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The authors longitudinally investigated the causal nature of the relationship between union commitment and participation in informal union activities. A total of 134 members of the National Association of Letter Carriers were studied over a 10-year period. Using cross-lagged regression analysis, early union commitment was found to predict the level of informal union participation 10 years later. The reverse and
Clive J. Fullagar; Daniel G. Gallagher; Paul F. Clark; Anthony E. Carroll
Many young people in Sweden stop participating in club sports during their teens, but some continue. Drawing on a longitudinalstudy, the aim of this article is to highlight some of the characteristics of teenagers who continue with club sports and to discuss the relation between club-sport participation and social and cultural conditions, with…
Many young people in Sweden stop participating in club sports during their teens, but some continue. Drawing on a longitudinalstudy, the aim of this article is to highlight some of the characteristics of teenagers who continue with club sports and to discuss the relation between club-sport participation and social and cultural conditions, with the help of Bourdieu’s theoretical framework.
Britta Thedin Jakobsson; Suzanne Lundvall; Karin Redelius; Lars-Magnus Engström
|Many young people in Sweden stop participating in club sports during their teens, but some continue. Drawing on a longitudinalstudy, the aim of this article is to highlight some of the characteristics of teenagers who continue with club sports and to discuss the relation between club-sport participation and social and cultural conditions, with…
This study assessed whether participation in Swedish youth recreation centres (Fritidsgardar) is related to long-term criminality assessed from late childhood to mid adulthood. A prospective, longitudinal investigation of a representative cohort of 498 boys from a medium-sized Swedish community was employed. A pattern-analysis identi” ed ” ve configurations of boys who showed different profiles of social and academic competence at
Objective Research participants must have adequate consent-related abilities to provide informed consent at the time of study enrollment. We sought to determine if research participants with schizophrenia maintain adequate consent-related abilities during a longitudinalstudy. If participants lose abilities during a trial they may not be able to judge and protect their interests. If reduced abilities are common or can be predicted, special protections can be targeted appropriately. Method We examined longitudinal consent-related abilities of participants in the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) schizophrenia study using the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool-Clinical Research (MacCAT-CR) at protocol-specified times over 18 months. Results Of 1,158 research participants in this analysis, most (n= 650, 56%) had a stable pattern of MacCAT-CR Understanding scores, 235 (20%) improved substantially with no evidence of decline, 273 (24%) had at least one assessment with substantial worsening. During the course of the trial, 43 (4%) fell below the initial threshold for adequate capacity, which was predicted by lower Understanding scores, more severe positive symptoms, and poorer neurocognitive functioning at baseline, and by increases in negative symptoms and deteriorating global status. Conclusions Most participants in this long-term study had stable or improved consent-related abilities, but almost one-fourth experienced substantial worsening and 4% of participants fell below the study’s capacity threshold for enrollment. Clinical investigators should monitor with special care individuals with marginal capacity or higher levels of psychotic symptoms at study entry and those who exhibit clinical worsening during a study.
Stroup, T. Scott; Appelbaum, Paul S.; Gu, Hongbin; Hays, Spencer; Swartz, Marvin S.; Keefe, Richard S.E.; Kim, Scott; Manschreck, Theo; Boshes, Roger; McEvoy, Joseph P.; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.
Background We present concept, study protocol and selected baseline data of the Longitudinal Urban Cohort Ageing Study (LUCAS) in Germany. LUCAS is a long-running cohort study of community-dwelling seniors complemented by specific studies of geriatric patients or diseases. Aims were to (1) Describe individual ageing trajectories in a metropolitan setting, documenting changes in functional status, the onset of frailty, disability and need of care; (2) Find determinants of healthy ageing; (3) Assess long-term effects of specific health promotion interventions; (4) Produce results for health care planning for fit, pre-frail, frail and disabled elderly persons; (5) Set up a framework for embedded studies to investigate various hypotheses in specific subgroups of elderly. Methods/Design In 2000, twenty-one general practitioners (GPs) were recruited in the Hamburg metropolitan area; they generated lists of all their patients 60?years and older. Persons not terminally ill, without daily need of assistance or professional care were eligible. Of these, n?=?3,326 (48?%) agreed to participate and completed a small (baseline) and an extensive health questionnaire (wave 1). In 2007/2008, a re-recruitment took place including 2,012 participants: 743 men, 1,269 women (647 deaths, 197 losses, 470 declined further participation). In 2009/2010 n?=?1,627 returned the questionnaire (90 deaths, 47 losses, 248 declined further participation) resulting in a good participation rate over ten years with limited and quantified dropouts. Presently, follow-up data from 2007/2008 (wave 2) and 2009/2010 (wave 3) are available. Data wave 4 is due in 2011/2012, and the project will be continued until 2013. Information on survival and need of nursing care was collected continuously and cross-checked against official records. We used Fisher’s exact test and t-tests. The study served repeatedly to evaluate health promotion interventions and concepts. Discussion LUCAS shows that a cohort study of older persons is feasible and can maintain a good participation rate over ten years, even when extensive self-reported health data are collected repeatedly through self-filled questionnaires. Evidently individual health developments of elderly persons can be tracked quantifying simultaneously behaviour, co-morbidity, functional competence and their changes. In future, we expect to generate results of significance about the five study aims listed above.
This study was designed to identify variables that predict participation in study abroad programs. A total of 179 undergraduates were followed through their 4-year college career. At year one, students completed a survey packet that included measures of study abroad expectations, ethnocentrism, prejudice, intercultural communication apprehension, language interest and competence, intolerance of ambiguity, and academic and demographic variables. During the
The purpose of this longitudinal case study is to describe the educational trajectories of a sample of 152 young women from urban, low-income, single-parent families who participated in the Women in Natural Sciences (WINS) program during high school. Utilizing data drawn from program records, surveys, and interviews, this study also attempts to…
The effects of participation in school-to-career (STC) on subsequent educational and career opportunities were examined in a longitudinalstudy of 1999 and 2000 graduates of the Lansing Area Manufacturing Partnership (LAMP), which is an STC program sponsored by the United Auto Workers, General Motors Corporation, and Michigan's Ingham County…
Aim: The purpose of this study was (1) to examine the changes in participation rates over 1 year among children and adolescents after acquired brain injury and (2) to explore the effect of child and family factors on these changes. Method: The participation levels of 136 children and young people (88 males; 48 females; age range 4y 11mo-17y 6mo;…
Anaby, Dana; Law, Mary; Hanna, Steven; DeMatteo, Carol
|It has been argued that high school sports participation increases motivation and teaches teamwork and self-discipline. While several studies have shown that students who participate in athletic activities perform better in school than those who do not, it is not clear whether this association is a result of positive academic spillovers, or due…
|Aim: The purpose of this study was (1) to examine the changes in participation rates over 1 year among children and adolescents after acquired brain injury and (2) to explore the effect of child and family factors on these changes. Method: The participation levels of 136 children and young people (88 males; 48 females; age range 4y 11mo-17y 6mo;…
Anaby, Dana; Law, Mary; Hanna, Steven; DeMatteo, Carol
Objectives: This article uses data from MIDUS (Midlife in the United States), a national study of Americans (N = 7,108), to investigate factors that predict longitudinal retention. With its extensive age range (25-75 at Time 1) and long-term design (9- to 10-year survey interval), MIDUS is useful for investigating common sociodemographic and health predictors of continuing participation. Method: The authors
New members of a union (N = 305) Swere surveyed twice over a 1-year period to assess the effects of institutional and individual socialization practices on union commitment and participation. Whereas individual socialization practices were found to impact on both affective and behavioral involvement in the union, institutional socialization practices were shown to be ineffective at best and counterproductive at
Clive J. A. Fullagar; Daniel G. Gallagher; Michael E. Gordon; Paul F. Clark
Background Children and adults with impairments such as cerebral palsy have lower participation in life situations than able-bodied people. Less is known about their subjective perception of their lives, called their quality of life. During adolescence, rapid physical and psychological changes occur; although these may be more difficult for disabled than for able-bodied adolescents, little research has examined the lives of disabled adolescents. In 2003-4 a European Union funded project, SPARCLE, visited 818 children aged 8-12 years with cerebral palsy, sampled from population-based registers in nine European regions. The quality of life reported by these disabled children was similar to that of the general population but their participation was lower; levels of participation varied between countries even for children with similar severity of cerebral palsy. We are currently following up these children, now aged 13-17 years, to identify (i) to what extent contemporaneous factors (pain, impairment, psychological health and parental stress) predict their participation and quality of life, (ii) what factors modify how participation and quality of life at age 8-12 years are associated with participation and quality of life in adolescence, and (iii) whether differences between European countries in participation and quality of life can be explained by variations in environmental factors. Methods/Design Trained researchers will visit families to administer questionnaires to capture the adolescents' type and severity of impairment, socio-demographic characteristics, participation, quality of life, psychological health, pain, environmental access and parental stress. We will use multivariable models (linear, logistic or ordinal) to assess how adolescent participation, quality of life, psychological health, pain, environmental access and parental stress, vary with impairment and socio-demographic characteristics and, where possible, how these outcomes compare with general population data. For participation and quality of life, longitudinal analyses will assess to what extent these are predicted by corresponding levels in childhood and what factors modify this relationship. Structural equation modelling will be used to identify indirect relationships mediated by other factors.
BACKGROUND: The determinants of participation in long-term follow-up studies of disasters have rarely been delineated. Even less is known from studies of events that occurred in eastern Europe. We examined the factors associated with participation in a longitudinal two-stage study conducted in Kyiv following the 1986 Chornobyl nuclear power plant accident. METHODS: Six hundred child-mother dyads (300 evacuees and 300
Lin T Guey; Evelyn J Bromet; Semyon F Gluzman; Victoria Zakhozha; Vlodomyr Paniotto
\\u000a Longitudinal-experimental studies are follow-up surveys that include an experimental intervention. The main advantage of these\\u000a surveys is that it is possible to study both the natural history of development and the impact of interventions in one research\\u000a project. This chapter focusses on large-scale community surveys with repeated personal interviews with participants spanning\\u000a at least 5 years. It reviews the advantages
David P. Farrington; Rolf Loeber; Brandon C. Welsh
Understanding what motivates participation is a central theme in the research on open source software (OSS) development. Our study contributes by revealing how the different motivations of OSS developers are interrelated, how these motivations influence participation leading to performance, and how past performance influences subsequent motivations. Drawing on theories of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, we develop a theoretical model relating
Jeffrey A. Roberts; Il-Horn Hann; Sandra A. Slaughter
The purpose of this study is to describe the educational trajectories of a sample of young women from urban, low-income, single-parent families who participated in the Women in Natural Sciences (WINS) program during their ninth and\\/or tenth grade years of high school. This study also attempts to determine how the WINS program affected the participants' educational and career choices in
BACKGROUND: Children and adults with impairments such as cerebral palsy have lower participation in life situations than able-bodied people. Less is known about their subjective perception of their lives, called their quality of life. During adolescence, rapid physical and psychological changes occur; although these may be more difficult for disabled than for able-bodied adolescents, little research has examined the lives
|This article uses data from longitudinal, ethnographic research to examine how, six years after attending literacy classes, 12 adults in rural El Salvador used literacy, their perceptions of the temporary and longer-term psychosocial and economic benefits of literacy education, and their memories of literacy classes. The findings support prior…
|Although time and resource intensive, longitudinalstudies offer the ability to examine the direction and magnitude of causal relationships that cannot be accomplished through cross-sectional design. (Contains 1 figure.)|
The Wisconsin LongitudinalStudy (WLS) is a long-term study of a random sample of 10,317 men and women who graduated from Wisconsin high schools in 1957. The WLS provides an opportunity to study of the life course, intergenerational transfers and relationships, family functioning...
Purpose The purpose of the current study was to identify and describe strategies available to optimize retention of a high-risk research cohort and assist in the recovery of studyparticipants following participant dropout. Design and Methods The Maternal Lifestyle Study (MLS), which investigated the effects of prenatal substance exposure (cocaine or opiates) on child outcome, is a prospective longitudinal follow-up study that extended from birth through 15 years of age. Retention strategies to maximize participation and factors that might negatively impact compliance were examined over the course of five follow-up phases. Findings At the conclusion of the 15-year visits, MLS had successfully maintained compliance at 76%. Retention rates did not differ by exposure group. Conclusions Maintaining ongoing participation of enrolled study subjects is a critical element of any successful longitudinalstudy. Strategies that can be used to reengage and maintain participants in longitudinal research include persistence, flexibility with scheduling, home visits, long-distance trips, increased incentives, and development of a computerized tracking system. Establishing rapport with families and ensuring confidentiality contributed to overall participant retention. The use of multiple tracking techniques is essential. Clinical Relevance Researchers are challenged to maintain participants in longitudinalstudies to ensure the integrity of their research.
