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1

Union commitment and participation: a 10-year longitudinal study.  

PubMed

The authors longitudinally investigated the causal nature of the relationship between union commitment and participation in informal union activities. A total of 134 members of the National Association of Letter Carriers were studied over a 10-year period. Using cross-lagged regression analysis, early union commitment was found to predict the level of informal union participation 10 years later. The reverse and reciprocal relationships were not supported. These findings support and extend earlier research on the causal nature of the short-term relationship between union commitment and participation. The implications of the findings for researchers and labor unions are discussed. PMID:15327358

Fullagar, Clive J; Gallagher, Daniel G; Clark, Paul F; Carroll, Anthony E

2004-08-01

2

Altruism and participation in longitudinal health research? Insights from the Whitehall II Study.  

PubMed

Research that follows people over a period of time (longitudinal or panel studies) is important in understanding the ageing process and changes over time in the lives of older people. Older people may choose to leave studies due to frailty, or illness and this may diminish the value of the study. However, people also drop out of studies for other reasons and understanding the motivation behind participation or drop out may prevent further loss of valuable longitudinal information and assist the continuation of longitudinal studies. This paper examines qualitative data from interviews and focus groups in 2003/2008 with participants of the Whitehall II Study (based at UCL), and investigates reasons participants give for participating in longitudinal health studies, and recommendations they give for encouraging continued participation as they grow older. A total of 28 participants and 14 staff were interviewed, and 17 participants took part in focus groups. Our findings are discussed in the light of the debate between of altruism and reciprocity. Rather than being wholly motivated by altruism, as research staff had assumed, participants were motivated by the benefits they perceived, particularly the information and care received during the medical examinations and the sense of loyalty and membership associated with being part of the study. Our findings support the view that far from being primarily motivated by altruism, research participation in studies such as this may also involve a degree of implicit and explicit reciprocity. However, participants disliked the obligation to complete the study questionnaires--which may have influenced the expectation of payment or reciprocation, as participation was not wholly pleasing. To try and maintain participation in longitudinal health studies this project recommended gathering information from exit interviews as a way of preventing further withdrawals and closer involvement of participants through a user panel. PMID:23031604

Mein, Gill; Seale, Clive; Rice, Helen; Johal, Suneeta; Ashcroft, Richard E; Ellison, George; Tinker, Anthea

2012-12-01

3

Personality and labor force participation across the life course: A longitudinal study of women's careers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influences on and consequences of women's labor force experience are examined using data from members of the Berkeley longitudinal studies born between 1920 and 1929. In adolescence, these women were overwhelmingly oriented toward marriage and family rather than career, yet more than two-thirds eventually spent substantial time in the paid labor force. Consistent labor force participation was lower for

John A. Clausen; Martin Gilens

1990-01-01

4

The longitudinal urban cohort ageing study (LUCAS): study protocol and participation in the first decade  

PubMed Central

Background We present concept, study protocol and selected baseline data of the Longitudinal Urban Cohort Ageing Study (LUCAS) in Germany. LUCAS is a long-running cohort study of community-dwelling seniors complemented by specific studies of geriatric patients or diseases. Aims were to (1) Describe individual ageing trajectories in a metropolitan setting, documenting changes in functional status, the onset of frailty, disability and need of care; (2) Find determinants of healthy ageing; (3) Assess long-term effects of specific health promotion interventions; (4) Produce results for health care planning for fit, pre-frail, frail and disabled elderly persons; (5) Set up a framework for embedded studies to investigate various hypotheses in specific subgroups of elderly. Methods/Design In 2000, twenty-one general practitioners (GPs) were recruited in the Hamburg metropolitan area; they generated lists of all their patients 60?years and older. Persons not terminally ill, without daily need of assistance or professional care were eligible. Of these, n?=?3,326 (48?%) agreed to participate and completed a small (baseline) and an extensive health questionnaire (wave 1). In 2007/2008, a re-recruitment took place including 2,012 participants: 743 men, 1,269 women (647 deaths, 197 losses, 470 declined further participation). In 2009/2010 n?=?1,627 returned the questionnaire (90 deaths, 47 losses, 248 declined further participation) resulting in a good participation rate over ten years with limited and quantified dropouts. Presently, follow-up data from 2007/2008 (wave 2) and 2009/2010 (wave 3) are available. Data wave 4 is due in 2011/2012, and the project will be continued until 2013. Information on survival and need of nursing care was collected continuously and cross-checked against official records. We used Fisher’s exact test and t-tests. The study served repeatedly to evaluate health promotion interventions and concepts. Discussion LUCAS shows that a cohort study of older persons is feasible and can maintain a good participation rate over ten years, even when extensive self-reported health data are collected repeatedly through self-filled questionnaires. Evidently individual health developments of elderly persons can be tracked quantifying simultaneously behaviour, co-morbidity, functional competence and their changes. In future, we expect to generate results of significance about the five study aims listed above.

2012-01-01

5

Development of work participation in young adults with cerebral palsy: A longitudinal study.  

PubMed

Objective: To document the development of work participation in young adults with cerebral palsy who are transitioning into adulthood, examine associated characteristics, and investigate work limitations and barriers among employed persons. Design: Observational longitudinal cohort study. Subjects: Seventy-four young adults with cerebral palsy of average intelligence, aged 16-20 years at baseline. Methods: Work participation in 3 categories (employed, unemployed, studying) was assessed at baseline, 2-year and 4-year follow-ups using structured interviews. At 4-year follow-up, associations of work participation with demographic and clinical characteristics were examined using multinomial logistic regression. Work limitations and barriers among employed persons were evaluated using questionnaires. Results: From age range 16-20 years to age range 20-24 years the proportions of subjects who were employed and unemployed increased from 12% to 49% and 3% to 17%, respectively; the proportion who were students decreased from 85% to 34%. In the age range 20-24 years, the employment rate of young adults with cerebral palsy was lower and the unemployment rate higher, than that of the general population. A lower level of gross motor function and younger age were associated with unemployment. Employed persons experienced few work limitations; 28% experienced situational or health barriers. Conclusion: Young adults with cerebral palsy and average intelligence are at risk of experiencing unfavourable developments in work participation. Rehabilitation services should offer support to prevent unemployment and occupational disability. PMID:24858956

Verhoef, Joan A C; Bramsen, Inge; Miedema, Harald S; Stam, Henk J; Roebroeck, Marij E

2014-06-25

6

Head start participation and school readiness: evidence from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort.  

PubMed

Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (n ? 6,950), a nationally representative sample of children born in 2001, we examined school readiness (academic skills and socioemotional well-being) at kindergarten entry for children who attended Head Start compared with those who experienced other types of child care (prekindergarten, other center-based care, other nonparental care, or parental care). Using propensity score matching methods and ordinary least squares regressions with rich controls, we found that Head Start participants had higher early reading and math scores than children in other nonparental care or parental care but also higher levels of conduct problems than those in parental care. Head Start participants had lower early reading scores compared with children in prekindergarten and had no differences in any outcomes compared with children in other center-based care. Head Start benefits were more pronounced for children who had low initial cognitive ability or parents with low levels of education or who attended Head Start for more than 20 hr per week. PMID:23527496

Lee, RaeHyuck; Zhai, Fuhua; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Han, Wen-Jui; Waldfogel, Jane

2014-01-01

7

Insights from an 8-Year Longitudinal Study of Female REU Participants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long-running REU program is tacitly intended to increase retention and provide "an important educational experience" for undergraduates, particularly women, minorities and underrepresented groups. This 8-year, two-stage study was designed to explore the ways in which the REU acted as an educational experience for 51 women from a single scientific discipline. This paper describes the results of that analysis in two sections. The first section describes the results from an ex post facto longitudinal data analysis. This data included multiple interviews with each participant during their REU, annual open-ended alumni surveys, faculty interviews, and extensive field notes, over an 8-year period. As a result of this analysis, four themes emerged, related to developing understandings of the nature of professional scientific work, the nature of the scientific process, the culture of academia, and finally, an understanding of the "self." This analysis served as an initial theory that was used to design the second stage, interview protocol. In the second stage over 10 hours of interviews with 8 participants were conducted and analyzed. These 8 participants were selected to represent a variety of career stages, and for their potential to disconfirm the initial theory. Analysis of this interview data failed to provide disconfirming evidence. Results from this study indicate that the REU did not provide a substantive educational experience related to the nature of scientific work, the scientific process, or the culture of academia. Results further indicated that the REU did not serve to transform participants' conceptions about themselves as situated in science, and learning gains with regard to other aspects of the self, were somewhat limited. Instead, the data suggests that these women arrived at the REU with pre-existing and remarkably strong conceptions in these areas, and that the REU did not functional to alter those states. These conceptions were frequently the result of interactions with mentors/scientists from middle school until well into the undergraduate period. Formal and informal interactions with research scientists and instructors, in addition to family members, served as crucial forces in shaping highly developed, stable science identities. Sustained interactions with a single mentor at a home institution were particularly transformational. This study suggests further studies into the impact of long-term mentors on women in the sciences, at a variety of stages and across multiple disciplines.

Slater, S. J.

2009-12-01

8

A Longitudinal Study of the Educational and Career Trajectories of Female Participants of an Urban Informal Science Education Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this longitudinal case study is to describe the educational trajectories of a sample of 152 young women from urban, low-income, single-parent families who participated in the Women in Natural Sciences (WINS) program during high school. Utilizing data drawn from program records, surveys, and interviews, this study also attempts to…

Fadigan, Kathleen A.; Hammrich, Penny L.

2004-01-01

9

A longitudinal study exploring perspectives of participants regarding reflective practice during their transition from higher education to professional practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the experiences of reflective practice with a group of participants during their transition from higher education to professional practice. A longitudinal study was conducted with a group of nine students when they were on a Masters programme with a follow?up a year into practice. The findings suggest that as students, they all considered reflective practice to be

Elizabeth A. Holmes

2009-01-01

10

Does Participation in School-to-Career Limit Students Educational and Career Opportunities? Findings from the LAMP Longitudinal Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of participation in school-to-career (STC) on subsequent educational and career opportunities were examined in a longitudinal study of 1999 and 2000 graduates of the Lansing Area Manufacturing Partnership (LAMP), which is an STC program sponsored by the United Auto Workers, General Motors Corporation, and Michigan's Ingham County…

Bozick, Robert; MacAllum, Keith

11

Sport participation and alcohol and illicit drug use in adolescents and young adults: a systematic review of longitudinal studies.  

PubMed

Sport participation can play an important and positive role in the health and development of children and youth. One area that has recently been receiving greater attention is the role that sport participation might play in preventing drug and alcohol use among youth. The current study is a systematic review of 17 longitudinal studies examining the relationship between sport participation and alcohol and drug use among adolescents. Results indicated that sport participation is associated with alcohol use, with 82% of the included studies (14/17) showing a significant positive relationship. Sport participation, however, appears to be related to reduced illicit drug use, especially use of non-cannabis related drugs. Eighty percent of the studies found sport participation associated with decreased illicit drug use, while 50% of the studies found negative association between sport participation and marijuana use. Further investigation revealed that participation in sports reduced the risk of overall illicit drug use, but particularly during high school; suggesting that this may be a critical period to reduce or prevent the use of drugs through sport. Future research must better understand what conditions are necessary for sport participation to have beneficial outcomes in terms of preventing alcohol and/or illicit drug use. This has been absent in the extent literature and will be central to intervention efforts in this area. PMID:24290876

Kwan, Matthew; Bobko, Sarah; Faulkner, Guy; Donnelly, Peter; Cairney, John

2014-03-01

12

A longitudinal study of the educational and career trajectories of female participants of an urban informal science education program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study is to describe the educational trajectories of a sample of young women from urban, low-income, single-parent families who participated in the Women in Natural Sciences (WINS) program during their ninth and/or tenth grade years of high school. This study also attempts to determine how the WINS program affected the participants' educational and career choices in order to provide insight into the role informal science education programs play in increasing the participation of women and minorities in science, math, engineering, and technology (SMET)-related fields. The research takes the form of a longitudinal, descriptive case study. The case is composed of 152 WINS participants who applied for, were accepted into, and completed at least one year of the program between 1992 and 1997. Data were drawn from program records, surveys, and interviews. Pre-WINS desired educational and career trajectory data were available for 152 participants. Post-WINS actual educational and career trajectory data were available for 101 of the young women in the sample. Seventy-eight women completed a WINS survey. The researcher conducted semi-structured interviews with 12 former participants. Findings revealed a 100 percent high school completion rate. A total of 109 participants (93.16%) enrolled in a college program following high school completion. Careers in medical or health-related fields followed by careers in SMET emerged as the highest ranking career paths with 24 students (23.76%) and 21 students (20.79%), respectively, employed in or pursuing careers in these areas. Taking a greater number of advanced or honors level SMET high school courses was the only contextual variable showing a significant relationship to pursuing a career in SMET. The majority of participants perceived having the WINS staff as people you could talk to, the job skills learned in WINS, and having the museum as a safe place to go as having influenced their educational and career decisions. These findings reflect the need for continued support of informal science education programs for urban girls and at-risk youth. Additional longitudinal studies of similar programs are crucial to understanding their effects on the education and career paths of young women with an initial interest in science.

Fadigan, Kathleen Ann

13

A longitudinal study of the educational and career trajectories of female participants of an urban informal science education program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this longitudinal case study is to describe the educational trajectories of a sample of 152 young women from urban, low-income, single-parent families who participated in the Women in Natural Sciences (WINS) program during high school. Utilizing data drawn from program records, surveys, and interviews, this study also attempts to determine how the program affected the participants' educational and career choices to provide insight into the role informal science education programs play in increasing the participation of women and minorities in science, math, engineering, and technology (SMET)-related fields. Findings revealed 109 participants (93.16%) enrolled in a college program following high school completion. Careers in medical or health-related fields followed by careers in SMET emerged as the highest ranking career paths with 24 students (23.76%) and 21 students (20.79%), respectively, employed in or pursuing careers in these areas. The majority of participants perceived having staff to talk to, the job skills learned, and having the museum as a safe place to go as having influenced their educational and career decisions. These findings reflect the need for continued support of informal science education programs for urban girls and at-risk youth.

Fadigan, Kathleen A.; Hammrich, Penny L.

2004-10-01

14

Effect of living area and sports club participation on physical fitness in children: a 4 year longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

Background Cross-sectional studies detected associations between physical fitness, living area, and sports participation in children. Yet, their scientific value is limited because the identification of cause-and-effect relationships is not possible. In a longitudinal approach, we examined the effects of living area and sports club participation on physical fitness development in primary school children from classes 3 to 6. Methods One-hundred and seventy-two children (age: 9–12 years; sex: 69 girls, 103 boys) were tested for their physical fitness (i.e., endurance [9-min run], speed [50-m sprint], lower- [triple hop] and upper-extremity muscle strength [1-kg ball push], flexibility [stand-and-reach], and coordination [star coordination run]). Living area (i.e., urban or rural) and sports club participation were assessed using parent questionnaire. Results Over the 4 year study period, urban compared to rural children showed significantly better performance development for upper- (p?=?0.009, ES?=?0.16) and lower-extremity strength (p?participating in sports clubs compared to their non-participating peers. Conclusions Our findings suggest that sport club programs with appealing arrangements appear to represent a good means to promote physical fitness in children living in rural areas.

2014-01-01

15

A LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF YOUTH SPORT PARTICIPATION AND ADHERENCE TO SPORT IN ADULTHOOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youth sport programmes are often legitimized on their assumed contribution to continued sport involvement in adulthood. A longitudinal analysis was made of the sport involvement pattern of a sample (N = 236) of male subjects from 13 to 35 years of age, from a perspective of continued socialization into sport. The results of the quantitative analysis show that the continuation

Bart Vanreusel; Roland Renson; Gaston Beunen; Albrecht L. Claessens; Johan Lefevre; Roeland Lysens; Bart Vanden Eynde

1997-01-01

16

RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION ISSUES AMONG NON-WHITE PARTICIPANTS FOR A LARGE LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH  

EPA Science Inventory

An understanding of the most effective recruitment techniques and retention strategies for longitudinal, community-based, childrens environmental health studies such as the National Childrens Study (NCS) is needed. In early 2003, eighteen focus groups were conducted across the ...

17

Head Start Participation and School Readiness: Evidence from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort December 10, 2012  

PubMed Central

Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (n ? 6,950), a nationally representative sample of children born in 2001, we examined school readiness (academic skills and socio-emotional wellbeing) at kindergarten entry for children who attended Head Start compared to those who experienced other types of child care (prekindergarten, other center-based care, other non-parental care, or parental care). Using propensity score matching methods and OLS regressions with rich controls, we found that Head Start participants had higher early reading and math scores than children in other non-parental care or parental care, but also higher levels of conduct problems than those in parental care. Head Start participants had lower early reading scores compared to children in prekindergarten, and had no differences in any outcomes compared to children in other center-based care. Head Start benefits were more pronounced for children who had low initial cognitive ability or low-educated parents, or attended Head Start for more than 20 hours per week.

Lee, RaeHyuck; Zhai, Fuhua; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Han, Wen-Jui; Waldfogel, Jane

2014-01-01

18

A road map for the recruitment and retention of older adult participants for longitudinal studies. | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

This article describes two unique strategies for recruiting older patients into clinical trials. Development of a participant registry within an institution’s geographic area creates a well documented pool of potential study participants. Age-eligible individuals provide consent to be registered and contacted about future studies.

19

Modeling seroadaptation and sexual behavior among HIV+ study participants with a simultaneously multilevel and multivariate longitudinal count model.  

PubMed

Longitudinal behavioral intervention trials to reduce HIV transmission risk collect complex multilevel and multivariate data longitudinally for each subject with important correlation structures across time, level, and variables. Accurately assessing the effects of these trials are critical for determining which interventions are effective. Both numbers of partners and numbers of sex acts with each partner are reported at each time point. Sex acts with each partner are further differentiated into protected and unprotected acts with correspondingly differing risks of HIV/STD transmission. These trials generally also have eligibility criteria limiting enrollment to participants with some minimal level of risky sexual behavior tied directly to the outcome of interest. The combination of these factors makes it difficult to quantify sexual behaviors and the effects of intervention. We propose a multivariate multilevel count model that simultaneously models the number of partners, acts within partners, and accounts for recruitment eligibility. Our methods are useful in the evaluation of intervention trials and provide a more accurate and complete model for sexual behavior. We illustrate the contributions of our model by examining seroadaptive behavior defined as risk reducing behavior that depends on the serostatus of the partner. Several forms of seroadaptive risk reducing behavior are quantified and distinguished from nonseroadaptive risk reducing behavior. PMID:23002948

Zhu, Yuda; Weiss, Robert E

2013-03-01

20

Study protocol: Determinants of participation and quality of life of adolescents with cerebral palsy: a longitudinal study (SPARCLE2)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Children and adults with impairments such as cerebral palsy have lower participation in life situations than able-bodied people. Less is known about their subjective perception of their lives, called their quality of life. During adolescence, rapid physical and psychological changes occur; although these may be more difficult for disabled than for able-bodied adolescents, little research has examined the lives

Allan F Colver; Heather O Dickinson

2010-01-01

21

Exposure to life adversity in high school and later work participation: a longitudinal population-based study.  

PubMed

This paper investigates whether exposure to violence, sexual abuse, or bullying is associated with later work participation and whether high school completion has a potential mediating role. Self-reported junior high school questionnaire data were linked for eight consecutive years to prospective registry data for the demographics, educational progress, employment activity, and social benefits of 11,874 individuals. Ordinal regression analysis showed that violence and/or bullying at 15 years of age predicted negative work participation outcomes eight years later, independent of high school completion and other relevant factors. Although increasing educational level may have some preventive effect, these results indicate that prevention efforts should be initiated at an early age and should target adverse life experiences. PMID:24215961

Strøm, Ida Frugård; Thoresen, Siri; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Hjemdal, Ole Kristian; Lien, Lars; Dyb, Grete

2013-12-01

22

Adolescent decision-making about use of inhaled asthma controller medication: Results from focus groups with participants from a prior longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

Background Adherence with inhaled controller medications for asthma is known to be highly variable with many patients taking fewer doses than recommended for consistent control of lung inflammation. Adherence also worsens as children become teenagers, although the exact causes are not well established. Objective To use focus group methodology to examine beliefs, feelings, and behaviors about inhaled asthma controller medication in adolescents and young adults who had previously participated in a longitudinal study of asthma treatment adherence and outcome in order to develop more effective management strategies. Methods Twenty-six subjects participated in 6 focus groups comprised of 3-5 young adults (age range 12-20 years). Verbatim transcripts of these groups were analyzed using the long-table method of content analysis to identify key themes raised by participants. Results A variety of beliefs, feelings and behaviors influence the adolescent’s decision about how to use their asthma medication. Some of the adolescents understood the importance of daily medication and were committed to the treatment plan prescribed by their provider. Poorer adherence was the product of misinformation, incorrect assumptions about their asthma, and current life situations. Conclusions These results, by highlighting potential mechanisms underlying both better and worse adherence inform the development of strategies to improve adherence behavior in adolescents and young adults with asthma. Knowledge of the specific beliefs, feelings and behaviors that underlie adolescents’ use of inhaled asthma controller medication will help providers maximize treatment adherence in this notoriously difficult patient population.

Wamboldt, Frederick S.; Bender, Bruce G.; Rankin, Allison E.

2011-01-01

23

Retrospective Longitudinal Study of the Full Utilization of Nursing Talent Program Graduates and Their Practice Settings. Part II: Survey of Program Participants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents findings from a retrospective, longitudinal study of individuals who were recruited and assisted in completing programs of nursing studies through projects funded by the Division of Nursing, Bureau of Health Professions, Department of...

T. B. Hernandez J. Pick

1980-01-01

24

Political attitudes, social participation and social mobility: a longitudinal analysis.  

PubMed

It is often suggested that the political attitudes and social participation which have underpinned the welfare-state democracies have depended on large amounts of upward social mobility. The demographic heterogeneity of the service class, according to this view, induced in them a willingness to lead a common political project seeking to establish a common social citizenship. As the amount of upward mobility stagnates or even begins to fall, it has then further been claimed that there might emerge a degree of ideological closure in the service class that might erode their commitment to civic values. The 1958 British birth cohort study is used to investigate this question. Longitudinal data are invaluable here because they allow us to distinguish between two hypotheses: that upward mobility as such has induced in the service class certain attitudes and propensities to participate, or that the more important influence is the early socialization through which upwardly mobile people went. The conclusion of the analysis is that, although the civic values of the service class have not depended on upward mobility, this is much more true of cognitively able people than of others, and so is dependent on the somewhat meritocratic basis of selection into the salariat. PMID:18782148

Paterson, Lindsay

2008-09-01

25

Maintaining Participation and Momentum in Longitudinal Research Involving High-Risk Families  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of the current study was to identify and describe strategies available to optimize retention of a high-risk research cohort and assist in the recovery of study participants following participant dropout. Design and Methods The Maternal Lifestyle Study (MLS), which investigated the effects of prenatal substance exposure (cocaine or opiates) on child outcome, is a prospective longitudinal follow-up study that extended from birth through 15 years of age. Retention strategies to maximize participation and factors that might negatively impact compliance were examined over the course of five follow-up phases. Findings At the conclusion of the 15-year visits, MLS had successfully maintained compliance at 76%. Retention rates did not differ by exposure group. Conclusions Maintaining ongoing participation of enrolled study subjects is a critical element of any successful longitudinal study. Strategies that can be used to reengage and maintain participants in longitudinal research include persistence, flexibility with scheduling, home visits, long-distance trips, increased incentives, and development of a computerized tracking system. Establishing rapport with families and ensuring confidentiality contributed to overall participant retention. The use of multiple tracking techniques is essential. Clinical Relevance Researchers are challenged to maintain participants in longitudinal studies to ensure the integrity of their research.

Graziotti, Ann L.; Hammond, Jane; Messinger, Daniel S.; Bann, Carla M.; Miller-Loncar, Cynthia; Twomey, Jean E.; Bursi, Charlotte; Woldt, Eunice; Nelson, Jay Ann; Fleischmann, Debra; Alexander, Barbara

2012-01-01

26

Attitude to Physical Education and Participation in Organized Youth Sports during Adolescence Related to Physical Activity in Young Adulthood: A 10-Year Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship between participation in organized youth sport and attitude to physical education (PE) during adolescence and physical activity in young adulthood. The sample comprised 630 participants who completed questionnaires over a 10-year period. Analysis of variance and regression were used to examine the relationship…

Kjonniksen, Lise; Fjortoft, Ingunn; Wold, Bente

2009-01-01

27

A Longitudinal Study of Mental Health Consumer/Survivor Initiatives: Part 2--A Quantitative Study of Impacts of Participation on New Members  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To evaluate the impacts of participation in mental health Consumer/Survivor Initiatives (CSIs), we used a nonequivalent control group design to compare new, active participants in CSIs ( n = 61) with nonactive participants ( n = 57) at baseline, 9-month, and 18-month follow-up intervals. The two groups were comparable at baseline on a wide range…

Nelson, Geoffrey; Ochocka, Joanna; Janzen, Rich; Trainor, John

2006-01-01

28

Intimate Partner Violence and Welfare Participation: A Longitudinal Causal Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal study examined the temporal-ordered causal relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV), five mental disorders (depression, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, panic attack, posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]), alcohol abuse/dependence, drug abuse/ dependence, treatment seeking (from physician, counselor, and…

Cheng, Tyrone C.

2013-01-01

29

Ethnic Differences in Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine at Midlife: Longitudinal Results From SWAN Participants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. We estimated the prevalence and longitudinal correlates of use of com- plementary and alternative medicine (CAM) at midlife among participants of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Methods. Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between baseline survey-reported symptoms and use of herbal, spiritual, and physical manipu- lation therapies 1 year later. Results. Almost

Yali A. Bair; Ellen B. Gold; Gail A. Greendale; Barbara Sternfeld; Shelley R. Adler; Rahman Azari; Martha Harkey

2002-01-01

30

Development of Metacognitive Skillfulness: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study shows the results of a two-year longitudinal study where the same participants were followed for two consecutive years as they enter secondary school (aged 12-14 years). The main issue was to investigate the development of both the quantity and the quality of metacognitive skills. Another issue was to establish whether the development…

van der Stel, Manita; Veenman, Marcel V. J.

2010-01-01

31

ECEAP 1991 Longitudinal Study and Annual Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Washington State's Early Childhood Education and Assistance Program (ECEAP) provides a comprehensive, family-focused preschool program designed to help low-income children succeed in the public school system and help families support and participate in their children's success. Findings from an ongoing longitudinal study of the ECEAP program…

Washington State Office of Community Development, Olympia.

32

MPCP Longitudinal Educational Growth Study Baseline Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report focuses on the initial design, implementation and baseline results of the five-year Longitudinal Educational Growth Study (LEGS) of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP) being conducted by the School Choice Demonstration Project (SCDP). The LEGS will be the first evaluation of the participant effects of the MPCP using…

Witte, John F.; Wolf, Patrick J.; Cowen, Joshua M.; Fleming, David J.; Lucas-McLean, Juanita

2008-01-01

33

Longitudinal associations between HIV risk reduction and out-of-school time program participation  

PubMed Central

Purpose The study aimed to determine the longitudinal associations between several variables assessing positive youth development and HIV risk reduction practices. Methods Participants were 329 youth enrolled in out-of-school time programs in New York City. Longitudinal data were collected in 3 waves during 2008 (baseline, 6 month follow-up and 12 month follow-up). Due to the nested nature of the data, multivariate analyses were performed using multilevel models. Results At baseline, HIV risk reduction was associated with female gender, greater individual-level program participation, and greater school connectedness. Over time, HIV risk reduction was associated with program-level participation: Individuals in groups with program-level participation scores 1 SD below the average showed significant declines in risk reduction practices over the 1-year study period compared to individuals in more participatory programs. Conclusions This study provides support for the out-of-school environment as an important context for sustaining HIV risk reduction and positive health promotion practices.

Tiffany, Jennifer Sarah; Exner-Cortens, Deinera; Eckenrode, John

2013-01-01

34

Retaining young people in a longitudinal sexual health survey: a trial of strategies to maintain participation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is an increasing trend towards lower participation in questionnaire surveys. This reduces representativeness, increases costs and introduces particular challenges to longitudinal surveys, as researchers have to use complex statistical techniques which attempt to address attrition. This paper describes a trial of incentives to retain longitudinal survey cohorts from ages 16 to 20, to question them on the sensitive

Marion Henderson; Daniel Wight; Catherine Nixon; Graham Hart

2010-01-01

35

LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF AGING (LSOA)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Longitudinal Study of Aging (LSOA) is a collaborative effort of the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) and the National Institute on Aging (NIA). The Supplement on Aging (SOA), conducted in conjunction with the 1984 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), served as...

36

SIAST Longitudinal Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1991, the Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science and Technology (SIAST) initiated a study of factors affecting student persistence, finding that high employment rates in particular sectors were related to higher rates of student attrition. In 1994, a follow-up study was conducted of the career/educational paths of 1,498 respondents from the…

Sarkar, Gerlinde

37

The Canadian longitudinal study on aging (CLSA).  

PubMed

ABSTRACTCanadians are living longer, and older persons are making up a larger share of the population (14% in 2006, projected to rise to 20% by 2021). The Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA) is a national longitudinal study of adult development and aging that will recruit 50,000 Canadians aged 45 to 85 years of age and follow them for at least 20 years. All participants will provide a common set of information concerning many aspects of health and aging, and 30,000 will undergo an additional in-depth examination coupled with the donation of biological specimens (blood and urine). The CLSA will become a rich data source for the study of the complex interrelationship among the biological, physical, psychosocial, and societal factors that affect healthy aging. PMID:19860977

Raina, Parminder S; Wolfson, Christina; Kirkland, Susan A; Griffith, Lauren E; Oremus, Mark; Patterson, Christopher; Tuokko, Holly; Penning, Margaret; Balion, Cynthia M; Hogan, David; Wister, Andrew; Payette, Hélène; Shannon, Harry; Brazil, Kevin

2009-09-01

38

Model Choice Can Obscure Results in Longitudinal Studies  

PubMed Central

Background This article examines how different parameterizations of age and time in modeling observational longitudinal data can affect results. Methods When individuals of different ages at study entry are considered, it becomes necessary to distinguish between longitudinal and cross-sectional differences to overcome possible selection biases. Results Various models were fitted using data from longitudinal studies with participants with different ages and different follow-up lengths. Decomposing age into two components—age at entry into the study (first age) and the longitudinal follow-up (time) compared with considering age alone—leads to different conclusions. Conclusions In general, models using both first age and time terms performed better, and these terms are usually necessary to correctly analyze longitudinal data.

Morrell, Christopher H.; Ferrucci, Luigi

2009-01-01

39

Evaluation and characteristics of “dropouts” in a longitudinal clinical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempts to identify characteristics of a longitudinal clinical study’s “dropout” population (1974–1996) of patients using overdentures. This study included 395 subjects. Dropouts were identified as persons who did not respond to letters or telephone calls after participating in the study for up to 2 years, could not be located, or did not wish to return to the study. Participants

Ronald L. Ettinger; Fang Qian; Xian-Jin Xie; Catherine A. Watkins

2004-01-01

40

A Longitudinal Investigation of Factors Mediating the Participative Decision Making Job Satisfaction Linkage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Longitudinal data from blue-collar maintenance personnel and utility engineers were used to identify the plausible mediators between participative decision making (PDM) and job satisfaction (JS). Covariance structure analysis was also performed on the data. Role ambiguity, perceived obstacles, and performance-reward expectancy were found to…

Schaubroeck, John; Jennings, Kenneth R.

1991-01-01

41

Information for Participants: PPB Study  

Cancer.gov

Information for prospective participants in a clinical study of families with at least one tumor from the DICER1 syndrome spectrum. The DICER1 syndrome is characterized by rare benign and malignant tumors, such as pleuropulmonary blastoma (PPB).

42

NASA Planetary Science Summer School: Longitudinal Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA’s Planetary Science Summer School is a program designed to prepare the next generation of scientists and engineers to participate in future missions of solar system exploration. The opportunity is advertised to science and engineering post-doctoral and graduate students with a strong interest in careers in planetary exploration. Preference is given to U.S. citizens. The “school” consists of a one-week intensive team exercise learning the process of developing a robotic mission concept into reality through concurrent engineering, working with JPL’s Advanced Project Design Team (Team X). This program benefits the students by providing them with skills, knowledge and the experience of collaborating with a concept mission design. A longitudinal study was conducted to assess the impact of the program on the past participants of the program. Data collected included their current contact information, if they are currently part of the planetary exploration community, if participation in the program contributed to any career choices, if the program benefited their career paths, etc. Approximately 37% of 250 past participants responded to the online survey. Of these, 83% indicated that they are actively involved in planetary exploration or aerospace in general; 78% said they had been able to apply what they learned in the program to their current job or professional career; 100% said they would recommend this program to a colleague.

Giron, Jennie M.; Sohus, A.

2006-12-01

43

Is extracurricular participation associated with beneficial outcomes? Concurrent and longitudinal relations.  

PubMed

The authors examined the relations between participation in a range of high school extracurricular contexts and developmental outcomes in adolescence and young adulthood among an economically diverse sample of African American and European American youths. In general, when some prior self-selection factors were controlled, 11th graders' participation in school clubs and organized sports was associated with concurrent indicators of academic and psychological adjustment and with drug and alcohol use. In addition, participation in 11th grade school clubs and prosocial activities was associated with educational status and civic engagement at 1 year after high school. A few of the concurrent and longitudinal relations between activity participation and development were moderated by race and gender. Finally, breadth of participation, or number of activity contexts, was associated with positive academic, psychological, and behavioral outcomes. PMID:16802902

Fredricks, Jennifer A; Eccles, Jacquelynne S

2006-07-01

44

Parental mediation and cyberbullying - a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

Parents use active and restrictive mediation strategies to guide and regulate children's online participation and the online risks they encounter. However, changes in parental mediation do occur over time and the effectiveness of these strategies on cyberbullying demands for further empirical investigation. The current study addresses these issues with a sample of 1084 students (49% girls) in a longitudinal, three-wave design. Gender differences were tested via multi-group analyses. Longitudinal growth models showed that parental use of both active and restrictive mediation decreased over time. For both types of mediation, the mean rate of change had a significant effect on boys' engagement in cyberbullying, but not for girls. Initial levels of restrictive mediation, but not active mediation, were found to be significantly predictive of cyberbullying in both genders. Girls had higher initial levels of both parental mediation types in comparison to boys. The results reveal that the effectiveness of active and restrictive mediation in relation to students' cyberbullying differs and informs us on gender differences. The implications of these results for parental education in online mediation are discussed. PMID:24875699

Chng, Grace S; Liau, Albert; Khoo, Angeline; Li, Dongdong

2014-01-01

45

Fears in Czech Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigates developmental patterns of fear in adolescence. It is based on longitudinal data collected as a part of the European Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ELSPAC) project. A total of 186 Czech adolescents (43% girls) were assessed repeatedly at the age of 11, 13, and 15 years. The free-response method was…

Michalcáková, Radka; Lacinová, Lenka; Kyjonková, Hana; Bouša, Ondrej; Jelínek, Martin

2013-01-01

46

Resources for Study Staff & Participants  

Cancer.gov

The following documents have been created by the National Cancer Institute as resources for study staff and participants. Each resource is available as a ready-to-use PDF as well as in Word format to allow users to adapt the content as desired.

47

Health Benefits of Volunteering in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigate positive effects of volunteering on psychological well-being and self-reported health using all four waves of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. Confirming previous research, volunteering was positively related to both outcome variables. Both consistency of volunteering over time and diversity of participation are significantly…

Piliavin, Jane Allyn; Siegl, Erica

2007-01-01

48

Exploring Dynamism in Willingness to Communicate: A Longitudinal Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines dynamism in students' situational willingness to communicate (WTC) within a second language classroom. This longitudinal study involved twelve English as a Second Language (ESL) participants who enrolled in an English for Academic Purposes (EAP) programme in New Zealand for five months. Based on data from classroom…

Cao, Yiqian Katherine

2013-01-01

49

A Longitudinal Study of Relational and Physical Aggression in Preschool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To understand the development of relational aggression during early childhood, 91 girls and boys ("M" age=39.0; "SD"=7.6 months) and their teachers participated in an 18-month longitudinal study. Children were observed for relational and physical aggression during free play in four time periods. Individually administered interviews were conducted…

Crick, Nicki R.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Burr, Jean E.; Cullerton-Sen, Crystal; Jansen-Yeh, Elizabeth; Ralston, Peter

2006-01-01

50

Cognitive Development in Young-old Type2 Diabetes Patients: A Longitudinal Analysis From The “Interdisciplinary Longitudinal Study of Aging”  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, we investigated cognitive status and cognitive development in young-old Type-2 diabetes patients. Extending\\u000a previous research, using the sample of the ILSE study (“Interdisciplinary Longitudinal Study of Aging”), we applied a comprehensive\\u000a cognitive test battery to 38 Type-2 diabetes patients (mean age at T1: 63 years) and 421 control participants and tested both\\u000a cognitive status and longitudinal changes

Ingo Aberle; Matthias Kliegel; Daniel Zimprich

2008-01-01

51

Longitudinal Studies of Spelling Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that proposed models of literacy development suggest that reading and writing mutually influence and grow from each other, this paper summarizes aspects of stage theories of literacy development and an integrative model, and considers how the model fared in empirical longitudinal tests. The paper begins with a summary of the modal aspects…

Ellis, Nick

52

Web-based tracking methods in longitudinal studies.  

PubMed

The use of online resources to reduce the attrition of program participants in longitudinal studies is examined. Higher-risk individuals, those involved in illegal activities, and females with last name changes are typically more difficult to locate. The effectiveness of using online resources for these participants is addressed. These resources include social networking sites, people-finder search engines, telephone and address directories, judicial records, and death records. The strengths and limitations of these resources are presented and discussed. Longitudinal studies using these resources are examined to evaluate their successful follow-up rates. The results of these studies indicate that participant characteristics are more important to successful follow-up than the length of time since participation or sample size. The use of multiple online sites increased follow-up rates, especially for those who are typically difficult to locate. The variables and websites to consider are discussed, and six lessons learned are offered. The prospective use of online participant involvement is especially important for successful longitudinal evaluation and program planning. PMID:24769078

Williams, Izaak L; O'Donnell, Clifford R

2014-08-01

53

Colorado longitudinal twin study of reading disability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objectives of the present study are to introduce the Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study of Reading Disability, the\\u000a first longitudinal twin study in which subjects have been specifically selected for having a history of reading difficulties,\\u000a and to present some initial assessments of the stability of reading performance and cognitive abilities in this sample. Preliminary\\u000a examination of the test

Sally J. Wadsworth; John C. DeFries; Richard K. Olson; Erik G. Willcutt

2007-01-01

54

Longitudinal Study of Nurse Practitioners, Phase III.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the third report of the nurse practitioner movement in the United States emanating from a longitudinal study initiated in 1973 by the Division of Nursing, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. This report not only describes the circumstanc...

H. A. Stultz M. Zielezny J. M. Gentry

1980-01-01

55

Personalized Introductory Courses: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a longitudinal study, students from Personalized System of Instruction (PSI) and lecture physics course are compared grade-wise in subsequent chemistry and biology courses. Results indicate students from PSI courses obtained higher grades in subsequent courses. (SL)

Hedges, Larry

1978-01-01

56

Nonlinear longitudinal dynamics studies at the ALS  

SciTech Connect

We present a summary of results for a variety of studies of nonlinear longitudinal dynamics in the Advanced Light Source, an electron storage ring. These include observation of decoherence at injection, decay of an injected beam, forced synchrotron oscillations and diffusion from one bunch to the next. All of the measurements were made using a dual-scan streak camera which allowed the real-time observation of the longitudinal distribution of the electron beam.

Byrd, J.M.; Cheng, W.-H.; De Santis, S.; Li, D.; Stupakov, G.; Zimmermann, F.

1999-03-26

57

Whole grain intake: The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objective was to identify major dietary sources of whole grains and to describe the construction of a database of whole grain content of foods. Dietary information was collected with 7-d food records from men and women in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, mean age 62.1±16.0 years, who participated in the dietary assessment portion of the study (n=1516), and

Janice E. Maras; P. K. Newby; Peter J. Bakun; Luigi Ferrucci; Katherine L. Tucker

2009-01-01

58

Young adults with developmental coordination disorder: a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

We conducted a longitudinal study to assess the continuing influence of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) on quality of life and participation. Ninety-six participants (25 in the DCD group, 30 in the borderline group, and 41 in the control group) ages 22-29 yr who had been screened for DCD 3-4 yr previously completed the Participation in Every Day Activities of Life, the Life-Satisfaction Questionnaire, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) instrument. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed a significant between-groups difference, F(7, 95) = 2.89, p = .001, ? = 0.173, and post hoc analyses revealed that participants in the DCD and borderline groups scored lower overall on participation, quality of life, and life satisfaction. Linear regression found the Psychological Health domain of the WHOQOL-BREF to be a significant predictor of life satisfaction (B = 0.533; p = .001). PMID:24797194

Tal-Saban, Miri; Ornoy, Asher; Parush, Shula

2014-01-01

59

Maintaining Superior Follow-Up Rates in a Longitudinal Study: Experiences from the College Life Study  

PubMed Central

Longitudinal studies are often considered to be a gold standard for research, but the operational management of such studies is not often discussed in detail; this paper describes strategies used to track and maintain high levels of participation in a longitudinal study involving annual personal interviews with a cohort of 1,253 undergraduates (first-time, first-year students at time of enrollment) at a large public mid-Atlantic university.

Vincent, Kathryn B.; Kasperski, Sarah J.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Garnier-Dykstra, Laura M.; Pinchevsky, Gillian M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Arria, Amelia M.

2011-01-01

60

A longitudinal study of relational and physical aggression in preschool  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the development of relational aggression during early childhood, 91 girls and boys (M age=39.0; SD=7.6 months) and their teachers participated in an 18-month longitudinal study. Children were observed for relational and physical aggression during free play in four time periods. Individually administered interviews were conducted to provide peer reports of relational and physical aggression. Teachers completed measures of

Nicki R. Crick; Jamie M. Ostrov; Jean E. Burr; Crystal Cullerton-Sen; Elizabeth Jansen-Yeh; Peter Ralston

2006-01-01

61

Predictors of early childbearing: Evidence from the Chicago longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using prospective data from the Chicago Longitudinal Study (CLS), we investigated the effects of early childhood and school-age predictors on female childbearing, including participation in the Chicago Child–Parent Center (CPC) Program, and related family and school behaviors. The CLS follows the progress of a single cohort of 1539 low-income, minority children who attended the CPCs and other public early childhood

Joshua P. Mersky; Arthur J. Reynolds

2007-01-01

62

Reporting Participants in Research Studies to Child Protective Services: Limited Risk to Attrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the impact of Child Protective Services (CPS) reports made by research study staff on participant retention and discusses human subjects protocols that may minimize either the need to make such reports or the negative impact of reporting on participants and on participant retention. Among 1, 354 primary caregiver-child pairs in the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and

Elizabeth Dawes Knight; Jamie B. Smith; Howard Dubowitz; Alan J. Litrownik; Jonathan B. Kotch; Diana English; Mark D. Everson; Desmond K. Runyan

2006-01-01

63

Are Sibling Relationships Protective? A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Although the protective effects of familial and parental support have been studied extensively in the child psychopathology literature, few studies have explored the protective quality of positive sibling relationships. Methods: A two-wave longitudinal design was used to examine the protective effect of positive sibling relationships…

Gass, Krista; Jenkins, Jennifer; Dunn, Judy

2007-01-01

64

A longitudinal analysis of predictors of quitting smoking among participants in a self-help intervention trial.  

PubMed

Predictors of 7-day abstinence from smoking were identified among participants in a randomized self-help smoking-cessation intervention trial conducted from 1985 to 1988 in Seattle, WA. Subjects were adult smokers belonging to a health maintenance organization who responded to an offer of free quitting assistance. Self-reported smoking status was assessed at 8, 16, and 24 months following enrollment. Predictors of abstinence were identified by longitudinal data analysis using Generalized Estimating Equations (GEEs), a modeling approach which handles repeated-measures data and accommodates time-dependent as well as time-independent covariates. Seventeen items emerged as significant (p < .05) predictors, with odds ratios ranging from 1.3 to 2.1. While much of the previous work in smoking-cessation research has focused on demographic and smoking history variables, results of this study indicate that emphasis should also be placed on psychosocial/motivational factors and quitting activities as important predictors of abstinence. Longitudinal data analysis represents a powerful technique for handling correlated (repeated measures) data, which may prove very useful for future studies of smoking cessation as well as other dynamic processes. PMID:8036963

Hill, H A; Schoenbach, V J; Kleinbaum, D G; Strecher, V J; Orleans, C T; Gebski, V J; Kaplan, B H

1994-01-01

65

Participation Following Knee Replacement: The MOST Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background Participation is an important, yet seldom studied, outcome after total knee replacement (TKR). Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent and predictors of participation and participation restriction among people after TKR. Materials and Methods This study investigated the changes in pain, function, and participation scores (measured using a subscale of the Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument) from pre-TKR to ?1 year post-TKR among a subsample of participants from the Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study (MOST) longitudinal cohort (MOST is funded by the National Institutes of Health). The proportions of individuals with participation restriction pre-TKR and ?1 and ?2 years post-TKR were calculated for all participants and for important demographic subgroups. The association between demographic and clinical factors and participation was estimated using linear regression. The association between demographic and clinical factors and participation restriction was estimated using logistic regression. Results There were 292 individuals with outcome data ?1 year post-TKR. Of these, 218 (75%) had data pre-TKR and ?1 year post-TKR and 160 (55%) had data ?2 years post-TKR. There were mean improvements in pain, function, and participation at ?1 and 2 years. However, approximately 30% of the study sample had participation restriction pre-TKR and post-TKR, and the proportion decreased significantly only for those <65 years old. Non-whites had a higher proportion of participation restriction than any other subgroup (41% ?1 year, 48% ?2 years). Female sex and non-white race were associated with a worse participation score, and several demographic and modifiable factors were associated with participation restriction following TKR. Limitations The time between pre-TKR and post-TKR assessment varied across study participants, and data were not available on their rehabilitation utilization. Conclusions Although there was a mean increase in participation ?1 year following TKR, participation restriction was common. The likelihood of low participation was increased among women, non-whites, and those with depressive symptoms, severe pain in either knee, or worse pre-TKR function.

