Summary Specific age-related hypotheses are tested in population-based longitudinal studies. At specific time intervals, both the outcomes of interest and time-varying covariates are measured. When participants are approached for follow-up, some participants do not provide data. Investigations may show that many have died before the time of follow-up while others refused to participate. Some of these non-participants do not provide data at later follow-ups. Few statistical methods for missing data distinguish between “non-participation” and “death” among study participants. The augmented inverse probability-weighted estimators are most commonly used in marginal structure models when data are missing at random. Treating non-participation and death as the same, however, may lead to biased estimates and invalid inferences. To overcome this limitation, a multiple inverse probability-weighted approach is presented to account for two types of missing data, non-participation and death, when using a marginal mean model. Under certain conditions, the multiple weighted estimators are consistent and asymptotically normal. Simulation studies will be used to study the finite sample efficiency of the multiple weighted estimators. The proposed method will be applied to study the risk factors associated with the cognitive decline among the aging adults, using data from the Chicago Health and Aging Project (CHAP). PMID:20645281
Rajan, Kumar B.; Leurgans, Sue E.
Objective Research participants must have adequate consent-related abilities to provide informed consent at the time of study enrollment. We sought to determine if research participants with schizophrenia maintain adequate consent-related abilities during a longitudinal study. If participants lose abilities during a trial they may not be able to judge and protect their interests. If reduced abilities are common or can be predicted, special protections can be targeted appropriately. Method We examined longitudinal consent-related abilities of participants in the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) schizophrenia study using the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool-Clinical Research (MacCAT-CR) at protocol-specified times over 18 months. Results Of 1,158 research participants in this analysis, most (n= 650, 56%) had a stable pattern of MacCAT-CR Understanding scores, 235 (20%) improved substantially with no evidence of decline, 273 (24%) had at least one assessment with substantial worsening. During the course of the trial, 43 (4%) fell below the initial threshold for adequate capacity, which was predicted by lower Understanding scores, more severe positive symptoms, and poorer neurocognitive functioning at baseline, and by increases in negative symptoms and deteriorating global status. Conclusions Most participants in this long-term study had stable or improved consent-related abilities, but almost one-fourth experienced substantial worsening and 4% of participants fell below the study’s capacity threshold for enrollment. Clinical investigators should monitor with special care individuals with marginal capacity or higher levels of psychotic symptoms at study entry and those who exhibit clinical worsening during a study. PMID:21561740
Stroup, T. Scott; Appelbaum, Paul S.; Gu, Hongbin; Hays, Spencer; Swartz, Marvin S.; Keefe, Richard S.E.; Kim, Scott; Manschreck, Theo; Boshes, Roger; McEvoy, Joseph P.; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.
In prospective studies it is essential that the study sample accurately represents the target population for meaningful inferences to be drawn. Understanding why some individuals do not participate, or fail to continue to participate, in longitudinal studies can provide an empirical basis for the development of effective recruitment and retention strategies to improve response rates. This study examined the influence
Shirley Lih-Lan Hu
The purpose of this longitudinal case study is to describe the educational trajectories of a sample of 152 young women from urban, low-income, single-parent families who participated in the Women in Natural Sciences (WINS) program during high school. Utilizing data drawn from program records, surveys, and interviews, this study also attempts to determine how the program affected the participants' educational
Kathleen A. Fadigan; Penny L. Hammrich
Objective To understand the impact of social organisation affiliation and farmers’ agricultural production practices on farmer health. Organisations facilitate the acquisition and exchange of forms of social capital which can influence the adoption of practices with potential health impacts. In countries such as Ecuador, smallholder agriculture is practised by socially vulnerable populations. Agricultural production often involves the use of extremely hazardous pesticides, while practices that reduce the use of chemicals through integrated pest management (IPM) remain uncommon. Design Longitudinal study (2007–2010). Setting 12 Ecuadorian communities, previously part of a participatory action research study. Participants 208 small-scale farmers. Inclusion criteria were: age between 18 and 65?years, literate and resident in the community for the previous 3?years. Primary outcomes The differential effects of the membership in social organisations (as an effect modifier), on the relationship between the implementation of IPM practices (main independent variable) and farmers’ health, measured by neurocognitive performance scores (better higher value; dependent variable). Results Among organisational participants, the coefficient of association between the implementation of IPM practices for the category good/very good (vs no use) and neurocognitive performance, when farmers were involved in organisations, was negative and moderate (?=?0.17, SE 0.21) though not significant (p>0.1); for the category little/moderate use, the coefficient was positive (?=0.34, SE 0.19) and significant. Among those who did not participate in organisations, both little/moderate use and good/very good use of IPM practices were associated with an increase in neurocognitive performance. Conclusions The effect of agricultural production practices on farmers’ health, transmitted through organisations, can be differentiated. Organisations as structures of social capital seem to be functional in the social reproduction process of the communities studied. Results highlight the need to redirect the analysis of social capital to a more integrated study of social determination of health. PMID:25344481
Orozco, Fadya; Mota, Eduardo; Cole, Donald C
Background Randomised controlled trials have investigated aspects of postal survey design yet cannot elaborate on reasons behind participants' decision making and survey behaviour. This paper reports participants' perspectives of the design of, and participation in, a longitudinal postal cohort survey. It describes strengths and weaknesses in study design from the perspectives of study participants and aims to contribute to the: 1) design of future cohort surveys and questionnaires generally and, 2) design of cohort surveys for people with musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) specifically. Methods In-depth interviews explored the design of postal surveys previously completed by participants. Interviews used open ended questioning with a topic guide for prompts if areas of interest were not covered spontaneously. Thematic data analysis was undertaken based on the framework method. A second researcher verified all coding. Results Data from fourteen interviews were analysed within three main themes; participation, survey design and survey content. One of the main findings was the importance of clear communication aimed at the correct audience both when inviting potential participants to take part and within the survey itself. Providing enough information about the study, having a topic of interest and an explanation of likely benefits of the study were important when inviting people to participate. The neutrality of the survey and origination from a reputable source were both important; as was an explanation about why information was being collected within the survey itself. Study findings included participants' impressions when invited to take part, why they participated, the acceptability of follow-up of non-responders and why participants completed the follow-up postal survey. Also discussed were participants' first impression of the survey, its length, presentation and participants' views about specific questions within the survey. Conclusions Ideas generated in this study provide an insight into participants' decision making and survey behaviour and may enhance the acceptability of future surveys to potential participants. As well as clear communication, participants valued incentives and survey questions that were relevant to them. However, opinions varied as to the preferred format for responses with some advising more opportunity for open-ended feedback. We also found that some standard format questions can raise quandaries for individual participants. PMID:21269515
The effects of participation in school-to-career (STC) on subsequent educational and career opportunities were examined in a longitudinal study of 1999 and 2000 graduates of the Lansing Area Manufacturing Partnership (LAMP), which is an STC program sponsored by the United Auto Workers, General Motors Corporation, and Michigan's Ingham County…
Bozick, Robert; MacAllum, Keith
Background People aged 85 and over are often excluded from research on the grounds of being difficult to recruit and problematic to retain. The Newcastle 85+ study successfully recruited a cohort of 854 85-year-olds to detailed health assessment at baseline and followed them up over 3 phases spanning 5 years. This paper describes the effectiveness of its retention strategies. Methods Primary retention strategies involved meticulous management of contact information and active maintenance of contact with participants between research visits and between phases of the study. For statistical analysis, data on post-inclusion attrition over the 3 follow-up phases was separated into ‘death’ and ‘withdrawal’ categories, with sub-categories ‘health’ and ‘non-health’ reasons created for ‘withdrawal’. Multinomial logistic regression was used to determine if particular socio-demographic and health characteristics were associated with post-inclusion attrition due to withdrawal at each of the 3 phase-to-phase transition points. Results For both sexes, at successive follow-up phases there was a decrease in attrition due to withdrawal and an increase due to death. Withdrawal was most prevalent between baseline and phase 2. Across the 5 years of the study total post-inclusion (post-baseline) attrition due to death accounted for a 40% (344/854) loss to cohort and total post-inclusion attrition due to withdraw a 19% (166/854) loss to cohort, with health reasons for withdrawal becoming more dominant over time. Adjusting for sex, parsimonious modelling showed only occupational class (National Statistics Socio-economic Classification) to be associated with withdrawal and only between baseline and phase 2 (routine/manual compared to managerial (OR 3.41; 95% CI [1.23 to 9.44]). Conclusion Following successful recruitment, we retained a high proportion of participants from a very old age group over 5 years of longitudinal research. No strong predictors of post-inclusion attrition due to withdrawal were found, suggesting the general effectiveness of our retention strategies. PMID:25302500
Davies, Karen; Kingston, Andrew; Robinson, Louise; Hughes, Joan; Hunt, Judith M.; Barker, Sally A. H.; Edwards, June; Collerton, Joanna; Jagger, Carol; Kirkwood, Thomas B. L.
Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (n ˜ 6,950), a nationally representative sample of children born in 2001, we examined school readiness (academic skills and socioemotional well-being) at kindergarten entry for children who attended Head Start compared with those who experienced other types of child care…
Lee, RaeHyuck; Zhai, Fuhua; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Han, Wen-Jui; Waldfogel, Jane
Aim: The purpose of this study was (1) to examine the changes in participation rates over 1 year among children and adolescents after acquired brain injury and (2) to explore the effect of child and family factors on these changes. Method: The participation levels of 136 children and young people (88 males; 48 females; age range 4y 11mo-17y 6mo;…
Anaby, Dana; Law, Mary; Hanna, Steven; DeMatteo, Carol
It has been argued that high school sports participation increases motivation and teaches teamwork and self-discipline. While several studies have shown that students who participate in athletic activities perform better in school than those who do not, it is not clear whether this association is a result of positive academic spillovers, or due to…
Rees, Daniel I.; Sabia, Joseph J.
This study examines longitudinal changes in cognitive functioning over the course of 2 years in participants of adult day care programs. Cognitive measures included the Brief Cognitive Rating Scale (BCRS) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Longitudinal data were available for five measurement points over 2 years for 82 participants (22 males and 60 females). Overall, results from this study
Jiska Cohen-Mansfield; Ann L. Gruber-Baldini; William J. Culpepper; Perla Werner
Objectives. We investigated the relationship between selected types of screen-based media (SBM) use, total SBM use, sports participation, and markers of well-being. Methods. Data came from the youth panel (n?=?4899) of Understanding Society, the UK Household Longitudinal Study, conducted in 2009. Well-being was measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and markers of happiness in different life domains. Results. The majority of young people used multiple types of SBM for at least 1 hour per day; only 30% participated in sports every day. Overall, young people with heavy SBM use were less happy than moderate users and more likely to have socioemotional difficulties. Chatting on social networking Web sites and game console use were associated with higher odds of socioemotional problems. Higher total SBM use was associated with lower odds of happiness and higher odds of socioemotional difficulties. Greater participation in sports was associated with higher odds of happiness and lower odds of socioemotional difficulties. Conclusions. Further longitudinal research could inform future interventions to reduce sedentary behavior and encourage healthy lifestyles among young people. PMID:25494209
Booker, Cara L; Skew, Alexandra J; Kelly, Yvonne J; Sacker, Amanda
This study identifies potential predictors of participation changes in various areas for preschool children with cerebral palsy (CP). Eighty children with CP (2-6 years) were enrolled. Seven potential predictors were identified: age; sex; socioeconomic status, CP subtype; cognitive function, Function Independence Measure for Children (WeeFIM), and motor composite variable from 5 motor factors (gross motor function classification system (GMFCS) level; bimanual fine motor function level; selective motor control score; Modified Ashworth Scale score; and Spinal Alignment and Range of Motion Measure). Outcome was assessed at baseline and at 6-month follow-up using the Assessment of Preschool Children's Participation (APCP) including diversity and intensity scores in the areas of play (PA), skill development (SD), active physical recreation, social activities (SA), and total areas. Dependent variables were change scores of APCP scores at baseline and 6-month follow-up. Regression analyses shows age and sex together predicted for APCP-total, APCP-SD diversity and APCP-total intensity changes (r(2)=0.13-0.25, p<0.001); cognitive function and WeeFIM were negative predictors for APCP-SA and APCP-PA diversity changes, respectively. CP subtype, motor composite variable, and socioeconomic status predicted for APCP changes in some areas. Findings suggest that young boys with poor cognitive function and daily activity predicted most on participation changes. PMID:25460224
Wu, Katie P; Chuang, Yu-Fen; Chen, Chia-Ling; Liu, I-Shu; Liu, Hsiang-Tseng; Chen, Hsieh-Ching
We investigated whether childhood factors that are amenable to intervention (parenting stress, child psychological problems and pain) predicted participation in daily activities and social roles of adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). We randomly selected 1174 children aged 8–12 years from eight population-based registers of children with CP in six European countries; 743 (63%) agreed to participate. One further region recruited 75 children from multiple sources. These 818 children were visited at home at age 8–12 years, 594 (73%) agreed to follow-up at age 13–17 years. We used the following measures: parent reported stress (Parenting Stress Index Short Form), their child's psychological difficulties (Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire) and frequency and severity of pain; either child or parent reported the child's participation (LIFE Habits questionnaire). We fitted a structural equation model to each of the participation domains, regressing participation in childhood and adolescence on parenting stress, child psychological problems and pain, and regressing adolescent factors on the corresponding childhood factors; models were adjusted for impairment, region, age and gender. Pain in childhood predicted restricted adolescent participation in all domains except Mealtimes and Communication (standardized total indirect effects ? ?0.05 to ?0.18, 0.01 < p < 0.05 to p < 0.001, depending on domain). Psychological problems in childhood predicted restricted adolescent participation in all domains of social roles, and in Personal Care and Communication (? ?0.07 to ?0.17, 0.001 < p < 0.01 to p < 0.001). Parenting stress in childhood predicted restricted adolescent participation in Health Hygiene, Mobility and Relationships (? ?0.07 to ?0.18, 0.001 < p < 0.01 to p < 0.001). These childhood factors predicted adolescent participation largely via their effects on childhood participation; though in some domains early psychological problems and parenting stress in childhood predicted adolescent participation largely through their persistence into adolescence. We conclude that participation of adolescents with CP was predicted by early modifiable factors related to the child and family. Interventions for reduction of pain, psychological difficulties and parenting stress in childhood are justified not only for their intrinsic value, but also for probable benefits to childhood and adolescent participation. PMID:25462516
Dang, Van Mô; Colver, Allan; Dickinson, Heather O.; Marcelli, Marco; Michelsen, Susan I.; Parkes, Jackie; Parkinson, Kathryn; Rapp, Marion; Arnaud, Catherine; Nystrand, Malin; Fauconnier, Jérôme
We investigated whether childhood factors that are amenable to intervention (parenting stress, child psychological problems and pain) predicted participation in daily activities and social roles of adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). We randomly selected 1174 children aged 8-12 years from eight population-based registers of children with CP in six European countries; 743 (63%) agreed to participate. One further region recruited 75 children from multiple sources. These 818 children were visited at home at age 8-12 years, 594 (73%) agreed to follow-up at age 13-17 years. We used the following measures: parent reported stress (Parenting Stress Index Short Form), their child's psychological difficulties (Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire) and frequency and severity of pain; either child or parent reported the child's participation (LIFE Habits questionnaire). We fitted a structural equation model to each of the participation domains, regressing participation in childhood and adolescence on parenting stress, child psychological problems and pain, and regressing adolescent factors on the corresponding childhood factors; models were adjusted for impairment, region, age and gender. Pain in childhood predicted restricted adolescent participation in all domains except Mealtimes and Communication (standardized total indirect effects ? -0.05 to -0.18, 0.01
participation in all domains of social roles, and in Personal Care and Communication (? -0.07 to -0.17, 0.001
participation in Health Hygiene, Mobility and Relationships (? -0.07 to -0.18, 0.001
participation largely via their effects on childhood participation; though in some domains early psychological problems and parenting stress in childhood predicted adolescent participation largely through their persistence into adolescence. We conclude that participation of adolescents with CP was predicted by early modifiable factors related to the child and family. Interventions for reduction of pain, psychological difficulties and parenting stress in childhood are justified not only for their intrinsic value, but also for probable benefits to childhood and adolescent participation. PMID:25462516
Dang, Van Mô; Colver, Allan; Dickinson, Heather O; Marcelli, Marco; Michelsen, Susan I; Parkes, Jackie; Parkinson, Kathryn; Rapp, Marion; Arnaud, Catherine; Nystrand, Malin; Fauconnier, Jérôme
An understanding of the most effective recruitment techniques and retention strategies for longitudinal, community-based, childrens environmental health studies such as the National Childrens Study (NCS) is needed. In early 2003, eighteen focus groups were conducted across the ...
Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (n ? 6,950), a nationally representative sample of children born in 2001, we examined school readiness (academic skills and socio-emotional wellbeing) at kindergarten entry for children who attended Head Start compared to those who experienced other types of child care (prekindergarten, other center-based care, other non-parental care, or parental care). Using propensity score matching methods and OLS regressions with rich controls, we found that Head Start participants had higher early reading and math scores than children in other non-parental care or parental care, but also higher levels of conduct problems than those in parental care. Head Start participants had lower early reading scores compared to children in prekindergarten, and had no differences in any outcomes compared to children in other center-based care. Head Start benefits were more pronounced for children who had low initial cognitive ability or low-educated parents, or attended Head Start for more than 20 hours per week. PMID:23527496
Lee, RaeHyuck; Zhai, Fuhua; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Han, Wen-Jui; Waldfogel, Jane
This article describes two unique strategies for recruiting older patients into clinical trials. Development of a participant registry within an institution’s geographic area creates a well documented pool of potential study participants. Age-eligible individuals provide consent to be registered and contacted about future studies.
. MOON MERCHANT Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY August 2005 Major Subject: Curriculum... and Instruction A LONGITUDINAL TREND STUDY OF A UNIVERSITY-BASED TEACHER INDUCTION PROGRAM: OBSERVABLE BEHAVIORS OF URBAN TEACHERS AND THEIR PERCEPTIONS OF PROGRAM COMPONENTS FIVE YEARS AFTER PARTICIPATION A Dissertation by VICKIE V. MOON...
Moon Merchant, Vickie V
Background The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (DCCT/EDIC) Study has sustained an extraordinarily high level of participant involvement for over two decades. Purpose In order to identify specific characteristics of EDIC that contributed most strongly to retention, study-designed questionnaires were distributed to 1334 participants. Methods Confidential questionnaires were completed during EDIC Years 15–17. Participants were classified as Completely Adherent (completed all visits), Partly Adherent (missed >1 visit or major portion of a visit), or Inactive (did not participate for >5 years). Questionnaire items addressed specific aspects of clinic visits, evaluation procedures, staff–participant relationships, and medical/health-care support provided by EDIC. Results The most commonly cited reasons for continuing participation were Cutting Edge Tests to assess diabetes complications (79.3%), Annual Evaluations (67.7%), a desire to Help Others (65.2%), and Better Care for Diabetes (61.6%). Women chose Cutting Edge Tests as their first or second most important reason significantly more often than men, whereas men chose Better Care for Diabetes more frequently. Individuals with at least three diabetes-related complications were more likely than those with fewer complications to choose Annual Evaluations as their first or second reason for continued involvement. Limitations The small proportion of individuals who discontinued participation restricted our ability to identify factors associated with suspended involvement. In addition, our analysis is limited to a cohort with type 1 diabetes followed in an observational study after an average participation time of 6.5 years in a randomized trial. Conclusions The primary reasons identified by respondents for their long-term commitment are consistent with shorter-term studies and underscore the importance of expert medical care, supportive staff–participant relationships, and involvement with clinically and scientifically meaningful research. PMID:23027646
Kramer, John R; Bayless, Margaret L; Lorenzi, Gayle M; Ziegler, Georgia K; Larkin, Mary E; Lackaye, Mary E; Harth, Judith; Diminick, Lisa J; Anderson, Karen L; Braffett, Barbara H; Cleary, Patricia A
Objective A number of social and sexual risk factors for bacterial vaginosis (BV) have been described. It is important to understand whether these factors are associated with non-participation or attrition of participants from longitudinal studies in order to examine potential for recruitment or attrition bias. We describe factors associated with participation and attrition in a 24-month prospective cohort study, investigating incident BV among Australian women who have sex with women. Study Design and Setting Participants negative for prevalent BV were offered enrolment in a longitudinal cohort study. Participants self-collected vaginal samples and completed questionnaires 3-monthly to endpoint (BV-positive/BV-negative by 24 months). Factors associated with participation in the cohort study were examined by logistic regression and factors associated with attrition from the cohort were examined by Cox regression. Results The cross-sectional study recruited 457 women. 334 BV-negative women were eligible for the cohort and 298 (89%, 95%CI 85, 92) enrolled. Lower educational levels (aOR 2.72, 95%CI 1.09, 6.83), smoking (aOR 2.44, 95%CI 1.13, 5.27), past BV symptoms (aOR 3.42, 95%CI 1.16, 10.10) and prior genital warts (aOR 2.71, 95%CI 1.14, 6.46) were associated with non-participation; a partner co-enrolling increased participation (aOR 3.73, 95%CI 1.43, 9.70). 248 participants (83%, 95%CI 78, 87) were retained to study endpoint (BV-negative at 24 months or BV-positive at any stage). Attrition was associated being <30 yrs (aHR 2.15, 95%CI 1.13, 4.10) and a male partner at enrolment (aHR 6.12, 95%CI 1.99, 18.82). Conclusion We achieved high participation and retention levels in a prospective cohort study and report factors influencing participation and retention of participants over a 24-month study period, which will assist in the design and implementation of future cohort studies in sexual health and disease. PMID:25412421
Forcey, Dana S.; Walker, Sandra M.; Vodstrcil, Lenka A.; Fairley, Christopher K.; Bilardi, Jade E.; Law, Matthew; Hocking, Jane S.; Fethers, Katherine A.; Petersen, Susan; Bellhouse, Clare; Chen, Marcus Y.; Bradshaw, Catriona S.
The goal of this study was to investigate differences in physical fitness and sports participation over 2 years in children with relatively high, average, and low motor competence. Physical fitness and gross motor coordination of 501 children between 6-10 years were measured at baseline and baseline+2 years. The sample compromised 2 age cohorts: 6.00-7.99 and 8.00-9.99 years. An age and sex-specific motor quotient at baseline testing was used to subdivide these children into low (MQ < P33), average (P33 ? MQ < P66) and high (MQ ? P66) motor competence groups. Measures of sports participation were obtained through a physical activity questionnaire in 278 of the same children. Repeated Measures MANCOVA and two separate ANOVAs were used to analyze differences in changes in physical fitness and measures of sports participation respectively. Children with high motor competence scored better on physical fitness tests and participated in sports more often. Since physical fitness levels between groups changed similarly over time, low motor competent children might be at risk for being less physically fit throughout their life. Furthermore, since low motor competent children participate less in sports, they have fewer opportunities of developing motor abilities and physical fitness and this may further prevent them from catching up with their peers with an average or high motor competence. PMID:24018944
Fransen, Job; Deprez, Dieter; Pion, Johan; Tallir, Isabel B; D'Hondt, Eva; Vaeyens, Roel; Lenoir, Matthieu; Philippaerts, Renaat M
The goal of this study was to investigate differences in physical fitness and sports participation over two years in children with relatively high, average, and low motor competence. Physical fitness and gross motor coordination of 501 children between 6-10 years were measured at baseline and baseline+2 years. The sample compromised 2 age cohorts: 6.00-7.99 and 8.00-9.99 years. An age and sex-specific motor quotient at baseline testing was used to subdivide these children into low (MQ < P33), average (P33 ? MQ < P66) and high (MQ ? P66) motor competence groups. Measures of sports participation were obtained through a physical activity questionnaire in 278 of the same children. Repeated Measures MANCOVA and two separate ANOVAs were used to analyze differences in changes in physical fitness and measures of sports participation respectively. Children with high motor competence scored better on physical fitness tests and participated in sports more often. Since physical fitness levels between groups changed similarly over time, low motor competent children might be at risk for being less physically fit throughout their life. Furthermore, since low motor competent children participate less in sports, they have fewer opportunities of developing motor abilities and physical fitness and this may further prevent them from catching up with their peers with an average or high motor competence. PMID:24662115
Fransen, Job; Deprez, Dieter; Pion, Johan; Tallir, Isabel B; D'Hondt, Eva; Vaeyens, Roel; Lenoir, Matthieu; Philippaerts, Renaat M
Background The determinants of participation in long-term follow-up studies of disasters have rarely been delineated. Even less is known from studies of events that occurred in eastern Europe. We examined the factors associated with participation in a longitudinal two-stage study conducted in Kyiv following the 1986 Chornobyl nuclear power plant accident. Methods Six hundred child-mother dyads (300 evacuees and 300 classmate controls) were initially assessed in 1997 when the children were 11 years old, and followed up in 2005–6 when they were 19 years old. A population control group (304 mothers and 327 children) was added in 2005–6. Each assessment point involved home interviews with the children and mothers (stage 1), followed by medical examinations of the children at a clinic (stage 2). Background characteristics, health status, and Chornobyl risk perceptions were examined. Results The participation rates in the follow-up home interviews were 87.8% for the children (88.6% for evacuees; 87.0% for classmates) and 83.7% for their mothers (86.4% for evacuees and 81.0% for classmates). Children's and mothers' participation was predicted by one another's study participation and attendance at the medical examination at time 1. Mother's participation was also predicted by initial concerns about her child's health, greater psychological distress, and Chornobyl risk perceptions. In 1997, 91.2% of the children had a medical examination (91.7% of evacuees and 90.7% of classmates); in 2005–6, 85.2% were examined (83.0% of evacuees, 87.7% of classmates, 85.0% of population controls). At both times, poor health perceptions were associated with receiving a medical examination. In 2005–6, clinic attendance was also associated with the young adults' risk perceptions, depression or generalized anxiety disorder, lower standard of living, and female gender. Conclusion Despite our low attrition rates, we identified several determinants of selective participation consistent with previous research. Although evacuee status was not associated with participation, Chornobyl risk perceptions were strong predictors of mothers' follow-up participation and attendance at the medical examinations. Understanding selective participation offers valuable insight for future longitudinal disaster studies that integrate psychiatric and medical epidemiologic research. PMID:18466621
Guey, Lin T; Bromet, Evelyn J; Gluzman, Semyon F; Zakhozha, Victoria; Paniotto, Vlodomyr
Introduction Stimulating physical activity behaviour in persons with a physical disability is important, especially after discharge from rehabilitation. A tailored counselling programme covering both the period of the rehabilitation treatment and the first months at home seems on the average effective. However, a considerable variation in response is observed in the sense that some patients show a relevant beneficial response while others show no or only a small response on physical activity behaviour. The Rehabilitation, Sports and Active lifestyle (ReSpAct) study aims to estimate the associations of patient and programme characteristics with patients’ physical activity behaviour after their participation in a tailored counselling programme. Methods and analysis A questionnaire-based nationwide longitudinal prospective cohort study is conducted. Participants are recruited from 18 rehabilitation centres and hospitals in The Netherlands. 2000 participants with a physical disability or chronic disease will be followed during and after their participation in a tailored counselling programme. Programme outcomes on physical activity behaviour and patient as well as programme characteristics that may be associated with differences in physical activity behaviour after programme completion are being assessed. Data collection takes place at baseline and 14, 33 and 52?weeks after discharge from rehabilitation. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol has been approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of the University Medical Centre Groningen and at individual participating institutions. All participants give written informed consent. The study results will provide new insights into factors that may help explain the differences in physical activity behaviour of patients with a physical disability after they have participated in the same physical activity and sports stimulation programme. Thereby, it will support healthcare professionals to tailor their guidance and care to individual patients in order to stimulate physical activity after discharge in a more efficient and effective way. Trial registration number NTR3961. PMID:25633288
Alingh, Rolinde A; Hoekstra, Femke; van der Schans, Cees P; Hettinga, Florentina J; Dekker, Rienk; van der Woude, Lucas H V
Background For many estimation purposes, individuals who repeatedly refuse to participate in longitudinal HIV surveillance pose a bigger threat to valid inferences than individuals who participate at least occasionally. We investigate the determinants of repeated refusal to consent to HIV testing in a population-based longitudinal surveillance in rural South Africa. Methods We used data from two years (2005 & 2006) of the annual HIV surveillance conducted by the Africa Centre for Health and Population Studies, linking the HIV surveillance data to demographic and socioeconomic data. The outcome for the analysis was “repeated refusal”. Demographic variables included sex, age, highest educational attainment, and place of residence. We also included a measure of wealth and the variable “ever had sex”. To compare the association of each variable with the outcome, unadjusted odds ratios and standard errors were estimated. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios and their standard errors. Data were analyzed using STATA 10.0. Results Of 15,557 eligible individuals, 46% refused to test for HIV in both rounds. Males were significantly more likely than females to repeatedly refuse testing. Holding all other variables constant, individuals in the middle age groups were more likely to repeatedly refuse testing compared with younger and older age groups. The odds of repeated refusal increased with increasing level of education and relative wealth. People living in urban areas were significantly more likely to repeatedly refuse an HIV test than people living in peri-urban or rural areas. Compared to those who had ever had sex, both males and females who had not yet had sex were significantly more likely to refuse to participate. Conclusions The likelihood of repeated refusal to test for HIV in this longitudinal surveillance increases with education, wealth, urbanization, and primary sexual abstinence. Since the factors determining repeated HIV testing refusal are likely associated with HIV status, it is critical that selection effects are controlled for in the analysis of HIV surveillance data. Interventions to increase consent to HIV testing should consider targeting the relatively well educated and wealthy, people in urban areas, and individuals who have not yet sexually debuted.
Giordano, Katie; McGrath, Nuala; Snow, Rachel; Harlow, Siobán; Newell, Marie-Louise
The Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS) is a long-term study of a random sample of 10,317 men and women who graduated from Wisconsin high schools in 1957. The WLS provides an opportunity to study of the life course, intergenerational transfers and relationships, family functioning...
This study examines the roles of parental political socialization and the moral commitment to change social inequalities in predicting marginalized youths' (defined here as lower-SES youth of color) political participation. These issues are examined by applying structural equation modeling to a longitudinal panel of youth. Because tests of measurement invariance suggested racial/ethnic heterogeneity, the structural model was fit separately for three racial/ethnic groups. For each group, parental political socialization: discussion predicted youths' commitment to produce social change and for two groups, longitudinally predicted political participation. This study contributes to the literature by examining civic/political participation among disparate racial/ethnic groups, addresses an open scholarly question (whether youths' commitment to create social change predicts their "traditional" participation), and emphasizes parents' role in fostering marginalized youths' civic and political participation. PMID:22302436
Diemer, Matthew A
While much is known regarding the incidence and pattern of fractures during growth, information is sparse as to how many children fracture repeatedly and how many remain fracture-free during growth. The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, a birth cohort, whose members were questioned regularly throughout growth (at ages 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15 and 18 years) concerning injuries including fractures, has provided a unique opportunity to answer these questions. Life-table analysis showed that approximately half the children remained fracture-free throughout growth [girls 60.1%, (95% CI 54.7-65.0) and boys 49.3% (95% CI 44.0-54.4)]. Data on fracture history, for participants seen at every phase, was available for 601 members through to the age of 18 years (61.1% of the cohort seen at age 5 years). Two hundred and ninety-one of these 601 participants reported 498 fractures, with 172 sustaining a single fracture, and 119 more than one fracture (15.8% girls and 23.4% boys). The most common site of fracture was the wrist/forearm (24.1% of all fractures). We conclude that although bone fractures are a common adverse event in childhood, half of all children remain fracture-free throughout growth. PMID:12459942
Jones, I E; Williams, S M; Dow, N; Goulding, A
This longitudinal study examined the temporal-ordered causal relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV), five mental disorders (depression, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, panic attack, posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]), alcohol abuse/dependence, drug abuse/ dependence, treatment seeking (from physician, counselor, and…
Cheng, Tyrone C.
Dyslexia, specific reading disability, which seriously impairs school achievement and interferes with the acquisition of information, is estimated to affect about 3-15% of the population. In a longitudinal study started in the University of Jyväskylä researchers will follow the development of language and other cognitive skills of babies of 160 families from birth to about 10 years' age in search for early precursors of dyslexia. Trough screening parents for dyslexia we hope to obtain new information about specific features of reading and writing problems in adulthood, which helps us to focus our search for important features of early language problems linked to development of dyslexia. Finnish public health nurses are involved the study in the field. PMID:8260681
We explored the extent to which intensity and breadth of participation in an after-school program (ASP) predicted academic achievement, as measured by changes in grades and attendance. The sample comprised 719 2nd-grade through 8th-grade Boys and Girls Clubs of Greater Dallas members during the 2009-2010 academic year. With respect to intensity,…
Springer, Ken; Diffily, Deborah
It has been eight years since the AAS Council unanimously endorsed the document, known as "Equity Now: The Pasadena Recommendations for Gender Equality in Astronomy," in January 2005. This document was the main product of the conference entitled “Women in Astronomy II: Ten Years After” (WIA II), held in June 2003 in Pasadena, CA. One of the key recommendations represented in that document was the need for a longitudinal study of astronomers. It was recognized that in order to understand our own field, how it is evolving, and the impact on individuals, we need to track people over time. I will discuss the fundamental questions that led to the recommendation, and set the stage for the current (ongoing) longitudinal study.
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the long-term impact of a childhood motor skill intervention on adolescent motor skills and physical activity. METHODS: In 2006, we undertook a follow-up of motor skill proficiency (catch, kick, throw, vertical jump, side gallop) and physical activity in adolescents who had participated in a one-year primary school intervention Move It Groove
Lisa M Barnett; Eric van Beurden; Philip J Morgan; Lyndon O Brooks; Avigdor Zask; John R Beard
The purposes of the present study were to describe the longitudinal utilization rates of participation in early intervention services of children with developmental delays, and to examine the geographical difference of services in this vulnerable population. We analyzed service utilization of the developmentally delayed children based on data of…
Lin, Jin-Ding; Chen, Yong-Chen; Chou, Yu-Ching
NASA’s Planetary Science Summer School is a program designed to prepare the next generation of scientists and engineers to participate in future missions of solar system exploration. The opportunity is advertised to science and engineering post-doctoral and graduate students with a strong interest in careers in planetary exploration. Preference is given to U.S. citizens. The “school” consists of a one-week intensive team exercise learning the process of developing a robotic mission concept into reality through concurrent engineering, working with JPL’s Advanced Project Design Team (Team X). This program benefits the students by providing them with skills, knowledge and the experience of collaborating with a concept mission design. A longitudinal study was conducted to assess the impact of the program on the past participants of the program. Data collected included their current contact information, if they are currently part of the planetary exploration community, if participation in the program contributed to any career choices, if the program benefited their career paths, etc. Approximately 37% of 250 past participants responded to the online survey. Of these, 83% indicated that they are actively involved in planetary exploration or aerospace in general; 78% said they had been able to apply what they learned in the program to their current job or professional career; 100% said they would recommend this program to a colleague.
Giron, Jennie M.; Sohus, A.
The Urea Cycle Disorders Consortium (UCDC) is a member of the NIH funded Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network and is performing a longitudinal study of 8 urea cycle disorders (UCDs) with initial enrollment beginning in 2006. The consortium consists of 14 sites in the U.S., Canada and Europe. This report summarizes data mining studies of 614 patients with UCDs enrolled in the UCDC's longitudinal study protocol. The most common disorder is ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, accounting for more than half of the participants. We calculated the overall prevalence of urea cycle disorders to be 1/35,000, with 2/3rds presenting initial symptoms after the newborn period. We found the mortality rate to be 24% in neonatal onset cases and 11% in late onset cases. The most common precipitant of clinical hyperammonemic episodes in the post-neonatal period was intercurrent infections. Elevations in both blood ammonia and glutamine appeared to be biomarkers for neurocognitive outcome. In terms of chronic treatment, low protein diet appeared to result in normal weight but decreased linear growth while N-scavenger therapy with phenylbutyrate resulted in low levels of branched chain amino acids. Finally, we found an unexpectedly high risk for hepatic dysfunction in patients with ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency. This natural history study illustrates how a collaborative study of a rare genetic disorder can result in an improved understanding of morbidity and disease outcome. PMID:25135652
Batshaw, Mark L; Tuchman, Mendel; Summar, Marshall; Seminara, Jennifer
..................................................................................................................................13 Psychological Well-Being-Acceptance................................................................................................................ 25 7. Total Score for Psychological Well-BeingDOCUMENTATION OF SCALES in WISCONSIN LONGITUDINAL STUDY 1992-1993 Respondent Mail Questionnaire
Wisconsin at Madison, University of
Previous studies implicate suprasegmental phonology in reading acquisition. However, little is known about how suprasegmental sensitivity develops or how it contributes to reading. Here, 130 Spanish primary-school children participated in this 2-year longitudinal study. Nonlinguistic rhythm, lexical-stress sensitivity and metrical-stress…
Calet, Nuria; Gutiérrez-Palma, Nicolás; Simpson, Ian C.; González-Trujillo, M. Carmen; Defior, Sylvia
This longitudinal study examined antecedents and consequences of psychological burnout among human service professionals. Antecedents of psychological burnout included individual and situational characteristics, work stressors, and measures of social support. Consequences of psychological burnout emphasized satisfaction and emotional and physical well-being variables. Participants in the study were 362 school-based educators (teachers and administrators) employed by the same school board. Respondents
Ronald J. Burke; Esther Greenglass
Parents use active and restrictive mediation strategies to guide and regulate children's online participation and the online risks they encounter. However, changes in parental mediation do occur over time and the effectiveness of these strategies on cyberbullying demands for further empirical investigation. The current study addresses these issues with a sample of 1084 students (49% girls) in a longitudinal, three-wave design. Gender differences were tested via multi-group analyses. Longitudinal growth models showed that parental use of both active and restrictive mediation decreased over time. For both types of mediation, the mean rate of change had a significant effect on boys' engagement in cyberbullying, but not for girls. Initial levels of restrictive mediation, but not active mediation, were found to be significantly predictive of cyberbullying in both genders. Girls had higher initial levels of both parental mediation types in comparison to boys. The results reveal that the effectiveness of active and restrictive mediation in relation to students' cyberbullying differs and informs us on gender differences. The implications of these results for parental education in online mediation are discussed. PMID:24875699
Chng, Grace S; Liau, Albert; Khoo, Angeline; Li, Dongdong
A number of techniques are described to prevent attrition of four different categories of subjects in a longitudinal study of deviant behavior.Difficult to schedule subjects required persistence, empathy and flexibility to ensure their continued participation.Reluctant subjects were persuaded to participate by taking special care to build rapport with that family.Subjects who initially refused were “turned around” by assuming that a
Judith L. Navratil; Stephanie M. Green; Rolf Loeber; Benjamin B. Lahey
Objective There is great variability in response to stressful life events (SLEs), with some individuals demonstrating substantial psychiatric symptoms while others remain largely asymptomatic. The source of this variability is poorly understood. The present study aimed to examine the genetic and environmental underpinning of resilience, defined as the difference between the twins’ total score on a broad measure of internalizing symptoms and their predicted score based on their cumulative exposure to SLEs. Method SLE exposure and internalizing symptoms were assessed at two time points in 7,500 adult twins. Using the residual between actual and predicted internalizing symptom total score, twin modeling was conducted for each wave separately, as well as longitudinally. Quantitative and qualitative sex effects were also tested. Results Resilience was found to have a mild to moderate genetic heritability at each individual wave (~31%). Additionally, qualitative sex effects were found. Incorporating error of measurement into the model increased the estimated heritability for the latent construct of resilience (~50%). Unconfounded by measurement error and occasion specific effects, environmental influences contributed roughly equally to determining the individual level of resilience. Conclusions Genetic factors influence the level of psychiatric resilience, and are largely stable over time. The genes that impact on resilience are not entirely the same in males and females, although the degree of heritability is equal across the sexes. Environmental influences can also have an enduring effect on resilience. The present findings of the genetic and environmental influences on adaptation to SLEs clarify the sources of individual variation to environmental stressors. PMID:24723629
Amstadter, Ananda B.; Myers, John M.; Kendler, Kenneth S.