Graziotti, Ann L.; Hammond, Jane; Messinger, Daniel S.; Bann, Carla M.; Miller-Loncar, Cynthia; Twomey, Jean E.; Bursi, Charlotte; Woldt, Eunice; Nelson, Jay Ann; Fleischmann, Debra; Alexander, Barbara
|This study examined the relationship between participation in organized youth sport and attitude to physical education (PE) during adolescence and physical activity in young adulthood. The sample comprised 630 participants who completed questionnaires over a 10-year period. Analysis of variance and regression were used to examine the relationship…
A longitudinalstudy followed up participants of three Florida Adult Migrant Projects in order to examine project success in converting unemployable migrant and seasonal farmworker clients of Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA), Title IV-A, Section 402, into independent wage earners and to determine the extent to which employment was consistent to…
Objectives. We estimated the prevalence and longitudinal correlates of use of com- plementary and alternative medicine (CAM) at midlife among participants of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Methods. Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between baseline survey-reported symptoms and use of herbal, spiritual, and physical manipu- lation therapies 1 year later. Results. Almost
Yali A. Bair; Ellen B. Gold; Gail A. Greendale; Barbara Sternfeld; Shelley R. Adler; Rahman Azari; Martha Harkey
|This study shows the results of a two-year longitudinalstudy where the same participants were followed for two consecutive years as they enter secondary school (aged 12-14 years). The main issue was to investigate the development of both the quantity and the quality of metacognitive skills. Another issue was to establish whether the development…
|Factors influencing 834 Swedish men to participate in organized adult education programs on a life-long basis were studied. Indicators of social origins, cognitive ability, formal youth education, occupational status, job satisfaction, and attitudes toward education collectively explained little of the variation in participation. Factors possibly…
Background SPARCLE is a study across nine European regions which examines the predictors of participation and quality of life of children with cerebral palsy. Children and their families were initially interviewed in 2004/2005 when the children were aged 8–12 years (SPARCLE1); they were approached again in 2009/2010 at age 13–17 years (SPARCLE2). The objective of this report is to assess potential for bias due to family non-response in SPARCLE2. Logistic regression was used to assess whether socio-demographic factors, parental stress and child impairment were related to non-response, both overall and by category (failure to trace families, death of child, traced families declining to participate). Results Of the 818 families who participated in SPARCLE1, 224/818 (27%) did not participate in SPARCLE2. 51/818 (6%) were not traced. Among the 767 traced families, 32/767 (4%) children with cerebral palsy had died, seven children had been incorrectly diagnosed as having cerebral palsy, thirteen families had moved out of the region and one family had language problems. Of the remaining 714 families, 120/714 (17%) declined to participate. Drop-out between SPARCLE1 and SPARCLE2 varied significantly between regions; families were more difficult to trace and more likely to decline to participate if the parents’ educational qualifications, as recorded in SPARCLE1, were lower; they were also more likely to decline to participate if SPARCLE1 recorded that they were more stressed or if they had not completed a SPARCLE1 stress questionnaire. Conclusions To reduce the risk of bias, all SPARCLE2 analyses should allow for factors (region and walking ability) which determined the sampling strategy, either by adjusting for these factors or by using sampling weights. Further analyses should be performed, adjusting for additional factors that were associated with non-response: parents' educational qualifications, family structure and parental stress. To allow for differential non-response in studies which sample from population registers, such registers should routinely record socio-demographic information.
The purpose of this study was to see whether menarcheal age assessment by means of the most frequently used methods that were conducted every time on the same group of girls would yield the same results. One hundred and one Polish girls, whose ages at menarche were recorded in a longitudinalstudy between 1976 and 1990, were asked to recall the age of menarche in 2004. The mean menarcheal ages of those women were calculated by means of the probit (PA), prospective (AA), retrospective method without age correction (RA), and retrospective method with the recall age corrected by 0.5 year (RcA). The PA, AA, and retrospective methods: RA and RcA revealed results: 13.14 +/- 1.1; 13.10 +/- 1.1; 13.12 +/- 1.36, and 14.39 +/- 1.34 years, respectively. The menarcheal AA was insignificantly different from the PA (95% CI) and RA. The RcA was significantly higher than the AA and RA (P = 0.05). The correlation coefficient (r) between AA and RA was 0.70. Only 16% of the interviewed women accurately remembered the date of their menarche, 63% of them missed their menarche time by about 1 year, whereas 22% were wrong by 2 and more years. (1) The PA and the AA method yield comparable results when estimating menarcheal age. (2) The menarcheal age determined by the retrospective methods is not very reliable and the application of age correction overestimates the results. PMID:18161039
Accurate exposure classification tools are required to link exposure with health effects in epidemiological studies. Exposure classification for occupational studies is relatively easy compared to predicting residential childhood exposures. Recent NHEXAS (Maryland) study articl...
|We explored the extent to which intensity and breadth of participation in an after-school program (ASP) predicted academic achievement, as measured by changes in grades and attendance. The sample comprised 719 2nd-grade through 8th-grade Boys and Girls Clubs of Greater Dallas members during the 2009-2010 academic year. With respect to intensity,…
This research addresses the issue of linking baseline and followup surveys in longitudinalstudies. In the past, Social Security Number (SSN) was commonly used as a matching variable between survey waves, but reluctance to provide this information reduced matches. Optical scanning errors can also produce mismatches between otherwise matching surveys. Two matching methods were developed for a smoking survey that
Cynthia B. Augustine; Scott Ginder; Kristine L. Rae Olmsted
The LongitudinalStudy of Aging (LSOA) is a collaborative effort of the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) and the National Institute on Aging (NIA). The Supplement on Aging (SOA), conducted in conjunction with the 1984 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), served as...
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the long-term impact of a childhood motor skill intervention on adolescent motor skills and physical activity. METHODS: In 2006, we undertook a follow-up of motor skill proficiency (catch, kick, throw, vertical jump, side gallop) and physical activity in adolescents who had participated in a one-year primary school intervention Move It Groove
Lisa M Barnett; Eric van Beurden; Philip J Morgan; Lyndon O Brooks; Avigdor Zask; John R Beard
As part of this Laboratory's Longitudinal Health Study, the sera of 466 submariners were analyzed for 12 biochemical parameters using standardized automated procedures. In addition, a two hour glucose tolerance test was performed on each participant. Mean...
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing trend towards lower participation in questionnaire surveys. This reduces representativeness, increases costs and introduces particular challenges to longitudinal surveys, as researchers have to use complex statistical techniques which attempt to address attrition. This paper describes a trial of incentives to retain longitudinal survey cohorts from ages 16 to 20, to question them on the sensitive
Marion Henderson; Daniel Wight; Catherine Nixon; Graham Hart
Background: Obesity indices (i.e. BMI, waist-to-hip ratio) show differential relationships to other health outcomes, though their association to neurocognitive outcome is unclear. Methods: We examined whether central obesity would be more closely associated with cognitive function in 1,703 participants from the Baltimore LongitudinalStudy of Aging. Results: Longitudinal mixed-effects regression models showed multiple obesity indices were associated with poorer performance
John Gunstad; April Lhotsky; Carrington Rice Wendell; Luigi Ferrucci; Alan B. Zonderman
This longitudinalstudy examined the impact of participation in the federally funded Talent Search program at The University of Tennessee, Knoxville. The Talent Search program provides career exploration and counseling services to low-income students with the potential to be first-generation college graduates. Postsecondary education enrollment rates of 758 Talent Search participants were compared with enrollment rates of a control group
The purposes of the present study were to describe the longitudinal utilization rates of participation in early intervention services of children with developmental delays, and to examine the geographical difference of services in this vulnerable population. We analyzed service utilization of the developmentally delayed children based on data of…
|Using data from the five waves of the "Italian Longitudinal Household Survey," this paper examines the dynamics of Italian higher education in the twentieth century. The main goals are to study changes in participation in higher education (enrolment, transition, and graduation rates), in performance (drop out and delayed graduation rates, average…
|The purposes of the present study were to describe the longitudinal utilization rates of participation in early intervention services of children with developmental delays, and to examine the geographical difference of services in this vulnerable population. We analyzed service utilization of the developmentally delayed children based on data of…
NASA’s Planetary Science Summer School is a program designed to prepare the next generation of scientists and engineers to participate in future missions of solar system exploration. The opportunity is advertised to science and engineering post-doctoral and graduate students with a strong interest in careers in planetary exploration. Preference is given to U.S. citizens. The “school” consists of a one-week intensive team exercise learning the process of developing a robotic mission concept into reality through concurrent engineering, working with JPL’s Advanced Project Design Team (Team X). This program benefits the students by providing them with skills, knowledge and the experience of collaborating with a concept mission design. A longitudinalstudy was conducted to assess the impact of the program on the past participants of the program. Data collected included their current contact information, if they are currently part of the planetary exploration community, if participation in the program contributed to any career choices, if the program benefited their career paths, etc. Approximately 37% of 250 past participants responded to the online survey. Of these, 83% indicated that they are actively involved in planetary exploration or aerospace in general; 78% said they had been able to apply what they learned in the program to their current job or professional career; 100% said they would recommend this program to a colleague.
|Aiming to encourage longitudinalstudies in science education, we clarify conceptual and methodological aspects of longitudinal research. We use the studies that other articles in this issue describe to illustrate these aspects. The illustrations range from attempts to promote long-term change through experimental teaching to investigations that…
This study is the fifth assessment in an 18-year longitudinalstudy begun in 1986 to follow a group of Montessori students who attended the Franciscan Montessori Earth School in Portland, Oregon. Participating were 45 students with an average age of 18 years, about half of whom were in high school and half in college. Students completed an online…
This longitudinalstudy examined antecedents and consequences of psychological burnout among human service professionals. Antecedents of psychological burnout included individual and situational characteristics, work stressors, and measures of social support. Consequences of psychological burnout emphasized satisfaction and emotional and physical well-being variables. Participants in the study were 362 school-based educators (teachers and administrators) employed by the same school board. Respondents
BACKGROUND: It has been reported that lack of insight is significantly associated with cognitive disturbance in schizophrenia. This study examines the longitudinal relationships between insight dimensions and cognitive performance in psychosis. METHODS: Participants were 75 consecutively admitted inpatients with schizophrenia, affective disorder with psychotic symptoms or schizoaffective disorder. Assessments were conducted at two time points during the study: at the
Manuel J Cuesta; Victor Peralta; Amalia Zarzuela; Maria Zandio
The analysis of clustered data in a longitudinal ophthalmology study is complicated by correlations between repeatedly measured visual outcomes of paired eyes in a participant and missing observations due to the loss of follow-up. In the present article we consider hypothesis testing problems in an ophthalmology study, where eligible eyes are randomized to two treatments (when two eyes of a
To determine if differences in topographic progression between unaffected keratoconus relatives and normal controls can predict factors associated with the development of keratoconus in a longitudinalstudy. We recruited 369 unaffected keratoconus relatives and 119 normal controls in Los Angeles. Both eyes of subjects were examined at baseline clinically and by quantitative videokeratography and at a period ranging from 1 year to 8 years. Progression to keratoconus was evaluated by quantitative videokeratography variables. Unaffected relatives had higher Central K (CK), I-S and KISA values and were younger than normal controls (CK: 44.70 vs 44.01, P<0.01; I-S: 0.76 vs 0.58, P<0.01, KISA: 29.97 vs 23.89, P=0.02; age: 34.8 vs 41.0, P<0.01) at baseline. All three indices significantly increased with age, and CK and KISA values were associated with a positive family history for keratoconus (P<0.001 for CK and P=0.05 for KISA), however, the two groups were not statistically different in progression of keratoconus. After grouped unaffected relatives as the high risk (age<=30 or Central K>=47.2 or I-S >=1.2 or KISA>=60) and the low risk (age>30 and Central K<47.2 and I-S <1.2 and KISA<60), relatives in the high risk group had a greater increase in CK and I-S values than those in the low risk group (CK: p=0.009; I-S: p<0.001), which indicated that there were significantly different rates of progression between two groups. Unaffected relatives had higher videokeratography indices than normal controls, but overall they did not progress to keratoconus quicker than normal controls. However, relatives in a high risk group may have a greater risk of progression to keratoconus.