Keysor, Julie J.; Niu, Jingbo; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Wise, Barton L.; Frey-Law, Laura; Nevitt, Michael C.; Felson, David T.

2013-01-01

66

LINEAR MODELS FOR THE ANALYSIS OF LONGITUDINAL STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Longitudinal investigations play an increasingly prominent role in epidemiologic research. espite the importance of the longitudinal study, satisfactory methods for the analysis of serial measurements are not readily available. ongitudinal studies typically have unbalanced design...

67

Testing a Longitudinal Model of the Relationships among High Risk Youths' Drug Sales, Drug Use and Participation in Index Crimes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Baseline, one-year and two-year follow-up interviews were obtained from 164 arrested youths processed at a juvenile assessment center in a prospective longitudinal study. A structural equation model that included cross-sectional and longitudinal associations among drug (alcohol and marijuana), drug sales and index offenses was supported by the…

Dembo, Richard; Wothke, Werner; Seeberger, William; Shemwell, Marina; Pacheco, Kimberly; Rollie, Matthew; Schmeidler, James; Livingston, Stephen; Hartsfield, Amy

2002-01-01

68

School-Based Early Intervention and Child Well-Being in the Chicago Longitudinal Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzed Chicago Longitudinal Study data to determine correlates of preschool participation. Found that participation was associated with significantly higher levels of school readiness, achievement, and educational attainment, and with lower rates of child maltreatment, juvenile delinquency, special education placement, and grade retention.…

Reynolds, Arthur J.; Temple, Judy A.; Ou, Suh-Ruu

2003-01-01

69

Using the Longitudinal Study as a Central Teaching Focus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that treatment of one investigative longitudinal topic from start to finish in a high school biology class can illustrate many major ideas and concepts. Discusses ways to use various longitudinal studies of plant growth with General Biology classes. (WRM)

Demchik, Michael J.

1999-01-01

70

A Study of Selected Background Factors and Their Relationship to Participation in and Attitudes Toward Participation in Adult Educational Activities of Young Adults from Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part of a larger longitudinal study evaluating newly formed centralized school districts, this study was made to determine the relationship of certain background characteristics of young adults in rural Wisconsin to their participation in adult education and to their attitudes to such participation. The independent variables were: type of school…

Waldron, Mark Woodsworth

71

Visualising and modelling changes in categorical variables in longitudinal studies  

PubMed Central

Background Graphical techniques can provide visually compelling insights into complex data patterns. In this paper we present a type of lasagne plot showing changes in categorical variables for participants measured at regular intervals over time and propose statistical models to estimate distributions of marginal and transitional probabilities. Methods The plot uses stacked bars to show the distribution of categorical variables at each time interval, with different colours to depict different categories and changes in colours showing trajectories of participants over time. The models are based on nominal logistic regression which is appropriate for both ordinal and nominal categorical variables. To illustrate the plots and models we analyse data on smoking status, body mass index (BMI) and physical activity level from a longitudinal study on women’s health. To estimate marginal distributions we fit survey wave as an explanatory variable whereas for transitional distributions we fit status of participants (e.g. smoking status) at previous surveys. Results For the illustrative data the marginal models showed BMI increasing, physical activity decreasing and smoking decreasing linearly over time at the population level. The plots and transition models showed smoking status to be highly predictable for individuals whereas BMI was only moderately predictable and physical activity was virtually unpredictable. Most of the predictive power was obtained from participant status at the previous survey. Predicted probabilities from the models mostly agreed with observed probabilities indicating adequate goodness-of-fit. Conclusions The proposed form of lasagne plot provides a simple visual aid to show transitions in categorical variables over time in longitudinal studies. The suggested models complement the plot and allow formal testing and estimation of marginal and transitional distributions. These simple tools can provide valuable insights into categorical data on individuals measured at regular intervals over time.

2014-01-01

72

Connections between learning experience, study behaviour and academic performance: a longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:?Whilst past studies have established the joint influence of student learning experience and study behaviour on academic achievement, few attempts have been made to determine their causal ordering in a longitudinal framework.Purpose:?This study explored the reciprocal relationship between learning experience and study behaviour, and examined their relative impact on university students' academic performance.Sample:?Participants were 396 undergraduate students from a university

H. K. Ning; Kevin Downing

2010-01-01

73

Testing a Longitudinal Model of the Relationships Among High isk Youths' Drug Sales, Drug Use and Participation in Index Crimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Baseline, one-year and two-year follow-up interviews were obtained from 164 arrested youths processed at a juvenile assessment center in a prospective longitudinal study. A structural equation model that included cross-sectional and longitudinal associations among drug (alcohol and marijuana), drug sales and index offenses was supported by the data. Research, theoretical, and policy implications of the results are drawn.

Richard Dembo; Werner Wothke; William Seeberger; Marina Shemwell; Kimberly Pacheco; Matthew Rollie; James Schmeidler; Stephen Livingston; Amy Hartsfield

2002-01-01

74

The Development of Learning Patterns of Student Teachers: A Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on learning pattern development during pre-service teacher education is scarce. In a cross-sectional (study 1) and longitudinal study (study 2) the development of learning patterns of student teachers is analysed. Participants in study 1 were 646 first-year and 350 third-year student teachers enrolled in an initial pre-service teacher…

Donche, Vincent; Van Petegem, Peter

2009-01-01

75

Longitudinal study of workers in an aluminum smelter  

SciTech Connect

We conducted a 6-y follow-up study that included workers in an aluminum smelter in British Columbia. Of the original cohort, 951 workers left the industry and 985 workers participated in both studies. Comparison of those who left and those who remained showed that those who left were (1) older, (2) had a slightly higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms, and (3) had lower lung function; this was especially true for workers who were 50 + y of age at the time the initial study was conducted. Analyses were conducted only on 586 male workers who did not change their job location or smoking habits between the initial and the follow-up study. Potroom workers in the ''high-exposure'' group had a significant reduction in the prevalence of cough, but experienced an increase in the prevalence of wheeze. There was no significant difference in the annual decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 sec and forced vital capacity between the potroom workers and controls. In general, older workers and smokers had a greater decline in lung function compared to younger workers and nonsmokers. Leukocyte count done during the initial study was found to be an independent predictor of longitudinal decline in lung function. The lack of exposure effect on longitudinal decline in lung function could be due to ''healthy worker'' effect and improvement in the working condition of the smelter.

Chan-Yeung, M.; Enarson, D.A.; MacLean, L.; Irving, D.

1989-05-01

76

North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study (NAPLS 2): Overview and Recruitment  

PubMed Central

The North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study (NAPLS) is a consortium of eight programs focusing on the psychosis prodrome. Funded by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), the sites are located at Emory University, Harvard University, University of Calgary, UCLA, UCSD, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, Yale University, and Zucker Hillside Hospital. Although the programs initially developed independently, they previously collaborated to combine their historical datasets and to produce a series of analyses on predictors of psychosis in one of the largest samples of longitudinally followed prodromal subjects worldwide. This led to the development of a five year prospective study “Predictors and Mechanisms of Conversion to Psychosis”, (also known as NAPLS-2) with three major aims: (1) to prospectively test the prediction algorithm developed in NAPLS-1, (2) to investigate the neuroanatomical, neurophysiological, neurocognitive, and neurohormonal factors that may contribute to the development of psychosis, and (3) to develop a repository of DNA, RNA, and plasma from participants meeting diagnostic criteria for a clinical high risk (CHR) state and from demographically similar healthy subjects. Funded by NIMH in 2008, NAPLS-2 will generate the largest CHR for psychosis sample with 720 CHR and 240 healthy comparison subjects, and thus will provide statistical power and scientific scope that cannot be duplicated by any single site study. This paper describes the overall methodology of the NAPLS-2 project and reports on the ascertainment and demographics at the midway point of the study with (360 CHR) and 180 controls.

Addington, Jean; Cadenhead, Kristin S.; Cornblatt, Barbara A.; Mathalon, Daniel H.; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Perkins, Diana O.; Seidman, Larry J.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Walker, Elaine F.; Woods, Scott W.; Addington, Jack A.; Cannon, Tyrone D.

2012-01-01

77

Paediatric UK demyelinating disease longitudinal study (PUDDLS)  

PubMed Central

Background There is evidence that at least 5% of Multiple sclerosis (MS) cases manifest in childhood. Children with MS present with a demyelinating episode involving single or multiple symptoms prior to developing a second event (usually within two years) to then meet criteria for diagnosis. There is evidence from adult cohorts that the incidence and sex ratios of MS are changing and that children of immigrants have a higher risk for developing MS. A paediatric population should reflect the vanguard of such changes and may reflect trends yet to be observed in adult cohorts. Studying a paediatric population from the first demyelinating event will allow us to test these hypotheses, and may offer further valuable insights into the genetic and environmental interactions in the pathogenesis of MS. Methods/Design The Paediatric UK Demyelinating Disease Longitudinal Study (PUDDLS) is a prospective longitudinal observational study which aims to determine the natural history, predictors and outcomes of childhood CNS inflammatory demyelinating diseases. PUDDLS will involve centres in the UK, and will establish a cohort of children affected with a first CNS inflammatory demyelinating event for long-term follow up by recruiting for approximately 5 years. PUDDLS will also establish a biological sample archive (CSF, serum, and DNA), allowing future hypothesis driven research. For example, the future discovery of a biomarker will allow validation within this dataset for the evaluation of novel biomarkers. Patients will also be requested to consent to be contacted in the future. A secondary aim is to collaborate internationally with the International Paediatric Multiple Sclerosis Study Group when future collaborative studies are proposed, whilst sharing a minimal anonymised dataset. PUDDLS is the second of two jointly funded studies. The first (UCID-SS) is an epidemiological surveillance study that already received ethical approvals, and started on the 1st September 2009. There is no direct patient involvement, and UCID-SS aims to determine the UK and Ireland incidence of CNS inflammatory demyelinating disorders in children under 16 years. Discussion A paediatric population should reflect the vanguard of MS epidemiological changes and may reflect trends yet to be observed in adult MS cohorts. The restricted window between clinical expression of disease and exposure to environmental factors in children offers a unique research opportunity. Studying a paediatric population from the first demyelinating event will allow us to investigate the changing epidemiology of MS, and may offer further valuable insights into the genetic and environmental interactions in the pathogenesis of MS.

2011-01-01

78

Predictors of attrition in a longitudinal study of substance abusers.  

PubMed

Previous research has emphasized the importance of minimizing attrition in longitudinal studies. The authors examined the influence of demographic, clinical, and process factors on attrition from a longitudinal study of 286 substance abusers recruited at a central intake unit. Univariate tests showed that those who completed three, six, and 12 month interviews had higher baseline alcohol and drug use and were more likely to provide three or more contacts when recruited, to be female, to have been married, and to have previously received substance abuse or psychiatric treatment. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that complete data participants (those who completed all three ASI interviews) were nearly three times more likely to have previously received psychiatric treatment and twice as likely to have completed an early engagement interview. In addition, they were twice as likely to be female, and nearly twice as likely to be employed, own a residence, have completed high school, and be married. Procedures that may help decrease study attrition are discussed. PMID:12003115

Claus, Ronald E; Kindleberger, Lisa R; Dugan, Mary C

2002-01-01

79

Insight dimensions and cognitive function in psychosis: a longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

Background It has been reported that lack of insight is significantly associated with cognitive disturbance in schizophrenia. This study examines the longitudinal relationships between insight dimensions and cognitive performance in psychosis. Methods Participants were 75 consecutively admitted inpatients with schizophrenia, affective disorder with psychotic symptoms or schizoaffective disorder. Assessments were conducted at two time points during the study: at the time of hospital discharge after an acute psychotic episode and at a follow-up time that occurred more than 6 months after discharge. A multidimensional approach of insight was chosen and three instruments for its assessment were used: the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD), three items concerning insight on the Assessment and Documentation in Psychopathology (AMDP) system and the Insight and Treatment Attitudes Questionnaire. The neuropsychological battery included a wide range of tests that assessed global cognitive function, attention, memory, and executive functions. Results After conducting adequate statistical correction to avoid Type I bias, insight dimensions and cognitive performance were not found to be significantly associated at cross-sectional and longitudinal assessments. In addition, baseline cognitive performance did not explain changes in insight dimensions at follow-up. Similar results were found in the subset of patients with schizophrenia (n = 37). The possibility of a Type II error might have increased due to sample attrition at follow-up. Conclusion These results suggest that lack of insight dimensions and cognitive functioning may be unrelated phenomena in psychosis.

Cuesta, Manuel J; Peralta, Victor; Zarzuela, Amalia; Zandio, Maria

2006-01-01

80

Depression and unwanted first pregnancy: longitudinal cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the outcomes of an unwanted first pregnancy (abortion v live delivery) and risk of depression and to explain discrepancies with previous research that used the same dataset. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Setting Nationally representative sample of US men and women aged 14-24 in 1979. Participants 1247 women in the US national longitudinal survey of youth who aborted or delivered an unwanted first pregnancy. Main outcome measures Clinical cut-off and continuous scores on a 1992 measure of the Center for Epidemiological Studies depression scale. Results Terminating compared with delivering an unwanted first pregnancy was not directly related to risk of clinically significant depression (odds ratio 1.19, 95% confidence interval 0.85 to 1.66). No evidence was found of a relation between pregnancy outcome and depression in analyses of subgroups known to vary in under-reporting of abortion. In analyses of the characteristics of non-respondents, refusal to provide information on abortion did not explain the lack of detecting a relation between abortion and mental health. The abortion group had a significantly higher mean education and income and lower total family size, all of which were associated with a lower risk of depression. Conclusions Evidence that choosing to terminate rather than deliver an unwanted first pregnancy puts women at higher risk of depression is inconclusive. Discrepancies between current findings and those of previous research using the same dataset primarily reflect differences in coding of a first pregnancy.

Schmiege, Sarah; Russo, Nancy Felipe

2005-01-01

81

The long-term sequelae of child and adolescent abuse: A longitudinal community study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between childhood and adolescent physical and sexual abuse before the age of 18 and psychosocial functioning in mid-adolescence (age 15) and early adulthood (age 21) in a representative community sample of young adults. Subjects were 375 participants in an ongoing 17-year longitudinal study. At age 21, nearly 11% reported

Amy B. Silverman; Helen Z. Reinherz; Rose M. Giaconia

1996-01-01

82

Childhood and adolescent antecedents of drug and alcohol problems: A longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the serious health and economic consequences of drug and alcohol abuse and dependence, few studies have prospectively examined the etiology of this problem in non-clinical populations. This longitudinal study examines childhood and adolescent antecedents of drug and alcohol problems in adulthood among an African American cohort (n=1242; 51% female) from Woodlawn, a neighborhood in Chicago. The participants were followed

Kate E. Fothergill; Margaret E. Ensminger

2006-01-01

83

Intercalated degrees, learning styles, and career preferences: prospective longitudinal study of UK medical students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To assess the effects of taking an intercalated degree (BSc) on the study habits and learning styles of medical students and on their interest in a career in medical research. Design Longitudinal questionnaire study of medical students at application to medical school and in their final year. Setting All UK medical schools. Participants 6901 medical school applicants for admission

I C McManus; P Richards; B C Winder; Hughes Hall

1999-01-01

84

Prevalence of deliberate self harm and attempted suicide within contemporary Goth youth subculture: longitudinal cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To investigate whether deliberate self harm is associated with contemporary Goth youth subculture. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Setting School and community based study of young people living in the Central Clydeside Conurbation, Scotland. Participants 1258 people aged 19, surveyed in 2002-4 and followed-up since age 11 (1994). Main outcome measures Lifetime prevalence of self harm and attempted suicide and

Robert Young; Helen Sweeting; Patrick West

2006-01-01

85

Objectives, Design, and History of the National Longitudinal Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 (NLS) is a federally supported longitudinal study of a national sample of some 23,000 young people first surveyed as high school seniors in the spring of 1972. The historical precedents of such a study include the work of Friend and Haggert in a Boston settlement house, Louis…

Davis, J. A.; Collins, Elmer

86

Nurses' ethical conflict with hospitals: a longitudinal study of outcomes.  

PubMed

This study examined the association of nurses' ethical conflict with hospitals with organizational commitment, stress, turnover intention, absence and turnover. Participants were 410 nurses working at four different Canadian hospitals. A longitudinal design was used where nurses completed a questionnaire to capture ethical conflict, stress and organizational commitment, and one year later, measures of turnover intention, absence and actual turnover were obtained for the same sample. We found three aspects of nurses' ethical conflict with hospitals: patient care values, value of nurses, and staffing policy values. Our findings showed that all three aspects of nurses' ethical conflict are associated with stress and patient care values is associated with actual turnover. We also found that staffing policy values is predictive of turnover intention, and that patient care values is predictive of absenteeism. Thus, our findings show the multidimensionality of nurses' ethical conflict with hospitals. Further implications of our findings for practice and theory are discussed. PMID:22619238

Gaudine, Alice; Thorne, Linda

2012-11-01

87

Beyond Terman: Contemporary Longitudinal Studies of Giftedness and Talent.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume presents 16 papers describing recent longitudinal studies of giftedness. Papers have the following titles and authors: (1) "Longitudinal Study of Giftedness and Talent" (Rena F. Subotnik and Karen D. Arnold); (2) "The Illinois Valedictorian Project: Early Adult Careers of Academically Talented Male High School Students" (Karen D.…

Subotnik, Rena F., Ed.; Arnold, Karen D., Ed.

88

Predictors of Attrition in a Longitudinal Study of Substance Abusers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has emphasized the importance of minimizing attrition in longitudinal studies. The authors examined the influence of demographic, clinical, and process factors on attrition from a longitudinal study of 286 substance abusers recruited at a central intake unit. Univariate tests showed that those who completed three, six, and 12 month interviews had higher baseline alcohol and drug use and

Ronald E. Claus; Lisa R. Kindleberger; Mary C. Dugan

2002-01-01

89

Early Predictors of Adolescent Depression: A 7-Year Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the longitudinal relationship of early elementary predictors to adolescent depression 7 years later. The sample consisted of 938 students who have been part of a larger longitudinal study that started in 1993. Data collected from parents, teachers, and youth self-reports on early risk factors when students were in 1st and 2nd…

Mazza, James J.; Abbott, Robert D.; Fleming, Charles B.; Harachi, Tracy W.; Cortes, Rebecca C.; Park, Jisuk; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Catalano, Richard F.

2009-01-01

90

Trainers' Behavior and Participants' Persistence in a Longitudinal Preventive Intervention for Disruptive Boys  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the challenges of preventive intervention is the retention ofparticipants. Retention has been especially problematic when interventionsrequire a long-term engagement of participants. Investigations to documentfactors that predict enrolment and retention in clinical or preventiveprograms focused mainly on socio-familial factors, parental and childcharacteristics, and the therapist–family relationship. To our knowledge,the contribution of trainers' behaviors on participants' persistence in along-term preventive

Pierre Charlebois; Frank Vitaro; Sylvie Normandeau; Mara Brendgen; Normand Rondeau

2004-01-01

91

Do Career and Technical Education Programs of Study Improve Student Achievement? Preliminary Analyses from a Rigorous Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal study examines the impact of programs of study on high school academic and technical achievement. Two districts are participating in experimental and quasi-experimental strands of the study. This article describes the sample selection, baseline characteristics, study design, career and technical education and academic achievement…

Castellano, Marisa; Sundell, Kirsten; Overman, Laura T.; Aliaga, Oscar A.

2012-01-01

92

Dual Careers: A Longitudinal Study of Labor Market Experience of Women. Volume Two.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the second report on a cohort of 5,083 women between 32 and 46 years of age who were first interviewed in mid-1967, contacted by mail in 1969, and reinterviewed for the first time in 1969, three topics are considered in this longitudinal study: (1) changes in labor force participation, (2) interfirm mobility, and (3) changes in job satisfaction…

Kim, Sookon; And Others

93

Relationships between Family Connectedness and Body Satisfaction: A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Girls and Boys  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the longitudinal links between perceptions of family connectedness and body satisfaction in 1,774 (52% female) adolescents. Participants (10-15 years of age at Time 1) completed self-report measures at three measurement occasions separated by 1 year each. Mean group difference results showed that both body satisfaction…

Crespo, Carla; Kielpikowski, Magdalena; Jose, Paul; Pryor, Jan

2010-01-01

94

Academic Self-concept and Educational Attainment Level: A Ten-year Longitudinal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to test children's academic self-concept, family socioeconomic status, family structure (single parent vs. two parent family) and academic achievement in elementary school as predictors of children's educational attainment level in young adulthood within a ten-year longitudinal design. Participants (254 girls, 211 boys) were three cohorts of students in Grades 3, 4, and 5 from

Frédéric Guay; Simon Larose; Michel Boivin

2004-01-01

95

Women in Intercollegiate Sport. A Longitudinal Study--Twenty Three Year Update, 1977-2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents data from a longitudinal study of women in intercollegiate sports, highlighting: participation opportunities for female athletes and the status of women as head coaches, assistant coaches, administrators, sports information directors, and athletic trainers. The average number of teams for women offered per school is at an…

Acosta, R. Vivian; Carpenter, Linda Jean

96

Practice based, longitudinal, qualitative interview study of computerised evidence based guidelines in primary care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To understand the factors influencing the adoption of a computerised clinical decision support system for two chronic diseases in general practice. Design Practice based, longitudinal, qualitative interview study. Setting Five general practices in north east England. Participants 13 respondents (two practice managers, three nurses, and eight general practitioners) gave a total of 19 semistructured interviews. 40 people in practices

Nikki Rousseau; Elaine McColl; John Newton; Jeremy Grimshaw; Martin Eccles

2003-01-01

97

The UMCP Academic Experience. Maryland Longitudinal Study Research Highlights. Research Report #10.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Maryland Longitudinal Study (MLS) participants are categorized into one of two categories (preferred or regular admits) based on their academic experiences while at the University of Maryland College Park (UMCP). Preferred admits are students who earned both a high school grade point average (GPA) of "B" or higher and a combined Scholastic…

Maryland Univ., College Park. Div. of Student Affairs.

98

Gender Differences in and Risk Factors for Depression in Adolescence: A 4-Year Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study used longitudinal data (N = 1322; 648 males, 674 females) from adolescents ages 12 to 19 years (in 1994) to investigate gender differences in and risk factors for depressive symptoms and major depressive episodes (MDEs). The sample had participated in three waves of Canada's National Population Health Survey (1994, 1996, and…

Galambos, Nancy L.; Leadbeater, Bonnie J.; Barker, Erin T.

2004-01-01

99

A Longitudinal Study of the CO-OP Upward Bound Program 2003-2008  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal case study examined the effectiveness of the CO-OP Upward Bound Program activities from 2003 through 2008 applying cultural and social capital theories. The program was evaluated in order to give a local perspective to program implementation and operations in a community-based setting. The participant researcher used mixed…

Henderson, Sharmakrenia D.

2009-01-01

100

Women, Schooling, and Work in Chile: Evidence from a Longitudinal Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In comparison to most developing nations, Chile enjoys a relatively high level of female participation in education and the labor force. This article analyzes this phenomenon by drawing data from an ongoing longitudinal study of Chilean youth. It offers some tentative explanations using both current and historical data. (Author/SJL)

Schiefelbein, Ernesto; Farrell, Joseph P.

1980-01-01

101

A Longitudinal Study of Conceptual Change: Preservice Elementary Teachers' Conceptions of Moon Phases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research consists of a longitudinal study of 12 female elementary preservice teachers' conceptual understanding over the course of several months. The context in which the participants received instruction was in an inquiry-based physics course, and the targeted science content was the cause of moon phases. Qualitative research methods,…

Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Atwood, Ronald K.; Christopher, John E.

2007-01-01

102

Adult Outcomes of Adolescent Conventional and Agentic Orientations:A 20Year Longitudinal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of early adolescent conventional attitudes and friendships, positive goals, and drug use on age-appropriate developmental behaviors was assessed using the theoretical paradigm of the Erikson developmental stages of identity, intimacy, and generativity. Assessment points at Years 1, 13, and 21 from a longitudinal community study (N = 477) were used. Outcomes examined when the participants were in their

Judith A. Stein; Michael D. Newcomb

1999-01-01

103

Evolution of a virtual community: understanding design issues through a longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the potential impacts of virtual communities have been widely recognized in business and academia, little research has been done to provide guidelines for design of such communities and to improve the understanding of critical events and interaction patterns that arise during their evolution. This paper reports the results of two years of participative longitudinal study that led to the

Arvind Malhotra; Sanjay Gosain; Alexander Hars

1997-01-01

104

What Happens after They Graduate? Results from a Longitudinal Study of STC Graduates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Lansing Area Manufacturing Partnership (LAMP) is an academically rigorous, business/labor-driven school-to-career (STC) program in Lansing, Michigan, that includes business, union, school, and parent partners. The effects of participation in LAMP on transitions from school to higher education and work were examined in a longitudinal study of…

MacAllum, Keith; Bozick, Robert

105

Transitioning to College and Career: Interim Findings of the LAMP Longitudinal Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Lansing Area Manufacturing Partnership (LAMP) is an academically rigorous, business/labor-driven school-to-career program in Lansing, Michigan, that includes business, union, school, and parent partners. The effects of participation in LAMP on transitions from school to higher education and work were examined in a longitudinal study that…

MacAllum, Keith; Worgs, Donn; Bozick, Robert; McDonald, Deanne

106

MPCP Longitudinal Educational Growth Study: Baseline Report. SCDP Milwaukee Evaluation Report #5  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report focuses on the initial design, implementation and baseline results of the five-year Longitudinal Educational Growth Study (LEGS) of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP) being conducted by the School Choice Demonstration Project (SCDP). The LEGS will be the first evaluation of the participant effects of the MPCP using…

Witte, John F.; Wolf, Patrick J.; Cowen, Joshua M.; Fleming, David J.; Lucas-McLean, Juanita

2008-01-01

107

Change over Time: Conducting Longitudinal Studies of Children's Cognitive Development  

PubMed Central

Developmental scientists have argued that the implementation of longitudinal methods is necessary for obtaining an accurate picture of the nature and sources of developmental change (Magnusson & Cairns, 1996; Morrison & Ornstein, 1996; Magnusson & Stattin, 2006). Developmentalists studying cognition have been relatively slow to embrace longitudinal research, and thus few exemplar studies have tracked individual children’s cognitive performance over time and even fewer have examined contexts that are associated with this growth. In this article we first outline some of the benefits of implementing longitudinal designs. Using illustrations from existing studies of children’s basic cognitive development and of their school-based academic performance, we discuss when it may be appropriate to employ longitudinal (versus other) methods. We then outline methods for integrating longitudinal data into one’s research portfolio, contrasting the leveraging of existing longitudinal data sets with the launching of new longitudinal studies in order to address specific questions concerning cognitive development. Finally, for those who are interested in conducting longitudinal investigations of their own, we provide practical on-the-ground guidelines for designing and carrying out such studies of cognitive development.

Grammer, Jennie K.; Coffman, Jennifer L.; Ornstein, Peter A.; Morrison, Frederick J.

2014-01-01

108

Training Tennesseans for industrial jobs: a longitudinal study  

SciTech Connect

The Training and Technology (TAT) program is operated for the US Department of Energy by Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) and Union Carbide Corporation, Nuclear Division, in a Department of Energy facility. The program is part of the Department's continuing efforts to help supply trained personnel for the energy industry. TAT has trained unemployed economically disadvantaged Tennesseans for 16 years. During fiscal years 1978 to 1980, the period covered in this study, TAT enrolled 460 Tennesseans under CETA, Title 2B contracts with the Department of Employment Security. Three hundred sixty (78%) of these participants completed the program, of which 335 (93%) were placed in unsubsidized employment. Average hourly wage rates for the 335 graduates placed in unsubsidized employment were as follows: FY 1980 - $6.32; FY 1979 - $5.12; FY 1978 - $5.71. These data indicate short-term success but do not address the questions of postprogram employment stability and wage increases over time. In order to assess the long-term impact of TAT, ORAU has conducted a longitudinal study of participants' employment experiences after training.

Weseman, M.; Preston-Anderson, A.

1982-09-01

109

Predicting Family Poverty and Other Disadvantaged Conditions for Child Rearing from Childhood Aggression and Social Withdrawal: A 30-Year Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 30-year longitudinal study examined pathways from problematic childhood behavior patterns to future disadvantaged conditions for family environment and child rearing in adulthood. Participants were mothers (n = 328) and fathers (n = 222) with lower income backgrounds participating in the ongoing Concordia Longitudinal Risk Project. Structural…

Serbin, Lisa A.; Temcheff, Caroline E.; Cooperman, Jessica M.; Stack, Dale M.; Ledingham, Jane; Schwartzman, Alex E.

2011-01-01

110

Is Extracurricular Participation Associated with Beneficial Outcomes? Concurrent and Longitudinal Relations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined the relations between participation in a range of high school extracurricular contexts and developmental outcomes in adolescence and young adulthood among an economically diverse sample of African American and European American youths. In general, when some prior self-selection factors were controlled, 11th graders'…

Fredricks, Jennifer A.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

2006-01-01

111

Four Years Later: A Longitudinal Study of Advanced Placement Students in College. College Board Report No. 86-2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The college careers of students who had participated in the Advanced Placement Program (AP) in secondary school were studied, based on extensive information on 4,814 students who participated in the Personal Qualities Project, a longitudinal study in nine colleges and universities. The project included information on 1,115 AP and 3,699 non-AP…

Willingham, Warren W.; Morris, Margaret

112

Self-Perception of Gifts and Talents among Adults in a Longitudinal Study of Academically Talented High-School Graduates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Definitions of giftedness and self-perceptions of abilities were examined among adults who have been participating in a longitudinal study of academically talented students since their high-school graduation in 1988. For the present study, participants answered open-ended questions and completed scales measuring adult giftedness and adult…

Perrone, Kristin M.; Perrone, Philip A.; Ksiazak, Tracy M.; Wright, Stephen L.; Jackson, Z. Vance

2007-01-01

113

Rationales, design and recruitment of the Taizhou Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Background Rapid economic growth in China in the past decades has been accompanied by dramatic changes in lifestyle and environmental exposures. The burdens of non-communicable diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and cancer, have also increased substantially. Methods/design We initiated a large prospective cohort–the Taizhou Longitudinal Study–in Taizhou (a medium-size city in China) to explore the environmental and genetic risk factors for common non-communicable diseases. The sample size of the cohort will be at least 100,000 adults aged 30–80 years drawn from the general residents of the districts of Hailin, Gaogang, and Taixing (sample frame, 1.8 million) of Taizhou. A three-stage stratified sampling method will be applied. Baseline investigations include interviewer-administered questionnaire, anthropometric measurements, and collection of buccal mucosal cells and blood specimens. DNA will be extracted for genetic studies and serum samples will be used for biochemical examinations. A follow-up survey will be conducted every three years to obtain information on disease occurrence and information on selected lifestyle exposures. Study participants will be followed-up indefinitely by using a chronic disease register system for morbidity and cause-specific mortality. Information on non-fatal events will be obtained for certain major categories of disease (e.g., cancer, stroke, myocardial infarction) through established registry systems. Discussion The Taizhou Longitudinal Study will provide a good basis for exploring the roles of many important environmental factors (especially those concomitant with the economic transformation in China) for common chronic diseases, solely or via interaction with genetic factors.

Wang, Xiaofeng; Lu, Ming; Qian, Ji; Yang, Yajun; Li, Shilin; Lu, Daru; Yu, Shunzhang; Meng, Wei; Ye, Weimin; Jin, Li

2009-01-01

114

Organizational Commitment and Managerial Turnover: A Longitudinal Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study investigates the relationship between organizational commitment and turnover among management trainees. The study utilized a fifteen-month longitudinal design which was carried out from the first day of each of the trainee's employment through t...

L. W. Porter W. J. Crampon F. J. Smith

1972-01-01

115

A Study of Expectations and the Marital Quality of Participants of a Marital Enrichment Seminar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal study investigated the effects of expectations of effort of self and spouse on the marital quality of marital enrichment seminar participants. Self-report measures of marital quality, expectations regarding effort put into implementing what was learned during the seminar, amount of perceived effort, and satisfaction with effort…

Dixon, Lee J.; Gordon, Kristina Coop; Frousakis, Nikki N.; Schumm, Jeremiah A.

2012-01-01

116

Flowing together: a longitudinal study of collective efficacy and collective flow among workgroups.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to extend the Channel Model of Flow (Csikszentmihalyi, 1975, 1990) at the collective level (workgroups) by including collective efficacy beliefs as a predictor of collective flow based on the Social Cognitive Theory (Bandura, 1997, 2001). A two-wave longitudinal lab study was conducted with 250 participants working in 52 small groups. Longitudinal results from Structural Equation Modeling with data aggregated at the group level showed, as expected, that collective efficacy beliefs predict collective flow over time, both being related reciprocally. Findings and their theoretical and practical implications in the light of Social Cognitive Theory are discussed. PMID:24946388

Salanova, Marisa; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Alma M; Schaufeli, Wilmar B; Cifre, Eva

2014-01-01

117

78 FR 44553 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Early Childhood Longitudinal Study...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Activities; Comment Request; Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Kindergarten...records. Title of Collection: Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Kindergarten...Hours: 52,702. Abstract: The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study,...

2013-07-24

118

J's Rhymes: A Longitudinal Case Study of Language Play.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A longitudinal study of one children documents an invented language game consisting of suffixal reduplication and onset replacement. Argues that this game may more closely resemble adult rhyme. (Author/VWL)

Inkelas, Sharon

2003-01-01

119

Postpartum Depression, Marital Dysfunction, and Infant Outcome: A Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

This longitudinal study explores the relationship of postpartum depression (PPD) and marital dysfunction on infant outcomes from birth to 2 1/2 years of age among middle-class, postpartum women. Participants were recruited during the prenatal period. Twelve mothers completed the study throughout a 2 1/2-year period. Questionnaires, semistructured interviews, and observations were used to collect data. Content analysis of the interviews (Morse & Field, 1995) was conducted and thematic patterns were identified. Clinical PPD and marital dysfunction (defined as little or no support or closeness, or verbal, emotional or physical abuse) characterized nearly one in three mothers. Four themes describing the women's postpartum progression were identified: stress, isolation, resentment, and eventual adjustment by creating a new normal. No major developmental delays or behavioral problems were found among the infants. Eight of the 12 mothers who were initially identified as breastfeeding nursed their infants for 6–18 months. Regardless of financial and educational advantages, mothers in the study experienced depression and marital dysfunction. These findings support other studies that confirm the lack of association of PPD with social class or marital status. Childbirth educators and other health care professionals are encouraged to continue providing expectant families with anticipatory education and community resources in order to increase awareness of mental health and marital risks during the postpartum transition.

Roux, Gayle; Anderson, Cheryl; Roan, Chris

2002-01-01

120

Decrease in heart rate after longitudinal participation in the Groningen Active Living Model (GALM) recreational sports programme  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate changes in heart rate during submaximal exercise as an index of cardiovascular function in older adults participating in the Groningen Active Living Model recreational sports programme who were sedentary or underactive at baseline. A repeated measurement design was conducted; 151 participants were included, providing 398 heart rate files over a period of

Johan de Jong; Koen Lemmink; Erik Scherder; Roy Stewart; Abby King; Martin Stevens

2009-01-01

121

Longitudinal Study of Depressive Symptoms and Social Support in Adolescent Mothers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have suggested that adolescent mothers with higher social support have lower depressive symptoms. This is\\u000a a longitudinal study of adolescent mothers to examine the association of social support and depressive symptoms over one year\\u000a postpartum. This was a prospective study of adolescent mothers (N at baseline = 120, N at 1 year = 89; age < 19 years) enrolled\\u000a in a teen tot program. Participants completed

Joanna D. Brown; Sion Kim Harris; Elizabeth R. Woods; Matthew P. Buman; Joanne E. Cox

122

Longitudinal vaginal septum: a retrospective study of 202 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess issues and management of longitudinal vaginal septum.Study design: The charts of 202 patients referred for a longitudinal vaginal septum over a 24 year period were reviewed.Results: The most common septa were complete and high partial. Associated uterine malformations were frequent (87.8% of the cases), especially in complete or partial high septum (99.4%). The septum was asymptomatic in

Bassam Haddad; Christine Louis-Sylvestre; Philippe Poitout; Bernard-Jean Paniel

1997-01-01

123

Heritability of Delay Discounting in Adolescence: A Longitudinal Twin Study  

PubMed Central

Delay discounting (DD) refers to the preference for smaller immediate rewards over larger but delayed rewards, and is considered to be a distinct component of a broader “impulsivity” construct. Although greater propensity for discounting the value of delayed gratification has been associated with a range of problem behaviors and substance abuse, particularly in adolescents, the origins of individual differences in DD remain unclear. We examined genetic and environmental influences on a real-life behavioral measure of DD using a longitudinal twin design. Adolescent participants were asked to choose between a smaller ($7) reward available immediately and a larger ($10) reward to be received in 7 days. Biometrical genetic analysis using linear structural equation modeling showed significant heritability of DD at ages 12 and 14 (30 and 51%, respectively) and suggested that the same genetic factors influenced the trait at both ages. DD was significantly associated with symptoms of conduct disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, substance use, and with higher novelty seeking and poor self-regulation. This study provides the first evidence for heritability of DD in humans and suggests that DD can be a promising endophenotype for genetic studies of addiction and externalizing disorders.

Golosheykin, Simon; Grant, Julia D.; Heath, Andrew C.

2010-01-01

124

Whole grain intake: The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging  

PubMed Central

Our objective was to identify major dietary sources of whole grains and to describe the construction of a database of whole grain content of foods. Dietary information was collected with 7-d food records from men and women in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, mean age 62.1 ± 16.0 years, who participated in the dietary assessment portion of the study (n = 1516), and estimates of whole grain intake were obtained from a newly developed database. The Pyramid Servings database and 1994–1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) recipe ingredients database were then used to calculate both servings and gram weights of whole grain intakes. Mean intakes of whole grains, refined grains, and total grains, as well as frequency of intake for major whole grain food groups and whole grain content for each group, were calculated. Top contributors of whole grains were ready-to-eat breakfast cereals (made with whole grain as well as bran), hot breakfast cereals (made with whole grain), multi-grain bread, and whole wheat bread. While more research is needed to better understand the benefits of whole grains, the development of research tools, including databases to accurately assess whole grain intake, is a critical step in completing such research.

Maras, Janice E.; Newby, P.K.; Bakun, Peter J.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Tucker, Katherine L.

2009-01-01

125

Heritability of delay discounting in adolescence: a longitudinal twin study.  

PubMed

Delay discounting (DD) refers to the preference for smaller immediate rewards over larger but delayed rewards, and is considered to be a distinct component of a broader "impulsivity" construct. Although greater propensity for discounting the value of delayed gratification has been associated with a range of problem behaviors and substance abuse, particularly in adolescents, the origins of individual differences in DD remain unclear. We examined genetic and environmental influences on a real-life behavioral measure of DD using a longitudinal twin design. Adolescent participants were asked to choose between a smaller ($7) reward available immediately and a larger ($10) reward to be received in 7 days. Biometrical genetic analysis using linear structural equation modeling showed significant heritability of DD at ages 12 and 14 (30 and 51%, respectively) and suggested that the same genetic factors influenced the trait at both ages. DD was significantly associated with symptoms of conduct disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, substance use, and with higher novelty seeking and poor self-regulation. This study provides the first evidence for heritability of DD in humans and suggests that DD can be a promising endophenotype for genetic studies of addiction and externalizing disorders. PMID:20700643

Anokhin, Andrey P; Golosheykin, Simon; Grant, Julia D; Heath, Andrew C

2011-03-01

126

Longitudinal study of radiographic spinal osteoarthritis in a macaque model.  

PubMed

Cross-sectional analyses of naturally occurring spinal osteoarthritis (OA) in primates have shown that age and body mass are significant predictors, but whether or not these relationships hold true in longitudinal evaluations remains unclear. Because spinal OA manifests similarly in humans and monkeys and macaque monkeys age >3 times the rate of humans, macaque models offer opportunities for longitudinal study that are difficult in humans. Our objective was to characterize the longitudinal development over 11 years of spinal OA in 68 Macaca mulatta (41 males, 27 females, aged 11-32 years). Average disc space narrowing (DSN) and osteophytosis (OST) scores were computed for the thoracolumbar spine (T8-L7). Our longitudinal analyses confirmed the cross-sectional results: age and body mass (p?study represents the first long-term longitudinal assessment of OA in primates and establishes that the relationship among the covariates in the cross-sectional and longitudinal approaches is similar. PMID:21381096

Duncan, Andrea E; Colman, Ricki J; Kramer, Patricia A

2011-08-01

127

Relation between birth weight and blood pressure: longitudinal study of infants and children  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To study the relation between birth weight and systolic blood pressure in infancy and early childhood. DESIGN--Longitudinal study of infants from birth to 4 years of age. SETTING--A middle class community in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS--476 Dutch infants born in 1980 to healthy women after uncomplicated pregnancies. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Systolic blood pressure and body weight measured at birth and at 3

L. J. Launer; A Hofman; D E Grobbee

1993-01-01

128

Alterable predictors of child well-being in the Chicago longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chicago Longitudinal Study investigates the life course development of 1539 children (93% African American and 7% Hispanic) who were born in 1979–1980, grew up in the highest-poverty neighborhoods in Chicago, and attended early childhood intervention programs beginning in preschool. The goals of the study are to determine the effects of participation in the Child–Parent Center Program, document patterns of

Arthur J. Reynolds; Suh-Ruu Ou

2004-01-01

129

Sexual Scripts of Women: A Longitudinal Analysis of Participants in a Gender-Specific HIV/STD Prevention Intervention  

PubMed Central

Project FIO (The Future Is Ours) was a three arm randomized controlled HIV prevention intervention trial carried out with heterosexually-active women in a high sero-prevalence area of New York City. The trial was effective and women in the eight-session intervention arm were significantly more likely to report decreased unsafe sex or no unsafe sex compared to controls at one month and one year post-intervention. The current investigation was a qualitative analysis of women’s sexual scripts at baseline and one year follow-up for a randomly selected subsample of participants in Project FIO. We examined the domains of sexual initiation, pace setting, sexual decision-making, communication about sexual needs, and the timing of condom introductions in the experimental and control arms at baseline and one year follow-up. At one year follow-up, among both the experimental and control arms, results showed changes away from male-dominated and toward female-dominated sexual initiation and sexual decision-making. Among both the experimental and control arms, results also showed that trial participants shifted from a late condom introduction (right before intercourse) toward much earlier mention of condoms (e.g. during a date). The fact that shifts in sexual scripts at one year follow-up occurred in both groups is likely reflective of the degree to which a lengthy assessment interview facilitated comfort with discussing and imagining new sexual behaviors, even for control group participants who did not receive the intervention. The value of empirically assessing sexual scripts in HIV/AIDS prevention and doing so longitudinally is assessed in light of the goals of HIV prevention interventions.

Beckford, Sharlene T.; Ehrhardt, Anke A.

2014-01-01

130

Recruitment and Retention Strategies in Longitudinal Clinical Studies with Low-Income Populations  

PubMed Central

Background Conducting longitudinal research studies with low-income and/or minority participants present a unique set of challenges and opportunities. Purpose To outline the specific strategies employed to successfully recruit and retain participants in a longitudinal study of nutritional anticipatory guidance during early childhood, conducted with a low-income, ethnically diverse, urban population of mothers. Methods We describe recruitment and retention efforts made by the research team for the ‘MOMS’ Study (Making Our Mealtimes Special). The ‘multilayered’ approach for recruitment and retention included commitment of research leadership, piloting procedures, frequent team reporting, emphasis on participant convenience, incentives, frequent contact with participants, expanded budget, clinical staff buy-in, a dedicated phone line, and the use of research project branding and logos. Results Barriers to enrollment were not encountered in this project, despite recruiting from a low-income population with a large proportion of African-American families. Process evaluation with clinic staff demonstrated the perception of the MOMS staff was very positive Participant retention rate was 75% and 64% at 6 months and 12 months post-recruitment, respectively. We attribute retention success largely to a coordinated effort between the research team and the infrastructure support at the clinical sites, as well as project branding and a dedicated phone line. Conclusions Successful participant recruitment and retention approaches need to be specific and consistent with clinical staff buy in throughout the project.

Nicholson, Lisa; Schwirian, Patricia M.; Klein, Elizabeth G.; Skybo, Theresa; Murray-Johnson, Lisa; Eneli, Ihuoma; Boettner, Bethany; French, Gina; Groner, Judith A.

2011-01-01

131

Spiritual Development Across the Adult Life Course: Findings from a Longitudinal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Longitudinal data spanning early (30s) and older (late 60s\\/mid-70s) adulthood were used to study spiritual development across the adult life course in a sample of men and women belonging to a younger (born 1928\\/29) and an older (born 1920\\/21) age cohort. All participants, irrespective of gender and cohort, increased significantly in spirituality between late middle (mid-50s\\/early 60s) and older adulthood.

