

Emotional and Behavioural Problems in the Context of Cyberbullying: A Longitudinal Study among German Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although many studies have reported on internalising and externalising problems related to cyberbullying roles, there is a lack of longitudinal research in this area. This study reports (1) cross-sectional data from 412 German middle-school students to examine differences between cyberbullies, cybervictims and cyberbully-victims compared to…

Schultze-Krumbholz, Anja; Jakel, Anne; Schultze, Martin; Scheithauer, Herbert

2012-01-01

376

Longitudinal imaging studies in schizophrenia: the relationship between brain morphology and outcome measures.  

PubMed

Imaging studies have tried to identify morphological outcome measures of schizophrenia in the last two decades. In particular, longitudinal studies have reported a correlation between larger ventricles, decreased prefrontal volumes and worse outcome. This would potentially allow to isolate subtypes of schizophrenia patients with a worse prognosis and more evident biological impairments, ultimately helping in designing specific rehabilitation interventions. PMID:21261215

Bellani, Marcella; Dusi, Nicola; Brambilla, Paolo

2010-01-01

377

Power of Models in Longitudinal Study: Findings from a Full-Crossed Simulation Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because the power properties of traditional repeated measures and hierarchical multivariate linear models have not been clearly determined in the balanced design for longitudinal studies in the literature, the authors present a power comparison study of traditional repeated measures and hierarchical multivariate linear models under 3…

Fang, Hua; Brooks, Gordon P.; Rizzo, Maria L.; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Barcikowski, Robert S.

2009-01-01

378

Major depression and cigarette smoking: results of a 21-year longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The aim of this paper was to examine the association between major depression and cigarette smoking among young adults in a birth cohort before and after adjusting for confounding factors. Method. Data were gathered over the course of the Christchurch Health and Development Study (CHDS). The CHDS is a longitudinal study of a birth cohort of 1265 New Zealand

D. M. FERGUSSON; R. D. GOODWIN; L. J. HORWOOD

2003-01-01

379

Sociopsychological predictors of affiliation with alcoholics anonymous a longitudinal study of “treatment success”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Alcoholics Anonymous represent one of the fewclearly successful treatment approaches for alcoholism. In an attempt to delineate the dynamics of this approach, six propositions were derived from previous research on A. A. and tested in a longitudinal study of post-discharge A. A. affiliation among 378 white males treated for alcoholism in a state hospital. Unlike previous studies, the present

Harrison M. Trice; Paul M. Roman

1970-01-01

380

Learning Styles and Motivational Styles in Different Academic Contexts: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, individual differences among the first year undergraduate students' learning styles and motivational styles were examined in two different academic contexts. Changes in students' learning styles and motivational styles were also investigated through a longitudinal design over one academic year. The results of this study showed that…

Ozen, Rasit; Eren, Altay

2009-01-01

381

Social and Behavioural Outcomes in Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Longitudinal Cohort Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To compare social and behavioural outcomes between children formally diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) with those of children who displayed autistic traits at preschool age, but remained undiagnosed as teenagers. Method: A secondary analysis of data from a birth cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and…

Russell, Ginny; Golding, Jean; Norwich, Brahm; Emond, Alan; Ford, Tamsin; Steer, Colin

2012-01-01

382

Information Behavior of People Diagnosed with a Chronic Serious Health Condition: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study consisted of a longitudinal investigation into the information behavior of people diagnosed with a particular chronic serious health condition, type 2 diabetes. This study sought to identify the factors that motivate or impede the information seeking and use of these individuals and to discover how these factors and their influences…

St. Jean, Beth Lenore

2012-01-01

383

Students' Perceptions of Campus Services. Maryland Longitudinal Study Research Highlights. Research Report 8.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of the Maryland Longitudinal Study of 772 students entering the University of Maryland, College Park (UMCP) in 1980, the use and ratings of UMCP campus services by students in the third year of the study were analyzed. Findings included the following: (1) Representative Group (containing members of all ethnic groups) and Black Group…

Maryland Univ., College Park. Maryland Longitudinal Study Steering Committee.

384

A Longitudinal Study of Academic Intrinsic Motivation in Intellectually Gifted Children: Childhood Through Early Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Academic intrinsic motivation of intellectually gifted children and a comparison group was examined in the Fullerton Longitudinal Study. Children at ages 9 through 13 years were administered the Children's Academic Intrinsic Motivation Inventory which assesses intrinsic motivation for school learning in reading, math, social studies, science, and for school in general. Analyses showed that across the ages, relative to a

Adele Eskeles Gottfried; Allen W. Gottfried

1996-01-01

385

Relation of Stressful Life Events to Metabolic Control Among Adolescents With Diabetes: 5-Year Longitudinal Study  

E-print Network

. Laboratory studies tend to expose people to brief stressors, such as challenging video games, and examine Longitudinal Study Vicki S. Helgeson Carnegie Mellon University Oscar Escobar Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh Linda Siminerio University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Dorothy Becker Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh

Creswell, J. David

386

Children's Fearfulness as a Moderator of Parenting in Early Socialization: Two Longitudinal Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Findings from 2 longitudinal studies replicate and considerably extend past work on child temperament as a moderating link between parenting and successful socialization outcomes. In Study 1 (N = 106 mothers and children), child fearfulness, mother-child positive relationship, and maternal power assertion were assessed at 22 and 33 months; the…

Kochanska, Grazyna; Aksan, Nazan; Joy, Mary E.