We investigate positive effects of volunteering on psychological well-being and self-reported health using all four waves of the Wisconsin LongitudinalStudy. Confirming previous research, volunteering was positively related to both outcome variables. Both consistency of volunteering over time and diversity of participation are significantly…
This longitudinalstudy assessed cognition in Williams syndrome (WS) over a 5 year period using the same test battery over the two occasions of testing. The aim was to explore whether absolute levels of ability and relative cognitive strengths and weaknesses remain consistent over time. 27 participants with WS were assessed using the Woodcock Johnson Test of Cognitive Ability –
This longitudinalstudy explores the relationship of post- GAYLE ROUX is an assistant professor in the Maternal Child partum depression (PPD) and marital dysfunction on Nursing Department of the School of Nursing at Virginia infant outcomes from birth to 2 1\\/2 years of age among Commonwealth University in Richmond, Virginia. She is middle-class, postpartum women. Participants were re- also a
Purpose: This study assessed self-reported pain in the oldest old and examined its changes over time and in relation to other measures of health and functioning. Design and Methods: A population-based sample of the oldest old (86-92 years of age) residing in Sweden who were participating in a multiwave longitudinal investigation were interviewed…
Zarit, Steven H.; Griffiths, Patricia C.; Berg, Stig
PURPOSE: The threat of smallpox resulting from bioterrorist action has prompted a reassessment of the level of immunity in current populations. METHODS: We have examined the magnitude and duration of antiviral antibody immunity conferred by smallpox vaccination in 246 participants of the Baltimore LongitudinalStudy of Aging. Of this population, 209 subjects were vaccinated one or more times 13 to
Dennis D. Taub; William B. Ershler; Mark Janowski; Andrew Artz; Denis Muller; Bernard Moss; Luigi Ferrucci; Patricia L. Duffey; Dan L. Longo
Examined, using a longitudinal methodology, (1) the development of prosocial moral judgment and (2) the relation between prosocial moral judgment and both prohibition-oriented moral judgment and maternal childrearing practices. Three samples were tested: 33 82–99 mo olds were interviewed 3 times; 16 49–67 mo olds were interviewed twice; and 30 2nd graders were interviewed once. From preschool to elementary school
Objectives. This study sought to estimate the impact on birthweight of maternal participation in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Methods. WIC estimates were based on sibling models incorporating data on children born between 1990 and 1996 to women taking part in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Results. Fixed-effects estimates indicated that prenatal WIC participation was associated with a 0.075 unit difference (95% confidence interval [CI] = –0.007, 0.157) in siblings' logged birthweight. At the 88-oz (2464-g) low-birthweight cutoff, this difference translated into an estimated impact of 6.6 oz (184.8 g). Conclusion. Earlier WIC impact estimates may have been biased by unmeasured characteristics affecting both program participation and birth outcomes. Our approach controlled for such biases and revealed a significant positive association between WIC participation and birthweight.
Participant retention is vital to the success of a longitudinal cohort study. Various approaches have been used for retaining participants in longitudinalstudies, including maintaining up-to-date contact information. Postcards are sent to Millennium Coho...
B. Smith C. A. LeardMann I. G. Jacobson K. E. Welch S. J. Speigle
We present a summary of results for a variety of studies of nonlinear longitudinal dynamics in the Advanced Light Source, an electron storage ring. These include observation of decoherence at injection, decay of an injected beam, forced synchrotron oscillations and diffusion from one bunch to the next. All of the measurements were made using a dual-scan streak camera which allowed the real-time observation of the longitudinal distribution of the electron beam.
Byrd, J.M.; Cheng, W.-H.; De Santis, S.; Li, D.; Stupakov, G.; Zimmermann, F.
Longitudinal inquiry has long been recognized as a uniquely powerful method for seeking understanding of psychological development. A 30-year longitudinal venture is described—its theoretical motivation, methodological rationale, and details of implementation. Some of the novel and implicative findings the study has generated are briefly described. Common to all of the results is an absolute reliance on long-term, widely ranging, independent
How does participation in a long-duration mass gathering (such as a pilgrimage event) impact well-being? There are good reasons to believe such collective events pose risks to health. There are risks associated with communicable diseases. Moreover, the physical conditions at such events (noise, crowding, harsh conditions) are often detrimental to well-being. Yet, at the same time, social psychological research suggests participation in group-related activities can impact well-being positively, and we therefore investigated if participating in a long-duration mass gathering can actually bring such benefits. In our research we studied one of the world's largest collective events – a demanding month-long Hindu religious festival in North India. Participants (comprising 416 pilgrims who attended the gathering for the whole month of its duration, and 127 controls who did not) completed measures of self-assessed well-being and symptoms of ill-health at two time points. The first was a month before the gathering commenced, the second was a month after it finished. We found that those participating in this collective event reported a longitudinal increase in well-being relative to those who did not participate. Our data therefore imply we should reconceptualise how mass gatherings impact individuals. Although such gatherings can entail significant health risks, the benefits for well-being also need recognition. Indeed, an exclusive focus on risk is misleading and limits our understanding of why such events may be so attractive. More importantly, as our research is longitudinal and includes a control group, our work adds robust evidence to the social psychological literature concerning the relationship between participation in social group activities and well-being.
Tewari, Shruti; Khan, Sammyh; Hopkins, Nick; Srinivasan, Narayanan; Reicher, Stephen
CONTEXT.There is controversy over whether childhood television viewing causes attention problems. The findings from cross-sectional and longitudinalstudies have been mixed. To our knowledge, no longitudinalstudies have assessed the impact of children's television viewing on attention problems in adolescence. The objective of this study was to assess this association. DESIGN, PARTICIPANTS, AND SETTING. Study members were a general population
Carl Erik Landhuis; Richie Poulton; David Welch; Robert John Hancox
Purpose The aims of the present study were to investigate (i) the changes in participation and performance and (ii) the gender difference in Triple Iron ultra-triathlon (11.4 km swimming, 540 km cycling and 126.6 km running) across years from 1988 to 2011. Methods For the cross-sectional data analysis, the association between with overall race times and split times was investigated using simple linear regression analyses and analysis of variance. For the longitudinal data analysis, the changes in race times for the five men and women with the highest number of participations were analysed using simple linear regression analyses. Results During the studied period, the number of finishers were 824 (71.4%) for men and 80 (78.4%) for women. Participation increased for men (r 2=0.27, P<0.01) while it remained stable for women (8%). Total race times were 2,146 ± 127.3 min for men and 2,615 ± 327.2 min for women (P<0.001). Total race time decreased for men (r 2=0.17; P=0.043), while it increased for women (r 2=0.49; P=0.001) across years. The gender difference in overall race time for winners increased from 10% in 1992 to 42% in 2011 (r 2=0.63; P<0.001). The longitudinal analysis of the five women and five men with the highest number of participations showed that performance decreased in one female (r 2=0.45; P=0.01). The four other women as well as all five men showed no change in overall race times across years. Conclusions Participation increased and performance improved for male Triple Iron ultra-triathletes while participation remained unchanged and performance decreased for females between 1988 and 2011. The reasons for the increase of the gap between female and male Triple Iron ultra-triathletes need further investigations.
Background Obesity indices (i.e. BMI, waist-to-hip ratio) show differential relationships to other health outcomes, though their association to neurocognitive outcome is unclear. Methods We examined whether central obesity would be more closely associated with cognitive function in 1,703 participants from the Baltimore LongitudinalStudy of Aging. Results Longitudinal mixed-effects regression models showed multiple obesity indices were associated with poorer performance in a variety of cognitive domains, including global screening measures, memory, and verbal fluency tasks. Obesity was associated with better performance on tests of attention and visuospatial ability. An obesity index by age interaction emerged in multiple domains, including memory and attention/executive function. Conclusion Obesity indices showed similar associations to cognitive function, and further work is needed to clarify the physiological mechanisms that link obesity to poor neurocognitive outcome.
Gunstad, John; Lhotsky, April; Wendell, Carrington Rice; Ferrucci, Luigi; Zonderman, Alan B.
Longitudinalstudies are often considered to be a gold standard for research, but the operational management of such studies is not often discussed in detail; this paper describes strategies used to track and maintain high levels of participation in a longitudinalstudy involving annual personal interviews with a cohort of 1,253 undergraduates (first-time, first-year students at time of enrollment) at a large public mid-Atlantic university. PMID:22247739
Vincent, Kathryn B; Kasperski, Sarah J; Caldeira, Kimberly M; Garnier-Dykstra, Laura M; Pinchevsky, Gillian M; O'Grady, Kevin E; Arria, Amelia M
This paper examines the change in young children’s understanding of ‘equal’, ‘more’, ‘less’, and ‘between’, words commonly\\u000a used in equivalent and non-equivalent situations, over a 3-year period. Seventy-six children participated in the longitudinal\\u000a study. Each year they were asked to share their understanding of these four words. Past research has indicated that many children\\u000a have limited understanding of ‘equal’ as
To understand the development of relational aggression during early childhood, 91 girls and boys (M age=39.0; SD=7.6 months) and their teachers participated in an 18-month longitudinalstudy. Children were observed for relational and physical aggression during free play in four time periods. Individually administered interviews were conducted to provide peer reports of relational and physical aggression. Teachers completed measures of
Nicki R. Crick; Jamie M. Ostrov; Jean E. Burr; Crystal Cullerton-Sen; Elizabeth Jansen-Yeh; Peter Ralston
The LongitudinalStudy of Aging (LSOA) is a collaborative project of the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) and the National Institute on Aging (NIA). The study is conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics, and the data are collecte...
We describe here the increased use of routine vital event and census records to construct national follow-up and longitudinalstudies. The strengths and weaknesses of these studies are discussed and examples given of their use in research into relationships between employment and mortality and socio-economic differences in mortality. PMID:2626588
|Background: Although the protective effects of familial and parental support have been studied extensively in the child psychopathology literature, few studies have explored the protective quality of positive sibling relationships. Methods: A two-wave longitudinal design was used to examine the protective effect of positive sibling relationships…
Knowledge on the development of burnout among dentists is important for purposes of prevention and intervention. Using a two-wave longitudinal design, this study examined the chronological sequence of the three dimensions of the Maslach Burnout Inventory: emotional exhaustion; depersonalization; and personal accomplishment. Structural Equation Modelling was employed among a representative sample of Dutch dentists to examine the fit of several
Hans Te Brake; Niels Smits; Jelte M. Wicherts; Ronald C. Gorter; Johan Hoogstraten
Training for distance running over a long period produces meaningful changes in the running mechanics of experienced runners, as revealed in this longitudinalstudy of the biomechanical components of stride length, stride rate, stride time, and support and nonsupport time. (MB)
This 147-item questionnaire was used to collect data on those Head Start and other preschool teachers who were teaching LongitudinalStudy target children. Areas of requested information included: demographic characteristics, education and experience, attitudes toward minority-groups and economically disadvanted children's motivation and learning…
This report profiles the family characteristics and the level of parental involvement reported by the parents of 1988 eighth graders. About 93 percent of the parents of the National Education LongitudinalStudy of 1988 (NELS:88) eighth grade participants ...