Paul Wink; Michele Dillon

2002-01-01

132

The Longitudinal Study of the Professional Needs of Principals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses a longitudinal study of principals' professional needs. The study began with pilot studies in 1994 under the approval of the University Consortium of the National Association of Secondary School Principals and involved universities in five states. Members of the pilot groups were asked to provide open-ended responses to…

Erlandson, David A.

133

Attitudes to School and Intentions for Educational Participation: An Analysis of Data from the Longitudinal Survey of Young People in England  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper investigates the attitudes of young people in England towards schooling and education and the relationship of these attitudes to intentions for educational participation and to various background characteristics of the young people. It provides an example of secondary data analysis through using the Longitudinal Survey of Young People in…

Attwood, Gaynor; Croll, Paul

2011-01-01

134

Nine year longitudinal retrospective study of Taekwondo injuries  

PubMed Central

This retrospective longitudinal study aims to describe reported Taekwondo injuries and to examine associations between competitor experience level, age and gender, and the type, location, and mechanism of injury sustained. Additionally, we examined whether recent rule changes concerning increased point value of head shots in adult Taekwondo competition had affected injury incidence. This study was a summation of 9 years of data of competition injury reports, which included 904 injury reports spanning 58 individual competitions. The data was collected on standardized injury reports at time of injury during competition. Care was provided to the athletes, but the type of care provided was not included in the study. Participants included athletes injured during competition who sought care by the health care team, and for whom an injury report was filled out. The data analysis was performed at the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College. The three most common locations of presenting injury were the head (19%), foot (16%), and thigh (9%). The most common mechanism of presenting injury was found to be a defensive kick (44%), followed by an offensive kick (35%). The most commonly diagnosed injuries were contusions (36%), sprains (19%), and strains (15%). Coloured belts had a higher incidence of contusions, while black belts sustained more joint irritation injuries. Black belts were more likely to suffer multiple injuries. Colored belts suffered more injuries while receiving a kick, while black belts had a larger influence of past history of injury. We found no significant difference in location or type of injury when comparing pre versus post rule change. The most common locations of injury are head, foot, and thigh respectively, and are areas for concern when considering preventative measures. Colour belt competitors are more likely to sustain contusions, which the authors believe is due to more aggressive tactics and lack of control. Those more likely to be injured tend to be younger than 18 years. Recent rule changes have no significant effect on head injuries.

Kazemi, Mohsen; Chudolinski, Artur; Turgeon, Matt; Simon, Aaron; Ho, Eric; Coombe, Lianne

2009-01-01

135

English as a Foreign Language Spelling Development: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

English as a foreign language (EFL) spelling was examined longitudinally three times (4th, 9th, 12th grades) during 9 years of EFL study among Hebrew first language (L1) students. The study examined the impact of L1 literacy variables including phonemic awareness, word attack, and spelling on EFL spelling and the relationship between EFL literacy…

Kahn-Horwitz, Janina; Sparks, Richard L.; Goldstein, Zahava

2012-01-01

136

Parental influences on adolescent physical activity: a longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity is increasing among adolescents in the U.S., especially among girls. Despite growing evidence that parents are an important influence on adolescent health, few longitudinal studies have explored the causal relationship between parental influence and physical activity. This study examines how the relationships between parental influences and adolescent physical activity differ by gender and tests whether these relationships

India J Ornelas; Krista M Perreira; Guadalupe X Ayala

2007-01-01

137

Investigating Sexual Abuse: Findings of a 15-Year Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: There is a lack of longitudinal large-scale studies of sexual abuse in intellectual disability services. Such studies offer opportunities to examine patterns in disclosure, investigation and outcomes, and to report on incidence and trends. Methods: All allegations of sexual abuse (n = 250) involving service users as victims or…

McCormack, Bob; Kavanagh, Denise; Caffrey, Shay; Power, Anne

2005-01-01

138

A Longitudinal Study of the Impact of an Environmental Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a previous study, we investigated the impact of an awareness-raising campaign on the behaviour of secondary school children in the Centre Region of France, regarding the recycling of used batteries. But, was it a question of pro-environmental behaviour or simply an environmental action? To answer this question, a three-year longitudinal study

Rioux, Liliane; Pasquier, Daniel

2013-01-01

139

Inference for censored quantile regression models in longitudinal studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop inference procedures for longitudinal data where some of the measurements are censored by fixed constants. We consider a semi-parametric quantile regression model that makes no distributional assumptions. Our research is motivated by the lack of proper inference procedures for data from biomedical studies where measurements are censored due to a fixed quantification limit. In such studies the focus

Huixia Judy Wang; Mendel Fygenson

2009-01-01

140

Control in world class manufacturing—A longitudinal case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A longitudinal case study of a Swedish company implementing World Class Manufacturing (WCM) has been conducted. The case study compares and contrasts the production and control systems before and after the WCM implementation. On the whole, the production and control in the company had changed in the expected direction during the period in question. The WCM implementation was recognized as

Johnny Lind

2001-01-01

141

A Longitudinal Study of Retirement in Older Male Veterans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the authors examined the effect of retirement on psychological and physical symptoms in 404 older male veterans who were taking part in an ongoing longitudinal study. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to analyze symptom trajectories from preretirement, peri-retirement, and postretirement periods in veterans with either lifetime…

Schnurr, Paula P.; Lunney, Carole A.; Sengupta, Anjana; Spiro, Avron

2005-01-01

142

Longitudinal Study of Low and High Achievers in Early Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Longitudinal studies allow us to identify, which specific maths skills are weak in young children, and whether there is a continuing weakness in these areas throughout their school years. Aims: This 2-year study investigated whether certain socio-demographic variables affect early mathematical competency in children aged 5-7 years.…

Navarro, Jose I.; Aguilar, Manuel; Marchena, Esperanza; Ruiz, Gonzalo; Menacho, Inmaculada; Van Luit, Johannes E. H.

2012-01-01

143

Theoretical study of transverse-longitudinal emittance coupling  

SciTech Connect

The effect of a weakly coupled periodic lattice in terms of achieving emittance exchange between the transverse and longitudinal directions is investigated using the generalized Courant-Snyder theory for coupled lattices. Recently, the concept and technique of transverse-longitudinal emittance coupling have been proposed for applications in the Linac Coherent Light Source and other free-electron lasers to reduce the transverse emittance of the electron beam. Such techniques can also be applied to the driver beams for the heavy ion fusion and beam-driven high energy density physics, where the transverse emittance budget is typically tighter than the longitudinal emittance. The proposed methods consist of one or several coupling components which completely swap the emittances of one of the transverse directions and the longitudinal direction at the exit of the coupling components. The complete emittance exchange is realized in one pass through the coupling components. In the present study, we investigate the effect of a weakly coupled periodic lattice in terms of achieving emittance exchange between the transverse and longitudinal directions. A weak coupling component is introduced at every focusing lattice, and we would like to determine if such a lattice can realize the function of emittance exchange.

Qin, H; Davidson, R C; Chung, M; Barnard, J J; Wang, T F

2011-04-14

144

Leadership and Community Participation: Four Case Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews relevant literature on systemic change and community participation. Explores leadership styles of principals in four community-minded middle schools. Administrators should be aware of their individual leadership styles and their effects on others' behavior. Principals wishing to foster empowerment in schools should move toward a…

Carr, Alison A.

1997-01-01

145

Predicting missing biomarker data in a longitudinal study of Alzheimer disease  

PubMed Central

Objective: To investigate predictors of missing data in a longitudinal study of Alzheimer disease (AD). Methods: The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) is a clinic-based, multicenter, longitudinal study with blood, CSF, PET, and MRI scans repeatedly measured in 229 participants with normal cognition (NC), 397 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 193 with mild AD during 2005–2007. We used univariate and multivariable logistic regression models to examine the associations between baseline demographic/clinical features and loss of biomarker follow-ups in ADNI. Results: CSF studies tended to recruit and retain patients with MCI with more AD-like features, including lower levels of baseline CSF A?42. Depression was the major predictor for MCI dropouts, while family history of AD kept more patients with AD enrolled in PET and MRI studies. Poor cognitive performance was associated with loss of follow-up in most biomarker studies, even among NC participants. The presence of vascular risk factors seemed more critical than cognitive function for predicting dropouts in AD. Conclusion: The missing data are not missing completely at random in ADNI and likely conditional on certain features in addition to cognitive function. Missing data predictors vary across biomarkers and even MCI and AD groups do not share the same missing data pattern. Understanding the missing data structure may help in the design of future longitudinal studies and clinical trials in AD.

Jagust, William J.; Aisen, Paul; Jack, Clifford R.; Toga, Arthur W.; Beckett, Laurel; Gamst, Anthony; Soares, Holly; C. Green, Robert; Montine, Tom; Thomas, Ronald G.; Donohue, Michael; Walter, Sarah; Dale, Anders; Bernstein, Matthew; Felmlee, Joel; Fox, Nick; Thompson, Paul; Schuff, Norbert; Alexander, Gene; DeCarli, Charles; Bandy, Dan; Chen, Kewei; Morris, John; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.; Korecka, Magdalena; Crawford, Karen; Neu, Scott; Harvey, Danielle; Kornak, John; Saykin, Andrew J.; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Potkin, Steven; Shen, Li; Buckholtz, Neil; Kaye, Jeffrey; Dolen, Sara; Quinn, Joseph; Schneider, Lon; Pawluczyk, Sonia; Spann, Bryan M.; Brewer, James; Vanderswag, Helen; Heidebrink, Judith L.; Lord, Joanne L.; Petersen, Ronald; Johnson, Kris; Doody, Rachelle S.; Villanueva-Meyer, Javier; Chowdhury, Munir; Stern, Yaakov; Honig, Lawrence S.; Bell, Karen L.; Morris, John C.; Mintun, Mark A.; Schneider, Stacy; Marson, Daniel; Griffith, Randall; Clark, David; Grossman, Hillel; Tang, Cheuk; Marzloff, George; Toledo-Morrell, Leylade; Shah, Raj C.; Duara, Ranjan; Varon, Daniel; Roberts, Peggy; Albert, Marilyn S.; Pedroso, Julia; Toroney, Jaimie; Rusinek, Henry; de Leon, Mony J; De Santi, Susan M; Doraiswamy, P. Murali; Petrella, Jeffrey R.; Aiello, Marilyn; Clark, Christopher M.; Pham, Cassie; Nunez, Jessica; Smith, Charles D.; Given, Curtis A.; Hardy, Peter; Lopez, Oscar L.; Oakley, MaryAnn; Simpson, Donna M.; Ismail, M. Saleem; Brand, Connie; Richard, Jennifer; Mulnard, Ruth A.; Thai, Gaby; Mc-Adams-Ortiz, Catherine; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Martin-Cook, Kristen; DeVous, Michael; Levey, Allan I.; Lah, James J.; Cellar, Janet S.; Burns, Jeffrey M.; Anderson, Heather S.; Laubinger, Mary M.; Bartzokis, George; Silverman, Daniel H.S.; Lu, Po H.; Graff-Radford MBBCH, Neill R; Parfitt, Francine; Johnson, Heather; Farlow, Martin; Herring, Scott; Hake, Ann M.; van Dyck, Christopher H.; MacAvoy, Martha G.; Benincasa, Amanda L.; Chertkow, Howard; Bergman, Howard; Hosein, Chris; Black, Sandra; Graham, Simon; Caldwell, Curtis; Hsiung, Ging-Yuek Robin; Feldman, Howard; Assaly, Michele; Kertesz, Andrew; Rogers, John; Trost, Dick; Bernick, Charles; Munic, Donna; Wu, Chuang-Kuo; Johnson, Nancy; Mesulam, Marsel; Sadowsky, Carl; Martinez, Walter; Villena, Teresa; Turner, Scott; Johnson, Kathleen B.; Behan, Kelly E.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Rentz, Dorene M.; Johnson, Keith A.; Rosen, Allyson; Tinklenberg, Jared; Ashford, Wes; Sabbagh, Marwan; Connor, Donald; Jacobson, Sandra; Killiany, Ronald; Norbash, Alexander; Nair, Anil; Obisesan, Thomas O.; Jayam-Trouth, Annapurni; Wang, Paul; Lerner, Alan; Hudson, Leon; Ogrocki, Paula; DeCarli, Charles; Fletcher, Evan; Carmichael, Owen; Kittur, Smita; Mirje, Seema; Borrie, Michael; Lee, T-Y; Bartha, Dr Rob; Johnson, Sterling; Asthana, Sanjay; Carlsson, Cynthia M.; Potkin, Steven G.; Preda, Adrian; Nguyen, Dana; Tariot, Pierre; Fleisher, Adam; Reeder, Stephanie; Bates, Vernice; Capote, Horacio; Rainka, Michelle; Hendin, Barry A.; Scharre, Douglas W.; Kataki, Maria; Zimmerman, Earl A.; Celmins, Dzintra; Brown, Alice D.; Gandy, Sam; Marenberg, Marjorie E.; Rovner, Barry W.; Pearlson, Godfrey; Anderson, Karen; Saykin, Andrew J.; Santulli, Robert B.; Englert, Jessica; Williamson, Jeff D.; Sink, Kaycee M.; Watkins, Franklin; Ott, Brian R.; Wu, Chuang-Kuo; Cohen, Ronald; Salloway, Stephen; Malloy, Paul; Correia, Stephen; Rosen, Howard J.; Miller, Bruce L.; Mintzer, Jacobo

2012-01-01

146

Ideal Cardiovascular Health and Mortality: Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To analyze the relationship of ideal cardiovascular health to disease-specific death. Patients and Methods We used data from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study from October 9, 1987, to March 3, 1999, to estimate the prevalence of ideal cardiovascular health in 11,993 individuals (24.3% women) and to examine its relationship with deaths from all causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer. Results During a mean follow-up of 11.6 years, 305 deaths occurred: 70 (23.0%) from CVD and 127 (41.6%) from cancer. In the entire cohort, only 29 individuals (0.2%) had 7 ideal metrics. After adjusting for age, sex, examination year, alcohol intake, and parental history of CVD, risk of death due to CVD was 55% lower in those participants who met 3 or 4 ideal metrics (hazard ratio, 0.45; 95% confidence interval, 0.27-0.77) and 63% lower in those with 5 to 7 ideal metrics (hazard ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence interval, 0.15-0.95), compared with those who met 0 to 2 ideal metrics. Although not significant, there was also a trend toward lower risk of death due to all causes across incremental numbers of ideal metrics. No association was observed for deaths due to cancer. Conclusion The prevalence of ideal cardiovascular health was extremely low in a middle-aged cohort of men and women recruited between 1987 and 1999. The American Heart Association construct reflects well the subsequent risk of CVD, as reflected by graded CVD mortality in relation to the number of ideal metrics.

Artero, Enrique G.; Espana-Romero, Vanesa; Lee, Duck-chul; Sui, Xuemei; Church, Timothy S.; Lavie, Carl J.; Blair, Steven N.

2012-01-01

147

The Impact of Puberty on Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although adolescence is generally recognized as a period of dramatic change, the issue of whether it is also a time of stress and disturbance is still controversial. To examine the impact of pubertal development on adolescents, data were used from a 5-year longitudinal study of white males and females. A variety of self-concept, behavioral, value,…

Blyth, Dale A.; And Others

148

A longitudinal study of the genetics of personality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conducted a longitudinal twin study to determine whether personality traits with significant heritability in adolescence remain so in adulthood. A subsample of 42 twin pairs who had been administered the MMPI and the California Psychological Inventory in adolescence was readministered the same 2 inventories 12 yrs later. The subsample was found to be representative of the sample from which it

Robert H. Dworkin; Barbara W. Burke; Brendan A. Maher; Irving I. Gottesman

1976-01-01

149

Anxiety Sensitivity and Panic Attacks: A 1-Year Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The hypothesis that anxiety sensitivity (AS) is a risk factor for panic genesis has obtained compelling support, but the clinical/practical importance of AS in panic genesis has been questioned. In addition, the association between panic experience and AS increase has not been clearly demonstrated. Through this 1-year longitudinal study among…

Li, Wen; Zinbarg, Richard E.

2007-01-01

150

A Longitudinal Study of Early Adolescent Precursors to Running Away  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although previous research has examined correlates of running away among samples of currently homeless and runaway adolescents, little is known about what factors will predict the likelihood that a housed adolescent with no prior history of running away will leave home. As such, the current study uses the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to…

Tyler, Kimberly A.; Bersani, Bianca E.

2008-01-01

151

NATIONAL LONGITUDINAL MORTALITY STUDY- NATIONAL DEATH INDEX RECORD LINKAGE (NLMS)  

EPA Science Inventory

National Longitudinal Mortality Study is to investigate social, economic, demographic and occupational differentials in mortality (total and by cause) within a national sample of the U.S. population. In a collaboration begun in 1999 with the Census Bureau and other federal agenci...

152

A longitudinal study of adolescents' future orientation (time perspective)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This longitudinal study was designed to test hypotheses concerning the influence of environmental changes in different groups (educational status; sex) of adolescents on their future orientation (FO). FO was measured through a free-response questionnaire on which the subjects indicated their hopes and fears (which were later categorized into various domains of life by independent judges). On a second questionnaire the

Gisela Trommsdorff; Helmut Lamm; Rolf W. Schmidt

1979-01-01

153

A longitudinal evaluative study of student difficulties with engineering graphics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously reported in this journal that spatial ability influences academic performance in engineering. We have also reported that spatial ability is trainable, and can be increased through instruction focused on using perception and mental imagery in three-dimensional representation. In this article, we present the results of a longitudinal evaluative study of student difficulties with engineering graphics at our

Charles Potter; Errol Van Der Merwe; Wendy Kaufman; Julie Delacour

2006-01-01

154

A Longitudinal Study of Preschool Children's (Homo sapiens) Sex Segregation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this 2-year longitudinal study, we hypothesized that sex of the human child (Homo sapiens), differences in physical activity, and time of the year would interact to influence preschool children's sex segregation. We also hypothesized that activity would differentially relate to peer rejection for boys and girls. Consistent with the first hypothesis, high-activity girls started off as the most integrated

Catherine M. Bohn-Gettler; Anthony D. Pellegrini; Danielle Dupuis; Meghan Hickey; Yuefeng Hou; Cary Roseth; David Solberg

2010-01-01

155

Estimating AFQT Scores for National Educational Longitudinal Study (NELS) Respondents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document reports on the first segment of a project that estimates the determinants of individual enlistment decisions using the 1992 second followup of the National Educational Longitudinal Study (NELS). The NELS sample contains youths who were high school seniors in 1992. The project's first segment estimates scores on the Armed Forces…

Kilburn, M. Rebecca; Hanser, Lawrence M.; Klerman, Jacob A.

156

Five Year Longitudinal Study of Australian Winery Websites  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of a five year longitudinal study of Australian winery websites. The research sets out to determine if Australian winery websites have matured and increased in content and functionality since 2003. Data has been collected over the 2003 to 2007 period and analysed to determine if Australian winery websites are providing more to satisfy customer requirements.

Robyn Davidson

2007-01-01

157

Longitudinal Study of Social Support and Meaning in Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to see whether 3 types of social support (enacted support, negative interaction, and anticipated support) are associated with change in meaning in life. Data from a nationwide longitudinal survey of older people suggested that greater anticipated support (i.e., the belief that others will provide assistance in the future if needed) is associated with a

Neal Krause

2007-01-01

158

A Longitudinal Study of Principals' Activities and Student Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although a substantial amount of research on school leadership has focused on what principals may do to improve teaching and learning, little of this research has explored how principals' time spent on leadership activities may relate to and possibly affect student performance. This article presents results from a 3-year longitudinal study of…

May, Henry; Huff, Jason; Goldring, Ellen

2012-01-01

159

Attachment from Infancy to Adulthood: The Major Longitudinal Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume provides unique and valuable firsthand accounts of the most important longitudinal studies of attachment. Presented are a range of research programs that have broadened the understanding of early close relationships and their role in individual adaptation throughout life. In addition to discussing the findings that emerged from each…

Grossmann, Klaus E., Ed.; Grossmann, Karin, Ed.; Waters, Everett, Ed.

2005-01-01

160

Travelling the Road to Expertise: A Longitudinal Study of Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A longitudinal study of students' developing understanding of decimal notation has been conducted by testing over 3000 students in Grades 4 to 10 up to 7 times. A pencil-and-paper test based on a carefully designed set of decimal comparison items enabled students' responses to be classified into 11 codes and tracked over time. The paper reports on…

Stacey, Kaye

2005-01-01

161

Early Cognitive Profiles of Emergent Readers: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal study examined the contribution of phonological awareness, phonological memory, and visuospatial ability to reading development in 142 English-speaking children from the start of kindergarten to the middle of Grade 2. Partial cross-lagged analyses revealed significant relationships between early performance on block design and…

Brunswick, Nicola; Martin, G. Neil; Rippon, Georgina

2012-01-01

162

Pathways of Long-Term Effects of an Early Intervention Program on Educational Attainment: Findings from the Chicago Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated pathways that might explain the observed linkage between participation in early intervention programs and later educational attainment using a sample from the Chicago Longitudinal Study, an on-going investigation of low-income minority children growing up in high-poverty neighborhoods in Chicago. A review of…

Ou, Suh-Ru

2005-01-01

163

Cannabis Use and Related Harms in the Transition to Young Adulthood: A Longitudinal Study of Australian Secondary School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study documents the changing rates of cannabis use, misuse and cannabis-related social harms among Australian adolescents as they grow into young adulthood. It utilised data from a longitudinal study of young people at ages 15, 16, 17, and 19. The rates of cannabis use were found to increase as participants aged; past year use…

Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Patton, George C.; Toumbourou, John W.

2013-01-01

164

A Longitudinal Study of Student-Teacher Relationship Quality, Difficult Temperament, and Risky Behavior from Childhood to Early Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the mediating role of student-teacher relationship quality (conflict and closeness) in grades 4, 5, and 6 on the relation between background characteristics, difficult temperament at age 41/2 and risky behavior in 6th grade. The longitudinal sample of participants (N = 1156) was from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and…

Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Reio, Thomas G., Jr.; Stipanovic, Natalie; Taylor, Jennifer E.

2010-01-01

165

Nurses' participation in audit: a regional study  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To find out to what extent nurses were perceived to be participating in audit, to identify factors thought to impede their involvement, and to assess progress towards multidisciplinary audit. RESEARCH DESIGN: Qualitative. METHODS: Focus groups and interviews. PARTICIPANTS: Chairs of audit groups and audit support staff in hospital, community and primary health care and audit leads in health authorities in the North West Region. RESULTS: In total 99 audit leads/support staff in the region participated representing 89% of the primary health care audit groups, 80% of acute hospitals, 73% of community health services, and 59% of purchasers. Many audit groups remain medically dominated despite recent changes to their structure and organisation. The quality of interprofessional relations, the leadership style of the audit chair, and nurses' level of seniority, audit knowledge, and experience influenced whether groups reflected a multidisciplinary, rather than a doctor centred approach. Nurses were perceived to be enthusiastic supporters of audit, although their active participation in the process was considered substantially less than for doctors in acute and community health services. Practice nurses were increasingly being seen as the local audit enthusiasts in primary health care. Reported obstacles to nurses' participation in audit included hierarchical nurse and doctor relationships, lack of commitment from senior doctors and managers, poor organisational links between departments of quality and audit, work load pressures and lack of protected time, availability of practical support, and lack of knowledge and skills. Progress towards multidisciplinary audit was highly variable. The undisciplinary approach to audit was still common, particularly in acute services. Multidisciplinary audit was more successfully established in areas already predisposed towards teamworking or where nurses had high involvement in decision making. Audit support staff were viewed as having a key role in helping teams to adopt a collaborative approach to audit. CONCLUSION: Although nurses were undertaking audit, and some were leading developments in their settings, a range of structural and organisational, interprofessional and intraprofessional factors was still impeding progress. If the ultimate goal of audit is to improve patient care, the obstacles that make it difficult for nurses to contribute actively to the process must be acknowledged and considered.

Cheater, F. M.; Keane, M.

1998-01-01

166

Pattern Recognition of Longitudinal Trial Data with Nonignorable Missingness: An Empirical Case Study  

PubMed Central

Methods for identifying meaningful growth patterns of longitudinal trial data with both nonignorable intermittent and drop-out missingness are rare. In this study, a combined approach with statistical and data mining techniques is utilized to address the nonignorable missing data issue in growth pattern recognition. First, a parallel mixture model is proposed to model the nonignorable missing information from a real-world patient-oriented study and concurrently to estimate the growth trajectories of participants. Then, based on individual growth parameter estimates and their auxiliary feature attributes, a fuzzy clustering method is incorporated to identify the growth patterns. This case study demonstrates that the combined multi-step approach can achieve both statistical gener ality and computational efficiency for growth pattern recognition in longitudinal studies with nonignorable missing data.

Fang, Hua; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Rizzo, Maria L.; Stopp, Christian; Wiebe, Sandra A.; Stroup, Walter W.

2010-01-01

167

Prospective Study of Tobacco Smoking and Substance Dependencies Among Samples of ADHD and Non-ADHD Participants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focused on an audience at high risk for heavy use of licit and illicit substances: young adults who as children had attention-deficit\\/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The participants in this study were part of a longitudinal study of the life histories of 492 children, one third of whom were identified as hyperactive in 1974 and whose childhood symptom ratings

Nadine M. Lambert; Carolyn S. Hartsough

1998-01-01

168

Longitudinal study of breast-feeding and return of fertility.  

PubMed

This article outlines the objectives, research design, procedures, laboratory investigation, termination of volunteer participation, and personnel of a longitudinal study of breastfeeding and return of fertility among Thai women. For a long time it has been recognized that the return of mentruation and fertility are delayed in women who are breastfeeding, and it has been suggested that breastfeeding acts as a natural fertility control. As there has been no study among Thai women in these matters and no study ever measured both suckling frequency and return of ovulation, a detailed investigation of these subjects was undertaken. The main objectives are as follows: to study the relationship between return of ovulation and fertility after childbirth and the pattern of breastfeeding; to determine whether the early introduction of supplementary food stimulates the early resumption of ovulation; and to examine the effects of other factors, such as resumption of menses and sexual practices ot the women, on the return of ovulation. The information obtained from this study will be applied in the following ways: to provide information and advice to breastfeeding women that will serve to maximize the antifertility effect of breastfeeding; to develop simple policies and guidelines that will help to determine the optimum time for breastfeeding women to start using contraception; and to obtain additional knowledge about the physiology of lactation, by defining the relationship between the endocrine changes during lactation, the infant feeding patterns, and the return of menses and ovulation. Volunteers will be selected from among the women who have decided not to use any contraception, but family planning methods will be provided if they wish to start. The study group will include 25 women who are breastfeeding their babies, and the control group will consist of 10 women who have decided not to breastfeed. All volunteers and their infants will undergo a thorough physical examination. A volunteer will maintain a daily record of the infant feeding, marking the chart with an easy symbol. A trained nurse will visit the volunteers in their homes once a week. Every week, the nurses will obtain a detailed history. A total overnight sample of urine will be taken to the laboratory and tested for levels of pregnanediol and creatine. The principal investigator will coordinate the study and will be responsible for appointing and supervising all the involved personnel. PMID:12265674

Chansri, B

1982-12-01

169

Concepts for NASA longitudinal health studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Clinical data collected from a 15-year study of the homogenous group of pre-Shuttle astronauts have revealed no significant long-term effects from spaceflight. The current hypothesis suggests that repeated exposures to the space environment in the Shuttle era will similarly have no long-term health effects. However, a much more heterogenous group of astronauts and non-astronaut scientists will fly in Shuttle, and data on this group's adaptation to the space environment and readaptation to earth are currently sparse. In addition, very little information is available concerning the short- and long-term medical consequences of long duration exposure to space and subsequent readaptation to the earth environment. In this paper, retrospective clinical information on astronauts is reviewed and concepts for conducting epidemiological studies examining long-term health effects of spaceflight on humans, including associated occupational risks factors, are presented.

Nicogossian, A. E.; Pool, S. L.; Leach, C. S.; Moseley, E.; Rambaut, P. C.

1983-01-01

170

Petrous bone cholesteatoma: clinical longitudinal study.  

PubMed

The object of this retrospective study was to describe a series of patients with petrous bone cholesteatomas, paying particular attention to classification, diagnosis, surgical strategy, results, complications and recurrences. Furthermore, the study was designed to evaluate the impact of imaging techniques on an early diagnosis. Topographically, the petrous bone cholesteatomas of the present series were grouped using Sanna's classification and different surgical approaches were used. High resolution CT and/or MRI were used to follow-up the patients. The case notes of 52 patients with petrous bone cholesteatomas who were referred to our hospital for surgery between 1987 and 2003 were reviewed postoperatively. There were 45 primary cases and 7 recurrences. The facial nerve had been infiltrated and compressed by the cholesteatoma in 18 patients. Fourteen were managed with cable grafts using sural nerve or great auricular nerves. About 26 patients with preoperative grade I confirmed their normal facial function in 23 cases. In the other ten patients, the preoperative facial paralysis was due to compression by the cholesteatoma and its removal provided partial recovery of facial function in four patients. Our study compared two observation periods (1987-1996 and 1997-2003) when the diffusion and the availability of imaging techniques in our national health system had considerably increased. Two important factors emerged: firstly, the number of less extensive surgical approaches was higher in the more recent observation period, proving that cholesteatomas smaller in size had been diagnosed. Secondly, preoperative facial paralysis was less frequent in the same period-falling to 25% of cases of total facial paralysis from the 45.8% of the earlier period-practically half as much. The partial paralyses instead increased slightly, demonstrating that otologists have become more sensitive to and pay more attention to this symptom. PMID:17082945

Magliulo, Giuseppe

2007-02-01

171

Factors Affecting Attrition in a Longitudinal Smoking Prevention Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background.In longitudinal smoking prevention studies, a difficulty in evaluating treatment effects is understanding whether bias is associated with those who do not complete the study. This study presents the significant predictors of attrition and suggests how to reduce attrition bias in evaluating program effects.Methods.Survival analysis methods were used to assess factors associated with attrition at different time points of the

Ohidul Siddiqui; Brian R. Flay; Frank B. Hu

1996-01-01

172

Longitudinal study of alexithymia and multiple sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the course of alexithymia and its relation with anxiety and depression in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), over a period of 5 years. Methods Sixty-two MS patients were examined at two timepoints, 5 years apart, and they answered questionnaires collecting socio-demographic, medical, and psychological data (depression, anxiety, alexithymia). Results Our data show that emotional disorders remain stable over time in patients with MS, particularly as regards alexithymia and anxiety. Conversely, the rate of depression decreased between the two evaluations, falling from 40% to 26%. The two dimensions of alexithymia (i.e., difficulty describing and difficulty identifying feelings) were correlated with anxiety and depression, whereas the third component of alexithymia (externally oriented thinking) was independent, and was the only component to change over time, with a significant fall observed at 5 years. Conclusion Alexithymia was associated with increased severity of anxiety and attack relapses.

Chahraoui, Khadija; Duchene, Celine; Rollot, Fabien; Bonin, Bernard; Moreau, Thibault

2014-01-01

173

Japanese study on stratification, health, income, and neighborhood: study protocol and profiles of participants.  

PubMed

Background: The Japanese Study on Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood (J-SHINE) aims to clarify the complex associations between social factors and health from an interdisciplinary perspective and to provide a database for use in various health policy evaluations.Methods: J-SHINE is an ongoing longitudinal panel study of households of adults aged 25-50 years. The wave 1 survey was carried out in 2010 among adults randomly selected from the resident registry of four urban and suburban municipalities in the greater Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan. In 2011, surveys for the participants' spouse/partner and child were additionally conducted. The wave 2 survey was conducted in 2012 for the wave 1 participants and will be followed by the wave 2 survey for spouse/partner and child in 2013.Results: Wave 1 sample sizes were 4357 for wave 1 participants (valid response rate: 31.3%; cooperation rate: 51.8%), 1873 for spouse/partner (response rate: 61.9%), and 1520 for child (response rate: 67.7%). Wave 2 captured 69.0% of wave 1 participants. Information gathered covered socio-demographics, household economy, self-reported health conditions and healthcare utilization, stress and psychological values, and developmental history. A subpopulation underwent physiological (n = 2468) and biomarker (n = 1205) measurements.Conclusions: Longitudinal survey data, including repeated measures of social factors evaluated based on theories and techniques of various disciplines, like J-SHINE, should contribute toward opening a web of causality for society and health, which may have important policy implications for recent global health promotion strategies such as the World Health Organization's Social Determinants of Health approach and the second round of Japan's Healthy Japan 21. PMID:24814507

Takada, Misato; Kondo, Naoki; Hashimoto, Hideki

2014-07-01

174

Japanese Study on Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood: Study Protocol and Profiles of Participants  

PubMed Central

Background The Japanese Study on Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood (J-SHINE) aims to clarify the complex associations between social factors and health from an interdisciplinary perspective and to provide a database for use in various health policy evaluations. Methods J-SHINE is an ongoing longitudinal panel study of households of adults aged 25–50 years. The wave 1 survey was carried out in 2010 among adults randomly selected from the resident registry of four urban and suburban municipalities in the greater Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan. In 2011, surveys for the participants’ spouse/partner and child were additionally conducted. The wave 2 survey was conducted in 2012 for the wave 1 participants and will be followed by the wave 2 survey for spouse/partner and child in 2013. Results Wave 1 sample sizes were 4357 for wave 1 participants (valid response rate: 31.3%; cooperation rate: 51.8%), 1873 for spouse/partner (response rate: 61.9%), and 1520 for child (response rate: 67.7%). Wave 2 captured 69.0% of wave 1 participants. Information gathered covered socio-demographics, household economy, self-reported health conditions and healthcare utilization, stress and psychological values, and developmental history. A subpopulation underwent physiological (n = 2468) and biomarker (n = 1205) measurements. Conclusions Longitudinal survey data, including repeated measures of social factors evaluated based on theories and techniques of various disciplines, like J-SHINE, should contribute toward opening a web of causality for society and health, which may have important policy implications for recent global health promotion strategies such as the World Health Organization’s Social Determinants of Health approach and the second round of Japan’s Healthy Japan 21.

Takada, Misato; Kondo, Naoki; Hashimoto, Hideki

2014-01-01

175

Adult Attachment, Social Self-Efficacy, Self-Disclosure, Loneliness, and Subsequent Depression for Freshman College Students: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal study examined whether social self-efficacy and self-disclosure serve as mediators between attachment and feelings of loneliness and subsequent depression. Participants were 308 freshmen at a large Midwestern university. Results indicated that social self-efficacy mediated the association between attachment anxiety and feelings…

Wei, Meifen; Russel, Daniel W.; Zakalik, Robyn A.

2005-01-01

176

Serving Country and Community: A Longitudinal Study of Service in AmeriCorps. Early Findings. April 2007 Update.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Serving Country and Community: A Longitudinal Study of Service in AmeriCorps is an evaluation to assess the long-term impact of AmeriCorps on participants (referred to as members) civic engagement, education, employment, and life skills. This report prese...

A. Chase A. Hazlett J. Jastrzab J. Valente L. Giordono

2007-01-01

177

Prosocial Development from Childhood to Adolescence: A Multi-Informant Perspective with Canadian and Italian Longitudinal Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To longitudinally describe prosocial behaviour development from childhood to adolescence, using multiple informants within Canadian and Italian samples. Method: Participants in Study 1 were 1037 boys from low socioeconomic status (SES) areas in Montreal, Canada, for whom yearly teacher and mother reports were obtained between the ages…

Nantel-Vivier, Amelie; Kokko, Katja; Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Pastorelli, Concetta; Gerbino, Maria Grazia; Paciello, Marinella; Cote, Sylvana; Pihl, Robert O.; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

2009-01-01

178

Childhood Peer Rejection and Aggression as Predictors of Adolescent Girls' Externalizing and Health Risk Behaviors: A 6-Year Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 6-year longitudinal study examined girls' peer-nominated social preference and aggression in childhood as predictors of self- and parent-reported externalizing symptoms, substance use (i.e.. cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use), and sexual risk behavior in adolescence. Participants were 148 girls from diverse ethnic backgrounds, who were…

Prinstein, Mitchell J.; La Greca, Annette M.

2004-01-01

179

Do Changes in Body Mass Index Percentile Reflect Changes in Body Composition in Children? Data From the Fels Longitudinal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE.Our aim was to examine the degree to which changes in BMI percentile reflect changes in body fat and lean body mass during childhood and how age and gender affect these relationships. METHODS.This analysis used serial data on 494 white boys and girls who were aged 8 to 18 years and participating in the Fels Longitudinal Study (total 2319 obser-

Ellen W. Demerath; Christine M. Schubert; L. Michele Maynard; Shumei S. Sun; W. Cameron Chumlea; Arthur Pickoff; Stefan A. Czerwinski; Bradford Towne; Roger M. Siervogel

2010-01-01

180

Fifty Months of Memory: A Longitudinal Study in Early Childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three studies were conducted to evaluate long-term memory longitudinally. In Study 1, 10-month-olds (N = 20) were taught to operate a toy in their homes and were tested at home after four months, as were age-matched (14 months) inexperienced controls (N = 20). Experienced infants were more willing to remain in the play situation, relearned faster than controls, and one

Nancy A. Myers; Eve E. Perris; Cindy J. Speaker

1994-01-01

181

A longitudinal study relating carpeting with sick building syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

A longitudinal questionnaire study was performed among personnel in two Swedish primary schools with wall-to-wall carpets and four schools with hard floor covering. The study groups consisted of all primary schools equipped with wall-to-wall carpets in the town of Uppsala, plus a random sample of two newer and two elderly primary schools with hard floor covering. In an initial cross-sectional

D. Norbaeck; M. Torgen

1989-01-01

182

Participant evaluation results for two indoor air quality studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

After two surveys for indoor air pollutants (radon and other chemicals) the homeowners were surveyed for their reactions. The results of these participant evaluation surveys, assuming that the participants that responded to the survey were representative, indicate that homeowners will accept a significant level of monitoring activity as part of an indoor air quality field study. Those participants completing surveys

A. R. Hawthorne; C. S. Dudney; M. A. Cohen; J. D. Spengler

1987-01-01

183

Longitudinal trajectories of BMI and cardiovascular disease risk: The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health  

PubMed Central

Objective In adulthood, excess BMI is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD); it is unknown whether risk differs by BMI trajectories from adolescence to adulthood. Design and Methods The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a nationally representative, longitudinal adolescent cohort (mean age: 16.9y) followed into adulthood (mean age: 29.0y) [n=13,643 individuals (40,929 observations)] was examined. Separate logistic regression models for diabetes, hypertension, and inflammation were used to examine odds of risk factors at given adult BMI according to varying BMI trajectories from adolescence to adulthood. Results CVD risk factor prevalence at follow-up ranged from 5.5% (diabetes) to 26.4% (hypertension) and 31.3% (inflammation); risk differed across BMI trajectories. For example, relative to men aged 27y (BMI=23 kg/m2 maintained over full study period), odds for diabetes were comparatively higher for men of the same age and BMI?30 kg/m2 with ?8 BMI unit gain between 15-20y (OR=2.35; 95% CI, 1.51, 3.66) or in those who maintained BMI?30 kg/m2 across the study period (OR=2.33; 1.92, 2.83) relative to the same ?8 BMI unit gain, but between 20-27y (OR=1.44; 1.10, 1.87). Conclusions Specific periods and patterns of weight gain in the transition from adolescence to adulthood might be critical for CVD preventive efforts.

Attard, Samantha M.; Herring, Amy H.; Howard, Annie Green; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

2013-01-01

184

Longitudinal tracking studies for the AHF booster synchrotron  

SciTech Connect

The greenfield site option for the Advanced Hydrotest Facility (AHF) contains a 157-MeV H- linac followed by two synchrotrons, a booster and a 50-GeV main ring. Several different lattice designs are under consideration for the main ring while two different booster designs are presently being studied. The first booster is a 4-GeV synchrotron operating at h=1 with a 5-Hz cycle. The second is a 9-GeV machine operating at h=2 with a 1-Hz cycle. Both designs are required to deliver {approx}3 x 1012 p/bunch. A longitudinal painting scheme was employed during injection to enhance beam quality and capture during the initial portion of the ramp. The longitudinal beam dynamics simulations were performed with the tracking code ESME. The purpose of these studies was to investigate parameter space and obtain estimates for the rf system requirements. This paper presents the results of these studies.

Rybarcyk, L. J. (Lawrence J.)

2003-01-01

185

Managing Endings in a Longitudinal Study: Respect for Persons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper I describe and discuss the way that a book I had written on a five-year longitudinal study of school science teaching was received by the pupils and teachers it featured. By and large the pupils' reception was positive. However, one group of teachers was deeply hurt by the book. I trace this mainly to my failure to consider adequately their fears of the consequences of the book's publication and possibly to my failure to consider with them the psychological significance of my withdrawing from the school after five years of regular study. I hope that there are lessons not only for myself but also for others considering longitudinal and ethnographic research in science education and more broadly.

Reiss, Michael J.

2005-03-01

186

A longitudinal study of attempted religiously mediated sexual orientation change.  

PubMed

The authors conducted a quasi-experimental longitudinal study spanning 6-7 years examining attempted religiously mediated sexual orientation change from homosexual orientation to heterosexual orientation. An initial sample was formed of 72 men and 26 women who were involved in a variety of Christian ministries, with measures of sexual attraction, infatuation and fantasy, and composite measures of sexual orientation and psychological distress, administered longitudinally. Evidence from the study suggested that change of homosexual orientation appears possible for some and that psychological distress did not increase on average as a result of the involvement in the change process. The authors explore methodological limitations circumscribing generalizability of the findings and alternative explanations of the findings, such as sexual identity change or adjustment. PMID:21961446

Jones, Stanton L; Yarhouse, Mark A

2011-01-01

187

15-year longitudinal study of blood pressure and dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryBackground Vascular causes of dementia may be more common than supposed. Vascular factors may also have a role in late-onset Alzheimer's disease, but the role of hypertension in the development of dementia is unclear.Methods As part of the Longitudinal Population Study of 70-year-olds in Göteborg, Sweden, we analysed the relation between blood pressure and the development of dementia in the

I Skoog; L Nilsson; G Persson; B Lernfelt; S Landahl; B Palmertz; L-A Andreasson; A Odén; A Svanborg

1996-01-01

188

Missing data methods in longitudinal studies: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incomplete data are quite common in biomedical and other types of research, especially in longitudinal studies. During the\\u000a last three decades, a vast amount of work has been done in the area. This has led, on the one hand, to a rich taxonomy of\\u000a missing-data concepts, issues, and methods and, on the other hand, to a variety of data-analytic tools.

Joseph G. Ibrahim; Geert Molenberghs

2009-01-01

189

Conducting longitudinal studies of behavior using interactive voice response technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interactive voice response (IVR) systems represent a convergence of automated computerized interview techniques with telephone\\u000a survey research. This convergence affords unparalleled opportunities for conducting longitudinal behavioral research. Our\\u000a experiences, after several years of conducting multiple IVR studies investigating the circumstances and consequences of daily\\u000a alcohol use patterns, continues to generate excitement regarding the research potential of this methodology. This article

James C. Mundt; John S. Searles; M. W. Perrine; Dan Walter

1997-01-01

190

A longitudinal study of domestic water conservation behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 1988 study of a school-linked sample in a metropolitan and a regional urban area established baseline data for knowledge, attitudes, intentions, and behavior with regard to water management and conservation (Murphy, Watson, & Moore, 1991). This paper reports on a 1991 follow-up, utilising both longitudinal and cross-sectional samples of students, teachers and parents, which aimed at identifying changes within

Susan Moore; Margot Murphy; Ray Watson

1994-01-01

191

Longitudinal Associations between Exercise and Pain in the General Population - The HUNT Pain Study  

PubMed Central

Background Population-based studies have reported conflicting findings on the relationship between physical activity and pain, and most studies reporting a relationship are cross sectional. Temporal relationships are therefore difficult to infer and associations may be subject to confounding from a variety of other factors. The aim of the current study was to investigate the association between exercise and pain longitudinally and to use within subjects analyses to remove between subjects confounding. Methods In the population-based HUNT 3 study, participants reported both pain and level of exercise. A random sub-sample of 6419 participants was in addition invited to report their last week pain and exercise every three months over a 12 month period (five measurements in total). We used multilevel mixed effects linear regression analyses to prospectively estimate the association between regular levels of exercise (measured in HUNT 3) and subsequent longitudinal reporting of pain. We also estimated within-subjects associations (i.e. the variation in pain as a function of variation in exercise, over time, within individuals) to avoid confounding from between subject factors. Results Among those invited to participate (N?=?6419), 4219 subjects returned at least two questionnaires. Compared with subjects who reported no or light exercise, those who reported moderate levels of exercise or more at baseline, reported less pain in repeated measures over a 12 month period in analyses adjusted for age, sex,education and smoking. Adjusting for baseline level of pain distinctly attenuated the findings. Within subjects, an increase in exercise was accompanied by a concurrent reduction in intensity of pain. However, we found no indication that exercise level at one occasion was related to pain reporting three months later. Conclusion This longitudinal population-based study indicates that exercise is associated with lower level of pain and that this association is close in time.

Landmark, Tormod; Romundstad, Pal R.; Borchgrevink, Petter C.; Kaasa, Stein; Dale, Ola

2013-01-01

192

A longitudinal study of school belonging and academic motivation across high school.  