2007-01-01

387

Internal Participatory Evaluation as an Organizational Learning System: A Longitudinal Case Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few studies exist on the impact of practical participatory evaluation when the evaluator is not only a member of the organization, but also has program knowledge and expertise. This paper addresses this gap in the literature by reporting on a 2.5-year longitudinal single case study of practical participatory evaluation of a national, publicly…

Robinson, Tim T.; Cousins, J. Bradley

388

Curriculum Authoring Tools and Inclusive Classroom Teaching Practice: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the longitudinal application of a suite of curriculum authoring tools (CATs) to inclusive classroom teaching practice in a secondary school setting. The study sought to establish whether the incorporation of the CATs into the teachers curriculum development and implementation covaried with improved…

Bain, Alan; Parkes, Robert John

2006-01-01

389

Effects of Race, Class, and Gender on Writing: Report from a Longitudinal Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the effects of race, class, and gender on writing. Data from the 6-year longitudinal study was carried out from 1989 to 1995 at City College of City University of New York. Subjects were African-American, Latino, Asian, and White students enrolled in three composition classes, one at each of the two levels of basic writing and one…

Sternglass, Marilyn S.

390

Sleep Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Problems: A Longitudinal Population-Based Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the prevalence and chronicity of sleep problems in children who manifest problems believed to be typical of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Using data from a longitudinal total population study, symptoms of ASD, insomnia and potential explanatory factors were assessed at ages 7-9 and 11-13. Children were included in a group…

Sivertsen, Borge; Posserud, Maj-Britt; Gillberg, Christopher; Lundervold, Astri J.; Hysing, Mari

2012-01-01

391

National Longitudinal Study of High School Seniors: An Agenda for Policy Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Rand Corporation, under contract with HEW, developed a research agenda for an emerging data base: The National Longitudinal Study (NLS) of the High School Class of 1972. The study had four main objectives: (1) to identify ways in which public decisionmakers can apply NLS data to key policy issues; (2) to foster the efficient use of a large and…

Carroll, Stephen J.; Morrison, Peter A.

392

Early Intervention and Juvenile Delinquency Prevention: Evidence from the Chicago Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the role of an early educational intervention and child-, family-, peer-, and school-level predictors on court-reported juvenile delinquency. Data were provided from the Chicago Longitudinal Study, an ongoing investigation of the scholastic and social development of more than 1,500 low-income youths (93% of whom were…

Mann, Emily A.; Reynolds, Arthur J.

2006-01-01

393

Dynamics of Complexity and Accuracy: A Longitudinal Case Study of Advanced Untutored Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal case study follows a dynamic systems approach to investigate an under-studied research area in second language acquisition, the development of complexity and accuracy for an advanced untutored learner of English. Using the analytical tools of dynamic systems theory (Verspoor et al. 2011) within the framework of complexity,…

Polat, Brittany; Kim, Youjin

2014-01-01

394

Practice effects in healthy adults: A longitudinal study on frequent repetitive cognitive testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cognitive deterioration is a core symptom of many neuropsychiatric disorders and target of increasing significance for novel treatment strategies. Hence, its reliable capture in long-term follow-up studies is prerequisite for recording the natural course of diseases and for estimating potential benefits of therapeutic interventions. Since repeated neuropsychological testing is required for respective longitudinal study designs, occurrence, time pattern and

Claudia Bartels; Martin Wegrzyn; Anne Wiedl; Verena Ackermann; Hannelore Ehrenreich

2010-01-01

395

The influence of socioeconomic status, ethnicity and lifestyle on body mass index in a longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Few studies have attempted to disentangle the complex relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and ethnicity and its influence on body mass index (BMI) and on change in BMI over a decade. The present study highlights the influence of ethnicity (country of birth) and SES on BMI, adjusting for certain lifestyle factors. Methods The longitudinal self-reported data, based on a

Jan Sundquist; Sven-Erik Johansson

396

Impaired Perception of Syllable Stress in Children with Dyslexia: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prosodic patterning is a key structural element of spoken language. However, the potential role of prosodic awareness in the phonological difficulties that characterise children with developmental dyslexia has been little studied. Here we report the first longitudinal study of sensitivity to syllable stress in children with dyslexia, enabling the…

Goswami, Usha; Mead, Natasha; Fosker, Tim; Huss, Martina; Barnes, Lisa; Leong, Victoria

2013-01-01

397

Behind the Label: The Functional Implications of Disability. SEELS (Special Education Elementary Longitudinal Study).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Special Education Elementary Longitudinal Study (SEELS) is a national study of the characteristics, experiences and achievements of students with disabilities in elementary and middle school. This report presents results of data (mainly surveys of and interviews with parents) on more than 12,000 students with disabilities, ages 6-12, selected…

Blackorby, Jose; Wagner, Mary; Cadwallader, Thomas; Cameto, Renee; Levine, Phyllis; Marder, Camille

398

The Stability of Genetic Determination from Age 2 to Age 9: A Longitudinal Twin Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A longitudinal investigation of the social and cognitive development of male twins was conducted when twins were 2.5 years of age, and again when they were 8- to 10-years-old. This study was designed to re-examine the heritability of the traits studied at the earlier age and, thus, to address the question of the stability of genetic determination.…

Lytton, Hugh; And Others

399

Rates of Bullying Perpetration and Victimisation: A Longitudinal Study of Secondary School Students in Victoria, Australia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bullying perpetration and victimisation are common issues confronting schools. To understand the extent of bullying in schools and differences in the experiences of boys and girls, longitudinal studies of different subtypes of bullying perpetration and victimisation are essential. The current study aims to describe the rates of bullying…

Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Tollit, Michelle; Kotevski, Aneta

2012-01-01

400

Parental socioeconomic position and development of overweight in adolescence: longitudinal study of Danish adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: An inverse social gradient in overweight among adolescents has been shown in developed countries, but few studies have examined whether weight gain and the development of overweight differs among adolescents from different socioeconomic groups in a longitudinal study. The objective was to identify the possible association between parental socioeconomic position, weight change and the risk of developing overweight among

Camilla Schmidt Morgen; Laust Hvas Mortensen; Mette Rasmussen; Anne-Marie Nybo Andersen; Thorkild I. A. Sorensen; Pernille Due

2010-01-01

401

Violence against Pregnant Women Can Increase the Risk of Child Abuse: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To assess the impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women on subsequent perpetration of child abuse and neglect (CAN) by parents; and to test the mediation effect of recent IPV on the link between IPV during pregnancy and subsequent CAN. Methods: This study was a longitudinal follow-up of a population-based study on…

Chan, Ko Ling; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Fong, Daniel Y. T.; Tiwari, Agnes; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ho, Pak Chung

2012-01-01

402

Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study: 1996-2001 (BPS:1996/2001) Methodology Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the procedures and results of the full-scale Implementation of the final followup interview with the Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study 1996/2001. This study follows a cohort first interviewed in 1996 in their first year of postsecondary education. (SLD)

Wine, Jennifer S.; Heuer, Ruth E.; Wheeless, Sara C.; Francis, Talbric L.; Franklin, Jeff W.; Dudley, Kristin M.