This study examines the impact of Child Protective Services (CPS) reports made by research study staff on participant retention and discusses human subjects protocols that may minimize either the need to make such reports or the negative impact of reporting on participants and on participant retention. Among 1, 354 primary caregiver-child pairs in the LongitudinalStudies of Child Abuse and
Elizabeth Dawes Knight; Jamie B. Smith; Howard Dubowitz; Alan J. Litrownik; Jonathan B. Kotch; Diana English; Mark D. Everson; Desmond K. Runyan
Faces change over time and this has been problematic for face biometric systems. Little research has been conducted in this area and this study reviews two face biometric systems, Neurotechnology's Verilook and Luxand's FaceSDK, and conducts experiments with the affects of aging in mind. Research was conducted on how anthropometrics is linked to facial biometric systems and the orbital areas
Faune Hughes; Daniel Lichter; Richard Oswald; Michael Whitfield
|This study extends previous understanding of the association between adolescent extracurricular activity participation and adjustment by asking whether participation in school-based extracurricular activities is associated with lower substance use and depression, higher grades and academic aspirations, and more positive attitude toward school. In…
The Bielefeld LongitudinalStudy of Adult Twins (BiLSAT) is a German longitudinalstudy of monozygotic and dizygotic twins reared together, including more than 1,100 twin pairs aged between 14 and 80 who participated in the first wave. Data were collected at five waves of assessment between 1993 and 2009. Initially, the study focused on genetic and environmental influences on the structure and the development in adult temperament and personality. Today, the study includes a broad range of individual variables, such as personality disorders, major life goals, interests, attitudes, values, life and work satisfaction, and major life events. A special feature of this genetically informative study lies in the multiple-rater approach (i.e., self-reports and peer reports). Longitudinal multiple-rater analyses allow researchers to go beyond the basic nature-nurture decomposition of variance in self-reports examining genetic and environmental influences on stability and change in more accurately measured individual attributes. In the current article, we briefly describe the design and contents of BiLSAT as well as some recent major findings and future plans. PMID:23046571
Kandler, Christian; Riemann, Rainer; Spinath, Frank M; Bleidorn, Wiebke; Thiel, Wolfgang; Angleitner, Alois
Argues that treatment of one investigative longitudinal topic from start to finish in a high school biology class can illustrate many major ideas and concepts. Discusses ways to use various longitudinalstudies of plant growth with General Biology classes. (WRM)
|Argues that treatment of one investigative longitudinal topic from start to finish in a high school biology class can illustrate many major ideas and concepts. Discusses ways to use various longitudinalstudies of plant growth with General Biology classes. (WRM)|
This longitudinalstudy assessed cognition in Williams syndrome (WS) over a 5 year period using the same test battery over the two occasions of testing. The aim was to explore whether absolute levels of ability and relative cognitive strengths and weaknesses remain consistent over time. 27 participants with WS were assessed using the Woodcock Johnson Test of Cognitive Ability--Revised (WJ-R COG, Woodcock & Johnson, 1989, 1990). Results suggested some developmental progress over time, but at a slower rate than typically developing peers. Cognitive strengths and weaknesses were consistent, at least on those abilities assessed using the WJ-R COG. PMID:21347924
We examine motivations for, and costs/benefits of, participation in three interviews across a one-year period among women recently exposed to intimate partner abuse (IPA). Recruited from publicly accessible police reports, women were not informed that the study focused on IPA in recruiting materials or when they scheduled the first interview. Women's ratings on the Response to Research Participation Questionnaire (RRPQ) indicated a positive benefit-to-cost ratio across all three interviews. Negative responses to participation as well as severity of IPA and PTSD symptoms did not predict retention at the next interview. These data demonstrate that studies asking about IPA experiences, even when survivors do not know in advance that IPA will be the focus of study, can be implemented within a stable benefit-to-cost ratio over time. PMID:22565584
Baseline, one-year and two-year follow-up interviews were obtained from 164 arrested youths processed at a juvenile assessment center in a prospective longitudinalstudy. A structural equation model that included cross-sectional and longitudinal associations among drug (alcohol and marijuana), drug sales and index offenses was supported by the…
|Baseline, one-year and two-year follow-up interviews were obtained from 164 arrested youths processed at a juvenile assessment center in a prospective longitudinalstudy. A structural equation model that included cross-sectional and longitudinal associations among drug (alcohol and marijuana), drug sales and index offenses was supported by the…
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In the first phase of the STATIS methodology the information is contained in a series of studies is first condensed into a symmetric matrix. Models based in the spectral analysis of their mean matrices were developped, see Areia et al. (2008). When their first engenvalue ? is dominant a further condensation of the information into a structure vector ??, with ? the eigenvector associated to ?, and a sum of square of residues is carried out. This enables the joint analysis of matched series of studies associated to the treatments of a base design. Then in the longitudinal analysis of such families of series we study the action of the factors in the base design (contrasts) taken for the components of the structure vectors. An application to elections in Portugal is presented.
Racial and ethnic minorities are significantly underrepresented in clinical research trials. Several socio-cultural and systemic barriers, ranging from discrimination by the health care system, medical mistrust, to low physician referral rates and lack of knowledge of research studies have been identified as impacting participation. One hundred and fifteen participants were culturally matched and were interviewed followed by up to an additional four interviews over a 12 month period. Responses were analyzed to understand the perceived benefits to participating in a prospective, randomized, longitudinal clinical research trial about screening colonoscopy. Over two-thirds (64.4%) of participants reported "knowledge, awareness, and/or information about colonoscopy and general health" as being the greatest benefit they received. Desire to undergo the screening and the pride of completing the study was ranked second and third, respectively. Understanding the reasons that participants choose to participate in research studies will ultimately assist researchers close the gap in minority representation, allowing for greater generalizability of research findings. PMID:21644025
The social news aggregator Digg allows users to submit and moderate stories by voting on (digging) them. As is true of most social sites, user participation on Digg is non-uniformly distributed, with few users contributing a disproportionate fraction of content. We studied user participation on Digg, to see whether it is motivated by competition, fueled by user ranking, or social
|This longitudinalstudy draws on data from a larger project and examines how students' perceptions of their opportunities to influence their study environment may be enacted in approaches aimed at influencing their studies, and whether this changes during the course of their studies. Ten students from a 4.5-year Master's program in Engineering…
To gain knowledge on psychosocial characteristics that predict the propensity of participation in longitudinalstudies, attrition was analysed in a cohort of 3020 adolescents participating in the baseline survey of a longitudinalstudy with repeated followup focusing on adolescents' tobacco use. During the followup surveys, the proportion of responders was constantly at or above 90%. There were 941 adolescents (31.2%) who failed to participate in at least one of the six followup surveys. Boys had a fifty percent increased risk of nonparticipation compared with girls. Adolescents in families with experience of divorce, unemployment, and change of residence had a higher risk of nonparticipation. An increasing number of stressful life events during the previous year, uptake of tobacco use, number of friends, perceived performance at school, truancy, and alcohol use during the last term also independently associated with nonparticipation. Diverse psychosocial characteristics are independently associated with nonparticipation of youths in longitudinalstudies.
Post, Ann; Gilljam, Hans; Bremberg, Sven; Galanti, Maria Rosaria
Background The Florey Adelaide Male Ageing Study (FAMAS) examines the reproductive, physical and psychological health, and health service utilisation of the ageing male in Australia. We describe the rationale for the study, the methods used participant response rates, representativeness and attrition to date. Methods FAMAS is a longitudinalstudy involving approximately 1200 randomly selected men, aged 35–80 years and living in the north – west regions of Adelaide. Respondents were excluded at screening if they were considered incapable of participating because of immobility, language, or an inability to undertake the study procedures. Following a telephone call to randomly selected households, eligible participants were invited to attend a baseline clinic measuring a variety of biomedical and socio-demographic factors. Beginning in 2002, these clinics are scheduled to reoccur every five years. Follow-up questionnaires are completed annually. Participants are also invited to participate in sub-studies with selected collaborators. Results Of those eligible to participate, 45.1% ultimately attended a clinic. Non-responders were more likely to live alone, be current smokers, have a higheevalence of self-reported diabetes and stroke, and lower levels of hypercholesterolemia. Comparisons with the Census 2001 data showed that participants matched the population for most key demographics, although younger groups and never married men were under-represented and elderly participants were over-represented. To date, there has been an annual loss to follow-up of just over 1%. Conclusion FAMAS allows a detailed investigation into the effects of bio-psychosocial and behavioural factors on the health and ageing of a largely representative group of Australian men.
Martin, Sean A; Haren, Matthew T; Middleton, Sue M; Wittert, Gary A
Typically, studies of cognitive advantages in bilinguals have been conducted previously by using executive and inhibitory tasks (e.g. Simon task) and applying cross-sectional designs. This studylongitudinally investigated bilingual advantages on episodic memory recall, verbal letter and categorical fluency during the trajectory of life. Monolingual and bilingual participants (n?=?178) between 35-70 years at baseline were drawn from the Betula Prospective Cohort Study of aging, memory, and health. Results showed that bilinguals outperformed monolinguals at the first testing session and across time both in episodic memory recall and in letter fluency. No interaction with age was found indicating that the rate of change across ages was similar for bilinguals and monolinguals. As predicted and in line with studies applying cross-sectional designs, no advantages associated with bilingualism were found in the categorical fluency task. The results are discussed in the light of successful aging. PMID:24023803
|Research on learning pattern development during pre-service teacher education is scarce. In a cross-sectional (study 1) and longitudinalstudy (study 2) the development of learning patterns of student teachers is analysed. Participants in study 1 were 646 first-year and 350 third-year student teachers enrolled in an initial pre-service teacher…
Background. The objective of this study was to determine the pattern of forearm bone loss and its relationship to markers of bone turnover and sex steroids in normal men. This was a longitudinalstudy over a median interval of 41 months. The study was conducted in Adelaide, Australia. Studyparticipants were 123 healthy male subjects, between the ages of 20
F. Scopacasa; J. M. Wishart; A. G. Need; M. Horowitz; H. A. Morris; B. E. C. Nordin
Background There is evidence that at least 5% of Multiple sclerosis (MS) cases manifest in childhood. Children with MS present with a demyelinating episode involving single or multiple symptoms prior to developing a second event (usually within two years) to then meet criteria for diagnosis. There is evidence from adult cohorts that the incidence and sex ratios of MS are changing and that children of immigrants have a higher risk for developing MS. A paediatric population should reflect the vanguard of such changes and may reflect trends yet to be observed in adult cohorts. Studying a paediatric population from the first demyelinating event will allow us to test these hypotheses, and may offer further valuable insights into the genetic and environmental interactions in the pathogenesis of MS. Methods/Design The Paediatric UK Demyelinating Disease LongitudinalStudy (PUDDLS) is a prospective longitudinal observational study which aims to determine the natural history, predictors and outcomes of childhood CNS inflammatory demyelinating diseases. PUDDLS will involve centres in the UK, and will establish a cohort of children affected with a first CNS inflammatory demyelinating event for long-term follow up by recruiting for approximately 5 years. PUDDLS will also establish a biological sample archive (CSF, serum, and DNA), allowing future hypothesis driven research. For example, the future discovery of a biomarker will allow validation within this dataset for the evaluation of novel biomarkers. Patients will also be requested to consent to be contacted in the future. A secondary aim is to collaborate internationally with the International Paediatric Multiple Sclerosis Study Group when future collaborative studies are proposed, whilst sharing a minimal anonymised dataset. PUDDLS is the second of two jointly funded studies. The first (UCID-SS) is an epidemiological surveillance study that already received ethical approvals, and started on the 1st September 2009. There is no direct patient involvement, and UCID-SS aims to determine the UK and Ireland incidence of CNS inflammatory demyelinating disorders in children under 16 years. Discussion A paediatric population should reflect the vanguard of MS epidemiological changes and may reflect trends yet to be observed in adult MS cohorts. The restricted window between clinical expression of disease and exposure to environmental factors in children offers a unique research opportunity. Studying a paediatric population from the first demyelinating event will allow us to investigate the changing epidemiology of MS, and may offer further valuable insights into the genetic and environmental interactions in the pathogenesis of MS.
Baseline, one-year and two-year follow-up interviews were obtained from 164 arrested youths processed at a juvenile assessment center in a prospective longitudinalstudy. A structural equation model that included cross-sectional and longitudinal associations among drug (alcohol and marijuana), drug sales and index offenses was supported by the data. Research, theoretical, and policy implications of the results are drawn.