Purpose: This study assessed self-reported pain in the oldest old and examined its changes over time and in relation to other measures of health and functioning. Design and Methods: A population-based sample of the oldest old (86-92 years of age) residing in Sweden who were participating in a multiwave longitudinal investigation were interviewed…
Zarit, Steven H.; Griffiths, Patricia C.; Berg, Stig
Reciprocal associations between the Big Five personality traits and parenting stress--including both parents' feelings of their distress and perception of their incompetence as parents--were studied with 248 participants (49% of which were males). Longitudinal data, collected at ages 33/36, 42 and 50 years, were used. Cross-lagged path…
Rantanen, Johanna; Tillemann, Kati; Metsäpelto, Riitta-Leena; Kokko, Katja; Pulkkinen, Lea
An empirical test of the relationship between information processing and employee participation in a longitudinal experimental field setting is described. Data were obtained over a 40-month period from an engineering division within a major southeastern power-generating organization, and hypotheses were tested using a nonequivalent control group design with a comparison group to analyze changes in information processing for employees having
Gary J. Castrogiovanni; Barry A. Macy
Noting that proposed models of literacy development suggest that reading and writing mutually influence and grow from each other, this paper summarizes aspects of stage theories of literacy development and an integrative model, and considers how the model fared in empirical longitudinal tests. The paper begins with a summary of the modal aspects…
This study provides a comprehensive view of the health and health behaviors of adolescents and the antecedents - personal, interpersonal, familial, and environmental of these outcomes. The study features a longitudinal, multi-level design with independent measurement at the indiv...
Objectives. This study sought to estimate the impact on birthweight of maternal participation in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Methods. WIC estimates were based on sibling models incorporating data on children born between 1990 and 1996 to women taking part in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Results. Fixed-effects estimates indicated that prenatal WIC participation was associated with a 0.075 unit difference (95% confidence interval [CI] = –0.007, 0.157) in siblings' logged birthweight. At the 88-oz (2464-g) low-birthweight cutoff, this difference translated into an estimated impact of 6.6 oz (184.8 g). Conclusion. Earlier WIC impact estimates may have been biased by unmeasured characteristics affecting both program participation and birth outcomes. Our approach controlled for such biases and revealed a significant positive association between WIC participation and birthweight. PMID:11988450
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Duncan, Greg J.
Longitudinal inquiry has long been recognized as a uniquely powerful method for seeking understanding of psychological development. A 30-year longitudinal venture is described—its theoretical motivation, methodological rationale, and details of implementation. Some of the novel and implicative findings the study has generated are briefly described. Common to all of the results is an absolute reliance on long-term, widely ranging, independent
Jack Block; Jeanne H. Block
We conducted a longitudinal study to assess the continuing influence of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) on quality of life and participation. Ninety-six participants (25 in the DCD group, 30 in the borderline group, and 41 in the control group) ages 22-29 yr who had been screened for DCD 3-4 yr previously completed the Participation in Every Day Activities of Life, the Life-Satisfaction Questionnaire, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) instrument. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed a significant between-groups difference, F(7, 95) = 2.89, p = .001, ? = 0.173, and post hoc analyses revealed that participants in the DCD and borderline groups scored lower overall on participation, quality of life, and life satisfaction. Linear regression found the Psychological Health domain of the WHOQOL-BREF to be a significant predictor of life satisfaction (B = 0.533; p = .001). PMID:24797194
Tal-Saban, Miri; Ornoy, Asher; Parush, Shula
Examples of business process reengineering efforts have tended to emphasize manufacturing applications over service operations. This paper reports on a recently completed longitudinal reengineering project conducted by the authors in a service context. Key lessons learned from the experiences of the case study are presented in the form of propositions. Based on these propositions, a process model for successfully planning
Ram Narasimhan; Jayanth Jayaram
The National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 (NLS-72) is the "grandmother" of the longitudinal studies designed and conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics, and is probably the richest archive ever assembled on a generation of Americans. Participants were selected as high school seniors in 1972 and were…
Maline, Mindi S., Comp.
Sphingomyelin metabolism has been linked to several diseases and to longevity. However, few epidemiological studies have quantified individual plasma sphingomyelin species (identified by acyl-chain length and saturation) or their relationship between demographic factors and disease processes. In this study, we determined plasma concentrations of distinct sphingomyelin species in 992 individuals, aged 55 and older, enrolled in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Participants were followed, with serial measures, up to 6 visits and 38 years (3972 total samples). Quantitative analyses were performed on a high-performance liquid chromatography-coupled electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometer. Linear mixed models were used to assess variation in specific sphingomyelin species and associations with demographics, diseases, medications or lifestyle factors, and plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels. We found that most sphingomyelin species increased with age. Women had higher plasma levels of all sphingomyelin species and showed steeper trajectories of age-related increases compared to men. African Americans also showed higher circulating sphingomyelin concentrations compared to Caucasians. Diabetes, smoking, and plasma triglycerides were associated with lower levels of many sphingomyelins and dihydrosphingomyelins. Notably, these associations showed specificity to sphingomyelin acyl-chain length and saturation. These results demonstrate that longitudinal changes in circulating sphingomyelin levels are influenced by age, sex, race, lifestyle factors, and diseases. It will be important to further establish the intra-individual age- and sex-specific changes in each sphingomyelin species in relation to disease onset and progression. PMID:25345489
Mielke, Michelle M; Bandaru, Veera Venkata Ratnam; Han, Dingfen; An, Yang; Resnick, Susan M; Ferrucci, Luigi; Haughey, Norman J
The Bielefeld Longitudinal Study of Adult Twins (BiLSAT) is a German longitudinal study of monozygotic and dizygotic twins reared together, including more than 1,100 twin pairs aged between 14 and 80 who participated in the first wave. Data were collected at five waves of assessment between 1993 and 2009. Initially, the study focused on genetic and environmental influences on the structure and the development in adult temperament and personality. Today, the study includes a broad range of individual variables, such as personality disorders, major life goals, interests, attitudes, values, life and work satisfaction, and major life events. A special feature of this genetically informative study lies in the multiple-rater approach (i.e., self-reports and peer reports). Longitudinal multiple-rater analyses allow researchers to go beyond the basic nature-nurture decomposition of variance in self-reports examining genetic and environmental influences on stability and change in more accurately measured individual attributes. In the current article, we briefly describe the design and contents of BiLSAT as well as some recent major findings and future plans. PMID:23046571
Kandler, Christian; Riemann, Rainer; Spinath, Frank M; Bleidorn, Wiebke; Thiel, Wolfgang; Angleitner, Alois
Analyzed Chicago Longitudinal Study data to determine correlates of preschool participation. Found that participation was associated with significantly higher levels of school readiness, achievement, and educational attainment, and with lower rates of child maltreatment, juvenile delinquency, special education placement, and grade retention.…
Reynolds, Arthur J.; Temple, Judy A.; Ou, Suh-Ruu
STUDY OBJECTIVETo determine the levels of participation in social and civic community life in a metropolitan region, and to assess differential levels of participation according to demographic, socioeonomic and health status. To contribute to policy debates on community participation, social capital and health using these empirical data.DESIGNCross sectional, postal, self completed survey on health and participation.SETTINGRandom sample of the population
Frances E Baum; Robert A Bush; Carolyn C Modra; Charlie J Murray; Eva M Cox; Kathy M Alexander; Robert C Potter
Argues that treatment of one investigative longitudinal topic from start to finish in a high school biology class can illustrate many major ideas and concepts. Discusses ways to use various longitudinal studies of plant growth with General Biology classes. (WRM)
Demchik, Michael J.
A number of studies have lent support to the sex-linked major gene theory of spatial ability. Expectations arising from this theory (although not necessarily unique to it) are that spatial ability can be measured in children, that it is the same as spatial ability in adults, and that an individual's position in a distribution of spatial ability remains unchanged over time. Results of a longitudinal experiment utilizing test scores of 76 high school students and their earliertest scores provide confirmatory evidence for these expectations. PMID:1131143
Goldberg, J; Meredith, W
BACKGROUND: There is a growing ethical imperative to feedback research results to participants but there remains a striking lack of empirical research on how people respond to individualised feedback. We sought to explore longitudinal study participants' response to receiving individual written feedback of weight-related and blood results, and to consider the balance of harms against benefits. METHODS: A qualitative study
Karen Lorimer; Cindy M Gray; Kate Hunt; Sally Wyke; Annie Anderson; Michaela Benzeval
Background Participation is an important, yet seldom studied, outcome after total knee replacement (TKR). Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent and predictors of participation and participation restriction among people after TKR. Materials and Methods This study investigated the changes in pain, function, and participation scores (measured using a subscale of the Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument) from pre-TKR to ?1 year post-TKR among a subsample of participants from the Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study (MOST) longitudinal cohort (MOST is funded by the National Institutes of Health). The proportions of individuals with participation restriction pre-TKR and ?1 and ?2 years post-TKR were calculated for all participants and for important demographic subgroups. The association between demographic and clinical factors and participation was estimated using linear regression. The association between demographic and clinical factors and participation restriction was estimated using logistic regression. Results There were 292 individuals with outcome data ?1 year post-TKR. Of these, 218 (75%) had data pre-TKR and ?1 year post-TKR and 160 (55%) had data ?2 years post-TKR. There were mean improvements in pain, function, and participation at ?1 and 2 years. However, approximately 30% of the study sample had participation restriction pre-TKR and post-TKR, and the proportion decreased significantly only for those <65 years old. Non-whites had a higher proportion of participation restriction than any other subgroup (41% ?1 year, 48% ?2 years). Female sex and non-white race were associated with a worse participation score, and several demographic and modifiable factors were associated with participation restriction following TKR. Limitations The time between pre-TKR and post-TKR assessment varied across study participants, and data were not available on their rehabilitation utilization. Conclusions Although there was a mean increase in participation ?1 year following TKR, participation restriction was common. The likelihood of low participation was increased among women, non-whites, and those with depressive symptoms, severe pain in either knee, or worse pre-TKR function. PMID:23813082
Keysor, Julie J.; Niu, Jingbo; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Wise, Barton L.; Frey-Law, Laura; Nevitt, Michael C.; Felson, David T.
The purpose of this study was to characterize the behavior of 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children engaged in improvisational musical tasks. Ten subjects from each of the four age levels participated in the 4-year investigation, which lasted until the 2-year-olds reached 5 years of age. Children met individually with the investigator for 15 minutes…
Flohr, John W.
Typically, studies of cognitive advantages in bilinguals have been conducted previously by using executive and inhibitory tasks (e.g. Simon task) and applying cross-sectional designs. This study longitudinally investigated bilingual advantages on episodic memory recall, verbal letter and categorical fluency during the trajectory of life. Monolingual and bilingual participants (n?=?178) between 35–70 years at baseline were drawn from the Betula Prospective Cohort Study of aging, memory, and health. Results showed that bilinguals outperformed monolinguals at the first testing session and across time both in episodic memory recall and in letter fluency. No interaction with age was found indicating that the rate of change across ages was similar for bilinguals and monolinguals. As predicted and in line with studies applying cross-sectional designs, no advantages associated with bilingualism were found in the categorical fluency task. The results are discussed in the light of successful aging. PMID:24023803
Ljungberg, Jessica K.; Hansson, Patrik; Andrés, Pilar; Josefsson, Maria; Nilsson, Lars-Göran
Survey data collection is a very efficient way to gather information for research of interest. Many state and federal government agencies collect data through surveys. Long-term longitudinal studies are the most appropriate studies for the study of individual change over time. As a result, most longitudinal studies and surveys have non-responses and missing data issues. The problem of missing data
This longitudinal case study challenges the assumption that individuals with autism who have severely restricted speech and language skills have a poor prognosis for further development of expressive oral language. The study follows the development of a woman with autism from mutism at age 10 to acquisition of a range of spoken and written language skills at age 26. The intervention in which the woman participated and her skills pre- and post-intervention and at two follow-up assessments are documented. The results support the hypotheses that speech and language development may proceed after mutism associated with limited verbal imitation and phoneme production skills, that some skills may plateau or decline, and that both spoken and written language may become viable forms of communication. PMID:8170135
Windsor, J; Doyle, S S; Siegel, G M
Despite the serious health and economic consequences of drug and alcohol abuse and dependence, few studies have prospectively examined the etiology of this problem in non-clinical populations. This longitudinal study examines childhood and adolescent antecedents of drug and alcohol problems in adulthood among an African American cohort (n=1242; 51% female) from Woodlawn, a neighborhood in Chicago. The participants were followed
Kate E. Fothergill; Margaret E. Ensminger
The first section of this paper describes methodology and major cognitive outcomes of the Canberra Longitudinal Study (CLS). This community study of 1045 Australians aged 70 years or over commenced in 1990. Participants were reassessed on three subsequent occasions. Its major themes were investigations of prevalence of dementia and depression, risk factors, inter-individual variability and instrument development. Over 60 papers
Helen Christensen; Andrew Mackinnon; Anthony F. Jorm; Ailsa Korten; Patricia Jacomb; Scott M. Hofer; Scott Henderson
This report is the second in a series of four final reports that present the findings of the Longitudinal Study of the Vocational Rehabilitation (VR) Services Program. Initiated in fall 1992, the study has tracked VR participation and post-VR experiences of applicants to and consumers of VR services (n=8,500) for up to 3 years following exit from…
Hayward, Becky J.; Schmidt-Davis, Holly
Objective To examine the outcomes of an unwanted first pregnancy (abortion v live delivery) and risk of depression and to explain discrepancies with previous research that used the same dataset. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Setting Nationally representative sample of US men and women aged 14-24 in 1979. Participants 1247 women in the US national longitudinal survey of youth who aborted or delivered an unwanted first pregnancy. Main outcome measures Clinical cut-off and continuous scores on a 1992 measure of the Center for Epidemiological Studies depression scale. Results Terminating compared with delivering an unwanted first pregnancy was not directly related to risk of clinically significant depression (odds ratio 1.19, 95% confidence interval 0.85 to 1.66). No evidence was found of a relation between pregnancy outcome and depression in analyses of subgroups known to vary in under-reporting of abortion. In analyses of the characteristics of non-respondents, refusal to provide information on abortion did not explain the lack of detecting a relation between abortion and mental health. The abortion group had a significantly higher mean education and income and lower total family size, all of which were associated with a lower risk of depression. Conclusions Evidence that choosing to terminate rather than deliver an unwanted first pregnancy puts women at higher risk of depression is inconclusive. Discrepancies between current findings and those of previous research using the same dataset primarily reflect differences in coding of a first pregnancy. PMID:16257993
Schmiege, Sarah; Russo, Nancy Felipe
Loss to follow-up can introduce bias into research, making it difficult to develop inclusive evidence-based health policies and practice guidelines. We aimed to deepen understanding of reasons why participants leave or remain in longitudinal health studies. We interviewed 59 researchers and current and former research participants in six focus groups (n = 55) or interviews (n = 4) at three study centers in a large academic research institution. We used minimally structured interview guides and inductive thematic analysis to explore participant-level, study-level, and contextual participation barriers and facilitators. Four main themes emerged: transportation, incentives and motivation, caregiver concerns, and the social and physical environment. Themes shared crosscutting issues involving funding, flexibility, and relationships between researchers and research participants. Study-level and contextual factors appear to interact with participant characteristics, particularly socioeconomic status and disease severity to affect participant retention. Participants’ characteristics do not seem to be the main cause of study dropout. Researchers and funders might be able to address contextual and study factors in ways that reduce barriers to participation. PMID:25599003
Odierna, Donna H.; Bero, Lisa A.
Background: This study examined the impact of family transitions, that is, parental separation, divorce, remarriage and death, upon the lives of Australian children and adolescents in a longitudinal study of temperament and development. Methods: Using longitudinal and concurrent questionnaire data, outcomes for young people experiencing…
Ruschena, Eda; Prior, Margot; Sanson, Ann; Smart, Diana
The social news aggregator Digg allows users to submit and moderate stories by voting on (digging) them. As is true of most social sites, user participation on Digg is non-uniformly distributed, with few users contributing a disproportionate fraction of content. We studied user participation on Digg, to see whether it is motivated by competition, fueled by user ranking, or social
Study Objective: To investigate the longitudinal relationships between actigraph-derived sleep duration, fragmentation, and lipid levels. Design and Setting: Longitudinal data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Sleep Study (2003-05), an observational cohort at the Chicago site. Participants: There were 503 black and white adults, ages 32-51 years, with no prior history of cardiovascular disease. Interventions: N/A. Measurement and Results: Sleep duration and fragmentation were measured using 6 days of wrist actigraphy. Sleep quality was measured with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. The outcome variables, measured at 3 examinations over 10 years (Baseline [2000-01], 5-year [2005-06], and 10-year follow-up [2010-11]), were total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides (TG), and TC/HDL ratio. The associations between each sleep parameter and 10-year change in lipids were analyzed with generalized estimating equation models adjusting for relevant confounders. After adjustment, each hour increase in sleep duration was significantly associated with higher TC (5.2 mg/dL, 95%CI: 1.7, 8.6) and LDL (3.4 mg/dL, 95%CI: 0.2, 6.6) in the total sample, a 1.1 mg/dL increase in TG (95%CI: 1.0, 1.1) among men, and a borderline significant greater odds for a TC/HDL ratio ? 5 among men (OR: 1.37, 95%CI: 0.99, 1.90). Overall, sleep fragmentation and sleep quality scores were not associated with change in lipids. Conclusions: Beyond relevant covariates, over a 10-year follow-up, longer objective sleep duration was longitudinally and significantly associated with a poorer lipid profile. Greater objective sleep fragmentation and self-reported poor sleep quality were not related to a poorer lipid profile. Citation: Petrov MER; Kim Y; Lauderdale D; Lewis CE; Reis JP; Carnethon MR; Knutson K; Glasser SJ. Longitudinal associations between objective sleep and lipids: The CARDIA Study. SLEEP 2013;36(11):1587-1595. PMID:24179290
Petrov, Megan E. Ruiter; Kim, Yongin; Lauderdale, Diane; Lewis, Cora E.; Reis, Jared P.; Carnethon, Mercedes R.; Knutson, Kristen; Glasser, Stephen J.
The Lansing Area Manufacturing Partnership (LAMP) is an academically rigorous, business/labor-driven school-to-career (STC) program in Lansing, Michigan, that includes business, union, school, and parent partners. The effects of participation in LAMP on transitions from school to higher education and work were examined in a longitudinal study of…
MacAllum, Keith; Bozick, Robert
As the second report on a cohort of 5,083 women between 32 and 46 years of age who were first interviewed in mid-1967, contacted by mail in 1969, and reinterviewed for the first time in 1969, three topics are considered in this longitudinal study: (1) changes in labor force participation, (2) interfirm mobility, and (3) changes in job satisfaction…
Kim, Sookon; And Others
This longitudinal study examined the role of coping strategies and posttraumatic growth (PTG) on the psychological adjustment to breast cancer trajectory. The participants were 50 women assessed at the time of surgery (T1), during adjuvant treatment (T2) and six months after the end of treatment (T3). Women completed questionnaires assessing coping strategies, PTG and psychological adjustment (psychological quality of life,
Sónia Martins Silva; Carla Crespo; Maria Cristina Canavarro
Background: Associations among cognitive development and intrapersonal and environmental characteristics were investigated for 89 longitudinal study participants with Down syndrome to understand developmental patterns associated with cognitive strengths and weaknesses. Materials and Methods: Subtest scores of the Stanford-Binet IV collected…
Couzens, Donna; Haynes, Michele; Cuskelly, Monica
Objective: To determine the relationship between hearing loss and cognitive function as assessed with a standardized neurocognitive battery. We hypothesized a priori that greater hearing loss is associated with lower cognitive test scores on tests of memory and executive function. Method: A cross-sectional cohort of 347 participants ?55 years in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging without mild cognitive impairment
Frank R. Lin; Luigi Ferrucci; E. Jeffrey Metter; Yang An; Alan B. Zonderman; Susan M. Resnick
This longitudinal study modeled lexical development among children who spoke Vietnamese as a first language (L1) and English as a second language (L2). Participants (n = 33, initial mean age of 7.3 years) completed a total of eight tasks (four in each language) that measured vocabulary knowledge and lexical processing at four yearly time points.…
Pham, Giang; Kohnert, Kathryn
This longitudinal case study examined the effectiveness of the CO-OP Upward Bound Program activities from 2003 through 2008 applying cultural and social capital theories. The program was evaluated in order to give a local perspective to program implementation and operations in a community-based setting. The participant researcher used mixed…
Henderson, Sharmakrenia D.
This research consists of a longitudinal study of 12 female elementary preservice teachers' conceptual understanding over the course of several months. The context in which the participants received instruction was in an inquiry-based physics course, and the targeted science content was the cause of moon phases. Qualitative research methods,…
Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Atwood, Ronald K.; Christopher, John E.
The Maryland Longitudinal Study (MLS) participants are categorized into one of two categories (preferred or regular admits) based on their academic experiences while at the University of Maryland College Park (UMCP). Preferred admits are students who earned both a high school grade point average (GPA) of "B" or higher and a combined Scholastic…
Maryland Univ., College Park. Div. of Student Affairs.
The purpose of this study was to test children's academic self-concept, family socioeconomic status, family structure (single parent vs. two parent family) and academic achievement in elementary school as predictors of children's educational attainment level in young adulthood within a ten-year longitudinal design. Participants (254 girls, 211 boys) were three cohorts of students in Grades 3, 4, and 5 from
Frédéric Guay; Simon Larose; Michel Boivin
This 30-year longitudinal study examined pathways from problematic childhood behavior patterns to future disadvantaged conditions for family environment and child rearing in adulthood. Participants were mothers (n = 328) and fathers (n = 222) with lower income backgrounds participating in the ongoing Concordia Longitudinal Risk Project. Structural…
Serbin, Lisa A.; Temcheff, Caroline E.; Cooperman, Jessica M.; Stack, Dale M.; Ledingham, Jane; Schwartzman, Alex E.
The college careers of students who had participated in the Advanced Placement Program (AP) in secondary school were studied, based on extensive information on 4,814 students who participated in the Personal Qualities Project, a longitudinal study in nine colleges and universities. The project included information on 1,115 AP and 3,699 non-AP…
Willingham, Warren W.; Morris, Margaret
The purpose of this study was to examine the stability of mothers' perceptions of the negative impact of having a child with ASD in a sample of African American and Caucasian families as their children transitioned to early adolescence. Participants were mothers and children participating in an ongoing longitudinal study of children referred…
Carr, Themba; Lord, Catherine
Background Health inequality and its social determinants are well-studied, but the determinants of inequality of alcohol consumption are less well-investigated. Methods The total differential approach of decomposition of changes in the concentration index of the probability of participation in alcohol consumption was applied to 8-year longitudinal data for Swedish women aged 28-76 in 1988/89. Results Alcohol consumption showed a pro-rich inequality, with income being a strong contributor. Overall participation remained fairly constant, but the inequality decreased over time as abstinence became less common among the poor and more common among the rich. This was mainly due to changes in the relative weights of certain population groups, such as a decrease in the proportional size of the oldest cohorts. Conclusions Inequality in participation in alcohol consumption is pro-rich in Sweden. This inequality has tended to decrease over time, due to changes in population composition rather than to policy intervention. PMID:21306654
Background Retaining participants in longitudinal research in aging and Alzheimer's disease remains a significant challenge. “Study partners” are often required to insure participation and accuracy of information because cognitive impairment may interfere with accurate reporting. The purpose of the present report was to identify attitudes and reasons for continued participation in observational research. Methods 53 individuals (33 participants and 20 study partners) who were participating in the longitudinal cohort at the Mount Sinai Alzheimer's Disease Research Center were available for this survey. They were asked a single open-ended question about why they continued in our study. Seven categories of answers (e.g., Altruism, Value relationship with staff, and Concern about health) were identified and frequency of endorsement was summarized for participants and study partners separately. Results There were 82 responses from the 53 individuals. Forty five percent of the participants and 55% of the study partners identified altruism as one reason they participate in research over time, and 75% of study partners and 30% of participants mentioned valuing the relationship with staff as a reason they stayed in research. Conclusions This data suggests that retention efforts should be directed toward fostering strong relationships between research staff and study participants and reinforcing the opportunity to contribute to others, which fosters a sense of altruism. PMID:25520902
Neugroschl, Judith; Sano, Mary; Luo, Xiaodong; Sewell, Margaret
This longitudinal study examined the rates of overweight, elevated blood pressure, acanthosis nigricans, and their associated factors in third through fifth grade students over 4 years. Participants consisted of 279 students who participated in health screenings in 2002 and 2006. Hispanic students had significantly higher rates of overweight and…
Kopping, Dana; Nevarez, Holly; Goto, Keiko; Morgan, Irene; Frigaard, Martin; Wolff, Cindy
Background Evidence indicates 12-step mutual-help organizations (MHOs), such as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA), can play an important role in extending and potentiating the recovery benefits of professionally-delivered addiction treatment among young adults with substance use disorders (SUD). However, concerns have lingered regarding the suitability of 12-step organizations for certain clinical subgroups, such as those with dual diagnosis (DD). This study examined the influence of diagnostic status (DD vs. SUD-only) on both attendance and active involvement (e.g., having a sponsor, verbal participation during meetings) in, and derived benefits from, 12-step MHOs following residential treatment. Methods Young adults (N = 296; 18-24 years old; 26% female; 95% Caucasian; 47% DD [based on structured diagnostic interview]), enrolled in a prospective naturalistic study of SUD treatment effectiveness, were assessed at intake, and 3, 6, and 12 months post-treatment on 12-step attendance/active involvement and percent days abstinent (PDA). T-tests and lagged, hierarchical linear models (HLM) examined the extent to which diagnostic status influenced 12-step participation and any derived benefits, respectively. Results For DD and SUD-only patients, post-treatment attendance and active involvement in 12-step organizations was similarly high. Overall, DD patients had significantly lower PDA relative to SUD-only patients. All patients appeared to benefit significantly from attendance and active involvement on a combined eight-item index. Regarding the primary effects of interest, significant differences did not emerge in derived benefit between DD and SUD-only patients for either attendance (p = .436) or active involvement (p = .062). Subsidiary analyses showed, however, that DD patients experienced significantly greater abstinence-related benefit from having a 12-step sponsor. Conclusion Despite concerns regarding the clinical utility of 12-step MHOs for DD patients, findings indicate that DD young adults participate and benefit as much as SUD-only patients, and may benefit more from high levels of active involvement, particularly having a 12-step sponsor. Future work is needed to clarify how active 12-step involvement might offset the additional recovery burden of a comorbid mental illness on substance use outcomes. PMID:24033550
Bergman, Brandon G.; Greene, M. Claire; Hoeppner, Bettina B.; Slaymaker, Valerie; Kelly, John F.
To examine the development of religious identity during the teenage years, adolescents (N = 477) from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds completed questionnaires in the 10th, 11th, and 12th grades (10th grade age: M = 15.81, SD = 0.36). Results indicated that religious identity remained stable across high school whereas religious…
Lopez, Anna B.; Huynh, Virginia W.; Fuligni, Andrew J.
Agile Customer Engagement: a Longitudinal Qualitative Case Study Geir Kjetil Hanssen SINTEF ICT S Customer Engagement, Agile Process, Stakeholder Management, Process Transition. 1. INTRODUCTION Software characteristics of traditional approaches, agile methodologies suggest a different approach, emphasizing close
Background Recent studies have raised issues concerning the replicability of gene × environment (G × E) interactions involving the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene in moderating the associations between abuse or maltreatment exposure and antisocial behaviour. This study attempted to replicate the findings in this area using a 30-year longitudinal study that has strong resemblance to the original research cohort. Aims To test the hypothesis that the presence of the low-activity MAOA genotype was associated with an increased response to abuse exposure. Method Participants were 398 males from the Christchurch Health and Development Study who had complete data on: MAOA promoter region variable number tandem repeat genotype; antisocial behaviour to age 30; and exposure to childhood sexual and physical abuse. Results Regression models were fitted to five antisocial behaviour outcomes (self-reported property offending; self-reported violent offending; convictions for property/violent offending; conduct problems; hostility) observed from age 16 to 30, using measures of childhood exposure to sexual and physical abuse. The analyses revealed consistent evidence of G × E interactions, with those having the low-activity MAOA variant and who were exposed to abuse in childhood being significantly more likely to report later offending, conduct problems and hostility. These interactions remained statistically significant after control for a range of potentially confounding factors. Findings for convictions data were somewhat weaker. Conclusions The present findings add to the evidence suggesting that there is a stable G × E interaction involving MAOA, abuse exposure and antisocial behaviour across the life course. PMID:21628708
Fergusson, David M.; Boden, Joseph M.; Horwood, L. John; Miller, Allison L.; Kennedy, Martin A.
162 #12;Form A Participant ID #_____________ THE VETERANS HEALTH STUDY CENTERS FOR DISEASE Service is conducting a nationwide health study of Vietnam-era Army veterans that was mandated by Congress health prob.=ms evident at birth in my child. The promise of complete confidentiality is contained
This longitudinal study investigated the rates of iron-deficiency (ID) and iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) among prenatally cocaine-exposed and nonexposed two- and four-year-old children and assessed their relationships to neurodevelopmental outcomes. The sample consisted of 143 two-year-old (70 exposed and 73 nonexposed) and 274 four-year-old (139 exposed and 135 nonexposed) low socioeconomic status children recruited from an ongoing longitudinal study. Hematological assessments
SUCHITRA NELSON; EDITH LERNER; ROBERT NEEDLMAN; ANN SALVATOR; LYNN T. SINGER
Although low participation in case-control studies may threaten their validity, it is difficult to evaluate the potential problem of nonresponse across studies because the level of participation among subjects is not reported in a consistent manner. This commentary presents a proposal for standard reporting of the process by which control subjects are recruited to a study and the outcomes of recruitment attempts. We encourage authors to provide a description of the sampling frame, the method of selecting units from the frame, and the number of units selected. For each unit selected, an outcome should be classified into four broad categories: ineligible sampling unit, unable to determine eligibility, respondent not eligible, and respondent screened and eligible. Details should be provided in each category; these details would differ according to the method used to contact potential respondents (by random-digit dialing, by telephone from a list, in person, or by mail). The proportion who participated can be reported as the investigator sees fit, as long as reporting of the components is complete. The sampling frame and outcomes should be reported separately for various parts of the study, such as controls from different sources or those who gave biological specimens. Standardized reporting will allow an evaluation of the success of various methods in recruiting potential participants, and will contribute important information for assessing the validity of individual studies. PMID:11880750
Olson, Sara H; Voigt, Lynda F; Begg, Colin B; Weiss, Noel S
The study assessed the influence of protective factors on the psychological adjustment of children who had experienced homophobia and whose mothers were participants in a longitudinal study of planned lesbian families. Data were collected as part of the National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study by interviewing the children and having the mothers complete questionnaires. No significant differences were found in the psychological adjustment of children in the present study and their age-matched peers in a U.S.-population sample. Homophobia had a negative impact on the well-being of children who experienced it. Attending schools with LGBT curricula and their mothers' participation in the lesbian community were found to protect children against the negative influences of homophobia. PMID:19042752
Bos, Henny M W; Gartrell, Nanette K; Peyser, Heidi; van Balen, Frank
Ideal cardiovascular health is a recently defined construct by the American Heart Association (AHA) to promote cardiovascular disease reduction. Arterial stiffness is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The extent to which the presence of multiple prevalent cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviors is associated with arterial stiffness is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the AHA construct of cardiovascular health and arterial stiffness, as indexed by pulse wave velocity and pulse pressure. The AHA health metrics, comprising of four health behaviors (smoking, body mass index, physical activity, and diet) and three health factors (total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose) were evaluated among 505 participants in the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study. Outcome measures were carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) and pulse pressure measured at 4 to 5-year follow-up. Better cardiovascular health, comprising both health factors and behaviors, was associated with lower arterial stiffness, as indexed by pulse wave velocity and pulse pressure. Those with at least five health metrics at ideal levels had significantly lower PWV (9.8 m/s) than those with two or less ideal health metrics (11.7 m/s) (P<0.001). This finding remained with the addition of demographic and PWV-related variables (P=0.004). PMID:24384629
Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F; Robbins, Michael A
On the basis of general theories of delinquency and the specific situation of immigrants, this longitudinal study investigated predictors of initial levels and rates of change in delinquency among 188 male ethnic German Diaspora immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in Germany, 237 male native German adolescents, and 182 male Jewish Diaspora adolescents from the FSU in Israel. The participants (15.2 years old) completed 3 annual assessments. Latent growth curve models showed that ethnic German adolescents reported higher initial levels of delinquency than native German adolescents and lower levels than the Russian Jewish adolescents. Groups did not differ in the rate of change, indicating a decrease in delinquency over time. Peer-oriented leisure related positively and parental knowledge negatively with levels and change rates in delinquency in all groups, but could not fully account for the ethnic differences in delinquency levels. School bonding was associated negatively with delinquency only among native German adolescents. Acculturation-related hassles were an additional predictor for higher levels and also associated with change rates in the immigrant groups. Thus, general theories of delinquency apply to immigrants, but may be complemented by adding acculturation-specific challenges. PMID:23586943
Titzmann, Peter F; Silbereisen, Rainer K; Mesch, Gustavo
Objectives This study used longitudinal, narrative data to identify trajectories of recovery among homeless adults with mental illness alongside the factors that contribute to positive, negative, mixed or neutral trajectories over time. We expected that participants who received Housing First (HF) would describe more positive trajectories of recovery than those who were assigned to Treatment as Usual (TAU; no housing or support provided through the study). Design Narrative interview data were collected from participants at baseline and 18?months after random assignment to HF or TAU. Setting Participants were sampled from the community in Vancouver, British Columbia. Participants Fifty-four participants were randomly and purposively selected from the larger trial; 52 were interviewed at baseline and 43 were reinterviewed 18?months after randomisation. Method Semistructured interviews were conducted at both time points. For each participant, paired baseline and follow-up narratives were classified as positive, negative, mixed or neutral trajectories of recovery, and thematic analysis was used to identify the factors underlying different trajectories. Results Participants assigned to HF (n=28) were generally classified as positive or mixed trajectories; those assigned to TAU (n=15) were generally classified as neutral or negative trajectories. Positive trajectories were characterised by a range of benefits associated with good-quality, stable housing (eg, reduced substance use, greater social support), positive expressions of identity and the willingness to self-reflect. Negative, neutral and mixed trajectories were characterised by hopelessness (‘things will never get better’) related to continued hardship (eg, eviction, substance use problems), perceived failures and loss. Conclusions HF is associated with positive trajectories of recovery among homeless adults with mental illness. Those who did not receive housing or support continued to struggle across a wide range of life domains. Findings are discussed with implications for addressing services and broader social change in order to benefit this marginalised population. PMID:24022392
Patterson, Michelle L; Rezansoff, Stefanie; Currie, Lauren; Somers, Julian M
Predictors of retention of participants in a longitudinal study and heterogeneity between communities were investigated using a multilevel logistic regression model. Data from the longitudinal outcome study of the national evaluation of the Comprehensive Community Mental Health Services for Children and Their Families program and information on…
Gebreselassie, Tesfayi; Stephens, Robert L.; Maples, Connie J.; Johnson, Stacy F.; Tucker, Alyce L.
There are imminent needs for longitudinal analysis to make physiological inferences on NIH MRI study of normal brain development. But up to date, two critical aspects for longitudinal analysis, namely the selections of mean and covariance structures have not been addressed by the neuroimaging community. For the mean structure, we employed a linear free-knot B-spline regression in combination with quasi-least square estimating equations to approximate a nonlinear growth trajectory with piecewise linear segments for a friendly physiological interpretation. For covariance structure selection, we have proposed a novel time varying correlation structure considering not only the time separation between the repeated measures but also when these acquisitions occurred. We have demonstrated that the proposed covariance structure has a lower Akaike information criterion value than the commonly used Markov correlation structure. PMID:25405003
Chen, Yasheng; An, Hongyu; Shen, Dinggang; Zhu, Hongtu; Lin, Weili
Abstract The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between,children’s involvement in adult-supervised extracurricular activities (ASEA) in elementary school and early adolescence,and subsequent,behavioral adjustment. Families (N = 463) participating in the longitudinal Child Development,Project provided information regarding children’s ASEA involvement, preventive parenting and monitoring, neighborhood safety, and children’s externalizing behavior. Results indicated that high amounts,of ASEA in elementary
Jared A. Lisonbee; Lori D. Harach; Malinda J. Colwell; Gregory S. Pettit
Objectives To determine whether reduced sleep is associated with differences in body composition and the risk of becoming overweight in young children.Design Longitudinal study with repeated annual measurements.Setting Dunedin, New Zealand.Participants 244 children recruited from a birth cohort and followed from age 3 to 7.Main outcome measures Body mass index (BMI), fat mass (kg), and fat free mass (kg) measured
Philippa J Carter; Barry J Taylor; Sheila M Williams; Rachael W Taylor
In an effort to isolate the emergence and causes of social class differences in intellectual performance, this longitudinal study was undertaken as a follow-up on a cross-sectional study that yielded no social class differences on the Cattell Infant Intelligence Scale for 12-, 18-, and 24-month-old black children. In the present study, 89 children…
Golden, Mark; And Others
The underrepresentation of racial minorities and women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines is a national concern. Goal theory provides a useful framework from which to understand issues of underrepresentation. We followed a large sample of high-achieving African American and Latino undergraduates in STEM disciplines attending 38 institutions of higher education in the United States over 3 academic years. We report on the science-related environmental factors and person factors that influence the longitudinal regulation of goal orientations. Further, we examine how goal orientations in turn influence distal academic outcomes such as performance and persistence in STEM. Using SEM-based parallel process latent growth curve modeling, we found that (a) engagement in undergraduate research was the only factor that buffered underrepresented students against an increase in performance-avoidance goals over time; (b) growth in scientific self-identity exhibited a strong positive effect on growth in task and performance-approach goals over time; (c) only task goals positively influenced students' cumulative grade point average, over and above baseline grade point average; and (d) performance-avoidance goals predicted student attrition from the STEM pipeline. We discuss the implications of these findings for underrepresented students in STEM disciplines. PMID:24273342
Hernandez, Paul R.; Schultz, P. Wesley; Estrada, Mica; Woodcock, Anna; Chance, Randie C.
This retrospective longitudinal study was designed to show grading leniency patterns of judges within and across clinical examination administrations. Data from 17 different administrations of the histology examination of the American Society of Clinical Pathologists over 10 years were studied. Over the 10 years there were 4,683 candidates and 57…
Lunz, Mary E.; O'Neill, Thomas R.