2002-01-01

403

(123I)FP-CIT SPECT in suspected dementia with Lewy bodies: a longitudinal case study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Little is known regarding the ‘false-negative’ or ‘false-positive’ striatal dopamine transporter binding on SPECT for the diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). We explored the clinical course in patients fulfilling the criteria for clinical DLB with a normal (123I)FP-CIT SPECT (ie, SPECT scan negative, clinical features positive (S?CF+)) and patients not fulfilling DLB criteria with an abnormal scan (S+CF?). Design Longitudinal case study over 2–5?years. Setting Consecutive referrals of patients with mild dementia to dementia clinics in western Norway. Participants 50 patients (27 men and 23 women; mean age at baseline of 74 (range 52–88)) with (123I)FP-CIT SPECT images underwent cluster analysis: 20/50 patients allocated to a ‘DLB’ and 8 to a ‘non-DLB’ cluster were included. Outcome measures Scores on standardised clinical rating scales for hallucinations, parkinsonism, fluctuations, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder and visually rated (123I)FP-CIT SPECT. Results During the follow-up period, in the S+CF? group (n=7), frequency and severity of DLB symptoms tended to increase, particularly parkinsonism (7/7) and cognitive fluctuations (7/7), while severity of visual hallucinations and REM sleep behaviour disorder remained stable. The S?CF+ (n=3) fulfilled the operationalised criteria for probable DLB both at baseline and at the end of the follow-up. Conclusions The findings suggest that systematic visual analyses of (123I)FP-CIT SPECT can detect people with DLB prior to the development of the full clinical syndrome. In addition, the study indicates that some patients fulfilling clinical criteria for probable DLB have a normal scan, and further studies are required to characterise these patients better. PMID:23572198

Siepel, Francoise J; Rongve, Arvid; Buter, Tirza C; Beyer, Mona K; Ballard, Clive G; Booij, Jan; Aarsland, Dag

2013-01-01

404

Predictors of English fluency among Hmong refugees in Minnesota: a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to assess factors associated with later acquisition of English language fluency among Hmong refugees in Minnesota. Fluency in a society's lingua franca is a critical skill in psychosocial adaptation and mental health. A longitudinal study design was used, in which premigration and early postmigration factors were related to subsequent English fluency. The first group of 102 Hmong refugees located in Minnesota by the Immigration and Naturalization Service participated, and were interviewed in their homes. Hmong research assistants collected data using a questionnaire format at 1.5 years following resettlement in the U.S. Eight years later, two measures of English language competence were obtained: a self-assessment and an objective measure of English language fluency. Self-assessed fluency and performance on a brief English test showed good correlation. Greater English fluency on both measures was predicted by the following: younger age, male gender, education or vocational training in Laos prior to migration, occupation in Laos requiring literacy, study of English while in Asia, less proximity to other Hmong households in the U.S., any educational involvement in the U.S. (except English as a second language or ESL training), and not receiving welfare. Self-assessment of English fluency appeared to be a valid measure of competence in English. Demographic characteristics, certain premigration experiences, and early postmigration experiences predicted English fluency after 10 years in the U.S. ESL training was not associated with eventual English fluency on either self-assessment or objective testing. Recommendations are made to enhance English fluency, and hence the psychosocial adaptation of refuguees and other immigrants to the U.S. PMID:9225568

Westermeyer, J; Her, C

1996-01-01

405

Intervention for aggressive victims of school bullying in Hong Kong: a longitudinal mixed-methods study.  

PubMed

The distinction between aggressive and passive victims of school bullying is well documented. Aggressive victims exhibit restlessness and hot-temperedness, are easily provoked, and take revenge when irritated, whereas passive victims are quiet and timid when attacked or insulted and withdraw rather than retaliate. To date, there has been no evidence-based evaluative study examining interventions designed specifically to reduce aggressive victimization, and neither has there been an inclusive assessment screening of high-risk aggressive victims prior to intervention. This study addressed these research gaps by employing multi-stage assessment procedures and a mixed-mode methodology in a one-year longitudinal design. Data were collected from student self-reports, parent and teacher rating scales, and individual structured interviews with students, parents and teachers. A total of 269 potential high-risk aggressive victims were identified from among 5,089 schoolchildren, 68 of whom were screened out and randomly assigned to 10 treatment groups, with 39 completing a one-year follow-up study. Multivariate analysis of variance identified significant improvements in physical and verbal victimization (F(2,47, 93.99) = 10.73, p < 0.01), verbal victimization (F(2.74, 104.14) = 12.80, p < 0.01) and social exclusion scores at the three follow-up assessments compared to the pre-treatment scores, and the qualitative results were consistent, showing participants' cognition, emotion, and behavior to have been positively reconstructed by the group intervention. The consistent quantitative and qualitative results confirm that the cognitive-behavioral group therapy program reported herein is effective in reducing aggressive victims' anxious and depressed emotions and reactive cognition. PMID:22670574