Richard Dembo; Werner Wothke; William Seeberger; Marina Shemwell; Kimberly Pacheco; Matthew Rollie; James Schmeidler; Stephen Livingston; Amy Hartsfield
The North American Prodrome LongitudinalStudy (NAPLS) is a consortium of eight programs focusing on the psychosis prodrome. Funded by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), the sites are located at Emory University, Harvard University, University of Calgary, UCLA, UCSD, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, Yale University, and Zucker Hillside Hospital. Although the programs initially developed independently, they previously collaborated to combine their historical datasets and to produce a series of analyses on predictors of psychosis in one of the largest samples of longitudinally followed prodromal subjects worldwide. This led to the development of a five year prospective study "Predictors and Mechanisms of Conversion to Psychosis", (also known as NAPLS-2) with three major aims: (1) to prospectively test the prediction algorithm developed in NAPLS-1, (2) to investigate the neuroanatomical, neurophysiological, neurocognitive, and neurohormonal factors that may contribute to the development of psychosis, and (3) to develop a repository of DNA, RNA, and plasma from participants meeting diagnostic criteria for a clinical high risk (CHR) state and from demographically similar healthy subjects. Funded by NIMH in 2008, NAPLS-2 will generate the largest CHR for psychosis sample with 720 CHR and 240 healthy comparison subjects, and thus will provide statistical power and scientific scope that cannot be duplicated by any single site study. This paper describes the overall methodology of the NAPLS-2 project and reports on the ascertainment and demographics at the midway point of the study with (360 CHR) and 180 controls. PMID:23043872
Addington, Jean; Cadenhead, Kristin S; Cornblatt, Barbara A; Mathalon, Daniel H; McGlashan, Thomas H; Perkins, Diana O; Seidman, Larry J; Tsuang, Ming T; Walker, Elaine F; Woods, Scott W; Addington, Jack A; Cannon, Tyrone D
|Purpose: The major goal of this study was to specify the developmental trajectories for phonics and early text comprehension skills of children from kindergarten through third grade. Method: Data from the Early Childhood LongitudinalStudy (N = 12,261) were used in this study. The participants were divided into 3 school readiness groups based on…
The Young Hearts (YH) Project is an ongoing study of biological and behavioural risk factors for cardiovascular disease in a representative sample of young people from Northern Ireland, a region of high coronary mortality. This article describes the cross-sectional clinical, dietary and lifestyle data obtained from individuals (aged 20–25 y) who participated in phase 3 of the project (YH3). A
AM Gallagher; JM Savage; LJ Murray; G Davey Smith; PJ Robson; CE Neville; G Cran; JJ Strain; CA Boreham
|The National LongitudinalStudy of the High School Class of 1972 (NLS) is a federally supported longitudinalstudy of a national sample of some 23,000 young people first surveyed as high school seniors in the spring of 1972. The historical precedents of such a study include the work of Friend and Haggert in a Boston settlement house, Louis…
Many large scale longitudinal cohort studies have been carried out or are ongoing in different fields of science. Such studies need a careful planning to obtain the desired quality of results with the available resources. In the past, a number of researches have been performed on optimal designs for longitudinalstudies. However, there was no computer program yet available to
Fetene B. Tekle; Frans E. S. Tan; Martijn P. F. Berger
OBJECTIVE: To identify longitudinal variables related to children's body mass index (BMI) (kg\\/m2) at age 8 y.DESIGN: A longitudinal design, with nine interviews per child from ages 2 to 8 y.SUBJECTS:In all, 70 white children (37 males, 33 females) who were continuous participants since infancy in the longitudinalstudy. Families were primarily middle and upper socioeconomic status.MEASUREMENTS: At each interview,
J D Skinner; W Bounds; B R Carruth; M Morris; P Ziegler
|This study examined the longitudinal relationship of early elementary predictors to adolescent depression 7 years later. The sample consisted of 938 students who have been part of a larger longitudinalstudy that started in 1993. Data collected from parents, teachers, and youth self-reports on early risk factors when students were in 1st and 2nd…
Mazza, James J.; Abbott, Robert D.; Fleming, Charles B.; Harachi, Tracy W.; Cortes, Rebecca C.; Park, Jisuk; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Catalano, Richard F.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To study the longitudinal relationship of functional change in walking ability and change in time-dependent covariates and to develop a multivariate regression model to predict longitudinal change of walking ability. METHODS: A total of 101 acute stroke patients with first-ever ischemic middle cerebral artery strokes was used as the population. Prospective cohort study based on 18 repeated
B. Kollen; Port van de I; E. Lindeman; J. W. R. Twisk; G. Kwakkel
|This volume presents 16 papers describing recent longitudinalstudies of giftedness. Papers have the following titles and authors: (1) "LongitudinalStudy of Giftedness and Talent" (Rena F. Subotnik and Karen D. Arnold); (2) "The Illinois Valedictorian Project: Early Adult Careers of Academically Talented Male High School Students" (Karen D.…
In 1991, the Women in Engineering (WIE) Initiative at the Uni- versity of Washington was funded by the Alfred P. Sloan Founda- tion to conduct a longitudinalstudy of undergraduate women pur- suing degrees in science or engineering. Cohorts of approximately 100 students have been added to the study each year, for a current total of 672 participants. The objectives
Preschool children (N = 78) enrolled in multi-informant, multi-method longitudinalstudy were participants in a study designed to investigate the role of media exposure (i.e., violent and educational) on concurrent and future aggressive and prosocial behavior. Specifically, the amount of media exposure and the nature of the content was used to…
Ostrov, Jamie M.; Gentile, Douglas A.; Crick, Nicki R.
This study examined longitudinal associations between adolescents’ and their friend’s depressive symptoms and depressogenic attributional style. Participants included 398 adolescents in grades six through eight at the outset of the study. Adolescents completed peer nominations to identify reciprocated and unreciprocated best friendships as well as measures of depressive symptoms and depressogenic attributional style at an initial time point, and again
|Preschool children (N = 78) enrolled in multi-informant, multi-method longitudinalstudy were participants in a study designed to investigate the role of media exposure (i.e., violent and educational) on concurrent and future aggressive and prosocial behavior. Specifically, the amount of media exposure and the nature of the content was used to…
Ostrov, Jamie M.; Gentile, Douglas A.; Crick, Nicki R.
This study examined longitudinal associations between adolescents' and their friend's depressive symptoms and depressogenic attributional style. Participants included 398 adolescents in grades six through eight at the outset of the study. Adolescents completed peer nominations to identify reciprocated and unreciprocated best friendships as well as…
The aim of this longitudinalstudy was to identify the determinants of adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV patients over a period of 12 months. A total of 376 individuals living with HIV treated with ART participated in the study. Data were collected at baseline and at three, six, nine and 12 months. Variables assessed were adherence, attitude, outcome
G. Godin; J. Côté; H. Naccache; L. D. Lambert; S. Trottier
The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between childhood and adolescent physical and sexual abuse before the age of 18 and psychosocial functioning in mid-adolescence (age 15) and early adulthood (age 21) in a representative community sample of young adults. Subjects were 375 participants in an ongoing 17-year longitudinalstudy. At age 21, nearly 11% reported
Amy B. Silverman; Helen Z. Reinherz; Rose M. Giaconia
To examine the development of religious identity during the teenage years, adolescents (N = 477) from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds completed questionnaires in the 10th, 11th, and 12th grades (10th grade age: M = 15.81, SD = 0.36). Results indicated that religious identity remained stable across high school whereas religious…
Lopez, Anna B.; Huynh, Virginia W.; Fuligni, Andrew J.
This study examined the association of nurses' ethical conflict with hospitals with organizational commitment, stress, turnover intention, absence and turnover. Participants were 410 nurses working at four different Canadian hospitals. A longitudinal design was used where nurses completed a questionnaire to capture ethical conflict, stress and organizational commitment, and one year later, measures of turnover intention, absence and actual turnover were obtained for the same sample. We found three aspects of nurses' ethical conflict with hospitals: patient care values, value of nurses, and staffing policy values. Our findings showed that all three aspects of nurses' ethical conflict are associated with stress and patient care values is associated with actual turnover. We also found that staffing policy values is predictive of turnover intention, and that patient care values is predictive of absenteeism. Thus, our findings show the multidimensionality of nurses' ethical conflict with hospitals. Further implications of our findings for practice and theory are discussed. PMID:22619238
This study describes a longitudinal design (following subjects described in Rutherford & Rogers [2003, Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorder, 33, 289-302]) to test for predictors of pretend play competence in a group of children with autism. We tested the hypothesis that developmental change in pretend play performance can be predicted by earlier measures of either executive function, intersubjectivity, imitation, or general development. Participants at the time of follow-up testing were 28 children with autistic disorder (mean chronological age (CA) 57.6 months), 18 children with other developmental disorders (mean CA 59.0 months), and 27 typically developing children (mean CA 30.1 months). Children with autism were profoundly delayed given both competence (prompted) measures as well as performance (spontaneous) measures. Joint attention at time 1 strongly and uniquely predicted pretend play development. PMID:17146707
Background Ensuring the sexual and reproductive health of the population is essential for the wellbeing of a nation. At least three aspects of sexual and reproductive health are among the key policy issues for present Australian governments: maintaining and increasing the birth rate; reducing the abortion rate; and preventing and controlling Chlamydia infections. The overall aim of the Australian LongitudinalStudy of Health and Relationships is to document the natural history of the sexual and reproductive health of the Australian adult population. Methods/design A nationally representative sample of Australian adults 16–64 years of age was selected in a two-phase process in 2004–2005. Eligible households were identified through random digit dialling. We used separate sampling frames for men and women; where there was more than one eligible person in a household the participant was selected randomly. Participants completed a computer-assisted telephone interview that typically took approximately 25 minutes to complete. The response rate was 56%. A total of 8,656 people were interviewed, of whom 95% (8243) agreed to be contacted again 12 months later. Of those, approximately 82% have been re-contacted and re-interviewed in 2006–07 (Wave Two), with 99% of those agreeing to be contacted again for Wave Three. Discussion ALSHR represents a significant advance for research on the linked topics of sexual and reproductive health. Its strengths include the large sample size, the inclusion of men as well as women, and the wide age range of the participants.
Smith, Anthony MA; Pitts, Marian K; Shelley, Julia M; Richters, Juliet; Ferris, Jason
|This longitudinalstudy examines the impact of programs of study on high school academic and technical achievement. Two districts are participating in experimental and quasi-experimental strands of the study. This article describes the sample selection, baseline characteristics, study design, career and technical education and academic…
Castellano, Marisa; Sundell, Kirsten; Overman, Laura T.; Aliaga, Oscar A.
This study analyzes longitudinal data for a national sample of older middle-aged women in order to assess the health effects of three roles-labor force participant, spouse and arent. Women who held more roles had better health trends. The effect of each specific role varied, depending on race and the other roles a woman held. For example, our evidence indicates that
|This report presents data from a longitudinalstudy of women in intercollegiate sports, highlighting: participation opportunities for female athletes and the status of women as head coaches, assistant coaches, administrators, sports information directors, and athletic trainers. The average number of teams for women offered per school is at an…
The current study examined the association between membership in the sandwich generation, defined as providing care to both children and parents or in-laws, and five health behaviors: checking the food label for health value when buying foods, using a seat belt, choosing foods based on health value, exercising regularly, and cigarette smoking. Participants (N = 4943) were from a longitudinal
Laurie Chassin; Jon T. Macy; Dong-Chul Seo; Clark C. Presson; Steven J. Sherman
This report focuses on the initial design, implementation and baseline results of the five-year Longitudinal Educational Growth Study (LEGS) of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP) being conducted by the School Choice Demonstration Project (SCDP). The LEGS will be the first evaluation of the participant effects of the MPCP using…
Witte, John F.; Wolf, Patrick J.; Cowen, Joshua M.; Fleming, David J.; Lucas-McLean, Juanita
Background: Associations among cognitive development and intrapersonal and environmental characteristics were investigated for 89 longitudinalstudyparticipants with Down syndrome to understand developmental patterns associated with cognitive strengths and weaknesses. Materials and Methods: Subtest scores of the Stanford-Binet IV collected…
The Lansing Area Manufacturing Partnership (LAMP) is an academically rigorous, business/labor-driven school-to-career (STC) program in Lansing, Michigan, that includes business, union, school, and parent partners. The effects of participation in LAMP on transitions from school to higher education and work were examined in a longitudinalstudy of…
The present study examined the longitudinal links between perceptions of family connectedness and body satisfaction in 1,774 (52% female) adolescents. Participants (10-15 years of age at Time 1) completed self-report measures at three measurement occasions separated by 1 year each. Mean group difference results showed that both body satisfaction…
Crespo, Carla; Kielpikowski, Magdalena; Jose, Paul; Pryor, Jan
|This research consists of a longitudinalstudy of 12 female elementary preservice teachers' conceptual understanding over the course of several months. The context in which the participants received instruction was in an inquiry-based physics course, and the targeted science content was the cause of moon phases. Qualitative research methods,…
Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Atwood, Ronald K.; Christopher, John E.
Objectives. We examined whether healthy lifestyles are associated with ab- sence of depressed mood. Methods. A sample of 1169 adult participants in the Maastricht Aging Study pro- vided baseline and 6-year follow-up data on smoking, alcohol use, physical ex- ercise, body mass index, and mood. We examined associations between lifestyles and depressed mood using longitudinal analyses controlling for baseline de-
Gool van Coen H; Gertrudis I. J. M. Kempen; Hans Bosma; Boxtel van Martin P. J; Jelle Jolles
|This longitudinal case study examined the effectiveness of the CO-OP Upward Bound Program activities from 2003 through 2008 applying cultural and social capital theories. The program was evaluated in order to give a local perspective to program implementation and operations in a community-based setting. The participant researcher used mixed…
|Longitudinal trajectories for HIV risk were examined over 5 years following treatment among 1,393 patients who participated in the nationwide Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies. Both injection drug use and sexual risk behavior declined over time, with most of the decline occurring between intake and the first-year follow-up. However, results of…
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relative importance of perceived health and health related lifestyle in adolescence in the production of educational differences. DESIGN: A longitudinalstudy: survey data from 1981 and 1985 linked with Educational Registry data from 1993. SETTING: The whole of Finland. PARTICIPANTS: A representative sample of 4761, 16 and 18 year olds. The follow up rate was 82%.