PubMed

This longitudinal study examined how school belonging changes over the years of high school, and how it is associated with academic achievement and motivation. Students from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds participated (N = 572; age span = 13.94-19.15 years). In ninth grade, girls' school belonging was higher than boys'. Over the course of high school, however, girls' school belonging declined, whereas boys' remained stable. Within-person longitudinal analyses indicated that years in which students had higher school belonging were also years in which they felt that school was more enjoyable and more useful, above and beyond their actual level of achievement. Results highlight the importance of belonging for maintaining students' academic engagement during the teenage years. PMID:23002809

Neel, Cari Gillen-O'; Fuligni, Andrew

2013-01-01

193

Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B): Preschool-Kindergarten 2007. Psychometric Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the design, construction, implementation, quality control, and psychometric characteristics of the child assessment instruments used to measure developmental outcomes for young children participating in the Early Childhood Longitudin...

G. Mulligan J. Lennon K. Snow M. Najarian S. Kinsey

2010-01-01

194

Lurking as an active participation process: a longitudinal investigation of engagement with an online cancer support group.  

PubMed

To better understand participation in computer-mediated social support (CMSS) groups for breast cancer patients, this study examines two overarching questions of (1) who are posters, lurkers, or nonusers and (2) what role do these different types of engagement play in explaining psychosocial health outcomes? This study incorporates the comprehensive model of information seeking and two competing models of social enhancement and social compensation, as well as the literature on lurking and posting behaviors in online groups to answer research questions. Our findings suggest that patterns of engagement in a CMSS group differed according to patients' sociodemographic characteristics and psychosocial factors. In addition, we found that lurkers had a higher level of perceived functional well-being than posters at 3 months post baseline. Theoretical and practical implications for effective online cancer support group campaigns are discussed. PMID:24345206

Han, Jeong Yeob; Hou, Jiran; Kim, Eunkyung; Gustafson, David H

2014-10-01

195

Changes in lung function in older people from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.  

PubMed

Background: Decline in lung function with increasing age is common in older people. However, the rate of decline using the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) in a longitudinal study in the elderly community dwellers is unknown. Methods: We analyzed data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing on people 50 years and older who had FEV1 measurement at Wave 2 and Wave 4 of 4 years of follow-up, respectively. A random coefficient model was employed to examine the changes in FEV1 and predict differences in the levels of FEV1 in older people. Results: A total of 4224 participants were included in the study. The mean (± standard deviation [SD]) rate of change in FEV1 was a decline of 32.92 ± 0.96 ml/year. The absolute difference in mean FEV1 level between female and male participants was 767.07 ± 16.6 ml. It was 253.91 ± 22.7 ml lower in current smokers than in nonsmokers, 73.67 ± 18.67 ml lower in participants with a history of sputum in winter months than in participants without sputum, 63.32 ± 7.07 ml lower in participants with a higher dyspnea score than in participants with a lower dyspnea score and 67.77 ± 15.87 ml higher in participants with good health compared to participants with fair/poor health status. One microgram increase in C-reactive protein level lowered FEV1 by 4.66 ± 0.86 ml and one Hb of hemoglobin increased the FEV1 level by 4.78 ± 0.77 ml. All were statistically significant at p < 0.001. Conclusions: The average rate of FEV1 decline in older people without respiratory diseases was found to be high. Lower level of FEV1 was also observed in current smokers, females, those with a history of sputum in winter months and in participants with higher dyspnea score or in those with poorer health status. PMID:24832442

Yohannes, Abebaw M; Tampubolon, Gindo

2014-08-01

196

The development of fetal behavioural states: a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

In order to evaluate the development of fetal behavioural states a longitudinal study was performed on 35 healthy fetuses during the last trimester of pregnancy. Fetal heart rate (FHR), gross fetal body movements (FM), fetal eye movements (FEM), fetal breathing movements (FBM) and micturition were simultaneously studied at two-week intervals from 28 weeks gestation onwards. Well-defined fetal behavioural states were observed only after 36 weeks gestation. Between 28 and 36 weeks the quiet-activity cycle of FHR was always detected and some fetal biophysical activities seemed to become related around this cycle. PMID:3703822

Arduini, D; Rizzo, G; Giorlandino, C; Valensise, H; Dell'Acqua, S; Romanini, C

1986-01-01

197

Study of longitudinal dynamics in space-charge dominated beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern accelerator applications, such as heavy ion fusion drivers, pulsed neutron sources, electron injectors for high-energy linear colliders, and X-ray Free Electron Lasers, demand beams with high intensity, low emittance and small energy spread. At low (non-relativistic) energies, the "electrostatic", collective interactions from space-charge forces existing in such intense beams play the dominant role; we characterize these beams as space-charge dominated beams. This dissertation presents numerous new findings on the longitudinal dynamics of a space-charge dominated beam, particularly on the propagation of density perturbations. In order to fully understand the complex physics of longitudinal space-charge waves, we combine the results of theory, computer simulation, and experiment. In the Long Solenoid Experimental system (LSE), with numerous diagnostic tools and techniques, we have, for the first time, experimentally measured the detailed energy profiles of longitudinal space-charge waves at different locations, both near the beam source and at the end of the transport system. Along with the current profiles, we have a complete set of experimental data for the propagation of space-charge waves. We compare these measured results to a 1-D theory and find better agreement for beams with perturbations in the linear regime, where the perturbation strength is less than 10%, than those with nonlinear perturbations. Using fast imaging techniques that we newly developed, we have, for the first time, obtained the progressive time-resolved images of longitudinal slices of a space-charge dominated beam. These images not only provide us time-resolved transverse density distribution of the beam, but also enable us to take time-resolved transverse phase space measurement using computerized tomography. By combining this information with the longitudinal energy measurement, we have, for the first time, experimentally constructed the full 6-D phase space. Part of the results from the 6-D phase space measurement has been used as initial conditions in computer simulations in order to explore the cause of discrepancies we have observed earlier between the experimental and theoretical models. After extensive simulation studies, we find that the beam loss inside the perturbation due to mismatch or misalignment is an important factor that needs to be included in the models for better reliability.

Tian, Kai

198

Abnormal Brain Activity Changes in Patients with Migraine: A Short-Term Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Whether or not migraine can cause cumulative brain alterations due to frequent migraine-related nociceptive input in patients is largely unclear. The aim of this study was to characterize longitudinal changes in brain activity between repeated observations within a short time interval in a group of female migraine patients, using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Methods Nineteen patients and 20 healthy controls (HC) participated in the study. Regional homogeneity (ReHo) and functional interregional connectivity were assessed to determine the focal and global features of brain dysfunction in migraine. The relationship between changes in headache parameters and longitudinal brain alterations were also investigated. Results All patients reported that their headache activity increased over time. Abnormal ReHo changes in the patient group relative to the HC were found in the putamen, orbitofrontal cortex, secondary somatosensory cortex, brainstem, and thalamus. Moreover, these brain regions exhibited longitudinal ReHo changes at the 6-week follow-up examination. These headache activity changes were accompanied by disproportionately dysfunctional connectivity in the putamen in the migraine patients, as revealed by functional connectivity analysis, suggesting that the putamen plays an important role in integrating diverse information among other migraine-related brain regions. Conclusions The results obtained in this study suggest that progressive brain aberrations in migraine progress as a result of increased headache attacks.

Zhao, Ling; Yan, Xuemei; Dun, Wanghuan; Yang, Jing; Huang, Liyu; Kai, Yuan; Yu, Dahua; Qin, Wei; Jie, Tian

2014-01-01

199

Do major life events influence physical activity among older adults: the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam  

PubMed Central

Background Major life events are associated with a change in daily routine and could thus also affect habitual levels of physical activity. Major life events remain largely unexplored as determinants of older adults’ participation in physical activity and sports. This study focused on two major life events, widowhood and retirement, and asked whether these major life events were associated with moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sports participation. Methods Data from the first (1992–93) and second (1995–96) wave of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA), a prospective cohort study among Dutch adults aged 55 and older, were used. Change in marital status and employment status between baseline and follow-up was assessed by self-report. Time spent in MVPA (min/d) and sports participation (yes/no) was calculated based on the LASA Physical Activity Questionnaire. The association of retirement and widowhood with MVPA and sports participation was assessed in separate multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses, respectively. Results Widowhood - N=136 versus 1324 stable married- was not associated with MVPA (B= 3.5 [95%CI:-57.9;64.9]) or sports participation (OR= 0.8 [95%CI:0.5;1.3]). Retired participants (N= 65) significantly increased their time spent in MVPA (B= 32.5 [95%CI:17.8;47.1]) compared to participants who continued to be employed (N= 121), but not their sports participation. Age was a significant effect modifier (B= 7.5 [90%CI:-1.1;13.8]), indicating a greater increase in MVPA in older retirees. Discussion Our results suggest that the associations found varied by the two major life events under investigation. MVPA increased after retirement, but no association with widowhood was seen.

2012-01-01

200

Outcome-dependent sampling from existing cohorts with longitudinal binary response data: study planning and analysis.  

PubMed

When novel scientific questions arise after longitudinal binary data have been collected, the subsequent selection of subjects from the cohort for whom further detailed assessment will be undertaken is often necessary to efficiently collect new information. Key examples of additional data collection include retrospective questionnaire data, novel data linkage, or evaluation of stored biological specimens. In such cases, all data required for the new analyses are available except for the new target predictor or exposure. We propose a class of longitudinal outcome-dependent sampling schemes and detail a design corrected conditional maximum likelihood analysis for highly efficient estimation of time-varying and time-invariant covariate coefficients when resource limitations prohibit exposure ascertainment on all participants. Additionally, we detail an important study planning phase that exploits available cohort data to proactively examine the feasibility of any proposed substudy as well as to inform decisions regarding the most desirable study design. The proposed designs and associated analyses are discussed in the context of a study that seeks to examine the modifying effect of an interleukin-10 cytokine single nucleotide polymorphism on asthma symptom regression in adolescents participating Childhood Asthma Management Program Continuation Study. Using this example we assume that all data necessary to conduct the study are available except subject-specific genotype data. We also assume that these data would be ascertained by analyzing stored blood samples, the cost of which limits the sample size. PMID:21457191

Schildcrout, Jonathan S; Heagerty, Patrick J

2011-12-01

201

Integrative Data Analysis through Coordination of Measurement and Analysis Protocol across Independent Longitudinal Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Replication of research findings across independent longitudinal studies is essential for a cumulative and innovative developmental science. Meta-analysis of longitudinal studies is often limited by the amount of published information on particular research questions, the complexity of longitudinal designs and the sophistication of analyses, and…

Hofer, Scott M.; Piccinin, Andrea M.

2009-01-01

202

Use of Missing Data Methods in Longitudinal Studies: The Persistence of Bad Practices in Developmental Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developmental science rests on describing, explaining, and optimizing intraindividual changes and, hence, empirically requires longitudinal research. Problems of missing data arise in most longitudinal studies, thus creating challenges for interpreting the substance and structure of intraindividual change. Using a sample of reports of longitudinal studies obtained from three flagship developmental journals—Child Development, Developmental Psychology, and Journal of Research on Adolescence—we

Helena Jeli?i?; Erin Phelps; Richard M. Lerner

2009-01-01

203

Longitudinal Studies in Organizational Stress Research: A Review of the Literature With Reference to Methodological Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demonstrating causal relationships has been of particular importance in organizational stress research. Longitudinal studies are typically suggested to overcome problems of reversed causation and third variables (e.g., social desirability and negative affectivity). This article reviews the empirical longitudinal literature and discusses designs and statistical methods used in these studies. Forty-three longitudinal field reports on organizational stress were identified. Most of

Dieter Zapf; Christian Dormann; Michael Frese

1996-01-01

204

Indoor mobility-related fatigue and muscle strength in nonagenarians: a prospective longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

Background and aims Mobility-related fatigue is an important indicator of functional decline in old age, however, very little is known about fatigue in the oldest old population segment. The aim of this study was to examine the association between indoor mobility-related fatigue and muscle strength decline in nonagenarians. Methods The study is based on a prospective longitudinal study of all Danes born in 1905 and assessed in 1998, 2000 and 2003, and includes 92- to 93-year-old persons who were independent of help in basic indoor mobility at baseline (n = 1,353). Fatigue was assessed at baseline and defined as a subjective feeling of fatigue when transferring or walking indoors. The outcome measure, maximum grip strength, was measured at each measurement point. Results Grip strength declined throughout the study in participants with and without fatigue, but those reporting fatigue had significantly (P < .001) lower muscle strength during the entire study period. Longitudinal analyses indicated slightly slower decline in muscle strength among participants with fatigue compared to those without; however, observed selective dropout of participants with fatigue and poor performance at baseline needs to be considered when interpreting the results. Accordingly, participants without fatigue had significantly higher chances of being alive and having muscle strength above gender-specific median at first (RR 1.32, 95 % CI 1.07–1.58), second (RR 1.51, 1.06–1.96) and third (RR 1.39, 1.01–1.97) measurement points. Conclusions Indoor mobility-related fatigue in advanced later life should not merely be considered as an unpleasant symptom, but rather an indicator of physical impairment, and consequently declined physiological reserve.

Ekmann, Anette; Thinggaard, Mikael; Christensen, Kaare; Avlund, Kirsten

2014-01-01

205

Participant experiences in a breastmilk biomonitoring study: A qualitative assessment  

PubMed Central

Background Biomonitoring studies can provide information about individual and population-wide exposure. However they must be designed in a way that protects the rights and welfare of participants. This descriptive qualitative study was conducted as a follow-up to a breastmilk biomonitoring study. The primary objectives were to assess participants' experiences in the study, including the report-back of individual body burden results, and to determine if participation in the study negatively affected breastfeeding rates or duration. Methods Participants of the Greater Boston PBDE Breastmilk Biomonitoring Study were contacted and asked about their experiences in the study: the impact of study recruitment materials on attitudes towards breastfeeding; if participants had wanted individual biomonitoring results; if the protocol by which individual results were distributed met participants' needs; and the impact of individual results on attitudes towards breastfeeding. Results No participants reported reducing the duration of breastfeeding because of the biomonitoring study, but some responses suggested that breastmilk biomonitoring studies have the potential to raise anxieties about breastfeeding. Almost all participants wished to obtain individual results. Although several reported some concern about individual body burden, none reported reducing the duration of breastfeeding because of biomonitoring results. The study literature and report-back method were found to mitigate potential negative impacts. Conclusion Biomonitoring study design, including clear communication about the benefits of breastfeeding and the manner in which individual results are distributed, can prevent negative impacts of biomonitoring on breastfeeding. Adoption of more specific standards for biomonitoring studies and continued study of risk communication issues related to biomonitoring will help protect participants from harm.

2009-01-01

206

Cohort profile: the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS).  

PubMed

The China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) is a nationally representative longitudinal survey of persons in China 45 years of age or older and their spouses, including assessments of social, economic, and health circumstances of community-residents. CHARLS examines health and economic adjustments to rapid ageing of the population in China. The national baseline survey for the study was conducted between June 2011 and March 2012 and involved 17 708 respondents. CHARLS respondents are followed every 2 years, using a face-to-face computer-assisted personal interview (CAPI). Physical measurements are made at every 2-year follow-up, and blood sample collection is done once in every two follow-up periods. A pilot survey for CHARLS was conducted in two provinces of China in 2008, on 2685 individuals, who were resurveyed in 2012. To ensure the adoption of best practices and international comparability of results, CHARLS was harmonized with leading international research studies in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) model. Requests for collaborations should be directed to Dr Yaohui Zhao (yhzhao@nsd.edu.cn). All data in CHARLS are maintained at the National School of Development of Peking University and will be accessible to researchers around the world at the study website. The 2008 pilot data for CHARLS are available at: http://charls.ccer.edu.cn/charls/. National baseline data for the study are expected to be released in January 2013. PMID:23243115

Zhao, Yaohui; Hu, Yisong; Smith, James P; Strauss, John; Yang, Gonghuan

2014-02-01

207

School Social Fragmentation, Economic Deprivation and Social Cohesion and Adolescent Physical Inactivity: A Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine the independent influence of school economic deprivation, social fragmentation, and social cohesion on the likelihood of participating in no physical activity among students. Methods Data are from a large-scale longitudinal study of schools based in disadvantaged communities in Quebec, Canada. Questionnaires were administered every year between 2002 and 2008 among n?=?14,924 students aged 12 to 18 from a sample of 70 schools. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were conducted. Multilevel modeling was utilized to account for the clustering of students within schools. Schools were categorized as being low, moderate or high economic deprivation, social fragmentation and social cohesion. Those who indicated that they do no participate in any physical activity during the week were identified as being physically inactive. Results In baseline multilevel cross-sectional analyses, adolescents attending schools in the highest (compared to the lowest) levels of socioeconomic deprivation and social fragmentation were more likely to be physically inactive (OR?=?1.33, 95% CI?=?1.03, 1.72; and OR?=?1.24, 95% CI?=?0.98, 1.56, respectively). Conversely, students attending schools with the highest cohesion were less likely to be physically inactive (OR?=?0.78, 95% CI?=?0.61, 0.99). In longitudinal analysis, physically active students who attended schools with the highest social fragmentation were more likely to become physically inactive over two years (OR?=?1.65, 95% CI?=?1.09, 2.51). Conclusion The school socioeconomic environment appears to be an important contextual influence on participation in no physical activity among adolescents. Following adolescents beyond two years is necessary to determine if these environments have a lasting effect on physical activity behavior.

Pabayo, Roman; Janosz, Michel; Bisset, Sherri; Kawachi, Ichiro

2014-01-01

208

A Longitudinal Study of Left Ventricular Function and Structure from CKD to ESRD: The CRIC Study  

PubMed Central

Summary Background and objectives Abnormal left ventricular structure and function are associated with increased risk of adverse outcomes among patients with CKD and ESRD. A better understanding of changes in left ventricular mass and ejection fraction during the transition from CKD to ESRD may provide important insights to opportunities to improve cardiac outcomes. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This was a longitudinal study of a subset of participants of the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort who were enrolled from 2003 to 2007 and followed through January of 2011. Participants were included if they had serial echocardiograms performed at advanced CKD (defined as estimated GFR<20 ml/min per 1.73 m2) and again after ESRD (defined as need for hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis). Results A total of 190 participants (44% female, 66% black) had echocardiograms during advanced CKD and after ESRD. Mean (SD) estimated GFR at advanced CKD was 16.9 (3.5) ml/min per 1.73 m2. Mean (SD) time between the advanced CKD echocardiogram and ESRD echocardiogram was 2.0 (1.0) years. There was no significant change in left ventricular mass index (62.3–59.5 g/m2.7, P=0.10) between advanced CKD and ESRD; however, ejection fraction significantly decreased (53%–50%, P=0.002). Interactions for age, race, dialysis modality, and diabetes status were not significant (P>0.05). Conclusions Mean left ventricular mass index did not change significantly from advanced CKD to ESRD; however, ejection fraction declined during this transition period. Although left ventricular mass index is fixed by advanced stages of CKD, ejection fraction decline during more advanced stages of CKD may be an important contributor to cardiovascular disease and mortality after dialysis.

Keane, Martin; Delafontaine, Patrice; Dries, Daniel; Foster, Elyse; Gadegbeku, Crystal A.; Go, Alan S.; Hamm, L. Lee; Kusek, John W.; Ojo, Akinlolu O.; Rahman, Mahboob; Tao, Kaixiang; Wright, Jackson T.; Xie, Dawei; Hsu,, Chi-yuan

2013-01-01

209

The predictors of absenteeism due to psychological disability: A longitudinal study in the education sector.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Being absent from work because of a psychological disability is costly for both individuals and organizations and frequent in employees working in the field of education. Absenteeism from work has been mostly studied as an organizational withdrawal behaviorrelated to negative factors. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this longitudinal study is to define the predictors of absenteeism due to psychological disability by taking into account resources, such as Self-determined work motivation and Subjective well-being, as well as symptoms of Psychological distress.PARTICIPANTS: The sample consisted of 261 employees from a Canadian public school organization. METHODS: Independent sample t-tests were conducted to compare the mean scores of participants who were not absent from work and participants who were absent due to psychological disability. Logistic regression analyses were computed for the dependent variable to assess the contribution of the three independent variables.RESULTS: Participants who were absent from work due to psychological disability in the year following the data collection scored significantly lower on resources, and higher on symptoms than those participants who were not absent. The three-predictor model was found to be significant. However, only Self-determined work motivation and Psychological distress significantly predicted absenteeism due to psychological disability. CONCLUSIONS: Results are discussed in terms of psychological processes regulating the relationships between the work-related factors (i.e., work motivation) and life-related factors (i.e., psychological distress and subjective well-being) of personal adjustment and accomplishment. PMID:23531572

Negrini, Alessia; Perron, Jacques; Corbière, Marc

2013-03-26

210

Brief Report: Parenting Styles and Obesity in Mexican American Children: A Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Objective?To assess longitudinally the relations between four parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, uninvolved, and indulgent) and child weight status in Mexican American families.?Methods?Sixty-nine low-income Mexican American mothers and their 4- to 8-year-old children participated in a 4-year longitudinal study. Mothers completed demographic and parenting measures. Children's body weight and height were assessed annually. Body mass index was calculated to determine weight status.?Results?At baseline, 65% of children were found to be normal weight, 14% were overweight, and 21% were obese. Analyses examined how parenting styles at baseline predicted child's weight status 3 years later, controlling for initial weight status. Children of indulgent mothers were more likely to become overweight 3 years later than children of authoritative or authoritarian mothers.?Conclusions?This study provides longitudinal evidence for the role of indulgent parenting in predicting overweight in Mexican American children. Possible mediating factors that may account for this relationship (e.g., dietary patterns, physical activity patterns, and children's self-regulation) are considered.

Power, Thomas G.

2010-01-01

211

Theoretical study of longitudinal beam splitting and related phenomena  

SciTech Connect

A recent experiment at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) with electron cooling showed that rf phase modulation near 1:1 resonance leads to longitudinal beam splitting. Here we explain this by applying the method of averaging, a powerful tool from the study of dynamical systems, to the underlying equation of motion -- a pendulum equation with small damping and periodic forcing. The beam splitting is explained by showing that the associated Poincare map has two attracting fixed points, each with a well-defined basin of attraction. Our approach can be immediately applied to other accelerator physics problems governed by a similar equation.

Ellison, J.; Shih, H.J. [Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States); Kummer, M. [University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States). Dept. of Mathematics

1993-10-01

212

Sibling influences on adolescent delinquent behaviour: an Australian longitudinal study.  

PubMed

This article examines sibling influences on adolescent delinquency at age 14, using data from an Australian longitudinal study of 374 same- and mixed-sex sibling pairs. Based on maternal and self-reports, a moderately strong association between siblings' delinquency is found. The relationship remains significant controlling for childhood aggression and family environment factors measured during childhood (age 5) and adolescence (age 14), using both standardized instruments and new scales. This effect varies according to the sex composition of the sibling pair and is stronger for males and those whose parents have been arrested. The need for increased attention to sibling influences by researchers and prevention practitioners is discussed. PMID:12972268

Fagan, Abigail A; Najman, Jake M

2003-10-01

213

Case report of prolactin and bipolar illness: a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

A longitudinal and naturalistic study of nine bipolar patients attending a lithium clinic during a six-month period was undertaken. Prolactin plasma levels and psychiatric symptoms were evaluated bi-weekly. Wide interindividual and intraindividual fluctuations were observed both in prolactin levels and psychiatric symptoms. The relationship between prolactin and affective episodes was found to be complex. In a few instances, sharp prolactin changes preceded behavioral modifications. Bipolar disorders, even if treated, appeared to be unstable conditions, from both the phenomenological and neuroendocrinological viewpoints. PMID:2866564

Fava, G A; Molnar, G; Spinks, M; Loretan, A; Edwards, L; Morphy, M A

1985-01-01

214

Perceived benefits from participation in sports: a gender study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the differences between 64 male and 53 female college students in their perception of various benefits of sports participation. Potential benefits of sports participation include moral reasoning (caring versus fairness), socialization, competition, health and fitness, and leadership traits (masculine versus feminine). Responses to a questionnaire indicate that there is no difference between males and females on perceived

Bonnie Kelinske; Brad W. Mayer; Kuo-Lane Chen

2001-01-01

215

Use of Missing Data Methods in Longitudinal Studies: The Persistence of Bad Practices in Developmental Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developmental science rests on describing, explaining, and optimizing intraindividual changes and, hence, empirically requires longitudinal research. Problems of missing data arise in most longitudinal studies, thus creating challenges for interpreting the substance and structure of intraindividual change. Using a sample of reports of longitudinal

Jelicic, Helena; Phelps, Erin; Lerner, Richard M.

2009-01-01

216

Participant evaluation results for two indoor air quality studies  

SciTech Connect

After two surveys for indoor air pollutants (radon and other chemicals) the homeowners were surveyed for their reactions. The results of these participant evaluation surveys, assuming that the participants that responded to the survey were representative, indicate that homeowners will accept a significant level of monitoring activity as part of an indoor air quality field study. Those participants completing surveys overwhelmingly enjoyed being in the studies and would do it again. We believe that the emphasis placed on positive homeowner interactions and efforts made to inform participants throughout our studies were positive factors in this result. There was no substantial differences noted in the responses between the 70-house study, which included a homeowner compensation payment of $100, and the 300-house study, which did not include a compensation payment. These results provide encouragement to conduct future complex, multipollutant indoor air quality studies when they are scientifically sound and cost effective.

Hawthorne, A.R.; Dudney, C.S.; Cohen, M.A.; Spengler, J.D.

1987-01-01

217

Exercise and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Graduate Students: A Longitudinal, Observational Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To evaluate cardiometabolic risk of students longitudinally and compare them with age-matched national samples. Participants: Participants are 134 graduate students enrolled between August 2005 and May 2010. Methods: Students were assessed at the beginning and end of their 3-year curriculum. Comparative samples included 966 National…

Racette, Susan B.; Inman, Cindi L.; Clark, B. Ruth; Royer, Nathaniel K.; Steger-May, Karen; Deusinger, Susan S.

2014-01-01

218

Admissions caused by adverse drug events to internal medicine and emergency departments in hospitals: a longitudinal population-based study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To estimate incidence rates of drug-related hospitalizations (DRHs) in a longitudinal population-based study with prospective event assessment. Design. Cohort study and time-trend analysis. Setting. All departments of internal medicine and emergency departments in the urban regions of Jena and Rostock, Germany, serving about 520,000 residents. Participants. All patients admitted between October 1997 and March 2000. Patients with severe cutaneous

Sebastian Schneeweiss; Joerg Hasford; Martin Göttler; Annemarie Hoffmann; Ann-Kathrin Riethling; Jerry Avorn

2002-01-01

219

Southeastern Michigan Wastewater Management Survey Scope Study. Public Participation Appendix.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In line with the directives concerning public participation in Corps water resource projects and especially in regard to those applying to wastewater management studies, the purpose of the Detroit District has been twofold: to inform the public of the obj...

1974-01-01

220

On Getting People to Participate: Seven Case Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The need for people's participation in programs of national development is a widely accepted fact in a democratic society. This presentation is based on seven case studies of voluntary agencies which were conducted by four members of the Institute's facul...

S. R. Ramdev N. V. Lalitha V. D. Kaura R. M. Varma

1971-01-01

221

The Association of Health and Employment in Mature Women: A Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Despite a reduction in income inequalities between men and women, there is still a large gap between income and retirement savings of Australian men and women. This is especially true for women who have health or disability problems. Mature age women are closest to retirement and, therefore, have less chance than younger women to build up enough retirement savings and may need to continue working to fund their older age. Continued workforce participation may be particularly difficult for women who are less healthy. Understanding which health problems lead to a decrease in workforce participation among mature age women is crucial. Therefore, this longitudinal study sought to identify which health problems are associated with employment among midage women over time. Methods Data were analyzed from the midage cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH), which involved 14,200 midage women (aged 45–50 years in 1996). The women have been surveyed four additional times, in 1998, 2001, 2004, and 2007. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to conduct nested multivariate longitudinal analyses. Results The percentages of women who were employed in the years 2001, 2004, and 2007 were 77%, 72%, and 68%, respectively. Results were adjusted for sociodemographic variables. Being employed decreased as physical and mental health deteriorated and with self-reported conditions: diabetes, high blood pressure, depression, anxiety, and other psychiatric conditions. Back pain, arthritis, cancer, obesity, and being a current smoker are associated with employment but not when quality of life is added to the model. Conclusions There were significant associations between health and employment. Understanding these relationships could inform policies and guidelines for preventing declines in employment in mature age women.

Byles, Julie

2012-01-01

222

Missing data methods in longitudinal studies: a review  

PubMed Central

Incomplete data are quite common in biomedical and other types of research, especially in longitudinal studies. During the last three decades, a vast amount of work has been done in the area. This has led, on the one hand, to a rich taxonomy of missing-data concepts, issues, and methods and, on the other hand, to a variety of data-analytic tools. Elements of taxonomy include: missing data patterns, mechanisms, and modeling frameworks; inferential paradigms; and sensitivity analysis frameworks. These are described in detail. A variety of concrete modeling devices is presented. To make matters concrete, two case studies are considered. The first one concerns quality of life among breast cancer patients, while the second one examines data from the Muscatine children’s obesity study.

Molenberghs, Geert

2010-01-01

223

Longitudinal Paths to the Metabolic Syndrome: Can the Incidence of the Metabolic Syndrome Be Predicted? The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the predictors of incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) (Adult Treatment Panel III criteria) and to determine if longitudinal changes in specific MetS components differ by age or gender in participants who developed versus those who did not develop MetS. Methods A total of 506 men and 461 women (baseline age 52.4 ± 17.5 years) from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study on Aging (BLSA) were followed longitudinally (at least two study visits), and censored when they developed the MetS or reported use of antihypertensive or lipid-lowering medications. Results After a follow-up period of 6 years, the incidence of the MetS was 25.5% in men and 14.8% in women. As many as 66% of men and 73% of women with one or two altered MetS components at baseline did not develop the MetS. Predictors of developing MetS were higher baseline abdominal obesity or triglycerides and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (area under receiver-operated curve [AUC] = 0.84 in men, 0.88 in women). Addition of the rate of changes in MetS components over time slightly improved predictive accuracy (AUC = 0.94 in men, 0.92 in women). Men were more likely than women to have the MetS without obesity, whereas women were more likely than men to have the MetS without an altered glucose metabolism. Conclusions The patterns of MetS components and the longitudinal changes that lead to the MetS are different in men and women. Interestingly, components with the highest prevalence prior to MetS development, such as elevated blood pressure, are not necessarily the stronger risk factors.

Morrell, Christopher H.; Najjar, Samer S.; Muller, Denis; Andres, Reubin; Ferrucci, Luigi; Lakatta, Edward G.

2009-01-01

224

A Longitudinal Examination of Childhood Maltreatment and Adolescent Obesity: Results from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth) Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: We sought to explore the association between childhood maltreatment (e.g., neglect, physical and sexual abuse) and longitudinal growth trajectories of body mass index (BMI) from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods: We used latent curve modeling to examine data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 8,471),…

Shin, Sunny Hyucksun; Miller, Daniel P.

2012-01-01

225

Children's Motivation in Elementary Physical Education: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined relationships among variables drawn from achievement goal theory and the expectancy-value model of achievement choice as well as mean level changes of these variables over time in elementary physical education. Participants (N = 207) completed questionnaires over a 2-year period: once while in the second and fourth…

Xiang, Ping; McBride, Ron; Guan, Jianmin

2004-01-01

226

Tracking of leisure-time physical activity during adolescence and young adulthood: a 10-year longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to show how participation in leisure-time physical activity changes between ages 13 to 23, and to what extent engaging in specific types of sports tracks into young adulthood. METHODS: The sample comprised 630 subjects who responded to questionnaires at age 13, with seven follow-ups over a 10-year period in the Norwegian Longitudinal Health

Lise Kjønniksen; Torbjørn Torsheim; Bente Wold

2008-01-01

227

Improvements in Cardiorespiratory Fitness Attenuate Age-related Weight Gain in Healthy Men and Women: The Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To determine the longitudinal relation of change in cardiopulmonary fitness to subsequent change in body weight in a cohort of healthy middle-aged adults.DESIGN: Prospective cohort study.SUBJECTS: Participants were 4599 men and 724 women (43±9 y) receiving at least three medical examinations between 1970 and 1994. Examinations included assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness by maximal exercise tests and measurement of body

L DiPietro; HW Kohl; CE Barlow; SN Blair

1998-01-01

228

Childhood Peer Rejection and Aggression as Predictors of Adolescent Girls' Externalizing and Health Risk Behaviors: A 6Year Longitudinal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This 6-year longitudinal study examined girls' peer-nominated social preference and aggression in childhood as predictors of self- and parent-reported externalizing symptoms, substance use (i.e., cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use), and sexual risk behavior in adolescence. Participants were 148 girls from diverse ethnic backgrounds, who were initially assessed in Grades 4–6 and again in Grades 10–12. Results supported a moderator model,

Mitchell J. Prinstein; Annette M. La Greca

2004-01-01

229

Dietary B vitamin intakes and urinary total arsenic concentration in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) cohort, Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the effects of dietary B vitamin intakes on creatinine-adjusted urinary total\\u000a arsenic concentration among individuals participating in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) cohort in\\u000a Araihazar, Bangladesh. Arsenic exposure is a major public health problem in Bangladesh, where nearly 77 million people have\\u000a been chronically exposed to arsenic through the consumption

Maria Argos; Paul J. Rathouz; Brandon L. Pierce; Tara Kalra; Faruque Parvez; Vesna Slavkovich; Alauddin Ahmed; Yu Chen; Habibul Ahsan

2010-01-01

230

Therapeutic adherence in primary care depressed patients: a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

Introduction. Lack of adherence has been associated to lower efficacy of anti-depressant treatment, increasing the risk of recurrence and persistence of clinical symptoms. Patients with poor medication adherence have more concomitant medical illnesses and somatic symptoms. Furthermore, this increases use of healthcare services. Method. Longitudinal and observational study on therapeutic adherence level in depressive outpatients treated in 3 Primary Care (PC) centers. Eight evaluations during 6 months were carried out in 29 patients over 18, with DSM-IV-TR major depression diagnosis. The purpose of the present study was to determine adherence level, to analyze socio-demographic factors and clinical profiles involved in adherence, and to observe the evolution of depressive symptoms. Results. Good therapeutic adherence was observed in 72.4% of patients. Significant differences in the Drug Attitude Inventory (U=107.5; p=0.036) were found. This tool evaluates the perceived effect of the medication, with a better perception observed in adherent patients. In those patients a progressive reduction on the Hamilton Depression Scale was found over the course of six monthly follow-up visits, with clinical remission observed in month 4. The analysis of survival rate did not reveal any significant difference between the two groups [Log Rank (?2=1.610, p=0.205)]. Conclusions. The therapeutic adherence observed in this longitudinal PC study is high, and it is associated with an improvement in the illness. A better perceived effect of the treatment showed a significant connection to an improvement in symptoms of depression. PMID:24844808

Serrano, Maria J; Vives, Margalida; Mateu, Catalina; Vicens, Catalina; Molina, Rosa; Puebla-Guedea, Marta; Gili, Margalida

2014-05-01

231

Academic performance of language-minority students and all-day kindergarten: a longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This longitudinal study examined the effect of all-day kindergarten programs on the academic achievement of students from racial language minority and low socioeconomic class. The study employed a series of 3-level longitudinal multilevel analyses using a nationally representative database, the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS). The study showed that Hispanic dual-language-speaking students who attended all-day kindergarten narrowed the achievement gap

Mido Chang

2011-01-01

232

Academic performance of language-minority students and all-day kindergarten: a longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This longitudinal study examined the effect of all-day kindergarten programs on the academic achievement of students from racial language minority and low socioeconomic class. The study employed a series of 3-level longitudinal multilevel analyses using a nationally representative database, the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS). The study showed that Hispanic dual-language-speaking students who attended all-day kindergarten narrowed the achievement gap

Mido Chang

2012-01-01

233

Altitude and infant growth in Bolivia: a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

The growth of 79 healthy, well-nourished lowland (400 M) and highland (3600 M) Bolivian infants was analyzed in a longitudinal study through the first postnatal year. Compared to low altitude infants, the high altitude infants were found, by analysis of covariance controlling for size at the previous exam, to be significantly shorter at birth, 1 and 6 months, while they were significantly lighter only at birth and 1 year. Recumbent length gain was slower in the high altitude infants in the early months of life, while weight gain did not differ between altitudes. The observed lower weights at high altitude throughout the first year appear to be due to a persistence of lower weights seen at birth and not to postnatal growth retardation. Significantly greater triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness measurements were found in the highland group, despite their smaller length and weight. The possible causes and implications of the greater fat accumulation in the highland infants are discussed. PMID:7158661

Haas, J D; Moreno-Black, G; Frongillo, E A; Pabon, J; Pareja, G; Ybarnegaray, J; Hurtado, L

1982-11-01

234

Early cognitive profiles of emergent readers: a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

This longitudinal study examined the contribution of phonological awareness, phonological memory, and visuospatial ability to reading development in 142 English-speaking children from the start of kindergarten to the middle of Grade 2. Partial cross-lagged analyses revealed significant relationships between early performance on block design and matching letter-like forms tasks and later reading ability. Rhyme awareness correlated with later reading ability during the earliest stages, but onset awareness did not emerge as important until after the children had started reading. Digit span correlated significantly with future reading ability at every stage. These findings indicate that although phonological awareness, phonological memory, and visuospatial ability are all necessary for emergent reading, their relative importance varies across the first 2 years of reading development. PMID:21962459

Brunswick, Nicola; Neil Martin, G; Rippon, Georgina

2012-02-01

235

Effects of Team and Organizational Commitment--A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Retention management, i.e., keeping qualified employees, is a top priority for contemporary organizations. Commitment, and especially team commitment, can be the key to mastering this challenge. There is a lack of longitudinal research concerning the development and the direction of the effects of team commitment over time. In a longitudinal

Neininger, Alexandra; Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Kauffeld, Simone; Henschel, Angela

2010-01-01

236

Longitudinal Study of Household Smoking Ban Adoption Among Korean Americans  

PubMed Central

Background Few longitudinal studies have examined the adoption of bans on smoking in private homes. Purpose This longitudinal study examined: (1) the prevalence of home smoking bans at baseline, (2) the incidence and predictors of new ban implementation by follow-up, and (3) the reasons for banning smoking and the difficulties with enforcement. Methods The sample consisted of 1,360 adults of Korean descent residing in California who were interviewed by telephone (in English/Korean) at baseline during 2001–2002 and re-interviewed in 2006–2007. Data analyses were conducted in 2007–2008. Results The proportion of respondents with a complete household smoking ban grew from 59% at baseline to 91% by the follow-up interview. Among the 552 respondents who did not have a ban at baseline, 84% had adopted a ban by follow-up. Three baseline factors independently predicted ban adoption during the follow-up period: the presence of a nonsmoking respondent or spouse, the presence of nonsmoking family members, and respondent’s belief that secondhand smoke caused lung cancer. The most highly rated reasons for banning smoking were: because smoke annoys others, to protect family members, to avoid the odor, to discourage youth from smoking, and to encourage smokers to quit. Finally, respondents indicated that they would find it most difficult to ask their parent-in-law not to smoke. Conclusions The proportion of households with smoking bans increased substantially, but households with smokers or family members who smoke remained less likely to implement bans. The importance of culturally sensitive programs to promote households bans cannot be overstated.

Hughes, Suzanne C.; Corcos, Isabel A.; Hofstetter, C. Richard; Hovell, Melbourne F.; Irvin, Veronica L.

2009-01-01

237

Cocaine, anemia, and neurodevelopmental outcomes in children: a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

This longitudinal study investigated the rates of iron-deficiency (ID) and iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) among prenatally cocaine-exposed and nonexposed two- and four-year-old children and assessed their relationships to neurodevelopmental outcomes. The sample consisted of 143 two-year-old (70 exposed and 73 nonexposed) and 274 four-year-old (139 exposed and 135 nonexposed) low socioeconomic status children recruited from an ongoing longitudinal study. Hematological assessments included hemoglobin, serum ferritin, mean corpuscular volume, transferrin saturation, and blood lead levels. The neurodevelopmental outcomes consisted of the Bayley Mental (MDI) and Motor (PDI) Development indices at two years, and the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence (WPPSI) and the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales (PDMS) at four years. The rate of IDA in four-year-old children was significantly greater among the cocaine-exposed compared to the nonexposed group (p =.026), while the rates at two years were not significant. Exposure to IDA at two years was associated with a significant decrease in concurrent motor scores (p =.011) after adjustment for relevant covariates. Peak exposure to IDA, defined as being anemic at 2 and/or 4 years of age, was associated with a significant (p <.05) decrease in Full Scale IQ after adjustment. Cocaine exposure was not a significant predictor of Full Scale IQ with the inclusion of peak IDA and lead in the model. These findings indicate the need for greater pediatric surveillance of IDA and lead in cocaine-exposed infants, in order to reduce long-term neuropsychological deficits. PMID:14767350

Nelson, Suchitra; Lerner, Edith; Needlman, Robert; Salvator, Ann; Singer, Lynn T

2004-02-01

238

Longitudinal Measures of Serum Albumin and Prealbumin Concentrations in Incident Dialysis Patients: the Comprehensive Dialysis Study  

PubMed Central

Objective Serum albumin and prealbumin concentrations are strongly associated with the risk of death in patients on dialysis. Our study examined the association among demographic characteristics, body composition, co-morbidities, dialysis modality and access, inflammation and longitudinal measures of albumin and prealbumin in incident dialysis patients. Design, Setting, Subjects and Outcome Measures The Comprehensive Dialysis Study (CDS) is a prospective cohort study of incident dialysis patients; in this report we examined data from 266 Nutrition sub-study participants who donated serum. The independent variables of interest were baseline age, sex, race, Quetélet's (body mass) index, dialysis modality and access, diabetes, heart failure, atherosclerotic vascular disease, serum creatinine, and longitudinal measures of C-reactive protein. The outcomes of interest (dependent variables) were longitudinal measures of albumin and prealbumin concentrations, measured at study entry and every 3 months for one year. Results In multivariable mixed linear models, female sex, peritoneal dialysis, hemodialysis with a catheter, and higher C-reactive protein concentrations were associated with lower serum albumin concentrations, and serum albumin concentrations increased slightly over the year. In comparison, prealbumin concentrations did not significantly change over time; female sex, lower body mass index, diabetes, atherosclerotic vascular disease, and higher C-reactive protein concentrations were associated with lower prealbumin concentrations. Serum creatinine had a curvilinear relation with serum albumin and prealbumin. Conclusions Serum albumin increases early in the course of dialysis whereas prealbumin does not, and the predictors of serum concentrations differ at any given time. Further understanding of mechanisms underlying differences between albumin and prealbumin kinetics in persons on dialysis may lead to an improved approach to the management of protein energy wasting.

Dalrymple, Lorien S.; Johansen, Kirsten L.; Chertow, Glenn M.; Grimes, Barbara; Anand, Shuchi; McCulloch, Charles E.; Kaysen, George A.

2012-01-01

239

Still Participating After All These Years: A Study of Life Task Participation in Later Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examined in 618 older Americans the extent to which individual levels of life satisfaction were connected to participation in the shared tasks of late adulthood (e.g., community service and social life participation). Participation in these shared tasks was an important predictor of life satisfaction, controlling for health, self-reported vitality, social support, individual differences in congeniality, organizational affiliation, and

Robert E. Harlow; Nancy Cantor

1996-01-01

240

Understanding the Evolution of Multimorbidity: Evidences from the North West Adelaide Health Longitudinal Study (NWAHS)  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study is to describe the evolution of multimorbidity. Study Design and Setting Data from 1854 South Australians who participated in the North West Adelaide longitudinal Health Study(NWAHS) was collected between baseline (2000–2002) and follow-up (2008–2010). Status for eight chronic diseases (CDs) was determined by biomedical measurement or self-report. Chronic disease (CD) mean age of occurrence and order of appearance was investigated. Results The prevalence of multimorbidity increased from 32% to 64% during the 7.8±1.1 years of follow-up. The estimated mean age of onset of a new CD was significantly older for hypertension, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and younger for hypercholesterolemia, asthma and other mental problem. Hypercholesterolemia was more likely to develop as a first than as a subsequent CD (39%vs.16%, p<0.0001) while CVD (1%vs.5%, p<0.0001), diabetes (5%vs.11%, p<0.001) and COPD (6%vs.16%, p<0.0001) were less likely. The presence of mood disorders at baseline was associated with an increased risk of developing other mental disorders (36%vs.12%, p<0.0001), diabetes (18%vs.9%, p<0.01) and asthma (30%vs.21%, p<0.05). Conclusion Longitudinal data could be used to study the evolution of multimorbidity and could provide information on CDs mean age of occurrence, order of appearance and impact on the development of future CDs.

Ruel, Guillaume; Levesque, Jean-Frederic; Stocks, Nigel; Sirois, Caroline; Kroger, Edeltraut; Adams, Robert J.; Doucet, Marieve; Taylor, Anne W.

2014-01-01

241

Parent Perceptions of Neighborhood Safety and Children's Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Obesity: Evidence from a National Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

We examined the relationship between parent-perceived neighborhood safety and children's physical activity, sedentary behavior, body mass, and obesity status using 9 years of longitudinal data (1999–2007) on a cohort of approximately 19,000 US kindergartners from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study. Children's height and weight measurements and parent perceptions of neighborhood safety were available in kindergarten and in the first, third, fifth, and eighth grades. Dependent variables included age- and gender-specific body mass index percentile, obesity status, and parent- or child-reported weekly physical activity and television-watching. Pooled cross-sectional and within-child longitudinal regression models that controlled for child, family, and school characteristics were fitted. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal models indicated that children whose parents perceived their neighborhoods as unsafe watched more television and participated in less physical activity, although the magnitude of this association was much weaker in longitudinal models. However, there was no significant association between parent-perceived neighborhood safety and children's body mass index.