Fung, Annis Lai-Chu

2012-08-01

406

Cardiovascular Health and Cognitive Function: The Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Background Smoking, physical inactivity, and poor diet, along with obesity, fasting glucose and blood pressure have been independently associated with poorer cognitive performance. Few studies have related scales representing a combination of these variables to multiple domains of cognitive performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between overall cardiovascular health, incorporating seven components, and cognitive function. Methods A cross-sectional analysis employing 972 participants, from the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study was undertaken. Four health behaviors (body mass index, physical activity, diet, smoking) and three health factors (total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose) were measured. Each was categorized according to the American Heart Association definitions for ideal cardiovascular health, except diet, for which two food scores were calculated. A Cardiovascular Health Score was determined by summing the number of cardiovascular metrics at ideal levels. Cognitive function was assessed using a thorough neuropsychological test battery. Results Cardiovascular Health Score was positively associated with seven out of eight measures of cognitive function, with adjustment for age, education, and gender. With further adjustment for cardiovascular and psychological variables, these associations remained significant for Visual-Spatial Memory, Working Memory, Scanning and Tracking, Executive Function and the Global Composite score (p<0.05 for all). Ideal levels of a number of health factors and behaviors were positively associated with global cognitive performance. Conclusion Increasing cardiovascular health, indexed by a higher number of metrics at ideal levels, is associated with greater cognitive performance. Smoking, physical activity, and diet are important components of cardiovascular health that impact upon cognition. PMID:24595096

Crichton, Georgina E.; Elias, Merrill F.; Davey, Adam; Alkerwi, Ala'a

2014-01-01

407

Early childhood exposure to parental nudity and scenes of parental sexuality ("primal scenes"): an 18-year longitudinal study of outcome.  

PubMed

As part of the UCLA Family Lifestyles Project (FLS), 200 male and female children participated in an 18-year longitudinal outcome study of early childhood exposure to parental nudity and scenes of parental sexuality ("primal scenes"). At age 17-18, participants were assessed for levels of self-acceptance; relations with peers, parents, and other adults; antisocial and criminal behavior; substance use; suicidal ideation; quality of sexual relationships; and problems associated with sexual relations. No harmful "main effect" correlates of the predictor variables were found. A significant crossover Sex of Participant X Primal Scenes interaction was found such that boys exposed to primal scenes before age 6 had reduced risk of STD transmission or having impregnated someone in adolescence. In contrast, girls exposed to primal scenes before age 6 had increased risk of STD transmission or having become pregnant. A number of main effect trends in the data (nonsignificant at p < 0.05, following the Bonferonni correction) linked exposure to nudity and exposure to primal scenes with beneficial outcomes. However, a number of these findings were mediated by sex of participant interactions showing that the effects were attenuated or absent for girls. All effects were independent of family stability, pathology, or child-rearing ideology; sex of participant; SES; and beliefs and attitudes toward sexuality. Limitations of the data and of long-term regression studies in general are discussed, and the sex of participant interactions are interpreted speculatively. It is suggested that pervasive beliefs in the harmfulness of the predictor variables are exaggerated. PMID:9681119

Okami, P; Olmstead, R; Abramson, P R; Pendleton, L

1998-08-01

408

The ‘Black Box’ Problem in the Study of Participation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on citizen participation has been guided by two core issues: first, the observation of a widening repertory of modes of participation, and second, the argument that participation is not an undifferentiated phenomenon, but must be conceived as an inherently multidimensional reality. In this article, we argue that conventional participation research has focused too one-sidedly on quantitatively expanding the range

Lesley Hustinx; Thomas Denk

2009-01-01

409

Psychosocial predictors of somatic symptoms in adolescents of parents with HIV: a six-year longitudinal study.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to identify salient parent and adolescent psychosocial factors related to somatic symptoms in adolescents. As part of a larger intervention study conducted in New York, 409 adolescents were recruited from 269 parents with HIV. A longitudinal model predicted adolescent somatization scores six years after baseline assessment. Adolescent somatic symptoms were assessed at baseline and at 3-month intervals for the first two years and then at 6-month intervals using the Brief Symptom Inventory. Baseline data from adolescents and parents were used to predict adolescent somatic symptoms. Variables related to increased adolescent somatic symptoms over six years included being younger and female; an increased number of adolescent medical hospitalizations; more stressful life events; adolescent perception of a highly rejecting parenting style; more parent-youth conflict; no experience of parental death; and parental distress over their own pain symptoms. Our findings extend the literature by virtue of the longitudinal design; inclusion of both parent and child variables in one statistical model; identification of study participants by their potentially stressful living condition rather than by disease or somatic symptom status; and inclusion of serious parental illness and death in the study. PMID:18576168

Bursch, B; Lester, P; Jiang, L; Rotheram-Borus, M J; Weiss, R

2008-07-01

410

Psychosocial predictors of somatic symptoms in adolescents of parents with HIV: a six-year longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to identify salient parent and adolescent psychosocial factors related to somatic symptoms in adolescents. As part of a larger intervention study conducted in New York, 409 adolescents were recruited from 269 parents with HIV. A longitudinal model predicted adolescent somatization scores six years after baseline assessment. Adolescent somatic symptoms were assessed at baseline and at 3-month intervals for the first two years and then at 6-month intervals using the Brief Symptom Inventory. Baseline data from adolescents and parents were used to predict adolescent somatic symptoms. Variables related to increased adolescent somatic symptoms over six years included being younger and female; an increased number of adolescent medical hospitalizations; more stressful life events; adolescent perception of a highly rejecting parenting style; more parent-youth conflict; no experience of parental death; and parental distress over their own pain symptoms. Our findings extend the literature by virtue of the longitudinal design; inclusion of both parent and child variables in one statistical model; identification of study participants by their potentially stressful living condition rather than by disease or somatic symptom status; and inclusion of serious parental illness and death in the study. PMID:18576168

Bursch, B.; Lester, P.; Jiang, L.; Rotheram-Borus, M.J.; Weiss, R.