The purpose of this longitudinal field study was to investigate the impact of transfer of training on job performance of supervisors. Secondarily, self-regulating abilities as a trainee characteristic was evaluated in relationship to transfer of training. Manufacturing supervisors (n = 35) participated in either treatment or control groups. Both groups were given the self-reporting Strategic Assessment of Readiness for Training
The social news aggregator Digg allows users to submit and moderate stories by voting on (digging) them. As is true of most social sites, user participation on Digg is non- uniformly distributed, with few users contributing a dispro- portionate fraction of content. We studied user participa- tion on Digg, to see whether it is motivated by competition, fueled by user
We review recent developments in longitudinalstudies of aging, focusing on the Wisconsin LongitudinalStudy (WLS) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). Both studies are part of a trend toward biosocial surveys in which biological measurement is joined with traditional survey techniques, and a related trend toward greater harmonization across studies. Both studies have collected DNA samples and are working toward genotyping that would allow broadly based association studies. Increased attention to psychological measurement of personality and of cognitive ability using adaptive testing structures has also been shared across the studies. The HRS has expanded its economic measurement to longitudinalstudies of consumption and to broader-based measurement of pension and Social Security wealth. It has added biomarkers of cardiovascular risk. The WLS has developed an integrated approach to the study of death and bereavement and an innovative use of high school yearbook photographs to capture information about health in early life of its participants. PMID:21302430
Background/Objective: This longitudinalstudy investigated changes in life satisfaction, general health, activities, and adjustment over 3 decades among individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Participants: The cohort of participants was identified from outpatient records of a large Midwestern United States university hospital. In 1973, 256 individuals completed an initial survey. There were 5 subsequent follow-up surveys, with the most recent being in 2002. Seventy-eight participants completed materials on all 6 occasions. Methods: The Life Situation Questionnaire was used to identify changes over the 30-year period in 6 areas of life satisfaction, self-rated adjustment (current and predicted), employment status, activities, and medical treatments. Analyses: These analyses used data from 3 points in time, separated by approximately 15-year intervals. One-way analysis of variance with repeated measures was used to identify changes in outcomes between 1973, 1988, and 2002 for all continuous variables. Results: We found a mixed pattern of changes over the 30 years, with increases noted during the first 15-year period in sitting tolerance, educational and employment outcomes, satisfaction with employment, and adjustment. Although these changes tended to remain stable during the last 15 years, subtle declines were suggested in some areas, with clear declines noted in terms of diminished sitting tolerance, an increase in the number of physician visits, and decreased satisfaction with social life and sex life. Conclusions: The results suggest that many positive changes occur within the first 2 decades after SCI, followed by a period of stability in some life areas, but decline with aging in some participation and health-related aspects of life.
The Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Keratoconus (CLEK) Study is a multi-center, observational study designed to describe the course of this chronic ocular disease and to describe the associations among its visual and physiological manifestations....
Objectives. This study sought to estimate the impact on birthweight of maternal par- ticipation in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Chil- dren (WIC). Methods. WIC estimates were based on sibling models incorporating data on children born between 1990 and 1996 to women taking part in the National Longitudinal Sur- vey of Youth. Results. Fixed-effects estimates indicated
Change in prosocial moral reasoning over an 11-year period, gender differences in prosocial reasoning in adolescence, and the interrelations of moral reasoning, prosocial behavior, and empathy-related emotional responses were examined with longitudinal data and data from adolescents interviewed for the first time. Hedonistic reasoning declined in use until adolescence and then increased somewhat (primarily for boys). Needs-oriented reasoning, direct reciprocity
Nancy Eisenberg; Paul A. Miller; Rita Shell; Sandra McNalley; Cindy Shea
|This 30-year longitudinalstudy examined pathways from problematic childhood behavior patterns to future disadvantaged conditions for family environment and child rearing in adulthood. Participants were mothers (n = 328) and fathers (n = 222) with lower income backgrounds participating in the ongoing Concordia Longitudinal Risk Project.…
Serbin, Lisa A.; Temcheff, Caroline E.; Cooperman, Jessica M.; Stack, Dale M.; Ledingham, Jane; Schwartzman, Alex E.
This 30-year longitudinalstudy examined pathways from problematic childhood behavior patterns to future disadvantaged conditions for family environment and child rearing in adulthood. Participants were mothers (n = 328) and fathers (n = 222) with lower income backgrounds participating in the ongoing Concordia Longitudinal Risk Project. Structural…
Serbin, Lisa A.; Temcheff, Caroline E.; Cooperman, Jessica M.; Stack, Dale M.; Ledingham, Jane; Schwartzman, Alex E.
|The college careers of students who had participated in the Advanced Placement Program (AP) in secondary school were studied, based on extensive information on 4,814 students who participated in the Personal Qualities Project, a longitudinalstudy in nine colleges and universities. The project included information on 1,115 AP and 3,699 non-AP…
OBJECTIVES To examine frailty transitions in Mexican American (MA) and European American (EA) older adults. DESIGN Longitudinal, observational cohort study. SETTING Socioeconomically diverse neighborhoods in San Antonio, Texas. PARTICIPANTS 312 MA and 285 EA community-dwelling older adults (65+) with frailty information at baseline (1992–96) and transition information at follow-up (2000–01) in the San Antonio LongitudinalStudy of Aging (SALSA). MEASUREMENTS Five frailty characteristics (weight loss, exhaustion, weakness, slowness, and low physical activity), frailty score (0–5), and overall frailty state (non-frail = 0 characteristics, pre-frail = 1 or 2, frail = 3+) were assessed at baseline. Transitions (progressed, regressed, or no change) were assessed for frailty score and state. Odds ratios (OR) of progression and regression in individual characteristics were estimated using generalized estimating equations, adjusting for age, sex, ethnic group, socioeconomic status, comorbidity, diabetes, and follow-up interval. RESULTS Diabetes with macrovascular complications (OR=1.84, 95%CI: 1.02–3.33), fewer years of education (OR=0.96, 95%CI: 0.93–1.0) and follow-up interval (OR=1.3, 95%CI: 1.17–1.46) were significant predictors of progression in any frailty characteristic. Mortality increased by frailty state, and pre-frail individuals were more likely than frail to regress. CONCLUSION Diabetes with macrovascular complications and fewer years of education are important predictors of progression in any frailty characteristic. Because of increased risk of death compared with the non-frail state and the increased likelihood of regression compared with the frail state, the pre-frail state may be an optimal target for intervention.
...Activities; Comment Request; Early Childhood LongitudinalStudy Kindergarten Class...records. Title of Collection: Early Childhood LongitudinalStudy Kindergarten Class...Hours: 52,702. Abstract: The Early Childhood LongitudinalStudy, Kindergarten...
Background and Purpose—To study the longitudinal relationship of functional change in walking ability and change in time-dependent covariates and to develop a multivariate regression model to predict longitudinal change of walking ability. Methods—A total of 101 acute stroke patients with first-ever ischemic middle cerebral artery strokes was used as the population. Prospective cohort study based on 18 repeated measurements over
Boudewijn Kollen; Ingrid van de Port; Eline Lindeman; Jos Twisk; Gert Kwakkel
This longitudinalstudy investigated the rates of iron-deficiency (ID) and iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) among prenatally cocaine-exposed and nonexposed two- and four-year-old children and assessed their relationships to neurodevelopmental outcomes. The sample consisted of 143 two-year-old (70 exposed and 73 nonexposed) and 274 four-year-old (139 exposed and 135 nonexposed) low socioeconomic status children recruited from an ongoing longitudinalstudy. Hematological assessments
SUCHITRA NELSON; EDITH LERNER; ROBERT NEEDLMAN; ANN SALVATOR; LYNN T. SINGER
Background Alpha-Mannosidosis is a rare lysosomal storage disorder, caused by the deficiency of the enzyme alpha-Mannosidase. Clinically it is characterized by hearing impairment, skeletal and neurological abnormalities and mental retardation. In order to characterize the clinical features and disease progression of patients affected by alpha-Mannosidosis, a survey study was conducted. 43 patients from 4 European countries participated in this longitudinalstudy. Age range of the participants was 3 to 42 years. For each patient a medical history, complete physical and neurological examination, joint range of motion and assessment of physical endurance and of lung function were completed. In addition, serum and urinary oligosaccharide levels were analysed. Methods In this multicenter longitudinalstudy clinical data of 43 alpha-Mannosidosis patients were collected. In addition to objective clinical measurements biochemical assays were performed. Results Data analysis revealed a wide spectrum of clinical presentation regarding the severity and disease progression. Most clinical abnormalities were observed in the musculoskeletal and neurological system. All patients showed mental retardation and hearing loss from early childhood. An impairment in physical endurance was revealed by the 6-minute walk and 3-minute stair stair climb tests. There was only slight progression of a few clinical findings: Psychiatric troubles in both groups essentially, and respiratory dysfunction under 18 years. The serum and urinary oligosaccharide levels were increased in all affected individuals and correlated well with the 6-minute walk and 3-minute stair climb test results. Conclusions This study confirms that alpha-Mannosidosis is a very heterogeneous disorder regarding both, disease severity and progression. As it has been shown that Mannosidosis patients are able to perform lung function tests and the 6MWT and stair-climb test, these clinical parameters apparently can be used as clinical endpoints for clinical trials. Oligosaccharide levels appeared correlated with functional testing and may serve as biomarkers of disease severity, progression and response to treatment. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier = NCT00498420 and EuropeanCommission FP VI contract LHSM-CT-2006-018692.
The purposes of this article are to (a) describe the design features of two longitudinalstudies, the Special Education Elementary LongitudinalStudy (SEELS) and the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) and (b) outline their potential implications for policy, practice, research, advocacy, and system development for children and youth…
Wagner, Mary; Kutash, Krista; Duchnowski, Albert J.; Epstein, Michael H.
This longitudinalstudy explores the relationship of postpartum depression (PPD) and marital dysfunction on infant outcomes from birth to 2 1/2 years of age among middle-class, postpartum women. Participants were recruited during the prenatal period. Twelve mothers completed the study throughout a 2 1/2-year period. Questionnaires, semistructured interviews, and observations were used to collect data. Content analysis of the interviews (Morse & Field, 1995) was conducted and thematic patterns were identified. Clinical PPD and marital dysfunction (defined as little or no support or closeness, or verbal, emotional or physical abuse) characterized nearly one in three mothers. Four themes describing the women's postpartum progression were identified: stress, isolation, resentment, and eventual adjustment by creating a new normal. No major developmental delays or behavioral problems were found among the infants. Eight of the 12 mothers who were initially identified as breastfeeding nursed their infants for 6–18 months. Regardless of financial and educational advantages, mothers in the study experienced depression and marital dysfunction. These findings support other studies that confirm the lack of association of PPD with social class or marital status. Childbirth educators and other health care professionals are encouraged to continue providing expectant families with anticipatory education and community resources in order to increase awareness of mental health and marital risks during the postpartum transition.
|This longitudinalstudy examined the rates of overweight, elevated blood pressure, acanthosis nigricans, and their associated factors in third through fifth grade students over 4 years. Participants consisted of 279 students who participated in health screenings in 2002 and 2006. Hispanic students had significantly higher rates of overweight and…
Objectives This study used longitudinal, narrative data to identify trajectories of recovery among homeless adults with mental illness alongside the factors that contribute to positive, negative, mixed or neutral trajectories over time. We expected that participants who received Housing First (HF) would describe more positive trajectories of recovery than those who were assigned to Treatment as Usual (TAU; no housing or support provided through the study). Design Narrative interview data were collected from participants at baseline and 18?months after random assignment to HF or TAU. Setting Participants were sampled from the community in Vancouver, British Columbia. Participants Fifty-four participants were randomly and purposively selected from the larger trial; 52 were interviewed at baseline and 43 were reinterviewed 18?months after randomisation. Method Semistructured interviews were conducted at both time points. For each participant, paired baseline and follow-up narratives were classified as positive, negative, mixed or neutral trajectories of recovery, and thematic analysis was used to identify the factors underlying different trajectories. Results Participants assigned to HF (n=28) were generally classified as positive or mixed trajectories; those assigned to TAU (n=15) were generally classified as neutral or negative trajectories. Positive trajectories were characterised by a range of benefits associated with good-quality, stable housing (eg, reduced substance use, greater social support), positive expressions of identity and the willingness to self-reflect. Negative, neutral and mixed trajectories were characterised by hopelessness (‘things will never get better’) related to continued hardship (eg, eviction, substance use problems), perceived failures and loss. Conclusions HF is associated with positive trajectories of recovery among homeless adults with mental illness. Those who did not receive housing or support continued to struggle across a wide range of life domains. Findings are discussed with implications for addressing services and broader social change in order to benefit this marginalised population.