Following a short discussion of conceptual and theoretical problems of giftedness, the methodological foundations and selected results of a (presently) four year longitudinal study are presented. This study is based on a multidimensional concept of giftedness: intelligence, creativity, social competence, musical ability, psychomotor ability (or practical intelligence). Both academic achievements and leisure activities, as well as cognitive and motivational personality
Kurt A. Heller
In this longitudinal study of one region in the state of Texas, there was an examination of district leadership and the sustaining of high student achievement for their districts. The results of this study suggest that sustained improvement of student achievement is very difficult. The districts that had sustained improvement had stable district…
Sampson, Pauline M.
Reported was an 8 year longitudinal study of social and antisocial behavioral correlates in 1550 third, sixth, and ninth grade children identified as either aggressive-disruptive or prosocial by their teachers. A more intensive study was made of 192 aggressive-disruptive and 192 prosocial children. Data included interviews, individual tests (such…
Feldhusen, John F.; And Others
In a previous study, we investigated the impact of an awareness-raising campaign on the behaviour of secondary school children in the Centre Region of France, regarding the recycling of used batteries. But, was it a question of pro-environmental behaviour or simply an environmental action? To answer this question, a three-year longitudinal study…
Rioux, Liliane; Pasquier, Daniel
BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity is increasing among adolescents in the U.S., especially among girls. Despite growing evidence that parents are an important influence on adolescent health, few longitudinal studies have explored the causal relationship between parental influence and physical activity. This study examines how the relationships between parental influences and adolescent physical activity differ by gender and tests whether these relationships
India J Ornelas; Krista M Perreira; Guadalupe X Ayala
Background: Longitudinal studies allow us to identify, which specific maths skills are weak in young children, and whether there is a continuing weakness in these areas throughout their school years. Aims: This 2-year study investigated whether certain socio-demographic variables affect early mathematical competency in children aged 5-7 years.…
Navarro, Jose I.; Aguilar, Manuel; Marchena, Esperanza; Ruiz, Gonzalo; Menacho, Inmaculada; Van Luit, Johannes E. H.
In a comprehensive study of two-hundred fifty homeschooling families in urban, rural and suburban areas of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the researcher examined all aspects of the instruction, materials and curricula employed by the families in a ten-year longitudinal study from 1998 through 2008. The researcher conducted interviews and…
Hanna, Linda G.
in research on Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). However, recent market and legislation developments for the need of multi-year studies in assessing the effectiveness of technologies that motivate users to adopt Longitudinal studies have been traditionally seen as too cumbersome and labor-intensive to be of much use
The effect of a weakly coupled periodic lattice in terms of achieving emittance exchange between the transverse and longitudinal directions is investigated using the generalized Courant-Snyder theory for coupled lattices. Recently, the concept and technique of transverse-longitudinal emittance coupling have been proposed for applications in the Linac Coherent Light Source and other free-electron lasers to reduce the transverse emittance of the electron beam. Such techniques can also be applied to the driver beams for the heavy ion fusion and beam-driven high energy density physics, where the transverse emittance budget is typically tighter than the longitudinal emittance. The proposed methods consist of one or several coupling components which completely swap the emittances of one of the transverse directions and the longitudinal direction at the exit of the coupling components. The complete emittance exchange is realized in one pass through the coupling components. In the present study, we investigate the effect of a weakly coupled periodic lattice in terms of achieving emittance exchange between the transverse and longitudinal directions. A weak coupling component is introduced at every focusing lattice, and we would like to determine if such a lattice can realize the function of emittance exchange.
Qin, H; Davidson, R C; Chung, M; Barnard, J J; Wang, T F
Objective: To investigate predictors of missing data in a longitudinal study of Alzheimer disease (AD). Methods: The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) is a clinic-based, multicenter, longitudinal study with blood, CSF, PET, and MRI scans repeatedly measured in 229 participants with normal cognition (NC), 397 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 193 with mild AD during 2005–2007. We used univariate and multivariable logistic regression models to examine the associations between baseline demographic/clinical features and loss of biomarker follow-ups in ADNI. Results: CSF studies tended to recruit and retain patients with MCI with more AD-like features, including lower levels of baseline CSF A?42. Depression was the major predictor for MCI dropouts, while family history of AD kept more patients with AD enrolled in PET and MRI studies. Poor cognitive performance was associated with loss of follow-up in most biomarker studies, even among NC participants. The presence of vascular risk factors seemed more critical than cognitive function for predicting dropouts in AD. Conclusion: The missing data are not missing completely at random in ADNI and likely conditional on certain features in addition to cognitive function. Missing data predictors vary across biomarkers and even MCI and AD groups do not share the same missing data pattern. Understanding the missing data structure may help in the design of future longitudinal studies and clinical trials in AD. PMID:22491869
Jagust, William J.; Aisen, Paul; Jack, Clifford R.; Toga, Arthur W.; Beckett, Laurel; Gamst, Anthony; Soares, Holly; C. Green, Robert; Montine, Tom; Thomas, Ronald G.; Donohue, Michael; Walter, Sarah; Dale, Anders; Bernstein, Matthew; Felmlee, Joel; Fox, Nick; Thompson, Paul; Schuff, Norbert; Alexander, Gene; DeCarli, Charles; Bandy, Dan; Chen, Kewei; Morris, John; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.; Korecka, Magdalena; Crawford, Karen; Neu, Scott; Harvey, Danielle; Kornak, John; Saykin, Andrew J.; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Potkin, Steven; Shen, Li; Buckholtz, Neil; Kaye, Jeffrey; Dolen, Sara; Quinn, Joseph; Schneider, Lon; Pawluczyk, Sonia; Spann, Bryan M.; Brewer, James; Vanderswag, Helen; Heidebrink, Judith L.; Lord, Joanne L.; Petersen, Ronald; Johnson, Kris; Doody, Rachelle S.; Villanueva-Meyer, Javier; Chowdhury, Munir; Stern, Yaakov; Honig, Lawrence S.; Bell, Karen L.; Morris, John C.; Mintun, Mark A.; Schneider, Stacy; Marson, Daniel; Griffith, Randall; Clark, David; Grossman, Hillel; Tang, Cheuk; Marzloff, George; Toledo-Morrell, Leylade; Shah, Raj C.; Duara, Ranjan; Varon, Daniel; Roberts, Peggy; Albert, Marilyn S.; Pedroso, Julia; Toroney, Jaimie; Rusinek, Henry; de Leon, Mony J; De Santi, Susan M; Doraiswamy, P. Murali; Petrella, Jeffrey R.; Aiello, Marilyn; Clark, Christopher M.; Pham, Cassie; Nunez, Jessica; Smith, Charles D.; Given, Curtis A.; Hardy, Peter; Lopez, Oscar L.; Oakley, MaryAnn; Simpson, Donna M.; Ismail, M. Saleem; Brand, Connie; Richard, Jennifer; Mulnard, Ruth A.; Thai, Gaby; Mc-Adams-Ortiz, Catherine; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Martin-Cook, Kristen; DeVous, Michael; Levey, Allan I.; Lah, James J.; Cellar, Janet S.; Burns, Jeffrey M.; Anderson, Heather S.; Laubinger, Mary M.; Bartzokis, George; Silverman, Daniel H.S.; Lu, Po H.; Graff-Radford MBBCH, Neill R; Parfitt, Francine; Johnson, Heather; Farlow, Martin; Herring, Scott; Hake, Ann M.; van Dyck, Christopher H.; MacAvoy, Martha G.; Benincasa, Amanda L.; Chertkow, Howard; Bergman, Howard; Hosein, Chris; Black, Sandra; Graham, Simon; Caldwell, Curtis; Hsiung, Ging-Yuek Robin; Feldman, Howard; Assaly, Michele; Kertesz, Andrew; Rogers, John; Trost, Dick; Bernick, Charles; Munic, Donna; Wu, Chuang-Kuo; Johnson, Nancy; Mesulam, Marsel; Sadowsky, Carl; Martinez, Walter; Villena, Teresa; Turner, Scott; Johnson, Kathleen B.; Behan, Kelly E.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Rentz, Dorene M.; Johnson, Keith A.; Rosen, Allyson; Tinklenberg, Jared; Ashford, Wes; Sabbagh, Marwan; Connor, Donald; Jacobson, Sandra; Killiany, Ronald; Norbash, Alexander; Nair, Anil; Obisesan, Thomas O.; Jayam-Trouth, Annapurni; Wang, Paul; Lerner, Alan; Hudson, Leon; Ogrocki, Paula; DeCarli, Charles; Fletcher, Evan; Carmichael, Owen; Kittur, Smita; Mirje, Seema; Borrie, Michael; Lee, T-Y; Bartha, Dr Rob; Johnson, Sterling; Asthana, Sanjay; Carlsson, Cynthia M.; Potkin, Steven G.; Preda, Adrian; Nguyen, Dana; Tariot, Pierre; Fleisher, Adam; Reeder, Stephanie; Bates, Vernice; Capote, Horacio; Rainka, Michelle; Hendin, Barry A.; Scharre, Douglas W.; Kataki, Maria; Zimmerman, Earl A.; Celmins, Dzintra; Brown, Alice D.; Gandy, Sam; Marenberg, Marjorie E.; Rovner, Barry W.; Pearlson, Godfrey; Anderson, Karen; Saykin, Andrew J.; Santulli, Robert B.; Englert, Jessica; Williamson, Jeff D.; Sink, Kaycee M.; Watkins, Franklin; Ott, Brian R.; Wu, Chuang-Kuo; Cohen, Ronald; Salloway, Stephen; Malloy, Paul; Correia, Stephen; Rosen, Howard J.; Miller, Bruce L.; Mintzer, Jacobo
The current study documents the changing rates of cannabis use, misuse and cannabis-related social harms among Australian adolescents as they grow into young adulthood. It utilised data from a longitudinal study of young people at ages 15, 16, 17, and 19. The rates of cannabis use were found to increase as participants aged; past year use…
Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Patton, George C.; Toumbourou, John W.
This longitudinal study was designed to: (1) identify the current status of elementary science teaching and characteristics of science teachers in a sample of 100 public elementary schools (K-6) that participated in a 1970 study; (2) investigate certain changes in the foregoing since 1970; (3) identify principal's and teacher's attitudes…
Audeh, Ghazi Rifat
The purpose of this longitudinal study was to explore the impact of a direct reading instruction program, "Reading Mastery (RM)," on literacy performance of students over a five-year period. Initially, 700 students in grades K-3 were randomly selected from six elementary schools to participate in the study; an additional 100 randomly-selected…
Thames, Dana; Kazelskis, Richard; Kazelskis, Carolyn Reeves
ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of physical inactivity to the excess mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD) observed in the UK South Asian population.DesignAn observational longitudinal study with follow-up mortality data from NHS registries.SettingData from the Health Survey for England, 1999 and 2004.Participants13 293 White and 2120 South Asian participants aged ?35 years consented to
Emily D Williams; Emmanuel Stamatakis; Tarani Chandola; Mark Hamer
Objective Youth processed in the juvenile justice system are at great risk for early violent death. Groups at greatest risk, ie, racial/ethnic minorities, male youth, and urban youth, are overrepresented in the juvenile justice system. We compared mortality rates for delinquent youth with those for the general population, controlling for differences in gender, race/ethnicity, and age. Methods This prospective longitudinal study examined mortality rates among 1829 youth (1172 male and 657 female) enrolled in the Northwestern Juvenile Project, a study of health needs and outcomes of delinquent youth. Participants, 10 to 18 years of age, were sampled randomly from intake at the Cook County Juvenile Temporary Detention Center in Chicago, Illinois, between 1995 and 1998. The sample was stratified according to gender, race/ethnicity (African American, non-Hispanic white, Hispanic, or other), age (10–13 or ?14 years), and legal status (processed as a juvenile or as an adult), to obtain enough participants for examination of key subgroups. The sample included 1005 African American (54.9%), 296 non-Hispanic white (16.2%), 524 Hispanic (28.17%), and 4 other-race/ethnicity (0.2%) subjects. The mean age at enrollment was 14.9 years (median age: 15 years). The refusal rate was 4.2%. As of March 31, 2004, we had monitored participants for 0.5 to 8.4 years (mean: 7.1 years; median: 7.2 years; interquartile range: 6.5–7.8 years); the aggregate exposure for all participants was 12 944 person-years. Data on deaths and causes of death were obtained from family reports or records and were then verified by the local medical examiner or the National Death Index. For comparisons of mortality rates for delinquents and the general population, all data were weighted according to the racial/ethnic, gender, and age characteristics of the detention center; these weighted standardized populations were used to calculate reported percentages and mortality ratios. We calculated mortality ratios by comparing our sample’s mortality rates with those for the general population of Cook County, controlling for differences in gender, race/ethnicity, and age. Results Sixty-five youth died during the follow-up period. All deaths were from external causes. As determined by using the weighted percentages to estimate causes of death, 95.5% of deaths were homicides or legal interventions (90.1% homicides and 5.4% legal interventions), 1.1% of all deaths were suicides, 1.3% were from motor vehicle accidents, 0.5% were from other accidents, and 1.6% were from other external causes. Among homicides, 93.0% were from gunshot wounds. The overall mortality rate was >4 times the general-population rate. The mortality rate among female youth was nearly 8 times the general-population rate. African American male youth had the highest mortality rate (887 deaths per 100 000 person-years). Conclusions Early violent death among delinquent and general-population youth affects racial/ethnic minorities disproportionately and should be addressed as are other health disparities. Future studies should identify the most promising modifiable risk factors and preventive interventions, explore the causes of death among delinquent female youth, and examine whether minority youth express suicidal intent by putting themselves at risk for homicide. PMID:15930220
Teplin, Linda A.; McClelland, Gary M.; Abram, Karen M.; Mileusnic, Darinka
Background The Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Centers (BCERCs) include collaborators from basic sciences, epidemiology, and the community, conducting studies to investigate whether environmental exposures are associated with the timing of puberty. A pilot study of a subset of the study participants assessed the feasibility of measuring selected biomarkers of exposure in blood and urine in girls 6–8 years of age. In the Greater Cincinnati study population, we found an elevated serum concentration of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) among > 90% of young girls living in a small community. Objectives The research team deliberated whether and how to report the PFOA findings to our study families. We will address the issues considered in our decision, as well as the formats we used to present the findings. Methods The results were verified as we searched for potential sources of the elevated PFOA levels. As a research team, we grappled with issues regarding the reporting of unexpected results, derived from unknown sources and with unknown clinical significance. Ultimately, we did decide to present these findings to the study families through a well-developed communication plan. Discussion Research team members came from a variety of experiences and backgrounds, which led to different interpretations about the clinical, ethical, and public health issues surrounding these findings. The ethical debates centered around the precautionary principle, the right to know, and do no harm. Conclusions Given advances in environmental biomarker technologies and greater use of the transdisciplinary research model, a communication plan must be developed for those involved as study participants. PMID:20876037
Hernick, Ann D.; Brown, M. Kathryn; Pinney, Susan M.; Biro, Frank M.; Ball, Kathleen M.; Bornschein, Robert L.
The hypothesis that anxiety sensitivity (AS) is a risk factor for panic genesis has obtained compelling support, but the clinical/practical importance of AS in panic genesis has been questioned. In addition, the association between panic experience and AS increase has not been clearly demonstrated. Through this 1-year longitudinal study among…
Li, Wen; Zinbarg, Richard E.
This research presents a longitudinal study of learner uptake in a computer-assisted language learning (CALL) environment. Over the course of 3 semesters, 10 second language learners of German at a Canadian university used an online, parser-based CALL program that, for the purpose of this research, provided 2 different types of feedback of varying…
Although a substantial amount of research on school leadership has focused on what principals may do to improve teaching and learning, little of this research has explored how principals' time spent on leadership activities may relate to and possibly affect student performance. This article presents results from a 3-year longitudinal study of…
May, Henry; Huff, Jason; Goldring, Ellen
The longitudinal study compared the speech of two children (beginning at age 3) with cleft palate and inadequate velopharyngeal closure in an attempt to identify the patterns of production observed prior to surgery and the course and rate of change in production following surgery. Subjects' speech samples were evaluated prior to pharyngeal flap…
Letcher, Lisa M.; And Others
A cooperative education experience (or internship placement) is an essential component of the curricula of vocational higher education. The efficacy of internship placements has become one of the major concerns facing those who develop education curricula. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to explore the relationships among the multi-faceted predictors of intern commitment as a reflection of internship efficacy.
Chin-Sheng Wan; Jen-te Yang; Shu-yun Cheng; Chiakai Su
National Longitudinal Mortality Study is to investigate social, economic, demographic and occupational differentials in mortality (total and by cause) within a national sample of the U.S. population. In a collaboration begun in 1999 with the Census Bureau and other federal agenci...
There is conflicting evidence of a relationship between changes in symptoms and cognitive functioning in schizophrenia. This study investigated longitudinal changes in psychopathology and cognitive functioning in chronic schizophrenia utilising three different dimensional models of symptomatology. Sixty-two patients diagnosed with DSM-IV schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were examined on two occasions over a period of 6 months for symptom improvement, measured
Catherine Hughes; Veena Kumari; William Soni; Mrigendra Das; Brendon Binneman; Sonia Drozd; Shaun O'Neil; Vallakalil Mathew; Tonmoy Sharma
A longitudinal field study conducted in Turku, Finland, traced the development of aggression as a function of the viewing of violence by children from the ages of 7 and 9 to the ages of 15 and 17 to explore the connection between violence viewing and viewers' aggression, and to shed light on the question of causality. The 220 subjects, both male…
This volume provides unique and valuable firsthand accounts of the most important longitudinal studies of attachment. Presented are a range of research programs that have broadened the understanding of early close relationships and their role in individual adaptation throughout life. In addition to discussing the findings that emerged from each…
Grossmann, Klaus E., Ed.; Grossmann, Karin, Ed.; Waters, Everett, Ed.
A longitudinal study found that victims of rape are significantly more anxious, fearful, suspicious, and confused than nonvictims for at least a year after they were assaulted. However, there was improvement on those and on other measures of personality and emotional state over time. (Author/MJL)
Kilpatrick, Dean G.; And Others
In a national sample of the Italian population, surveyed four times between October 2002 and January 2007 (N = 2,008), we performed a multilevel longitudinal study aimed at predicting the increase in crime risk perception as a function of three families of independent variables, respectively lying at the within individual level (direct…
Russo, Silvia; Roccato, Michele; Vieno, Alessio
A cooperative education experience (or internship placement) is an essential component of the curricula of vocational higher education. The efficacy of internship placements has become one of the major concerns facing those who develop education curricula. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to explore the relationships among the…
Wan, Chin-Sheng; Yang, Jen-te; Cheng, Shu-yun; Su, Chiakai
Baseline data are summarized from a study examining the psychometric properties of the Neuropsychological Test Battery (NTB) and its subtests, and correlating the NTB with other cognitive and functional assessments. A multicenter, longitudinal, non-interventional study included mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD, n = 196), mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n = 70), or normal cognition participants (NC, n = 75). The NTB, other cognitive assessment tools, functional/behavioral questionnaires, and health outcome assessments were administered. At baseline composite NTB, NTB memory, and NTB executive function z-scores were significantly lower for participants with AD compared with MCI, and for participants with MCI compared with NC. The composite NTB z-score had high test-retest reliability between screening and baseline. The results of this study suggest that NTB exhibits good reliability in patients with mild to moderate AD and MCI. PMID:24521259
Harrison, John; Rentz, Dorene M; McLaughlin, Trent; Niecko, Timothy; Gregg, Keith M; Black, Ronald S; Buchanan, Jacqui; Liu, Enchi; Grundman, Michael
An analysis of the occupational position of 55 Wesleyan graduates some 14 yr. after graduation indicated that significantly more of those originally scoring high in need Achievement (n Ach) than of those low in n Ach were found in entrepreneurial occupations. A cross-validation study of students of the classes of 1954 and 1955 confirmed the finding that males with high
David C. McClelland
This case study briefly reviews the development of tourism degrees in the United Kingdom before considering the experiences obtained by students on year-long internship programmes over a period of 8 years. Verbatim confidential comments, from students, are provided and specific transferable skills discussed. Whilst some skills can be developed during the course of an academic programme, it is argued that
This article examines the relationship between cultural affiliation and deaf adults' motivations for genetic testing for deafness in the first prospective, longitudinal study to examine the impact of genetic counseling and genetic testing on deaf adults and the deaf community. Participants (n = 256), classified as affiliating with hearing, Deaf,…
Boudreault, Patrick; Baldwin, Erin E.; Fox, Michelle; Dutton, Loriel; Tullis, LeeElle; Linden, Joyce; Kobayashi, Yoko; Zhou, Jin; Sinsheimer, Janet S.; Sininger, Yvonne; Grody, Wayne W.; Palmer, Christina G. S.
This longitudinal study investigated differences in beliefs and perceived behavioural control between smokers and non-smokers in a large sample of adolescents. Positive and negative instrumental beliefs, normative beliefs, perceived behavioural control (PBC) and smoking status were assessed in the same participants at 11, 13 and 15 years of age. Prospective analyses among non-smokers revealed that for boys, negative instrumental beliefs
Sarah Grogan; Mark Conner; Gary Fry; Brendan Gough; Andrea Higgins
In this 15-year longitudinal study the authors investigated individual and contextual factors that predispose adolescents from a disadvantaged urban area to drug dependence in adulthood. Adolescents were recruited from schools serving East Harlem in New York City. Of the 838 participants followed to adulthood, 59% were women, 55% were African…
Brook, Judith S.; Lee, Jung Yeon; Brown, Elaine N.; Finch, Stephen J.; Brook, David W.
This short-term longitudinal study investigated the simultaneous influences of adults' (mothers and teachers) educational expectations and youth's achievement (standardized test scores and teachers' ratings of academic performance) across a 3-year time span on youth's performance in school (GPA). Participants were an ethnically diverse sample of…
Mistry, Rashmita S.; White, Elizabeth S.; Benner, Aprile D.; Huynh, Virginia W.
Findings on those aspects of participants' activities related to personal history and career choices both before and after graduation are reported in this second of a two-volume report on the findings of the Longitudinal Career Pattern Study of Graduates of the University of Tennessee College of Nursing, 1954-1974. The first two chapters describe…
Wallace, Grace Spice; May, W. Theodore
This longitudinal study examined whether social self-efficacy and self-disclosure serve as mediators between attachment and feelings of loneliness and subsequent depression. Participants were 308 freshmen at a large Midwestern university. Results indicated that social self-efficacy mediated the association between attachment anxiety and feelings…
Wei, Meifen; Russel, Daniel W.; Zakalik, Robyn A.
Patients with spina bifida have multiple ophthalmologic problems, many of which are preventable. Most of the problems are related to the hydrocephalus, which is caused by the coexisting Arnold-Chiari malformation. When patients are treated for hydrocephalus, and comprehensive eye care is available, 94% of the patients will have 6/12 visual acuity or better. Strabismus is common but it responds well to medical and surgical treatment. Children with spina bifida should have frequent examinations by an ophthalmologist who is familiar with the diagnosis and management of the defects recorded in this study. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 PMID:2095031
Biglan, A W
Policy makers and researchers are increasingly showing interest in lifelong learning due to a rising unemployment rate in recent years. Much attention has been paid to determinants and benefits of lifelong learning but not to the impact of social capital on lifelong learning so far. In this article, we study how social and human capital can…
Knipprath, Heidi; De Rick, Katleen
This study examines longitudinal mental health service use patterns of a school-based sample of adolescents. Based on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale scores, a stratified sample of middle-school students was interviewed using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children: cycle one (n = 579; mean age 12.83) and cycle two (n = 490; mean age
Steven P. Cuffe; Jennifer L. Waller; Cheryl L. Addy; Robert E. McKeown; Kirby L. Jackson; Jamaluddin Moloo; Carol Z. Garrison
Discreet collection of spot check observations to measure household hygiene conditions is a common measurement technique in epidemiologic studies of hygiene in low-income countries. The objective of this study was to determine whether the collection of spot check observations in longitudinal studies could itself induce reactivity (i.e., change participant behavior). We analyzed data from a 12-month prospective cohort study in rural Tamil Nadu, India that was conducted in the absence of any hygiene or toilet promotion activities. Our data included hygiene and toilet spot checks from 10,427 household visits. We found substantial evidence of participant reactivity to spot check observations of hygiene practices that were easy to modify on short notice. For example, soap observed at the household's primary handwashing location increased from 49% at enrollment to 81% by the fourth visit and remained at or above 77% for the remainder of the study. PMID:25385856
Arnold, Benjamin F; Khush, Ranjiv S; Ramaswamy, Padmavathi; Rajkumar, Paramasivan; Durairaj, Natesan; Ramaprabha, Prabhakar; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Colford, John M
In this paper I describe and discuss the way that a book I had written on a five-year longitudinal study of school science teaching was received by the pupils and teachers it featured. By and large the pupils' reception was positive. However, one group of teachers was deeply hurt by the book. I trace this mainly to my failure to consider adequately their fears of the consequences of the book's publication and possibly to my failure to consider with them the psychological significance of my withdrawing from the school after five years of regular study. I hope that there are lessons not only for myself but also for others considering longitudinal and ethnographic research in science education and more broadly.
Reiss, Michael J.
The objective of the current study was to examine possible risk (school-bullying and victimization, exposure to media violence, callous-unemotional traits, impulsivity and narcissism) and protective (family, peer and school social support) factors that might be associated with cyberbullying and cyber-victimization by employing a longitudinal, two-wave design. The sample consisted of 1,416 (50.1% girls) adolescents living in Cyprus. The findings suggested
Kostas A. Fanti; Andreas G. Demetriou; Veronica V. Hawa
A 1988 study of a school-linked sample in a metropolitan and a regional urban area established baseline data for knowledge, attitudes, intentions, and behavior with regard to water management and conservation (Murphy, Watson, & Moore, 1991). This paper reports on a 1991 follow-up, utilising both longitudinal and cross-sectional samples of students, teachers and parents, which aimed at identifying changes within
Susan Moore; Margot Murphy; Ray Watson
SummaryBackground Vascular causes of dementia may be more common than supposed. Vascular factors may also have a role in late-onset Alzheimer's disease, but the role of hypertension in the development of dementia is unclear.Methods As part of the Longitudinal Population Study of 70-year-olds in Göteborg, Sweden, we analysed the relation between blood pressure and the development of dementia in the
I Skoog; L Nilsson; G Persson; B Lernfelt; S Landahl; B Palmertz; L-A Andreasson; A Odén; A Svanborg
We characterized 30-month longitudinal change in functional activation and connectivity during working memory in premanifest (pre-HD) and symptomatic (symp-HD) Huntington's disease (HD). In a case-control longitudinal study (baseline, 18 months, and 30 months), we compared change in fMRI activity over time during working memory in 22 pre-HD, 11 symp-HD, and 20 control participants. Outcome measures were BOLD (blood-oxygen-level-dependent) activity during 1-BACK and 2-BACK working memory and functional connectivity between dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and caudate. Compared with controls, the pre-HD group showed significantly increased activation longitudinally during 1-BACK in the left DLPFC and medial frontal cortex, and further increased activation during 2-BACK in the bilateral caudate, putamen, and temporal cortex. Longitudinal change in symp-HD was not significantly different from controls. Longitudinal changes in pre-HD were associated with disease burden and years to onset. The pre-HD group showed longitudinal decreased functional connectivity between left DLPFC and caudate during both 1-BACK and 2-BACK performance. We provide an evidence for longitudinal changes in BOLD activity during working memory prior to clinical manifestations of HD. The ability to increase activation in the prefrontal cortex over time may represent an early compensatory response during the premanifest stage, which may reflect an early marker for clinically relevant functional changes in HD. PMID:24240602
Poudel, Govinda R; Stout, Julie C; Domínguez D, Juan F; Gray, Marcus A; Salmon, Louisa; Churchyard, Andrew; Chua, Phyllis; Borowsky, Beth; Egan, Gary F; Georgiou-Karistianis, Nellie
This study focused on an audience at high risk for heavy use of licit and illicit substances: young adults who as children had attention-deficit\\/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The participants in this study were part of a longitudinal study of the life histories of 492 children, one third of whom were identified as hyperactive in 1974 and whose childhood symptom ratings
Nadine M. Lambert; Carolyn S. Hartsough
Population-based, prospective longitudinal cohort studies are considering the issues surrounding returning findings to individuals as a result of genomic and other medical research studies. While guidance is being developed for clinical settings, the process is less clear for those conducting longitudinal research. This paper discusses work conducted on behalf of The UK Cohort and Longitudinal Study Enhancement Resource programme (CLOSER) to examine consent requirements, process considerations and specific examples of potential findings in the context of the 1958 British Birth cohort. Beyond deciding which findings to return, there are questions of whether re-consent is needed and the possible impact on the study, how the feedback process will be managed, and what resources are needed to support that process. Recommendations are made for actions a cohort study should consider taking when making vital decisions regarding returning findings. Any decisions need to be context-specific, arrived at transparently, communicated clearly, and in the best interests of both the participants and the study. PMID:25126104
This longitudinal study examined the effect of all-day kindergarten programs on the academic achievement of students from racial language minority and low socioeconomic class. The study employed a series of 3-level longitudinal multilevel analyses using a nationally representative database, the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS). The study…
Objective: Strong opinions have been voiced about the “fit” between 12-step treatment, community-based 12-step practices, and American Indian beliefs and values. Little is known, however, about the relative benefit of 12-step programs for urban American Indians, although they are the most widely accessed type of treatment by American Indians. This study investigated rates of 12-step attendance, attrition, and substance use outcomes for American Indians for 9 months relative to non-Hispanic White participants. Method: This study compared urban American Indian (n = 63) and non-Hispanic White (n = 133) 12-step attendance, attrition, and substance use over 9 months. The sample was formed by merging data from two prospective single-group longitudinal studies investigating behavior change in community-based 12-step programs. Participants were interviewed at baseline and at 3-, 6-, and 9-month follow-ups. No intervention was provided. Participants were recruited from Alcoholics Anonymous meetings in the community and as they presented for outpatient substance use disorder treatment. Substance use and patterns of 12-step attendance were measured using the Form 90 calendar-based interview, and the General Alcoholics Anonymous Tools of Recovery was administered to assess the adoption of prescribed 12-step practices and beliefs. Results: Trajectories in 12-step meeting attendance over 9 months did not differ between American Indian and non-Hispanic White participants. However, American Indian participants discontinued 12-step attendance significantly less often than non-Hispanic White participants. Higher rates of 12-step attendance predicted increased alcohol abstinence and decreased drinking intensity for both American Indian and non-Hispanic White participants. Twelve-step attendance was unrelated to later illicit drug use for both American Indian and non-Hispanic White participants. Conclusions: Community-based 12-step program attendance is associated with drinking reductions among urban American Indians. PMID:23739014
Tonigan, J. Scott; Martinez-Papponi, Brenda; Hagler, Kyleei J.; Greenfield, Brenna L.; Venner, Kamilla L.
Cybersex is a subcategory of online sexual activities (OSA) and is defined as when two or more people are engaging in sexual talk while online for the purposes of sexual pleasure and may or may not include masturbation. Cybersex is a growing phenomenon with a significant impact on participants but very little research has been done on this subject to
Kristian Daneback; Al Cooper; Sven-Axel Månsson
Objectives To examine the independent influence of school economic deprivation, social fragmentation, and social cohesion on the likelihood of participating in no physical activity among students. Methods Data are from a large-scale longitudinal study of schools based in disadvantaged communities in Quebec, Canada. Questionnaires were administered every year between 2002 and 2008 among n?=?14,924 students aged 12 to 18 from a sample of 70 schools. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were conducted. Multilevel modeling was utilized to account for the clustering of students within schools. Schools were categorized as being low, moderate or high economic deprivation, social fragmentation and social cohesion. Those who indicated that they do no participate in any physical activity during the week were identified as being physically inactive. Results In baseline multilevel cross-sectional analyses, adolescents attending schools in the highest (compared to the lowest) levels of socioeconomic deprivation and social fragmentation were more likely to be physically inactive (OR?=?1.33, 95% CI?=?1.03, 1.72; and OR?=?1.24, 95% CI?=?0.98, 1.56, respectively). Conversely, students attending schools with the highest cohesion were less likely to be physically inactive (OR?=?0.78, 95% CI?=?0.61, 0.99). In longitudinal analysis, physically active students who attended schools with the highest social fragmentation were more likely to become physically inactive over two years (OR?=?1.65, 95% CI?=?1.09, 2.51). Conclusion The school socioeconomic environment appears to be an important contextual influence on participation in no physical activity among adolescents. Following adolescents beyond two years is necessary to determine if these environments have a lasting effect on physical activity behavior. PMID:24932679
Pabayo, Roman; Janosz, Michel; Bisset, Sherri; Kawachi, Ichiro
The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) is a panel study of a representative cohort of men and women living in England aged ?50 years. It was designed as a sister study to the Health and Retirement Study in the USA and is multidisciplinary in orientation, involving the collection of economic, social, psychological, cognitive, health, biological and genetic data. The study commenced in 2002, and the sample has been followed up every 2 years. Data are collected using computer-assisted personal interviews and self-completion questionnaires, with additional nurse visits for the assessment of biomarkers every 4 years. The original sample consisted of 11 391 members ranging in age from 50 to 100 years. ELSA is harmonized with ageing studies in other countries to facilitate international comparisons, and is linked to financial and health registry data. The data set is openly available to researchers and analysts soon after collection (http://www.esds.ac.uk/longitudinal/access/elsa/l5050.asp). PMID:23143611
Steptoe, Andrew; Breeze, Elizabeth; Banks, James; Nazroo, James
This study represents the first longitudinal investigation of distal psychosocial predictors of pregnancy risk-taking in young Australian women. Participants were from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. Two mail-out surveys assessing sociodemographic, education\\/competence, psychosocial wellbeing, and aspiration\\/identity factors, were completed at ages 18 and 22 by 1647 young women in emerging adulthood, and a third survey assessing pregnancy risk-taking
Lauren Miller-Lewis; Tracey Wade; Christina Lee
Research has demonstrated the potential role of the brainstem in the pathobiology of autism. Previous studies have suggested reductions in brainstem volume and a relationship between this structure and sensory abnormalities. However, little is known regarding the developmental aspects of the brainstem across childhood and adolescence. The goal of this pilot study was to examine brainstem development via MRI volumetry using a longitudinal research design. Participants included 23 boys with autism and 23 matched controls (age range = 7–17 years), all without intellectual disability. Participants underwent structural MRI scans once at baseline and again at two-year follow-up. Brainstem volumetric measurements were performed using the BRAINS2 software package. There were no significant group differences in age, gender, handedness, and total brain volume; however, full-scale IQ was higher in controls. Autism and control groups showed different patterns of growth in brainstem volume. While whole brainstem volume remained stable in controls over the two-year period, the autism group showed increases with age reaching volumes comparable to controls by age 15 years. This increase of whole brainstem volume was primarily driven by bilateral increases in gray matter volume. Findings from this preliminary study are suggestive of developmental brainstem abnormalities in autism primarily involving gray matter structures. These findings are consistent with autism being conceptualized as a neurodevelopmental disorder with alterations in brain-growth trajectories. More longitudinal MRI studies are needed integrating longitudinal cognitive/behavioral data to confirm and elucidate the clinical significance of these atypical growth patterns. PMID:23619132
Jou, Roger J.; Frazier, Thomas W.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Hardan, Antonio Y.
Objective: To evaluate cardiometabolic risk of students longitudinally and compare them with age-matched national samples. Participants: Participants are 134 graduate students enrolled between August 2005 and May 2010. Methods: Students were assessed at the beginning and end of their 3-year curriculum. Comparative samples included 966 National…
Racette, Susan B.; Inman, Cindi L.; Clark, B. Ruth; Royer, Nathaniel K.; Steger-May, Karen; Deusinger, Susan S.
We aimed to systematically review current literature on temporal relationships between psychological factors and subsequent adiposity gain and obesity onset within childhood/adolescence. Databases were searched for longitudinal, population-based studies assessing psychological predictors and adiposity-related outcomes ? 1 year later. Study characteristics were synthesised into descriptive Tables and quality evaluated. Fifteen papers met inclusion criteria. Predictors broadly related to psychological symptoms or self-esteem. Evidence was mixed as to whether depressive symptoms and other negative emotional states may increase risk for adiposity gain and obesity onset within adolescence. There was some evidence for low self-esteem predicting obesity onset. Among obese adolescents, depressive symptoms exacerbated obesity, while physical appearance self-esteem exerted gender-specific adiposity changes. The literature had substantial limitations and inconsistencies. This review provides some support for psychological components in obesity prevention/intervention programs as part of a multifactorial approach to tackling childhood obesity. Further good-quality longitudinal research would strengthen the sparse literature and clarify inconsistencies. PMID:21247271
Incledon, Emily; Wake, Melissa; Hay, Margaret
Abstract Background Despite a reduction in income inequalities between men and women, there is still a large gap between income and retirement savings of Australian men and women. This is especially true for women who have health or disability problems. Mature age women are closest to retirement and, therefore, have less chance than younger women to build up enough retirement savings and may need to continue working to fund their older age. Continued workforce participation may be particularly difficult for women who are less healthy. Understanding which health problems lead to a decrease in workforce participation among mature age women is crucial. Therefore, this longitudinal study sought to identify which health problems are associated with employment among midage women over time. Methods Data were analyzed from the midage cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH), which involved 14,200 midage women (aged 45–50 years in 1996). The women have been surveyed four additional times, in 1998, 2001, 2004, and 2007. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to conduct nested multivariate longitudinal analyses. Results The percentages of women who were employed in the years 2001, 2004, and 2007 were 77%, 72%, and 68%, respectively. Results were adjusted for sociodemographic variables. Being employed decreased as physical and mental health deteriorated and with self-reported conditions: diabetes, high blood pressure, depression, anxiety, and other psychiatric conditions. Back pain, arthritis, cancer, obesity, and being a current smoker are associated with employment but not when quality of life is added to the model. Conclusions There were significant associations between health and employment. Understanding these relationships could inform policies and guidelines for preventing declines in employment in mature age women. PMID:22060315
Aim To investigate the longitudinal association between television viewing time and risk of incident diabetes mellitus in an elderly sample of adults in England. Methods Analyses of data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. At baseline (2008), participants reported their television viewing time and physical activity level. Diabetes mellitus was recorded from self-reported physician diagnosis at 2-year follow-up. Associations between television viewing time and combined television viewing time and physical activity level with risk of incident diabetes mellitus at follow-up were examined using adjusted logistic regression models. Results A total of 5964 participants (mean ± sd age 65 ± 9 years at baseline, 44% male) were included in the analyses. There was an association between baseline television viewing time and risk of incident diabetes mellitus at 2-year follow-up (? 6 h/day compared with <2 h/day; odds ratio 4.27, 95% CI 1.69, 10.77), although the association was attenuated to the null in final adjusted models that included BMI. Participants who were inactive/had high television viewing time at baseline were almost twice as likely to have diabetes mellitus at 2-year follow-up than those who were active/had low television viewing time (fully adjusted odds ratio 1.94, 95% CI 1.02, 3.68), although active participants reporting high television viewing were not at risk. Conclusion Interventions to reduce the incidence of diabetes in the elderly that focus on both increasing physical activity and reducing television viewing time might prove useful. PMID:24975987
Smith, L; Hamer, M
Background In regions of declining malaria transmission, new strategies for control are needed to reduce transmission and achieve elimination. Artemisinin-combination therapy (ACT) is active against immature gametocytes and can reduce the risk of transmission. We sought to determine whether household screening and treatment of infected individuals provides protection against infection for household members. Methodology/Principal Findings The study was conducted in two areas in Southern Province, Zambia in 2007 and 2008/2009. To determine the impact of proactive case detection, households were randomly selected either to join a longitudinal cohort, in which participants were repeatedly screened throughout the year and those infected treated with artemether-lumefantrine, or a cross-sectional survey, in which participants were visited only once. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted throughout the year. The prevalence of RDT positivity was compared between the longitudinal and cross-sectional households at baseline and during follow-up using multilevel logistic regression. In the 2007 study area, 174 and 156 participants enrolled in the cross-sectional and longitudinal groups, respectively. In the 2008/2009 study area, 917 and 234 participants enrolled in the cross-sectional and longitudinal groups, respectively. In both study areas, participants and households in the longitudinal and cross-sectional groups were similar on demographic characteristics and prevalence of RDT positivity at baseline (2007: OR?=?0.97; 95% CI:0.46, 2.03 | 2008/2009: OR?=?1.28; 95% CI:0.44, 3.79). After baseline, the prevalence of RDT positivity was significantly lower in longitudinal compared to cross-sectional households in both study areas (2007: OR?=?0.44; 95% CI:0.20, 0.96 | 2008/2009: OR?=?0.16; 95% CI:0.05, 0.55). Conclusions/Significance Proactive case detection, consisting of screening household members with an RDT and treating those positive with ACT, can reduce transmission and provide indirect protection to household members. A targeted test and treat strategy could contribute to the elimination of malaria in regions of low transmission. PMID:22319629
Sutcliffe, Catherine G.; Kobayashi, Tamaki; Hamapumbu, Harry; Shields, Timothy; Mharakurwa, Sungano; Thuma, Philip E.; Louis, Thomas A.; Glass, Gregory; Moss, William J.