2010-01-01

411

A Different Result of Community Participation in Education: An Indonesian Case Study of Parental Participation in Public Primary Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parental participation in school management is regarded as a good thing according to the rationale that local people know better and are able to be more responsive to their own needs. However, little is understood about the implications of the School Operational Support policy for community participation in education. This study investigated…

Fitriah, Amaliah; Sumintono, Bambang; Subekti, Nanang Bagus; Hassan, Zainudin

2013-01-01

412

Large-Scale Genome-Wide Association Studies and Meta-Analyses of Longitudinal Change in Adult Lung Function  

PubMed Central

Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous loci influencing cross-sectional lung function, but less is known about genes influencing longitudinal change in lung function. Methods We performed GWAS of the rate of change in forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) in 14 longitudinal, population-based cohort studies comprising 27,249 adults of European ancestry using linear mixed effects model and combined cohort-specific results using fixed effect meta-analysis to identify novel genetic loci associated with longitudinal change in lung function. Gene expression analyses were subsequently performed for identified genetic loci. As a secondary aim, we estimated the mean rate of decline in FEV1 by smoking pattern, irrespective of genotypes, across these 14 studies using meta-analysis. Results The overall meta-analysis produced suggestive evidence for association at the novel IL16/STARD5/TMC3 locus on chromosome 15 (P ?=? 5.71 × 10-7). In addition, meta-analysis using the five cohorts with ?3 FEV1 measurements per participant identified the novel ME3 locus on chromosome 11 (P ?=? 2.18 × 10-8) at genome-wide significance. Neither locus was associated with FEV1 decline in two additional cohort studies. We confirmed gene expression of IL16, STARD5, and ME3 in multiple lung tissues. Publicly available microarray data confirmed differential expression of all three genes in lung samples from COPD patients compared with controls. Irrespective of genotypes, the combined estimate for FEV1 decline was 26.9, 29.2 and 35.7 mL/year in never, former, and persistent smokers, respectively. Conclusions In this large-scale GWAS, we identified two novel genetic loci in association with the rate of change in FEV1 that harbor candidate genes with biologically plausible functional links to lung function. PMID:24983941

Tang, Wenbo; Kowgier, Matthew; Loth, Daan W.; Soler Artigas, Maria; Joubert, Bonnie R.; Hodge, Emily; Gharib, Sina A.; Smith, Albert V.; Ruczinski, Ingo; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Mathias, Rasika A.; Harris, Tamara B.; Hansel, Nadia N.; Launer, Lenore J.; Barnes, Kathleen C.; Hansen, Joyanna G.; Albrecht, Eva; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Allerhand, Michael; Barr, R. Graham; Brusselle, Guy G.; Couper, David J.; Curjuric, Ivan; Davies, Gail; Deary, Ian J.; Dupuis, Josee; Fall, Tove; Foy, Millennia; Franceschini, Nora; Gao, Wei; Glaser, Sven; Gu, Xiangjun; Hancock, Dana B.; Heinrich, Joachim; Hofman, Albert; Imboden, Medea; Ingelsson, Erik; James, Alan; Karrasch, Stefan; Koch, Beate; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Kumar, Ashish; Lahousse, Lies; Li, Guo; Lind, Lars; Lindgren, Cecilia; Liu, Yongmei; Lohman, Kurt; Lumley, Thomas; McArdle, Wendy L.; Meibohm, Bernd; Morris, Andrew P.; Morrison, Alanna C.; Musk, Bill; North, Kari E.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rotter, Jerome I.; Schulz, Holger; Smith, Lewis J.; Sood, Akshay; Starr, John M.; Strachan, David P.; Teumer, Alexander; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Volzke, Henry; Voorman, Arend; Wain, Louise V.; Wells, Martin T.; Wilk, Jemma B.; Williams, O. Dale; Heckbert, Susan R.; Stricker, Bruno H.; London, Stephanie J.; Fornage, Myriam; Tobin, Martin D.; O?Connor, George T.; Hall, Ian P.; Cassano, Patricia A.

2014-01-01

413

A longitudinal study of the development of attitudes and beliefs towards physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Student success in a physics degree has been shown to depend on more than just performance in course assessment: important additional factors include student attitudes and beliefs about their subject. We have used an instrument (CLASS) that measures how student epistemologies evolve over the course of their undergraduate degree. Our previous work has sampled a cross-section of students at all levels across the physics undergraduate programme at Edinburgh in a single academic year, and found that student attitudes and beliefs remain essentially static. Here, we present fully longitudinal data collected over the past three years, where we track the evolution of the attitudes and beliefs of one group of students. We find broadly similar results: attitudes and beliefs remain surprisingly consistent over time. This suggests that a 'cross-sectional' or 'pseudo-longitudinal' study (collecting snapshot data in one year) is a valid methodology, rather than necessarily having to wait several years to accumulate truly longitudinal data.

Slaughter, K. A.; Bates, S. P.; Galloway, R. K.

2012-02-01

414

Problematics of Time and Timing in the Longitudinal Study of Human Development: Theoretical and Methodological Issues  

PubMed Central

Studying human development involves describing, explaining, and optimizing intraindividual change and interindividual differences in such change and, as such, requires longitudinal research. The selection of the appropriate type of longitudinal design requires selecting the option that best addresses the theoretical questions asked about developmental process and the use of appropriate statistical procedures to best exploit data derived from theory-predicated longitudinal research. This paper focuses on several interrelated problematics involving the treatment of time and the timing of observations that developmental scientists face in creating theory-design fit and in charting in change-sensitive ways developmental processes across life. We discuss ways in which these problematics may be addressed to advance theory-predicated understanding of the role of time in processes of individual development. PMID:19554215

Lerner, Richard M.; Schwartz, Seth J; Phelps, Erin

2009-01-01

415

Longitudinal Studies of HIV Infection in Intravenous Drug Users.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Strategies for Enhancing Existing Studies of the Natural History of HIV-1 Infection Among Drug Users; Natural History of HIV Infection in Gay Men and Intravenous Drug Users; Sampling Issues for Natural History Studies Including Intravenous Drug ...