Patterson, Michelle L; Rezansoff, Stefanie; Currie, Lauren; Somers, Julian M
Previous studies have suggested that adolescent mothers with higher social support have lower depressive symptoms. This is\\u000a a longitudinalstudy of adolescent mothers to examine the association of social support and depressive symptoms over one year\\u000a postpartum. This was a prospective study of adolescent mothers (N at baseline = 120, N at 1 year = 89; age < 19 years) enrolled\\u000a in a teen tot program. Participants completed
Joanna D. Brown; Sion Kim Harris; Elizabeth R. Woods; Matthew P. Buman; Joanne E. Cox
This study aimed to explore the relationship between pain mechanism, pain intensity, and leg ulcer characteristics using a 6-month longitudinal cohort study in a community setting in the north of England. Patients with leg ulceration referred consecutively to district nurses were invited to participate (n=96). The main outcome measures were pain intensity using daily visual analogue scores, leg ulcer characteristics (etiology, size, location, duration), and LANSS (Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs). Results suggested that type, duration, position, and size of the leg ulcer had no effect on average daily pain scores. Using the LANSS questionnaire, 43.5% of respondents reported symptoms suggestive of a neuropathic mechanism to their pain. Patients with neuropathic symptoms had higher average daily pain scores (p<0.001). Fewer people had healed ulcers at 6 months with neuropathic symptoms compared with those with no neuropathic symptoms (30.8 vs. 52.1%). It would seem that the severity of pain can not be predicted by the type, size, position, or duration of ulceration. Patients who scored positively for neuropathic symptoms had higher average daily pain scores and fewer had healed leg ulcers at 6 months compared with those who did not experience neuropathic signs and symptoms. PMID:17352749
Briggs, Michelle; Bennett, Michael I; Closs, S José; Cocks, Kim
In a follow-up study, patients are monitored over time. Longitudinal and time-to-event studies are the two most important types of a follow-up study. In this paper, the focus is on longitudinalstudies with a continuous response where patients are examined at several time points. While longitudinalstudies provide a powerful tool for the evaluation of a treatment effect over time, a major problem is missing data caused, for example, by patients who drop out from the study. Many longitudinalstudies in rheumatology use inappropriate statistical methodology because either they do not address correctly the correlated nature of the repeated measurements, or they treat the problem of missing data incorrectly. We will illustrate that there are interpretational and computational issues with the "classical" approaches. Further, we expand here on more appropriate statistical techniques to analyze longitudinalstudies. To this end, we focus on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and illustrate the approaches on data from a fictive randomized controlled trial in rheumatology. PMID:22891996
NASA's Planetary Science Summer School is a program designed to prepare the next generation of scientists and engineers to participate in future missions of solar system exploration. The opportunity is advertised to science and engineering post-doctoral and graduate students with a strong interest in careers in planetary exploration. Preference is given to U.S. citizens. The ``school'' consists of a one-week
Major sources of flavonoids were identified, and mean intakes over several decades were reported, among 1638 participants (mean age 62.1 +/? 16.0 y), of the Baltimore LongitudinalStudy of Aging (BLSA). Dietary data were collected using 7-day diet records during three time periods (1980s, 1990s and 2000-present), and the USDA flavonoid, proanthocyanidin and isoflavone databases were used to estimate dietary flavonoid intakes. Dietary intake data were divided according to decade of visit. Foods were matched with appropriate foods in the USDA databases. Mixed dishes were disaggregated to individual foods and a similar procedure was followed. Total flavonoids and five sub-classes of flavonoids, including flavonols, flavones, flavanones, flavan-3-ols and anthocyanidins, were computed by summing appropriate compounds. The median intakes of flavonoids and the contributions of various foods to intakes were calculated by decade. Age and sex adjusted mean (SE) daily intakes of flavonoids increased from 250 (7.4) in the 1980s to 280 (9.9) mg in the 2000s. Top contributors of flavonoids were tea, apple/pear (and juices), citrus fruits (and juices), peaches, plums, grapes, nectarines (and juices) and chocolate. The data show an increase in the consumption of flavonoids over the three decades, which appears to be related to intake of fruit.
Major sources of flavonoids were identified, and mean intakes over several decades were reported, among 1638 participants (mean age 62.1 +/- 16.0 y), of the Baltimore LongitudinalStudy of Aging (BLSA). Dietary data were collected using 7-day diet records during three time periods (1980s, 1990s and 2000-present), and the USDA flavonoid, proanthocyanidin and isoflavone databases were used to estimate dietary flavonoid intakes. Dietary intake data were divided according to decade of visit. Foods were matched with appropriate foods in the USDA databases. Mixed dishes were disaggregated to individual foods and a similar procedure was followed. Total flavonoids and five sub-classes of flavonoids, including flavonols, flavones, flavanones, flavan-3-ols and anthocyanidins, were computed by summing appropriate compounds. The median intakes of flavonoids and the contributions of various foods to intakes were calculated by decade. Age and sex adjusted mean (SE) daily intakes of flavonoids increased from 250 (7.4) in the 1980s to 280 (9.9) mg in the 2000s. Top contributors of flavonoids were tea, apple/pear (and juices), citrus fruits (and juices), peaches, plums, grapes, nectarines (and juices) and chocolate. The data show an increase in the consumption of flavonoids over the three decades, which appears to be related to intake of fruit. PMID:22228923
ObjectiveThe authors investigated the relationship of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its individual components with incident dementia in a prospective population-based study with a 3.5-year follow-up.MethodsA total of 2097 participants from a sample of 5632 subjects (65–84 years old) from the Italian LongitudinalStudy on Ageing were evaluated. MetS was defined according to the Third Adults Treatment Panel of the National
Vincenzo Solfrizzi; Emanuele Scafato; Cristiano Capurso; Alessia DIntrono; Anna Maria Colacicco; Vincenza Frisardi; Gianluigi Vendemiale; Marzia Baldereschi; Gaetano Crepaldi; Antonio Di Carlo; Lucia Galluzzo; Claudia Gandin; Domenico Inzitari; Stefania Maggi; Antonio Capurso; Francesco Panza
OBJECTIVE--To study the relation between birth weight and systolic blood pressure in infancy and early childhood. DESIGN--Longitudinalstudy of infants from birth to 4 years of age. SETTING--A middle class community in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS--476 Dutch infants born in 1980 to healthy women after uncomplicated pregnancies. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Systolic blood pressure and body weight measured at birth and at 3
Mothers' experiences in parenting children with disabilities were examined in this 3-year longitudinalstudy. Thirty-five mother-child pairs participated in the study. Mothers and their children representing one of three disability groups (Down syndrome, hearing impairment, and neurological impairment) were observed wher the children were toddler age, age 3, and age 4 years. Parental stress and adaptation to parenting were documented
This study investigated longitudinal associations between externalizing behavior and dysfunctional eating attitudes and behaviors. Participants were girls drawn from the community-based Minnesota Twin Family Study and assessed at ages 11, 14, and 17. Cross-sectional correlations indicated that the strength of the associations between externalizing behavior and dysfunctional eating attitudes and behaviors increased over time. Mixed-model analyses indicated that earlier externalizing
Naomi R. Marmorstein; Kristin M. von Ranson; William G. Iacono; Paul A. Succop
Longitudinalstudies provide unique opportunities but are also faced with several limitations. The purpose of this study was to document three of these issues (“imperfect” design, evolution of data collection methods, representativeness) by means of the Leuven LongitudinalStudy on Lifestyle, Fitness and Health (LLSLFH). The LLSLFH (1969 – 2004) comprises observations on males between 12 and 18 years and at 30,
Lynn Matton; Gaston Beunen; Nathalie Duvigneaud; Katrien Wijndaele; Renaat Philippaerts; Albrecht Claessens; Bart Vanreusel; Martine Thomis; Johan Lefevre
Background Conducting longitudinal research studies with low-income and/or minority participants present a unique set of challenges and opportunities. Purpose To outline the specific strategies employed to successfully recruit and retain participants in a longitudinalstudy of nutritional anticipatory guidance during early childhood, conducted with a low-income, ethnically diverse, urban population of mothers. Methods We describe recruitment and retention efforts made by the research team for the ‘MOMS’ Study (Making Our Mealtimes Special). The ‘multilayered’ approach for recruitment and retention included commitment of research leadership, piloting procedures, frequent team reporting, emphasis on participant convenience, incentives, frequent contact with participants, expanded budget, clinical staff buy-in, a dedicated phone line, and the use of research project branding and logos. Results Barriers to enrollment were not encountered in this project, despite recruiting from a low-income population with a large proportion of African-American families. Process evaluation with clinic staff demonstrated the perception of the MOMS staff was very positive Participant retention rate was 75% and 64% at 6 months and 12 months post-recruitment, respectively. We attribute retention success largely to a coordinated effort between the research team and the infrastructure support at the clinical sites, as well as project branding and a dedicated phone line. Conclusions Successful participant recruitment and retention approaches need to be specific and consistent with clinical staff buy in throughout the project.
Nicholson, Lisa; Schwirian, Patricia M.; Klein, Elizabeth G.; Skybo, Theresa; Murray-Johnson, Lisa; Eneli, Ihuoma; Boettner, Bethany; French, Gina; Groner, Judith A.
Background This focus group study describes motivators and barriers to participation in the Mayo Mammography Health Study (MMHS), a large-scale longitudinalstudy examining the causal association of breast density with breast cancer, involving completion of a survey, providing access to a residual blood sample for genetic analyses, and sharing their results from a screening mammogram. These women would then be followed long-term for breast cancer incidence and mortality. Methods 48 Women participated in six focus groups, four with MMHS non-respondents (N=27), and two with MMHS respondents (N=21). Major themes were summarized using content analysis. Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) was used as a framework for interpretation of the findings. Results Barriers to participation among MMHS non-respondents were: 1) lack of confidence in their ability to fill out the survey accurately (self-efficacy); 2) lack of perceived personal connection to the study or value of participation (expectancies); and 3) fear related to some questions about perceived cancer risk and worry/concern (emotional coping responses). Among MMHS respondents, personal experience with cancer was reported as a primary motivator for participation (expectancies). Conclusions Application of a theoretical model such as SCT to the development of a study recruitment plan could be used to improve rates of studyparticipation and provide a reproducible and evolvable strategy.
Sinicrope, Pamela S.; Patten, Christi A.; Morgenthaler, Sarah B.; Almquist, Julka R.; Smith, Christina M.; Beebe, Timothy J.; Jacobsen, Steven J.; Vachon, Celine M.