Chronic friendlessness in childhood predicts adverse mental health outcomes throughout life, yet its earliest roots are poorly understood. In theory, developing a theory of mind (ToM) should help children gain mutual friends and one preschool study (Peterson & Siegal, 2002. Br J Dev Psychol, 20, 205) suggested a cross-sectional connection. We therefore used a 2-year prospective longitudinal design to explore ToM as a predictor of mutual friendship in 114 children from age 5 to 7 years after controlling potential confounds including language ability and group popularity. Confirming friendship's distinctiveness from group sociometric status, numerous group-rejected children (53%) had a mutual friend whereas 23% of those highest in group status did not. Five-year-olds with a mutual friend significantly outperformed their friendless peers on a comprehensive ToM battery (basic and advanced false belief). Longitudinally, chronically friendless 7-year-olds (no friends at either testing time) stood out for their exceptionally poor Time 1 ToM understanding even after controlling for group popularity, age, and language skill. Extending previous evidence of ToM's predictive links with later social and cognitive outcomes, these results for mutual friendship suggest possible interventions to help reduce the lifelong mental health costs of chronic friendlessness. PMID:25180991
Fink, Elian; Begeer, Sander; Peterson, Candida C; Slaughter, Virginia; de Rosnay, Marc
Objectives: We sought to explore the association between childhood maltreatment (e.g., neglect, physical and sexual abuse) and longitudinal growth trajectories of body mass index (BMI) from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods: We used latent curve modeling to examine data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 8,471),…
Shin, Sunny Hyucksun; Miller, Daniel P.
Purpose The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the effects of dietary B vitamin intakes on creatinine-adjusted urinary total\\u000a arsenic concentration among individuals participating in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) cohort in\\u000a Araihazar, Bangladesh. Arsenic exposure is a major public health problem in Bangladesh, where nearly 77 million people have\\u000a been chronically exposed to arsenic through the consumption
Maria Argos; Paul J. Rathouz; Brandon L. Pierce; Tara Kalra; Faruque Parvez; Vesna Slavkovich; Alauddin Ahmed; Yu Chen; Habibul Ahsan
What is currently known about the ecology of North American hantaviruses has come largely from studies on Sin Nombre virus (SNV). We conducted a longitudinal study of Bayou virus (BAYV), the second-leading agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the United States. Antibodies to hantavirus were detected from Oryzomys palustris (most commonly infected species), Sigmodon hispidus, Peromyscus leucopus, Reithrodontomys fulvescens, and Baiomys taylori. However, only O. palustris had viral RNA in tissues and excreta, suggesting that antibodies detected in other species may have resulted from spill-over infection. Seroprevalence rates averaged around 16% for O. palustris and varied seasonally. The heaviest males exhibited the highest levels of seroprevalence. Seroprevalence was higher in coastal prairie (20.0%) than old-fields (10.5%) and was associated with host abundance. These patterns are similar to those of SNV and can be used in identification of potentially at-risk areas. PMID:16354810
McIntyre, Nancy E; Chu, Yong-Kyu; Owen, Robert D; Abuzeineh, Alisa; De la Sancha, Noe; Dick, Carl W; Holsomback, Tyla; Nisbett, Richard A; Jonsson, Colleen
Welded joints are an essential part of rocket engine structures such as the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbopumps. Defects produced in the welding process can be detrimental to weld performance. Recently, review of the SSME high pressure fuel turbopump (HPFTP) titanium inlet X-rays revealed several weld discrepancies such as penetrameter density issues, film processing discrepancies, weld width discrepancies, porosity, lack of fusion, and weld offsets. Currently, the sensitivity of welded structures to defects is of concern. From a fatigue standpoint, weld offset may have a serious effect since local yielding, in general, aggravates cyclic stress effects. Therefore, the weld offset issue is considered in this report. Using the FEM and beamlike plate approximations, parametric studies were conducted to determine the influence of weld offsets and a variation of weld widths in longitudinally welded cylindrical structures with equal wall thicknesses on both sides of the joint. Following the study, some conclusions are derived for the weld offsets.
Min, J. B.; Spanyer, K. S.; Brunair, R. M.
For this study, I examined the relationship between participation in ethnic clubs and organizations and increases in racial/ethnic awareness and understanding for 184 male and female Asian Pacific American undergraduates using a longitudinal survey from 1990 to 1994. The results show that participation in such activities deepens APA students'…
Inkelas, Karen Kurotsuchi
The study’s aims are to explore ethnic differences in rates of adverse childhood experiences and lifetime traumatic events and in rates of psychiatric disorders for patients exposed to similar traumas. Rates of these events and rates of major depressive disorder, posttraumatic stress, substance use, and borderline personality disorders were compared among 506 non-Hispanic Whites (N-HW), 108 Latina(o)s, and 94 African Americans (AA) participating in the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorder Study. We found that Whites reported higher rates of neglect than African Americans and Latina(o)s, higher rates of verbal/emotional abuse than African Americans, and higher rates of accidents and injuries/feared serious injury than Latina(o)s. African Americans had higher rates of seeing someone injured/killed than Whites. No significant interaction was observed between adverse events and ethnicity for mental disorders. PMID:20455250
Pérez Benítez, Carlos I.; Yen, Shirley; Shea, M. Tracie; Edelen, Maria O.; Markowitz, John C.; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Ansell, Emily B.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Skodol, Andrew E.; Gunderson, John G.; Morey, Leslie C.
Autonomic fear conditioning deficits have been linked to child aggression and adult criminal behavior. However, it is unknown if fear conditioning deficits are specific to certain subtypes of aggression, and longitudinal research is rare. In the current study, reactive and proactive aggression were assessed in a sample of males and females when aged 10, 12, 15, and 18 years old. Skin conductance fear conditioning data were collected when they were 18 years old. Individuals who were persistently high on proactive aggression measures had significantly poorer conditioned responses at 18 years old when compared to others. This association was not found for reactive aggression. Consistent with prior literature, findings suggest that persistent antisocial individuals have unique neurobiological characteristics and that poor autonomic fear conditioning is associated with the presence of increased instrumental aggressive behavior. PMID:25174802
Gao, Yu; Tuvblad, Catherine; Schell, Anne; Baker, Laura; Raine, Adrian
X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) is a pivotal epigenetic mechanism involved in the dosage compensation of X-linked genes between males and females. In any given cell, the process of XCI in early female development is thought to be random across alleles and clonally maintained once established. Recent studies, however, suggest that XCI might not always be random and that skewed inactivation may become more prevalent with age. The factors influencing such XCI skewing and its changes over time are largely unknown. To elucidate the influence of stochastic, heritable and environmental factors in longitudinal changes in XCI, we examined X inactivation profiles in a sample of monozygotic (MZ) (n?=?23) and dizygotic (DZ) (n?=?22) female twin-pairs at ages 5 and 10 years. Compared to MZ twins who were highly concordant for allelic XCI ratios, DZ twins showed much lower levels of concordance. Whilst XCI patterns were moderately stable between ages 5 and 10 years, there was some drift over time with an increased prevalence of more extreme XCI skewing at age 10. To our knowledge, this study represents the earliest longitudinal assessment of skewed XCI patterns, and suggests that skewed XCI may already be established in early childhood. Our data also suggest a link between MZ twinning and the establishment of allelic XCI ratios, and demonstrate that acquired skewing in XCI after establishment is primarily mediated by stochastic mechanisms. These data have implications for our understanding about sex differences in complex disease, and the potential causes of phenotypic discordance between MZ female twins. PMID:21445353
Wong, Chloe Chung Yi; Caspi, Avshalom; Williams, Benjamin; Houts, Renate; Craig, Ian W.; Mill, Jonathan
The core difficulty in developmental dyslexia across languages is a "phonological deficit", a specific difficulty with the neural representation of the sound structure of words. Recent data across languages suggest that this phonological deficit arises in part from inefficient auditory processing of the rate of change of the amplitude envelope at syllable onset (inefficient sensory processing of rise time). Rise time is a complex percept that also involves changes in duration and perceived intensity. Understanding the neural mechanisms that give rise to the phonological deficit in dyslexia is important for optimising educational interventions. In a three-deviant passive 'oddball' paradigm and a corresponding blocked 'deviant-alone' control condition we recorded ERPs to tones varying in rise time, duration and intensity in children with dyslexia and typically developing children longitudinally. We report here results from test Phases 1 and 2, when participants were aged 8-10 years. We found an MMN to duration, but not to rise time nor intensity deviants, at both time points for both groups. For rise time, duration and intensity we found group effects in both the Oddball and Blocked conditions. There was a slower fronto-central P1 response in the dyslexic group compared to controls. The amplitude of the P1 fronto-centrally to tones with slower rise times and lower intensity was smaller compared to tones with sharper rise times and higher intensity in the Oddball condition, for children with dyslexia only. The latency of this ERP component for all three stimuli was shorter on the right compared to the left hemisphere, only for the dyslexic group in the Blocked condition. Furthermore, we found decreased N1c amplitude to tones with slower rise times compared to tones with sharper rise times for children with dyslexia, only in the Oddball condition. Several other effects of stimulus type, age and laterality were also observed. Our data suggest that neuronal responses underlying some aspects of auditory sensory processing may be impaired in dyslexia. PMID:21507346
Stefanics, Gabor; Fosker, Tim; Huss, Martina; Mead, Natasha; Szucs, Denes; Goswami, Usha
This study explores the relationship between organizational health climate and worksite health promotion program participation, specifically engaging individuals who are unlikely to make positive health behavior choices on their own. Participants consisted of employees at three separate furniture-manufacturing facilities completing a voluntary survey. Using responses (n = 349) from the health climate instrument, which is a measure of the collective attitudes, beliefs, and readiness to change a health behavior, this study identified two factors that were significant contributors to worksite health promotion program participation. Health norms, the collective attitudes regarding healthy lifestyle, as measured by the subscales-health scale and intention to make a behavior change-and "optimistic bias," the overassessment of one's personal health, were found to be predictors of participation. Additionally, significant (p < .05) predictors of self-assessed health, included perceived control to initiate, competence to carry out, and the organizational support of the health behavior change. The findings suggest that the organization's health norms and self-assessed health are associated with the worker's motivation to become involved with health promotion interventions. Offering worksite health screenings and advanced programming and creating a culture of health at work can help address program participation. PMID:24231632
Hall, Michael Edward; Bergman, Randall J; Nivens, Samantha
This study investigates the relationship between three different cognitive processes underlying the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and adolescent smoking behaviors in a longitudinal study. We conducted a longitudinal study of 181 Chinese adolescents in Chengdu City, China. The participants were followed from 10th to 11th grade. When they were in the 10th grade (Time 1), we tested these adolescents' decision-making using the IGT and working memory capacity using the Self-ordered Pointing Test (SOPT). Self-report questionnaires were used to assess school academic performance and smoking behaviors. The same questionnaires were completed again at the 1-year follow-up (Time 2). The Expectancy-Valence (EV) Model was applied to distill the IGT performance into three different underlying psychological components: (i) a motivational component which indicates the subjective weight the adolescents assign to gains vs. losses; (ii) a learning-rate component which indicates the sensitivity to recent outcomes vs. past experiences; and (iii) a response component which indicates how consistent the adolescents are between learning and responding. The subjective weight to gains vs. losses at Time 1 significantly predicted current smokers and current smoking levels at Time 2, controlling for demographic variables and baseline smoking behaviors. Therefore, by decomposing the IGT into three different psychological components, we found that the motivational process of weight gain vs. losses may serve as a neuropsychological marker to predict adolescent smoking behaviors in a general youth population. PMID:24101911
Xiao, Lin; Koritzky, Gilly; Johnson, C Anderson; Bechara, Antoine
The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of three computerized interventions on the reading skills of children with reading disabilities in Grade 2. This longitudinal intervention study included five test sessions over 1 year. Two test points occur before the intervention, and three afterwards. The last follow-up was conducted 1 year after the first measurement. One hundred thirty children in Grade 2 participated in the study. Three groups of children with reading difficulties received computerized training programmes: one aimed at improving word decoding skills and phonological abilities, the second focused on word and sentence levels and the third was a combination of these two training programmes. A fourth group received ordinary special instruction. In addition, there was one comparison group with age-matched typical readers. All groups improved their reading skills. The group that received combined training showed greater improvement than the one with ordinary special instruction and the group of typical readers at two follow-ups. The longitudinal results indicate additional positive results for the group that received the combined training, the majority of students from that group being no longer judged to be needing special education 1 year after the intervention. PMID:23338977
Fälth, Linda; Gustafson, Stefan; Tjus, Tomas; Heimann, Mikael; Svensson, Idor
This study investigates the relationship between three different cognitive processes underlying the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and adolescent smoking behaviors in a longitudinal study. We conducted a longitudinal study of 181 Chinese adolescents in Chengdu City, China. The participants were followed from 10th to 11th grade. When they were in the 10th grade (Time 1), we tested these adolescents' decision-making using the IGT and working memory capacity using the Self-ordered Pointing Test (SOPT). Self-report questionnaires were used to assess school academic performance and smoking behaviors. The same questionnaires were completed again at the 1-year follow-up (Time 2). The Expectancy-Valence (EV) Model was applied to distill the IGT performance into three different underlying psychological components: (i) a motivational component which indicates the subjective weight the adolescents assign to gains vs. losses; (ii) a learning-rate component which indicates the sensitivity to recent outcomes vs. past experiences; and (iii) a response component which indicates how consistent the adolescents are between learning and responding. The subjective weight to gains vs. losses at Time 1 significantly predicted current smokers and current smoking levels at Time 2, controlling for demographic variables and baseline smoking behaviors. Therefore, by decomposing the IGT into three different psychological components, we found that the motivational process of weight gain vs. losses may serve as a neuropsychological marker to predict adolescent smoking behaviors in a general youth population. PMID:24101911
Xiao, Lin; Koritzky, Gilly; Johnson, C. Anderson; Bechara, Antoine
Part of a larger research project, this longitudinal study analyzed differences between effective and ineffective high school and college language learners and changes in strategy uses over time. Related studies include a descriptive study, which identified learning strategies used in studying foreign languages, and a course development study, in…
Chamot, Anna Uhl; And Others
The study investigated continuity, comorbidity and longitudinal associations between depression Beck depression inventory (RBDI) and antisocial behaviour Youth self-report (YSR) in middle adolescence. Data were used from a community sample of 2070 adolescents who participated in a 2-year prospective follow-up study. The results indicate that both…
Ritakallio, Minna; Koivisto, Anna-Maija; von der Pahlen, Bettina; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Marttunen, Mauri; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu
The present study examined the associations driving under the influence of (a) cannabis and (b) alcohol, and motor vehicle collisions during, in a longitudinal study of a New Zealand birth cohort (n=936). Participants reported significantly (p<.0001) greater rates of driving under the influence of cannabis than driving under the influence of alcohol during ages 21–25. Also, there were statistically significant
David M. Fergusson; L. John Horwood; Joseph M. Boden
This study investigated the roles of sex, age, and parent-child communication in moderating the association between digital game violence and direct aggression in a two-year longitudinal study. Finnish 12- and 15-year-old adolescents (N = 316) participated in the follow-up survey. As hypothesized, digital game violence was linked to direct…
Wallenius, Marjut; Punamaki, Raija-Leena
Study Objectives: The study provided an opportunity to observe sleep patterns in a college-age population attending the United States Military Academy. Design: This 4-year longitudinal study investigated sleep patterns of cadets. A stratified sample of 80 cadets had sleep patterns monitored using actigraphy for 8 months: one month in both fall and spring academic semesters over a 4-year period. Setting: Data were collected at the United States Military Academy, West Point, NY. Participants: Participants were members of the class of 2007 (n˜1300) ranging in age from 17 to 22 when entering USMA. Measurements and Results: A sample of the class (n = 80) wore wrist activity monitors and completed activity logs for one month in fall and spring academic semesters for the 4-year period. On average over the 4 years, cadets slept < 5.5 h on school nights. Cadets napped extensively, perhaps in an attempt to compensate for chronic sleep debt. Cadets slept more during fall than spring semesters. Male and female cadet sleep patterns varied dramatically, with males consistently receiving less sleep than females (˜21 m for nighttime sleep and ˜23 m for daily sleep). Conclusions: Cadet sleep at USMA is related to academic year, semester, season, sex, school day or weekend, and day of the week. These students suffer from chronic sleep debt. Restrictions imposed by the military academy limit the generalizability of the findings to other college age populations. Citation: Miller NL; Shattuck LG; Matsangas P. Longitudinal study of sleep patterns of United States Military Academy cadets. SLEEP 2010;33(12):1623-1631. PMID:21120124
Miller, Nita Lewis; Shattuck, Lawrence G.; Matsangas, Panagiotis
Objective To investigate whether deliberate self harm is associated with contemporary Goth youth subculture. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Setting School and community based study of young people living in the Central Clydeside Conurbation, Scotland. Participants 1258 people aged 19, surveyed in 2002-4 and followed-up since age 11 (1994). Main outcome measures Lifetime prevalence of self harm and attempted suicide and their association with Goth youth subculture, before and after adjusting for confounders. Results Identification as belonging to the Goth subculture was strongly associated with lifetime self harm and attempted suicide, with a prevalence of 53% and 47%, respectively among the most highly identified group, and evidence for a dose-response relation. Adjusting for potential confounders did not significantly attenuate this association. Analysis of other youth subcultures showed that this effect was primarily associated with Goth subculture. Conclusions Identification as belonging to the Goth subculture was the best predictor of self harm and attempted suicide. Although based on small numbers, additional longitudinal analysis suggests both selection and modelling mechanisms are involved, selection mechanisms possibly being more likely. PMID:16613936
Young, Robert; Sweeting, Helen; West, Patrick
This study examined a full path model of stress process for predicting illicit drug use among Asian and Latino immigrants' adolescent children. Using 2-year longitudinal data (National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health) from a sample of adolescents with Asian or Latino immigrant parents (N = 2,353), the study explored structural…
In this paper we present a case study of a longitudinal in-situ observation that involves a new social application for mobile communication. Our study demonstrates the need for an adaptive approach to planning, design, and implementation that is responsive to emerging social and infrastructure conditions. This represents a shift from traditional longitudinal studies that observe prototype systems with fixed sets
Bram Lievens; Nataša Mili?-Frayling; Valentine Lerouge; Jo Pierson; Gerard Oleksik; Rachel Jones; Jamie Costello
After two surveys for indoor air pollutants (radon and other chemicals) the homeowners were surveyed for their reactions. The results of these participant evaluation surveys, assuming that the participants that responded to the survey were representative, indicate that homeowners will accept a significant level of monitoring activity as part of an indoor air quality field study. Those participants completing surveys overwhelmingly enjoyed being in the studies and would do it again. We believe that the emphasis placed on positive homeowner interactions and efforts made to inform participants throughout our studies were positive factors in this result. There was no substantial differences noted in the responses between the 70-house study, which included a homeowner compensation payment of $100, and the 300-house study, which did not include a compensation payment. These results provide encouragement to conduct future complex, multipollutant indoor air quality studies when they are scientifically sound and cost effective.
Hawthorne, A.R.; Dudney, C.S.; Cohen, M.A.; Spengler, J.D.
Objective Recent epidemiological and longitudinal studies indicate that attachment relationships may be a significant predictor of physical health in adulthood. This study is among the few to prospectively link attachment classifications assessed in infancy to physical health outcomes thirty years later in adulthood, controlling for various health-related confounds. Methods Participants were 163 individuals involved in a 32-year longitudinal study of risk and adaptation who have been followed since birth. Attachment classifications were assessed at ages 12 and 18 months using the Ainsworth Strange Situation Procedure. Stability of attachment security was derived from these assessments. At age 32, participants completed a questionnaire asking about the presence of or treatment for current physical illnesses. Results Binary logistic regression analyses controlling for health-related confounds at age 32 indicated that individuals who were insecurely attached (i.e., anxious-resistant or anxious-avoidant) during infancy were more likely to report an inflammation-based illness in adulthood than those classified as securely attached during infancy. There also was a trend whereby individuals classified as anxious-resistant reported more non-specific symptoms in adulthood than those classified as either anxious-avoidant or secure. Individuals who were continuously insecure during infancy were more likely to report all types of physical illness in adulthood. Conclusion These findings reveal the lasting effect of early interpersonal relationships on physical health and suggests that infancy may be a fruitful point for prevention efforts. The widespread influence that attachment has on endogenous and exogenous health-related processes may make it particularly potent in the prevention of later physical health problems. PMID:22823067
Puig, Jennifer; Englund, Michelle M.; Simpson, Jeffry A.; Collins, W. Andrew
In the article there are presented data of longitudinal study of the health of Moscow schoolchildren (426 children), followed throughout from the 1st to 9th class, inclusively. Students were annually clinically examined in the school. There was performed a comprehensive study of mental health and functional state of the organism in the process of education students in high school (over 2700 pupils of 5-9th classes). The health status of students was shown to deteriorate due to the increase of the prevalence of chronic disease, the rise in occupancy of the III-IV health groups, the decrease of the number of children referred to I and II health groups. Unfavorable trends in the health state among boys are more pronounced than in girls, while they are also characterized by lower functional capabilities of the CNS and lower resistance to the development of training fatigue. Relatively favorable stage of school ontogeny is characterized by period with reduced morbidity in children studying in 4th-6th classes. Deterioration in the health of students as a significant rate of the rise of chronic diseases morbidity is observed in 7-9th classes. Along with this, in the 7th and 9th classes there is revealed the deterioration of mental capacity and high frequency of the pronounced signs of fatigue among schoolchildren. PMID:25306705
Sukhareva, L M; Rapoport, I K; Polenova, M A
Objective To describe the design of a longitudinal study of youth with elevated symptoms of mania (ESM) as well as the prevalence and correlates of manic symptoms. Bipolar disorder in youth is serious and is surrounded by controversy about its phenomenology, course and treatment. Yet, there are no longitudinal studies of youth selected only for ESM, the phenomenological hallmark. The study’s objective is to document the rate and sociodemographic correlates of ESM in children attending outpatient psychiatric clinics. Method Parents of 3329 6–12 year old children visiting 10 outpatient clinics were asked to complete the Parent General Behavior Inventory-10 Item Mania Scale (PGBI-10M). Children with PGBI-10M scores ? 12 (ESM+) and a matched sample of screen negatives (ESM?) were invited to enroll in the longitudinal study. Results Most (N=2622, 78.8%) participated. Nonparticipants were slightly younger (M=9.1 years, SD=2.0 versus 9.4 years, SD=2.0; t=4.42, df=3327, p<0.001). Nearly half (43%) were ESM+; these were more likely to be Latino (4.2% versus 2.5%, X2 =5.45, df=1, p=0.02), younger (M=9.3 years, SD=2.0 versus M=9.6 years, SD=1.9, t=3.8, df=2620, p<0.001) and insured by Medicaid (48.4% versus 35.4%, X2 =45.00, df=1, p<0.001). There were no sociodemographic differences between those who did versus did not agree to enroll in the longitudinal portion (ESM+ N=621, 55.2%; ESM? N=503, 44.8%). Four items best discriminated ESM+ from ESM?. These were not the most commonly endorsed but were indicative of behavioral extremes. Conclusions Data suggest ESM+ is not rare in 6 to 12 year olds. ESM+ children show behavioral extremes including rapid mood shifts compared to ESM? children. PMID:21034684
Horwitz, Sarah McCue; Demeter, Christine; Pagano, Maria E.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Fristad, Mary A.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Birmaher, Boris; Gill, Mary Kay; Axelson, David; Kowatch, Robert A.; Frazier, Thomas W.; Findling, Robert L.
The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) is a population-based study designed to understand the ways in which the physical and social environment interact, over time, with the genotype to affect health, behaviour and development. This information about causal interactions in common diseases and disorders will provide the basis on which future preventive interventions can be tested, especially in regard to people with specific genotypes. Whilst ALSPAC builds on data and hypotheses generated by earlier general population cohorts, its design offers special advantages, the most important being: enrolment in early pregnancy; banking of DNA from the children and parents (permitting genetic transmission tests and transgenerational imprinting studies); diverse physical, psychological and environmental measures; one geographical base (permitting medical record and school linkage; environmental measures in the home, and clinics for direct examination); annual hands-on examinations of the full cohort since age 7. The 14 541 enrolled pregnancies (expected date of delivery 1 April 1991 to 31 December 1992) represented about 85% of the eligible population. The 13 971 children who were still alive at age 12 months have been followed principally by questionnaires completed by a parent. Twelve years on, questionnaires are still being sent out to 11 300 families. The average questionnaire response rate from mothers is 79%. From age 7, annual examinations of both 'physical' and 'psychological' aspects have also been conducted on the children (approximately 8000 attend each 'clinic'). The quality of the data has proved high in validation studies and is maintained by collaboration with experts in each specialist field. The high participation rate ensures a viable study well into the future. PMID:15554896
Objective To explore views of patients with type 2 diabetes about self monitoring of blood glucose over time. Design Longitudinal, qualitative study. Setting Primary and secondary care settings across Lothian, Scotland. Participants 18 patients with type 2 diabetes. Main outcome measures Results from repeat in-depth interviews with patients over four years after clinical diagnosis. Results Analysis revealed three main themes—the role of health professionals, interpreting readings and managing high values, and the ongoing role of blood glucose self monitoring. Self monitoring decreased over time, and health professionals' behaviour seemed crucial in this: participants interpreted doctors' focus on levels of haemoglobin A1c, and lack of perceived interest in meter readings, as indicating that self monitoring was not worth continuing. Some participants saw readings as a proxy measure of good and bad behaviour—with women especially, chastising themselves when readings were high. Some participants continued to find readings difficult to interpret, with uncertainty about how to respond to high readings. Reassurance and habit were key reasons for continuing. There was little indication that participants were using self monitoring to effect and maintain behaviour change. Conclusions Clinical uncertainty about the efficacy and role of blood glucose self monitoring in patients with type 2 diabetes is mirrored in patients' own accounts. Patients tended not to act on their self monitoring results, in part because of a lack of education about the appropriate response to readings. Health professionals should be explicit about whether and when such patients should self monitor and how they should interpret and act upon the results, especially high readings. PMID:17761996
Douglas, Margaret; Lawton, Julia
The development of reading ability in a group of deaf children was followed over a 3-year period. A total of 29 deaf children (7-8 years of age at the first assessment) participated in the study, and every 12 months they were given a battery of literacy, cognitive, and language tasks. Earlier vocabulary and speechreading skills predicted longitudinal growth in reading achievement. The relations between reading and the predictor variables showed developmental change. Earlier reading ability was related to later phonological awareness skills, suggesting that deaf children might develop their phonological awareness through reading. Deaf children who had the most age-appropriate reading skills tended to have less severe hearing losses and earlier diagnoses and also preferred to communicate through speech. The theoretical implications of the role for speechreading, vocabulary and phonological awareness in deaf children's literacy are discussed. PMID:20570282
Kyle, Fiona E; Harris, Margaret
ABSTRACT Among the negative consequences of video gaming disorder, decreased participation in sport and exercise has received little attention. This study aimed to assess the longitudinal association between video gaming disorder and the level of sport and exercise in emerging adult men. A questionnaire was completed at baseline and 15-month follow-up by a representative national sample of 4,933 respondents. The seven items of the game addiction scale were used to construct a latent variable representing video gaming disorder. Level of sport and exercise was also self-reported. Cross-lagged path modeling indicated a reciprocal causality between video gaming disorder and the level of sport and exercise, even after adjusting for a large set of confounders. These findings support the need for better promotion of sport and exercise among emerging adults in order to contribute to the prevention of video gaming disorder, and raise the low level of sport and exercise in addicted gamers. PMID:25258243
Henchoz, Yves; Studer, Joseph; Deline, Stéphane; N'Goran, Alexandra A; Baggio, Stéphanie; Gmel, Gerhard
The Tea Party movement, which rose to prominence in the United States after the election of President Barack Obama, provides an ideal context in which to examine the roles of racial concerns and ideology in politics. A three-wave longitudinal study tracked changes in White Americans' self-identification with the Tea Party, racial concerns (prejudice and racial identification), and ideologies (libertarianism and social conservatism) over nine months. Latent Growth Modeling (LGM) was used to evaluate potential causal relationships between Tea Party identification and these factors. Across time points, racial prejudice was indirectly associated with movement identification through Whites' assertions of national decline. Although initial levels of White identity did not predict change in Tea Party identification, initial levels of Tea Party identification predicted increases in White identity over the study period. Across the three assessments, support for the Tea Party fell among libertarians, but rose among social conservatives. Results are discussed in terms of legitimation theories of prejudice, the "racializing" power of political judgments, and the ideological dynamics of the Tea Party. PMID:23825630
Knowles, Eric D; Lowery, Brian S; Shulman, Elizabeth P; Schaumberg, Rebecca L
Background Physical activity is associated with improved overall health in those people who survive to older ages, otherwise conceptualised as healthy ageing. Previous studies have examined the effects of mid-life physical activity on healthy ageing, but not the effects of taking up activity later in life. We examined the association between physical activity and healthy ageing over 8?years of follow-up. Methods Participants were 3454 initially disease-free men and women (aged 63.7±8.9?years at baseline) from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, a prospective study of community dwelling older adults. Self-reported physical activity was assessed at baseline (2002–2003) and through follow-up. Healthy ageing, assessed at 8?years of follow-up (2010-2011), was defined as those participants who survived without developing major chronic disease, depressive symptoms, physical or cognitive impairment. Results At follow-up, 19.3% of the sample was defined as healthy ageing. In comparison with inactive participants, moderate (OR, 2.67, 95% CI 1.95 to 3.64), or vigorous activity (3.53, 2.54 to 4.89) at least once a week was associated with healthy ageing, after adjustment for age, sex, smoking, alcohol, marital status and wealth. Becoming active (multivariate adjusted, 3.37, 1.67 to 6.78) or remaining active (7.68, 4.18 to 14.09) was associated with healthy ageing in comparison with remaining inactive over follow-up. Conclusions Sustained physical activity in older age is associated with improved overall health. Significant health benefits were even seen among participants who became physically active relatively late in life. PMID:24276781
Hamer, Mark; Lavoie, Kim L; Bacon, Simon L
of participants in organization-sponsored training. A general qualitative methodology was utilized in this study. Then, through a social constructivism lens, the researcher looked closely at the interactions described in the trainees? experiences in order...
Mathis, Robin S.
Objectives. We examined the association between time spent in physical education and academic achievement in a longitudinal study of students in kinder- garten through fifth grade. Methods. We used data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kinder- garten Class of 1998 to 1999, which employed a multistage probability design to select a nationally representative sample of students in kindergarten (analytic
Susan A. Carlson; Janet E. Fulton; Sarah M. Lee; L. Michele Maynard; David R. Brown; Harold W. Kohl III; William H. Dietz
Most longitudinal studies are plagued by drop-out related to variables at earlier assessments (systematic attrition). Although systematic attrition is often analysed in longitudinal studies, surprisingly few researchers attempt to reduce biases due to systematic attrition, even though this is possible and nowadays technically easy. This is…
Asendorpf, Jens B.; van de Schoot, Rens; Denissen, Jaap J. A.; Hutteman, Roos
Background: Maternal depression is known to be associated with impairments in child cognitive development, although the effect of timing of exposure to maternal depression is unclear. Methods: Data collected for the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a longitudinal study beginning in pregnancy, included self-report measures of…
Evans, Jonathan; Melotti, Roberto; Heron, Jon; Ramchandani, Paul; Wiles, Nicola; Murray, Lynne; Stein, Alan
The doubly labeled water (DLW) method is considered the reference method for the measurement of energy expenditure under free-living conditions. However, the reproducibility of the DLW method in longitudinal studies is not well documented. This study was designed to evaluate the longitudinal reprodu...
New Wave of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study Looks at Aging "Happy Days" Cohort Bob and Tess Hauser and a team of researchers are gearing up for a new wave of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, funded current faculty and past graduates of the Department of Sociology. Several continuing and new graduate
BACKGROUND: Although reducing intimate partner violence (IPV) is a pervasive public health problem, few longitudinal studies in developing countries have assessed ways to end such abuse. To this end, this paper aims to analyze individual, family, community and societal factors that facilitate reducing IPV. METHODS: A longitudinal population-based study was conducted in León, Nicaragua at a demographic surveillance site. Women
Mariano Salazar; Eliette Valladares; Ann Öhman; Ulf Högberg
Background Shoulder pain affects all ages, with a lifetime prevalence of one in three. The most effective treatment is not known. Physiotherapy is often recommended as the first choice of treatment. At present, it is not possible to identify, from the initial physiotherapy assessment, which factors predict the outcome of physiotherapy for patients with shoulder pain. The primary objective of this study is to identify which patient characteristics and baseline measures, typically assessed at the first physiotherapy appointment, are related to the functional outcome of shoulder pain 6 weeks and 6 months after starting physiotherapy treatment. Methods/Design Participants with musculoskeletal shoulder pain of any duration will be recruited from participating physiotherapy departments. For this longitudinal cohort study, the participants care pathway, including physiotherapy treatment will be therapist determined. Potential prognostic variables will be collected from participants during their first physiotherapy appointment and will include demographic details, lifestyle, psychosocial factors, shoulder symptoms, general health, clinical examination, activity limitations and participation restrictions. Outcome measures (Shoulder Pain and Disability Index, Quick Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand, and Global Impression of Change) will be collected by postal self-report questionnaires 6 weeks and 6 months after commencing physiotherapy. Details of attendance and treatment will be collected by the treating physiotherapist. Participants will be asked to complete an exercise dairy. An initial exploratory analysis will assess the relationship between potential prognostic factors at baseline and outcome using univariate statistical tests. Those factors significant at the 5% level will be further considered as prognostic factors using a general linear model. It is estimated that 780 subjects will provide more than 90% power to detect an effect size of less than 0.25 adjusted for other variables which have a co-efficient of determination (R-squared) with the outcome of up to 0.5. Assuming a 22% loss to follow up at 6 months, 1000 participants will initially be recruited. Discussion This study may offer service users and providers with guidance to help identify whether or not physiotherapy is likely to be of benefit. Clinicians may have some direction as to what key factors indicate a patient’s likely response to physiotherapy. PMID:23800352
The purpose of the present investigation was to assess longitudinal word- and sentence-level measures of stuttering in young children. Participants included 12 stuttering and non-stuttering children between 36 and 71 months of age at an initial visit who exhibited a range of stuttering rates. Parent-child spontaneous speech samples were obtained…
Buhr, Anthony; Zebrowski, Patricia
The class quasi-experiment was conducted to determine whether using computer simulation teaching strategy enhanced student understanding of statistics concepts for students enrolled in an introductory course. One hundred and ninety-three sophomores in hospitality management department were invited as participants in this two-year longitudinal…
The current investigation examined whether inter-generational transfer of risk could be revealed through mothers' and preschool-aged children's expressive language, and whether continuity of risk persisted in these children's academic abilities, 3 years later. Participating families were drawn from the Concordia Longitudinal Risk Project, a…
Campisi, Lisa; Serbin, Lisa A.; Stack, Dale M.; Schwartzman, Alex E.; Ledingham, Jane E.
The Longitudinal Study of Astronomy Graduate Students (LSAGS), an ongoing, joint project of the American Astronomical Society (AAS) and the American Institute of Physics (AIP), first collected survey data from astronomy and astrophysics graduate students in 2007-08. The LSAGS follows the same people, all of whom were in graduate school in 2006-07, over time as they start their careers. Most of the respondents are currently working as postdocs. There have been two rounds of the survey so far, and we have recently received funding for a third round from the National Science Foundation (AST-1347723). Results from the first round showed the importance of mentoring for graduate students. Data collection for the second round has been completed, and AIP has just begun analysis of these data. At this talk, I will present the results of the second survey. Ultimately, the LSAGS will *provide detailed data on trends in employment over 10+ years for a single cohort, *collect data on people who leave the field of astronomy during or after graduate school, *determine whether there are sex differences in attrition from astronomy and reasons for this, and *examine factors that precede decisions to persist in, or leave, the field of astronomy.
This is among the first longitudinal studies to report student attitudes across 4 yr of a university program. We found that the attitudes of students in biology become significantly more expert-like from the first year to the fourth year of the program, that is, there was a significant positive shift in students’ overall percent favorable scores from 64.5 to 72%, as opposed to the expert response, which averaged 90%. There was a significant positive shift for the real world connection category (78–85%), the enjoyment (personal interest) category (74–82%), and the conceptual connections/memorization category (66–74%). Moreover, there was a significant correlation between students’ overall percent favorable scores and performance (cumulative grade point average) at the end, but not at the beginning, of the fourth year, with high-performing students having significantly more expert-like attitudes than low-performing students. The correlation between percent favorable score and performance was the strongest for the problem solving: synthesis and application category, in which the highest-performing students finished their fourth year with 90% favorable compared with 35% favorable for the lowest-performing students. A comparison of these results with previously reported results and their implications for teaching are discussed.