Datar, Ashlesha; Nicosia, Nancy; Shier, Victoria

2013-01-01

242

Communicating serum chemical concentrations to study participants: follow up survey  

PubMed Central

Background A considerable literature now supports the importance of effective communication with study participants, including how best to develop communication plans focusing on the uncertainty of health risks associated with particular environmental exposures. Strategies for communicating individual concentrations of environmental chemicals in human biological samples in the absence of clearly established safe or hazardous levels have been discussed from a conceptual basis and to a lesser extent from an empirical basis. We designed and evaluated an empirically based communication strategy for women of reproductive age who previously participated in a prospective study focusing on persistent environmental chemicals and reproductive outcomes. Methods A cohort of women followed from preconception through pregnancy or up to 12 menstrual cycles without pregnancy was given their individual serum concentrations for lead, dichloro-2,2-bisp-chlorophenyl ethylene, and select polychlorinated biphenyl congeners. Two versions of standardized letters were prepared depending upon women's exposure status, which was characterized as low or high. Letters included an introduction, individual concentrations, population reference values and guidance for minimizing future exposures. Participants were actively monitored for any questions or concerns following receipt of letters. Results Ninety-eight women were sent letters informing them of their individual concentrations to select study chemicals. None of the 89 (91%) participating women irrespective of exposure status contacted the research team with questions or concerns about communicated exposures despite an invitation to do so. Conclusions Our findings suggest that study participants can be informed about their individual serum concentrations without generating unnecessary concern.

2010-01-01

243

Clinical trial participants' experiences of completing questionnaires: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To improve clinical study developments for elderly populations, we aim to understand how they transfer their experiences into validated, standardised self-completed study measurement instruments. We analysed how women (mean 78±8?years of age) participating in a randomised controlled trial (RCT) cognised study instruments used to evaluate outcomes of the intervention. Setting The interview study was nested in an RCT on chronic neck pain using common measurement instruments situated in an elderly community in Berlin, Germany, which comprised of units for independent and assisted-living options. Participants The sample (n=20 women) was selected from the RCT sample (n=117, 95% women, mean age 76 (SD±8)?years). Interview participants were selected using a purposive sampling list based on the RCT outcomes. Outcomes We asked participants about their experiences completing the RCT questionnaires. Interviews were analysed thematically, then compared with the questionnaires. Results Interviewees had difficulties in translating complex experiences into a single value on a scale and understanding the relationship of the questionnaires to study aims. Interviewees considered important for the trial that their actual experiences were understood by trial organisers. This information was not transferrable by means of the questionnaires. To rectify these difficulties, interviewees used strategies such as adding notes, adding response categories or skipping an item. Conclusions Elderly interview participants understood the importance of completing questionnaires for trial success. This led to strategies of completing the questionnaires that resulted in ‘missing’ or ambiguous data. To improve data collection in elderly populations, educational materials addressing the differential logics should be developed and tested. Pilot testing validated instruments using cognitive interviews may be particularly important in such populations. Finally, when the target of an intervention is a subjective experience, it seems important to create a method by which participants can convey their personal experiences. These could be nested qualitative studies. Trial registration number ISRCTN77108101807.

Holmberg, Christine; Karner, Julia J; Rappenecker, Julia; Witt, Claudia M

2014-01-01

244

Selling and buying sex: a longitudinal study of risk and protective factors in adolescence.  

PubMed

Engaging in trading sex is associated with many co-occurring problems, including elevated risk for sexually transmitted infections. Various dimensions of social support from parents, schools, and mentors may be protective against sex trading and may ameliorate the impact of risk factors. This study analyzes data from respondents to Waves I and III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) who had not participated in sex trading for money or drugs in Wave I so that risk and protective factors for first initiations of selling or buying sex could be examined longitudinally. About 2% of the study sample began selling sex and about 2% began buying sex between Wave I and Wave III. The respondent's sex, race/ethnicity, history of sexual abuse, shoplifting, marijuana use, and experiences of homelessness or running away were significant predictors of trading sex (p?

Kaestle, Christine E

2012-06-01

245

The cognitive processes underlying affective decision-making predicting adolescent smoking behaviors in a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

This study investigates the relationship between three different cognitive processes underlying the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and adolescent smoking behaviors in a longitudinal study. We conducted a longitudinal study of 181 Chinese adolescents in Chengdu City, China. The participants were followed from 10th to 11th grade. When they were in the 10th grade (Time 1), we tested these adolescents' decision-making using the IGT and working memory capacity using the Self-ordered Pointing Test (SOPT). Self-report questionnaires were used to assess school academic performance and smoking behaviors. The same questionnaires were completed again at the 1-year follow-up (Time 2). The Expectancy-Valence (EV) Model was applied to distill the IGT performance into three different underlying psychological components: (i) a motivational component which indicates the subjective weight the adolescents assign to gains vs. losses; (ii) a learning-rate component which indicates the sensitivity to recent outcomes vs. past experiences; and (iii) a response component which indicates how consistent the adolescents are between learning and responding. The subjective weight to gains vs. losses at Time 1 significantly predicted current smokers and current smoking levels at Time 2, controlling for demographic variables and baseline smoking behaviors. Therefore, by decomposing the IGT into three different psychological components, we found that the motivational process of weight gain vs. losses may serve as a neuropsychological marker to predict adolescent smoking behaviors in a general youth population. PMID:24101911

Xiao, Lin; Koritzky, Gilly; Johnson, C Anderson; Bechara, Antoine

2013-01-01

246

The cognitive processes underlying affective decision-making predicting adolescent smoking behaviors in a longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

This study investigates the relationship between three different cognitive processes underlying the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and adolescent smoking behaviors in a longitudinal study. We conducted a longitudinal study of 181 Chinese adolescents in Chengdu City, China. The participants were followed from 10th to 11th grade. When they were in the 10th grade (Time 1), we tested these adolescents' decision-making using the IGT and working memory capacity using the Self-ordered Pointing Test (SOPT). Self-report questionnaires were used to assess school academic performance and smoking behaviors. The same questionnaires were completed again at the 1-year follow-up (Time 2). The Expectancy-Valence (EV) Model was applied to distill the IGT performance into three different underlying psychological components: (i) a motivational component which indicates the subjective weight the adolescents assign to gains vs. losses; (ii) a learning-rate component which indicates the sensitivity to recent outcomes vs. past experiences; and (iii) a response component which indicates how consistent the adolescents are between learning and responding. The subjective weight to gains vs. losses at Time 1 significantly predicted current smokers and current smoking levels at Time 2, controlling for demographic variables and baseline smoking behaviors. Therefore, by decomposing the IGT into three different psychological components, we found that the motivational process of weight gain vs. losses may serve as a neuropsychological marker to predict adolescent smoking behaviors in a general youth population.

Xiao, Lin; Koritzky, Gilly; Johnson, C. Anderson; Bechara, Antoine

2013-01-01

247

Association between erythrocyte parameters and metabolic syndrome in urban Han Chinese: a longitudinal cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Although various cross-sectional studies have shown that erythrocyte parameters, including red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (HCT), were linked with metabolic syndrome (MetS), few longitudinal studies have been used to confirm their relationship. The study, therefore, constructed a large-scale longitudinal cohort in urban Chinese population to highlight and confirm the association between erythrocyte parameters and MetS/its components. Methods A longitudinal cohort with 6,453 participants was established based on the routine health check-up systems to follow up MetS, and Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) model was used to detect the association between erythrocyte parameters and MetS/its components (obesity, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and hypertension). Results 287 MetS occurred over the four-year follow-up, leading to a total incidence density of 14.19 per 1,000 person-years (287/20218 person-years). Both RBC and Hb were strongly associated with MetS (RR/95% CI, P value; 3.016/1.525-5.967, 0.002 for RBC; 3.008/1.481-6.109, 0.002 for Hb), with their dose–response trends detected. All three erythrocyte parameters (RBC, Hb and HCT) were found to be associated with obesity, hypertension and dyslipidemia with similar dose–response trends respectively, while only Hb showed a significant association with hyperglycemia. Conclusions Elevated erythrocyte parameters were confirmed to be associated with MetS/its components in urban Chinese population, suggesting that erythrocyte parameters might be served as a potential predictor for risk of MetS.

2013-01-01

248

School-level variation in health outcomes in adolescence: analysis of three longitudinal studies in England.  

PubMed

School factors are associated with many health outcomes in adolescence. However, previous studies report inconsistent findings regarding the degree of school-level variation for health outcomes, particularly for risk behaviours. This study uses data from three large longitudinal studies in England to investigate school-level variation in a range of health indicators. Participants were drawn from the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England, the Me and My School Study and the Research with East London Adolescent Community Health Survey. Outcome variables included risk behaviours (smoking, alcohol/cannabis use, sexual behaviour), behavioural difficulties and victimisation, obesity and physical activity, mental and emotional health, and educational attainment. Multi-level models were used to calculate the proportion of variance in outcomes explained at school level, expressed as intraclass correlations (ICCs) adjusted for gender, ethnicity and socio-economic status of the participants. ICCs for health outcomes ranged from nearly nil to .28 and were almost uniformly lower than for attainment (.17-.23). Most adjusted ICCs were smaller than unadjusted values, suggesting that school-level variation partly reflects differences in pupil demographics. School-level variation was highest for risk behaviours. ICCs were largely comparable across datasets, as well as across years within datasets, suggesting that school-level variation in health remains fairly constant across adolescence. School-level variation in health outcomes remains significant after adjustment for individual demographic differences between schools, confirming likely effects for school environment. Variance is highest for risk behaviours, supporting the utility of school environment interventions for these outcomes. PMID:23793374

Hale, Daniel R; Patalay, Praveetha; Fitzgerald-Yau, Natasha; Hargreaves, Dougal S; Bond, Lyndal; Görzig, Anke; Wolpert, Miranda; Stansfeld, Stephen A; Viner, Russell M

2014-08-01

249

Response to written feedback of clinical data within a longitudinal study: a qualitative study exploring the ethical implications  

PubMed Central

Background There is a growing ethical imperative to feedback research results to participants but there remains a striking lack of empirical research on how people respond to individualised feedback. We sought to explore longitudinal study participants' response to receiving individual written feedback of weight-related and blood results, and to consider the balance of harms against benefits. Methods A qualitative study with face-to-face and telephone interviews conducted with 50 men and women who had participated in the fifth and most recent wave of the cohort study 'West of Scotland Twenty-07' and received a feedback letter containing body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage, cholesterol and glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) results. Results Expectations of, and response to, the feedback of their individual results varied. Whilst half of the participants were on the whole 'pleased' with their results or held neutral views, half reported negative responses such as 'shock' or 'concern', particularly in relation to the weight-related results. Participants who were overweight and obese used the most negative language about their results, with some being quite distressed and reporting feelings of powerlessness, low self-image and anxiety over future health. Nevertheless, some people reported having implemented lifestyle changes in direct response to the feedback, resulting in significant weight-loss and/or dietary improvements. Others reported being motivated to change their behaviour. Age and gender differences were apparent in these narratives of behaviour change. Conclusions The potential harm caused to some participants may be balanced against the benefit to others. More evaluation of the impact of the format, content and means of individualised feedback of research findings in non-trial studies is required given the growing ethical imperative to offer participants a choice of receiving their results, and the likelihood that a high percentage will choose to receive them.

2011-01-01

250

Predictors of attrition in a longitudinal cognitive aging study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large sample of older participants of the Maastricht Aging Study (MAAS) were compared to drop-outs at the 3-year follow-up with respect to socio-demographic, health, and cognitive characteristics. In addition, the impact of selective drop-out on measures of cognitive change was examined. To this end, hypothetical scores were estimated for drop-outs by using single and multiple imputation methods. Of the

C. E. M. Van Beijsterveldt; M. P. J. van Boxtel; H. Bosma; P. J. Houx; F. Buntinx; J. Jolles

2002-01-01

251

Does flexible goal adjustment predict life satisfaction in older adults? A six-year longitudinal study.  

PubMed

Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between flexible goal adjustment and life satisfaction (as an enduring component of subjective well-being) using six-year longitudinal data from a sample of older adults.Methods: The study included 704 participants aged 63-97 years assessed four times over a six-year period. Simultaneous and lagged models were specified and estimated using structural equation modeling.Results: Both simultaneous and lagged coefficients indicated that a high score on flexible goal adjustment significantly predicted subsequent levels of life satisfaction.Conclusion: In line with successful aging theory, our findings support the view that the ability to adjust personal goals flexibly is a central resource when unattainable goals are encountered and it contributes to well-being in old age. PMID:24479829

Bailly, Nathalie; Gana, Kamel; Hervé, Catherine; Joulain, Michèle; Alaphilippe, Daniel

2014-07-01

252

Longitudinal study of children with unilateral hearing loss  

PubMed Central

Objective Children with unilateral hearing loss (UHL) have been found to have lower language scores, and increased rate of speech therapy, grade failures, or needing Individualized Education Plans (IEPs). The objective of this study was to determine whether language skills and educational performance improved or worsened over time in a cohort of children with UHL. Study Design Prospective longitudinal cohort study Methods Forty-six children with permanent UHL, ages 6 to 12 years, were studied using standardized cognitive, achievement, and language testing at yearly intervals for three years. Using standardized test scores allowed implicit comparison to norms established by national cross-sectional samples. Secondary outcomes included behavioral issues, IEPs, receipt of speech therapy, or teacher report of problems at school. Analysis utilized repeated measures ANOVA and multilevel random regression modeling. Results Several cognitive and language mean standardized scores increased over time. Possible predictors of increase with time included higher baseline cognitive levels and receipt of interventions through an IEP. However, standardized achievement scores and indicators of school performance did not show concomitant improvements. Rates of IEPs remained > 50% throughout, and rates of speech therapy were consistently about 20%. Conclusions Children with UHL demonstrated improvement in oral language and verbal IQ scores over time, but not improvements in school performance. Parents and teachers reported persistent behavioral problems and academic weaknesses or areas of concern in about 25%. The provision of IEPs for children with UHL, and acknowledging UHL as a hearing disability, may be an effective intervention to improve language skills over time.

Lieu, Judith E. C.; Tye-Murray, Nancy; Fu, Qiang

2012-01-01

253

The natural history of endemic trachoma: a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

A longitudinal study of trachoma was conducted among 100 members of nine families living in a hyperendemic area of Tanzania. Family members were examined for trachoma every three months for one year and conjunctival specimens were collected for antigen detection, which was performed either by direct fluorescent antibody cytologic analysis or enzyme immunoassay. The serovar specificity of tear antibodies was determined. Overall, young children tended to form a core of those with persistent, often severe, disease who consistently shed Chlamydia. These children are a potential source of infection in their family. Chlamydia could be identified early in the course of presumed recently acquired infections, but not later in resolving infections. This temporal change may account for the discrepancies between demonstrable organisms and clinical disease seen in cross-sectional studies. Several children were identified who did not develop trachoma despite having Chlamydia identified in conjunctival scrapings. Their ability to resist infection may offer clues for vaccine development. The study of serovar specificity is consistent with the intrafamily transmission of trachoma, but was confounded by the large family size and the potential for separate transmission units to occur within large extended families. These observations give further understanding of the natural history and kinetics of the transmission of trachoma that should be of use in developing and evaluating intervention studies. PMID:1599049

Taylor, H R; Siler, J A; Mkocha, H A; Munoz, B; West, S

1992-05-01

254

Characteristic Gait Patterns in Older Adults with Obesity - Results from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging  

PubMed Central

Obesity in older adults is a growing public health problem. Excess weight causes biomechanical burden to lower extremity joints and contribute to joint pathology. The aim of this study was to identify specific characteristics of gait associated with body mass index (BMI). Preferred and maximum speed walking and related gait characteristics were examined in 164 (50–84 years) participants from Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) able to walk unassisted. Participants were divided into three groups based on their BMI: normal weight (19 ? BMI < 25 kg/m2), overweight (25 ? BMI < 30 kg/m2) and obese (BMI 30 ? BMI < 40 kg/m2). Total ankle generative mechanical work expenditure (MWE) in the anterior-posterior (AP) plane was progressively and significantly lower with increasing BMI for both preferred (p = 0.026) and maximum speed walking (p < 0.001). In the medial-lateral (ML) plane, total knee generative MWE was higher in obese participants in the preferred speed task (p = 0.002), and total hip absorptive MWE was higher in obese in both preferred speed (p < 0.001) and maximum speed (p = 0.002) walking task compared to the normal weight participants. Older adults with obesity show spatiotemporal gait patterns which may help to reduce contact impacts. In addition, in obese persons mechanical energy usages tend to be lower in the AP plane and higher in the ML plane. Since forward progression forces are mainly implicated in normal walking, this pattern found in obese participants is suggestive of lower energetic efficiency.

Ko, Seung-uk; Stenholm, Sari; Ferrucci, Luigi

2010-01-01

255

The longitudinal course of bipolar disorder as revealed through weekly text-messaging: a feasibility study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine the feasibility of collecting course of illness data from patients with bipolar I and II disorder, using weekly text-messaged mood ratings, and to examine the time trajectory of symptom ratings based on this method of self-report. Methods A total of 62 patients with bipolar I (n = 47) or II (n = 15) disorder provided mood data in response to weekly cell phone text messages (n = 54) or e-mail prompts (n = 8). Participants provided weekly ratings using the Altman Self-Rating Mania Scale and the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptoms–Self Report. Patients with bipolar I and II disorder, and men and women, were compared on percentages of time in depressive or manic mood states over up to two years. Results Participants provided weekly ratings over an average of 36 (range 1–92) weeks. Compliance with the procedure was 75%. Overall, participants reported depressive symptoms 47.7% of the time compared to 7% of entries reflecting manic symptoms, 8.8% reflecting both depressive and manic symptoms, and 36.5% reflecting euthymic mood. Participants with bipolar I disorder reported more days of depression and were less likely to improve with time than participants with bipolar II disorder. Gender differences observed at the beginning of the study were not observed at follow-up. Conclusions The results are similar to those of other longitudinal studies of bipolar disorder that use traditional retrospective, clinician-gathered mood data. Text-message based symptom monitoring during routine follow-up may be a reliable alternative to in-person interviews.

Bopp, Jedediah M; Miklowitz, David J; Goodwin, Guy M; Stevens, Will; Rendell, Jennifer M; Geddes, John R

2010-01-01

256

Longitudinal Studies of Acute Respiratory Diseases in Children.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this program is to develop infant and child populations in Chapel Hill for longitudinal observations of the incidence and etiology of acute respiratory diseases and for evaluation of methods for the prevention of these diseases. Three inter...

F. W. Denny W. A. Clyde W. P. Glezen

1967-01-01

257

Fundamental Studies in the Automatic Longitudinal Control of Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The achievement of safe and efficient longitudinal control is probably the most significant technical problem associated with individual-vehicle transport systems such as PRT, dual-mode, and the automatic highway. The accomplishments over the first year o...

R. E. Fenton K. W. Olson R. J. Mayhan G. M. Takasaki P. M. Chu

1975-01-01

258

Growth trajectories in the children of mothers with eating disorders: a longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to examine longitudinal patterns of growth trajectories in children of women with eating disorders (ED): anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). Design Prospective longitudinal birth cohort; Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Setting South West England, UK. Participants The sample consisted of women and their children (n=10?190) from ALSPAC. Patterns of growth among children of women reporting a history of AN (n=137), BN (n=165), both AN and BN (n=68) and other psychiatric disorders (n=920) were compared with an unexposed group of children (n=8900). Main outcome measures Height and weight data, from birth to 10?years, were extracted from health visitor records, parental report from questionnaires and clinic attendances. Growth trajectories were analysed using mixed-effects models and constructed separately for male and female children. Results Between birth and 10?years, male children of women with BN were taller than children in the unexposed group. Male children of women with a history of AN and BN, and female children of women with AN, were shorter throughout childhood. Between the ages of 2 and 5, higher body mass index (BMI) was observed in male children in all maternal ED groups. Conversely, female children of women with AN had a BMI of ?0.35?kg/m2 lower at 2?years compared with the unexposed group, with catch-up by age 10. Conclusions Early childhood growth has been found to predict weight gain in adolescence and adulthood, and may be a risk factor for the development of an ED. These findings therefore have public health implications in relation to the prevention of weight-related and eating-related disorders later in life.

Easter, Abigail; Howe, Laura D; Tilling, Kate; Schmidt, Ulrike; Treasure, Janet; Micali, Nadia

2014-01-01

259

Prevalence of deliberate self harm and attempted suicide within contemporary Goth youth subculture: longitudinal cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate whether deliberate self harm is associated with contemporary Goth youth subculture. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Setting School and community based study of young people living in the Central Clydeside Conurbation, Scotland. Participants 1258 people aged 19, surveyed in 2002-4 and followed-up since age 11 (1994). Main outcome measures Lifetime prevalence of self harm and attempted suicide and their association with Goth youth subculture, before and after adjusting for confounders. Results Identification as belonging to the Goth subculture was strongly associated with lifetime self harm and attempted suicide, with a prevalence of 53% and 47%, respectively among the most highly identified group, and evidence for a dose-response relation. Adjusting for potential confounders did not significantly attenuate this association. Analysis of other youth subcultures showed that this effect was primarily associated with Goth subculture. Conclusions Identification as belonging to the Goth subculture was the best predictor of self harm and attempted suicide. Although based on small numbers, additional longitudinal analysis suggests both selection and modelling mechanisms are involved, selection mechanisms possibly being more likely.

Young, Robert; Sweeting, Helen; West, Patrick

2006-01-01

260

Bone loss in chronic hemiplegia: a longitudinal cohort study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate hemiplegic stroke patients in terms of long-term changes in bone mineral density and related factors. We conducted a longitudinal cohort study, involving 57 first-stroke patients (40 males) with chronic hemiplegia (for more than 12mo), at a university rehabilitation center in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Bone loss, body composition, lean mass, and fat mass were evaluated at 2 time points (mean interval, 16mo). Bone loss was significantly greater in paretic forearms than in nonparetic forearms (p=0.001) and in patients having suffered strokes more recently (p=0.015). We found no difference between paretic and nonparetic femurs. Femoral bone loss was significantly greater in patients using anticoagulants or anticonvulsants (p=0.025) and in those with greater spasticity (p=0.040), regardless of the time since stroke. Our results provide additional evidence that hemiplegic stroke patients have progressive bone loss and that such bone loss is more common in the arms than in the legs. Patients with poststroke hemiplegia should be densitometric monitored mainly in paretic arm and treated for bone loss, with attention to the determinants identified in this study. PMID:22677198

de Brito, Christina May Moran; Garcia, Ana Cristina Ferreira; Takayama, Liliam; Fregni, Felipe; Battistella, Linamara Rizzo; Pereira, Rosa Maria Rodrigues

2013-01-01

261

A longitudinal study relating carpeting with sick building syndrome  

SciTech Connect

A longitudinal questionnaire study was performed among personnel in two Swedish primary schools with wall-to-wall carpets and four schools with hard floor covering. The study groups consisted of all primary schools equipped with wall-to-wall carpets in the town of Uppsala, plus a random sample of two newer and two elderly primary schools with hard floor covering. In an initial cross-sectional study, the wall-to-wall carpet group reported an enhanced prevalence of eye and airway symptoms, face rashes, headache, abnormal tiredness and a sensation of being electrostatically charged in comparison with personnel in schools with hard floor covering. Since the enhanced prevalence of symptoms in the wall-to-wall carpets versus the hard floor covering group was also observed among persons without signs of atopy it was concluded that wall-to-wall carpets are not exclusively a problem for the sensitive atopic individual. The type of ventilation system (mechanical ventilation versus natural ventilation) had no significant effect on the symptom frequencies. After the removal of the wall-to-wall carpets, many of the reported symptoms decreased to a level similar to the group without previous or present exposure to such carpets. However, the frequency of airway symptoms remained enhanced among the wall-to-wall carpet group.

Norbaeck, D.; Torgen, M. (University Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden))

1989-01-01

262

Children's motivation in elementary physical education: a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

The present study examined relationships among variables drawn from achievement goal theory and the expectancy-value model of achievement choice as well as mean level changes of these variables over time in elementary physical education. Participants (N = 207) completed questionnaires over a 2-year period: once while in the second and fourth grades and again when they were in the third and fifth grades. Results indicated that achievement goals, expectancy-related beliefs, and subjective task values were related to one another and were predictive of children's intention for future participation in physical education. Children's subjective task values of physical education decreased over time. Children in Cohort 1 (across second to third grades) generally had stronger motivation for learning in physical education than children in Cohort 2 (across fourth to fifth grades). Findings suggest the importance of integrating achievement goal theory and the expectancy-value model of achievement choice in understanding student motivation. PMID:15532363

Xiang, Ping; McBride, Ron; Guan, Jianmin

2004-03-01

263

Children and Parents as Informants of Emotional and Behavioural Problems Predicting Female and Male Adolescent Risk Behaviour: A Longitudinal Cross-Informant Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines whether health risk behaviour in adolescence can be predicted by self- and by parental reports of psychopathology (externalizing and internalizing symptoms) assessed two and four years earlier. A total sample of 366 fourth graders participated in a longitudinal study with measurements taken in grades 4, 6, and 8. In grades 4…

Vierhaus, Marc; Lohaus, Arnold

2008-01-01

264

Digital Game Violence and Direct Aggression in Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study of the Roles of Sex, Age, and Parent-Child Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the roles of sex, age, and parent-child communication in moderating the association between digital game violence and direct aggression in a two-year longitudinal study. Finnish 12- and 15-year-old adolescents (N = 316) participated in the follow-up survey. As hypothesized, digital game violence was linked to direct…

Wallenius, Marjut; Punamaki, Raija-Leena

2008-01-01

265

Continuity, Comorbidity and Longitudinal Associations between Depression and Antisocial Behaviour in Middle Adolescence: A 2-Year Prospective Follow-Up Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study investigated continuity, comorbidity and longitudinal associations between depression Beck depression inventory (RBDI) and antisocial behaviour Youth self-report (YSR) in middle adolescence. Data were used from a community sample of 2070 adolescents who participated in a 2-year prospective follow-up study. The results indicate that both…

Ritakallio, Minna; Koivisto, Anna-Maija; von der Pahlen, Bettina; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Marttunen, Mauri; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

2008-01-01

266

A Longitudinal Study of the Utility of the Resilient, Overcontrolled, and Undercontrolled Personality Types as Predictors of Children's and Adolescents' Problem Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study addresses the utility of the resilient, overcontrolled, and undercontrolled personality prototypes for predicting children's and adolescents' problem behaviour in a longitudinal general population sample (N = 491). Both parents and one child participated in the study at two measurement occasions separated by a 3-year interval. The major…

van Leeuwen, Karla; de Fruyt, Filip; Mervielde, Ivan

2004-01-01

267

The development of defense mechanisms from pre-adolescence to early adulthood: Do IQ and social class matter? A longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The defense use of participants in the Berkeley Guidance Study, Intergenerational Studies, University of California, Berkeley, was traced longitudinally from pre-adolescence (n=130) to early adulthood (n=120). Of these participants, 78 were assessed at both ages, making it possible to assess defense change. As coded from their TAT stories using the Defense Mechanism Manual [DMM: Cramer, P. (1991a). The development of

Phebe Cramer

2009-01-01

268

Longitudinal Study of Cognitive Function in Idiopathic REM Sleep Behavior Disorder  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To assess the longitudinal course of cognitive functions in a cohort of patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD). Design: Prospective study with baseline and 2-year follow-up. Setting: Sleep disorders center. Participants: Twenty-four cognitively asymptomatic iRBD patients (18 M; mean age: 69.5 ± 7.3 y) and 12 sex-, age-, and education-matched healthy subjects. Interventions: Participants underwent to a video-PSG, a focused neuropsychological evaluation and a neurological examination. Following the first evaluation, subjects were reassessed after a mean interval of 25.8 months. Measurements and Results: Executive functions, attention and language were normal at baseline and at 2 year follow-up examination. At baseline, iRBD patients showed poorer performance than controls in delayed verbal memory (story recall test: P = 0.001) and in visuo-constructional abilities (Copy of the Rey-Osterrieth complex figure: P = 0.0005). At follow-up, they not only performed worse than controls in the same tests (story recall: P = 0.0001; Copy of the Rey-Osterrieth complex figure: P = 0.0004), but they also showed an impairment in visuo-spatial learning (Corsi supraspan test; P < 0.0001). ANOVAs showed a significant worsening in visuo-spatial learning over time in RBD compared to controls (P = 0.0001). Furthermore, 3 patients fulfilled the UK Brain Bank criteria for Parkinson disease, but this was unrelated to cognitive deterioration. Conclusions: Although no patients developed dementia, the decline observed in some tests involving the memory and visuo-constructional domains in idiopathic RBD suggests the presence of an underlying evolving degenerative process. Citation: Fantini ML; Farini E; Ortelli P; Zucconi M; Manconi M; Cappa S; Ferini-Strambi L. Longitudinal study of cognitive function in idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder. SLEEP 2011;34(5):619-625.

Fantini, Maria Livia; Farini, Elena; Ortelli, Paola; Zucconi, Marco; Manconi, Mauro; Cappa, Stefano; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi

2011-01-01

269

Predicting Adult Physical Illness from Infant Attachment: A Prospective Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Objective Recent epidemiological and longitudinal studies indicate that attachment relationships may be a significant predictor of physical health in adulthood. This study is among the few to prospectively link attachment classifications assessed in infancy to physical health outcomes thirty years later in adulthood, controlling for various health-related confounds. Methods Participants were 163 individuals involved in a 32-year longitudinal study of risk and adaptation who have been followed since birth. Attachment classifications were assessed at ages 12 and 18 months using the Ainsworth Strange Situation Procedure. Stability of attachment security was derived from these assessments. At age 32, participants completed a questionnaire asking about the presence of or treatment for current physical illnesses. Results Binary logistic regression analyses controlling for health-related confounds at age 32 indicated that individuals who were insecurely attached (i.e., anxious-resistant or anxious-avoidant) during infancy were more likely to report an inflammation-based illness in adulthood than those classified as securely attached during infancy. There also was a trend whereby individuals classified as anxious-resistant reported more non-specific symptoms in adulthood than those classified as either anxious-avoidant or secure. Individuals who were continuously insecure during infancy were more likely to report all types of physical illness in adulthood. Conclusion These findings reveal the lasting effect of early interpersonal relationships on physical health and suggests that infancy may be a fruitful point for prevention efforts. The widespread influence that attachment has on endogenous and exogenous health-related processes may make it particularly potent in the prevention of later physical health problems.

Puig, Jennifer; Englund, Michelle M.; Simpson, Jeffry A.; Collins, W. Andrew

2012-01-01

270

Longitudinal study of children exposed to sulfur oxides  

SciTech Connect

This study is a longitudinal comparison of the health of children exposed to markedly different concentrations of sulfur dioxide and moderately different concentrations of particulate sulfate. The four groups of subjects lived in two areas of one smelter town and in two other towns, one of which was also a smelter town. In the area of highest pollution, children were intermittently exposed to high SO/sub 2/ levels (peak three-hour average concentration exceeded 2,500 micrograms/m3) and moderate particulate SO/sub 4/= levels (average concentration was 10.1 micrograms/m3). When the children were grouped by the four gradients of pollution observed, the prevalence of cough (measured by questionnaire) correlated significantly with pollution levels (trend chi-square = 5.6, p = 0.02). No significant differences in the incidence of cough or other symptoms occurred among the groups of subjects over three years, and pulmonary function and lung function growth over the study were roughly equal among all the groups. These results suggest that intermittent elevations in SO/sub 2/ concentration, in the presence of moderate particulate SO/sub 4/= concentration, produced evidence of bronchial irritation in the subjects, but no chronic effect on lung function or lung function growth was detected.

Dodge, R.; Solomon, P.; Moyers, J.; Hayes, C.

1985-05-01

271

A longitudinal study of maternal attachment and infant developmental outcomes.  

PubMed

Extant research has demonstrated that compared to adults with insecure attachment styles, more securely attached parents tend to be more responsive, sensitive, and involved parents, resulting in improved outcomes for their children. Less studied is the influence of a mother's attachment style on her attachment to her unborn child during pregnancy and the consequent developmental outcomes of the child during early childhood. Thus, the aim of this prospective longitudinal study was to examine the relationship between maternal-fetal attachment (MFA) during pregnancy and infant and toddler outcomes and the role of mothers' attachment style on early childhood developmental outcomes in an economically disadvantaged sample of women and their children. Gamma regression modeling demonstrated that an avoidant maternal attachment style (b?=?.98, 95 % CI [.97, .98], p?

Alhusen, Jeanne L; Hayat, Matthew J; Gross, Deborah

2013-12-01

272

Race, Ideology, and the Tea Party: A Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

The Tea Party movement, which rose to prominence in the United States after the election of President Barack Obama, provides an ideal context in which to examine the roles of racial concerns and ideology in politics. A three-wave longitudinal study tracked changes in White Americans’ self-identification with the Tea Party, racial concerns (prejudice and racial identification), and ideologies (libertarianism and social conservatism) over nine months. Latent Growth Modeling (LGM) was used to evaluate potential causal relationships between Tea Party identification and these factors. Across time points, racial prejudice was indirectly associated with movement identification through Whites’ assertions of national decline. Although initial levels of White identity did not predict change in Tea Party identification, initial levels of Tea Party identification predicted increases in White identity over the study period. Across the three assessments, support for the Tea Party fell among libertarians, but rose among social conservatives. Results are discussed in terms of legitimation theories of prejudice, the “racializing” power of political judgments, and the ideological dynamics of the Tea Party.

Knowles, Eric D.; Lowery, Brian S.; Shulman, Elizabeth P.; Schaumberg, Rebecca L.

2013-01-01

273

Longitudinal study of Salmonella shedding in naturally infected finishing pigs.  

PubMed

A 3-year longitudinal study was conducted on a multi-site farrow-to-finish production system. For each of 18 cohorts at three finishing sites, 50 pigs were randomly selected. Faecal samples were collected every 2 weeks for 16 weeks. Salmonella was cultured from 453 (6·6%) of 6836 faecal samples. The pig-level incidence of Salmonella was 20·8% (187/899 pigs). Salmonella prevalence varied between cohorts and within pigs. The adjusted Salmonella prevalence decreased over the finishing period from 6·4% to 0·8%. Intermittent detection of Salmonella was found in more than 50% of pigs that were positive at more than one collection. The finding that the majority of pigs shed intermittently has implications for surveillance and research study design when determining Salmonella status. The variability in shedding over time, as well as between and within cohorts and pigs suggests that there may be time-variant risk factors for Salmonella shedding in swine. PMID:23148875

Pires, A F A; Funk, J A; Bolin, C A

2013-09-01

274

Longitudinal study of the microbiology of endemic trachoma.  

PubMed Central

A longitudinal study of trachoma in 100 members of nine Tanzanian families was conducted to assess the sources of variation in the laboratory identification of trachoma and the changes that might occur over time. Multiple conjunctival swabs were collected every 3 months for 1 year and examined by direct fluorescent-antibody cytology (DFA), enzyme immunoassay, or microimmunofluorescence serology for tear antichlamydial antibodies. DFA specimens collected 5 min apart had a discordance rate of 10% and this is attributable to sampling variation. DFA specimens collected 2 days or more apart show a 25% discordance rate. This suggests a biologic variation in shedding in addition to sampling variation. Good correlation existed between the DFA and the enzyme immunoassay. Tear serology was quite specific in predicting the presence of clinical disease and correlated with the other two antigen detection tests, although it does not seem to offer any practical advantages. These studies indicate that there is considerable variation in the shedding of chlamydia by people living in trachoma-endemic areas.

Taylor, H R; Siler, J A; Mkocha, H A; Munoz, B; Velez, V; Dejong, L; West, S

1991-01-01

275

Maternal acceptance and adolescents' emotional communication: a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

With substantive evidence suggesting that adolescents' disclosure is likely a protective factor against problem behaviors, as well as evidence that many adolescents will go to great lengths to avoid sharing information with parents, one may conclude that parents' face a formidable task. Previous studies have identified parental acceptance as a concurrent correlate of adolescents' behavioral disclosure, but have neglected to investigate potential ways that parents could encourage their adolescents to feel comfortable disclosing emotional information. The present study extends the literature by using a longitudinal, multi-method, multi-reporter design to examine whether maternal acceptance is predictive of emotional disclosure over time among a racially/socioeconomically diverse sample of 184 adolescents (53% female). Results indicate that adolescents who perceive their mothers as high in acceptance during early adolescence exhibit greater relative increases in both self-reported emotional communication and observed emotional disclosure to their mothers 3 years later. Interestingly, mothers' perceptions of their own acceptance does not provide any additional predictive value. These findings support the notion that adolescents' emotional disclosure is an ongoing process that can be fostered in early adolescence, and emphasize the importance of considering adolescents' perceptions of the relationship to successfully do so. PMID:20820894

Hare, Amanda L; Marston, Emily G; Allen, Joseph P

2011-06-01

276

Cortisol awakening response and subsequent depression: prospective longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

Background Some studies have found an association between elevated cortisol and subsequent depression, but findings are inconsistent. The cortisol awakening response may be a more stable measure of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function and potentially of stress reactivity. Aims To investigate whether salivary cortisol, particularly the cortisol awakening response, is associated with subsequent depression in a large population cohort. Method Young people (aged 15 years, n = 841) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) collected salivary cortisol at four time points for 3 school days. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios for developing depression meeting ICD-10 criteria at 18 years. Results We found no evidence for an association between salivary cortisol and subsequent depression. Odds ratios for the cortisol awakening response were 1.24 per standard deviation (95% CI 0.93-1.66, P = 0.14) before and 1.12 (95% CI 0.73-1.72, P = 0.61) after adjustment for confounding factors. There was no evidence that the other cortisol measures, including cortisol at each time point, diurnal drop and area under the curve, were associated with subsequent depression. Conclusions Our findings do not support the hypothesis that elevated salivary cortisol increases the short-term risk of subsequent depressive illness. The results suggest that if an association does exist, it is small and unlikely to be of clinical significance.

Carnegie, Rebecca; Araya, Ricardo; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Glover, Vivette; O'Connor, Thomas G.; O'Donnell, Kieran J.; Pearson, Rebecca; Lewis, Glyn

2014-01-01

277

Race, ideology, and the tea party: a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

The Tea Party movement, which rose to prominence in the United States after the election of President Barack Obama, provides an ideal context in which to examine the roles of racial concerns and ideology in politics. A three-wave longitudinal study tracked changes in White Americans' self-identification with the Tea Party, racial concerns (prejudice and racial identification), and ideologies (libertarianism and social conservatism) over nine months. Latent Growth Modeling (LGM) was used to evaluate potential causal relationships between Tea Party identification and these factors. Across time points, racial prejudice was indirectly associated with movement identification through Whites' assertions of national decline. Although initial levels of White identity did not predict change in Tea Party identification, initial levels of Tea Party identification predicted increases in White identity over the study period. Across the three assessments, support for the Tea Party fell among libertarians, but rose among social conservatives. Results are discussed in terms of legitimation theories of prejudice, the "racializing" power of political judgments, and the ideological dynamics of the Tea Party. PMID:23825630

Knowles, Eric D; Lowery, Brian S; Shulman, Elizabeth P; Schaumberg, Rebecca L

2013-01-01

278

Moderate Alcohol Use and Depression in Young Adults: Findings From a National Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined the association between moderate alcohol use and depressive mood among young adults before and after adjustment for demographic, health, and socioeconomic factors that may act as confounders. Methods. We analyzed 2 waves of interview data collected from 13892 young adults who participated in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to compare frequency of depressive symptoms in moderate drinkers with frequency of symptoms in young adults in other alcohol use categories. Results. With adjustment for health and socioeconomic factors, frequency of depressive symptoms were similar among moderate drinkers, lifetime and long-term abstainers, and heavy/heavier moderate drinkers but remained significantly higher among heavy drinkers. Conclusions. Moderate alcohol use may have no effect on depression in young adults relative to abstinence from alcohol use.

Paschall, Mallie J.; Freisthler, Bridget; Lipton, Robert I.

2005-01-01

279

A study of the birth weight-obesity relation using a longitudinal cohort and sibling and twin pairs.  

PubMed

Sibling and twin study designs provide control for confounding factors that are typically unmeasured in traditional cohort studies. Using nationally representative data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health collected at 3 visits during 1994-2002, the authors evaluated the longitudinal association between birth weight and later obesity in a traditional cohort study (n = 13,763; ages 11-21 years at baseline), controlling for sex, age, race/ethnicity, and parental education. Among persons with a nonobese mother, high birth weight (>4 kg) participants were more likely than normal birth weight (>/=2.5-participants to become obese later in life (incidence rate ratio = 1.46, 95% confidence interval: 1.28, 1.67). In a matched sibling pair sample (full siblings: n = 513; monozygotic twins: n = 207; dizygotic twins: n = 189), the authors examined longitudinal within-pair differences. Birth weight difference was positively associated with body mass index difference later in life for female monozygotic pairs only (beta = 2.67, 95% confidence interval: 0.99, 4.35). Given the null associations observed in the sibling sample, the commonly observed positive association between birth weight and later obesity from cohort analyses may be attributed to confounding by maternal characteristics. Further research is needed to identify specific factors that contribute to the birth weight-obesity relation. PMID:20688900

The, Natalie S; Adair, Linda S; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

2010-09-01

280

Computer-based Learning of Neuroanatomy: A Longitudinal Study of Learning, Transfer, and Retention  

PubMed Central

A longitudinal experiment was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of new methods for learning neuroanatomy with computer-based instruction. Using a 3D graphical model of the human brain, and sections derived from the model, tools for exploring neuroanatomy were developed to encourage adaptive exploration. This is an instructional method which incorporates graphical exploration in the context of repeated testing and feedback. With this approach, 72 participants learned either sectional anatomy alone or whole anatomy followed by sectional anatomy. Sectional anatomy was explored either with perceptually continuous navigation through the sections or with discrete navigation (as in the use of an anatomical atlas). Learning was measured longitudinally to a high performance criterion. Subsequent tests examined transfer of learning to the interpretation of biomedical images and long-term retention. There were several clear results of this study. On initial exposure to neuroanatomy, whole anatomy was learned more efficiently than sectional anatomy. After whole anatomy was mastered, learners demonstrated high levels of transfer of learning to sectional anatomy and from sectional anatomy to the interpretation of complex biomedical images. Learning whole anatomy prior to learning sectional anatomy led to substantially fewer errors overall than learning sectional anatomy alone. Use of continuous or discrete navigation through sectional anatomy made little difference to measured outcomes. Efficient learning, good long-term retention, and successful transfer to the interpretation of biomedical images indicated that computer-based learning using adaptive exploration can be a valuable tool in instruction of neuroanatomy and similar disciplines.

Chariker, Julia H.; Naaz, Farah; Pani, John R.

2013-01-01

281

Childhood aggression, withdrawal and likeability, and the use of health care later: a longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

Background: Literature suggests that early patterns of aggressive behaviour in both girls and boys are predictive of a variety of health risks in adulthood. However, longitudinal examination of the predictive links between childhood aggression, negative physical health outcomes in adulthood and overall use of health care has not been done. We looked at use of health care and a variety of physical health outcomes in adulthood to extend the current body of knowledge regarding the long-term negative sequelae of childhood aggression. Methods: Participants of the Concordia Longitudinal Risk Project were eligible for the current study if they had received medical care in the province of Quebec between 1992 and 2006, and if we were able to retrieve their medical and education records. Our primary outcome was use of the health care system, as determined using records from the Régie de l’assurance maladie du Québec and the Ministère de la santé et des services sociaux. Our controlled variables were socioeconomic status of the neighbourhood in which participants lived in 1986 and level of education. We used hierarchical multiple regression to explore the association between childhood behaviour and physical health in adulthood. Results: During the 15-year period studied, childhood agression corresponded to an increase in medical visits (8.1% per 1 standard deviation increase in agression), and injuries (10.7%) or lifestyle-related illnesses (44.2%), visits to specialists (6.2%) and visits to emergency departments (12.4%). We saw a positive relation between social withdrawal during childhood and government-funded visits to dentists. Peer-rated likeability during childhood showed negative relations with use of health care (overall), medical visits due to injuries and government-funded visits to dentists. Interpretation: Childhood aggression is a health risk that should be considered when designing interventions to improve public health and diminish the costs of medical services, particularly when considering interventions targeting children and families.

Temcheff, Caroline E.; Serbin, Lisa A.; Martin-Storey, Alexa; Stack, Dale M.; Hastings, Paul; Ledingham, Jane; Schwartzman, Alex E.

2011-01-01

282

Neuropsychological changes in children with cancer: The treatment of missing data in longitudinal studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers conducting longitudinal studies with children or adults are inevitably confronted with problems of attrition and missing data. Missing data in longitudinal studies is frequently handled by excluding from analyses those cases for whom data are incomplete. This approach to missing data is not optimal. On the one hand, if data are missing at random, then dropping incomplete cases ignores

David J. Francis; Donna R. Copeland; Bartlett D. Moore

1994-01-01

283

Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study Field Test Methodology Report: BPS 90/92. Contractor Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents a summary of the field test results from the first follow-up of the 1992 Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study (BPS:90/92). The BPS:90/92 represents a departure from previous longitudinal studies of high school students in that it starts with a cohort of individuals beginning their postsecondary education…

Burkheimer, G. J., Jr.; And Others

284

The Timing of Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Child Cognitive Development: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Maternal depression is known to be associated with impairments in child cognitive development, although the effect of timing of exposure to maternal depression is unclear. Methods: Data collected for the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a longitudinal study beginning in pregnancy, included self-report measures of…

Evans, Jonathan; Melotti, Roberto; Heron, Jon; Ramchandani, Paul; Wiles, Nicola; Murray, Lynne; Stein, Alan

2012-01-01

285

Longitudinal study of Toxoplasma seroprevalence in South Yorkshire.  