P. Hartsock, S. G. Genser

1991-01-01

416

Study on longitudinal dispersion relation in one-dimensional relativistic plasma: Linear theory and Vlasov simulation  

SciTech Connect

The dispersion relation of one-dimensional longitudinal plasma waves in relativistic homogeneous plasmas is investigated with both linear theory and Vlasov simulation in this paper. From the Vlasov-Poisson equations, the linear dispersion relation is derived for the proper one-dimensional Jüttner distribution. Numerically obtained linear dispersion relation as well as an approximate formula for plasma wave frequency in the long wavelength limit is given. The dispersion of longitudinal wave is also simulated with a relativistic Vlasov code. The real and imaginary parts of dispersion relation are well studied by varying wave number and plasma temperature. Simulation results are in agreement with established linear theory.

Zhang, H.; Wu, S. Z.; Zhou, C. T.; He, X. T. [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China) [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China); Key Laboratory of HEDP of the Ministry of Education, CAPT, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhu, S. P. [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China)] [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China)

2013-09-15

417

Nondaily smoking: a population-based, longitudinal study of stability and predictors  

PubMed Central

Background Nondaily smoking appears to have remained stable in Western countries in recent years, alongside a steep decline in daily smoking. Nondaily smoking increases the risk of several diseases and premature mortality, but our knowledge about nondaily smoking is limited. The present study was designed to examine the stability of nondaily smoking during young adulthood, and to identify adolescent factors predictive of nondaily smoking compared with nonsmoking and non-nicotine-dependent and nicotine-dependent daily smoking. Methods A population-based sample (n?=?942) of Norwegians was followed up by surveys for 13 years, from adolescence to young adulthood. Information about smoking patterns, nicotine dependence, school achievement, parents’ and peers’ smoking, and parental monitoring was collected. Data on parental and participants’ education were obtained from a national register. Results Of all nondaily smokers at age 21 years, 26% were still nondaily smokers at 27 years, while 17% had become daily smokers and 57% had quit. Bivariate analyses revealed that young adult nondaily smokers did not differ from nonsmokers on any of the included variables, while a number of differences in parental, peers’ and individual characteristics were observed between nondaily smokers and the two categories of smokers in young adulthood. Longitudinal analyses revealed that unorganized leisure time activities and peers’ smoking differentiated nondaily smoking from nonsmoking. Higher educational achievement and less parental binge drinking predicted nondaily smoking and differentiated it from both categories of daily smoking. Conclusions The degree of nondaily smoking-stability from 21 to 27 years of age was modest, and most nondaily smokers quit smoking in the course of young adulthood. Young adult nondaily smokers were quite similar to nonsmokers, but differed substantially from both nicotine-dependent and nondependent daily smokers. The study suggests that nondaily smoking—at least in the absence of traditional risk factors for smoking—is usually a transitory behavior, with most people returning to nonsmoking. PMID:24498864

2014-01-01

418

A prospective longitudinal study of children's theory of mind and adolescent involvement in bullying  

PubMed Central

Background Theory of mind allows the understanding and prediction of other people’s behaviours based on their mental states (e.g. beliefs). It is important for healthy social relationships and thus may contribute towards children’s involvement in bullying. The present study investigated whether children involved in bullying during early adolescence had poor theory of mind in childhood. Method Participants were members of the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally-representative sample of 2,232 children and their families. Families were visited by the authors when children were 5, 7, 10 and 12 years. Theory of mind was assessed when the children were 5 years using eight standardized tasks. Identification of those children who were involved in bullying as victims, bullies and bully-victims using mothers’, teachers’ and children’s reports was carried out when they were 12 years’ old. Results Poor theory of mind predicted becoming a victim (effect size, d=0.26), bully (d=0.25) or bully-victim (d=0.44) in early adolescence. These associations remained for victims and bully-victims when child-specific (e.g., IQ) and family factors (e.g., child maltreatment) were controlled for. Emotional and behavioural problems during middle childhood did not modify the association between poor theory of mind and adolescent bullying experiences. Conclusion Identifying and supporting children with poor theory of mind early in life could help reduce their vulnerability for involvement in bullying and thus limit its adverse effects on mental health. PMID:22081896

Sania, Shakoor; Jaffee, Sara R; Bowes, Lucy; Ouellet-Morin, Isabelle; Andreou, Penelope; Happe, Francesca; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise

2011-01-01

419

Study protocol: The back pain outcomes using longitudinal data (BOLD) registry  

PubMed Central

Background Back pain is one of the most important causes of functional limitation, disability, and utilization of health care resources for adults of all ages, but especially among older adults. Despite the high prevalence of back pain in this population, important questions remain unanswered regarding the comparative effectiveness of commonly used diagnostic tests and treatments in the elderly. The overall goal of the Back pain Outcomes using Longitudinal Data (BOLD) project is to establish a rich, sustainable registry to describe the natural history and evaluate prospectively the effectiveness, safety, and cost-effectiveness of interventions for patients 65 and older with back pain. Methods/design BOLD is enrolling 5,000 patients???65?years old who present to a primary care physician with a new episode of back pain. We are recruiting study participants from three integrated health systems (Kaiser-Permanente Northern California, Henry Ford Health System in Detroit and Harvard Vanguard Medical Associates/ Harvard Pilgrim Health Care in Boston). Registry patients complete validated, standardized measures of pain, back pain-related disability, and health-related quality of life at enrollment and 3, 6 and 12?months later. We also have available for analysis the clinical and administrative data in the participating health systems’ electronic medical records. Using registry data, we will conduct an observational cohort study of early imaging compared to no early imaging among patients with new episodes of back pain. The aims are to: 1) identify predictors of early imaging and; 2) compare pain, functional outcomes, diagnostic testing and treatment utilization of patients who receive early imaging versus patients who do not receive early imaging. In terms of predictors, we will examine patient factors as well as physician factors. Discussion By establishing the BOLD registry, we are creating a resource that contains patient-reported outcome measures as well as electronic medical record data for elderly patients with back pain. The richness of our data will allow better matching for comparative effectiveness studies than is currently possible with existing datasets. BOLD will enrich the existing knowledge base regarding back pain in the elderly to help clinicians and patients make informed, evidence-based decisions regarding their care. PMID:22554166