Summary We propose a double-penalized likelihood approach for simultaneous model selection and estimation in semiparametric mixed models for longitudinal data. Two types of penalties are jointly imposed on the ordinary log-likelihood: the roughness penalty on the nonparametric baseline function and a nonconcave shrinkage penalty on linear coefficients to achieve model sparsity. Compared to existing estimation equation based approaches, our procedure provides valid inference for data with missing at random, and will be more efficient if the specified model is correct. Another advantage of the new procedure is its easy computation for both regression components and variance parameters. We show that the double penalized problem can be conveniently reformulated into a linear mixed model framework, so that existing software can be directly used to implement our method. For the purpose of model inference, we derive both frequentist and Bayesian variance estimation for estimated parametric and nonparametric components. Simulation is used to evaluate and compare the performance of our method to the existing ones. We then apply the new method to a real data set from a lactation study. PMID:19397585
Ni, Xiao; Zhang, Daowen; Zhang, Hao Helen
The aim of this study was to examine the degree in which measurements of trait experiential avoidance (EA) are affected by current emotional disorder and whether EA is a causal factor in the course of emotional disorders (anxiety and depressive disorders) and the development of comorbidity among emotional disorders. In a sample of 2,316 adults aged 18 to 65, consisting of healthy controls, persons with a prior history of emotional disorders, and persons with a current emotional disorder, DSM-IV-based emotional disorders (CIDI: Composite Interview Diagnostic Instrument) were assessed at T2 and 2 (T4) and 4years later (T6) and experiential avoidance (AAQ: Acceptance and Action Questionnaire) at T2 and T4. Results showed that EA scores were stable over a 2-year period notwithstanding state fluctuations because of current emotional disorder. Moreover, EA scores at T2 predicted changes in distress (major depressive disorder, dysthymia, generalized anxiety disorder) and in fear disorders (social anxiety disorder, panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, agoraphobia without panic) at T4. Finally, EA at T4 mediated the longitudinal association of fear disorders at T2 with distress disorders at T6 as well as of distress disorders at T2 with fear disorders at T6. These findings suggest that EA scores are more than epiphenomena of emotional disorders and that EA may be conceptualized as a relevant transdiagnostic factor affecting the course and development of comorbidity of emotional disorders. PMID:25311292
Spinhoven, Philip; Drost, Jolijn; de Rooij, Mark; van Hemert, Albert M; Penninx, Brenda W
This article provides an overview of the longitudinal Survey in Europe on Nutrition and the Elderly: a Concerted Action (SENECA) study, which was designed to assess differences in dietary and lifestyle factors among elderly Europeans, and to identify the factors that contribute to healthy aging. Elderly people from Belgium, Denmark, France, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland, and The Netherlands participated in
Groot de C. P. G. M; Marieke W. Verheijden; Stefaan de Henauw; Marianne Schroll; Staveren van W. A
A longitudinal study provides a more detailed analysis of the career pathways of graduates than the First Destination Survey can achieve. This survey of 41% of graduates from a BSc (Honours) Outdoor Studies degree also examines the importance of named skills to their careers and the success of the degree in developing each skill. Two thirds of…
This longitudinal study spanning 18 years examined the role of social strategies in early career adaptation. The aim was to find out whether individuals' social strategies measured during their university studies had an impact on work burnout and work engagement measured 10-18 years later. A sample of 292 university students completed the SAQ…
Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Tolvanen, Asko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Recent genome-wide association (GWA) studies have pinpointed many loci associated with CVD risk factors in adults. It is unclear, however, if these loci predict trait levels at all ages, if they are associated with how a trait develops over time, or if they could be used to screen individuals who are pre-symptomatic to provide the opportunity for preventive measures before disease onset. We completed a genome-wide association study on participants in the longitudinal Bogalusa Heart Study (BHS) and have characterized the association between genetic factors and the development of CVD risk factors from childhood to adulthood. We report 7 genome-wide significant associations involving CVD risk factors, two of which have been previously reported. Top regions were tested for replication in the Young Finns Study (YF) and two associations strongly replicated: rs247616 in CETP with HDL levels (combined P?=?9.7×10?24), and rs445925 at APOE with LDL levels (combined P?=?8.7×10?19). We show that SNPs previously identified in adult cross-sectional studies tend to show age-independent effects in the BHS with effect sizes consistent with previous reports. Previously identified variants were associated with adult trait levels above and beyond those seen in childhood; however, variants with time-dependent effects were also promising predictors. This is the first GWA study to evaluate the role of common genetic variants in the development of CVD risk factors in children as they advance through adulthood and highlights the utility of using longitudinal studies to identify genetic predictors of adult traits in children. PMID:20838585
Smith, Erin N.; Chen, Wei; Kähönen, Mika; Kettunen, Johannes; Lehtimäki, Terho; Peltonen, Leena; Raitakari, Olli T.; Salem, Rany M.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Shaw, Marian; Srinivasan, Sathanur R.; Topol, Eric J.; Viikari, Jorma S.; Berenson, Gerald S.; Murray, Sarah S.
Ventral hernias are a common clinical problem. Immediate repair is recommended for most ventral hernias despite significant recurrence rates. This practice may be related to a lack of understanding of the natural history of ventral hernias. The purpose of this study was to determine the natural history of ventral hernias and to determine if watchful waiting is an acceptable and safe option. Forty-one patients with ventral hernias were enrolled in a longitudinal cohort study of watchful waiting. Primary outcomes were functional impairment resulting from hernia disease as measured by the Activities Assessment Scale (AAS) and changes from baseline to two years in the physical and mental component score of the SF-36 Health Survey. Secondary outcomes included complications such as incarceration. Mixed-effects model for repeated measures and Student's t tests were used to evaluate scale performance. The mean age of enrollees was 64 years, and the mean hernia size was 239 cm(2). Eleven patients were lost to follow-up, and seven patients died of other causes. All remaining patients were followed for two years. There was one incarceration during the follow-up period. There was no deterioration in the AAS score (baseline vs 24 months = 28 vs 25, P = 0.60). There was deterioration of the physical functioning dimension of the SF-36 (baseline vs 24 months = 40 vs 32, P < 0.01), but the mental functioning dimension was improved (45 vs 51; P = 0.01). Watchful waiting was a safe option for patients in this study with ventral hernias. PMID:24666865
Bellows, Charles F; Robinson, Celia; Fitzgibbons, Robert J; Webber, Larry S; Berger, David H
Developmental scientists have argued that the implementation of longitudinal methods is necessary for obtaining an accurate picture of the nature and sources of developmental change (Magnusson & Cairns, 1996; Morrison & Ornstein, 1996; Magnusson & Stattin, 2006). Developmentalists studying cognition have been relatively slow to embrace longitudinal research, and thus few exemplar studies have tracked individual children’s cognitive performance over time and even fewer have examined contexts that are associated with this growth. In this article we first outline some of the benefits of implementing longitudinal designs. Using illustrations from existing studies of children’s basic cognitive development and of their school-based academic performance, we discuss when it may be appropriate to employ longitudinal (versus other) methods. We then outline methods for integrating longitudinal data into one’s research portfolio, contrasting the leveraging of existing longitudinal data sets with the launching of new longitudinal studies in order to address specific questions concerning cognitive development. Finally, for those who are interested in conducting longitudinal investigations of their own, we provide practical on-the-ground guidelines for designing and carrying out such studies of cognitive development. PMID:24955035
Grammer, Jennie K.; Coffman, Jennifer L.; Ornstein, Peter A.; Morrison, Frederick J.
Based on the results from the qualitative part of the study "Grief Groups in Norway" conducted in 2009-2011, this article focuses on grief group participants' recommendations for good or ideal grief groups. Participants have insightful observations about grief groups and how they can be improved, and taking their point of view seriously is one important way of ensuring that users of such group get an optimal experience from joining such groups. Using their experiences to adjust the structure and function of the groups, one can allow for practical solutions for organizations that have difficulties starting up grief support groups, for example, in areas where the population density is low. A major finding in this study was that grief group participants stressed the importance of thorough information before and at the start of grief groups. This concerned information about the aim, structure, organization, and possible effects and limitations of group participation. PMID:24416876
Dyregrov, Kari; Dyregrov, Atle; Johnsen, Iren
Background Previous studies have suggested that there may be long-term harm associated with postoperative complications. Uncertainty exists however, because of the need for risk adjustment and inconsistent definitions of postoperative morbidity. Methods We did a longitudinal observational cohort study of patients undergoing major surgery. Case-mix adjustment was applied and morbidity was recorded using a validated outcome measure. Cox proportional hazards modelling using time-dependent covariates was used to measure the independent relationship between prolonged postoperative morbidity and longer term survival. Results Data were analysed for 1362 patients. The median length of stay was 9 days and the median follow-up time was 6.5 yr. Independent of perioperative risk, postoperative neurological morbidity (prevalence 2.9%) was associated with a relative hazard for long-term mortality of 2.00 [P=0.001; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32–3.04]. Prolonged postoperative morbidity (prevalence 15.6%) conferred a relative hazard for death in the first 12 months after surgery of 3.51 (P<0.001; 95% CI 2.28–5.42) and for the next 2 yr of 2.44 (P<0.001; 95% CI 1.62–3.65), returning to baseline thereafter. Conclusions Prolonged morbidity after surgery is associated with a risk of premature death for a longer duration than perhaps is commonly thought; however, this risk falls with time. We suggest that prolonged postoperative morbidity measured in this way may be a valid indicator of the quality of surgical healthcare. Our findings reinforce the importance of research and quality improvement initiatives aimed at reducing the duration and severity of postoperative complications. PMID:25012586
Moonesinghe, S. R.; Harris, S.; Mythen, M. G.; Rowan, K. M.; Haddad, F. S.; Emberton, M.; Grocott, M. P. W.
Studying human development involves describing, explaining, and optimizing intraindividual change and interindividual differences in such change and, as such, requires longitudinal research. The selection of the appropriate type of longitudinal design requires selecting the option that best addresses the theoretical questions asked about…
Lerner, Richard M.; Schwartz, Seth J.; Phelps, Erin
A longitudinal and multilevel approach is used to examine the relationship between antisocial behavior during adolescence and high school social climate. The data are taken from a longitudinal study of 1,233 boys and girls who attended 217 public and private high schools. Students' disruptive behaviors were assessed yearly from 6 to 12 years of…
Leblanc, Line; Swisher, Raymond; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.
This paper aims at investigating the causal effects of social behaviors on subsequent reading growth in elementary school, using the "Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten" ("ECLS-K") data. The sample was 8,869 subjects who provided longitudinal measures of reading IRT scores from kindergarten (1998-1999) to fifth grades (2003-2004) in…
Lim, Hyo Jin; Kim, Junyeop
Longitudinal research into personal and ethnic identity has expanded considerably in the first decade of the present century. The longitudinal studies have shown that personal identity develops progressively during adolescence, but also that many individuals do not change identity, especially ethnic identity. Researchers have found rank-order…
Purpose: To examine HRM strategies and practices and HRM position within organizations in various cultural, economic and sociopolitical contexts from a longitudinal perspective. Design/methodology/approach: The study uses the 1995 and 1999 Cranet data in a longitudinal methodological framework to explore the changes and trends in 18 European…
Nikandrou, Irene; Apospori, Eleni; Papalexandris, Nancy
Multivariate Nonlinear Mixed Model to Analyze Longitudinal Image Data: MRI Study of Early Brain to any longitudinal data with nonlinear growth patterns that can not easily be modeled by linear methods image data, in which subjects are scanned and measured repeatedly over time, become available
Utah, University of
“Hookups” are sexual encounters between partners who are not in a romantic relationship and do not expect commitment. We examined the associations between sexual hookup behavior and depression, sexual victimization (SV), and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among first-year college women. In this longitudinal study, 483 women completed 13 monthly surveys assessing oral and vaginal sex with hookup and romantic partners, depression, SV, and self-reported STIs. Participants also provided biological specimens that were tested for STIs. During the study, 50% of participants reported hookup sex, and 62% reported romantic sex. Covariates included previous levels of the outcome, alcohol use, impulsivity, sensation-seeking, and romantic sex. Autoregressive cross-lagged models showed that controlling for covariates, hookup behavior during college was correlated with depression, Bs = .21, ps < .05, and SV, Bs = .19, ps < .05. Additionally, pre-college hookup behavior predicted SV early in college, B = .62, p < .05. Hookup sex, OR 1.32, p < .05, and romantic sex, OR 1.19, p < .05, were associated with STIs. Overall, sexual hookup behavior among college women was positively correlated with experiencing depression, SV, and STIs, but the nature of these associations remains unclear, and hooking up did not predict future depression. PMID:24350600
Fielder, Robyn L.; Walsh, Jennifer L.; Carey, Kate B.; Carey, Michael P.
This study investigated the effectiveness of a positive youth development program for Chinese Secondary 3 students in two schools, who had been followed up since their entry to Secondary 1. A mixed research method was carried out using a pre- and post-test pre-experimental design and a focus group for the participants. The subjective outcome evaluations included participants’ perceptions of the program, program instructors, benefits of the program and overall satisfaction, and were positive. The longitudinal data from the objective outcome evaluation showed some notable improvements, and the overall effect of the program was also found to be positive for newcomers in the junior secondary years. The focus group interviews revealed mostly positive feedback in terms of the students’ general impressions of the program, with the majority of participants perceiving benefits to themselves from the program. The findings offer positive evidence of the effectiveness of the program. PMID:24350227
Luk, Andrew L.; Chan, W. U.; Hu, Sydney X. X.
Background Dogslife is the first large-scale internet-based longitudinal study of canine health. The study has been designed to examine how environmental and genetic factors influence the health and development of a birth cohort of UK-based pedigree Labrador Retrievers. Results In the first 12 months of the study 1,407 Kennel Club (KC) registered eligible dogs were recruited, at a mean age of 119 days of age (SD 69 days, range 3 days – 504 days). Recruitment rates varied depending upon the study team’s ability to contact owners. Where owners authorised the provision of contact details 8.4% of dogs were recruited compared to 1.3% where no direct contact was possible. The proportion of dogs recruited was higher for owners who transferred the registration of their puppy from the breeder to themselves with the KC, and for owners who were sent an e-mail or postcard requesting participation in the project. Compliance with monthly updates was highly variable. For the 280 dogs that were aged 400 days or more on the 30th June 2011, we estimated between 39% and 45% of owners were still actively involved in the project. Initial evaluation suggests that the cohort is representative of the general population of the KC registered Labrador Retrievers eligible to enrol with the project. Clinical signs of illnesses were reported in 44.3% of Labrador Retrievers registered with Dogslife (median age of first illness 138 days), although only 44.1% of these resulted in a veterinary presentation (median age 316 days). Conclusions The web-based platform has enabled the recruitment of a representative population of KC registered Labrador Retrievers, providing the first large-scale longitudinal population-based study of dog health. The use of multiple different methods (e-mail, post and telephone) of contact with dog owners was essential to maximise recruitment and retention of the cohort. PMID:23332044
Background Occupational exposure to cotton dust causes several diseases affecting the lungs, but only limited information is available on effects of long-term exposure. In this study, we aimed to evaluate longitudinal changes in selected parameters of pulmonary function in textile workers. Material/Methods This prospective cohort study began with 196 textile workers in 2006 and was completed in 2011 with 49 workers. We used standardized tests for pulmonary function on participants on the first day of the workweek in June of 2006 and 2011. Environmental samples of cotton dust were gathered with a vertical elutriator. Loss of pulmonary function was assessed based on gender and smoking status. Results The mean number of years participants worked in the textile factory was 7.61±1.83 years, and the mean age was 35.3+5.8 years. The annual FEV1 loss of all workers was 53.2 ml, giving a ratio of annual FEV1 loss to baseline FEV1 of 1.4%. Pulmonary function parameters of all participants in 2011 were significantly lower than those in 2006 (for all, p<0.05). In both surveys, pulmonary function in current smokers was lower, but this difference was not significant (p>0.05). Conclusions This study provides the first data on pulmonary functional loss in Turkish textile workers and supports the findings of other cohort studies that workers with long-term exposure to cotton dust may lose some pulmonary function. The ratio of annual FEV1 loss to baseline FEV1 appears to be a more accurate and comparable method than annual FEV1 loss for evaluating pulmonary functional loss. PMID:24346118
Kahraman, Hasan; Sucakli, Mustafa Haki; Kilic, Talat; Celik, Mustafa; Koksal, Nurhan; Ekerbicer, Hasan Cetin
Background International humanitarian aid workers providing care in emergencies are subjected to numerous chronic and traumatic stressors. Objectives To examine consequences of such experiences on aid workers' mental health and how the impact is influenced by moderating variables. Methodology We conducted a longitudinal study in a sample of international non-governmental organizations. Study outcomes included anxiety, depression, burnout, and life and job satisfaction. We performed bivariate regression analyses at three time points. We fitted generalized estimating equation multivariable regression models for the longitudinal analyses. Results Study participants from 19 NGOs were assessed at three time points: 212 participated at pre-deployment; 169 (80%) post-deployment; and 154 (73%) within 3–6 months after deployment. Prior to deployment, 12 (3.8%) participants reported anxiety symptoms, compared to 20 (11.8%) at post-deployment (p?=?0·0027); 22 (10.4%) reported depression symptoms, compared to 33 (19.5%) at post-deployment (p?=?0·0117) and 31 (20.1%) at follow-up (p?=?.00083). History of mental illness (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 4.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1·45–12·50) contributed to an increased risk for anxiety. The experience of extraordinary stress was a contributor to increased risk for burnout depersonalization (AOR 1.5; 95% CI 1.17–1.83). Higher levels of chronic stress exposure during deployment were contributors to an increased risk for depression (AOR 1·1; 95% CI 1·02–1.20) comparing post- versus pre-deployment, and increased risk for burnout emotional exhaustion (AOR 1.1; 95% CI 1.04–1.19). Social support was associated with lower levels of depression (AOR 0·9; 95% CI 0·84–0·95), psychological distress (AOR?=?0.9; [CI] 0.85–0.97), burnout lack of personal accomplishment (AOR 0·95; 95% CI 0·91–0·98), and greater life satisfaction (p?=?0.0213). Conclusions When recruiting and preparing aid workers for deployment, organizations should consider history of mental illness and take steps to decrease chronic stressors, and strengthen social support networks. PMID:22984592
Lopes Cardozo, Barbara; Gotway Crawford, Carol; Eriksson, Cynthia; Zhu, Julia; Sabin, Miriam; Ager, Alastair; Foy, David; Snider, Leslie; Scholte, Willem; Kaiser, Reinhard; Olff, Miranda; Rijnen, Bas; Simon, Winnifred
Aspergillosis (a fungal disease) is affecting sea fan corals Gorgonia spp. throughout the Caribbean. To measure the impact of this disease, we established longitudinal, or in other words individual-based, monitoring studies on 3 reefs in the Florida Keys, USA, to obtain estimates of incidence, rates of disease progress, recovery, and mortality. At Western Dry Rocks (near Key West), 40 Gorgonia ventalina colonies (20 initially healthy and 20 initially diseased) were photo-monitored between June 1996 and May 1998. Additional sea fans were visually monitored during 2 localized outbreaks at Conch (May 1998 to September 1999) and Carysfort (July 2000 to May 2001) reefs located in the Upper Keys. Data from Western Dry Rocks showed that over a 2 yr period, the incidence rate was 0.58 sea fans yr(-1) and that tissue purpling can lead to tissue loss and subsequently to mortality, albeit at low frequencies. Most sea fans, once infected, maintained a low level of damage over time. Only 3 fans recovered from the disease; however 2 were subsequently re-infected. Case fatality rate was 10% (2 of 20 initially infected died), which is equivalent to 5% yr(-1). However, mortality can increase during localized outbreaks. At Conch, mortality was 46% yr(-1) among infected sea fans (compared to 8% yr(-1) at Carysfort, a less impacted site, during the same period). During an outbreak at Carysfort, mortality was 95% yr(-1) among diseased sea fans. These data clearly demonstrate the significant role aspergillosis plays in the population ecology of sea fan corals. PMID:16703771
Kim, Kiho; Alker, Alisa P; Shuster, Kara; Quirolo, Craig; Harvell, C Drew
Background Patients increasingly use social media to communicate. Their stories could support quality improvements in participatory health care and could support patient-centered care. Active use of social media by health care institutions could also speed up communication and information provision to patients and their families, thus increasing quality even more. Hospitals seem to be becoming aware of the benefits social media could offer. Data from the United States show that hospitals increasingly use social media, but it is unknown whether and how Western European hospitals use social media. Objective To identify to what extent Western European hospitals use social media. Methods In this longitudinal study, we explored the use of social media by hospitals in 12 Western European countries through an Internet search. We collected data for each country during the following three time periods: April to August 2009, August to December 2010, and April to July 2011. Results We included 873 hospitals from 12 Western European countries, of which 732 were general hospitals and 141 were university hospitals. The number of included hospitals per country ranged from 6 in Luxembourg to 347 in Germany. We found hospitals using social media in all countries. The use of social media increased significantly over time, especially for YouTube (n = 19, 2% to n = 172, 19.7%), LinkedIn (n =179, 20.5% to n = 278, 31.8%), and Facebook (n = 85, 10% to n = 585, 67.0%). Differences in social media usage between the included countries were significant. Conclusions Social media awareness in Western European hospitals is growing, as well as its use. Social media usage differs significantly between countries. Except for the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, the group of hospitals that is using social media remains small. Usage of LinkedIn for recruitment shows the awareness of the potential of social media. Future research is needed to investigate how social media lead to improved health care. PMID:22549016
Berben, Sivera AA; Samsom, Melvin; Engelen, Lucien JLPG; Schoonhoven, Lisette
Data from a longitudinal survey of families from three reservations (Navajo Nation, San Carlos, and Salt River) in Arizona were used to examine their probability of welfare use. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the effects of individual, family, and structural factors on welfare exit. Results indicate that their probability of…
Pandey, Shanta; Guo, Baorong
/Hierarchical Models. A. Gelman and J. Hill (2008), Cambridge Press. 3. (Recommended) Mixed Effects Models for Complex to the theory and methods of longitudinal (repeated measures, panel,) data analysis with a focus on handling on regression models or generalized linear models( GLMs) with correlated response, and introducing the basic
Animal models suggest a key role for dihydroxylated vitamin D metabolites in fracture healing, as evidenced by increases in serum concentration of 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (24R,25[OH]?D) after long bone fracture. Human studies investigating the kinetics of serum concentrations of 24R,25[OH]?D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25[OH]?D) and their parent metabolite 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) are lacking. We, therefore, conducted a longitudinal study to determine whether total, free, or bioavailable concentrations of these vitamin D metabolites fluctuate in humans after long bone fracture. Twenty-eight patients with cross-shaft (diaphyseal) long bone fracture presenting to an emergency department in London, UK, were studied. Serum concentrations of 25(OH)D, 24R,25(OH)?D, 1,25(OH)?D, vitamin D binding protein, albumin, and calcium were determined within 48?hours of fracture and again at 1 and 6 weeks postfracture. Concentrations of free and bioavailable vitamin D metabolites were calculated using standard equations. No changes in mean serum concentrations of 25(OH)D or 24R,25(OH)?D were seen at either follow-up time point versus baseline. In contrast, mean serum 1,25(OH)2 D concentration declined by 21% over the course of the study, from 68.5?pmol/L at baseline to 54.1?pmol/L at 6 weeks (p?0.05). This decline was associated with an increase in mean serum corrected calcium concentration, from 2.32?mmol/L at baseline to 2.40?mmol/L at 1 week (p?0.001) that was maintained at 6 weeks. No changes in free or bioavailable concentrations of any vitamin D metabolite investigated were seen over the course of the study. We conclude that serum 1,25(OH)?D concentration declines after long bone fracture in humans but that the serum 24R,25(OH)?D concentration does not fluctuate. The latter finding contrasts with those of animal models reporting increases in serum 24R,25(OH)?D concentration after long bone fracture. PMID:23281057
Briggs, Adam D M; Kuan, Valerie; Greiller, Claire L; Maclaughlin, Beverley D; Ramachandran, Manoj; Harris, Timothy; Timms, Peter M; Venton, Timothy R; Vieth, Reinhold; Norman, Anthony W; Griffiths, Christopher J; Martineau, Adrian R
The NASA Study of Cataract in Astronauts (NASCA) was a five-year longitudinal study of the effect of space radiation exposure on the severity/progression of nuclear (N), cortical (C), and posterior subcapsular (PSC) lens opacities. It began in 2003 and was completed in December, 2009. Participants included 171 consenting astronauts who flew at least one mission in space, and comparison subjects consisted of three groups, a) 53 astronauts who had not flown in space, b) 95 military aircrew personnel, and c) 99 non-aircrew, ground-based subjects.
Chylack, Leon T., Jr.; Peterson, Leif E.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Tung, William H.; Wear, Mary L.; Marak, Lisa J.; Hardy, Dale S.; Cucinotta, Francis A.
Patient advocacy has been claimed as a new role for professional nurses and many codes of ethics for nurses state that they act as patient advocates. Nursing education is faced with the challenge of preparing nurses for this role. In this article we describe the results of a study that considered the tendencies of a cohort of nursing students at the Kocaeli University School of Nursing to act as advocates and to respect patients' rights, and how their capacities to do so changed (or not) as a result of their nursing education. This longitudinal study used a questionnaire consisting of 10 statements relating to patient care. It was performed both at the start (1998) and at the end (2002) of the nursing training. At the beginning of their course 77 students participated; in the study. After four years, only 55 students participated, the reason for this drop in number being unknown. The questions asked nurses if patients should have: the right to receive health care; the right to participate in the decision-making process about their treatment; the right always to be told the truth; and the right to have access to their own medical records. They were also asked: if quality of life should be a criterion for discontinuing treatment; if patients have the right to die and the right to refuse treatment; if patients should be assisted to die or helped to undergo active euthanasia; and if severely disabled newborn babies should be allowed to die. The student nurses demonstrated considerable insight into contemporary nursing issues and were ready to act as patient advocates. Professional responsibility demands that good nurses advocate strongly for patients' choices. PMID:14529113
Altun, Insaf; Ersoy, Nermin
Biases in cognition such as Jumping to Conclusions (JTC) and Verbal Self-Monitoring (VSM) are thought to underlie the formation of psychotic symptoms. This prospective study in people with an At Risk Mental State (ARMS) for psychosis examined how these cognitive biases changed over time, and predicted clinical and functional outcomes. Twenty-three participants were assessed at clinical presentation and a mean of 31 months later. Performance on a JTC and VSM tasks were measured at both time points. Relationships to symptom severity, level of function and the incidence of psychotic disorder were then examined. The levels of symptoms, function and VSM all improved over time, while JTC was stable. Five participants (22%) developed a psychotic disorder during the follow-up period, but the risk of transition was not related to performance on either task at baseline, or to longitudinal changes in task performance. JTC performance correlated with symptom severity at baseline and follow-up. Similarly, performance on the two tasks was not related to the level of functioning at follow-up. Thus, while the ARMS is associated with both VSM and JTC biases, neither predict the onset of psychosis or the overall functional outcome. PMID:25511317
Winton-Brown, T T; Broome, M R; Allen, P; Valli, I; Howes, O; Garety, P A; Johns, L C; McGuire, P
Objectives. We examined the longitudinal associations between different types and severities of childhood trauma and suicide attempts among illicit drug users. Methods. Data came from 2 prospective cohort studies of illicit drug users in Vancouver, Canada, in 2005 to 2010. We used recurrent event proportional means models to estimate adjusted and weighted associations between types and severities of childhood maltreatment and suicide attempts. Results. Of 1634 participants, 411 (25.2%) reported a history of suicidal behavior at baseline. Over 5 years, 80 (4.9%) participants reported 97 suicide attempts, a rate of 2.6 per 100 person-years. Severe to extreme levels of sexual abuse (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR]?=?2.5; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?1.4, 4.4), physical abuse (AHR?=?2.0; 95% CI?=?1.1, 3.8), and emotional abuse (AHR?=?3.5; 95% CI?=?1.4, 8.7) predicted suicide attempts. Severe forms of physical and emotional neglect were not significantly associated with an increased risk of suicidal behavior. Conclusions. Severe sexual, physical, and emotional childhood abuse confer substantial risk of repeated suicidal behavior in adulthood. Illicit drug users require intensive secondary suicide prevention efforts, particularly among those with a history of childhood trauma. PMID:23865651
Galea, Sandro; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas
Objective Diabetes mellitus is highly prevalent and can lead to serious complications and mortality. Patient education can help to avoid negative outcomes, but up to half of the patients do not participate. The aim of this study was to analyze patients' attitudes towards diabetes education in order to identify barriers to participation and develop strategies for better patient education. Methods We conducted a qualitative study. Seven GP practices were purposively selected based on socio-demographic data of city districts in Hamburg, Germany. Study participants were selected by their GPs in order to increase participation. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 14 patients. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. The sample size was determined by data saturation. Data were analysed by qualitative content analysis. Categories were determined deductively and inductively. Results The interviews yielded four types of barriers: 1) Statements and behaviour of the attending physician influence the patients' decisions about diabetes education. 2) Both, a good state of health related to diabetes and physical/psychosocial comorbidity can be reasons for non-participation. 3) Manifold motivational factors were discussed. They ranged from giving low priority to diabetes to avoidance of implications of diabetes education as being confronted with illness narratives of others. 4) Barriers also include aspects of the patients' knowledge and activity. Conclusions First, physicians should encourage patients to participate in diabetes education and argue that they can profit even if actual treatment and examination results are promising. Second, patients with other priorities, psychic comorbidity or functional limitations might profit more from continuous individualized education adapted to their specific situation instead of group education. Third, it might be justified that patients do not participate in diabetes education if they have slightly increased blood sugar values only and no risk for harmful consequences or if they already have sufficient knowledge on diabetes. PMID:24733428
Schäfer, Ingmar; Pawels, Marc; Küver, Claudia; Pohontsch, Nadine Janis; Scherer, Martin; van den Bussche, Hendrik; Kaduszkiewicz, Hanna
Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between age, gender and clinical crown length using a longitudinal study design.Method: Four hundred and fifty-six sets of study models initially obtained for a large prospective longitudinal cohort study of orthodontic needs were examined. Each set of models corresponded to subjects at three different ages: 11–12, 14–15 and 18–19years
L. A Morrow; J. W Robbins; D. L Jones; N. H. F Wilson
Objectives To improve clinical study developments for elderly populations, we aim to understand how they transfer their experiences into validated, standardised self-completed study measurement instruments. We analysed how women (mean 78±8?years of age) participating in a randomised controlled trial (RCT) cognised study instruments used to evaluate outcomes of the intervention. Setting The interview study was nested in an RCT on chronic neck pain using common measurement instruments situated in an elderly community in Berlin, Germany, which comprised of units for independent and assisted-living options. Participants The sample (n=20 women) was selected from the RCT sample (n=117, 95% women, mean age 76 (SD±8)?years). Interview participants were selected using a purposive sampling list based on the RCT outcomes. Outcomes We asked participants about their experiences completing the RCT questionnaires. Interviews were analysed thematically, then compared with the questionnaires. Results Interviewees had difficulties in translating complex experiences into a single value on a scale and understanding the relationship of the questionnaires to study aims. Interviewees considered important for the trial that their actual experiences were understood by trial organisers. This information was not transferrable by means of the questionnaires. To rectify these difficulties, interviewees used strategies such as adding notes, adding response categories or skipping an item. Conclusions Elderly interview participants understood the importance of completing questionnaires for trial success. This led to strategies of completing the questionnaires that resulted in ‘missing’ or ambiguous data. To improve data collection in elderly populations, educational materials addressing the differential logics should be developed and tested. Pilot testing validated instruments using cognitive interviews may be particularly important in such populations. Finally, when the target of an intervention is a subjective experience, it seems important to create a method by which participants can convey their personal experiences. These could be nested qualitative studies. Trial registration number ISRCTN77108101807. PMID:24662446
Holmberg, Christine; Karner, Julia J; Rappenecker, Julia; Witt, Claudia M
Longitudinal studies that research homeless persons or transient drug users face particular challenges in retaining subjects. Between 2005 and 2006, 101 mobile young injection drug users were recruited in Los Angeles into a 2-year longitudinal study. Several features of ethnographic methodology, including fieldwork and qualitative interviews, and modifications to the original design, such as toll-free calls routed directly to ethnographer cell phones and wiring incentive payments, resulted in retention of 78% of subjects for the first follow-up interview. Longitudinal studies that are flexible and based upon qualitative methodologies are more likely to retain mobile subjects while also uncovering emergent research findings. PMID:20222779
Lankenau, Stephen E.; Sanders, Bill; Hathazi, Dodi; Jackson Bloom, Jennifer
Abstract Purpose. This study aims to determine whether the communication and language skills of children who have a history of stuttering are different from children who do not have a history of stuttering at ages 2-5 years. Method. This study utilizes data from the Early Language in Victoria Study (ELVS), a longitudinal study with a community sample of 1910 children recruited in Melbourne, Australia, as well as a concurrent study examining the onset and progression of stuttering. Participants with a history of stuttering (n = 181) and a control group without a history of stuttering (n = 1438) were identified according to the established protocol of these two existing studies. Results. The stuttering group scored higher than the non-stuttering group on all of the communication and language outcomes measured. The group differences were statistically significant on four of the seven measures and these findings were maintained when potentially confounding factors were controlled for. Conclusions. Importantly, the children with a history of stuttering, as a group, and the control group without a history of stuttering demonstrated developmentally-appropriate early communication and language skills. PMID:25014490
Watts, Amy; Eadie, Patricia; Block, Susan; Mensah, Fiona; Reilly, Sheena
Purpose Missing data in clinical efficacy and effectiveness trials continue to be a major threat to the validity of study findings. The purpose of this report is to describe methods developed to ensure completion of outcome assessments with public mental health sector subjects participating in a longitudinal, repeated measures study for the treatment of major depressive disorder. We developed longitudinal assessment procedures that included telephone-based clinician interviews in order to minimize missing data commonly encountered with face-to-face assessment procedures. Methods A pre-planned, multi-step strategy was developed to ensure completeness of data collection. The procedure included obtaining multiple pieces of patient contact information at baseline, careful education of both staff and patients concerning the purpose of assessments, establishing good patient rapport, and finally being flexible and persistent with phone appointments to ensure the completion of telephone-based follow-up assessments. A well-developed administrative and organizational structure was also put in place prior to study implementation. Results The assessment completion rate for the primary outcome for 310 of 504 subjects who enrolled and completed 52 weeks (at the time of manuscript) of telephone-based follow-up assessments was 96.8%. Conclusion By utilizing telephone-based follow-up procedures and adapting our easy-to-use pre-defined multi-step approach, researchers can maximize patient data retention in longitudinal studies. PMID:18761427
Claassen, Cindy; Kurian, Ben; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Grannemann, Bruce D.; Tuli, Ekta; Pipes, Ronny; Preston, Anne Marie; Flood, Ariell
One of the most controversial explanations of class inequalities in health is the health selection hypothesis or drift hypothesis which suggests there is a casual link between the health status of individuals and their chances of social mobility, both inter- and intra-generational. This study tests this hypothesis, and tries to answer three related questions: (a) to what extent does health status influence the chances of intra-generational mobility of individuals? (b) what is the impact on health inequalities of the various kinds of social mobility (both mobility in the labour market and exit from employment)-do they increase or reduce inequalities? (c) to what extent does health-related intra-generational social mobility contribute to the production of health inequalities? The data analysed in this paper were drawn from the records of the Turin Longitudinal Study, which was set up to monitor health inequality of the Turin population by combining census data, population registry records and medical records. Occupational mobility was observed during the decade 1981-1991. To evaluate the impact of the various processes of social mobility on health inequalities, mortality was observed over the period 1991-1999. The study population consists of men and women aged 25-49 at the beginning of mortality follow-up (1991), and registered as resident in Turin at both the 1981 and the 1991 censuses (N = 127,384). Health status was determined by observing hospital admission. For the purpose of the study healthy individuals were those with no hospital admissions during the period 1984-1986, while those admitted were classed as unhealthy. Social mobility in the labour market was measured via an interval data index of upward and downward movements on a scale of social desirability of occupations, designed for the Italian labour force via an empirical study carried out by de Lillo and Schizzerotto (La valutazione sociale delle occupazioni. Una scala di stratificazione occupazionale per l'Italia contemporanea, Il Mulino, Bologna, 1985). Movement out of the labour market was described by a discrete variable with four conditions: employed, unemployed, early retired and women returning from work to the housewife status. The relationship between health status and occupational mobility was analysed via analysis of variance and multinomial logistic regression. Health inequalities were measured by the ratio of standardised mortality rates in the unskilled working class and the upper middle class. The study found a weak relationship between health status and occupational mobility chances. Decidedly stronger was the impact on occupational mobility of gender, education and "ethnicity" (being born in the South of Italy). The relationship between occupational mobility and health takes two different forms. Occupational mobility in the labour market decreases health inequalities; occupational mobility out of the labour market (early retirement, unemployment, housewife return) widens them. The maximum contribution health-related intra-generational social mobility can make towards health inequalities was estimated at about 13% for men. PMID:14759699
Cardano, Mario; Costa, Giuseppe; Demaria, Moreno
Objective Cross-sectional research indicates high rates of mental health concerns among youth with perinatal HIV infection (PHIV), but few studies have examined emerging psychiatric symptoms over time. Methods Youth with PHIV and peer comparisons who were HIV-exposed but uninfected or living in house-holds with HIV-infected family members (HIV-affected) and primary caregivers participated in a prospective, multisite, longitudinal cohort study. Groups were compared for differences in the incidence of emerging psychiatric symptoms during 2 years of follow-up and for differences in psychotropic drug therapy. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association of emerging symptoms with HIV status and psychosocial risk factors. Results Of 573 youth with study entry assessments, 92% attended at least 1 annual follow-up visit (PHIV: 296; comparisons: 229). A substantial percentage of youth who did not meet symptom criteria for a psychiatric disorder at study entry did so during follow-up (PHIV = 36%; comparisons = 42%). In addition, those who met criteria at study entry often met criteria during follow-up (PHIV = 41%; comparisons = 43%). Asymptomatic youth with PHIV were significantly more likely to receive psychotropic medication during follow-up than comparisons. Youth with greater HIV disease severity (entry CD4% <25% vs 25% or more) had higher probability of depression symptoms (19% vs 8%, respectively). Conclusions Many youth in families affected by HIV are at risk for development of psychiatric symptoms. PMID:22772819
Gadow, Kenneth D.; Angelidou, Konstantia; Chernoff, Miriam; Williams, Paige L.; Heston, Jerry; Hodge, Janice; Nachman, Sharon
This is a report on the research design and findings of a 23-year longitudinal study of the impact of intrafamilial sexual abuse on female development. The conceptual framework integrated concepts of psychological adjustment with theory regarding how psychobiological factors might impact development. Participants included 6- to 16-year-old females with substantiated sexual abuse and a demographically similar comparison group. A cross-sequential design was used and six assessments have taken place, with participants at median age 11 at the first assessment and median age 25 at the sixth assessment. Mothers of participants took part in the early assessments and offspring took part at the sixth assessment. Results of many analyses, both within circumscribed developmental stages and across development, indicated that sexually abused females (on average) showed deleterious sequelae across a host of biopsychosocial domains including: earlier onsets of puberty, cognitive deficits, depression, dissociative symptoms, maladaptive sexual development, hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal attenuation, asymmetrical stress responses, high rates of obesity, more major illnesses and healthcare utilization, dropping out of high school, persistent psottraumatic stress disorder, self-mutilation, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders diagnoses, physical and sexual revictimization, premature deliveries, teen motherhood, drug and alcohol abuse, and domestic violence. Offspring born to abused mothers were at increased risk for child maltreatment and overall maldevelopment. There was also a pattern of considerable within group variability. Based on this complex network of findings, implications for optimal treatments are elucidated. Translational aspects of extending observational research into clinical practice are discussed in terms that will likely have a sustained impact on several major public health initiatives. PMID:23786689
Noll, Jennie G.; Putnam, Frank W.