PubMed Central

Serum samples collected from individuals of a wide range of ages in South Yorkshire between 1969 and 1990 provided the basis for a longitudinal seroprevalence survey of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies. Sera numbering 3868 were screened for T. gondii specific antibodies using a commercial latex agglutination test. The resultant temporal series of serological profiles revealed a rise, with age, in seroprevalence, the rate of which showed a decrease through time. A plateau of around 40-50% prevalence was attained by the 41- to 45-year age-class in 1969 which was not approached until the 66- to 70-year class in the 1988-90 data set. This trend for decline in seroprevalence was confirmed by statistical analysis for the age range 21-60 years. These results may be indicative of a decrease in the rate of toxoplasma exposure in this study community over the 20-year period. The survey of 1988-90 provides a base-line profile of present-day seroprevalence in which 11% of individuals in the age range 16-45 years (roughly corresponding to the childbearing age-range) show evidence of past infection. The representative nature of the serum collection and public-health implications of these results are discussed.

Walker, J.; Nokes, D. J.; Jennings, R.

1992-01-01

286

Results from the Longitudinal Study of Astronomy Graduate Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Longitudinal Study of Astronomy Graduate Students (LSAGS), an ongoing, joint project of the American Astronomical Society (AAS) and the American Institute of Physics (AIP), first collected survey data from astronomy and astrophysics graduate students in 2007-08. The LSAGS follows the same people, all of whom were in graduate school in 2006-07, over time as they start their careers. Most of the respondents are currently working as postdocs. There have been two rounds of the survey so far, and we have recently received funding for a third round from the National Science Foundation (AST-1347723). Results from the first round showed the importance of mentoring for graduate students. Data collection for the second round has been completed, and AIP has just begun analysis of these data. At this talk, I will present the results of the second survey. Ultimately, the LSAGS will *provide detailed data on trends in employment over 10+ years for a single cohort, *collect data on people who leave the field of astronomy during or after graduate school, *determine whether there are sex differences in attrition from astronomy and reasons for this, and *examine factors that precede decisions to persist in, or leave, the field of astronomy.

Ivie, Rachel

2014-01-01

287

Longitudinal Study of Student Attitudes in a Biology Program  

PubMed Central

This is among the first longitudinal studies to report student attitudes across 4 yr of a university program. We found that the attitudes of students in biology become significantly more expert-like from the first year to the fourth year of the program, that is, there was a significant positive shift in students’ overall percent favorable scores from 64.5 to 72%, as opposed to the expert response, which averaged 90%. There was a significant positive shift for the real world connection category (78–85%), the enjoyment (personal interest) category (74–82%), and the conceptual connections/memorization category (66–74%). Moreover, there was a significant correlation between students’ overall percent favorable scores and performance (cumulative grade point average) at the end, but not at the beginning, of the fourth year, with high-performing students having significantly more expert-like attitudes than low-performing students. The correlation between percent favorable score and performance was the strongest for the problem solving: synthesis and application category, in which the highest-performing students finished their fourth year with 90% favorable compared with 35% favorable for the lowest-performing students. A comparison of these results with previously reported results and their implications for teaching are discussed.

Birol, Gulnur

2014-01-01

288

Phenol reduces hypertonia and enhances strength: a longitudinal case study.  

PubMed

Phenyl alcohol blocks are used to relieve spasticity. Such nerve conduction blocks result from phenol-induced axonotmesis and could potentially affect muscle properties related to the ability to generate, maximize, and reduce force. This study assessed the 12-week longitudinal effect of phenol on position (stiffness) and velocity (damping) components of hypertonia, in addition to strength (peak torque and times to generate and reduce torque) in an individual with chronic elbow flexor spasticity following stroke. Phenol motor point injections of flexor muscles paradoxically increased the magnitude of flexion torque and decreased the times required to generate and reduce flexion and extension joint torques, in addition to reducing elbow extension stiffness and damping. Large reductions in the velocity-related component of hypertonia (damping changes > 90%) occurred immediately following injection, which is a finding that supports the velocity-dependent definition of spasticity. Although the changes in damping were large and transient, changes in stiffness and strength variables were small, slower to occur, and maintained. This suggests secondary changes following nerve block, possibly facilitated by regular elbow use subsequent to spasticity reduction. PMID:15228807

McCrea, Patrick H; Eng, Janice J; Willms, Rhonda

2004-06-01

289

Sentence Position and Syntactic Complexity of Stuttering in Early Childhood: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present investigation was to assess longitudinal word- and sentence-level measures of stuttering in young children. Participants included 12 stuttering and non-stuttering children between 36 and 71 months of age at an initial visit who exhibited a range of stuttering rates. Parent-child spontaneous speech samples were obtained…

Buhr, Anthony; Zebrowski, Patricia

2009-01-01

290

Precursors of Language Ability and Academic Performance: An Intergenerational, Longitudinal Study of At-Risk Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current investigation examined whether inter-generational transfer of risk could be revealed through mothers' and preschool-aged children's expressive language, and whether continuity of risk persisted in these children's academic abilities, 3 years later. Participating families were drawn from the Concordia Longitudinal Risk Project, a…

Campisi, Lisa; Serbin, Lisa A.; Stack, Dale M.; Schwartzman, Alex E.; Ledingham, Jane E.

2009-01-01

291

Study Abroad and Intercultural Development: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study abroad is an expensive, resource intensive activity for both students and their home institution. With an estimated 200,000 American students studying abroad in 2006, and an annual growth rate of eight percent, program administrators and international scholars are increasingly being asked to document the learning outcomes associated with…

Rexeisen, Richard J.; Anderson, Philip H.; Lawton, Leigh; Hubbard, Ann C.

2008-01-01

292

Rationales, design and recruitment for the Elfe longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

Background Many factors act simultaneously in childhood to influence health status, life chances and well being, including pre-birth influences, the environmental pollutants of early life, health status but also the social influences of family and school. A cohort study is needed to disentangle these influences and explore attribution. Methods Elfe will be a nationally representative cohort of 20 000 children followed from birth to adulthood using a multidisciplinary approach. The cohort will be based on the INSEE Permanent Demographic Panel (EDP) established using census data and civil records. The sample size has been defined in order to match the representativeness criteria and to obtain some prevalence estimation, but also to address the research area of low exposure/rare effects. The cohort will be based on repeated surveys by face to face or phone interview (at birth and each year) as well as medical interview (at 2 years) and examination (at 6 years). Furthermore, biological samples will be taken at birth to evaluate the foetal exposition to toxic substances, environmental sensors will be placed in the child's homes. Pilot studies have been initiated in 2007 (500 children) with an overall acceptance rate of 55% and are currently under progress, the 2-year survey being carried out in October this year. Discussion The longitudinal study will provide a unique source of data to analyse the development of children in their environment, to study the various factors interacting throughout the life course up to adulthood and to determine the impact of childhood experience on the individual's physical, psychological, social and professional development.

Vandentorren, Stephanie; Bois, Corinne; Pirus, Claudine; Sarter, Helene; Salines, Georges; Leridon, Henri

2009-01-01

293

Longitudinal variability of time-location/activity patterns of population at different ages: a longitudinal study in California  

PubMed Central

Background Longitudinal time-activity data are important for exposure modeling, since the extent to which short-term time-activity data represent long-term activity patterns is not well understood. This study was designed to evaluate longitudinal variations in human time-activity patterns. Method We report on 24-hour recall diaries and questionnaires collected via the internet from 151 parents of young children (mostly under age 55), and from 55 older adults of ages 55 and older, for both a weekday and a weekend day every three months over an 18-month period. Parents also provided data for their children. The self-administrated diary and questionnaire distinguished ~30 frequently visited microenvironments and ~20 activities which we selected to represent opportunities for exposure to toxic environmental compounds. Due to the non-normal distribution of time-location/activity data, we employed generalized linear mixed-distribution mixed-effect models to examine intra- and inter-individual variations. Here we describe variation in the likelihood of and time spent engaging in an activity or being in a microenvironment by age group, day-type (weekday/weekend), season (warm/cool), sex, employment status, and over the follow-up period. Results As expected, day-type and season influence time spent in many location and activity categories. Longitudinal changes were also observed, e.g., young children slept less with increasing follow-up, transit time increased, and time spent on working and shopping decreased during the study, possibly related to human physiological changes with age and changes in macro-economic factors such as gas prices and the economic recession. Conclusions This study provides valuable new information about time-activity assessed longitudinally in three major age groups and greatly expands our knowledge about intra- and inter-individual variations in time-location/activity patterns. Longitudinal variations beyond weekly and seasonal patterns should be taken into account in simulating long-term time-activity patterns in exposure modeling.

2011-01-01

294

Comparing Longitudinal Profile Patterns of Mathematics and Reading in Early Child Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten: The Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS) Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the study is to compare longitudinal patterns from Mathematics and Reading data from the direct child assessment of Early Child Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten (ECLS-K, US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics 2006), utilizing Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS). PAMS has been used initially…

Kim, Se-Kang

2010-01-01

295

Monitoring the newly qualified nurses in Sweden: the Longitudinal Analysis of Nursing Education (LANE) study  

PubMed Central

Background The Longitudinal Analysis of Nursing Education (LANE) study was initiated in 2002, with the aim of longitudinally examining a wide variety of individual and work-related variables related to psychological and physical health, as well as rates of employee and occupational turnover, and professional development among nursing students in the process of becoming registered nurses and entering working life. The aim of this paper is to present the LANE study, to estimate representativeness and analyse response rates over time, and also to describe common career pathways and life transitions during the first years of working life. Methods Three Swedish national cohorts of nursing students on university degree programmes were recruited to constitute the cohorts. Of 6138 students who were eligible for participation, a total of 4316 consented to participate and responded at baseline (response rate 70%). The cohorts will be followed prospectively for at least three years of their working life. Results Sociodemographic data in the cohorts were found to be close to population data, as point estimates only differed by 0-3% from population values. Response rates were found to decline somewhat across time, and this decrease was present in all analysed subgroups. During the first year after graduation, nearly all participants had qualified as nurses and had later also held nursing positions. The most common reason for not working was due to maternity leave. About 10% of the cohorts who graduated in 2002 and 2004 intended to leave the profession one year after graduating, and among those who graduated in 2006 the figure was almost twice as high. Intention to leave the profession was more common among young nurses. In the cohort who graduated in 2002, nearly every fifth registered nurse continued to further higher educational training within the health professions. Moreover, in this cohort, about 2% of the participants had left the nursing profession five years after graduating. Conclusion Both high response rates and professional retention imply a potential for a thorough analysis of professional practice and occupational health.

2010-01-01

296

Genetic model for longitudinal studies of aging, health, and longevity and its potential application to incomplete data.  

PubMed

Many longitudinal studies of aging collect genetic information only for a sub-sample of participants of the study. These data also do not include recent findings, new ideas and methodological concepts developed by distinct groups of researchers. The formal statistical analyses of genetic data ignore this additional information and therefore cannot utilize the entire research potential of the data. In this paper, we present a stochastic model for studying such longitudinal data in joint analyses of genetic and non-genetic sub-samples. The model incorporates several major concepts of aging known to date and usually studied independently. These include age-specific physiological norms, allostasis and allostatic load, stochasticity, and decline in stress resistance and adaptive capacity with age. The approach allows for studying all these concepts in their mutual connection, even if respective mechanisms are not directly measured in data (which is typical for longitudinal data available to date). The model takes into account dependence of longitudinal indices and hazard rates on genetic markers and permits evaluation of all these characteristics for carriers of different alleles (genotypes) to address questions concerning genetic influence on aging-related characteristics. The method is based on extracting genetic information from the entire sample of longitudinal data consisting of genetic and non-genetic sub-samples. Thus it results in a substantial increase in the accuracy of statistical estimates of genetic parameters compared to methods that use only information from a genetic sub-sample. Such an increase is achieved without collecting additional genetic data. Simulation studies illustrate the increase in the accuracy in different scenarios for datasets structurally similar to the Framingham Heart Study. Possible applications of the model and its further generalizations are discussed. PMID:19490866

Arbeev, Konstantin G; Akushevich, Igor; Kulminski, Alexander M; Arbeeva, Liubov S; Akushevich, Lucy; Ukraintseva, Svetlana V; Culminskaya, Irina V; Yashin, Anatoli I

2009-05-01

297

Watchful waiting for ventral hernias: a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

Ventral hernias are a common clinical problem. Immediate repair is recommended for most ventral hernias despite significant recurrence rates. This practice may be related to a lack of understanding of the natural history of ventral hernias. The purpose of this study was to determine the natural history of ventral hernias and to determine if watchful waiting is an acceptable and safe option. Forty-one patients with ventral hernias were enrolled in a longitudinal cohort study of watchful waiting. Primary outcomes were functional impairment resulting from hernia disease as measured by the Activities Assessment Scale (AAS) and changes from baseline to two years in the physical and mental component score of the SF-36 Health Survey. Secondary outcomes included complications such as incarceration. Mixed-effects model for repeated measures and Student's t tests were used to evaluate scale performance. The mean age of enrollees was 64 years, and the mean hernia size was 239 cm(2). Eleven patients were lost to follow-up, and seven patients died of other causes. All remaining patients were followed for two years. There was one incarceration during the follow-up period. There was no deterioration in the AAS score (baseline vs 24 months = 28 vs 25, P = 0.60). There was deterioration of the physical functioning dimension of the SF-36 (baseline vs 24 months = 40 vs 32, P < 0.01), but the mental functioning dimension was improved (45 vs 51; P = 0.01). Watchful waiting was a safe option for patients in this study with ventral hernias. PMID:24666865

Bellows, Charles F; Robinson, Celia; Fitzgibbons, Robert J; Webber, Larry S; Berger, David H

2014-03-01

298

Cortical Gyrification in Velo-Cardio-Facial (22q11.2 Deletion) Syndrome: A Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS) has been identified as an important risk factor for psychoses, with upto 32% of individuals with VCFS developing a psychotic illness. Individuals with VCFS thus form a unique group to identify and explore early symptoms and biological correlates of psychosis. In this study, we examined if cortical gyrification pattern, i.e. gyrification index (GI) can be a potential neurobiological marker for psychosis. Method GIs of 91 individuals with VCFS were compared with 29 siblings and 54 controls. Further, 58 participants with VCFS, 21 siblings and 18 normal controls were followed up after 3 years and longitudinal changes in GI were compared. Additionally, we also correlated longitudinal changes in GI in individuals with VCFS with prodromal symptoms of psychosis on the Scale of Prodromal Symptoms (SOPS). Result Individuals with VCFS had significantly lower GIs as compared to their siblings and normal controls. Longitudinal examination of GI did not reveal any significant group-time interactions between the three groups. Further, longitudinal change in GI scores in the VCFS group was negatively correlated with positive prodromal symptoms, with the left occipital region reaching statistical significance. Conclusion The study confirms previous reports that individuals with VCFS have reduced cortical folding as compared to normal controls. However over a period of three years, there is no difference in the rate of change of GI among both individuals with VCFS and normal controls. Finally, our results suggest that neuroanatomical alterations in areas underlying visual processing may be an early marker for psychosis.

Kunwar, Arun; Ramanathan, Seethalakshmi; Nelson, Joshua; Antshel, Kevin M.; Fremont, Wanda; Higgins, Anne Marie; Shprintzen, Robert J.; Kates, Wendy R.

2012-01-01

299

Causal relationships of sport and exercise involvement with goal orientations, perceived competence and intrinsic motivation in physical education: A longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little information exists about the causal relationships of sport and exercise participation with goal orientations, perceived athletic competence and intrinsic motivation in physical education. A longitudinal study was conducted involving 882 Greek students who completed questionnaires on three occasions: 3 – 5 weeks into the academic year, 3 – 6 weeks before the end of the academic year, and 7 months later. The data

Athanasios Papaioannou; Evaggelos Bebetsos; Yannis Theodorakis; Triantafyllos Christodoulidis; Olga Kouli

2006-01-01

300

Investigating Predictors of Visiting, Using, and Revisiting an Online Health-Communication Program: A Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Background Online health communication has the potential to reach large audiences, with the additional advantages that it can be operational at all times and that the costs per visitor are low. Furthermore, research shows that Internet-delivered interventions can be effective in changing health behaviors. However, exposure to Internet-delivered health-communication programs is generally low. Research investigating predictors of exposure is needed to be able to effectively disseminate online interventions. Objective In the present study, the authors used a longitudinal design with the aim of identifying demographic, psychological, and behavioral predictors of visiting, using, and revisiting an online program promoting physical activity in the general population. Methods A webpage was created providing the public with information about health and healthy behavior. The website included a “physical activity check,” which consisted of a physical activity computer-tailoring expert system where visitors could check whether their physical activity levels were in line with recommendations. Visitors who consented to participate in the present study (n = 489) filled in a questionnaire that assessed demographics, mode of recruitment, current physical activity levels, and health motivation. Immediately after, participants received tailored feedback concerning their current physical activity levels and completed a questionnaire assessing affective and cognitive user experience, attitude toward being sufficiently physically active, and intention to be sufficiently physically active. Three months later, participants received an email inviting them once more to check whether their physical activity level had changed. Results Analyses of visiting showed that more women (67.5%) than men (32.5%) visited the program. With regard to continued use, native Dutch participants (odds ratio [OR] = 2.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.16-6.81, P = .02) and participants with a strong motivation to be healthy (OR = 1.46, CI = 1.03-2.07, P = .03) were most likely to continue usage of the program. With regard to revisiting, older participants (OR = 1.04, CI = 1.01-1.06, P = .01) and highly educated participants (OR = 4.69, CI = 1.44-15.22, P = .01) were more likely to revisit the program after three months. In addition, positive affective user experience predicted revisiting (OR = 1.64, CI = 1.12-2.39, P = .01). Conclusions The results suggest that online interventions could specifically target men, young people, immigrant groups, people with a low education, and people with a weak health motivation to increase exposure to these interventions. Furthermore, eliciting positive feelings in visitors may contribute to higher usage rates.

Crutzen, Rik; De Vries, Hein

2010-01-01

301

Social Strategies during University Studies Predict Early Career Work Burnout and Engagement: 18-Year Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal study spanning 18 years examined the role of social strategies in early career adaptation. The aim was to find out whether individuals' social strategies measured during their university studies had an impact on work burnout and work engagement measured 10-18 years later. A sample of 292 university students completed the SAQ…

Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Tolvanen, Asko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

2011-01-01

302

Case Studies of Children's Development of Structure in Early Mathematics: A Two-Year Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two-year longitudinal case studies of 16 Sydney children extended a study of 103 first graders' use of structure across a range of mathematical tasks. We describe how individual's representations change through five stages of structural development. Children at the pre-structural stage showed inconsistent development presenting disorganised…

Mulligan, Joanne; Mitchelmore, Michael; Prescott, Anne

2005-01-01

303

Graduate Pathways: A Longitudinal Study of Graduates in Outdoor Studies in the U.K.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A longitudinal study provides a more detailed analysis of the career pathways of graduates than the First Destination Survey can achieve. This survey of 41% of graduates from a BSc (Honours) Outdoor Studies degree also examines the importance of named skills to their careers and the success of the degree in developing each skill. Two thirds of…

Prince, Heather

2005-01-01

304

Infant Rearing Practices in South India: A Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Rearing practices are a major determinant of nutritional and health status of infants. Therefore these practices need to be better understood. Objectives: To find out infant rearing practices in the study area. Materials and Methods: A longitudinal study was conducted on a birth cohort of 194 infants. Information on rearing practices and anthropometric measurements were recorded every month for a period of 1 year. Results: Only 67 (34.5%) newborns were breast fed within half an hour of delivery. Prelacteal feeds was given to 65 (33.5%) newborns and this was seen more among home deliveries (P=0.018). Demand feeding was practiced by 169 (87.1%) mothers. Exclusive breast feeding (EBF) for 6 months was practiced by 81 (41.7%) mothers. Bottle feeding was seen in 7 (3.6%) cases. Weight gain during infancy was found to be maximum when infants were EBF for 6 months (P<0.001) and weaned with semi-solid and solid diet alone in the following 6 months (P=0.002). Gain in all anthropometric measurements was more in the initial 6 months of infancy compared to latter. Four (2.1%) infants were malnourished. Oil massage before bath was practiced by 189 (97.4%) mothers. Over 50% mothers practiced oil application to eyes or ears of infants. Delayed initiation of bath (beyond 1week) was seen in 15 (7.7%) cases. Conclusion: Faulty rearing practices need to be corrected in order to improve the health status of infants.

Joseph, Nitin; Unnikrishnan, B.; Naik, Vijaya A.; Mahantshetti, N.S.; Mallapur, M.D.; Kotian, Shashidhar M.; Nelliyanil, Maria

2013-01-01

305

The Study of Adolescent Identity Formation 2000-2010: A Review of Longitudinal Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Longitudinal research into personal and ethnic identity has expanded considerably in the first decade of the present century. The longitudinal studies have shown that personal identity develops progressively during adolescence, but also that many individuals do not change identity, especially ethnic identity. Researchers have found rank-order…

Meeus, Wim

2011-01-01

306

High School Social Climate and Antisocial Behavior: A 10 Year Longitudinal and Multilevel Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A longitudinal and multilevel approach is used to examine the relationship between antisocial behavior during adolescence and high school social climate. The data are taken from a longitudinal study of 1,233 boys and girls who attended 217 public and private high schools. Students' disruptive behaviors were assessed yearly from 6 to 12 years of…

Leblanc, Line; Swisher, Raymond; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

2008-01-01

307

Problematics of Time and Timing in the Longitudinal Study of Human Development: Theoretical and Methodological Issues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studying human development involves describing, explaining, and optimizing intraindividual change and interindividual differences in such change and, as such, requires longitudinal research. The selection of the appropriate type of longitudinal design requires selecting the option that best addresses the theoretical questions asked about…

Lerner, Richard M.; Schwartz, Seth J.; Phelps, Erin

2009-01-01

308

Changes in HRM in Europe: A Longitudinal Comparative Study among 18 European Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To examine HRM strategies and practices and HRM position within organizations in various cultural, economic and sociopolitical contexts from a longitudinal perspective. Design/methodology/approach: The study uses the 1995 and 1999 Cranet data in a longitudinal methodological framework to explore the changes and trends in 18 European…

Nikandrou, Irene; Apospori, Eleni; Papalexandris, Nancy

2005-01-01

309

Monitoring the newly qualified nurses in Sweden: the Longitudinal Analysis of Nursing Education (LANE) study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The Longitudinal Analysis of Nursing Education (LANE) study was initiated in 2002, with the aim of longitudinally examining a wide variety of individual and work-related variables related to psychological and physical health, as well as rates of employee and occupational turnover, and professional development among nursing students in the process of becoming registered nurses and entering working life. The

Ann Rudman; Marianne Omne-Pontén; Lars Wallin; Petter J Gustavsson

2010-01-01

310

Psychometric characteristics of the Mobility Inventory in a longitudinal study of anxiety disorders: Replicating and exploring a three component solution  

PubMed Central

Psychometric characteristics of the Mobility Inventory (MI) were examined in 216 outpatients diagnosed with panic disorder with agoraphobia participating in a longitudinal study of anxiety disorders. An exploratory principal components analysis replicated a three-component solution for the MI reported in prior studies, with components corresponding to avoidance of public spaces, avoidance of enclosed spaces, and avoidance of open spaces. Correlational analyses suggested that the components tap unique but related areas of avoidance that were remarkably stable across periods of 1,3, and 5 years between administrations. Implications of these results for future studies of agoraphobia are discussed.

Rodriguez, Benjamin F.; Pagano, Maria E.; Keller, Martin B.

2008-01-01

311

Change readiness research. A qualitative study of variations in participation.  

PubMed

The Change readiness research method (CRR) has become a well- known method in Denmark to identify issues needed to be discussed on a hospital ward before implementation of a new IT-system and to start a dialogue. A precondition for a constructive dialogue, however, is a high degree of participation. The latest experiences of the CRR method were gained from its use in eight wards in the Danish Gepka project during 2003-4 (The Gepka project was established by The Danish Ministry of the Interior and Health, The National Board of Health, the County Council Society and H:S. Its purpose is to validate the "Basic Structure for The Electronic Health Record" (B-EHR) using prototypes. http://medinfo.dk/epj/proj/gepka/). In the Gepka project the participation varied from 33.3% to 78.9%. The objective of this study is to set out themes by which this variation can be studied. A qualitative explorative research design has been applied, where four instructions from the "Instruction for use" (Instructions for using the CRR method. Can be downloaded the Internet: (http://www.epjobservatoriet.dk/publikationer/forandringsparathed.pdf)) have been studied as themes. The methods used have been telephone interviews and direct observations. The results showed that the seven wards (one was excluded) followed the "Instructions for use" to different degrees. It was found that one instruction, in particular, seems to be especially important to follow to motivate the employees on a ward to participate in the CRR; the management of the ward must be engaged/actively involved in the project, as they are key figures when it comes to motivating the other ward employees. The aim of this study is not to prove a causal relationship between the degree to which the "Instructions for use" are followed and the degree of participation--it is to suggest a qualitative relationship between the two. Neither does this study try to generalize the results, as further research on more wards would be needed to do so. This study does, however, set out themes that can be a useful tool in future CRR projects in order to maximize the degree of participation. In a modified way, these themes can probably be used as a tool in other studies of human-machine interactions. PMID:17108598

Høstgaard, Anna Marie

2006-01-01

312

A Longitudinal Study of Individual and Organisational Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine organisational learning (OL) and individual managerial learning and provide a comparative evaluation of the ability of each to generate organisational benefits. Design/methodology/approach: A theoretical model of organisational learning is developed which was then longitudinally tested…

Campbell, Timothy T.; Armstrong, Steven J.

2013-01-01

313

Total body potassium in aging humans: A longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total body potassium (TBK) data calculated from longitudinal measurements over 18 y of 40K by whole-body counting of 564 male and 61 female healthy humans in a 2-pi liquid scintillation counter show little change in females younger than 50 y compared with males of those ages. Males show less TBK from 41 y onward as they age, with most rapid

M. A. Flynn; G. B. Nolph; A. S. Baker; W. M. Martin; G. Krause

1989-01-01

314

A longitudinal study on Australian online DVD pricing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze the online DVD market in Australia, which has not been researched so far, and to examine whether the pricing patterns in this market exhibit any regularity consistent or inconsistent with research findings in other markets. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A longitudinal data set of 27,030 price observations were collected weekly over one

Hongyi Li; Fang-Fang Tang; Liang Huang; Fiona Song

2009-01-01

315

Children's Perceptions of Live Arts Performances: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Children?s Voices" is a longitudinal research project to document and understand children's perceptions of live arts performance and the impact on their teachers and school communities. The research conducted in South Australia with 135 5?12-year-olds in four schools involves collaboration between the South Australian Department of Education and…

Schiller, Wendy

2005-01-01

316

A Chinese Longitudinal Study on Work/Family Enrichment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore reciprocal relationships between work/family resources, work/family enrichment (WFE), and work/family satisfaction in a Chinese society. Design/methodology/approach: A longitudinal design was adopted using a three-wave panel sample. Data were obtained from 310 Taiwanese employees on three occasions,…

Lu, Luo

2011-01-01

317

Mental health problems of homeless children and families: longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

Objective: To establish the mental health needs of homeless children and families before and after rehousing. Design: Cross sectional, longitudinal study. Setting: City of Birmingham. Subjects: 58 rehoused families with 103 children aged 2-16 years and 21 comparison families of low socioeconomic status in stable housing, with 54 children. Main outcome measures: Children’s mental health problems and level of communication; mothers’ mental health problems and social support one year after rehousing. Results: Mental health problems remained significantly higher in rehoused mothers and their children than in the comparison group (mothers 26% v 5%, P=0.04; children 39% v 11%, P=0.0003). Homeless mothers continued to have significantly less social support at follow up. Mothers with a history of abuse and poor social integration were more likely to have children with persistent mental health problems. Conclusions: Homeless families have a high level of complex needs that cannot be met by conventional health services and arrangements. Local strategies for rapid rehousing into permanent accommodation, effective social support and health care for parents and children, and protection from violence and intimidation should be developed and implemented. Key messages Homeless children and their mothers have a high level of mental health problems Homeless families experience many risk factors, such as domestic violence, abuse, and family and social disruption In two fifths of children and a quarter of mothers, mental health problems persisted after rehousing In contrast with a comparison group of families of low socioeconomic status, a substantial proportion of homeless families remained residentially and socially unstable

Vostanis, Panos; Grattan, Eleanor; Cumella, Stuart

1998-01-01

318

Longitudinal study of leptin levels in chronic hemodialysis patients  

PubMed Central

Background The influence of serum leptin levels on nutritional status and survival in chronic hemodialysis patients remained to be elucidated. We conducted a prospective longitudinal study of leptin levels and nutritional parameters to determine whether changes of serum leptin levels modify nutritional status and survival in a cohort of prevalent hemodialysis patients. Methods Leptin, dietary energy and protein intake, biochemical markers of nutrition and body composition (anthropometry and bioimpedance analysis) were measured at baseline and at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months following enrollment, in 101 prevalent hemodialysis patients (37% women) with a mean age of 64.6 ± 11.5 years. Observation of this cohort was continued over 2 additional years. Changes in repeated measures were evaluated, with adjustment for baseline differences in demographic and clinical parameters. Results Significant reduction of leptin levels with time were observed (linear estimate: -2.5010 ± 0.57 ng/ml/2y; p < 0.001) with a more rapid decline in leptin levels in the highest leptin tertile in both unadjusted (p = 0.007) and fully adjusted (p = 0.047) models. A significant reduction in body composition parameters over time was observed, but was not influenced by leptin (leptin-by-time interactions were not significant). No significant associations were noted between leptin levels and changes in dietary protein or energy intake, or laboratory nutritional markers. Finally, cumulative incidences of survival were unaffected by the baseline serum leptin levels. Conclusions Thus leptin levels reflect fat mass depots, rather than independently contributing to uremic anorexia or modifying nutritional status and/or survival in chronic hemodialysis patients. The importance of such information is high if leptin is contemplated as a potential therapeutic target in hemodialysis patients.

2011-01-01

319

A longitudinal study of childhood ADHD and substance dependence disorders in early adulthood.  

PubMed

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood disorder that is associated with many behavioral and social problems. These problems may continue when an individual continues to meet criteria for ADHD as an adult. In this study, we describe the outcome patterns for three different groups: individuals who had ADHD as children, but no longer meet criteria as adults (Childhood-Limited ADHD, n = 71); individuals who met ADHD criteria as children and continue to meet criteria as young adults (Persistent ADHD n = 79); and a control group of individuals who did not meet ADHD diagnostic criteria in childhood or adulthood (n = 69). Groups were compared with examine differences in change in rates of alcohol, marijuana, and nicotine dependence over 3 time points in young adulthood (mean ages 18, 20, and 22 years). The method used is notable as this longitudinal study followed participants from childhood into young adulthood instead of relying on retrospective self-reports from adult participants. Results indicated that there were no significant group differences in change in rates of substance dependence over time. However, individuals whose ADHD persisted into adulthood were significantly more likely to meet DSM-IV criteria for alcohol, marijuana, and nicotine dependence across the 3 time points after controlling for age, sex, childhood stimulant medication use, and childhood conduct problems. Implications of these findings, as well as recommendations for future research, are discussed. PMID:24731117

Breyer, Jessie L; Lee, Susanne; Winters, Ken C; August, Gerald J; Realmuto, George M

2014-03-01

320

Is the wish to participate in a cancer rehabilitation program an indicator of the need? Comparisons of participants and non-participants in a randomized study.  

PubMed

In parallel with a randomized study of the 'starting again' rehabilitation program for cancer patients, a group of 73 non-participants were monitored (another 20 patients declined monitoring). In comparison with participants (intervention + control), gender, diagnosis, and 10 out of 18 dependent measures differed significantly at baseline. The non-participants group included more men, mostly with cancer of the prostate and irrespective of gender, they showed lower problem levels than participants throughout. Thus, the wish to participate seems to be an indicator of the need for assistance in the rehabilitation process. Social validation of effects was performed by comparing the non-participants with the intervention group. The rationale for this comparison is that non-participants presumably felt so well that they were in no need of rehabilitation. Effects on three variables were socially validated: patients' appraisal of having received sufficient information, physical strength and fighting spirit. No negative effects on outcome variables resulting from being randomized to the control condition (resentful demoralization) were detected when non-participants were compared with controls over one year. Further analysis showed that although a few patients in the control group may have experienced resentful demoralization, this did not significantly affect the outcome variables. PMID:9126714

Berglund, G; Bolund, C; Gustafsson, U L; Sjödén, P O

1997-03-01

321

Macau, World Capital for Gambling: A Longitudinal Study of a Youth Program Designed to Instill Positive Values  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the effectiveness of a positive youth development program for Chinese Secondary 3 students in two schools, who had been followed up since their entry to Secondary 1. A mixed research method was carried out using a pre- and post-test pre-experimental design and a focus group for the participants. The subjective outcome evaluations included participants’ perceptions of the program, program instructors, benefits of the program and overall satisfaction, and were positive. The longitudinal data from the objective outcome evaluation showed some notable improvements, and the overall effect of the program was also found to be positive for newcomers in the junior secondary years. The focus group interviews revealed mostly positive feedback in terms of the students’ general impressions of the program, with the majority of participants perceiving benefits to themselves from the program. The findings offer positive evidence of the effectiveness of the program.

Luk, Andrew L.; Chan, W. U.; Hu, Sydney X. X.

2013-01-01

322

Dogslife: A web-based longitudinal study of Labrador Retriever health in the UK  

PubMed Central

Background Dogslife is the first large-scale internet-based longitudinal study of canine health. The study has been designed to examine how environmental and genetic factors influence the health and development of a birth cohort of UK-based pedigree Labrador Retrievers. Results In the first 12 months of the study 1,407 Kennel Club (KC) registered eligible dogs were recruited, at a mean age of 119 days of age (SD 69 days, range 3 days – 504 days). Recruitment rates varied depending upon the study team’s ability to contact owners. Where owners authorised the provision of contact details 8.4% of dogs were recruited compared to 1.3% where no direct contact was possible. The proportion of dogs recruited was higher for owners who transferred the registration of their puppy from the breeder to themselves with the KC, and for owners who were sent an e-mail or postcard requesting participation in the project. Compliance with monthly updates was highly variable. For the 280 dogs that were aged 400 days or more on the 30th June 2011, we estimated between 39% and 45% of owners were still actively involved in the project. Initial evaluation suggests that the cohort is representative of the general population of the KC registered Labrador Retrievers eligible to enrol with the project. Clinical signs of illnesses were reported in 44.3% of Labrador Retrievers registered with Dogslife (median age of first illness 138 days), although only 44.1% of these resulted in a veterinary presentation (median age 316 days). Conclusions The web-based platform has enabled the recruitment of a representative population of KC registered Labrador Retrievers, providing the first large-scale longitudinal population-based study of dog health. The use of multiple different methods (e-mail, post and telephone) of contact with dog owners was essential to maximise recruitment and retention of the cohort.

2013-01-01

323

Determinants of workplace injury among Thai Cohort Study participants  

PubMed Central

Objectives To explore individual determinants of workplace injury among Thai workers. Design Cross-sectional analysis of a large national cohort. Setting Thailand. Participants Thai Cohort Study participants who responded to the 2009 follow-up survey were included if they reported doing paid work or being self-employed (n=51?751). Outcome measures Self-reported injury incidence over the past 12?months was calculated. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to test associations between individual determinants and self-reported workplace injury. Results Workplace injuries were reported by 1317 study participants (2.5%); the incidence was 34 (95% CI 32 to 36)/1000 worker-years for men, and 18 (17–20) for women. Among men working ?41?h and earning <10?000 Baht, the injury rate was four times higher compared with men working <11?h and earning ?20?001 Baht; differences in injury rates were less pronounced in women. Multivariate modelling showed that working ?49?h/week (23%) and working for ?10?000 Bath/month (37%) were associated with workplace injury. The increase in injury risk with increased working hours did not exceed the risk expected from increased exposure. Conclusions Reductions in occupational injury rates could be achieved by limiting working hours to 48/week. Particularly for Thai low wage earners and those with longer workdays, there is a need for effective injury preventive programmes.

Berecki-Gisolf, Janneke; Tawatsupa, Benjawan; McClure, Roderick; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian

2013-01-01

324

Longitudinal pulmonary functional loss in cotton textile workers: A 5-year follow-up study  

PubMed Central

Background Occupational exposure to cotton dust causes several diseases affecting the lungs, but only limited information is available on effects of long-term exposure. In this study, we aimed to evaluate longitudinal changes in selected parameters of pulmonary function in textile workers. Material/Methods This prospective cohort study began with 196 textile workers in 2006 and was completed in 2011 with 49 workers. We used standardized tests for pulmonary function on participants on the first day of the workweek in June of 2006 and 2011. Environmental samples of cotton dust were gathered with a vertical elutriator. Loss of pulmonary function was assessed based on gender and smoking status. Results The mean number of years participants worked in the textile factory was 7.61±1.83 years, and the mean age was 35.3+5.8 years. The annual FEV1 loss of all workers was 53.2 ml, giving a ratio of annual FEV1 loss to baseline FEV1 of 1.4%. Pulmonary function parameters of all participants in 2011 were significantly lower than those in 2006 (for all, p<0.05). In both surveys, pulmonary function in current smokers was lower, but this difference was not significant (p>0.05). Conclusions This study provides the first data on pulmonary functional loss in Turkish textile workers and supports the findings of other cohort studies that workers with long-term exposure to cotton dust may lose some pulmonary function. The ratio of annual FEV1 loss to baseline FEV1 appears to be a more accurate and comparable method than annual FEV1 loss for evaluating pulmonary functional loss.

Kahraman, Hasan; Sucakli, Mustafa Haki; Kilic, Talat; Celik, Mustafa; Koksal, Nurhan; Ekerbicer, Hasan Cetin

2013-01-01

325

Voting and Community Volunteer Participation of 1988 Eighth Grade Social Studies Students 12 Years Later  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three voting behaviors and three types of volunteer participation were analyzed using longitudinal data from NELS:88\\/2000, a national sample of over 12,000 eighth graders in 1988 who were young adults in 2000. From 1994 to 2000 this cohort increased about 10% in both the three voting behaviors and the three volunteer participations. Wide race\\/ethnicity and smaller gender differences favoring females

June R. Chapin

2005-01-01

326

Prediction in Child Development: A Longitudinal Study of Adoptive and Nonadoptive Families. The Delaware Family Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A longitudinal study was conducted to determine factors predicting successful adoptions before placement and to identify differences and similarities between adoptive and biological families. Data collected on both adopted children and on their adoptive families before placement was related to data collected on the same children and families 6…

Hoopes, Janet L.

327

Survey Design and Methodology in the Health and Retirement Study and the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large-scale data collection has become the kernel of the growth of knowl- edge in the social sciences. Nowhere is this more evident than in research in the demography of aging and the life course, where scientific progress has been stimulated and sustained by complementary longitudinal studies of aging populations. In this chapter, we review the history, organization, and design of

ROBERT M. HAUSER; ROBERT J. WILLIS

328

National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 Study Reports Update: Review and Annotation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 (NLS) is an ongoing project focusing on the educational, vocational, and personal development of high school graduates, and the personal, familial, social, institutional, and cultural factors that contribute directly or indirectly to that development. A national probability sample of…

Taylor, Mary Ellen; And Others

329

Auditory evoked potential development in early childhood: a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

Serial recordings of auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) to clicks were obtained using a vertex-mastoid derivation from 16 normal children during sleep over an age span from near birth to age 3. The AEP components studied were: N0 (38 +/- 10 msec), P1 (79 +/- 24 msec), N1 (109 +/- 39 msec), P2 (186 +/- 35 msec), N2 (409 +/- 97 msec), P3A (554 +/- 116 msec), P3B (757 +/- 121 msec) and P3 (728 +/- 128 msec). Amplitudes and latencies of the components were calculated and regressions of the measures on age were computed for the group as a whole, for each subject and for subsets of the data based on sleep stage, sex, order of stimulus presentation and a rearing/race factor. For the group as a whole the latencies of P1, P2, P3, and P3B decreased with age. The amplitudes of P1N1 and the N2P3 waves increased with age. Most change occurred during the first year of life. In general, the changes with age were also found to hold across all of the factors examined, although individuals varied widely in the degree to which they conformed to the trends found for the data as a whole. The amount contributed by each of the factors mentioned above to the total variance was estimated. The proportions varied for different EP components but, in general, age, sleep state, and subject factors other than rearing/race and sex accounted for most variance. One half to 5/6 of the unexplained variance in AEP latencies and amplitudes (i.e., that not due to age, sleep state, etc.) occurred across rather than within subjects. For both the group as a whole and for individual children, P2 and N2 latencies were found to exhibit the greatest stability across time. The results of the longitudinal study reported here were in good agreement with those of a previous study from this laboratory which utilized a cross-sectional design. PMID:76550

Ohlrich, E S; Barnet, A B; Weiss, I P; Shanks, B L

1978-04-01

330

Gambling and the onset of comorbid mental disorders: a longitudinal study evaluating severity and specific symptoms.  

PubMed

While the association between gambling disorders and comorbid mental disorders has been extensively studied, only a few studies have used longitudinal data or evaluated the association across different levels of gambling behavior and specific gambling-related symptoms. In this study, longitudinal data from waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) were used to determine whether different levels of gambling behavior and gambling-related symptoms were associated with the onset of psychiatric disorders. Although NESARC used DSM-IV diagnoses, for this study, the recently published DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for gambling disorder were used to group the NESARC respondents (N=34,653) into three levels of gambling (gambling disorder, sub-threshold gambling disorder, and recreational gambling) and one non-gambling comparison group. Three years after the initial intake interview, compared to the non-gamblers, those reporting any gambling behavior at baseline were at increased risk to have any mood, anxiety, or substance use disorders (recreational gambling: adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.16, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.10-1.23; sub-threshold gambling disorder: AOR 1.77, 95% CI 1.63-1.92; gambling disorder: AOR 2.51, 95% CI 1.83-3.46). Similar graded relationships were found for a number of specific disorders. In addition, multiple specific gambling-related symptoms were associated with comorbid disorders, possibly suggesting the interaction of different mechanisms linking gambling disorder and the onset of comorbid psychopathology. In conclusion, a graded or dose-response relationship exists between different levels of gambling and the onset of comorbid psychopathology. Among gambling groups, those with a gambling disorder were at the highest risk for the new onset of comorbid conditions and those with recreational gambling were at the lowest risk, while the risk among participants with sub-threshold gambling disorder fell between these two groups. (Journal of Psychiatric Practice 2014;20:207-219). PMID:24847994

Parhami, Iman; Mojtabai, Ramin; Rosenthal, Richard J; Afifi, Tracie O; Fong, Timothy W

2014-05-01

331

The Influence of Prior Perspectives, Differences in Participatory Roles, and Degree of Participation on Views About Curriculum Development: A Case Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a longitudinal case study focusing on teacher and principal expectations, satisfaction, and attitudes toward curriculum devlopment. Relates these three factors to the resulting process and product. Participants' perspectives heavily influenced their views of both process and product. Includes 13 notes and 11 tables. (MLH)

Kimpston, Richard D.; Rogers, Karen B.

1987-01-01

332

Survey non-response in an internet-mediated, longitudinal autism research study  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate non-response rates to follow-up online surveys using a prospective cohort of parents raising at least one child with an autism spectrum disorder. A secondary objective was to investigate predictors of non-response over time. Materials and Methods Data were collected from a US-based online research database, the Interactive Autism Network (IAN). A total of 19?497 youths, aged 1.9–19?years (mean 9?years, SD 3.94), were included in the present study. Response to three follow-up surveys, solicited from parents after baseline enrollment, served as the outcome measures. Multivariate binary logistic regression models were then used to examine predictors of non-response. Results 31?216 survey instances were examined, of which 8772 or 28.1% were partly or completely responded to. Results from the multivariate model found non-response of baseline surveys (OR 28.0), years since enrollment in the online protocol (OR 2.06), and numerous sociodemographic characteristics were associated with non-response to follow-up surveys (all p<0.05). Discussion Consistent with the current literature, response rates to online surveys were somewhat low. While many demographic characteristics were associated with non-response, time since registration and participation at baseline played the greatest role in predicting follow-up survey non-response. Conclusion An important hazard to the generalizability of findings from research is non-response bias; however, little is known about this problem in longitudinal internet-mediated research (IMR). This study sheds new light on important predictors of longitudinal response rates that should be considered before launching a prospective IMR study.