2012-01-01

420

Hyperthyroidism is a Risk Factor for Developing Adhesive Capsulitis of the Shoulder: A Nationwide Longitudinal Population-Based Study  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and risk of adhesive capsulitis among hyperthyroidism patients. The data were obtained from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005 (LHID 2005) in Taiwan, using 1 million participants and a prospective population-based 7-year cohort study of survival analysis. The ambulatory-care claim records of patients diagnosed according to the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes relating to hyperthyroidism between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2007, were obtained. The prevalence and the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of adhesive capsulitis among hyperthyroid patients and the control group were estimated. Of 4472 hyperthyroid patients, 162 (671/100 000 person-years) experienced adhesive capsulitis during the 24 122 person-year follow-up period. The crude HR of stroke was 1.26 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06 to 1.49), which was larger than that of the control group. The adjusted HR of developing adhesive capsulitis was 1.22 (95% CI, 1.03 to 1.45) for hyperthyroid patients during the 7-year follow-up period, which achieved statistical significance. The results of our large-scale longitudinal population-based study indicated that hyperthyroidism is an independent risk factor of developing adhesive capsulitis. PMID:24567049

Huang, Shih-Wei; Lin, Jia-Wei; Wang, Wei-Te; Wu, Chin-Wen; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Lin, Hui-Wen

2014-01-01

421

A Longitudinal Study of Rape Attitude Correlates among College Men.  

E-print Network

??Research has linked rape victim-blaming attitudes (VBAs) with gender role stereotyping, negative peer attitudes towards women, and acceptance of interpersonal violence. The current study analyzed… (more)

Howe-Martin, Laura S.

2006-01-01

422

Longitudinal Case-Studies of Developmental Dyslexia in Norwegian  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined retrospectively the preschool cognitive and linguistic profiles and emergent literacy skills in four Norwegian dyslexic children. The aim was to identify prognostic indicators that were associated with the reading impairments observed in an earlier study of these children. In comparison to a control group of at-risk children…

Nergard-Nilssen, Trude

2006-01-01

423

A Longitudinal Study of Household Change on African American Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few studies have examined the effects of household change on adolescent development. We study household composition change and its effect on development, as measured by both internalizing symptoms and externalizing behaviors, in a sample of urban African American adolescents. Household change was defined based on the movement in or out of the…

Barnett, Tracey E.; Rowley, Stephanie; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Vansadia, Preeti; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

2011-01-01

424

Acceptance Versus Friendship: A Longitudinal Study of Racial Integration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a report on a study of racial interrelationships among students in desegregated schools. Sociometric measures of third graders' willingness to play and work with their classmates (indicating cross-race acceptance) showed evidence of racial bias; however, the amount of bias appeared small compared to the findings of earlier studies which…

Asher, Steven R.; And Others

425

A Longitudinal Study of Cocaine Use among Juvenile Arrestees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report the results of latent growth model analyses examining the continuity of cocaine use among adolescents. This study examined a sample of 278 justice-involved juveniles completing at least one of three follow-up interviews as part of a National Institute on Drug Abuse funded study. Latent growth models were analyzed examining (1) changes in…

Dembo, Richard; Wareham, Jennifer; Schmeidler, James

2007-01-01

426

A Longitudinal Study of Cocaine Use Among Juvenile Arrestees  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the results of latent growth model analyses examining the continuity of cocaine use among adolescents. This study examined a sample of 278 justice-involved juveniles completing at least one of three follow-up interviews as part of a National Institute on Drug Abuse funded study. Latent growth models were analyzed examining (1) changes in cocaine use over time; (2) the

Richard Dembo; Jennifer Wareham; James Schmeidler

2007-01-01

427

Longitudinal Study of Student Dropout from a Business School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the authors identified variables that predict college student dropout from a business school. In the 1st phase of the study, they collected information from students (N = 403) in the 2nd semester of their freshman year. Then they collected dropout data from the same students 4 semesters after the first phase. The authors used…

Mangum, Wiley M.; Baugher, Dan; Winch, Janice K.; Varanelli, Andrew

2005-01-01

428

A Longitudinal Study of Student Understanding of Chance and Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study uses Partial Credit Rasch analysis to study a complex data set of student responses to survey items relating to chance and data. The items were administered in the classroom and collected from 1993 to 2003 in the Australian state of Tasmania. Data were collected from a total of 5514 individual students across Grades 3 to 11 over the…

Watson, Jane; Kelly, Ben; Izard, John

2006-01-01

429

Longitudinal Study of Student Dropout From a Business School  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the authors identified variables that predict college student dropout from a business school. In the 1st phase of the study, they collected information from students (N = 403) in the 2nd semester of their freshman year. Then they collected dropout data from the same students 4 semesters after the first phase. The authors used point-biserial correlations to

Wiley M. Mangum; Dan Baugher; Janice K. Winch; Andrew Varanelli

2005-01-01

430

Denial in lung cancer patients: a longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although denial in cancer patients is well known clinically, few studies investigating the prevalence of denial over time have been conducted. The objectives of this study are to investigate the level of denial in lung cancer patients over time and the impact of socio-demographic and illness-related variables on denial in these patients. Methods: The level of denial was measured