Context Although longitudinal community-based care of patients provides opportunities for teaching patient centredness and chronic disease management, there is a paucity of literature assessing learning outcomes of these clerkships. This study examines learning outcomes among students participating in longitudinal community based follow-up of patients discharged from the hospital. Methods The authors conducted a thematic analysis of 253 student narratives written by 44 third-year medical students reflecting on their longitudinal interactions with patients with chronic medical illnesses. The narratives were written over three periods: after acute hospital encounter, after a home visit and at the end of the 10-month follow-up. Analysis involved coding of theme content and counting of aggregate themes. Results The most frequent theme was ‘chronic disease management’ (25%) followed by ‘patient-centred care’ (22%), ‘health care systems’ (20.9%), ‘biomedical issues’ (19.7%), ‘community services’ (9.5%) and ‘student’s role conflict’ (2.3%). There was a shift in the relative frequency of the different themes, as students moved from hospital to community with their patients. Biomedical (44.3%) and health systems (18.2%) were the dominant themes following the acute hospitalization encounter. Chronic disease management (35.1%) and patient centredness (31.8%) were the dominant themes after the 10-month longitudinal follow-up. Conclusion Longitudinal community-based interaction with patients resulted in learning about chronic disease management, patient centredness and health care systems over time. Students shifted from learning biomedical knowledge during the acute hospitalization, to focus on better understanding of long-term care and patient centredness, at the end of the module. PMID:22791959
Puvanendran, Rukshini; Vasanwala, Farhad Fakhrudin; Kamei, Robert K.; Hock, Lee Kheng; Lie, Desiree A.
A large longitudinal cohort study designed to evaluate the association between children's exposures to environmental agents and health outcomes presents many challenges for exposure monitoring. Exposure of the child must be measured for multiple chemicals through multiple path...
Presents the statistical results for the theater for children component of the ASU Longitudinal Study, utilizing Dr. Patricia Goldberg's interview instrument, which categorizes the free responses of a child audience after viewing a theatrical production. (JC)
Recruitment and Retention Issues for a Large Longitudinal Study of Children's Environmental Health *D Lobdell, S Gilboa, P Mendola (US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, 27711) An understanding of the most effective recruitment techniques and rete...
BACKGROUND: Although neighbourhood environments are often blamed for contributing to rising levels of obesity, current evidence is based predominantly on cross-sectional samples. This study examined associations between objectively-measured environmental characteristics of neighbourhoods and adiposity cross-sectionally and longitudinally over three years in children and their female carers. METHODS: Longitudinal study of 140 5-6 year-old and 269 10-12 year-old children and their
Anna Timperio; Robert W Jeffery; David Crawford; Rebecca Roberts; Billie Giles-Corti; Kylie Ball
Disgust, an emotion triggering behavioral avoidance of pathogens, serves as a first line of defense against infections. Since behavior related to disgust involves some cost, the aversive reaction should be adjusted to the level of an individual's immunocompetence, and raise only when immunological function is lower (e.g. during pregnancy). We studied changes in disgust sensitivity in pregnant women, and tested if disgust sensitivity is related to a fetus's sex. 92 women participated in a three-stage research, answering the Disgust Scale-Revised questionnaire at each trimester of pregnancy. The result showed that total disgust and disgust sensitivity in the Core Domain were the highest in the first trimester (when maternal immunosuppression is also the highest), and decreased during pregnancy in women bearing daughters. Women bearing sons had relatively high disgust sensitivity persisting in the first and in the second trimester. The elevation in disgust sensitivity during the second trimester for mothers bearing male fetus can be explained by the necessity to protect for a longer time, a more ecologically sensitive fetus, and also herself when bearing a more energetically costly sex. The proximate mechanism may involve the differences in maternal testosterone and cortisol concentrations in the second trimester of pregnancy. PMID:25449396
?ela?niewicz, Agnieszka; Paw?owski, Bogus?aw
Syntactic foams are used in various weight sensitive applications due to their significant properties such as low density, high specific compressive strength [1-2], low hygrothermal absorption , etc. Ultrasonic testing is an efficient nondestructive technique to characterize these materials. Understanding the interaction of glass microballoon present in syntactic foam with the longitudinal ultrasonic wave is important for efficient characterization of these materials. In this study, effort has been made to model the interaction of microballoon with the longitudinal wave using FEM. It has been observed that the presence of microballoon in the direction of longitudinal wave will add additional reflections to A-scan.
Mylavarapu, Phani; Boddapati, Srivathsa; Kuchipudi, Srinivas
Objectives This study examines the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and chronic disease burden among African Americans compared to Caucasians in a population of higher socioeconomic status. Design The current study is a cross-sectional, secondary data analysis of the Cooper Center Longitudinal Study. Setting Patients with a medical examination from 1970-2010 at the Cooper Clinic. Participants 762 African Americans and 40,051 Caucasians who met the criteria. Outcome Measures Racial differences in cardiovascular risk factors/burden of disease between African Americans and Caucasians. Results African Americans had higher prevalence of evaluated cardiovascular risk factors than did Caucasians after controlling for obesity, tobacco use, and physical fitness. Caucasians had greater likelihood of no risk factors while African Americans were more likely to have all three risk factors. Race was typically predictive of cardiovascular risk factors in African Americans compared to Caucasians. Conclusions Findings suggest that health differences persist despite greater socioeconomic status, and further investigations of biopsychosocial causes are warranted. (Ethn Dis. 2013;23:35-42) PMID:23495620
Frierson, Gorita M.; Howard, Erica N.; DeFina, Laura F.; Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M.; Willis, Benjamin L.
Aims To examine the associations between self-reported bullying perpetration and victimization in Years 7 and 10 and a range of psychosocial outcomes in Year 11. Method This analysis draws on data from the International Youth Development Study (IYDS), a longitudinal study of 5,769 students from Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States (US) who were recruited through schools in Years 5, 7, and 9 in 2002. Data for the current results are taken from participants in the youngest (Year 5) Victorian cohort of the study. Results Rates of bullying victimisation exceeded 30% and up to one in five students had engaged in bullying. Adjusted logistic regression analyses revealed that bullying perpetration and bullying victimisation in Year 7 did not significantly predict psychosocial outcomes in Year 11. Bullying perpetration in Year 10 was associated with an increased likelihood of theft, violent behaviour, and binge drinking. Year 10 bullying victimisation was associated with an increased likelihood of Year 11 depressive symptoms. Conclusions Prevention approaches that target bullying perpetration and victimization are necessary. Programs that lessen bullying may also have an impact on other proximally related behaviours, including binge drinking and depression. PMID:21370296
Hemphill, Sheryl. A.; Kotevski, Aneta; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Bond, Lyndal; Kim, Min-Jung; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F.
Abstract This study assesses the longitudinal changes in anthropometric and motor parameters of ski jumpers. Male ski jumpers (n = 329) at various competitive levels participated in this study. These competitors were divided into two groups by age (18 years and younger, and over 18 years), and then divided into seven even intervals within those groups. Basic anthropometric parameters, maximal relative isometric knee extensor force, reaction time, knee extension time, and vertical jump height were measured. The conditions, instruments, and systems of measurement were consistent throughout the study. A reduced body mass index (BMI) in the adult jumpers was significant (P < .01) in the first three (1982-1993) and in the last three (1998-2010) intervals. Adults had an increase of maximal relative isometric knee extensor force (P < .01) in the last three intervals (1998-2010). They had greater maximal relative isometric knee extensor force (with exception of the first interval, 1982-1985) and vertical jump height than younger competitors (P < .01). Both young and adult jumpers exhibited the increase of strength and power in the lower limbs and a decrease in BMI during the whole observed period. PMID:25350725
Janura, Miroslav; Elfmark, Milan; Cabell, Lee; Svoboda, Zdenek
Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is ostensibly a biomarker of human aging. Cross-sectional analyses have found that LTL is relatively short in a host of aging-related diseases. These studies have also provided indirect estimates of age-dependent LTL shortening. In this paper, the authors report findings of the first comprehensive longitudinal study of 450 whites and 185 African Americans in Louisiana (aged 31.4 and 37.4 years at baseline (1995–1996) and follow-up (2001–2006) examinations, respectively) participating in the Bogalusa Heart Study. Rate of change in LTL was highly variable among individuals, with some displaying a paradoxical gain in LTL during the follow-up period. The most striking observation was that age-dependent LTL shortening was proportional to LTL at baseline examination. At both baseline and follow-up examinations, African Americans had longer LTLs than whites, and smokers had shorter LTLs than nonsmokers. The longer LTL in African Americans than in whites explained in part the faster rate of LTL shortening observed among African Americans. These findings underscore the complexity of leukocyte telomere dynamics in vivo and suggest that determinants in addition to the “end-replication problem” contribute to telomere shortening in vivo. PMID:19056834
Chen, Wei; Gardner, Jeffrey P.; Kimura, Masayuki; Brimacombe, Michael; Cao, Xiaojian; Srinivasan, Sathanur R.; Berenson, Gerald S.
Objective. To determine the predictors of incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) (Adult Treatment Panel III criteria) and to determine if longitudinal changes in specifi c MetS components differ by age or gender in participants who devel- oped versus those who did not develop MetS. Methods. A total of 506 men and 461 women (baseline age 52.4 ± 17.5 years) from
Angelo Scuteri; Christopher H. Morrell; Samer S. Najjar; Denis Muller; Reubin Andres; Luigi Ferrucci; Edward G. Lakatta
The current study examines the effects of three forms of childhood victimization on self-reported delinquency and aggression in adolescent girls. These analyses are based on a longitudinal sample of 141 mother-daughter pairs participating in a study about marital violence and child development. When the children were school aged, mothers and children provided reports describing (a) child exposure to marital violence, (b) escalated physical abuse against the child, and (c) child sexual abuse. Children were followed up into adolescence and re-interviewed. Self-reports of delinquency (violent and nonviolent), running away, and violence against parents were collected. Results indicate that out of the three forms of victimization, child sexual abuse emerged as the strongest predictor of girls' violent and nonviolent criminal behavior. Girls with a history of physical abuse in childhood were most likely to assault their parents. Witnessing marital violence failed to contribute further to delinquency, beyond the adverse association with childhood sexual abuse. Findings highlight a unique avenue for delinquency in girls via childhood sexual exploitation. PMID:12968661
Herrera, Veronica M; McCloskey, Laura Ann
The German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) is a wide-ranging representative longitudinal study of private households in Germany. The same private households, persons and families have been surveyed annually since 1984. In June of 1990, "the survey was extended to include the territory of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR)." Some 5,900 households participated in the first survey in 1984, and 4,285 households were included in the latest wave in 1998, giving the survey a high degree of stability. Topics in the survey study include household composition, occupational and family biographies, employment and professional mobility, earnings, health, and personal satisfaction. Separate topical modules also cover such issues as social security, education, time allocation, and family and social services. According to its creators, "the GSOEP data give researchers the opportunity to observe and to analyze political and social transformations." In addition, the site's search engine features extensive search capabilities that provide detailed information on the variables in the GSOEP dataset. Users can determine statistical parameters and then output frequencies information, item correspondence, and even generate SPSS, SAS, TDA (6.1), and Stata (4.0) command files.
Low intelligence has been associated with poor health and mortality, but underlying mechanisms remain obscure. We hypothesized that low intelligence is associated with accelerated biological ageing as reflected by telomere length; we suggested potential mediation of this association by unhealthy behaviors and low socioeconomic position. The study was performed in a longitudinal population-based cohort study of 895 participants (46.8% males). Intelligence was measured with the Generalized Aptitude-Test Battery at mean age 52.8 years (33–79 years, SD?=?11.3). Leukocyte telomere length was measured by PCR. Lifestyle and socioeconomic factors were assessed using written self-report measures. Linear regression analyses, adjusted for age, sex, and telomere length measured at the first assessment wave (T1), showed that low intelligence was associated with shorter leukocyte telomere length at approximately 2 years follow-up (beta?=?.081, t?=?2.160, p?=?.031). Nearly 40% of this association was explained by an unhealthy lifestyle, while low socioeconomic position did not add any significant mediation. Low intelligence may be a risk factor for accelerated biological ageing, thereby providing an explanation for its association with poor health and mortality. PMID:23166646
Kingma, Eva M.; de Jonge, Peter; van der Harst, Pim; Ormel, Johan; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.
Ideal cardiovascular health is a recently defined construct by the American Heart Association (AHA) to promote cardiovascular disease reduction. Arterial stiffness is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The extent to which the presence of multiple prevalent cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviors is associated with arterial stiffness is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the AHA construct of cardiovascular health and arterial stiffness, as indexed by pulse wave velocity (PWV) and pulse pressure. The AHA health metrics, comprising of four health behaviors (smoking, body mass index, physical activity and diet) and three health factors (total cholesterol, blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose), were evaluated among 505 participants in the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study. Outcome measures were carotid-femoral PWV and pulse pressure measured at 4- to 5-year follow-up. Better cardiovascular health, comprising both health factors and behaviors, was associated with lower arterial stiffness, as indexed by PWV and pulse pressure. Those with at least five health metrics at ideal levels had significantly lower PWV (9.8 m s(-1)) than those with two or less ideal health metrics (11.7 m s(-1)) (P < 0.001). This finding remained with the addition of demographic and PWV-related variables (P = 0.004). PMID:24384629
Crichton, G E; Elias, M F; Robbins, M A
Although previous research has indicated an elevated prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other mental health problems among veterans of Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom following deployment, most of this research has been cross-sectional and has focused on a limited range of military groups and outcome criteria. This investigation was a longitudinal study of U.S. Air Force security forces assigned to a year-long high-threat ground mission in Iraq to determine the degree to which airmen's emotional and behavioral health and committed relationships were adversely impacted by an extended deployment to a warzone. Participants were a cohort of 164 security forces airmen tasked to a 365-day deployment to train Iraqi police. Airmen completed study measures both prior to and 6-9 months following deployment. Rates of deterioration in individual and interpersonal adjustment were both significant and medium to large in magnitude of effect, d = 0.43 to 0.90. Results suggest that the negative effects of deployment are related to levels of traumatic experiences and do not spontaneously remit within the first 6-9 months following return from deployment-particularly among those service members having relatively lower levels of social support. PMID:24464429
Cigrang, Jeffrey A; Talcott, G Wayne; Tatum, JoLyn; Baker, Monty; Cassidy, Daniel; Sonnek, Scott; Snyder, Douglas K; Balderrama-Durbin, Christina; Heyman, Richard E; Smith Slep, Amy M
The Jackson Heart Study (JHS) convened focus groups to engage the community in dialogue on participation in the National, Heart, Lung and Blood Institute's Candidate Gene Resource (CARe) project. CARe, a genome wide association and candidate gene study, required the release of participant phenotypic and genotypic data with storage at NIH for widespread distribution to qualified researchers. The authors wanted to assess the willingness of an African American community to participate in the genetics research, given the past history of bioethical misconduct in ethnic minority communities. The discussion produced the following specific issues of interest: reasons for participants' interest in genetics research; participants' knowledge about the JHS; and participants' knowledge about genetics research and its advantages and disadvantages. Training on genetic issues was also developed for the JHS community and staff. PMID:25065069
Walker, Evelyn R; Nelson, Cheryl R; Antoine-LaVigne, Donna; Thigpen, Darcel T; Puggal, Mona A; Sarpong, Daniel E; Smith, Alice M
Background: Positive affective well-being (i.e., feelings of happiness and enjoyment) has been associated with longer survival and reduced incidence of serious illness. Our objective was to discover whether enjoyment of life also predicted a reduced risk of functional impairment over an 8-year period in a large population sample. Methods: We carried out a prospective analysis involving 3199 men and women aged 60 years or older from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Enjoyment of life was assessed by questionnaire. Outcomes were impairment in 2 or more activities of daily living and changes in gait speed on a walking test. Covariates included sociodemographic factors, baseline health, depressive symptoms, impairment of mobility and health behaviours. Results: Two or more impaired activities of daily living developed among 4.4%, 11.7% and 16.8% of participants in the high, medium and low enjoyment-of-life tertiles, respectively. After adjustment for covariates, the odds of impaired activities of daily living developing were 1.83 (95% confidence interval 1.13–2.96) in the low compared with high tertile. Gait speed after 8 years was also related to baseline enjoyment of life after adjustment for gait speed and other covariates at baseline (p < 0.001). We obtained similar results when we limited analyses to participants younger than 70 years at baseline. Interpretation: This is an observational study, so causal conclusions cannot be drawn. But our results provide evidence that reduced enjoyment of life may be related to the future disability and mobility of older people. PMID:24446463
Steptoe, Andrew; de Oliveira, Cesar; Demakakos, Panayotes; Zaninotto, Paola
The UK government sees increasing individual preparedness as a priority, but the level of preparedness of people in the UK for a large-scale emergency is not known. The London bombings of July 7, 2005, affected many Londoners and may have altered their sense of vulnerability to a future terrorist attack. We used a longitudinal study design to assess individual preparedness within the same sample of Londoners at 2 points in time: immediately after the bombings (T1) and 7 to 8 months later (T2). A demographically representative sample of 1,010 Londoners participated in a phone interview at T1. Subsequently, at T2, 574 of the same people participated in a follow-up phone interview. At T1 51% of Londoners had made 4 or more relevant emergency plans; 48% had gathered 4 or more relevant supplies in case of emergency. There was evidence of increased preparedness at T2, by which time 90% had made 4 or more emergency plans. Ethnicity, low social status, and having felt a sense of threat during the bombings predicted increased preparedness between T1 and T2. Women in general, and women of low social status in particular, perceived themselves to be unprepared in the event of a future terrorist attack. In summary, Londoners show moderate levels of emergency preparedness, which increased following the London bombings. Although we cannot know whether this association is causal, the prospective nature of the study increases the likelihood that it is. However, preparedness is still patchy, and there are important demographic associations with levels of preparedness and perception of vulnerability. These findings have implications for future development of individual and community emergency preparedness policy. PMID:19117430
Rubin, James; Amlôt, Richard; Simpson, John; Wessely, Simon
ABSTRACT Background: The aim of this study is to examine a relationship between a change in social activity and depression among Koreans aged 45 years or more. Methods: Data came from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA) (2006-2010), with 5,327 participants aged 45 years or more. The generalized estimating equation (GEE) with the logit link was used to investigate an association between a change in social activity during 2006-2008 (or 2008-2010) and depression among respondents in year 2008 (or Y2010). Depression was measured by Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D10) and a change in social activity was classified with four categories, i.e. "consistent participation", "consistent non-participation", "participation to non-participation", and "non-participation to participation". Social activity was divided into various elements and the same analysis was conducted for each of these elements. Results: Those with consistent non-participation and from participation to non-participation were more likely to be depressed than those with consistent participation and from non-participation to participation in social activities (OR 1.44 [95% CI 1.22-1.71], OR 1.35 [95% CI 1.15-1.58] vs. OR 1.00 [Reference], OR 1.27 [95% CI 1.09-1.48]). In addition, the strength of the negative association between consistent or new participation in social activity and depression was different across different elements of social activity. The negative association was particularly strong for leisure, culture or sports clubs, and for family or school reunion. Conclusion: For improving the mental health of the population aged 45 years or more, the promotion of their continued or new participations in leisure/culture clubs and family/school reunion might be needed in South Korea. PMID:25410611
Choi, Young; Park, Eun-Cheol; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Yoo, Ki-Bong; Choi, Jae-Woo; Lee, Kwang-Sig
Objective: Researchers have previously reported that law students and medical students experience significant distress during their first year. The authors suspected that freshmen undergraduates might experience similar distress in their transition to college. Participants: They surveyed 242 undergraduate freshmen at the beginning and end of their…
Pritchard, Mary E.; Wilson, Gregory S.; Yamnitz, Ben
Objective To determine whether the link between high success and longevity extends to academy award winning screenwriters. Design Retrospective cohort analysis. Participants All screenwriters ever nominated for an academy award. Main outcome measures Life expectancy and all cause mortality. Results A total of 850 writers were nominated; the median duration of follow up from birth was 68 years; and 428
Donald A. Redelmeier; Sheldon M. Singh
For more than two decades, federal agencies have been enthusiastically supporting summer research experiences for undergraduates. These REU programs are tacitly intended to increase retention and provide "an important educational experience" for undergraduates, particularly women, minorities and underrepresented groups. Numerous authors (viz., Laursen, Lopatto, Dolan, among many others) have enthusiastically described positive impacts of summer REU programs from exit interview data. These results include enhanced persistence to pursue STEM careers and confirmed desire to attend graduate school in the field targeted by a particular REU. Perhaps surprisingly, negative student experiences are rarely described in the scholarly literature, but do appear in more informal publications (viz., Gueterma, 2007). One wonders how REU alumni, looking back over their entire collective portfolio of experiences, now perceive the educational value of their REU experience relative to their other educational experiences. To obtain a backwards-looking, reflective description from REU alumni on the value of their REU experiences, we conducted a 10-year, two-stage study was designed to explore the ways in which the REU acted as an educational experience for 51 women from a single geoscience sub-discipline. The first phase was an ex post facto longitudinal analysis of data, including multiple interviews with each participant during their REU, annual open-ended alumni surveys, faculty interviews, and extensive field notes, over a 10-year period. This analysis informed the second phase, a clinical interview. Over 10 hours of interviews with 8 participants were conducted and analyzed. These 8 participants were selected to represent a variety of career stages, and for their potential to reflect on a wide variety of educational experiences. Results from the interviews, done many years after their REU experience, indicate that the interviewees' REU did not provide a substantive educational experience related to the nature of scientific work, the scientific process, or the culture of academia when considered in a comparative context of students' other educational experiences. Results further indicated that the REU did not serve to transform participants' conceptions about themselves as situated in science, and learning gains with regard to other aspects of the self, were somewhat limited. Instead, the data suggests that these women arrived at the REU with pre-existing and remarkably strong conceptions in these areas, and that the REU did not functional to alter those states. These conceptions were frequently the result of interactions with mentors/scientists from middle school until well into the undergraduate period.
Slater, T. F.; Slater, S. J.
Background The neuropsychological features and neuropathological progression patterns associated with rapidly evolving cognitive decline or dementia in Parkinson's disease (PD) remain to be elucidated. Methods Fifty-three PD patients without dementia were recruited to participate in a 3-year longitudinal cohort study. The patients were grouped according to the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR). Group-wise comparisons were made with regard to demographic characteristics, motor symptoms, neuropsychological performances and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. Results Patients who had memory-plus cognitive impairment (patients whose CDR was 0 at baseline and 0.5 in memory and other domains at follow-up, and those whose baseline CDR was 0.5 in memory and other domains) exhibited higher age at onset, visuoperceptual impairment, non-tremor-dominant motor disturbance, rapid symptomatic progression and posterior neocortical hypometabolism. In patients who were cognitively unimpaired and those who had memory-dominant cognitive impairment (patients whose CDR was 0 at baseline and 0.5 only in memory domain at follow-up, and those whose baseline CDR was 0.5 only in memory domain), the posterior neocortex was relatively unaffected until a later stage of the disease. Conclusions These results suggest that visuoperceptual impairment and the early involvement of the posterior neocortex may be risk factors for rapid symptomatic progression and dementia in PD. PMID:25330390
Shoji, Yumiko; Nishio, Yoshiyuki; Baba, Toru; Uchiyama, Makoto; Yokoi, Kayoko; Ishioka, Toshiyuki; Hosokai, Yoshiyuki; Hirayama, Kazumi; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Aoki, Masashi; Hasegawa, Takafumi; Takeda, Atsushi; Mori, Etsuro
Neuropeptide S and its receptor NPSR1 are involved in the regulation of arousal, attention and anxiety. We examined whether the NPSR1 gene functional polymorphism Asn¹??Ile (rs324981, A>T) influences personality, impulsivity, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-related symptoms in a population-representative sample, and whether any eventual associations depend on age, sex, family relations and stressful life events (SLE). We used self-reports or teachers' ratings for both the younger (n=593) and older (n=583) cohort of the longitudinal Estonian Children Personality, Behaviour and Health Study. Males with the TT genotype displayed more ADHD-related symptoms. Adaptive impulsivity and Extraversion increased the most from age 18 to 25. While highest increases were observed in AA men, TT women exhibited the largest decreases. For participants with the AA genotype, Warmth in family was inversely associated with Neuroticism, and positively associated with Extraversion and Adaptive impulsivity. High exposure to SLE increased impulsivity and ADHD scores in TT genotype subjects. We conclude that the NPSR1 A/T polymorphism is associated with impulsivity, ADHD symptoms and personality, mirroring the activity- and anxiety-mediating role of NPSR1. Heterozygous individuals were the least sensitive to environmental factors, whereas subjects with the AA genotype and TT genotype reacted to different types of environmental adversities. PMID:23325374
Laas, Kariina; Reif, Andreas; Kiive, Evelyn; Domschke, Katharina; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Veidebaum, Toomas; Harro, Jaanus
Purpose: The purpose of this 1-year longitudinal study is to investigate the change in flow experience among occupational therapy students (OTS). Methods: In December 2012, we prospectively recruited 97 OTS from the Department of Occupational Therapy, Kibi International University. To assess flow experience in daily life, we used the Flow Experience Checklist. Results: The dataset included 87 OTS, of which 75 participated in the assessment at 1 year (follow-up rate, 86.2%). The mean age at baseline of 45 male and 30 female OTS was 19.59±1.1 years (range, 18 to 24 years). A comparison of the ‘frequency of flow experience’ showed significant differences between baseline values and those after 1 year (December 2013) among male OTS (P<0.05). Conclusion: The present results indicate that, for male OTS, the frequency of flow was significantly reduced after 1 year compared with baseline values. This finding suggests the need for further education to increase the frequency of flow among male OTS. PMID:25043928
The objectives of this study were to assess differences in premigration, transit, and resettlement stressor exposure and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms as a function of demographic characteristics (i.e., gender, ethnicity, age, time in United States) and to examine the concurrent and longitudinal relations between stressor exposure and PTSD symptoms. The sample consisted of adult (18-78 years) Somali and Oromo refugee men and women (N = 437). Qualitative data regarding participants' self-nominated worst stressors collected at Time 2 (T2) informed the development of quantitative scales assessing premigration, transit, and resettlement stress created using items collected at Time 1 (T1). PTSD symptoms were measured at both T1 and T2. Quantitative analyses showed that levels of stressor exposure and PTSD symptoms differed as a function of refugee demographic characteristics. For example, Oromo, more recent, women, and older refugees reported more premigration and resettlement stressors. Oromo refugees and refugee men reported more PTSD symptoms in regression analyses with other factors controlled. Premigration, transit, and resettlement stressor exposure generally was associated with higher PTSD symptom levels. Results underscore the importance of assessing stress exposure comprehensively throughout the refugee experience and caution against overgeneralizing between and within refugee groups. PMID:24164519
Perera, Sulani; Gavian, Margaret; Frazier, Patricia; Johnson, David; Spring, Marline; Westermeyer, Joseph; Butcher, James; Halcon, Linda; Robertson, Cheryl; Savik, Kay; Jaranson, James
Objective To determine whether the link between high success and longevity extends to academy award winning screenwriters. Design Retrospective cohort analysis. Participants All screenwriters ever nominated for an academy award. Main outcome measures Life expectancy and all cause mortality. Results A total of 850 writers were nominated; the median duration of follow up from birth was 68 years; and 428 writers died. On average, winners were more successful than nominees, as indicated by a 14% longer career (27.7 v 24.2, P=0.004), 34% more total films (23.2 v 17.3, P<0.001), 58% more four star films (4.8 v 3.1, P<0.001), and 62% more nominations (2.1 v 1.3, P<0.001). However, life expectancy was 3.6 years shorter for winners than for nominees (74.1 v 77.7 years, P=0.004), equivalent to a 37% relative increase in death rates (95% confidence interval 10 to 70). After adjustment for year of birth, sex, and other factors, a 35% relative increase in death rates was found (7% to 70%). Additional wins were associated with a 22% relative increase in death rates (3% to 44%). Additional nominations and additional other films in a career otherwise caused no significant increase in death rates. Conclusion The link between occupational achievement and longevity is reversed in screenwriters who win academy awards. Doubt is cast on simple biological theories for the survival gradients found for other members of society. What is already known on this topicHigh achievement has been associated with decreased all cause mortality for people in many different occupationsSuch an association is compatible with behavioural and biological theories for the role of social determinantsWhat this study addsScreenwriters nominated for an academy award show a paradoxical survival pattern, where greater success is associated with a large decrease in life expectancyThe paradox is not easily explained by talent, prestige, financial earnings, material conditions, reverse causality, measurement error, or simple demographicsIt might reflect the unusual lifestyles of writers, where success is not linked to exemplary conduct or control; this underscores the importance of behaviour PMID:11751368
Redelmeier, Donald A; Singh, Sheldon M
Replication of research findings across independent longitudinal studies is essential for a cumulative and innovative developmental science. Meta-analysis of longitudinal studies is often limited by the amount of published information on particular research questions, the complexity of longitudinal designs and sophistication of analyses, and practical limits on full reporting of results. In many cases, cross-study differences in sample composition and measurements impede or lessen the utility of pooled data analysis. A collaborative, coordinated analysis approach can provide a broad foundation for cumulating scientific knowledge by facilitating efficient analysis of multiple studies in ways that maximize comparability of results and permit evaluation of study differences. The goal of such an approach is to maximize opportunities for replication and extension of findings across longitudinal studies through open access to analysis scripts and output for published results, permitting modification, evaluation, and extension of alternative statistical models, and application to additional data sets. Drawing on the cognitive aging literature as an example, we articulate some of the challenges of meta-analytic and pooled-data approaches and introduce a coordinated analysis approach as an important avenue for maximizing the comparability, replication, and extension of results from longitudinal studies. PMID:19485626
Hofer, Scott M.; Piccinin, Andrea M.
Parental participation in school management is regarded as a good thing according to the rationale that local people know better and are able to be more responsive to their own needs. However, little is understood about the implications of the School Operational Support policy for community participation in education. This study investigated…
Fitriah, Amaliah; Sumintono, Bambang; Subekti, Nanang Bagus; Hassan, Zainudin
Background A two-year longitudinal study composed of morphometric MRI measures and cognitive behavioral evaluation was performed on a transgenic Huntington’s disease (HD) monkey. rHD1, a transgenic HD monkey expressing exon 1 of the human gene encoding huntingtin (HTT) with 29 CAG repeats regulated by a human polyubiquitin C promoter was used together with four age-matched wild-type control monkeys. This is the first study on a primate model of human HD based on longitudinal clinical measurements. Results Changes in striatal and hippocampal volumes in rHD1 were observed with progressive impairment in motor functions and cognitive decline, including deficits in learning stimulus-reward associations, recognition memory and spatial memory. The results demonstrate a progressive cognitive decline and morphometric changes in the striatum and hippocampus in a transgenic HD monkey. Conclusions This is the first study on a primate model of human HD based on longitudinal clinical measurements. While this study is based a single HD monkey, an ongoing longitudinal study with additional HD monkeys will be important for the confirmation of our findings. A nonhuman primate model of HD could complement other animal models of HD to better understand the pathogenesis of HD and future development of diagnostics and therapeutics through longitudinal assessment. PMID:24581271
Background Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is increasing worldwide, and attention is being paid to its association with obesity and\\u000a metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of visceral fat accumulation in hepatic steatosis by cross-sectional\\u000a and longitudinal studies.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods We enrolled 125 patients in a cross-sectional study and 28 patients in a longitudinal study and examined visceral
Masahiko Koda; Manri Kawakami; Yoshikazu Murawaki; Miho Senda
We sought to examine the levels, types, and changes of physical activity and their correlates among pregnant women. Data came\\u000a from 9,889 pregnant women with due dates between April 1, 1991 and December 31, 1992 who were participants of the Avon Longitudinal\\u000a Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) in Bristol, Avon, Southwest England. Self-reported physical activity during pregnancy\\u000a was collected
Jihong LiuSteven; Steven N. Blair; Yanping Teng; Andrew R. Ness; Debbie A. Lawlor; Chris Riddoch
This study uses latent transition analysis to examine reading development across the kindergarten and 1st-grade year. Data include poverty status and dichotomous measures of reading at 4 time points for a large sample of children within the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study. In each of 4 waves of the study, 5 latent classes were represented in…
Kaplan, David; Walpole, Sharon
A statewide, longitudinal study is being conducted by Los Angeles Pierce College in order to investigate several specified areas related to the students enrolled at California community colleges. The study report, which presents only Fall 1978 results, first provides background to the study and its goals and objectives. It then details the methods…
Hunter, Russell; Sheldon, M. Stephen
Quantitative clinicopathological correlation studies are one way to address the question of the relevance of morphological abnormalities in Alzheimer's dementia (AD). This paper summarizes results of the Vienna Longitudinal Study on Dementia obtained during the past few years and presents a critical discussion on the relevance of clinicopathological correlation studies for the pathogenesis of AD. Plotting of psychometric test scores
C. Bancher; K. Jellinger; H. Lassmann; P. Fischer; F. Leblhuber
Recent studies have examined the prevalence of disordered eating and other health risk behaviors among adolescent boys and girls. However, these studies generally have not examined predictors of these behaviors, and have not embedded the investigations within a theoretical framework. This study employed a longitudinal design to evaluate the…
McCabe, Marita P.; Ricciardelli, Lina A.
Objective: To summarize the advantages and limitations of general population, high-risk and "natural experiment" longitudinal studies for studying psychological change. The English and Romanian Adoptees study is used as an example of a "natural experiment," and detailed findings are provided. Method: What is new is a focus on the young people who…
Rutter, Michael; Kumsta, Robert; Schlotz, Wolff; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund
Objective Diarrhoea is a significant contributer to morbidity and is among the leading causes of death of children living in poverty. As such, the incidence, duration and severity of diarrhoeal episodes in the household are often key variables of interest in a variety of community-based studies. However, there currently exists no means of defining diarrhoeal severity that are (A) specifically designed and adapted for community-based studies, (B) associated with poorer child outcomes and (C) agreed on by the majority of researchers. Clinical severity scores do exist and are used in healthcare settings, but these tend to focus on relatively moderate-to-severe dehydrating and dysenteric disease, require trained observation of the child and, given the variability of access and utilisation of healthcare, fail to sufficiently describe the spectrum of disease in the community setting. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Setting Santa Clara de Nanay, a rural community in the Northern Peruvian Amazon. Participants 442 infants and children 0–72?months of age. Main outcome measures Change in weight over 1-month intervals and change in length/height over 9-month intervals. Results Diarrhoeal episodes with symptoms of fever, anorexia, vomiting, greater number of liquid stools per day and greater number of total stools per day were associated with poorer weight gain compared with episodes without these symptoms. An instrument to measure the severity was constructed based on the duration of these symptoms over the course of a diarrhoeal episode. Conclusions In order to address limitations of existing diarrhoeal severity scores in the context of community-based studies, we propose an instrument comprised of diarrhoea-associated symptoms easily measured by community health workers and based on the association of these symptoms with poorer child growth. This instrument can be used to test the impact of interventions on the burden of diarrhoeal disease. PMID:24907244
Lee, Gwenyth; Peñataro Yori, Pablo; Paredes Olortegui, Maribel; Caulfield, Laura E; Sack, David A; Fischer-Walker, Christa; Black, Robert E; Kosek, Margaret
Aim: Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) are known to participate in active play less than typically developing children. However, it is not known whether the activity deficit between children with and without DCD widens or diminishes over time. Method: Data were obtained from a large, prospective cohort study of children…
Cairney, John; Hay, John A.; Veldhuizen, Scott; Missiuna, Cheryl; Faught, Brent E.
Background Smoking, physical inactivity, and poor diet, along with obesity, fasting glucose and blood pressure have been independently associated with poorer cognitive performance. Few studies have related scales representing a combination of these variables to multiple domains of cognitive performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between overall cardiovascular health, incorporating seven components, and cognitive function. Methods A cross-sectional analysis employing 972 participants, from the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study was undertaken. Four health behaviors (body mass index, physical activity, diet, smoking) and three health factors (total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose) were measured. Each was categorized according to the American Heart Association definitions for ideal cardiovascular health, except diet, for which two food scores were calculated. A Cardiovascular Health Score was determined by summing the number of cardiovascular metrics at ideal levels. Cognitive function was assessed using a thorough neuropsychological test battery. Results Cardiovascular Health Score was positively associated with seven out of eight measures of cognitive function, with adjustment for age, education, and gender. With further adjustment for cardiovascular and psychological variables, these associations remained significant for Visual-Spatial Memory, Working Memory, Scanning and Tracking, Executive Function and the Global Composite score (p<0.05 for all). Ideal levels of a number of health factors and behaviors were positively associated with global cognitive performance. Conclusion Increasing cardiovascular health, indexed by a higher number of metrics at ideal levels, is associated with greater cognitive performance. Smoking, physical activity, and diet are important components of cardiovascular health that impact upon cognition. PMID:24595096
Crichton, Georgina E.; Elias, Merrill F.; Davey, Adam; Alkerwi, Ala'a
Objective The aims of this study were twofold: 1) to provide a brief introduction to the prospective, longitudinal Great Smoky Mountains Study and review recent findings; and 2) to use this sample to conduct an epidemiologic analysis of common childhood anxiety disorders. Method The population-based Great Smoky Mountains Study assessed 1,420 participants from 11 counties in southeastern US up to 11 times between ages 9 and 26 with the structured Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment and its upward extension, the Young Adult Psychiatric Assessment. Results The U-shaped age prevalence curve for any anxiety disorder was the product of high levels of childhood separation anxiety and adult panic, agoraphobia, and generalized anxiety. Over 1 in 5 subjects met criteria for an anxiety disorder by early adulthood. In terms of cumulative comorbidity, there was evidence of overlap between anxiety disorders, but the level of overlap was generally consistent with what is seen amongst other common childhood disorders. All childhood anxiety disorders were associated with adverse functioning in at least one young adult functional domain with the poorest outcomes for childhood generalized anxiety and DSM-III-R overanxious disorder. Conclusion Clinically significant anxiety is a common mental health problem to have had by adulthood. There was little evidence to support the consolidation of anxiety disorders, and some evidence to justify reintroduction of DSM-III-R overanxious disorder. The transition to young adulthood appears to be a key period for understanding the development of common adult anxiety disorders such as panic and agoraphobia. PMID:24342383
Copeland, William E.; Angold, Adrian; Shanahan, Lilly; Costello, E. Jane
The Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health (LSAH) Participant Summary software captures data based on a custom information model designed to gather all relevant, discrete medical events for its study participants. This software provides a summarized view of the study participant s entire medical record. The manual collapsing of all the data in a participant s medical record into a summarized form eliminates redundancy, and allows for the capture of entire medical events. The coding tool could be incorporated into commercial electronic medical record software for use in areas like public health surveillance, hospital systems, clinics, and medical research programs.