Kalb, Luther G; Cohen, Cheryl; Lehmann, Harold

2012-01-01

333

Cognitive Changes and Quality of Life in Neurocysticercosis: A Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Background Few studies have focused on the cognitive morbidity of neurocysticercosis (NCC), one of the most common parasitic infections of the central nervous system. We longitudinally assessed the cognitive status and quality of life (QoL) of patients with incident symptomatic NCC cases and matched controls. Methodology/Principal Findings The setting of the study was the Sabogal Hospital and Cysticercosis Unit, Department of Transmissible Diseases, National Institute of Neurological Sciences, Lima, Peru. The design was a longitudinal study of new onset NCC cases and controls. Participants included a total of 14 patients with recently diagnosed NCC along with 14 healthy neighborhood controls and 7 recently diagnosed epilepsy controls. A standardized neuropsychological battery was performed at baseline and at 6 months on NCC cases and controls. A brain MRI was performed in patients with NCC at baseline and 6 months. Neuropsychological results were compared between NCC cases and controls at both time points. At baseline, patients with NCC had lower scores on attention tasks (p<0.04) compared with epilepsy controls but no significant differences compared to healthy controls. Six months after receiving anti-parasitic treatment, the NCC group significantly improved on tasks involving psychomotor speed (p<0.02). QoL at baseline suggested impaired mental function and social function in both the NCC and epilepsy group compared with healthy controls. QoL gains in social function (p?=?0.006) were noted at 6 months in patients with NCC. Conclusions/Significance Newly diagnosed patients with NCC in this sample had mild cognitive deficits and more marked decreases in quality of life at baseline compared with controls. Improvements were found in both cognitive status and quality of life in patients with NCC after treatment.

Wallin, Mitchell T.; Pretell, E. Javier; Bustos, Javier A.; Caballero, Marianella; Alfaro, Mercedes; Kane, Robert; Wilken, Jeffrey; Sullivan, Cynthia; Fratto, Timothy; Garcia, Hector H.

2012-01-01

334

Recruiting and retaining mobile young injection drug users in a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

Longitudinal studies that research homeless persons or transient drug users face particular challenges in retaining subjects. Between 2005 and 2006, 101 mobile young injection drug users were recruited in Los Angeles into a 2-year longitudinal study. Several features of ethnographic methodology, including fieldwork and qualitative interviews, and modifications to the original design, such as toll-free calls routed directly to ethnographer cell phones and wiring incentive payments, resulted in retention of 78% of subjects for the first follow-up interview. Longitudinal studies that are flexible and based upon qualitative methodologies are more likely to retain mobile subjects while also uncovering emergent research findings. PMID:20222779

Lankenau, Stephen E; Sanders, Bill; Hathazi, Dodi; Bloom, Jennifer Jackson

2010-04-01

335

Gender differences in postpartum depression: a longitudinal cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe course of depression from pregnancy to 1 year post partum and risk factors among mothers and fathers are not known.Aims(1) To report the longitudinal patterns of depression from the third trimester of pregnancy to 1 year after childbirth; (2) to determine the gender differences between women and their partners in the effect of psychosocial and personal factors on postpartum

Vicenta Escribà-Agüir; Lucía Artazcoz

2010-01-01

336

Using Facebook to Maximize Follow-Up Response Rates in a Longitudinal Study of Adults Who Use Methamphetamine  

PubMed Central

This study examines the process and effects of using facebook (FB) to locate and re-contact study participants targeted for follow up in a longitudinal study of adult methamphetamine users (N = 649). A follow-up interview was conducted in 2009–11 approximately 8 years after previous study participation. Our paper describes re-contact efforts involving FB, including IRB regulatory issues and the effectiveness of using FB compared to mailings and phone calls. A total of 48 of the 551 surviving non-incarcerated participants who agreed to be contacted for follow up studies were contacted via FB, of whom 11 completed the follow-up interview. Those contacted through FB were more likely to be younger, female, relocated out-of-state, and reported somewhat higher rates of anxiety and cognitive problems compared to those not located on FB. Although participants contacted through FB are likely to differ demographically from those contacted by phone or mail, FB provides a potentially effective means to expand conventional methods of correspondence for contacting hard to reach participants.

Bolanos, Franklin; Herbeck, Diane; Christou, Dayna; Lovinger, Katherine; Pham, Aurora; Raihan, Adnan; Rodriguez, Luz; Sheaff, Patricia; Brecht, Mary-Lynn

2012-01-01

337

Social mobility and health in the Turin longitudinal study.  

PubMed

One of the most controversial explanations of class inequalities in health is the health selection hypothesis or drift hypothesis which suggests there is a casual link between the health status of individuals and their chances of social mobility, both inter- and intra-generational. This study tests this hypothesis, and tries to answer three related questions: (a) to what extent does health status influence the chances of intra-generational mobility of individuals? (b) what is the impact on health inequalities of the various kinds of social mobility (both mobility in the labour market and exit from employment)-do they increase or reduce inequalities? (c) to what extent does health-related intra-generational social mobility contribute to the production of health inequalities? The data analysed in this paper were drawn from the records of the Turin Longitudinal Study, which was set up to monitor health inequality of the Turin population by combining census data, population registry records and medical records. Occupational mobility was observed during the decade 1981-1991. To evaluate the impact of the various processes of social mobility on health inequalities, mortality was observed over the period 1991-1999. The study population consists of men and women aged 25-49 at the beginning of mortality follow-up (1991), and registered as resident in Turin at both the 1981 and the 1991 censuses (N = 127,384). Health status was determined by observing hospital admission. For the purpose of the study healthy individuals were those with no hospital admissions during the period 1984-1986, while those admitted were classed as unhealthy. Social mobility in the labour market was measured via an interval data index of upward and downward movements on a scale of social desirability of occupations, designed for the Italian labour force via an empirical study carried out by de Lillo and Schizzerotto (La valutazione sociale delle occupazioni. Una scala di stratificazione occupazionale per l'Italia contemporanea, Il Mulino, Bologna, 1985). Movement out of the labour market was described by a discrete variable with four conditions: employed, unemployed, early retired and women returning from work to the housewife status. The relationship between health status and occupational mobility was analysed via analysis of variance and multinomial logistic regression. Health inequalities were measured by the ratio of standardised mortality rates in the unskilled working class and the upper middle class. The study found a weak relationship between health status and occupational mobility chances. Decidedly stronger was the impact on occupational mobility of gender, education and "ethnicity" (being born in the South of Italy). The relationship between occupational mobility and health takes two different forms. Occupational mobility in the labour market decreases health inequalities; occupational mobility out of the labour market (early retirement, unemployment, housewife return) widens them. The maximum contribution health-related intra-generational social mobility can make towards health inequalities was estimated at about 13% for men. PMID:14759699

Cardano, Mario; Costa, Giuseppe; Demaria, Moreno

2004-04-01

338

Long-term health benefits of physical activity - a systematic review of longitudinal studies  

PubMed Central

Background The treatment of noncommunicable diseases (NCD), like coronary heart disease or type 2 diabetes mellitus, causes rising costs for the health system. Physical activity is supposed to reduce the risk for these diseases. Results of cross-sectional studies showed that physical activity is associated with better health, and that physical activity could prevent the development of these diseases. The purpose of this review is to summarize existing evidence for the long-term (>5 years) relationship between physical activity and weight gain, obesity, coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer’s disease and dementia. Methods Fifteen longitudinal studies with at least 5-year follow up times and a total of 288,724 subjects (>500 participants in each study), aged between 18 and 85 years, were identified using digital databases. Only studies published in English, about healthy adults at baseline, intentional physical activity and the listed NCDs were included. Results The results of these studies show that physical activity appears to have a positive long-term influence on all selected diseases. Conclusions This review revealed a paucity of long-term studies on the relationship between physical activity and the incidence of NCD.

2013-01-01

339

Criminality and suicide: a longitudinal Swedish cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study aimed to investigate whether violent and non-violent offending were related to elevated risk of suicide. We also investigated whether the risk was higher among those with repeated offences and how experiences of substance misuse and suicide attempt modified the relationship. Design A nationwide prospective cohort study. Setting A register study of 48 834 conscripted men in 1969/1970 in Sweden followed up during a 35-year period in official registers. Participants A birth cohort of 48 834 men who were mandatory conscripted for military service in 1969/70 at the age of 18–20?years. Possible confounders were retrieved from psychological assessments at conscription and the cohort was linked to mortality and hospitalisation and crime records from 1970 onwards. Estimates of suicide risks were calculated as HR with 95% CIs using Cox proportional regression analyses with adjustment for potential confounding by family, psychological and behavioural factors including substance use and psychiatric disorders. Results Of the total cohort, 2671 (5.5%) persons died during the follow-up period. Of these, 615 (23%) persons died due to suicide. Non-violent criminality was evident for 29% and violent criminality for 4.7% of all the participants. In the crude model, the violent offenders had nearly five times higher risk (HR=4.69, 3.56 to 6.19) to die from suicide and non-violent criminals had about two times higher risk (HR=2.08, 1.72 to 2.52). In the fully adjusted model, the HRs were still significant for suicide in the non-violent group. Conclusions Experiences of violent or non-violent criminality were associated with increased risk of suicide. Comorbidity with alcohol and substance use and psychiatric disorders modified the risk, but the suicide risk remained significantly elevated for non-violent criminals. It is crucial to identify offenders and especially repeated offenders who also suffer from alcohol or substance misuse and psychiatric illness in clinical settings in order to prevent suicide.

Stenbacka, M; Romelsjo, A; Jokinen, J

2014-01-01

340

Obesity and depression: results from the longitudinal Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To examine the association between body size and depression in a longitudinal setting and to explore the connection between obesity and depression in young adults at the age of 31 years.Design:This study forms part of the longitudinal Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort Study (N=12 058). The follow-up studies were performed at 14 and 31 years. Data were collected by postal

A Herva; J Laitinen; J Miettunen; J Veijola; J T Karvonen; K Läksy; M Joukamaa

2006-01-01

341

Longitudinal Study of Emerging Mental Health Concerns in Youth Perinatally Infected With HIV and Peer Comparisons  

PubMed Central

Objective Cross-sectional research indicates high rates of mental health concerns among youth with perinatal HIV infection (PHIV), but few studies have examined emerging psychiatric symptoms over time. Methods Youth with PHIV and peer comparisons who were HIV-exposed but uninfected or living in house-holds with HIV-infected family members (HIV-affected) and primary caregivers participated in a prospective, multisite, longitudinal cohort study. Groups were compared for differences in the incidence of emerging psychiatric symptoms during 2 years of follow-up and for differences in psychotropic drug therapy. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association of emerging symptoms with HIV status and psychosocial risk factors. Results Of 573 youth with study entry assessments, 92% attended at least 1 annual follow-up visit (PHIV: 296; comparisons: 229). A substantial percentage of youth who did not meet symptom criteria for a psychiatric disorder at study entry did so during follow-up (PHIV = 36%; comparisons = 42%). In addition, those who met criteria at study entry often met criteria during follow-up (PHIV = 41%; comparisons = 43%). Asymptomatic youth with PHIV were significantly more likely to receive psychotropic medication during follow-up than comparisons. Youth with greater HIV disease severity (entry CD4% <25% vs 25% or more) had higher probability of depression symptoms (19% vs 8%, respectively). Conclusions Many youth in families affected by HIV are at risk for development of psychiatric symptoms.

Gadow, Kenneth D.; Angelidou, Konstantia; Chernoff, Miriam; Williams, Paige L.; Heston, Jerry; Hodge, Janice; Nachman, Sharon

2012-01-01

342

An ethnographic study of participant roles in school bullying.  

PubMed

An ethnographic study in a 10th grade remedial class was undertaken in order to discern patterns of school bullying. Twenty 10th graders were observed over the course of one academic year as they interacted with their peers and teachers. The observations helped us identify dispositional and situational factors which influenced participant roles. In-depth interviews of students involved in school bullying showed how participants interpreted and explained their classroom behaviors. The analysis of the data gathered allowed the identification of four main actor roles recognized in the existing literature on bullying-the pure victim, the pure bully, the provocative-victim, and the bystander-as well as the differentiation between aggressive bullies and the bully managers. Most roles fluctuated according to specific circumstances and often appeared to be moderated by the teacher's management style and contextual variables. Some pupils assumed different roles in different contexts, sometimes changing roles within or between episodes. Teacher personality and style also had an impact on the frequencies and types of aggression and victimization. The use of an ethnographic research paradigm is discussed as an important supplement to positivistic studies of school bullying. PMID:24452451

Gumpel, Thomas P; Zioni-Koren, Vered; Bekerman, Zvi

2014-01-01

343

Experimental studies of longitudinal dynamics of space-charge dominated electron beams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A comprehensive experimental program was carried out at Univ. of Maryland Beam Transport facility to study the longitudinal beam physics of space-charge dominated bunches. This investigation included the behavior of (a) bunches with parabolic line charge ...

D. X. Wang

1995-01-01

344

Longitudinal Study Design for Evaluation of the National Nutrition Program for the Elderly.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report summarized here is an outline of a plan for conducting a longitudinal study to determine the effects of the National Nutrition Program for the Elderly. The plan includes (1) evaluation design strategy, (2) data collection and analysis systems, ...

D. W. Berry R. T. Fink S. Johnson W. S. Peters N. E. Sandusky

1974-01-01

345

Pennhurst Longitudinal Study: A Report of Five Years of Research and Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of the five-year Pennhurst Longitudinal Study are presented. Discussed are the history of the case, implementation issues, growth and development, consumer satisfaction, quality of environment, family attitudes, neighbor attitudes, comparative...

J. W. Conroy C. S. Feinstein J. A. Lemanowicz V. J. Bradley J. W. Ashbaugh

1985-01-01

346

Study of Synchronous Longitudinal Guidance as Applied to Intercity Automated Highway Networks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report documents the results of the Synchronous Longitudinal Guidance (SLG) Study as applied to automated highway networks. The report is organized as follows. Section 1 contains a background of the SLG projects, an introduction to the basic concepts ...

1969-01-01

347

The role of longitudinal cohort studies in epigenetic epidemiology: challenges and opportunities  

PubMed Central

Longitudinal cohort studies are ideal for investigating how epigenetic patterns change over time and relate to changing exposure patterns and the development of disease. We highlight the challenges and opportunities in this approach.

2012-01-01

348

Cognitive Decline in Schizophrenia from Childhood to Midlife: A 33-Year Longitudinal Birth Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background To examine cognitive deficits before and after onset of schizophrenia in a longitudinal study that: 1) covers a long time interval; 2) minimizes test unreliability by including the identical measure at both childhood and post-onset cognitive assessments; and 3) minimizes bias by utilizing a population-based sample in which participants were selected neither for signs of illness in childhood nor for being at risk for schizophrenia. Methods Participants in the present study, Developmental Insult and Brain Anomaly in Schizophrenia (DIBS), were ascertained from an earlier epidemiologic study conducted in Oakland, CA. The original version of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), a test of receptive vocabulary, was administered at age 5 or 9 and repeated as part of the DIBS study at an average age of 40. There were 10 DIBS cases with DSM-IV schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 15 demographically similar DIBS controls with both child and adult PPVT scores. Results Cases scored significantly lower than controls in childhood (d=.95) and adulthood (d=1.67). Residualized scores indicating the number of SDs above or below one’s predicted adult score revealed a mean case-control difference of ?1.51 SDs, consistent with significant relative decline over time among the cases (p<.0013). Conclusions In this prospective study, individuals who developed adult schizophrenia manifested impaired receptive vocabulary during childhood and further relative deterioration (or lack of expected improvement) between childhood and midlife. Limitations should also be acknowledged, including the small sample size and the fact that we cannot be certain when the continued deterioration took place.

Kremen, William S.; Vinogradov, Sophia; Poole, John H.; Schaefer, Catherine A.; Deicken, Raymond F.; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Brown, Alan S.

2011-01-01

349

Prosocial development in early adulthood: A longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consistency of measures of a prosocial personality and prosocial moral judgment over time, and the interrelations among them, were examined. Participants' and friends' reports of prosocial characteristics were obtained at ages 21-22, 23-24, and 25-26 years. In addition, participants' prosocial judgment was assessed with interviews and with an objective measure of prosocial moral reasoning at several ages. Reports of prosocial

Nancy Eisenberg; Ivanna K. Guthrie; Amanda Cumberland; Bridget C. Murphy; Stephanie A. Shepard; Qing Zhou; Gustavo Carlo

2002-01-01

350

Prosocial Development in Early Adulthood: A Longitudinal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consistency of measures of a prosocial personality and prosocial moral judgment over time, and the interrelations among them, were examined. Participants' and friends' reports of prosocial characteristics were obtained at ages 21–22, 23–24, and 25–26 years. In addition, participants' prosocial judgment was assessed with interviews and with an objective measure of prosocial moral reasoning at several ages. Reports of prosocial

Nancy Eisenberg; Ivanna K. Guthrie; Amanda Cumberland; Bridget C. Murphy; Stephanie A. Shepard; Qing Zhou; Gustavo Carlo

2002-01-01

351

Neighbourhood physical activity environments and adiposity in children and mothers: a three-year longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although neighbourhood environments are often blamed for contributing to rising levels of obesity, current evidence is based predominantly on cross-sectional samples. This study examined associations between objectively-measured environmental characteristics of neighbourhoods and adiposity cross-sectionally and longitudinally over three years in children and their female carers. METHODS: Longitudinal study of 140 5-6 year-old and 269 10-12 year-old children and their

Anna Timperio; Robert W Jeffery; David Crawford; Rebecca Roberts; Billie Giles-Corti; Kylie Ball

2010-01-01

352

Genetic ancestry of participants in the National Children's Study  

PubMed Central

Background The National Children’s Study (NCS) is a prospective epidemiological study in the USA tasked with identifying a nationally representative sample of 100,000 children, and following them from their gestation until they are 21 years of age. The objective of the study is to measure environmental and genetic influences on growth, development, and health. Determination of the ancestry of these NCS participants is important for assessing the diversity of study participants and for examining the effect of ancestry on various health outcomes. Results We estimated the genetic ancestry of a convenience sample of 641 parents enrolled at the 7 original NCS Vanguard sites, by analyzing 30,000 markers on exome arrays, using the 1000 Genomes Project superpopulations as reference populations, and compared this with the measures of self-reported ethnicity and race. For 99% of the individuals, self-reported ethnicity and race agreed with the predicted superpopulation. NCS individuals self-reporting as Asian had genetic ancestry of either South Asian or East Asian groups, while those reporting as either Hispanic White or Hispanic Other had similar genetic ancestry. Of the 33 individuals who self-reported as Multiracial or Non-Hispanic Other, 33% matched the South Asian or East Asian groups, while these groups represented only 4.4% of the other reported categories. Conclusions Our data suggest that self-reported ethnicity and race have some limitations in accurately capturing Hispanic and South Asian populations. Overall, however, our data indicate that despite the complexity of the US population, individuals know their ancestral origins, and that self-reported ethnicity and race is a reliable indicator of genetic ancestry.

2014-01-01

353

Longitudinal study of spinal deformity in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

To investigate the natural course of the spinal deformity in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and its clinical relevance, longitudinal series of spinal radiographs and medical records of 46 patients with DMD were reviewed. The natural course of the deformity was classified into three types; type 1 (n = 21), unremittent progression of scoliosis with kyphosis; type 2 (n = 18), transition from kyphosis to lordosis before age 15 years; and type 3 (n = 7), less deformity without prominent longitudinal changes. Age at loss of ambulatory ability was not a predictor of type. Neither was the age at which the Cobb angle was 30 degrees correlated with the rate of subsequent progression. Because the spinal deformity always progresses, we consider spinal surgery justifiable in type 1, when a certain strict indication exists, such as spinal deformity > 30 degrees and age < 15 years in patients with > 35% predicted value of vital capacity. In type 2, operation may be necessary in patients in whom Cobb angle will progress unremittently. There is no surgical indication for patients with type 3. PMID:8370781

Oda, T; Shimizu, N; Yonenobu, K; Ono, K; Nabeshima, T; Kyoh, S

1993-01-01

354

Developmental Coordination Disorder, Sex, and Activity Deficit over Time: A Longitudinal Analysis of Participation Trajectories in Children with and without Coordination Difficulties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) are known to participate in active play less than typically developing children. However, it is not known whether the activity deficit between children with and without DCD widens or diminishes over time. Method: Data were obtained from a large, prospective cohort study of children…

Cairney, John; Hay, John A.; Veldhuizen, Scott; Missiuna, Cheryl; Faught, Brent E.

2010-01-01

355

Longitudinal consequences of adolescent bullying perpetration and victimisation: A study of students in Victoria, Australia  

PubMed Central

Aims To examine the associations between self-reported bullying perpetration and victimization in Years 7 and 10 and a range of psychosocial outcomes in Year 11. Method This analysis draws on data from the International Youth Development Study (IYDS), a longitudinal study of 5,769 students from Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States (US) who were recruited through schools in Years 5, 7, and 9 in 2002. Data for the current results are taken from participants in the youngest (Year 5) Victorian cohort of the study. Results Rates of bullying victimisation exceeded 30% and up to one in five students had engaged in bullying. Adjusted logistic regression analyses revealed that bullying perpetration and bullying victimisation in Year 7 did not significantly predict psychosocial outcomes in Year 11. Bullying perpetration in Year 10 was associated with an increased likelihood of theft, violent behaviour, and binge drinking. Year 10 bullying victimisation was associated with an increased likelihood of Year 11 depressive symptoms. Conclusions Prevention approaches that target bullying perpetration and victimization are necessary. Programs that lessen bullying may also have an impact on other proximally related behaviours, including binge drinking and depression.

Hemphill, Sheryl. A.; Kotevski, Aneta; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Bond, Lyndal; Kim, Min-Jung; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F.

2013-01-01

356

Longitudinal Studies With Outcome-Dependent Follow-up: Models and Bayesian Regression  

PubMed Central

We propose Bayesian parametric and semiparametric partially linear regression methods to analyze the outcome-dependent follow-up data when the random time of a follow-up measurement of an individual depends on the history of both observed longitudinal outcomes and previous measurement times. We begin with the investigation of the simplifying assumptions of Lipsitz, Fitzmaurice, Ibrahim, Gelber, and Lipshultz, and present a new model for analyzing such data by allowing subject-specific correlations for the longitudinal response and by introducing a subject-specific latent variable to accommodate the association between the longitudinal measurements and the follow-up times. An extensive simulation study shows that our Bayesian partially linear regression method facilitates accurate estimation of the true regression line and the regression parameters. We illustrate our new methodology using data from a longitudinal observational study.

Ryu, Duchwan; Sinha, Debajyoti; Mallick, Bani; Lipsitz, S. L.; Lipshultz, S.

2008-01-01

357

Inflammation, Telomere Length, and Grip Strength: A 10-year Longitudinal Study.  

PubMed

Telomere attrition has been associated with age-related diseases, although causality is unclear and controversial; low-grade systemic inflammation (inflammaging) has also been implicated in age-related pathogenesis. Unpicking the relationship between aging, telomere length (TL), and inflammaging is hence essential to the understanding of aging and management of age-related diseases. This longitudinal study explored whether telomere attrition is a cause or consequence of aging and whether inflammaging explains some of the associations between TL and one marker of aging, grip strength. We studied 253 Hertfordshire Ageing Study participants at baseline and 10-year follow-up (mean age at baseline 67.1 years). Participants completed a health questionnaire and had blood samples collected for immune-endocrine and telomere analysis at both time points. Physical aging was characterized at follow-up using grip strength. Faster telomere attrition was associated with lower grip strength at follow-up (? = 0.98, p = 0.035). This association was completely attenuated when adjusted for inflammaging burden (p = 0.86) over the same period. Similarly, greater inflammaging burden was associated with lower grip strength at follow-up (e.g., interleukin [IL]-1?: ? = -2.18, p = 0.001). However, these associations were maintained when adjusted for telomere attrition (IL-1?, p = 0.006). We present evidence that inflammaging may be driving telomere attrition and in part explains the associations that have previously been reported between TL and grip strength. Thus, biomarkers of physical aging, such as inflammaging, may require greater exploration. Further work is now indicated. PMID:24858709

Baylis, Daniel; Ntani, Georgia; Edwards, Mark H; Syddall, Holly E; Bartlett, David B; Dennison, Elaine M; Martin-Ruiz, Carmen; von Zglinicki, Thomas; Kuh, Diana; Lord, Janet M; Aihie Sayer, Avan; Cooper, Cyrus

2014-07-01

358

Parental and offspring associations of the metabolic syndrome in the Fels Longitudinal Study123  

PubMed Central

Background: Evidence shows that some causes of the metabolic syndrome (MS) begin in childhood, which could indicate a familial association, through either genetic inheritance or cohabitation. Objective: This study examined associations between parents and adult offspring diagnoses of the MS and its risk factors. Design: Measurements were obtained from adult participants and their adult offspring enrolled in the Fels Longitudinal Study, with simultaneous waist circumference, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), triglycerides, HDL, and glucose observations used for diagnosis. On the basis of repeated measurements (in some cases), adult participants were classified as having the MS at least once or as never having the MS. Chi-square tests, ORs, and mixed-effects models were used to study familial associations. Results: Maternal (OR: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.1, 5.5) and paternal (OR: 4.1; 95% CI: 1.4, 12.1) MS classifications were significantly associated with MS classification in sons. MS classification in mothers and daughters (OR: 2.7; 95% CI: 0.9, 8.7; P = 0.08) was similar to that in sons but was not significant, whereas fathers and daughters were not associated (OR: 1.1; 95% CI: 0.4, 3.5). Maternal MS diagnoses were significantly and positively associated with triglycerides in male offspring and were significantly associated with SBP, DBP, and triglycerides in females. Paternal diagnoses were significantly associated only with DBP and HDL in male offspring. Conclusions: Parental MS diagnosis is significantly associated with MS diagnosis in adult male offspring, and adverse levels of certain risk factors are associated between offspring and parents, although these associations vary across risk factors and child sex.

Sabo, Roy T; Lu, Zheng; Deng, Xiaoyan; Ren, Chunfeng; Daniels, Stephen; Arslanian, Silva; Sun, Shumei S

2012-01-01

359

MELANOCYTIC NEVUS DEVELOPMENT IN COLORADO CHILDREN BORN IN 1998: A LONGITUDINAL STUDY  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the development of nevi from age of 3 to 8 in a birth cohort of children in Colorado, United States. Design Longitudinal observational study. Setting Large managed care organization, university, private primary care practices. Participants Annual convenience samples of children born in 1998, n= 137 to 870 (participation rates 19% to 76%). Recruitment through managed care organization, private primary care practices and community settings. Main Outcome Measures Total whole body nevus counts, nevus counts by size (< 2mm, 2 to <5 mm, ? 5mm), nevus counts for chronically and intermittently exposed body sites. Results Non-Hispanic white children had significantly more nevi than other racial/ethnic groups, and developed an average of 4-6 new nevi per year from age 3 to 8. Non-Hispanic white males had significantly more nevi than females beginning at age 6 (median 21 [inter-quartile range 12 – 30] vs. 17 [inter-quartile range 9 – 26], p=.002). This difference was due to nevi < 2mm and nevi in chronically exposed body sites. Development of new nevi leveled off in chronically exposed body sites at age 7, at a higher level for males than females. Conclusions Children in Colorado developed more small nevi and fewer larger nevi compared to children in other regions of the world, highlighting the importance of studying nevus development in various locations where sun exposure patterns and behavioral norms vary. The gender difference in nevus development could be due to variation in sun exposure and/or a biological predisposition of males to develop more nevi. Studies of nevus development can aid in the understanding of the complicated relationship between nevus development and malignant melanoma.

Crane, Lori A.; Mokrohisky, Stefan T.; Dellavalle, Robert P.; Asdigian, Nancy; Aalborg, Jenny; Byers, Tim E.; Zeng, Chan; Baron, Anna E.; Burch, Joanna M.; Morelli, Joseph G.

2010-01-01

360

Reliability of the MacArthur scale of subjective social status - Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)  

PubMed Central

Background The MacArthur Scale of Subjective Social Status intend to measure the subjective social status using a numbered stepladder image. This study investigated the reliability of the MacArthur scale in a subsample of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Method Three scales were employed using different references: 1) the overall socioeconomic position; 2) the socioeconomic situation of the participant’s closer community; 3) the workplace as a whole. A total of 245 of the ELSA participants from six states were involved. They were interviewed twice by the same person within an interval of seven to fourteen days. The reliability of the scale was assessed with weighted Kappa statistics and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), with their respective 95% confidence interval (CI). Results Kappa values were 0.62(0.58 to 0.64) for the society ladder; 0.58(0.56 to 0.61) for the community-related ladder; and 0.67(0.66 to 0.72) for the work-related ladder. The ICC ranged from 0.75 for the work ladder to 0.64 for the community ladder. These values differed slightly according to the participants’ age, sex and education category. Conclusion The three ladders showed good stability in the test-retest, except the community ladder that showed moderate stability. Because the social structure in Brazil is rapidly changing, future qualitative and longitudinal studies are needed to confirm and understand the construct underlying the MacArthur Scale in the country.

2012-01-01

361

Parenting practices and school dropout: a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

Adolescents' perceptions of parenting style and parental involvement in their education were examined longitudinally and related to school dropout among Icelandic youth (N = 427). Results indicated that adolescents who, at age 14, characterized their parents as authoritative (showing acceptance and supervision) were more likely to have completed upper secondary school by age 22 than adolescents from non-authoritative families, controlling for adolescents' gender, socioeconomic status (SES), temperament, and parental involvement. Parenting style seems to more strongly predict school dropout than parental involvement. Further, parenting style may moderate the relationship between parental involvement and dropout, but not in all groups; only in authoritative families does parental involvement decrease the likelihood of school dropout. Furthermore, even after controlling for previous academic achievement, adolescents from authoritative families were less likely to drop out than adolescents from authoritarian and neglectful families. These findings emphasize the importance of encouraging quality parent-child relationships in order to reduce the likelihood of school dropout. PMID:20432598

Blondal, Kristjana S; Adalbjarnardottir, Sigrun

2009-01-01

362

A Longitudinal Study of Families with Technology-Dependent Children  

PubMed Central

Few researchers have longitudinally examined families caring for technology-dependent children at home. We tested a theoretically and empirically-based conceptual model by examining family functioning and normalization in 82 mothers (female primary caregivers) twice over 12 months. Time 1 and Time 2 cross-sectional findings were consistent; the only predictor of family functioning was mothers’ depressive symptoms. Contrary to the proposed model, normalization, caregiving duration, and home nursing hours were not directly related to family functioning. Baseline family functioning significantly predicted future family functioning. Also, mothers whose children were no longer technology-dependent at Time 2 reported significant improvements in family functioning and normalization. An intervention to address high levels of depressive symptoms of these mothers is essential to optimizing family functioning.

Musil, Carol M.; Carl, John C.

2012-01-01

363

Total body potassium in aging humans: a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

Total body potassium (TBK) data calculated from longitudinal measurements over 18 y of 40K by whole-body counting of 564 male and 61 female healthy humans in a 2-pi liquid scintillation counter show little change in females younger than 50 y compared with males of those ages. Males show less TBK from 41 y onward as they age, with most rapid rate of loss between 41 and 60 y. Females have a rapid loss of TBK when they are older than 60 y; the loss is at a greater rate than that of males. Percent total body fat calculated from total body weight and lean body mass (LBM) derived from TBK document greater adiposity in females at all ages except ages 51-60 y when females are similar to males in change in percent fat per year per centimeter. PMID:2508458

Flynn, M A; Nolph, G B; Baker, A S; Martin, W M; Krause, G

1989-10-01

364

Total body potassium in aging humans: A longitudinal study  

SciTech Connect

Total body potassium (TBK) data calculated from longitudinal measurements over 18 y of 40K by whole-body counting of 564 male and 61 female healthy humans in a 2-pi liquid scintillation counter show little change in females younger than 50 y compared with males of those ages. Males show less TBK from 41 y onward as they age, with most rapid rate of loss between 41 and 60 y. Females have a rapid loss of TBK when they are older than 60 y; the loss is at a greater rate than that of males. Percent total body fat calculated from total body weight and lean body mass (LBM) derived from TBK document greater adiposity in females at all ages except ages 51-60 y when females are similar to males in change in percent fat per year per centimeter.

Flynn, M.A.; Nolph, G.B.; Baker, A.S.; Martin, W.M.; Krause, G. (Univ. of Missouri-Columbia (USA))

1989-10-01

365

Native American Student Participation in Study Abroad: An Exploratory Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exploratory case study examines the participation of Native American students in study abroad and institutional policies and practices that either impede or enhance participation. The study surveys all Native students enrolled at the American university that produces the most Native graduates with bachelor's degrees. Although Native students…

Wanger, Stephen P.; Minthorn, Robin Starr; Weinland, Kathryn A.; Appleman, Boomer; James, Michael; Arnold, Allen

2012-01-01

366

Astronaut Health Participant Summary Application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health (LSAH) Participant Summary software captures data based on a custom information model designed to gather all relevant, discrete medical events for its study participants. This software provides a summarized view of the study participant s entire medical record. The manual collapsing of all the data in a participant s medical record into a summarized form eliminates redundancy, and allows for the capture of entire medical events. The coding tool could be incorporated into commercial electronic medical record software for use in areas like public health surveillance, hospital systems, clinics, and medical research programs.

Johnson, Kathy; Krog, Ralph; Rodriguez, Seth; Wear, Mary; Volpe, Robert; Trevino, Gina; Eudy, Deborah; Parisian, Diane

2011-01-01

367

Risk eating behaviors in male and female students: A longitudinal study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this research was to analyze changes in body mass index and risk eating behaviors in a group of students through a longitudinal study and determine the differences in risk eating behaviors between men and women with different rates of body mass. 5780 students participated, 37.5% were male and 62.5% female, mean age for each measurement times were: 15.1years first measurement, 18.0yearssecond measurement, 22.1years last measurement. For purposes of this study indicators were used from automated medical examination, which serves to collect information on the physical and mental health, family and environment of students at a public university in Mexico. The measurements were made for weight and height of each student to then calculate the body mass index based on the proposal of the World Health Organization. Risk eating behaviors were evaluated with seven indicators that measure the presence or absence of such things as: the use of laxatives, vomiting after eating, exercising 2h a day, stop eating for a day or moreover, use of pills or diuretics, being on more than two. Significant differences were found in the risk eating behavior with respect to different categories of body mass index only in the first measurement, where young people were of less underweight risk eating behavior than those who are overweight. PMID:24854813

González-González, Alejandro; Betancourt-Ocampo, Diana; Tavel-Gelrud, Daniela; Martínez-Lanz, Patricia

2014-04-01

368

Impact of combat deployment on psychological and relationship health: a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

Although previous research has indicated an elevated prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other mental health problems among veterans of Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom following deployment, most of this research has been cross-sectional and has focused on a limited range of military groups and outcome criteria. This investigation was a longitudinal study of U.S. Air Force security forces assigned to a year-long high-threat ground mission in Iraq to determine the degree to which airmen's emotional and behavioral health and committed relationships were adversely impacted by an extended deployment to a warzone. Participants were a cohort of 164 security forces airmen tasked to a 365-day deployment to train Iraqi police. Airmen completed study measures both prior to and 6-9 months following deployment. Rates of deterioration in individual and interpersonal adjustment were both significant and medium to large in magnitude of effect, d = 0.43 to 0.90. Results suggest that the negative effects of deployment are related to levels of traumatic experiences and do not spontaneously remit within the first 6-9 months following return from deployment-particularly among those service members having relatively lower levels of social support. PMID:24464429

Cigrang, Jeffrey A; Talcott, G Wayne; Tatum, JoLyn; Baker, Monty; Cassidy, Daniel; Sonnek, Scott; Snyder, Douglas K; Balderrama-Durbin, Christina; Heyman, Richard E; Smith Slep, Amy M

2014-02-01

369

ADHD symptoms, academic achievement, self-perception of academic competence and future orientation: a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

In the investigation of the effect of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms on school careers there is a need to study the role of adolescent and childhood ADHD symptoms and academic achievement, and to incorporate measures that include the individual's perspective. Our aim was to gain an overview of the long-term development of school careers in relation to ADHD symptoms. We studied associations between ADHD symptoms and academic achievement at different time-points and future orientation at the end of high school, and assessed the role of self-perceptions of academic competence in these associations. Participants were 192 children (47% girls) with a range of ADHD symptoms taken from a community sample. Collecting data at three time points, in 6th, 11th and 12th grade we tested a structural equation model. Results showed that ADHD symptoms in 6th grade negatively affected academic achievement concurrently and longitudinally. ADHD symptoms in 11th grade negatively affected concurrent academic achievement and academic self-perception and future orientation in 12th grade. Academic achievement had a positive influence on academic self-perception and future orientation. Given the other factors, self-perception of academic competence did not contribute to outcomes. We concluded that early ADHD symptoms may cast long shadows on young people's academic progress. This happens mainly by way of stability in symptoms and relations to early low academic achievement. PMID:23510262

Scholtens, Sara; Rydell, Ann-Margret; Yang-Wallentin, Fan

2013-06-01

370

Sexual abuse, family violence, and female delinquency: findings from a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

The current study examines the effects of three forms of childhood victimization on self-reported delinquency and aggression in adolescent girls. These analyses are based on a longitudinal sample of 141 mother-daughter pairs participating in a study about marital violence and child development. When the children were school aged, mothers and children provided reports describing (a) child exposure to marital violence, (b) escalated physical abuse against the child, and (c) child sexual abuse. Children were followed up into adolescence and re-interviewed. Self-reports of delinquency (violent and nonviolent), running away, and violence against parents were collected. Results indicate that out of the three forms of victimization, child sexual abuse emerged as the strongest predictor of girls' violent and nonviolent criminal behavior. Girls with a history of physical abuse in childhood were most likely to assault their parents. Witnessing marital violence failed to contribute further to delinquency, beyond the adverse association with childhood sexual abuse. Findings highlight a unique avenue for delinquency in girls via childhood sexual exploitation. PMID:12968661

Herrera, Veronica M; McCloskey, Laura Ann

2003-06-01

371

Treatment History in the Psychosis Prodrome: Characteristics of the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study Cohort  

PubMed Central

Aim Early identification and better characterization of the prodromal phase of psychotic illness can lead to targeted treatment and perhaps prevention of many of the devastating effects of a first psychotic episode. The primary aim of this manuscript is to describe the treatment histories of a large cohort of individuals who entered into one of seven prodromal research programs in a North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study consortium. Methods Treatment histories from 372 clinical high risk subjects are described along with demographic, symptom, diagnostic and functional variables that may have contributed to treatment decisions for this group of individuals. Results Of all subjects included, 82.1% had received psychosocial and/or pharmacologic treatment prior to entry. Psychosocial interventions were more common in the attenuated psychotic syndrome prodromal sample, especially those with more negative, disorganized or general symptoms and more impaired functioning. Psychotropic medication had been administered to individuals with a history of Axis I disorders. Conclusions Given the many potential clinical presentations, treatments, and ethical issues connected with the psychosis-risk syndrome, it is not surprising that clinicians administered a broad range of interventions to study participants prior to their entry into the various research programs. Those individuals with milder and nonspecific symptoms were more likely to have received psychosocial treatments, while those with more severe symptoms received pharmacologic intervention. Clinical treatment research is needed that addresses the complexities of these psychosis-risk states and helps to specify appropriate treatment at different stages of the psychosis prodrome.

Cadenhead, Kristin S.; Addington, Jean; Cannon, Tyrone; Cornblatt, Barbara; McGlashan, Thomas; Perkins, Diana; Seidman, Larry; Tsuang, Ming; Walker, Elaine; Woods, Scott; Heinssen, Robert

2011-01-01

372

Thyroid Function and Body Weight: A Community-Based Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Objective Body weight and overt thyroid dysfunction are associated. Cross-sectional population-based studies have repeatedly found that thyroid hormone levels, even within the normal reference range, might be associated with body weight. However, for longitudinal data, the association is less clear. Thus, we tested the association between serum thyrotropin (TSH) and body weight in a community-based sample of adult persons followed for 11 years. Methods A random sample of 4,649 persons aged 18–65 years from a general population participated in the DanThyr study in 1997–8. We included 2,102 individuals who participated at 11-year follow-up, without current or former treatment for thyroid disease and with measurements of TSH and weight at both examinations. Multiple linear regression models were used, stratified by sex and adjusted for age, smoking status, and leisure time physical activity. Results Baseline TSH concentration was not associated with change in weight (women, P?=?0.17; men, P?=?0.72), and baseline body mass index (BMI) was not associated with change in TSH (women, P?=?0.21; men, P?=?0.85). Change in serum TSH and change in weight were significantly associated in both sexes. Weight increased by 0.3 kg (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.1, 0.4, P?=?0.005) in women and 0.8 kg (95% CI 0.1, 1.4, P?=?0.02) in men for every one unit TSH (mU/L) increase. Conclusions TSH levels were not a determinant of future weight changes, and BMI was not a determinant for TSH changes, but an association between weight change and TSH change was present.

Bjergved, Lena; J?rgensen, Torben; Perrild, Hans; Laurberg, Peter; Krejbjerg, Anne; Ovesen, Lars; Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Knudsen, Nils

2014-01-01

373

Assessing Instructional Leadership: A Longitudinal Study of New Principals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Self Assessment of Leadership of Teaching and Learning (SALTAL) inventory, in conditions of repeated administration. Design/methodology/approach: In 2006 and 2007, nearly all of New Zealand's newly-appointed school principals participated in an 18 month induction…

Brown, Gavin T. L.; Chai, Constance

2012-01-01

374

Sedentary Behaviour, Visceral Fat Accumulation and Cardiometabolic Risk in Adults: A 6-Year Longitudinal Study from the Quebec Family Study  

PubMed Central

Background Sedentary behaviour has recently emerged as a unique risk factor for chronic disease morbidity and mortality. One factor that may explain this relationship is visceral adiposity, which is prospectively associated with increased cardiometabolic risk and mortality. The objective of the present study was to determine whether sedentary behaviour was associated with increased accumulation of visceral fat or other deleterious changes in cardiometabolic risk over a 6-year follow-up period among adult participants in the Quebec Family Study. Methods The current study included 123 men and 153 women between the ages of 18 and 65. Total sedentary time and physical activity were assessed by self-report questionnaire. Cross-sectional areas of visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue were assessed using computed tomography. Cardiometabolic biomarkers including fasting insulin, glucose, blood lipids, HOMA-Insulin Resistance, and oral glucose tolerance were also measured. All variables of interest were collected at both baseline and follow-up. Results After adjustment for age, sex, baseline BMI, physical activity, energy intake, smoking, education, income and menopausal status, baseline sedentary behaviour was not associated with changes in visceral adiposity or any other marker of cardiometabolic risk. In the longitudinal model which adjusted for all studied covariates, every 15-minute increase in sedentary behaviour from baseline to follow-up was associated with a 0.13 cm increase in waist circumference (95% CI?=?0.02, 0.25). However, there was no association between changes in sedentary behaviour and changes in visceral adiposity or other markers of cardiometabolic risk. Conclusion These results suggest that neither baseline sedentary behaviour nor changes in sedentary behaviour are associated with longitudinal changes in visceral adiposity in adult men and women. With the exception of waist circumference, the present study did not find evidence of a relationship between sedentary behaviour and any marker of cardiometabolic risk in this population.

Saunders, Travis J.; Tremblay, Mark S.; Despres, Jean-Pierre; Bouchard, Claude; Tremblay, Angelo; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

2013-01-01

375

Tracking of leisure-time physical activity during adolescence and young adulthood: a 10-year longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to show how participation in leisure-time physical activity changes between ages 13 to 23, and to what extent engaging in specific types of sports tracks into young adulthood. Methods The sample comprised 630 subjects who responded to questionnaires at age 13, with seven follow-ups over a 10-year period in the Norwegian Longitudinal Health Behaviour Study. The associations between adolescent participation in global and specific types of leisure-time physical activity were examined by analyses of variance, regression analysis and growth curve analysis. Results The findings suggest that the transition from adolescence to adulthood is, on average, a period of decline in physical activity, but with the decline levelling off into adulthood. The decline was significantly greater among males than females. There were substantial individual differences in the amount of change, in particular among males. Jogging alone and cycling, recreational activities such as skiing and hiking, and ball games, showed a high degree of tracking from age 15 to 23. The findings indicate low associations between participation in specific types of activities during adolescence and global leisure-time physical activity in young adulthood, while participation in several adolescent physical activities simultaneously was moderately related to later activity. Thus, being involved in various types of physical activity may offer good opportunities for establishing lifelong involvement in physical activity, independent of the specific type of activity. Conclusion The observed variation in change might suggest a need for a more targeted approach, with a focus on subgroups of individuals. The group of inactive youth may be considered as a high risk group, and the findings suggest that adolescent males who are inactive early seem likely to continue to be inactive later. The observed heterogeneity in change highlights the limitation of previous approaches to analyzing physical levels over time, and suggests that multilevel analysis should be used in future research on longitudinal data on physical activity.

Kj?nniksen, Lise; Torsheim, Torbj?rn; Wold, Bente

2008-01-01

376

A longitudinal study of radiographic spinal osteoarthritis in a macaque model  

PubMed Central

Cross-sectional analyses of naturally-occurring spinal osteoarthritis (OA) in primates have shown that age and body mass are significant predictors, but whether or not these relationships hold true in longitudinal evaluations remains unclear. Because spinal OA manifests similarly in humans and monkeys and macaque monkeys age > 3 times the rate of humans, macaque models offer opportunities for longitudinal study that are difficult in humans. Our objective was to characterize the longitudinal development over 11 years of spinal OA in 68 Macaca mulatta (41 males, 27 females, aged 11-32 years). Average disc space narrowing (DSN) and osteophytosis (OST) scores were computed for the thoracolumbar spine (T8-L7). Our longitudinal analyses confirmed the cross-sectional results: age and body mass (p <0.001) significantly predicted 50% and 39% of the variability in OST and DSN, respectively. Rates of change in DSN, but not OST, were associated with age at first radiograph. This study represents the first long-term longitudinal assessment of OA in primates and establishes that the relationship among the covariates in the cross-sectional and longitudinal approaches is similar.