Martina S. Vos; Hein Putter; Hans C. van Houwelingen

2008-01-01

431

Course and Outcome for Schizophrenia Versus Other Psychotic Patients: A Longitudinal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied 276 patients longitudinally, beginning at the acute phase and continuing at three successive followups over 7.5 years, comparing 74 schizophrenia patients with 74 other psychotic patients and 128 nonpsychotic patients on early course and outcome. Schizophrenia patients showed significantly poorer functioning than patients with other psychotic disorders at each of the three followups (p < 0.05). More schizophrenia

Martin Harrow; James R. Sands; Marshall L. Silverstein; Joseph F. Goldberg

1997-01-01

432

A Review of Longitudinal Studies of Cognitive Functions in Schizophrenia Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even though the idea that schizophrenia is a neurobehavioral syndrome has become a mainstream position, there is no consensus on the precise nature of the cognitive and neuropsychological impairment. Research on cognitive dysfunctions in schizophrenia has been directed toward discriminating stable dysfunctions (traits) from symptom-linked (state) deficits. A longitudinal study design is the only one that can provide answers to

Bjørn Rishovd Rund

1998-01-01

433

RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION ISSUES FOR A LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH  

EPA Science Inventory

A better understanding of the most effective recruitment techniques and retention strategies for longitudinal, community-based, children's environmental health studies is needed. A series of 18 focus groups were conducted across the U.S. in February 2003. Pregnant women and exp...

434

A Longitudinal Study of Conversations with Parents about Sex and Dating during College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emerging adulthood is a time of sexual and romantic relationship development as well as change in the parent-child relationship. This study provides a longitudinal analysis of 30 young adults' (17 women, 13 men) sexual experiences, attitudes about sexuality and dating, and reported conversations with parents about sexuality and dating from the 1st…

Morgan, Elizabeth M.; Thorne, Avril; Zurbriggen, Eileen L.

2010-01-01

435

Self-Rated Health and the "First Move" around Retirement: A Longitudinal Study of Older Americans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: I examine whether less favorable self-rated health raises the risk of outmigration more for young-old adults (aged 53-63 at the start of the 10-year longitudinal study in 1994) in nonmetro than metro counties and increases the odds that both groups of outmigrants will choose metro over nonmetro destinations. Finally, I examine whether…

Johnson, Nan E.

2012-01-01

436

A Longitudinal Study Showing How Students Use a Molecule Concept when Explaining Everyday Situations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we present results from a 10-year (1997-2006) longitudinal study in which we, by interviews once or twice every year, followed how students, throughout the compulsory school, developed their understanding of three situations in which transformations of matter occur. We believe that students have to meet scientific ideas early in…

Lofgren, Lena; Hellden, Gustav

2009-01-01

437

Home Language and Language Proficiency; A Large-Scale Longitudinal Study in Dutch Primary Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a large-scale longitudinal study into the development of language proficiency of Dutch primary school children aged 7-10. Data on language proficiency and a range of background variables were analyzed. Results suggest that while immigrant children develop their language skill in Dutch considerably over 2 years, they are nonetheless…

Driessen, Geert; van der Slik, Frans; De Bot, Kees

2002-01-01

438

Changing Stereotypes, Changing Grades: A Longitudinal Study of Stereotyping during a College Math Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research has illuminated an important connection between stereotypes and the performance of those targeted by a stereotype. This body of work suggests that even implicit (i.e., nonconscious and unintended) math-gender stereotyping is related to poor math performance among women. Our longitudinal study sought to measure students'…

Ramsey, Laura R.; Sekaquaptewa, Denise

2011-01-01

439

inAir: A Longitudinal study of Indoor Air Quality Measurements and Visualizations  

E-print Network

inAir: A Longitudinal study of Indoor Air Quality Measurements and Visualizations Sunyoung Kim1 Sciences University of California, Berkeley Berkeley, CA 97420-1776 paulos@berkeley.edu ABSTRACT Indoor air quality (IAQ) is important for health as people spend the majority of time indoors, and it is particularly

Mankoff, Jennifer

440

Action plans and coping plans for physical exercise: A longitudinal intervention study in cardiac rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. The aim of the present study was to test two brief planning interventions designed to encourage cardiac patients to engage in regular physical exercise following discharge from rehabilitation. The interventions comprised action plans on (a) when, where, and how to act, and (b) coping plans on how to deal with anticipated barriers. Design and method. An experimental longitudinal trial

Falko F. Sniehotta; Urte Scholz; Ralf Schwarzer

2005-01-01

441

The Utilization of Retention Strategies at Church-Related Colleges: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Implementing effective student retention strategies is important for all institutions of higher education. This is especially true for smaller, private colleges as resources for higher education are stretched and the dependence on tuition revenue to maintain fiscal viability increases. This longitudinal study focuses on the utilization of…

Vander Schee, Brian Anthony

2008-01-01

442

Preparing Urban Students for Health Careers: A Longitudinal Study of a University-High School Partnership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a longitudinal case study of an urban district school-university partnership designed to prepare students for health careers. We not only summarize the accomplishments of this partnership but also identify factors in the partnership dynamics that hindered the expected improvement in student outcomes. By suggesting possible…

Mac Iver, Martha Abele; Farley, Elizabeth

2005-01-01

443

The Longitudinal Assessment Study (LAS): Eighteen Year Follow-Up. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Premised on the view that students with more years of Montessori education (MEY) would possess to a higher degree those qualities emphasized in the Montessori environment and that Montessori students would be as successful as students more traditionally educated, this report presents the final assessment for the Longitudinal Assessment Study,…

Glenn, Christopher M.

444

A Longitudinal Study of a 5th Grade Science Curriculum Based on the 5E Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Center for Mathematics and Science Education at Texas A&M University contracted with Region 4 Education Service Center (ESC) and a large, diverse school district to conduct a longitudinal study from 2005-2009. The state achievement test scores of 5th graders who were taught using a Grade 5 science textbook designed by Region 4 ESC were…

Scott, Timothy P.; Schroeder, Carolyn; Tolson, Homer; Huang, Tse-Yang; Williams, Omah M.

2014-01-01