Johnson, Kathy; Krog, Ralph; Rodriguez, Seth; Wear, Mary; Volpe, Robert; Trevino, Gina; Eudy, Deborah; Parisian, Diane
We examined the longitudinal measurement properties and predictive utility of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) from early to late adolescence among a sample of North American Indigenous youths. Participants were 632 North American Indigenous adolescents (n = 632; 50.3% girls; M age at baseline = 11.11 years) participating in an 8-year, 8-wave longitudinal study. Via in-person interviews, participants completed the CES-D at Waves 1, 3, 5, and 7, and the major depressive disorder (MDD) module of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children at Waves 1, 4, 6, and 8. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that responses to the CES-D were similarly explained by 2-, 3-, and 4-factor models, as well as a 1-factor model with correlations between the error variances for the positively worded items. Longitudinal measurement equivalence analyses indicated full structural (i.e., factor structure), metric (i.e., factor loadings), and scalar (i.e., observed item intercepts) equivalence for each factor structure. Substantive analyses showed that the CES-D was significantly associated with MDD both concurrently and prospectively, although these effects were smaller than might be expected. Finally, the CES-D negative affect and somatic complaints subscales were the strongest and most consistent predictors of MDD. Among our sample of North American Indigenous youths, the measurement properties of the CES-D were stable from early to late adolescence. Moreover, somatic difficulties and depressed affect were the strongest predictors of MDD. PMID:25181394
Armenta, Brian E.; Sittner Hartshorn, Kelley J.; Whitbeck, Les B.; Crawford, Devan M.; Hoyt, Dan R.
Objectives Single genetic loci offer little predictive power for the identification of depression. This study examined whether an analysis of gene–gene (G × G) interactions of 78 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes associated with depression and age-related diseases would identify significant interactions with increased predictive power for depression. Design A retrospective cohort study. Setting A survey of participants in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. Participants A total of 4811 persons (2464 women and 2347 men) who provided saliva for genotyping; the group comes from a randomly selected sample of Wisconsin high school graduates from the class of 1957 as well as a randomly selected sibling, almost all of whom are non-Hispanic white. Primary outcome measure Depression as determine by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview–Short-Form. Results Using a classification tree approach (recursive partitioning (RP)), the authors identified a number of candidate G × G interactions associated with depression. The primary SNP splits revealed by RP (ANKK1 rs1800497 (also known as DRD2 Taq1A) in men and DRD2 rs224592 in women) were found to be significant as single factors by logistic regression (LR) after controlling for multiple testing (p=0.001 for both). Without considering interaction effects, only one of the five subsequent RP splits reached nominal significance in LR (FTO rs1421085 in women, p=0.008). However, after controlling for G × G interactions by running LR on RP-specific subsets, every split became significant and grew larger in magnitude (OR (before) ? (after): men: GNRH1 novel SNP: (1.43 ? 1.57); women: APOC3 rs2854116: (1.28 ? 1.55), ACVR2B rs3749386: (1.11 ? 2.17), FTO rs1421085: (1.32 ? 1.65), IL6 rs1800795: (1.12 ? 1.85)). Conclusions The results suggest that examining G × G interactions improves the identification of genetic associations predictive of depression. 4 of the SNPs identified in these interactions were located in two pathways well known to impact depression: neurotransmitter (ANKK1 and DRD2) and neuroendocrine (GNRH1 and ACVR2B) signalling. This study demonstrates the utility of RP analysis as an efficient and powerful exploratory analysis technique for uncovering genetic and molecular pathway interactions associated with disease aetiology. PMID:22761283
Roetker, Nicholas S; Yonker, James A; Lee, Chee; Chang, Vicky; Basson, Jacob J; Roan, Carol L; Hauser, Taissa S; Hauser, Robert M
Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous loci influencing cross-sectional lung function, but less is known about genes influencing longitudinal change in lung function. Methods We performed GWAS of the rate of change in forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) in 14 longitudinal, population-based cohort studies comprising 27,249 adults of European ancestry using linear mixed effects model and combined cohort-specific results using fixed effect meta-analysis to identify novel genetic loci associated with longitudinal change in lung function. Gene expression analyses were subsequently performed for identified genetic loci. As a secondary aim, we estimated the mean rate of decline in FEV1 by smoking pattern, irrespective of genotypes, across these 14 studies using meta-analysis. Results The overall meta-analysis produced suggestive evidence for association at the novel IL16/STARD5/TMC3 locus on chromosome 15 (P ?=? 5.71 × 10-7). In addition, meta-analysis using the five cohorts with ?3 FEV1 measurements per participant identified the novel ME3 locus on chromosome 11 (P ?=? 2.18 × 10-8) at genome-wide significance. Neither locus was associated with FEV1 decline in two additional cohort studies. We confirmed gene expression of IL16, STARD5, and ME3 in multiple lung tissues. Publicly available microarray data confirmed differential expression of all three genes in lung samples from COPD patients compared with controls. Irrespective of genotypes, the combined estimate for FEV1 decline was 26.9, 29.2 and 35.7 mL/year in never, former, and persistent smokers, respectively. Conclusions In this large-scale GWAS, we identified two novel genetic loci in association with the rate of change in FEV1 that harbor candidate genes with biologically plausible functional links to lung function. PMID:24983941
Tang, Wenbo; Kowgier, Matthew; Loth, Daan W.; Soler Artigas, María; Joubert, Bonnie R.; Hodge, Emily; Gharib, Sina A.; Smith, Albert V.; Ruczinski, Ingo; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Mathias, Rasika A.; Harris, Tamara B.; Hansel, Nadia N.; Launer, Lenore J.; Barnes, Kathleen C.; Hansen, Joyanna G.; Albrecht, Eva; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Allerhand, Michael; Barr, R. Graham; Brusselle, Guy G.; Couper, David J.; Curjuric, Ivan; Davies, Gail; Deary, Ian J.; Dupuis, Josée; Fall, Tove; Foy, Millennia; Franceschini, Nora; Gao, Wei; Gläser, Sven; Gu, Xiangjun; Hancock, Dana B.; Heinrich, Joachim; Hofman, Albert; Imboden, Medea; Ingelsson, Erik; James, Alan; Karrasch, Stefan; Koch, Beate; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Kumar, Ashish; Lahousse, Lies; Li, Guo; Lind, Lars; Lindgren, Cecilia; Liu, Yongmei; Lohman, Kurt; Lumley, Thomas; McArdle, Wendy L.; Meibohm, Bernd; Morris, Andrew P.; Morrison, Alanna C.; Musk, Bill; North, Kari E.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rotter, Jerome I.; Schulz, Holger; Smith, Lewis J.; Sood, Akshay; Starr, John M.; Strachan, David P.; Teumer, Alexander; Uitterlinden, André G.; Völzke, Henry; Voorman, Arend; Wain, Louise V.; Wells, Martin T.; Wilk, Jemma B.; Williams, O. Dale; Heckbert, Susan R.; Stricker, Bruno H.; London, Stephanie J.; Fornage, Myriam; Tobin, Martin D.; O?Connor, George T.; Hall, Ian P.; Cassano, Patricia A.
An ethnographic study in a 10th grade remedial class was undertaken in order to discern patterns of school bullying. Twenty 10th graders were observed over the course of one academic year as they interacted with their peers and teachers. The observations helped us identify dispositional and situational factors which influenced participant roles. In-depth interviews of students involved in school bullying showed how participants interpreted and explained their classroom behaviors. The analysis of the data gathered allowed the identification of four main actor roles recognized in the existing literature on bullying-the pure victim, the pure bully, the provocative-victim, and the bystander-as well as the differentiation between aggressive bullies and the bully managers. Most roles fluctuated according to specific circumstances and often appeared to be moderated by the teacher's management style and contextual variables. Some pupils assumed different roles in different contexts, sometimes changing roles within or between episodes. Teacher personality and style also had an impact on the frequencies and types of aggression and victimization. The use of an ethnographic research paradigm is discussed as an important supplement to positivistic studies of school bullying. PMID:24452451
Gumpel, Thomas P; Zioni-Koren, Vered; Bekerman, Zvi
Objective: Using a longitudinal design, the authors of this study examined the relationship between externalizing problems and impulsivity in early childhood and symptoms of disordered eating in late adolescence. Method: Participants were urban, African American first-grade girls (N = 119) and their parents who were participating in a longitudinal study examining the prevention of disruptive behaviors. Impulsivity, conduct problems, and
Lindsay P. Bodell; Thomas E. Joiner; Nicholas S. Ialongo
Studied personal context and continuity in the thinking of 23 Swedish students from grade 2 through grade 8 using data from a longitudinal study of conceptualizations of ecological processes. While there was substantial conceptual development, there was also a strong element of personal continuity for these students. (SLD)
This paper will report on the development of a research program by a group of science educators at Kristianstad University, which has its roots in a longitudinal study I conducted concerning students' developing understandings of ecological processes. Following the insights generated in this first study concerning the nature of student…
This paper presents the results of a longitudinal study which examined the development of the Turkish EFL learners' pragmatic awareness in an EFL context in a four-year period. The data which were originally collected from American native speakers and used by Bulut and Ozkan (2005) were also used in this study as the baseline to compare Turkish…
Serial-order short-term memory (STM), as opposed to item STM, has been shown to be very consistently associated with lexical learning abilities in cross-sectional study designs. This study investigated longitudinal predictions between serial-order STM and vocabulary development. Tasks maximizing the temporary retention of either serial-order or…
Leclercq, Anne-Lise; Majerus, Steve
This study consisted of a longitudinal investigation into the information behavior of people diagnosed with a particular chronic serious health condition, type 2 diabetes. This study sought to identify the factors that motivate or impede the information seeking and use of these individuals and to discover how these factors and their influences…
St. Jean, Beth Lenore
In a longitudinal study at North Carolina State University, a cohort of students took five chemical engineering courses taught by the same instructor in five consecutive semesters. The course instruction made extensive use of active and cooperative learning and a variety of other techniques designed to address a broad spectrum of learning styles. Previous reports on the study summarized the
Richard M. Felder; Gary N. Felder; E. Jacquelin Dietz
A theory of relational humility asserts that humility can promote strengthening social bonds. To complement prior, cross-sectional research on this topic, two longitudinal studies were conducted. In Study 1, college students in romantic relationships (N = 123), all of whom had been hurt or offended by their partners within the last two months, completed measures of humility and unforgiveness for six consecutive
Don E. Davis; Everett L Worthington Jr; Joshua N. Hook; Robert A. Emmons; Peter C. Hill; Richard A. Bollinger; Daryl R. Van Tongeren
In this study, individual differences among the first year undergraduate students' learning styles and motivational styles were examined in two different academic contexts. Changes in students' learning styles and motivational styles were also investigated through a longitudinal design over one academic year. The results of this study showed that…
Ozen, Rasit; Eren, Altay
This 3-year longitudinal study explores the evolving beliefs of five prospective secondary science teachers in a university preparation program from recruitment through their first year in the classroom. As an interpretive qualitative study, data were collected through semistructured interviews and an array of artifacts. The data sources were used…
Fletcher, Steven S.; Luft, Julie A.
A longitudinal study of tremor frequencies in Parkinson's disease and essential tremor B. Hellwig a November 2008 Available online 19 December 2008 Keywords: Parkinson's disease Essential tremor Tremor) decreases with time. Lon- gitudinal studies on the evolution of tremor frequencies in Parkinson's disease
Objective: To assess the impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women on subsequent perpetration of child abuse and neglect (CAN) by parents; and to test the mediation effect of recent IPV on the link between IPV during pregnancy and subsequent CAN. Methods: This study was a longitudinal follow-up of a population-based study on…
Chan, Ko Ling; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Fong, Daniel Y. T.; Tiwari, Agnes; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ho, Pak Chung
Background Few studies have attempted to disentangle the complex relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and ethnicity and its influence on body mass index (BMI) and on change in BMI over a decade. The present study highlights the influence of ethnicity (country of birth) and SES on BMI, adjusting for certain lifestyle factors. Methods The longitudinal self-reported data, based on a
Jan Sundquist; Sven-Erik Johansson
This study examined dyadic interrelations between episodic memory and depressive symptom trajectories of change in old and advanced old age. The authors applied dynamic models to 10-year incomplete longitudinal data of initially 1,599 married couples from the study of Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old (M[subscript age] = 75 years at…
Gerstorf, Denis; Hoppmann, Christiane A.; Kadlec, Kelly M.; McArdle, John J.
Data from national samples from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 were used to study gender differences in mathematics achievement. Gender differences were not found when total group means were compared, but noteworthy differences favoring males were found at the high end of the score distributions. (SLD)
Fan, Xitao; And Others
The Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B:93) tracks the experiences of a cohort of recent college graduates, those who received the baccalaureate degree during the 1992-93 academic year and were first interviewed as part of the National Postsecondary Student Aid Study. The experiences of this group in the areas of academic enrollment,…
Green, Patricia J.; And Others
The present longitudinal field study investigated the antecedents and consequences of an actual career change. The framework for this study was Rhodes and Doering's (1983) model of career change. We examined the effect of individual and organisational characteristics on career change behaviour. The individual characteristics were: traits (Openness…
Carless, Sally A.; Arnup, Jessica L.
Underage drinking and drug use among college students are major public health concerns, yet few studies have examined these behaviors and their associated risk factors and consequences prospectively. This paper describes the sampling and recruitment methods of a longitudinal study of 1253 college students at a large, mid-Atlantic university.…
Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Fitzelle, Dawn B.; Johnson, Erin P.; Wish, Eric D.
In this case-study, we present a longitudinal study of one elementary (grades 1-6) school's environmental education (EE) in order to understand the ways in which the school culture supports outdoor EE as a critical component of their science education program. The school, which was known for its school-based EE curriculum that encompasses an…
Tal, Tali; Morag, Orly
Used linear mixed-effects model to study adaptation in a longitudinal nursing home study with different numbers of repeated measurements for each individual because of discharges, transfers, and mortality. Examined individual patterns of change in adaptation to living in nursing home and identified factors that may affect those patterns of change.…
Brant, Larry J.; And Others
To explore the different developmental trajectories of social-communicative skills in children with autism and typically developing infants, two longitudinal studies were conducted. In Study 1, we examined the developmental sequence of social-communicative skills in 26 typically developing infants when they were 9 months old and reexamined them…
Wu, Chin-Chin; Chiang, Chung-Hsin
The study of social dominance has a long tradition within the peer relationships literature, but rarely has the topic been investigated observationally and longitudinally within other salient close relationships. The present study investigated the role of experiences in social relationships and adjustment indices in childhood in predicting later…
Ostrov, Jamie M.; Collins, W. Andrew
This study analyzes the relationships between impulsivity and antisocial behavior in a noninstitutionalized sample, taking into account the multidimensional nature of impulsivity and the diversity of types of antisocial behavior. Data were obtained in 1989 and 1990 from 1,226 adolescents aged 12–18 years (583 boys and 643 girls) as part of a longitudinal study of risk factors for drug abuse
M. A. Luengo; M. T. Carrillo-de-la-Peña; J. M. Otero; E. Romero
PurposeDepression and impulsivity have been positively correlated to problem gambling, but no study has focused on their combined effects on the onset of problem gambling. This study examined the possible synergistic effect of depressive symptoms and impulsivity in early adolescence on late adolescence gambling behaviors among a longitudinal cohort of 678 students from Baltimore, Maryland.
Grace P. Lee; Carla L. Storr; Nicholas S. Ialongo; Silvia S. Martins
Prosodic patterning is a key structural element of spoken language. However, the potential role of prosodic awareness in the phonological difficulties that characterise children with developmental dyslexia has been little studied. Here we report the first longitudinal study of sensitivity to syllable stress in children with dyslexia, enabling the…
Goswami, Usha; Mead, Natasha; Fosker, Tim; Huss, Martina; Barnes, Lisa; Leong, Victoria
Because the power properties of traditional repeated measures and hierarchical multivariate linear models have not been clearly determined in the balanced design for longitudinal studies in the literature, the authors present a power comparison study of traditional repeated measures and hierarchical multivariate linear models under 3…
Fang, Hua; Brooks, Gordon P.; Rizzo, Maria L.; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Barcikowski, Robert S.
This study examined the prevalence and chronicity of sleep problems in children who manifest problems believed to be typical of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Using data from a longitudinal total population study, symptoms of ASD, insomnia and potential explanatory factors were assessed at ages 7-9 and 11-13. Children were included in a group…
Sivertsen, Borge; Posserud, Maj-Britt; Gillberg, Christopher; Lundervold, Astri J.; Hysing, Mari
The present study of personal context and continuity in twenty-three students' thinking builds upon data from a longitudinal study of the students' conceptualizations of ecological processes. Each student was interviewed eleven times from age 9-15 about the conditions for life, decomposition, and the role of the flower in plant reproduction. At…
Hellden, Gustav F.
The main purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which middle and late adolescents' depressive symptoms predict their later school burnout and, in turn, the extent to which school burnout predicts depressive symptoms. Drawing on data gathered at ages 15-19 in two-three-wave longitudinal studies, we investigated cross-lagged paths…
Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Savolainen, Hannu; Holopainen, Leena
The authors of this study addressed burnout experiences (generally defined as chronic depletion of an individual's energetic resources') over time in relation to other factors (e.g., distress, sleep difficulties, job demands, etc.) among foreign-born women and Swedish native women living in Stockholm. The study design was a longitudinal panel survey with two waves one year apart. In the first wave,
Örjan Sundin; Joaquim Soares; Georgio Grossi; Gloria Macassa
Imaging studies have tried to identify morphological outcome measures of schizophrenia in the last two decades. In particular, longitudinal studies have reported a correlation between larger ventricles, decreased prefrontal volumes and worse outcome. This would potentially allow to isolate subtypes of schizophrenia patients with a worse prognosis and more evident biological impairments, ultimately helping in designing specific rehabilitation interventions. PMID:21261215
Bellani, Marcella; Dusi, Nicola; Brambilla, Paolo
Bullying perpetration and victimisation are common issues confronting schools. To understand the extent of bullying in schools and differences in the experiences of boys and girls, longitudinal studies of different subtypes of bullying perpetration and victimisation are essential. The current study aims to describe the rates of bullying…
Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Tollit, Michelle; Kotevski, Aneta
Three issues need to be decided in the design stage of a longitudinal intervention study: the number of persons, the number of repeated measurements per person, and the duration of the study. The degree to which polynomial effects vary across persons and the drop-out pattern also influence the statistical power to detect intervention effects. This…
No longitudinal study has examined risk factors for future suicide attempts in major depressive disorder in a nationally representative sample. The objective of this study was to investigate baseline sociodemographic characteristics, comorbid mental disorders, specific depressive symptoms, and previous suicidal behavior as potential risk factors for suicide attempts at 3years follow-up. Data came from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol
James M. Bolton; Jina Pagura; Murray W. Enns; Bridget Grant; Jitender Sareen
Based on survey data and interview data collected over four academic years, this longitudinal study examined how a ubiquitous computing project evolved along with the changes in teachers, students, the human infrastructure, and technology infrastructure in the school. This study also investigated what conditions were necessary for successful…
This longitudinal case study follows a dynamic systems approach to investigate an under-studied research area in second language acquisition, the development of complexity and accuracy for an advanced untutored learner of English. Using the analytical tools of dynamic systems theory (Verspoor et al. 2011) within the framework of complexity,…
Polat, Brittany; Kim, Youjin
This article reports the first findings of the Wurzburg Longitudinal Memory Study, which focuses on children's verbal memory development, particularly the acquisition of memory strategies. At the beginning of the study, 100 kindergarten children (mean age 6-and-1/2 years) were tested on various memory measures, including sort--recall, text recall,…
Schneider, Wolfgang; Kron, Veronika; Hunnerkopf, Michael; Krajewski, Kristin
Describes the procedures and results of the full-scale Implementation of the final followup interview with the Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study 1996/2001. This study follows a cohort first interviewed in 1996 in their first year of postsecondary education. (SLD)
Wine, Jennifer S.; Heuer, Ruth E.; Wheeless, Sara C.; Francis, Talbric L.; Franklin, Jeff W.; Dudley, Kristin M.
Intergroup contact (especially cross-group friendship) is firmly established as a powerful strategy for combating group-based prejudice (Pettigrew & Tropp, 2006). Great advances have been made in understanding how contact reduces prejudice (Brown & Hewstone, 2005), highlighting the importance of affective mediators (Pettigrew & Tropp, 2008). The present study, a 3-wave longitudinal study undertaken among minority-status Colored high school children in
Hermann Swart; Miles Hewstone; Oliver Christ; Alberto Voci
This paper presents a four-year longitudinal study of student teachers' beliefs about language learning and teaching over the course of an English teacher education (ELT) program. The study attempts to track possible changes in the beliefs and to analyze the impact of an ELT pre-service program by taking the program itself as a dynamic variable.…
Ozmen, Kemal Sinan
In this longitudinal study of two gifted Korean girls, experiences with early admittance into a gifted program are charted alongside their family and societal experiences that ultimately influenced their career choices in nonmathematical fields. The 8-year-long qualitative study involved extensive interviews with the two gifted girls and their…
Lee, Kyeong Hwa; Sriraman, Bharath
Pronoun reversal, the use of "you" for self-reference and "I" for an addressee, has often been associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and impaired language. However, recent case studies have shown the phenomenon also to occur in typically developing and even precocious talkers. This study examines longitudinal corpus data from two…
Evans, Karen E.; Demuth, Katherine
Use and cost of hospitalization in dementia: longitudinal results from a community-based study 18months for over 10years (1805 never diagnosed with dementia during study period, 221 diagnosed with dementia at enrollment). Hospitalization and Medicare expenditures data (1999Â2010) were ob- tained from
Recent factor analytic studies in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have shown that hierarchical models provide a better fit of ADHD symptoms than correlated models. A hierarchical model includes a general ADHD factor and specific factors for inattention, and hyperactivity/impulsivity. The aim of this 12-month longitudinal study was…
Normand, Sebastien; Flora, David B.; Toplak, Maggie E.; Tannock, Rosemary
A conceptual model which relates patterns of academic achievement to the personality characteristics of learners was tested by a quasi-longitudinal study. The results of the study provide strong evidence for a model which emphasizes the influence of histories of successful academic achievement on personality characteristics. The findings suggest, additionally, that rewards for academic achievement provided by the home are related
Purpose: The study of auxiliary acquisition is central to work on language development and has attracted theoretical work from both nativist and constructivist approaches. This study is part of a 2-part companion set that represents a unique attempt to trace the development of auxiliary syntax by using a longitudinal elicitation methodology. The…
Rowland, Caroline F.; Theakston, Anna L.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of three computerized interventions on the reading skills of children with reading disabilities in Grade 2. This longitudinal intervention study included five test sessions over 1 year. Two test points occur before the intervention, and three afterwards. The last follow-up was conducted 1…
Falth, Linda; Gustafson, Stefan; Tjus, Tomas; Heimann, Mikael; Svensson, Idor
The present study examines the quality of peer relations as a mediator between exposure to IPV (intimate partner violence) and internalizing behaviors in a sample of 129 preadolescents and adolescents (ages 10-18), who were interviewed via telephone as part of a multigenerational, prospective, longitudinal study. Relational victimization is also…
Camacho, Kathleen; Ehrensaft, Miriam K.; Cohen, Patricia
With aging, customary gait patterns change and energetic efficiency declines, but the relationship between these alterations is not well understood. If gait characteristics that develop with aging explain part of the decline in energetic efficiency that occur in most aging individuals, then efforts to modify these characteristics could delay or prevent mobility limitation. This study characterizes gait patterns in older persons with and without knee pain and tests the hypothesis that changes in gait characteristics due to knee pain are associated with increased energetic cost of walking in older adults. Study participants were 364 men and 170 women aged 60 to 96 years enrolled in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA), of whom 86 had prevalent knee pain. Gait patterns were assessed at participant self-selected usual pace in the gait laboratory, and the energetic cost of walking was assessed by indirect calorimetry during self-selected usual pace walking over 2.5 min in a tiled corridor using a portable equipment. Participants with knee pain were less energetically efficient than those without pain (oxygen consumption 0.97 vs. 0.88 ml/(10 m?·?100 kg); p?=?0.002) and had slower gait speed and smaller range of motion (ROM) at the hip and knee joints (p?0.05, for all). Slower gait speed and lower knee ROM in participants with knee pain and longer double support time and higher ankle ROM in participants without knee pain were associated with lower energetic efficiency (p?0.05, for all). Slower gait speed and lower knee ROM were correlates of knee pain and were found to mediate the association between age and oxygen consumption. Although knee pain is associated with a higher energetic cost of walking, gait characteristics associated with energetic efficiency differ by pain status which suggests that compensatory strategies both in the presence and absence of pain may impact gait efficiency. PMID:25666574
Ko, Seung-Uk; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Ferrucci, Luigi
Background Theory of mind allows the understanding and prediction of other people’s behaviours based on their mental states (e.g. beliefs). It is important for healthy social relationships and thus may contribute towards children’s involvement in bullying. The present study investigated whether children involved in bullying during early adolescence had poor theory of mind in childhood. Method Participants were members of the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally-representative sample of 2,232 children and their families. Families were visited by the authors when children were 5, 7, 10 and 12 years. Theory of mind was assessed when the children were 5 years using eight standardized tasks. Identification of those children who were involved in bullying as victims, bullies and bully-victims using mothers’, teachers’ and children’s reports was carried out when they were 12 years’ old. Results Poor theory of mind predicted becoming a victim (effect size, d=0.26), bully (d=0.25) or bully-victim (d=0.44) in early adolescence. These associations remained for victims and bully-victims when child-specific (e.g., IQ) and family factors (e.g., child maltreatment) were controlled for. Emotional and behavioural problems during middle childhood did not modify the association between poor theory of mind and adolescent bullying experiences. Conclusion Identifying and supporting children with poor theory of mind early in life could help reduce their vulnerability for involvement in bullying and thus limit its adverse effects on mental health. PMID:22081896
Sania, Shakoor; Jaffee, Sara R; Bowes, Lucy; Ouellet-Morin, Isabelle; Andreou, Penelope; Happé, Francesca; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise
Objectives To determine secular trends by birth decade in body mass index (BMI), waist circumference/height (W/Ht), percent body fat (PBF), and fat free mass adjusted for height squared (FFM/Ht2) in children and adolescents aged 8–18 years. Methods Serial data were analyzed from 628 boys and 591girls aged 8 to 18 years who participated in the Fels Longitudinal Study. Subjects were stratified by birth decade from 1960 through 1999. Means and standard deviations were computed for all measurements by birth decade, age and sex. A repeated-measures analysis of variance was used data to ascertain secular trends separately for boys and girls. Results Boys and girls born in the 1990s had significantly higher mean BMI, W/Ht and PBF than did children born in previous decades. Mean FFM/Ht2 was significantly smaller in boys born in the 1990s than boys of the same age born in earlier decades. No secular trend was noted in FFM/ Ht2 in girls by decade of birth. Conclusion Our analysis of serial data collected over four decades confirms the secular trend in childhood BMI previously observed in successive cross-sectional studies. Our analysis discloses significant positive secular trends in W/Ht and PBF in both boys and girls and a significant negative secular trend in FFM/Ht2 in boys over the last four decades of the 20th century. The secular changes presage increases in the prevalence of conditions associated with childhood and adolescent obesity – such as hypertension, glucose intolerance, and dyslipidemia – that may appear as early as the second decade of life. PMID:22410970
Sun, Shumei S.; Deng, Xiaoyan; Sabo, Roy; Carrico, Robert; Schubert, Christine M.; Wan, Wen; Sabo, Cynthia
Objectives To follow a population of preschool children with and without parent reported wheeze over a period of 6-11 years to determine prognosis and its important predictive factors. Design Longitudinal series of five postal surveys based on the international study of asthma and allergies in childhood questionnaire carried out between 1993 and 2004. Setting Two general practice populations, south Manchester. Participants 628 children aged less than 5 years at recruitment and those with at least six years’ follow-up data. Main outcome measures Parent completed questionnaire data for respiratory symptoms and associated features. Results Of 628 children included in the study, 201 (32%) had parent reported wheeze at the first observation (baseline), of whom 27% also reported the symptom on the second occasion (persistent asthma). The only important baseline predictors of persistent asthma were exercise induced wheeze (odds ratio 3.94, 95% confidence interval 1.72 to 9.00) and a history of atopic disorders (4.44, 1.94 to 10.13). The presence of both predictors indicated a likelihood of 53.2% of developing asthma; if only one feature was present this decreased to 17.2%, whereas if neither was present the likelihood was 10.9%. Family history of asthma was not predictive of persistent asthma among children with preschool wheeze. Conclusion Using two simple predictive factors (baseline parent reported exercise induced wheeze and a history of atopic disorders), it is possible to estimate the likelihood of future asthma in children presenting with preschool wheeze. The absence of baseline exercise induced wheeze and a history of atopic disorders reduces the likelihood of subsequent asthma by a factor of five. PMID:18558639
Background Back pain is one of the most important causes of functional limitation, disability, and utilization of health care resources for adults of all ages, but especially among older adults. Despite the high prevalence of back pain in this population, important questions remain unanswered regarding the comparative effectiveness of commonly used diagnostic tests and treatments in the elderly. The overall goal of the Back pain Outcomes using Longitudinal Data (BOLD) project is to establish a rich, sustainable registry to describe the natural history and evaluate prospectively the effectiveness, safety, and cost-effectiveness of interventions for patients 65 and older with back pain. Methods/design BOLD is enrolling 5,000 patients???65?years old who present to a primary care physician with a new episode of back pain. We are recruiting study participants from three integrated health systems (Kaiser-Permanente Northern California, Henry Ford Health System in Detroit and Harvard Vanguard Medical Associates/ Harvard Pilgrim Health Care in Boston). Registry patients complete validated, standardized measures of pain, back pain-related disability, and health-related quality of life at enrollment and 3, 6 and 12?months later. We also have available for analysis the clinical and administrative data in the participating health systems’ electronic medical records. Using registry data, we will conduct an observational cohort study of early imaging compared to no early imaging among patients with new episodes of back pain. The aims are to: 1) identify predictors of early imaging and; 2) compare pain, functional outcomes, diagnostic testing and treatment utilization of patients who receive early imaging versus patients who do not receive early imaging. In terms of predictors, we will examine patient factors as well as physician factors. Discussion By establishing the BOLD registry, we are creating a resource that contains patient-reported outcome measures as well as electronic medical record data for elderly patients with back pain. The richness of our data will allow better matching for comparative effectiveness studies than is currently possible with existing datasets. BOLD will enrich the existing knowledge base regarding back pain in the elderly to help clinicians and patients make informed, evidence-based decisions regarding their care. PMID:22554166
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate differences in associations between crime rates, cycling, and weight status between people living in low and high socioeconomic status (SES) neighbourhoods. In total, 470 participants in the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam were included (age: 63–70?y). Body height and weight were measured using a stadiometer and calibrated weight scale, respectively. Cycling behaviour was assessed in a face-to-face interview, and neighbourhood crime rates were assessed using data from police reports. Men residing in high SES neighbourhoods cycled more than males residing in low SES neighbourhoods. Cycling was negatively related to crime rates among both men and women living in low SES neighbourhoods. Among men living in low SES neighbourhoods, more cycling was associated with lower BMI. Interventions aiming to prevent obesity in older people may consider aiming at increasing bicycle use in lower SES neighbourhoods, but neighbourhood safety issues should be considered. PMID:22523503
Kremers, Stef P. J.; de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Visscher, Tommy L. S.; Deeg, Dorly J. H.; Thomése, G. C. Fleur; Visser, Marjolein; van Mechelen, Willem; Brug, Johannes
Background and purpose To determine baseline volume and rate of volume change of whole brain, hippocampus, and entorhinal cortex in patients with atrial fibrillation. Methods We analyzed clinical and neuroimaging data collected as part of Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative in the United States and Canada. Patients with atrial fibrillation were identified based on baseline clinical/cognitive assessments, and age and gender-matched controls without atrial fibrillations were selected (1:1 ratio). All participants underwent 1.5 T structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at specified intervals (6 or 12 months) for 2–3 years. Results A total of 33 persons with atrial fibrillation were included. There was no difference in whole brain and ventricular volumes at baseline MRI between cases and controls. There was significantly lower entorhinal cortex volume on right (p = 0.01) and left (p = 0.01) sides in patients with atrial fibrillation. There was significantly lower volume for middle temporal lobes on right (p = 0.04) and left (p = 0.001) sides. The rate of progression of atrophy in entorhinal cortex and middle temporal lobes was not different between patients with atrial fibrillation and controls. Conclusions The association of atrial fibrillation with volume loss in entorhinal cortex and middle temporal lobes may provide new insights into pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation. PMID:25566337
Qureshi, Adnan I; Saed, Aveen; Tasneem, Nudrat; Adil, Malik M
Symptom science is inherent in nursing care, with symptoms being guideposts for practice. The occurrence of symptoms has the potential to impact multiple health outcomes. In order to identify the natural history of a symptom, longitudinal data related to the occurrence and severity of symptoms over the disease/treatment epoch are essential and should include the collection of potential biologic correlates. One of the primary limitations with longitudinal studies is the problem of data missingness. This can then impact the analysis and interpretation of findings. Additionally, there are a variety of approaches to the analysis of the data. As part of the American Academy of Nursing Special Topics Conference this year, issues related to the planning and analysis of longitudinal data analysis were discussed. This article provides a summary of the presented content at that meeting. PMID:25015407
Armstrong, Terri S
The dispersion relation of one-dimensional longitudinal plasma waves in relativistic homogeneous plasmas is investigated with both linear theory and Vlasov simulation in this paper. From the Vlasov-Poisson equations, the linear dispersion relation is derived for the proper one-dimensional Jüttner distribution. Numerically obtained linear dispersion relation as well as an approximate formula for plasma wave frequency in the long wavelength limit is given. The dispersion of longitudinal wave is also simulated with a relativistic Vlasov code. The real and imaginary parts of dispersion relation are well studied by varying wave number and plasma temperature. Simulation results are in agreement with established linear theory.
Zhang, H.; Wu, S. Z.; Zhou, C. T.; He, X. T. [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China) [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China); Key Laboratory of HEDP of the Ministry of Education, CAPT, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhu, S. P. [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China)] [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China)
Excessively elevated resting metabolic rate (RMR) for persons of a certain age, sex, and body composition is a mortality risk factor. Whether elevated RMR constitutes an early marker of health deterioration in older adult has not been fully investigated. Using data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, we hypothesized that higher RMR (i) was cross-sectionally associated with higher multimorbidity and (ii) predicted higher multimorbidity in subsequent follow-ups. The analysis included 695 Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging participants, aged 60 or older at baseline, of whom 248 had follow-up data available 2 years later and 109 four years later. Multimorbidity was assessed as number of chronic diseases. RMR was measured by indirect calorimetry and was tested in regression analyses adjusted for covariates age, sex, and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry-measured total body fat mass and lean mass. Baseline RMR and multimorbidity were positively associated, independent of covariates (p = .002). Moreover, in a three-wave bivariate autoregressive cross-lagged model adjusted for covariates, higher prior RMR predicted greater future multimorbidity above and beyond the cross-sectional and autoregressive associations (p = .034). RMR higher than expected, given age, sex, and body composition, predicts future higher multimorbidity in older adults and may be used as early biomarker of impending health deterioration. Replication and the development of normative data are required for clinical translation. PMID:25409892
Fabbri, Elisa; An, Yang; Schrack, Jennifer A; Gonzalez-Freire, Marta; Zoli, Marco; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Guralnik, Jack M; Boyd, Cynthia M; Studenski, Stephanie A; Ferrucci, Luigi
Character-based video games do more than allow one to practice various kinds of behaviors in a virtual environment; they allow one to practice being a different kind of person. As such, we propose that games can alter self-perceptions of personal characteristics, attitudes, and values with broad consequences for behavior. In a multiwave, longitudinal study of adolescents, we examined the extent to which play of mature-rated, risk-glorifying (MRRG) games was associated with increases in alcohol use, cigarette smoking, aggression, delinquency, and risky sex as a consequence of its effects on personality, attitudes, and affiliations indicative of increased tolerance of deviance. Participants were selected with random-digit-dial procedures and followed for 4 years. Data were analyzed with linear mixed modeling to assess change over time and structural equation modeling with latent variables to test hypothesized mediational processes. Among those who play video games, playing MRRG games was associated with increases in all measures of behavioral deviance. Mediational models support the hypothesis that these effects are in part a consequence of the effects of such gameplay on sensation seeking and rebelliousness, attitudes toward deviant behavior in oneself and others, and affiliation with deviant peers. Effects were similar for males and females and were strongest for those who reported heavy play of mature-rated games and games that involved protagonists who represent nonnormative and antisocial values. In sum, the current research supports the perspective that MRRG gameplay can have consequences for deviant behavior broadly defined by affecting the personality, attitudes, and values of the player. PMID:25090130
Hull, Jay G; Brunelle, Timothy J; Prescott, Anna T; Sargent, James D
Competing notions of what a Ph.D. has been, is and should be are undercurrents in doctoral education. A longitudinal study of Ph.D. supervision based on interviews and concept mapping was used to surface understandings of the purpose of a Ph.D. This research tracks change over time for both the student and the supervisor. The data were analysed…
Kandiko, Camille B.; Kinchin, Ian M.
Two longitudinal field studies of the process of information dissemination through newspapers were conducted on two different public affairs topics (regional planning and routing of a high voltage power line) in four communities to examine the role of newspapers in increasing levels of conflict and in creating greater levels of awareness and…
Tichenor, P. J.; And Others
Longitudinal studies conducted with children typically experience non-response problems that can make substantial inroads on sample size and introduce bias into the analysis. Three methods for limiting non-response in school-based research programs were assessed: (1) asking parents to return consent forms only if they do not want their children to…
Ellickson, Phyllis L.
LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF SEMEN QUALITY AFTER INTERMITTENT EXPOSURE TO AIR POLLUTION. J. Rubes*, D. Zudova*, Veterinary Research Institute, Brno, CR, S.G. Selevan*, US EPA/ORD/NCEA, Washington, DC, D.P. Evenson, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD, and S.D. Perreault, US ...
This longitudinal study examines changes in understanding of dental practice among a cohort of students in the early years of a dentistry programme. In their first two professional years, we identified five distinct understandings of dental practice that we have ordered from least to most comprehensive: "relieving pain or generally caring for…
Kieser, Jules A.; Dall'Alba, Gloria; Livingstone, Vicki
This longitudinal study examines the effects of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on the intimate and marital relationships of adult survivors from a sample composed primarily of African American women. In addition, the authors explore the protective role of maternal support. Interview data are collected on 136 women with documented histories of CSA…
Liang, Belle; Williams, Linda M.; Siegel, Jane A.
This report describes the initial stage of a 5-year longitudinal study of the labor market behavior of women between 30 and 44 years of age. Since 1967, personal interviews and questionnaires have been used to gather data relating work experiences to various social, economic, and psychological factors for a representative national sample. The…
Shea, John R.; And Others
Debates persist over whether bisexuality is a temporary stage of denial or transition, a stable "3rd type" of sexual orientation, or a heightened capacity for sexual fluidity. The present study uses 5 waves of longitudinal data collected from 79 lesbian, bisexual, and "unlabeled" women to evaluate these models. Both the "3rd orientation" and…
Diamond, Lisa M.
In the first longitudinal, population-based study of full-day kindergarten (FDK) outcomes beyond primary school in Canada, we used linked administrative data to follow 15 kindergarten cohorts (n ranging from 112 to 736) up to grade 9. Provincial assessments conducted in grades 3, 7, and 8 and course marks and credits earned in grade 9 were…
Brownell, M. D.; Nickel, N. C.; Chateau, D.; Martens, P. J.; Taylor, C.; Crockett, L.; Katz, A.; Sarkar, J.; Burland, E.; Goh, C. Y.