Duncan, Andrea E.; Colman, Ricki J.; Kramer, Patricia A.

2011-01-01

377

Ten-Year Retrospective Longitudinal-Study of Student Perspectives on Value of REU  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For more than two decades, federal agencies have been enthusiastically supporting summer research experiences for undergraduates. These REU programs are tacitly intended to increase retention and provide "an important educational experience" for undergraduates, particularly women, minorities and underrepresented groups. Numerous authors (viz., Laursen, Lopatto, Dolan, among many others) have enthusiastically described positive impacts of summer REU programs from exit interview data. These results include enhanced persistence to pursue STEM careers and confirmed desire to attend graduate school in the field targeted by a particular REU. Perhaps surprisingly, negative student experiences are rarely described in the scholarly literature, but do appear in more informal publications (viz., Gueterma, 2007). One wonders how REU alumni, looking back over their entire collective portfolio of experiences, now perceive the educational value of their REU experience relative to their other educational experiences. To obtain a backwards-looking, reflective description from REU alumni on the value of their REU experiences, we conducted a 10-year, two-stage study was designed to explore the ways in which the REU acted as an educational experience for 51 women from a single geoscience sub-discipline. The first phase was an ex post facto longitudinal analysis of data, including multiple interviews with each participant during their REU, annual open-ended alumni surveys, faculty interviews, and extensive field notes, over a 10-year period. This analysis informed the second phase, a clinical interview. Over 10 hours of interviews with 8 participants were conducted and analyzed. These 8 participants were selected to represent a variety of career stages, and for their potential to reflect on a wide variety of educational experiences. Results from the interviews, done many years after their REU experience, indicate that the interviewees' REU did not provide a substantive educational experience related to the nature of scientific work, the scientific process, or the culture of academia when considered in a comparative context of students' other educational experiences. Results further indicated that the REU did not serve to transform participants' conceptions about themselves as situated in science, and learning gains with regard to other aspects of the self, were somewhat limited. Instead, the data suggests that these women arrived at the REU with pre-existing and remarkably strong conceptions in these areas, and that the REU did not functional to alter those states. These conceptions were frequently the result of interactions with mentors/scientists from middle school until well into the undergraduate period.

Slater, T. F.; Slater, S. J.

2013-12-01

378

Longevity of screenwriters who win an academy award: longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether the link between high success and longevity extends to academy award winning screenwriters. Design Retrospective cohort analysis. Participants All screenwriters ever nominated for an academy award. Main outcome measures Life expectancy and all cause mortality. Results A total of 850 writers were nominated; the median duration of follow up from birth was 68 years; and 428 writers died. On average, winners were more successful than nominees, as indicated by a 14% longer career (27.7 v 24.2, P=0.004), 34% more total films (23.2 v 17.3, P<0.001), 58% more four star films (4.8 v 3.1, P<0.001), and 62% more nominations (2.1 v 1.3, P<0.001). However, life expectancy was 3.6 years shorter for winners than for nominees (74.1 v 77.7 years, P=0.004), equivalent to a 37% relative increase in death rates (95% confidence interval 10 to 70). After adjustment for year of birth, sex, and other factors, a 35% relative increase in death rates was found (7% to 70%). Additional wins were associated with a 22% relative increase in death rates (3% to 44%). Additional nominations and additional other films in a career otherwise caused no significant increase in death rates. Conclusion The link between occupational achievement and longevity is reversed in screenwriters who win academy awards. Doubt is cast on simple biological theories for the survival gradients found for other members of society. What is already known on this topicHigh achievement has been associated with decreased all cause mortality for people in many different occupationsSuch an association is compatible with behavioural and biological theories for the role of social determinantsWhat this study addsScreenwriters nominated for an academy award show a paradoxical survival pattern, where greater success is associated with a large decrease in life expectancyThe paradox is not easily explained by talent, prestige, financial earnings, material conditions, reverse causality, measurement error, or simple demographicsIt might reflect the unusual lifestyles of writers, where success is not linked to exemplary conduct or control; this underscores the importance of behaviour

Redelmeier, Donald A; Singh, Sheldon M

2001-01-01

379

What is Learned from Longitudinal Studies of Advertising and Youth Drinking and Smoking? A Critical Assessment  

PubMed Central

This paper assesses the methodology employed in longitudinal studies of advertising and youth drinking and smoking behaviors. These studies often are given a causal interpretation in the psychology and public health literatures. Four issues are examined from the perspective of econometrics. First, specification and validation of empirical models. Second, empirical issues associated with measures of advertising receptivity and exposure. Third, potential endogeneity of receptivity and exposure variables. Fourth, sample selection bias in baseline and follow-up surveys. Longitudinal studies reviewed include 20 studies of youth drinking and 26 studies of youth smoking. Substantial shortcomings are found in the studies, which preclude a causal interpretation.

Nelson, Jon P

2010-01-01

380

Benefits of early development of eye-hand coordination: evidence from the LOOK longitudinal study.  

PubMed

We investigated longitudinal and cross-sectional relationships between eye-hand coordination (EHC) and cardiorespiratory fitness (multistage run), physical activity (pedometers), percent body fat (%BF, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry), body image, and organized sport participation (questionnaires) in 406 boys and 384 girls at 8 and 10 years of age. EHC was measured by a throw and wall-rebound catch test involving 40 attempts of increasing difficulty. Median EHC improved during two years from 18 to 32 (boys) and 9 to 24 (girls), and gender differences and improvements were both significant (P < 0.001). Cross-sectional analyses showed that boys and girls with better EHC were fitter (P < 0.001), and a longitudinal relationship showed that girls who improved their EHC over the two years became fitter (P < 0.001). There was also evidence that children with better EHC possessed a more positive body image (P = 0.05 for combined sex data), but there was no evidence of any relationships between EHC and %BF or PA (both P > 0.3). Finally, even at age 8 years, boys and girls participating in organized sport possessed better EHC than non-participants. These data provide evidence for the premise that early acquisition of this single motor skill promotes the development of a child's fitness, body image, and participation in sport. PMID:23614667

Telford, R D; Cunningham, R B; Telford, R M; Olive, L S; Byrne, D G; Abhayaratna, W P

2013-10-01

381

Longitudinal cohort survey of women's smoking behaviour and attitudes in pregnancy: study methods and baseline data  

PubMed Central

Objectives To report the methods used to assemble a contemporary pregnancy cohort for investigating influences on smoking behaviour before, during and after pregnancy and to report characteristics of women recruited. Design Longitudinal cohort survey. Setting Two maternity hospitals, Nottingham, England. Participants 3265 women who attended antenatal ultrasound scan clinics were offered cohort enrolment; those who were 8–26?weeks pregnant and were currently smoking or had recently stopped smoking were eligible. Cohort enrollment took place between August 2011 and August 2012. Primary and secondary outcome measures Prevalence of smoking at cohort entry and at two follow-up time points (34–36?weeks gestation and 3?months postnatally); response rate, participants’ sociodemographic characteristics. Results 1101 (33.7%, 95% CI 32.1% to 35.4%) women were eligible for inclusion in the cohort, and of these 850 (77.2%, 95% CI 74.6% to 79.6%) were recruited. Within the cohort, 57.4% (N=488, 95% CI 54.1% to 60.7%) reported to be current smokers. Current smokers were significantly younger than ex-smokers (p<0.05), more likely to have no formal qualifications and to not be in current paid employment compared to recent ex-smokers (p<0.001). Conclusions This contemporary cohort, which seeks very detailed information on smoking in pregnancy and its determinants, includes women with comparable sociodemographic characteristics to those in other UK cross-sectional studies and cohorts. This suggests that future analyses using this cohort and aimed at understanding smoking behaviour in pregnancy may produce findings that are broadly generalisable.

Orton, Sophie; Bowker, Katharine; Cooper, Sue; Naughton, Felix; Ussher, Michael; Pickett, Kate E; Leonardi-Bee, Jo; Sutton, Stephen; Dhalwani, Nafeesa N; Coleman, Tim

2014-01-01

382

A longitudinal study of demographic factors associated with stressors and symptoms in African refugees.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to assess differences in premigration, transit, and resettlement stressor exposure and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms as a function of demographic characteristics (i.e., gender, ethnicity, age, time in United States) and to examine the concurrent and longitudinal relations between stressor exposure and PTSD symptoms. The sample consisted of adult (18-78 years) Somali and Oromo refugee men and women (N = 437). Qualitative data regarding participants' self-nominated worst stressors collected at Time 2 (T2) informed the development of quantitative scales assessing premigration, transit, and resettlement stress created using items collected at Time 1 (T1). PTSD symptoms were measured at both T1 and T2. Quantitative analyses showed that levels of stressor exposure and PTSD symptoms differed as a function of refugee demographic characteristics. For example, Oromo, more recent, women, and older refugees reported more premigration and resettlement stressors. Oromo refugees and refugee men reported more PTSD symptoms in regression analyses with other factors controlled. Premigration, transit, and resettlement stressor exposure generally was associated with higher PTSD symptom levels. Results underscore the importance of assessing stress exposure comprehensively throughout the refugee experience and caution against overgeneralizing between and within refugee groups. PMID:24164519

Perera, Sulani; Gavian, Margaret; Frazier, Patricia; Johnson, David; Spring, Marline; Westermeyer, Joseph; Butcher, James; Halcon, Linda; Robertson, Cheryl; Savik, Kay; Jaranson, James

2013-10-01

383

Trajectories of problem video gaming among adult regular gamers: an 18-month longitudinal study.  

PubMed

A three-wave, longitudinal study examined the long-term trajectory of problem gaming symptoms among adult regular video gamers. Potential changes in problem gaming status were assessed at two intervals using an online survey over an 18-month period. Participants (N=117) were recruited by an advertisement posted on the public forums of multiple Australian video game-related websites. Inclusion criteria were being of adult age and having a video gaming history of at least 1 hour of gaming every week over the past 3 months. Two groups of adult video gamers were identified: those players who did (N=37) and those who did not (N=80) identify as having a serious gaming problem at the initial survey intake. The results showed that regular gamers who self-identified as having a video gaming problem at baseline reported more severe problem gaming symptoms than normal gamers, at all time points. However, both groups experienced a significant decline in problem gaming symptoms over an 18-month period, controlling for age, video gaming activity, and psychopathological symptoms. PMID:23098213

King, Daniel L; Delfabbro, Paul H; Griffiths, Mark D

2013-01-01

384

Does Avoidant Coping Influence Young Adults' Smoking?: A Ten-Year Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Young adults who avoid their emotions may be at risk for starting smoking or not quitting smoking. This study investigated whether a preliminary measure of avoidant coping longitudinally predicts young adults’ smoking escalation and cessation. Methods: In a sample of the 3,305 participants, originally from Washington State, a preliminary measure of self-reported avoidant coping at age 18 was used to predict both smoking escalation and cessation at ages 20 and 28 with both probability and logistic regression models (10-year retention: 98.5%). Results: Individuals who scored high on avoidant coping at 18 were 2.52 (p = .001) times more likely to acquire smoking by 20. However, there was no evidence that avoidant coping at age 18 predicted smoking escalation at 28 or cessation for 20- and 28-year-olds. Conclusions: An avoidant coping style may have a short-term effect on young adults’ smoking acquisition. Future research using a precise and well-validated measure of avoidant coping is now needed to test this possibility.

Schiff, Lara; Comstock, Bryan A.

2011-01-01

385

Health care costs and the socioeconomic consequences of work injuries in Brazil: a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

Work injuries are a worldwide public health problem but little is known about their socioeconomic impact. This prospective longitudinal study estimates the direct health care costs and socioeconomic consequences of work injuries for 406 workers identified in the emergency departments of the two largest public hospitals in Salvador, Brazil, from June through September 2005. After hospital discharge workers were followed up monthly until their return to work. Most insured workers were unaware of their rights or of how to obtain insurance benefits (81.6%). Approximately half the cases suffered loss of earnings, and women were more frequently dismissed than men. The most frequently reported family consequences were: need for a family member to act as a caregiver and difficulties with daily expenses. Total costs were US$40,077.00 but individual costs varied widely, according to injury severity. Out-of-pocket costs accounted for the highest proportion of total costs (50.5%) and increased with severity (57.6%). Most out-of-pocket costs were related to transport and purchasing medicines and other wound care products. The second largest contribution (40.6%) came from the public National Health System - SUS. Employer participation was negligible. Health care funding must be discussed to alleviate the economic burden of work injuries on workers. PMID:23803496

Santana, Vilma Sousa; Souza, Luis Eugênio Portela Fernandes de; Pinto, Isabela Cardoso de Matos

2013-01-01

386

Integrating prospective longitudinal data: Modeling personality and health in the Terman Life Cycle and Hawaii Longitudinal Studies.  

PubMed

The present study used a collaborative framework to integrate 2 long-term prospective studies: the Terman Life Cycle Study and the Hawaii Personality and Health Longitudinal Study. Within a 5-factor personality-trait framework, teacher assessments of child personality were rationally and empirically aligned to establish similar factor structures across samples. Comparable items related to adult self-rated health, education, and alcohol use were harmonized, and data were pooled on harmonized items. A structural model was estimated as a multigroup analysis. Harmonized child personality factors were then used to examine markers of physiological dysfunction in the Hawaii sample and mortality risk in the Terman sample. Harmonized conscientiousness predicted less physiological dysfunction in the Hawaii sample and lower mortality risk in the Terman sample. These results illustrate how collaborative, integrative work with multiple samples offers the exciting possibility that samples from different cohorts and ages can be linked together to directly test life span theories of personality and health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23231689

Kern, Margaret L; Hampson, Sarah E; Goldberg, Lewis R; Friedman, Howard S

2014-05-01

387

Depression, disability and intermediate pathways: a review of longitudinal studies in elders.  

PubMed

Cross-sectional studies demonstrate depression is associated with disability in elders. These studies also report that disability in depressed elders is associated with greater medical illness burden, cognitive impairment, and behavioral changes. Only longitudinal studies, however, can determine the impact of depression and its comorbidities on functional decline. This review summarizes the findings of 20 longitudinal studies examining the relationship between baseline or incident depression and functional decline. However, the mediational effects of potential risk factors identified by cross-sectional studies cannot be derived from the current literature. We propose a mediational effects model for future longitudinal studies, incorporating measures sensitive to both mood symptoms and the medical, cognitive, and behavioral comorbidities of depression to better understand the impact of each on functional decline and to focus future clinical interventions. PMID:18838741

Schillerstrom, Jason E; Royall, Donald R; Palmer, Raymond F

2008-09-01

388

Forbidden fruit? A longitudinal study of Christianity, sex, and marriage.  

PubMed

Does religion still play a role in explorations of romance and sexuality among adolescents and young adults in a secular society such as Norway? Does it influence the type of living arrangements chosen? A population-based sample (n = 2,454) was followed longitudinally from their midteens to their late 20s using survey and register data. Christian involvement in teenage years was associated with subsequent less "precoital" exploration, less masturbation, delayed sexual intercourse, and a smaller number of sex partners. However, there were no associations with prevalence of same-sex experiences. Christians also postponed initiating romantic relationships and chose marriage over cohabitation. Associations were reduced after controlling for confounding factors but remained significant. Some associations (for example, the form of residential union chosen) were present only in the most "active" Christians. In other areas, such as "precoital explorations" and the age at which intercourse is initiated, Christian norms seem to play a role in much broader segments of the population. The findings indicate that Christianity may continue to influence young Norwegians' experiences of sexuality and cohabitation more than has been expected. PMID:23631689

Pedersen, Willy

2014-01-01

389

BMI changes among marching artists: a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

In a series of longitudinal analyses, we examined body mass index (BMI) of drum and bugle corps performers at the beginning (Time 1) and end (Time 2) of a competitive season and again at a 1-year follow-up (Time 3). Utilizing an archival database, BMI data were recorded for 501 marching arts performers, representing four world-class drum and bugle corps. Significant reductions in BMI were found between Time 1 and Time 2 for performers in all sections (i.e., brass, percussion, and color guard). Archival data from 92 performers, representing three world-class drum and bugle units, revealed BMI significantly increased from Time 2 to Time 3. In an effort to identify possible personal influences on the changes in BMI found between Times 2 and 3, 50 performers from one drum and bugle corps provided archival data on a measures of performers' athletic identity (i.e., the strength and exclusivity of one's identification with the athlete role) along with BMI. Correlational analyses revealed that performers' athletic identity negatively related to BMI change from Time 1 and Time 3 and Times 2 and 3 (i.e., stronger athletic identity, lower BMI change). Practical implications are discussed. PMID:24337036

Levy, Jacob J; Statham, Whitney J; VanDoren, Laura

2013-12-01

390

Relationship Between Sports Participation and Managerial Behavior: An Exploratory Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis examined the popular, but empirically untested, notion that participation in organized sports has a positive relationship to management development. Exploration of this hypothesised relationship was performed within the context of U.S. Air For...

D. E. Walters

1986-01-01

391

[How to share results of clinical trials with study participants?].  

PubMed

Informing research participants of the results of clinical trials in which they were enrolled is in agreement with patients' rights and human dignity; such feedback is considered an ethical standard applied to clinical research. Cancer patients who participate in a clinical trial usually want to know the results. Here we analysed the literature about the different ways of disclosure of clinical trial results to participants, questioning their expectations and the meanings they give to the results. We describe some of the dilemma and intertwining between clinical care and clinical research. We highlight how the standardisation of sharing such results to participants could raise difficulties particularly for the relationship between doctor and patients. PMID:22494655

Sarradon-Eck, Aline; Mancini, Julien; Genre, Dominique; Sakoyan, Juliette; Desclaux, Alice; Julian-Reynier, Claire

2012-03-01

392

Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS): Description of a multidisciplinary epidemiologic investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS), a multidisciplinary and large prospective cohort study in Araihazar, Bangladesh, was established to evaluate the effects of full-dose range arsenic (As) exposure on various health outcomes, including premalignant and malignant skin tumors, total mortality, pregnancy outcomes, and children's cognitive development. In this paper, we provide descriptions of the study methods including study design,

Habibul Ahsan; Yu Chen; Faruque Parvez; Maria Argos; Azm Iftikhar Hussain; Hassina Momotaj; Diane Levy; Alexander van Geen; Geoffrey Howe; Joseph Graziano

2006-01-01

393

A two years longitudinal study of a transgenic Huntington disease monkey  

PubMed Central

Background A two-year longitudinal study composed of morphometric MRI measures and cognitive behavioral evaluation was performed on a transgenic Huntington’s disease (HD) monkey. rHD1, a transgenic HD monkey expressing exon 1 of the human gene encoding huntingtin (HTT) with 29 CAG repeats regulated by a human polyubiquitin C promoter was used together with four age-matched wild-type control monkeys. This is the first study on a primate model of human HD based on longitudinal clinical measurements. Results Changes in striatal and hippocampal volumes in rHD1 were observed with progressive impairment in motor functions and cognitive decline, including deficits in learning stimulus-reward associations, recognition memory and spatial memory. The results demonstrate a progressive cognitive decline and morphometric changes in the striatum and hippocampus in a transgenic HD monkey. Conclusions This is the first study on a primate model of human HD based on longitudinal clinical measurements. While this study is based a single HD monkey, an ongoing longitudinal study with additional HD monkeys will be important for the confirmation of our findings. A nonhuman primate model of HD could complement other animal models of HD to better understand the pathogenesis of HD and future development of diagnostics and therapeutics through longitudinal assessment.

2014-01-01

394

Economic strain and well-being in late life: findings from an 18-year population-based longitudinal study of older Taiwanese adults  

PubMed Central

Background This study estimates the concurrent and longitudinal effects of perceived economic strain and socioeconomic status (SES) on well-being of older adults in Taiwan. Methods This study uses data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging, a nationally representative sample (n= 3602) of older adults aged 60 and above. Participants were interviewed and followed for 18 years. Individual well-being is measured by self-reported life satisfaction, psychological distress and perceived health status. Generalized linear modeling with the generalized estimating equation estimates is used to predict the relationships between perceived economic strain, SES and well-being cross-sectionally and longitudinally, controlling for individual background characteristics, physical health and survival status. Results Older adults who experienced economic strain had significantly poorer well-being in comparison to older adults without strain, both cross-sectionally and longitudinally, controlling for SES and other covariates. In contrast, SES indicators did not consistently predict well-being in the cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Conclusions These findings suggest a strong, cumulative, negative effect of perceived economic strain on well-being among older adults. Health-care initiatives aiming at promoting well-being among older adults should consider the impact of economic strain, which may increase at the end of the life course and threaten health and functioning.

Chiao, Chi; Weng, Li-Jen; Botticello, Amanda L.

2012-01-01

395

PARTICIPANTS AND PARTICIPATION, A STUDY OF SCHOOL POLICY IN NEW YORK CITY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 3-YEAR STUDY OF DECISION MAKING IN THE NEW YORK CITY SCHOOLS EXPLORES THE POLITICAL FORCES AFFECTING EDUCATIONAL POLICY AND EVALUATES THE RELATIVE OPENNESS OF THE SYSTEM. POLICY MAKERS INCLUDE THE BOARD OF EDUCATION, 31 LOCAL SCHOOL BOARDS, THE SUPERINTENDENT, THE HEAD OFFICE STAFF, THE FIELD STAFF (PRINCIPALS, ASSISTANT PRINCIPALS, DISTRICT…

GITTELL, MARILYN

396

Sentence comprehension in semantic dementia: a longitudinal case study.  

PubMed

Sentence comprehension abilities were investigated in a patient with semantic dementia who was administered tests of semantic knowledge and sentence comprehension over a 5-year period. Results showed that despite a severe and continual degradation in semantic knowledge, syntactic comprehension abilities remained largely intact. Evidence was also found for a codependency between semantics and syntax in a task in which knowledge about conceptual number influenced subject-verb agreement in the patient and in control participants. Results are discussed in relation to the nature of the sentence comprehension impairment in semantic dementia and with reference to the modularity of the components of the language processing system. PMID:21038208

Rochon, Elizabeth; Kave, Gitit; Cupit, Jennifer; Jokel, Regina; Winocur, Gordon

2004-03-01

397

Psychosocial predictors of non-adherence to chronic medication: systematic review of longitudinal studies  

PubMed Central

Objectives Several cross-sectional studies suggest that psychosocial factors are associated with non-adherence to chronic preventive maintenance medication (CPMM); however, results from longitudinal associations have not yet been systematically summarized. Therefore, the objective of this study was to systematically synthesize evidence of longitudinal associations between psychosocial predictors and CPMM non-adherence. Materials and methods PUBMED, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsychINFO databases were searched for studies meeting our inclusion criteria. The reference lists and the ISI Web of Knowledge of the included studies were checked. Studies were included if they had an English abstract, involved adult populations using CPMM living in Western countries, and if they investigated associations between psychosocial predictors and medication non-adherence using longitudinal designs. Data were extracted according to a literature-based extraction form. Study quality was independently judged by two researchers using a framework comprising six bias domains. Studies were considered to be of high quality if ?four domains were free of bias. Psychosocial predictors for non-adherence were categorized into five pre-defined categories: beliefs/cognitions; coping styles; social influences and social support; personality traits; and psychosocial well-being. A qualitative best evidence synthesis was performed to synthesize evidence of longitudinal associations between psychosocial predictors and CPMM non-adherence. Results Of 4,732 initially-identified studies, 30 (low-quality) studies were included in the systematic review. The qualitative best evidence synthesis demonstrated limited evidence for absence of a longitudinal association between CPMM non-adherence and the psychosocial categories. The strength of evidence for the review’s findings is limited by the low quality of included studies. Conclusion The results do not provide psychosocial targets for the development of new interventions in clinical practice. This review clearly demonstrates the need for high-quality, longitudinal research to identify psychosocial predictors of medication non-adherence.

Zwikker, Hanneke E; van den Bemt, Bart J; Vriezekolk, Johanna E; van den Ende, Cornelia H; van Dulmen, Sandra

2014-01-01

398

Frailty and Fracture, Disability, and Falls: A Multiple Country Study from the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW)  

PubMed Central

Objectives To test whether women age ? 55 years with increasing evidence of a frailty phenotype would have greater risk of fractures, disability, and recurrent falls, compared with women who were not frail, across geographic areas (Australia, Europe, and North America) and age groups. Design Multinational, longitudinal, observational cohort study. Setting The Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW). Participants Women (n=48,636) age ? 55 years enrolled at sites in Australia, Europe, and North America. Measurements Components of frailty (slowness/weakness, poor endurance/exhaustion, physical activity, and unintentional weight loss) at baseline and report of fracture, disability, and recurrent falls at 1 year of follow-up were investigated. Women also reported health and demographic characteristics at baseline. Results Among those age < 75 years, women from the United States were more likely to be prefrail and frail than women from Australia/Canada, and Europe. The distribution of frailty was similar by region for women age ? 75 years. Odds ratios from multivariable models for frailty versus non frailty were 1.23 (95% CI = 1.07–1.42) for fracture, 2.29 (95% CI = 2.09–2.51) for disability, and 1.68 (95% CI = 1.54–1.83) for recurrent falls. The associations for pre-frailty versus non frailty were weaker but still indicated statistically significant increased risk for each outcome. Overall, associations between frailty status and each outcome were similar across age and geographic region. Conclusion Increased evidence of a frailty phenotype is associated with increased risk for fracture, disability, and falls among women age ? 55 years in 10 countries, with similar patterns across age and geographic region.

Tom, Sarah E.; Adachi, Jonathan D.; Anderson, Frederick A.; Boonen, Steven; Chapurlat, Roland D.; Compston, Juliet E.; Cooper, Cyrus; Gehlbach, Stephen H.; Greenspan, Susan L.; Hooven, Frederick H.; Nieves, Jeri W.; Pfeilschifter, Johannes; Roux, Christian; Silverman, Stuart; Wyman, Allison; LaCroix, Andrea Z.

2012-01-01

399

Outcomes of renal transplantation in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: a nationwide longitudinal study.  

PubMed

Renal transplantation in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a medical and surgical challenge. Detailed longitudinal epidemiological studies on large populations are lacking and it is mandatory to care better for these patients. The success of such a project requires the development of a validated epidemiological database. Herein, we present the results of the largest longitudinal study to date on renal transplant in patients with ADPKD. The 15-year outcomes following renal transplantation of 534 ADPKD patients were compared with 4779 non-ADPKD patients. This comprehensive, longitudinal, multicenter French study was performed using the validated database, DIVAT (Données Informatisées et VAlidées en Transplantaion). We demonstrate that renal transplantation in ADPKD is associated with better graft survival, more thromboembolic complications, more metabolic complications, and increased incidence of hypertension, whereas the prevalence of infections is not increased. This study provides important new insights that could lead to a better care for renal transplant patients with ADPKD. PMID:21352383

Jacquet, Antoine; Pallet, Nicolas; Kessler, Michèle; Hourmant, Maryvonne; Garrigue, Valérie; Rostaing, Lionel; Kreis, Henri; Legendre, Christophe; Mamzer-Bruneel, Marie-France

2011-06-01

400

Use of CNS medications and cognitive decline in the aged: a longitudinal population-based study  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have found associations between the use of central nervous system medication and the risk of cognitive decline in the aged. Our aim was to assess whether the use of a single central nervous system (CNS) medication and, on the other hand, the combined use of multiple CNS medications over time are related to the risk of cognitive decline in an older (? 65 yrs) population that is cognitively intact at baseline. Methods We conducted a longitudinal population-based study of cognitively intact older adults. The participants were 65 years old or older and had Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) sum scores of 24 points or higher. The study included a 7.6-year follow-up. The use of benzodiazepines and related drugs (BZDs), antipsychotics (APs), antidepressants (ADs), opioids (Ops), anticholinergics (AChs) and antiepileptics (AEs) was determined at baseline and after a 7.6-years of the follow-up period. Cognitive functioning was used as an outcome variable measured with MMSE at baseline and at the mean follow-up of 7.6 years. Control variables were adjusted with analyses of covariance. Results After adjusting for control variables, the use of Ops and the concomitant use of Ops and BZDs as well as the use of Ops and any CNS medication were associated with cognitive decline. The use of AChs was associated with decline in cognitive functioning only in men. Conclusions Of all the CNS medications analyzed in this study, the use of Ops may have the greatest effect on cognitive functioning in the ageing population. Due to small sample sizes these findings cannot be generalized to the unselected ageing population. More studies are needed concerning the long-term use of CNS medications, especially their concomitant use, and their potential cognitive effects.

2011-01-01

401

Associations of birth size and duration of breast feeding with cardiorespiratory fitness in childhood: findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To explore the developmental origins of cardiorespiratory fitness. Methods: We examined the associations of birth size and duration of breast feeding with cardiorespiratory fitness assessed at the\\u000a 9 year follow-up examination in 3612 participants of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). We used\\u000a physical work capacity at a heart rate of 170 beats per minute (PWC170) as

Debbie A. Lawlor; Ashley R. Cooper; Chris Bain; George Davey Smith; Amanda Irwin; Chris Riddoch; Andy Ness

2008-01-01

402

A longitudinal study of the effects of graduate medical education on hospital operating costs.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of graduate medical education sponsorship on hospital operating costs over a seven-year period, to test for a longitudinal association between teaching intensity and cost, and to determine whether the indirect medical education (IME) payment adjustments made under Medicare's Prospective Payment System are appropriate. DATA SOURCES: Medicare cost and payment data from the Hospital Cost Report Information System and other related HCFA files, from FFY 1989 through 1995. The study population consists of all short-stay hospitals (approximately 5,000) participating in Medicare and receiving case payments by diagnosis-related groups. STUDY DESIGN: The original cost functions used to develop indirect medical education payment adjustments under PPS are re-estimated with panel data. Specification changes are included based on findings from critiques of the original hospital cost model. Additional variations on the model are explored to test for differences by hospital status, to control for the effect of additional disproportionate share and outlier payments, and to isolate the effects of improved case-mix measurement on model results. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fixed effects regression produces no evidence of a significant within-hospital association between increased sponsorship of medical residents and increased cost per case. In models designed to capture a cross-sectional association, operating costs are positively related to teaching activity, but the association shows a decline in strength over time. In all years, the strength of the association is significantly greater among hospitals eligible for disproportionate share adjustments and among major teaching hospitals. Controlling for secular trends of increased teaching intensity results in a pattern of declining cross-sectional teaching coefficients that supports a theory that observed teaching effects are the result of unmeasured case severity. CONCLUSIONS: A significant but declining cost differential is observed between teaching and nonteaching hospitals. The association appears to be related to hospital and patient characteristics that cannot be controlled using currently available case-mix and wage indices. Longitudinal models do not provide evidence to support a payment adjustment formula that allows individual hospitals to recompute their IME adjustment rates as their teaching ratios rise or fall from year to year. Cross-sectional findings suggest that re-estimations of the teaching effect may be appropriate when significant improvements occur in Medicare case-mix measurement. Images Figure 2

Dalton, K; Norton, E C; Kilpatrick, K

2001-01-01

403

A Longitudinal Study of Enhancing Critical Thinking and Reading Comprehension in Title I Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A longitudinal study of student growth gains was conducted in Title I schools to assess growth in reading comprehension and critical thinking. Results suggested that all students benefited from the intervention of Project Athena units of study designed for high-ability learners. In addition, the study suggested that the comparison curriculum also…

VanTassel-Baska, Joyce; Bracken, Bruce; Feng, Annie; Brown, Elissa

2009-01-01

404

Results and Implications of a 12-Year Longitudinal Study of Science Concept Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the methods and outcomes of a 12-year longitudinal study into the effects of an early intervention program, while reflecting back on changes that have occurred in approaches to research, learning and instruction since the preliminary inception stages of the study in the mid 1960s. We began the study to challenge the prevailing…

Novak, Joseph D.

2005-01-01

405

Trait and State Components of Perceived Parental Differential Treatment in Middle Adulthood: A Longitudinal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite its importance for basic and applied psychology, only a few longitudinal studies have examined whether parental differential treatment (PDT) is a persistent or a transient phenomenon, these studies being confined to childhood or adolescence. Based on latent state-trait theory, the present study identified the amount of variance in three dimensions of perceived PDT in middle adulthood attributable to stable

Thomas Boll; Tom Michels; Dieter Ferring; Sigrun-Heide Filipp

2010-01-01

406

Youths' Caretaking of Their Adolescent Sisters' Children: Results from Two Longitudinal Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The extent and experiences of youths' caretaking of their adolescent sisters' children have been assessed in two longitudinal studies. The first study examines the caretaking patterns of 132 Latino and African American youth during middle and late adolescence. The second study involves 110 Latino youth whose teenage sister has recently given…

East, Patricia L.; Weisner, Thomas S.; Slonim, Ashley

2009-01-01

407

Studies of Longitudinal Dynamics in the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring  

SciTech Connect

Two separate studies of space charge longitudinal dynamics in the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring have been completed. The first of these studies is a benchmark of a longitudinal instability caused by three ferrite inductors used in the ring to provide longitudinal space charge compensation. We use the ORBIT code to benchmark the growth time, mode spectrum, and intensity threshold of the instability. The second study concerns the 201.5 MHz linac microbunch structure of the beam. We find that this microbunch structure persists in the ring over long periods of time with no RF bunching. We show through analysis of the experimental data and simulations that space charge, coupled with energy spread effects, is responsible for the sustained structure.

Cousineau, S.; Danilov, V.; Holmes, J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN (United States); Macek, R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos NM (United States)

2005-06-08

408

Early childhood exposure to parental nudity and scenes of parental sexuality ("primal scenes"): an 18-year longitudinal study of outcome.  

PubMed

As part of the UCLA Family Lifestyles Project (FLS), 200 male and female children participated in an 18-year longitudinal outcome study of early childhood exposure to parental nudity and scenes of parental sexuality ("primal scenes"). At age 17-18, participants were assessed for levels of self-acceptance; relations with peers, parents, and other adults; antisocial and criminal behavior; substance use; suicidal ideation; quality of sexual relationships; and problems associated with sexual relations. No harmful "main effect" correlates of the predictor variables were found. A significant crossover Sex of Participant X Primal Scenes interaction was found such that boys exposed to primal scenes before age 6 had reduced risk of STD transmission or having impregnated someone in adolescence. In contrast, girls exposed to primal scenes before age 6 had increased risk of STD transmission or having become pregnant. A number of main effect trends in the data (nonsignificant at p < 0.05, following the Bonferonni correction) linked exposure to nudity and exposure to primal scenes with beneficial outcomes. However, a number of these findings were mediated by sex of participant interactions showing that the effects were attenuated or absent for girls. All effects were independent of family stability, pathology, or child-rearing ideology; sex of participant; SES; and beliefs and attitudes toward sexuality. Limitations of the data and of long-term regression studies in general are discussed, and the sex of participant interactions are interpreted speculatively. It is suggested that pervasive beliefs in the harmfulness of the predictor variables are exaggerated. PMID:9681119

Okami, P; Olmstead, R; Abramson, P R; Pendleton, L

1998-08-01

409

An instrument for the assessment of diarrhoeal severity based on a longitudinal community-based study  

PubMed Central

Objective Diarrhoea is a significant contributer to morbidity and is among the leading causes of death of children living in poverty. As such, the incidence, duration and severity of diarrhoeal episodes in the household are often key variables of interest in a variety of community-based studies. However, there currently exists no means of defining diarrhoeal severity that are (A) specifically designed and adapted for community-based studies, (B) associated with poorer child outcomes and (C) agreed on by the majority of researchers. Clinical severity scores do exist and are used in healthcare settings, but these tend to focus on relatively moderate-to-severe dehydrating and dysenteric disease, require trained observation of the child and, given the variability of access and utilisation of healthcare, fail to sufficiently describe the spectrum of disease in the community setting. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Setting Santa Clara de Nanay, a rural community in the Northern Peruvian Amazon. Participants 442 infants and children 0–72?months of age. Main outcome measures Change in weight over 1-month intervals and change in length/height over 9-month intervals. Results Diarrhoeal episodes with symptoms of fever, anorexia, vomiting, greater number of liquid stools per day and greater number of total stools per day were associated with poorer weight gain compared with episodes without these symptoms. An instrument to measure the severity was constructed based on the duration of these symptoms over the course of a diarrhoeal episode. Conclusions In order to address limitations of existing diarrhoeal severity scores in the context of community-based studies, we propose an instrument comprised of diarrhoea-associated symptoms easily measured by community health workers and based on the association of these symptoms with poorer child growth. This instrument can be used to test the impact of interventions on the burden of diarrhoeal disease.

Lee, Gwenyth; Penataro Yori, Pablo; Paredes Olortegui, Maribel; Caulfield, Laura E; Sack, David A; Fischer-Walker, Christa; Black, Robert E; Kosek, Margaret

2014-01-01

410

Study of turbulent natural convection in a tall differentially heated cavity filled with either non-participating, participating grey and participating semigrey media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Turbulent natural convection in a tall differentially heated cavity of aspect ratio 5:1, filled with air under a Rayleigh number based on the height of 4.5·1010 is studied numerically. Three different situations have been analysed. In the first one, the cavity is filled with a transparent medium. In the second one, the cavity is filled with a semigrey participating mixture of air and water vapour. In the last one the cavity contains a grey participating gas. The turbulent flow is described by means of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) using symmetry-preserving discretizations. Simulations are compared with experimental data available in the literature and with Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS). Surface and gas radiation have been simulated using the Discrete Ordinates Method (DOM). The influence of radiation on fluid flow behaviour has been analysed.

Capdevila, R.; Lehmkuhl, O.; Colomer, G.; Perez-Segarra, C. D.

2012-11-01

411

A Bayesian semiparametric approach for incorporating longitudinal information on exposure history for inference in case-control studies.  

PubMed

In a typical case-control study, exposure information is collected at a single time point for the cases and controls. However, case-control studies are often embedded in existing cohort studies containing a wealth of longitudinal exposure history about the participants. Recent medical studies have indicated that incorporating past exposure history, or a constructed summary measure of cumulative exposure derived from the past exposure history, when available, may lead to more precise and clinically meaningful estimates of the disease risk. In this article, we propose a flexible Bayesian semiparametric approach to model the longitudinal exposure profiles of the cases and controls and then use measures of cumulative exposure based on a weighted integral of this trajectory in the final disease risk model. The estimation is done via a joint likelihood. In the construction of the cumulative exposure summary, we introduce an influence function, a smooth function of time to characterize the association pattern of the exposure profile on the disease status with different time windows potentially having differential influence/weights. This enables us to analyze how the present disease status of a subject is influenced by his/her past exposure history conditional on the current ones. The joint likelihood formulation allows us to properly account for uncertainties associated with both stages of the estimation process in an integrated manner. Analysis is carried out in a hierarchical Bayesian framework using reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms. The proposed methodology is motivated by, and applied to a case-control study of prostate cancer where longitudinal biomarker information is available for the cases and controls. PMID:22313248

Bhadra, Dhiman; Daniels, Michael J; Kim, Sungduk; Ghosh, Malay; Mukherjee, Bhramar

2012-06-01

412

Predictors of English fluency among Hmong refugees in Minnesota: a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to assess factors associated with later acquisition of English language fluency among Hmong refugees in Minnesota. Fluency in a society's lingua franca is a critical skill in psychosocial adaptation and mental health. A longitudinal study design was used, in which premigration and early postmigration factors were related to subsequent English fluency. The first group of 102 Hmong refugees located in Minnesota by the Immigration and Naturalization Service participated, and were interviewed in their homes. Hmong research assistants collected data using a questionnaire format at 1.5 years following resettlement in the U.S. Eight years later, two measures of English language competence were obtained: a self-assessment and an objective measure of English language fluency. Self-assessed fluency and performance on a brief English test showed good correlation. Greater English fluency on both measures was predicted by the following: younger age, male gender, education or vocational training in Laos prior to migration, occupation in Laos requiring literacy, study of English while in Asia, less proximity to other Hmong households in the U.S., any educational involvement in the U.S. (except English as a second language or ESL training), and not receiving welfare. Self-assessment of English fluency appeared to be a valid measure of competence in English. Demographic characteristics, certain premigration experiences, and early postmigration experiences predicted English fluency after 10 years in the U.S. ESL training was not associated with eventual English fluency on either self-assessment or objective testing. Recommendations are made to enhance English fluency, and hence the psychosocial adaptation of refuguees and other immigrants to the U.S. PMID:9225568

Westermeyer, J; Her, C

1996-01-01

413

Psychosocial predictors of somatic symptoms in adolescents of parents with HIV: a six-year longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to identify salient parent and adolescent psychosocial factors related to somatic symptoms in adolescents. As part of a larger intervention study conducted in New York, 409 adolescents were recruited from 269 parents with HIV. A longitudinal model predicted adolescent somatization scores six years after baseline assessment. Adolescent somatic symptoms were assessed at baseline and at 3-month intervals for the first two years and then at 6-month intervals using the Brief Symptom Inventory. Baseline data from adolescents and parents were used to predict adolescent somatic symptoms. Variables related to increased adolescent somatic symptoms over six years included being younger and female; an increased number of adolescent medical hospitalizations; more stressful life events; adolescent perception of a highly rejecting parenting style; more parent-youth conflict; no experience of parental death; and parental distress over their own pain symptoms. Our findings extend the literature by virtue of the longitudinal design; inclusion of both parent and child variables in one statistical model; identification of study participants by their potentially stressful living condition rather than by disease or somatic symptom status; and inclusion of serious parental illness and death in the study.

Bursch, B.; Lester, P.; Jiang, L.; Rotheram-Borus, M.J.; Weiss, R.

2010-01-01

414

Participatory Approaches to Longitudinal Research with Young People  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Life-Patterns project is a panel-cohort longitudinal study following the life trajectories of 1,908 young people who left school in Victoria in 1991. The project attempts to obtain nuanced pictures of young people's lives in three ways: using a reflexive longitudinal study design, with opportunities for participant feedback and influence on…

Woodman, Dan; Tyler, Debra

2007-01-01

415

RECRUITING, RETAINING, AND REPORTING EXPOSURE STUDY RESULTS TO PARTICIPANTS AND THE PUBLIC  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) is developing techniques and capabilities to recruit and retain participants in exposure measurement studies and to effectively report study results to participants and the public. These techniques are being applied in three N...

416

Variability in Fundamental Frequency during Speech in Prodromal and Incipient Parkinson's Disease: A Longitudinal Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nearly two centuries ago, Parkinson (1817) first observed that a particular pattern of speech changes occur in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). Numerous studies have documented these changes using a wide variety of acoustic measures, and yet few studies have attempted to quantify any such changes longitudinally, through the early…

Harel, Brian; Cannizzaro, Michael; Snyder, Peter J.

2004-01-01

417

Development of Working Memory and Performance in Arithmetic: A Longitudinal Study with Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: This study has aimed to investigate the relationship between the development of working memory and performance on arithmetic activities. Method: We conducted a 3-year longitudinal study of a sample of 90 children, that was followed during the first, second and third year of primary school. All children were tested on measures of WM…

López, Magdalena

2014-01-01

418

Behavioral traits and marijuana use and abuse: a meta-analysis of longitudinal studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study uses data from a meta-analytic archive of prospective longitudinal studies (N=3206) to examine the association between negative affect, emotionality, and unconventionality on the use, misuse, and abuse of marijuana. For each of the three constructs, variables were divided into two categories — a “trait,” which refers to a personality characteristic or attitudes and beliefs, and a “behavior,”

Dennis M Gorman; James H Derzon

2002-01-01

419

Suicidal thoughts and attempts among adolescents: a longitudinal 8-year follow-up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: To study the prevalence of and factors associated with suicidal behaviour among 580 adolescents. Methods: An 8-year longitudinal study included questions about suicidal attempts and thoughts at age 16. Children were evaluated with parent and teacher Rutter scales and self-reported Child Depression Inventory at age 8. At age 16, parents filled in the Child Behaviour Check List and adolescents

Andre Sourander; Leila Helstelä; Antti Haavisto; Lasse Bergroth

2001-01-01

420

Building a Constructivist Practice: A Longitudinal Study of Beginning History Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal interpretative case study examined the constructivist beliefs and related practices of four secondary history teachers from their teacher preparation through their first year in the classroom. The results of this study showed that issues of classroom control were major barriers for the implementation of constructivist-oriented…

Martell, Christopher C.

2014-01-01

421

Cognition, Function, and Disability in Patients With Schizophrenia: A Review of Longitudinal Studies  

PubMed Central

This paper aims to review longitudinal studies assessing the impact of cognition on function in patients with schizophrenia. PubMed and Scholars Portal were searched using search terms related to schizophrenia, cognition, function, and longitudinal studies. Some functional abilities have been studied more than others. Some studies suggest that the impact of cognition on function depends on the severity of baseline cognitive deficits. Other studies suggest that the impact of cognition on function depend on what phase of the illness the patient is in or what stage in that particular function the patient is involved in. Finally, few studies assessed interactions between cognition and other aspects of schizophrenia in predicting function, such as functional capacity, insight, motivation, and negative symptoms. More longitudinal and comprehensive studies are needed. A focus on community living is of high public significance as patients with schizophrenia continue to grow old. Future studies should also focus on the longitudinal interactions between cognition and other dimensions of schizophrenia as well as on the biological factors that underlie these interactions.

Rajji, Tarek K; Miranda, Dielle; Mulsant, Benoit H

2014-01-01

422

The Developmental Sequence of Social-Communicative Skills in Young Children with Autism: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To explore the different developmental trajectories of social-communicative skills in children with autism and typically developing infants, two longitudinal studies were conducted. In Study 1, we examined the developmental sequence of social-communicative skills in 26 typically developing infants when they were 9 months old and reexamined them…

Wu, Chin-Chin; Chi