People's response to stress depends to a large extent on their sense of perceived control over the situations they encounter. This longitudinal study of 136 children (70 girls) examined associations between attachment patterns and maternal sensitivity at 12 months of age, and perceived primary and secondary control at 11 years of age. Compared…
Dan, Orrie; Sagi-Schwartz, Abraham; Bar-haim, Yair; Eshel, Yohanan
Affection and sexuality were studied longitudinally for two groups of couples, one with an Alzheimer's disease (AD) afflicted spouse and the other spouse the primary caregiver, and a second group with both spouses relatively healthy. Affectional expressions were not different for the two groups prior to illness onset but declined significantly for the AD group five years into the illness
Lore K. Wright
We examined the interaction between academic burnout and work-related burnout for a sample of working undergraduate university students. Using a longitudinal design we found that the factors of burnout (Exhaustion, Cynicism, and Efficacy) change significantly over the semester. In addition, the study suggests there are distinct differences in how…
Galbraith, Craig S.; Merrill, Gregory B.
The high risk of burnout in the social work profession is well established, but little is known about burnout's impact on the physical health of social workers. This article examines the relationship between burnout and physical health, using data from a longitudinal study of social workers. California-registered social workers (N = 406) were…
Kim, Hansung; Ji, Juye; Kao, Dennis
This longitudinal study examined the acquisition of early knowledge of astronomy to determine whether children's knowledge at any point in time is consistent with a naive "mental model." Children were first assessed by means of open questions and drawing tasks at 2 and 3 years of age (N = 143). The knowledge was reassessed over the course of the…
Hannust, Triin; Kikas, Eve
Based on a two-year and three-wave longitudinal sample of 118 Chinese preschoolers, the present study examined the cross-lagged associations between teacher-child relationships and social competence, and the cross-system generalization of social competence between home and school. At each of the three waves, teachers rated the children's…
Zhang, Xiao; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
This longitudinal study investigated the possible influence of estradiol (E2), progesterone (P), testosterone (T), cortisol (CORT), and prolactin (PRL) levels on cognitive functioning during late pregnancy and the early postpartum period. The performance of 55 pregnant women on a battery of neuropsychological tests, tested once during the third trimester of pregnancy and once during the early postpartum period, was compared
Jessica F. Henry; Barbara B. Sherwin
Objective: To investigate levels of support and the concurrent and prospective effects of support on the psychological functioning of parents of children with cancer in a prospective longitudinal study. Methods: Parents' (n 128) self-perceived level of psychological distress, quantity of support, and dissatis- faction with support were assessed, at diagnosis, at 6, and at 12 months. Results: Parents received most
Josette E. H. M. Hoekstra-Weebers; Jan P. C. Jaspers; Willem A. Kamps; Ed C. Klip
The aim of this longitudinal study is to examine the contribution of morphological awareness to the prediction of reading and spelling in Greek. The target group (N = 404) consisted of children, aged 6-9 years at the start of the project, who learn literacy in Cyprus. Because there are no standardized measures of morphological awareness for Greek…
Pittas, Evdokia; Nunes, Terezinha
The present study examined narrative development in children and adolescents with Down syndrome longitudinally. Narratives were collected from 32 children and adolescents with Down syndrome three times over a 1-year period. Both micro- and macrolevel analyses were conducted. Significant growth over the 1-year period was seen in semantic complexity…
Cleave, Patricia; Bird, Elizabeth Kay-Raining; Czutrin, Rachael; Smith, Lindsey
Objective To investigate whether an important football match increases stress to such an extent that it triggers acute myocardial infarction and stroke. Design Longitudinal study of mortality around 22 June 1996 (the day the Dutch football team was eliminated from the European football championship). Mortality on 22 June was compared with the five days before and after the match and
Daniel R Witte; Michiel L Bots; Arno W Hoes; Diederick E Grobbee
This study adopted a longitudinal framework in examining economic consequences of marital dissolution for men and women. Data collected in the Survey of Labor and Income Dynamics from 1998 to 2005 were used to compare men's and women's incomes for up to 5 years during and after marital dissolution. Marital dissolution was defined as divorce or separation from a spouse
Tahany M. Gadalla
The purpose of this study was to test a model of early literacy acquisition. The model focused on development in word recognition, spelling, reading comprehension, and writing, and on the interrelation of growth in each of these skills. Longitudinal data were collected as students went from first through second grade. Incoming characteristics (i.e., ethnicity, IQ, oral language) and the rate
Connie Juel; Priscilla L. Griffith; Philip B. Gough
Purpose: I examine whether less favorable self-rated health raises the risk of outmigration more for young-old adults (aged 53-63 at the start of the 10-year longitudinal study in 1994) in nonmetro than metro counties and increases the odds that both groups of outmigrants will choose metro over nonmetro destinations. Finally, I examine whether…
Johnson, Nan E.
Despite the recent growth in multiracial children among American children, we know very little about their well-being. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class (N?=?17,706), we evaluated the likelihood of living in poverty and near poverty for multiracial and monoracial children. Most multiracial groups have poverty or near…
Bratter, Jenifer; Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert
Objective: To establish rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) reactions and general mental health problems in children who had experienced war trauma.Method: A longitudinal study in the Gaza strip with 234 children aged 7 to 12 years, who had experienced war conflict, at 1 year after the initial assessment, that is, during the peace process. Children completed the Child Post
Abdel Aziz Thabet; Panos Vostanis
The current study assumes that workers actively influence the characteristics of their work environment. Not only will one's work environment (job characteristics) affect personal characteristics, such as feelings of depression; depression in turn is expected to affect the characteristics of one's work environment as well. Using a sample of 593 young Dutch workers, a longitudinal model relating feelings of depression
Toon W. Taris; Inge A. Bok; Denise G. Caljé
We aimed to examine whether exposure to prenatal stress following maternal bereavement is associated with an increased risk of febrile seizures. In a longitudinal population-based cohort study, we followed 1,431,175 children born in Denmark. A total of 34,777 children were born to women who lost a close relative during pregnancy or within 1 year…
Li, Jiong; Olsen, Jorn; Obel, Carsten; Christensen, Jakob; Precht, Dorthe Hansen; Vestergaard, Mogens
Personal recollections constitute autobiographical memory that develops intensively during the preschool years. The two-wave longitudinal study focuses on gender differences in preschool children's independent recollections. The same children (N = 275; 140 boys, 135 girls) were asked to talk about their previous birthday and the past weekend…
Tõugu, Pirko; Tulviste, Tiia; Suits, Kristi
This longitudinal study examines how person-organization fit, operationalized as congruence between perceived and preferred organizational culture, relates to employees' affective commitment and intention to stay with an organization during the early stages of a strategic organizational change. Employees in a large energy company completed surveys…
Meyer, John P.; Hecht, Tracy D.; Gill, Harjinder; Toplonytsky, Laryssa
This thesis examines psychosocial effects in a population living near the Halton Regional Landfill site in Milton, Ontario. The data described and analyzed in this research were collected between 1990 and 1995 and capture key events in the landfill site's history--site approval, construction and operation. This longitudinal study, which examines indicators of stress, reappraisal and coping at three different points
Christine Lynne Hampson
This article presents the findings of the final phase of a 5-year longitudinal study with 168 middle- and upper middle-class children in which the complex relations among early home literacy experiences, subsequent re- ceptive language and emergent literacy skills, and reading achievement were examined. Results showed that children's exposure to books was related to the development of vocabulary and listening
Monique Senechal; Jo-Anne LeFevre
Uses longitudinal study of differences between boys and girls in levels of mathematics and science achievement across grades 7 through 10 to extend hierarchical modeling to allow for regression among latent variables using a fully Bayesian approach. (Contains 30 references.) (PKP)
A longitudinal study examined the college and career transitions of graduates of the Lansing Area Manufacturing Partnership (LAMP) program, which is a school-to-career (STC) program sponsored by the United Auto Workers, General Motors Corporation, and Michigan's Ingham County Intermediate School District. The progress of three cohorts of LAMP…
MacAllum, Keith; Yoder, Karla; Kim, Scott; Bozick, Robert
Abstract Aim. To investigate the relationship between early conduct problems and early onset of cannabis use, with special emphasis on possible gender differences. Design. A prospective longitudinal study of a national sample of 2436 adolescents. The sample was followed up over a year and a half, when the adolescents were in their early teens. Setting. Norway. Measurements. On the basis
Willy Pedersen; Arne Mastekaasa; Lars Wichstrøm
This longitudinal study compared business faculty's use of information technology in distance education as well as their perception of the technology's impact on their productivity and technology preferences between 2000 and 2006. Data were collected from 81 professors in 2000 and 140 professors in 2006 at AACSB-accredited business colleges across…
Zhao, Jensen, J.; Alexander, Melody W.; Perrreault, Heidi; Waldman, Lila
A longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging study assessing white matter fiber tracts after sports. Dettwiler 1 1 Princeton Neuroscience Institute, 2 University Health Services, 3 Department of Psychology, Princeton University, NJ; 4 Kent State University, Kent, OH; 5 Psychological and Neurobehavioral Associates
Although advances in diffusion tensor imaging have enabled us to better study the anatomy of the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), its function remains poorly understood. Recently, it was suggested that the subcortical network subserving the language semantics could be constituted, in parallel with the inferior occipitofrontal fasciculus, by…
Mandonnet, Emmanuel; Nouet, Aurelien; Gatignol, Peggy; Capelle, Laurent; Duffau, Hugues
In this study, we present longitudinal data on changes in psychological distress among 232 Norwegian undergraduate students of nursing, physiotherapy, and occupational therapy. Psychological distress was assessed by applying the 12?item version of the General Health Questionnaire. Nursing students became substantially more distressed during the three years of their programme compared to physiotherapy and occupational therapy students. Multivariate analyses showed
Per Nerdrum; Tone Rustøen; Michael Helge Rønnestad
In this longitudinal study we analyse the early phases of reading development in Italian and explore the transition from phonological to lexical reading. A group of 28 Italian children was tested in four phases. Language and cognitive skills were first assessed in the preschool. Reading performance was then tested in three different sessions, in…
Orsolini, Margherita; Fanari, Rachele; Tosi, Valeria; De Nigris, Barbara; Carrieri, Roberto
The role of working memory (WM) in children's growth in mathematical problem solving was examined in a longitudinal study of children (N = 127). A battery of tests was administered that assessed problem solving, achievement, WM, and cognitive processing (inhibition, speed, phonological coding) in Grade 1 children, with follow-up testing in Grades…
Swanson, H. Lee
Due to the rarity of longitudinal data, evidence on the benefits of education across the life-course is relatively sparse in developing countries. Young Lives is the only comparative dual-cohort study to combine data collection using mixed-methods at child, household, school and community levels, following 12,000 children in two cohorts across…
Boyden, Jo; James, Zoe
A computer program GGOREX in the form of a SAS macro is developed for the analysis of longitudinal ordinal data. It is extended from GEECAT and GEEGOR developed by Williamson, Lipsitz and Kim in their paper in 1999. An illustrative example with some preliminary data from a study conducted by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and
Kai Fun Yu; Weishi Yuan
This longitudinal study of adolescents in the first year of secondary school, examined the relationship between psychological functioning at the beginning of year 7 (mean age 11.25 years) with attainment at the end of year 7 (mean age 11.78 years). Depressive symptoms, school liking and conduct problems predicted lower attainment across time…
Riglin, Lucy; Frederickson, Norah; Shelton, Katherine H.; Rice, Frances
The relations of children's (n=214 at Time 1; M age=6 years at Time 1) dispositional sympathy to adult-reported and behavioral measures of effortful control (EC) and impulsivity were examined in a longitudinal study including five assessments, each two years apart. Especially for boys, relatively high levels of EC and growth in EC were related to…
Eisenberg, Nancy; Michalik, Nicole; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Hofer, Claire; Kupfer, Anne; Valiente, Carlos; Liew, Jeffrey; Cumberland, Amanda; Reiser, Mark
This research explores the impact of process management activities on technological innovation. Drawing on research in organizational evolution and learning, we suggest that as these practices reduce variance in organizational routines and influence the selection of innovations, they enhance incremental innovation at the expense of exploratory innovation. We tested our hypotheses in a 20-year longitudinal study of patenting activity and
Mary J. Benner; Michael Tushman
To examine the progression of neuropsychologic and metabolic changes in the early stages of dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT), we studied 11 mildly demented patients longitudinally. Three aspects of neuropsychological function were measured: memory, attention to complex sets and abstract reasoning, and lateralized functions, i.e., language and visuoconstruction. Regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose were measured in frontal, parietal,
C. L. Grady; J. V. Haxby; B. Horwitz; M. Sundaram; G. Berg; M. Schapiro; R. P. Friedland; S. I. Rapoport
This paper reports the findings of an 11-year longitudinal study of the food preferences of first-year social science undergraduates at a UK university. Argues that this predominantly young and female response group constitutes a “critical case” that can be used to assess broader trends in meat consumption and meat avoidance. Relatively high levels of meat avoidance (in terms of reduced
Alan Beardsworth; Alan Bryman
It has been proposed that specific language impairment (SLI) is caused by an impairment of auditory processing, but it is unclear whether this problem affects temporal processing, frequency discrimination (FD), or both. Furthermore, there are few longitudinal studies in this area, making it hard to establish whether any deficit represents a…
Hill, P. R.; Hogben, J. H.; Bishop, D. M. V.
Describes a longitudinal study of four sets of OPAC (online public access catalog) transaction logs that examined the effects of screen changes in helping searchers improve their search behavior. Results show that while screen changes initially had a positive impact on search behavior, they were not always sustained over time. (Author/LRW)
Blecic, Deborah D.; Dorsch, Josephine L.; Koenig, Melissa H.; Bangalore, Nimala S.
This study drew on prospective, longitudinal data to test the hypothesis that the intergenerational transmission of positive parenting is mediated by competence in subsequent relationships with peers and romantic partners. Interview-based ratings of supportive parenting were completed with a sample of 113 individuals (46% male) followed from birth…
Raby, K. Lee; Lawler, Jamie M.; Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Hesemeyer, Paloma S.; Collins, W. Andrew; Sroufe, L. Alan
This study assessed the genetic and environmental contributions to peer difficulties in the early school years. Twins' peer difficulties were assessed longitudinally in kindergarten (796 twins, "M"[subscript age] = 6.1 years), Grade 1 (948 twins, "M"[subscript age] = 7.1 years), and Grade 4 (868 twins, "M"[subscript age] = 10 years) through…
Boivin, Michel; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Dionne, Ginette; Girard, Alain; Perusse, Daniel; Tremblay, Richard E.
The aim of this prospective longitudinal study of 15 consecutively treated Class II malocclusions was to assess any possible changes in the relative position of the articular disk to the condyle during different phases of Herbst therapy. Using a disk position index, parasagittal MRIs (central, medial and lateral slices) of the right and left TMJ were analyzed at five occasions:
Hans Pancherz; Sabine Ruf; Christine Thomalske-Faubert
Longitudinal field studies of the physical growth of 197 children between 6 and 60 months of age have been completed in two rural villages of Bangladesh. The distribution of weights by age indicated that 90% of the village girls and boys weighed less than the National Center for Health Statistics 5th percentile by 8 and 15 months of age, respectively.
Kenneth H. Brown; Robert E. Black; Stan Becker; Aiizul Hoque
This longitudinal case study, supplemented by cross-sectional comparisons among five groups of writers with differing backgrounds, investigates how Natsu, a Japanese multilingual writer, developed her L1, L2 (English), and L3 (Chinese) writing competence over two and a half years. To create a comprehensive picture of this multilingual writer, the…
Kobayashi, Hiroe; Rinnert, Carol
Repeated measurements arising from longitudinal studies occur frequently in applied research. Methods to calculate power in the context of repeated measures are available for experimental settings where the covariate of interest is a discrete treatment indicator. However, no closed form expression exists to calculate power for generalized linear models with non-zero within-cluster correlation that are common in epidemiological and observational
Victor M. Gastañaga; Christine E. Mclaren; Ralph J. Delfino
In the Mexico City metropolitan area (MCMA), 70% of the water for 18 million inhabitants is derived from the Basin of Mexico regional aquifer. To provide an overview of the quality of the groundwater, a longitudinal study was conducted, in which 30 sites were randomly selected from 1,575 registered extraction wells. Samples were taken before and after chlorine disinfection during
Marisa Mazari-Hiriart; Yolanda Lopez-Vidal; Sergio Ponce-de-Leon; J. J. Calva; Francisco Rojo-Callejas; Gonzalo Castillo-Rojas
A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies was conducted to investigate stability and change in work values across the life span. Both rank-order stability and mean-level change were investigated using an integrative classification for intrinsic, extrinsic, social and status work values (Ross, Schwartz, & Surkis, 1999). Results of rank-order…
Jin, Jing; Rounds, James
In this paper we present results from a 10-year (1997-2006) longitudinal study in which we, by interviews once or twice every year, followed how students, throughout the compulsory school, developed their understanding of three situations in which transformations of matter occur. We believe that students have to meet scientific ideas early in…
Lofgren, Lena; Hellden, Gustav
The prevalence of contraception and pregnancy outcome in the same women, at 19, 24, and 29 years of age, was assessed in a longitudinal cohort study using a postal questionnaire technique. A one-in-four random sample of all women born in 1962 and resident in the city of Göteborg in 1981, was obtained from the population register (n = 656). Respondents
Gerd Larsson; Febe Blohm; Gunilla Sundell; Björn Andersch; Ian Milsom
The school classroom and playground provide an important context for learning about young children's social interactions. A multimethod, multiinformant, short-term longitudinal study was conducted to investigate the utility of including school-based observational assessments of both form (i.e., physical and relational) and function (i.e.,…
Ostrov, Jamie M.; Crick, Nicki R.
This paper investigates the growth of early adolescent self-esteem and self-concept as students progress through the middle level years (sixth through eighth grade). Based on mixed method longitudinal research conducted from 2004 to 2007, the study's findings suggest that this sample of 104 urban students' self-esteem changed most significantly…
Booth, Margaret Zoller; Curran, Erin
This longitudinal study examined the relationship between kindergarten word writing and Grade 1 literacy in a large sample of Israeli children. Kindergarten writing significantly predicted variance in all three measures of Grade 1 literacy, even after controlling for intelligence. Also examined the role of alphabetic skills and socioliteracy…
Shatil, Evelyn; Share, David L.; Levin, Iris
Abstract Title: Music Therapist Robot for People Suffering from Dementia: Longitudinal Study Main literature shows that activities, such as music therapy, can help individuals with dementia and cognitive done in the area of therapeutic robots for individuals suffering from dementia and cognitive impairment
Mataric, Maja J.
This longitudinal study examines growth in teacher knowledge as measured by two popular assessments--Learning Mathematics for Teaching (LMT) and Diagnostic Teacher Assessments in Mathematics and Science (DTAMS). Using data collected from 24 teachers, we compare the extent to which each assessment captured teacher learning during a K-8 mathematics…
Copur-Gencturk, Yasemin; Lubienski, Sarah T.
This longitudinal and naturalistic study aims to describe basic aspects of early imitative exchanges in dyadic infant-grandfather and infant-grandmother free interactions, from the second to the 10th month of age. Sixteen infants were video-recorded at home in the course of spontaneous dyadic interactions with maternal grandfathers and…
Pratikaki, Anastasia; Germanakis, Ioannis; Kokkinaki, Theano
The study examines the effects of classroom achievement grouping (AG) practices on the early mathematics performance of language-minority students and compares their mathematics achievement to that of English-speaking majority students. Using a nationally representative database of the USA, both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were done.…
Chang, Mido; Singh, Kusum; Filer, Kimberly
Conflicting reports of language ability in Williams syndrome (WS) are confusing and may hinder accurate clinical decisions with respect to therapeutic services and educational placements for children with WS.This longitudinal case study examined the acquisition of regular and irregular past tense verbs in a child with WS. The development of…
Jacobson, Peggy F.; Cairns, Helen Smith
In the 1950s, Terman summarized the results of his longitudinal study of the gifted and compared the "life success" of the 150 most successful men (Group A) with the 150 least successful men (Group C) at the midpoint of their careers (age 30). The objective of this article is to replicate the original Terman work with a modern sample of the most…
Campbell, James Reed; Feng, Annie Xuemei
In the 1950s Terman summarized the results of his longitudinal study of the gifted and compared the "life success" of the 150 most successful men (Group A) with the 150 least successful men (Group C) at the midpoint of their careers (age 30). The objective of this article is to replicate the original Terman work with a modern sample of the most…
Campbell, James Reed; Feng, Annie Xuemei
Objective: To determine the types, prevalence and development of respiratory abnormalities in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc), and to correlate the results with clinical and serological findings. Methods: 176 patients with SSc observed longitudinally were retrospectively included in the study. The change per year of vital capacity (VC), forced expiratory volume in one second\\/vital capacity (FEV1\\/VC), diffusing capacity (DLco) and
S. Jacobsen; P. Halberg; S. Ullman; M. Høier-Madsen; J. Petersen; J. Mortensen; A. Wiik
High levels of exposure to carbon black have been linked with an increased prevalence of chest radiograph abnormalities. However, it is unclear to what extent current levels of exposure in the carbon black manufacturing industry are associated with new cases of and progression in small opacities. Longitudinal analyses were carried out on data from workers in the European carbon black manufacturing industry who provided three full-size chest radiographs sequentially between 1987-1995. All chest radiographs were independently read by three experienced readers according to the International Labour Organisation (ILO) classification. After exclusion of participants with previous lung diseases or injuries, females, unreadable chest radiographs and from factories with a low participation rate, data from 675 workers were available for the longitudinal analyses. An association was observed between cumulative carbon black exposure and new cases of chest radiograph abnormalities (ILO category > or = 1/0) and progression in small opacities. These associations were mainly related to changes in chest radiographs from workers at one factory. A large percentage of workers with chest radiograph abnormalities reversed to normal chest films; however, after adjusting for other factors, this was not associated with levels of exposure to carbon black dust. In conclusion, the results show that exposure to carbon black is associated with increased risk of chest radiographic abnormalities, which may be reversible after reduction or cessation of exposure. PMID:12212976
van Tongeren, M J A; Gardiner, K; Rossiter, C E; Beach, J; Harber, P; Harrington, M J
Numerical processing has been extensively studied by examining the performance on basic number processing tasks, such as number priming, number comparison, and number line estimation. These tasks assess the innate "number sense," which is assumed to be the breeding ground for later mathematics development. Indeed, several studies have associated…
Sasanguie, Delphine; Van den Bussche, Eva; Reynvoet, Bert
We report the results of latent growth model analyses examining the continuity of cocaine use among adolescents. This study examined a sample of 278 justice-involved juveniles completing at least one of three follow-up interviews as part of a National Institute on Drug Abuse funded study. Latent growth models were analyzed examining (1) changes in…
Dembo, Richard; Wareham, Jennifer; Schmeidler, James
Changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) level are implicated in the pathophysiology of cognitive decline in depression and neurodegenerative disorders in older adults. We aimed to evaluate the longitudinal association over two years between BDNF and persistent cognitive decline in individuals with remitted late-life depression and Mild Cognitive Impairment (LLD+MCI) compared to either individuals with remitted LLD and no cognitive decline (LLD+NCD) or never-depressed, cognitively normal, elderly control participants. We additionally evaluated the effect of double-blind, placebo-controlled donepezil treatment on BDNF levels in all of the remitted LLD participants (across the levels of cognitive function). We included 160 elderly participants in this study (72 LLD+NCD, 55 LLD+MCI and 33 never-depressed cognitively normal elderly participants). At the same visits, cognitive assessments were conducted and blood sampling to determine serum BDNF levels were collected at baseline assessment and after one and two years of follow-up. We utilized repeated measure, mixed effect models to assess: (1) the effects of diagnosis (LLD+MCI, LLD+NCD, and controls), time, and their interaction on BDNF levels; and (2) the effects of donepezil treatment (donepezil vs. placebo), time, baseline diagnosis (LLD+MCI vs. LLD+NCD), and interactions between these contrasts on BDNF levels. We found a significant effect of time on BDNF level (p=0.02) and a significant decline in BDNF levels over 2 years of follow-up in participants with LLD+MCI (p=0.004) and controls (p=0.04). We found no effect of donepezil treatment on BDNF level. The present results suggest that aging is an important factor related to decline in BDNF level. PMID:24290367
Diniz, Breno Satler; Reynolds, Charles F.; Begley, Amy; Dew, Mary Amanda; Anderson, Stewart J.; Lotrich, Francis; Erickson, Kirk I.; Lopez, Oscar; Aizenstein, Howard; Sibille, Etienne L.; Butters, Meryl A.
It is common in longitudinal studies for scheduled visits to be accompanied by as-needed visits due to medical events occurring between scheduled visits. If the timing of these as-needed visits is related to factors that are associated with the outcome but are not among the regression model covariates, naively including these as-needed visits in the model yields biased estimates. In this paper, the authors illustrate and discuss the key issues pertaining to inverse intensity rate ratio (IIRR)-weighted generalized estimating equations (GEE) methods in the context of a study of Kenyan mothers infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (1999–2005). The authors estimated prevalences and prevalence ratios for morbid conditions affecting the women during a 1-year postpartum follow-up period. Of the 484 women under study, 62% had at least 1 as-needed visit. Use of a standard GEE model including both scheduled and unscheduled visits predicted a pneumonia prevalence of 2.9% (95% confidence interval: 2.3%, 3.5%), while use of the IIRR-weighted GEE predicted a prevalence of 1.5% (95% confidence interval: 1.2%, 1.8%). The estimate obtained using the IIRR-weighted GEE approach was compatible with estimates derived using scheduled visits only. These results highlight the importance of properly accounting for informative follow-up in these studies. PMID:20007201
B?žková, Petra; Brown, Elizabeth R.; John-Stewart, Grace C.
AIMS The risk of adverse events due to chronic benzodiazepine use is high in the elderly. Clinicians need to be able to identify those persons who are at risk of chronic benzodiazepine use, but little is known about the determinants. This study determined social and health related factors that predict new-onset chronic benzodiazepine use in community-dwelling elderly. METHODS This study was embedded in an ongoing cohort study among 5364 persons aged ?57 years. Drug-dispensing medication records were available for the period between 1991 and 2003. We defined chronic benzodiazepine use as use during at least 180 days in a period of 365 consecutive days. The association of various social, psychiatric and somatic variables with new-onset chronic benzodiazepine use was studied with a Cox proportional hazards analysis. RESULTS Symptoms of depression, hypertension, pain related joint complaints and the perception of poor physical health predicted new-onset chronic use. In the subsample of participants who had filled at least one prescription in the follow-up period, of these variables only pain related joint complaints increased the risk of new-onset chronic use. Living alone protected against chronic benzodiazepine use. CONCLUSIONS The elderly with poor mental and physical health are at an increased risk of chronic benzodiazepine use. Living alone was found to decrease the risk of chronic use, which suggests that social factors may determine drug usage patterns. Very few characteristics predicted chronic benzodiazepine use once patients had received their first prescription. For clinicians, identification of patients at high risk is therefore not straightforward. WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT The risk of adverse events due to chronic benzodiazepine use is high in the elderly.Cross-sectional studies have shown that increasing age, female gender and poor physical and mental health are associated with benzodiazepine use.When users were re-examined some years later, chronic somatic disease, pain and stress seemed to contribute to the continuation of benzodiazepine use. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS This is the first longitudinal study that analyzed the determinants of new-onset chronic benzodiazepine use in community-dwelling elderly.Symptoms of depression, hypertension, pain related joint complaints and the perception of poor physical health predicted new-onset chronic use. Living alone was found to decrease the risk of chronic use. PMID:18093258
Luijendijk, Hendrika J; Tiemeier, Henning; Hofman, Albert; Heeringa, Jan; Stricker, Bruno H Ch
The doubly labeled water (DLW) method is considered the reference method for the measurement of energy expenditure under free-living conditions. However, the reproducibility of the DLW method in longitudinal studies is not well documented. This study was designed to evaluate the longitudinal reproducibility of the DLW method using 2 protocols developed and implemented in a multicenter clinical trial-the Comprehensive Assessment of Long-term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy (CALERIE). To document the longitudinal reproducibility of the DLW method, 2 protocols, 1 based on repeated analysis of dose dilutions over the course of the clinical trial (dose-dilution protocol) and 1 based on repeated but blinded analysis of randomly selected DLW studies (test-retest protocol), were carried out. The dose-dilution protocol showed that the theoretical fractional turnover rates for (2)H and (18)O and the difference between the 2 fractional turnover rates were reproducible to within 1% and 5%, respectively, over 4.5 y. The Bland-Altman pair-wise comparisons of the results generated from 50 test-retest DLW studies showed that the fractional turnover rates and isotope dilution spaces for (2)H and (18)O, and total energy expenditure, were highly reproducible over 2.4 y. Our results show that the DLW method is reproducible in longitudinal studies and confirm the validity of this method to measure energy expenditure, define energy intake prescriptions, and monitor adherence and body composition changes over the period of 2.5-4.4 y. The 2 protocols can be adopted by other laboratories to document the longitudinal reproducibility of their measurements to ensure the long-term outcomes of interest are meaningful biologically. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00427193. PMID:24523488
Wong, William W; Roberts, Susan B; Racette, Susan B; Das, Sai Krupa; Redman, Leanne M; Rochon, James; Bhapkar, Manjushri V; Clarke, Lucinda L; Kraus, William E
Very little is known of the longitudinal changes that occur in contact with children and participation in social activities during late-life widowhood. Using data on social networks and activities drawn from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing, trajectories of change in social engagement were modeled for 1,266 participants (mean age 76.7…
Isherwood, Linda M.; King, Debra S.; Luszcz, Mary A.
Objective: Using a longitudinal design, the authors of this study examined the relationship between externalizing problems and impulsivity in early childhood and symptoms of disordered eating in late adolescence. Method: Participants were urban, African American first-grade girls (N = 119) and their parents who were participating in a longitudinal…
Bodell, Lindsay P.; Joiner, Thomas E.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.
BackgroundIn 2011 the field of video game violence experienced serious reversals with repudiations of the current research by the US Supreme Court and the Australian Government as non-compelling and fundamentally flawed. Scholars too have been calling for higher quality research on this issue. The current study seeks to answer this call by providing longitudinal data on youth aggression and dating
Christopher J. Ferguson; Claudia San Miguel; Adolfo Garza; Jessica Jerabeck
Background The aim of the study was to describe families with small children who participated in parent-child interaction interventions at four centres in Sweden, and to examine long term and short term changes regarding the parents' experience of parental stress, parental attachment patterns, the parents' mental health and life satisfaction, the parents' social support and the children's problems. Methods In this longitudinal study a consecutive sample of 101 families (94 mothers and 54 fathers) with 118 children (median age 3 years) was assessed, using self-reports, at the outset of the treatment (T1), six months later (T2) and 18 months after the beginning of treatment (T3). Analysis of the observed differences was carried out using Wilcoxon's Signed-Rank test and Cohen's d. Results The results from commencement of treatment showed that the parents had considerable problems in all areas examined. At the outset of treatment (T1) the mothers showed a higher level of problem load than the fathers on almost all scales. In the families where the children's problems have also been measured (children from the age of four) it appeared that they had problems of a nature and degree otherwise found in psychiatric populations. We found a clear general trend towards a positive development from T1 to T2 and this development was also reinforced from T2 to T3. Aggression in the child was one of the most common causes for contact. There were few undesired or unplanned interruptions of the treatment, and the attrition from the study was low. Conclusion This study has shown that it is possible to reach mothers as well as fathers with parenting problems and to create an intervention program with very low dropout levels – which is of special importance for families with small children displaying aggressive behaviour. The parents taking part in this study showed clear improvement trends after six months and this development was reinforced a year later. This study suggests the necessity of clinical development and future research concerning the role of fathers in parent-child interaction interventions. PMID:19284556
Neander, Kerstin; Engström, Ingemar
With substantive evidence suggesting that adolescents' disclosure is likely a protective factor against problem behaviors, as well as evidence that many adolescents will go to great lengths to "avoid" sharing information with parents, one may conclude that parents' face a formidable task. Previous studies have identified parental acceptance as a…
Hare, Amanda L.; Marston, Emily G.; Allen, Joseph P.
The research studies features of self-regulation of schoolchildren in the age of eight to nine and 11 to 12 years. The sample consisting of 30 students (12 boys and 18 girls) has been divided into two groups--students with good and poor school progress. The school results are compared with the results of neuropsychological tests and the level of…
Sedova, Ekaterina; Goryacheva, Tatiana
A long-term study of the effects of school desegregation, based on the tracing of students initially involved in a 1966 desegregation plan, is reported on in this document. The students, who were from Hartford, Connecticut, and were nearly all Black, were traced from their first desegregation in elementary school until after high school…
Crain, Robert L.; And Others
This study examined whether divergent thinking test scores obtained from engineering students during college predicted creative work activities fifteen years later. Results showed that a subscore of the "Owens Creativity Test", which assesses divergent thinking about mechanical objects, correlated significantly with self-ratings of creative work…
Clapham, Maria M.; Cowdery, Edwina M.; King, Kelly E.; Montang, Melissa A.
A study was conducted to examine the predictive relationship between job values and early employment satisfaction and success as well as to provide information about the stability of job values over time. (Job values refer to generalized concepts of desirable future outcomes anticipated from jobs and describe qualities of satisfactions desired as…
Jepsen, David A.; Noeth, Richard J.
This study tracked the order in which ten beginning spellers (M age = 5 ; 05; SD = 0.21 years) mastered the correct spellings of common inflectional suffixes in English. Spellings from children's journals from kindergarten and grade 1 were coded. An inflectional suffix was judged to be mastered when children spelled it accurately in 90 percent of…
Turnbull, Kathryn; Deacon, S. Helene; Bird, Elizabeth Kay-Raining
We present a four-year follow-up study of JM, a developmental phonological dyslexic previously described by Snowling, Stackhouse, and Rack (1986). JM has made some progress in reading and spelling although these skills remain severely impaired. His reading and spelling skills are consistent with arrest in the logographic phase of literacy development as described by Frith (1985); reading errors are primarily
Maggie Snowling; Charles Hulme
There have been few studies on the long-term performance of university spin-offs (USOs). This paper builds on previous empirical research into the performance of USOs and on the resource- based model of USOs. Several research issues are addressed including, in particular, the long-term performance of Swedish USOs, the distribution of the main…
Lowegren, Marie; Bengtsson, Lars
of Plasmodium falciparum in isolates from travellers returning from West and Central Africa, 2000Â2011 Myriam in West and Central Africa. The aim of this study is to describe the changes in CQ susceptibility, Travellers, Chloroquine, Resistance, pfcrt76, In vitro, West Africa, Central Africa * Correspondence: m
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
Little is known about the evolutionary purchase behaviors of generational cohorts when it comes to online travel purchase behavior. In this study, change in online travel purchase behavior between early 2000 and late 2004 was examined to distinguish changes among generational cohorts. While significant increases in travel purchase behavior were found between the two time periods as a whole, baby
Srikanth Beldona; Khaldoon Nusair; Frederick Demicco
A cohort study was designed to explore over 200 primary schoolchildren's (ages 4-7) perspectives on smoking in the context of their own lives and subsequently, to assess any changes in these perspectives over time. Results showed that, in general, the children had a negative disposition about the habit, which did not dissipate over the 3-year…
Porcellato, Lorna; Dugdill, Lindsey; Springett, Jane
The present study examined the concurrent and prospective relation between a select number of potential predictors and symptoms of anxiety among a high-risk community sample of 149 predominately African American children. Parent and child reports of anxiety were assessed in the first and seventh grade. Six domains of childhood risk factors (i.e.,…
Grover, Rachel L.; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Ialongo, Nick
Moffitt, Caspi, Harrington, and Milne (2002) found in a follow-up study that many of the supposedly adolescence-limited offenders had committed offenses past adolescence. This finding raises the question of whether adulthood starts later or whether there are two distinct delinquency types, adolescence limited and adolescence onset, each with its…
Buck, Nicole; Verhulst, Frank; van Marle, Hjalmar; van der Ende, Jan
Findings on the relation of maternal verbal teaching strategies to children's effortful control (EC; i.e., self-regulation) are limited in quantity and somewhat inconsistent. In this study, children's EC was assessed at 18, 30, and 42 months (ns = 255, 229, and 209, respectively) with adults' reports and a behavioral measure. Mothers' verbal…
Eisenberg, Nancy; Vidmar, Masa; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Eggum, Natalie D.; Edwards, Alison; Gaertner, Bridget; Kupfer, Anne
The degree of invariance of the Job Responsibilities Scale for medical technologists was studied for 1993 and 1995, conducting factor analyses of data from each year (1063 and 665 individuals, respectively). Nearly identical factor patterns were found, and Rasch rating scale analyses found nearly identical pairs of item estimates. Implications are…
Ludlow, Larry H.; Lunz, Mary E.
Although previous studies have shown that parental separation and parental conflict contribute independently to the adaptation difficulties of young people, there is, as of yet, no precise portrait of how post-separation conflicts evolve. Indeed, some fundamental questions remain unanswered: (1) Do parents who experience few conflicts during their break-up continue to enjoy a harmonious relationship afterward? (2) When parents have
Sylvie Drapeau; Marie-Hélène Gagné; Marie-Christine Saint-Jacques; Rachel Lépine; Hans Ivers
Existing constructs for privacy concerns and behaviors do not adequately model deviations between user attitudes and behaviors. Although a number of studies have examined supposed deviations from rationality by online users, true explanations for these behaviors may lie in factors not previously addressed in privacy concern constructs. In particular, privacy attitudes and behavioral changes over time have not been examined
Andrew W. Boyd
This study examined young children's differential access to computers in school and home and the varying conditions that affect how children experience computers. The sample consists of 9,840 public school children who attended kindergarten and first grade. Lower and higher poverty schools are about equally likely to have computers available for…
Judge, Sharon; Puckett, Kathleen; Cabuk, Burcu
Because most studies of adolescent alcohol use have focused primarily on the frequency and quantity of consumption, we know little about how adolescent drinking patterns change during the high school years. The purpose of this article is to provide such data, as well as to identify some of the indiv...
X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) is a pivotal epigenetic mechanism involved in the dosage compensation of X-linked genes between males and females. In any given cell, the process of XCI in early female development is thought to be random across alleles and clonally maintained once established. Recent studies, however, suggest that XCI might not always be random and that skewed inactivation may
Chloe Chung Yi Wong; Avshalom Caspi; Benjamin Williams; Renate Houts; Ian W. Craig; Jonathan Mill; Catherine Suter
I describe three studies of materials with potential applications in computer hard drives: the aim of each study was to understand what microstructural features are required for further increases in recording storage density. In the first study, we used Lorentz Transmission Electron Microscopy (LTEM) to observe the magnetic structure of bits on real hard disks. We wanted to determine how the microstructure affects one's ability to store closely spaced, sharp magnetic-transitions. We used Fresnel-mode-LTEM to observe three disks, which had different hysteresis behaviors and microstructures. We also observed one of the disks using Fresnel-mode-LTEM, Foucault-mode-LTEM, and conventional-mode TEM. In so doing, we were able to observe the magnetic structure of the bits and the physical structure of the magnetic film from the same region of the disk. All of the images from both LTEM modes, however, were of low resolution, which we ascribe to a combination of the moderate Mrt of the disks and the limitations of the microscope. I also discuss the future of LTEM for studying low- Mrt disks. In the second study, we attempted to deposit Fe16N2, which has potential in the write head as a core material. We developed a technique to sputter deposit epitaxial (001) Fe-based compounds on(001) Si substrates using a Ag buffer layer. In our efforts, we grew the disordered parent phase to Fe16N2, alpha' nitrogen-martensite,