Data from a longitudinalstudy showed that after two years of college study successful students (those completing the first two years) were less likely to report using systematic study methods than when they started college, but more likely to report using \\
This study was designed to examine the factors predicting a range of body change strategies among adolescent males over an 8-month time period. This is the first published longitudinalstudy of body change strategies to increase weight and muscles among males. The 5 body change strategies in the present study were eating and exercise to lose weight, increase weight, increase
Introduction Few longitudinalstudies have examined physical activity (PA) levels in breast cancer survivors and how those levels change\\u000a following cancer diagnosis and treatment.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods We conducted a longitudinal cohort study of 315 female residents of Washington State, aged 21–74 years, diagnosed with a first\\u000a primary invasive breast cancer between 2002 and 2004, and identified by a population-based cancer registry. Recreational PA\\u000a was
Alyson J. Littman; Mei-Tzu Tang; Mary Anne Rossing
Objective To evaluate if prostate specific antigen test attains validity standards required for screening in view of recent prostate cancer screening trial results.Design Case-control study nested in longitudinal cohort.Setting Västerbotten Intervention Project cohort, Umeå, Sweden.Participants 540 cases and 1034 controls matched for age and date of blood draw.Main outcome measure Validity of prostate specific antigen for prediction of subsequent prostate
Objective To explore views of patients with type 2 diabetes about self monitoring of blood glucose over time.Design Longitudinal, qualitative study.Setting Primary and secondary care settings across Lothian, Scotland.Participants 18 patients with type 2 diabetes.Main outcome measures Results from repeat in-depth interviews with patients over four years after clinical diagnosis.Results Analysis revealed three main themes—the role of health professionals, interpreting
Using a longitudinal design, this study explored the relation of urban high school student attitudes toward school, work, and self-esteem beliefs to work-based mentoring, mentor satisfaction, and employment status. Participants included high school students taking part in a formal work-based mentoring program, students who established informal mentoring relationships at work, students who worked without a mentor, and students who were
Objectives To determine whether reduced sleep is associated with differences in body composition and the risk of becoming overweight in young children.Design Longitudinalstudy with repeated annual measurements.Setting Dunedin, New Zealand.Participants 244 children recruited from a birth cohort and followed from age 3 to 7.Main outcome measures Body mass index (BMI), fat mass (kg), and fat free mass (kg) measured
Philippa J Carter; Barry J Taylor; Sheila M Williams; Rachael W Taylor
Purpose: To present a set of multi-item indicators and associated reliability estimates derived from early research with survey data from adolescents participating in the National LongitudinalStudy of Adolescent Health (Add Health).Methods: Add Health provides information on the health and health-related behaviors of a nationally representative sample of U.S. adolescents, as well as on individual-level and contextual factors that either
Renee E Sieving; Trisha Beuhring; Michael D Resnick; Linda H Bearinger; Marcia Shew; Marjorie Ireland; Robert W Blum
Objectives To establish whether differences in early IQ explain why people with longer education live longer, or whether differences in father’s or own educational attainment explain why people with higher early IQ live longer.Design Population based longitudinalstudy. Mortality risks were estimated with Cox proportional hazards regressions.Setting Malmö, Sweden.Participants 1530 children who took IQ tests at age 10 and were
Purpose: To examine whether there is a direct or a mediated association between dysfunctional parental behavior in later childhood and involvement in dating violence in a sample of low socioeconomic-status boys during mid-adolescence.Methods: Subjects were 717 boys who participated in a longitudinalstudy. Data collected at six time periods, beginning at age 10 years and covering a span of 8
Francine Lavoie; Martine Hébert; Richard Tremblay; Frank Vitaro; Lucie Vézina; Pierre McDuff
The relation of childhood personality to the development of friendship understanding and moral judgment in adolescence was considered in a longitudinalstudy. Personality at age 7, assessed with the California Child Q-Set, was characterized in terms of ego-resiliency and ego-control. IQ and social class were also measured. Friendship understanding was assessed when the participants were ages 7, 9, 12, 15,
Daniel Hart; Monika Keller; Wolfgang Edelstein; Volker Hofmann
The present study examined the longitudinal links between perceptions of family connectedness and body satisfaction in 1,774\\u000a (52% female) adolescents. Participants (10–15 years of age at Time 1) completed self-report measures at three measurement\\u000a occasions separated by 1 year each. Mean group difference results showed that both body satisfaction levels and perceived\\u000a levels of family connectedness decreased over 2 years for the whole
Carla Crespo; Magdalena Kielpikowski; Paul E. Jose; Jan Pryor
Objective To investigate associations between long term dietary intake of calcium and risk of fracture of any type, hip fractures, and osteoporosis.Design A longitudinal and prospective cohort study, based on the Swedish Mammography Cohort, including a subcohort, the Swedish Mammography Cohort Clinical.Setting A population based cohort in Sweden established in 1987.Participants 61 433 women (born between 1914 and 1948) were
Eva Warensjö; Liisa Byberg; Håkan Melhus; Rolf Gedeborg; Hans Mallmin; Alicja Wolk; Karl Michaëlsson
We have conducted a partly longitudinalstudy using online questionnaires at four Swedish local online newspapers in two different studies. The objective of this paper is to describe the users' demographics and reading habits as well as the users' expectations of current and future issues regarding the online edition. We also discuss online questionnaires having tried three different approaches to
|Background: There is a lack of longitudinal large-scale studies of sexual abuse in intellectual disability services. Such studies offer opportunities to examine patterns in disclosure, investigation and outcomes, and to report on incidence and trends. Methods: All allegations of sexual abuse (n = 250) involving service users as victims or…
McCormack, Bob; Kavanagh, Denise; Caffrey, Shay; Power, Anne
|Background: Longitudinalstudies allow us to identify, which specific maths skills are weak in young children, and whether there is a continuing weakness in these areas throughout their school years. Aims: This 2-year study investigated whether certain socio-demographic variables affect early mathematical competency in children aged 5-7 years.…
Navarro, Jose I.; Aguilar, Manuel; Marchena, Esperanza; Ruiz, Gonzalo; Menacho, Inmaculada; Van Luit, Johannes E. H.
The authors investigated a comprehensive set of predictors of high school completion and years of completed education for youth in the Chicago LongitudinalStudy, an ongoing investigation of over 1500 low-income, minority children who grew up on high-poverty neighborhoods. The study sample included 1286 youth for whom educational attainment could be determined by age 20. Predictors were measured from birth
I have presented the findings from a longitudinal case study of one child's writing from kindergarten to grade 3, across different curriculum contexts, with a focus on writing in mathematics, social studies, science, and music. I describe changes in textual features of the child's writing over time, which support Newkirk's (1987) developmental schema for non-narrative writing and extend my previous
|In this longitudinalstudy of one region in the state of Texas, there was an examination of district leadership and the sustaining of high student achievement for their districts. The results of this study suggest that sustained improvement of student achievement is very difficult. The districts that had sustained improvement had stable district…
Results from a 2-year (4 waves) longitudinalstudy show strong evidence for patient decline and high levels of depressive symptomatology among caregivers. Female caregivers reported high, stable rates of depressive symptomatology throughout the study, whereas male caregivers exhibited significant increases in depression over time. Cross-sectional multivariate analyses revealed significant positive relationships between depression and number of patient problem behaviors, negative
Workplaces are changing as new technologies are introduced in an effort to improve efficiency and increase business turnover. Although there has been an explosion of mobile technologies and devices in recent time, very few in situ studies of the adoption of these technologies have been undertaken. This paper reports on the results of a longitudinal case study of a business
Risk factors and consequences of exposure to violence at work were examined through a systematic review of longitudinalstudies of workplace violence. Literature in different databases was screened and the articles were selected on the basis of a set of inclusion criteria. Sixteen studies were included into the review and they were evaluated according to a number of criteria recommended
|English as a foreign language (EFL) spelling was examined longitudinally three times (4th, 9th, 12th grades) during 9 years of EFL study among Hebrew first language (L1) students. The study examined the impact of L1 literacy variables including phonemic awareness, word attack, and spelling on EFL spelling and the relationship between EFL literacy…
Kahn-Horwitz, Janina; Sparks, Richard L.; Goldstein, Zahava
This chapter reports a longitudinalstudy that explores the state of information systems (IS) research in Australia. A series of surveys was distributed to the heads of all IS discipline groups in Australian universities in 2004, 2005 and 2006. The study highlights the current state of IS research in Australia from the 2006 survey and analyses the trends in IS
With a six-year grant from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the Women in Engineering (WIE) Initiative at the University of Washington, USA, is conducting a longitudinalstudy of undergraduate women pursuing degrees in science or engineering. Now in its sixth year, five of six cohorts of approximately 100 students each year have been added to the study. The objectives of
|Systematic studies of artistic careers are scarce and this is the first large-scale study on the career development of pop musicians. Using a prospective longitudinal approach we followed a sample of aspiring pop musicians in the Netherlands (N=369) over a three-year period. First we identified four groups of pop musicians with different career…
Zwaan, Koos; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Raaijmakers, Quinten
Background: There is a lack of longitudinal large-scale studies of sexual abuse in intellectual disability services. Such studies offer opportunities to examine patterns in disclosure, investigation and outcomes, and to report on incidence and trends. Methods: All allegations of sexual abuse (n = 250) involving service users as victims or…
McCormack, Bob; Kavanagh, Denise; Caffrey, Shay; Power, Anne
BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity is increasing among adolescents in the U.S., especially among girls. Despite growing evidence that parents are an important influence on adolescent health, few longitudinalstudies have explored the causal relationship between parental influence and physical activity. This study examines how the relationships between parental influences and adolescent physical activity differ by gender and tests whether these relationships
India J Ornelas; Krista M Perreira; Guadalupe X Ayala
|In a comprehensive study of two-hundred fifty homeschooling families in urban, rural and suburban areas of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the researcher examined all aspects of the instruction, materials and curricula employed by the families in a ten-year longitudinalstudy from 1998 through 2008. The researcher conducted interviews and…
|In this study, the authors examined the effect of retirement on psychological and physical symptoms in 404 older male veterans who were taking part in an ongoing longitudinalstudy. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to analyze symptom trajectories from preretirement, peri-retirement, and postretirement periods in veterans with either lifetime…
Schnurr, Paula P.; Lunney, Carole A.; Sengupta, Anjana; Spiro, Avron
This retrospective longitudinalstudy aims to describe reported Taekwondo injuries and to examine associations between competitor experience level, age and gender, and the type, location, and mechanism of injury sustained. Additionally, we examined whether recent rule changes concerning increased point value of head shots in adult Taekwondo competition had affected injury incidence. This study was a summation of 9 years of data of competition injury reports, which included 904 injury reports spanning 58 individual competitions. The data was collected on standardized injury reports at time of injury during competition. Care was provided to the athletes, but the type of care provided was not included in the study. Participants included athletes injured during competition who sought care by the health care team, and for whom an injury report was filled out. The data analysis was performed at the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College. The three most common locations of presenting injury were the head (19%), foot (16%), and thigh (9%). The most common mechanism of presenting injury was found to be a defensive kick (44%), followed by an offensive kick (35%). The most commonly diagnosed injuries were contusions (36%), sprains (19%), and strains (15%). Coloured belts had a higher incidence of contusions, while black belts sustained more joint irritation injuries. Black belts were more likely to suffer multiple injuries. Colored belts suffered more injuries while receiving a kick, while black belts had a larger influence of past history of injury. We found no significant difference in location or type of injury when comparing pre versus post rule change. The most common locations of injury are head, foot, and thigh respectively, and are areas for concern when considering preventative measures. Colour belt competitors are more likely to sustain contusions, which the authors believe is due to more aggressive tactics and lack of control. Those more likely to be injured tend to be younger than 18 years. Recent rule changes have no significant effect on head injuries.
This retrospective longitudinalstudy aims to describe reported Taekwondo injuries and to examine associations between competitor experience level, age and gender, and the type, location, and mechanism of injury sustained. Additionally, we examined whether recent rule changes concerning increased point value of head shots in adult Taekwondo competition had affected injury incidence.This study was a summation of 9 years of data of competition injury reports, which included 904 injury reports spanning 58 individual competitions. The data was collected on standardized injury reports at time of injury during competition. Care was provided to the athletes, but the type of care provided was not included in the study. Participants included athletes injured during competition who sought care by the health care team, and for whom an injury report was filled out. The data analysis was performed at the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College.The three most common locations of presenting injury were the head (19%), foot (16%), and thigh (9%). The most common mechanism of presenting injury was found to be a defensive kick (44%), followed by an offensive kick (35%). The most commonly diagnosed injuries were contusions (36%), sprains (19%), and strains (15%). Coloured belts had a higher incidence of contusions, while black belts sustained more joint irritation injuries. Black belts were more likely to suffer multiple injuries. Colored belts suffered more injuries while receiving a kick, while black belts had a larger influence of past history of injury. We found no significant difference in location or type of injury when comparing pre versus post rule change. The most common locations of injury are head, foot, and thigh respectively, and are areas for concern when considering preventative measures. Colour belt competitors are more likely to sustain contusions, which the authors believe is due to more aggressive tactics and lack of control. Those more likely to be injured tend to be younger than 18 years. Recent rule changes have no significant effect on head injuries. PMID:20037692
Given mixed findings regarding the unique trajectories of female and male adolescents' body dissatisfaction over time, comprehensive longitudinal examinations are needed. This 10-year longitudinal, population-based study, with 1902 participants from diverse ethnic/racial and socioeconomic backgrounds in the Minneapolis/St. Paul metropolitan area, examined changes in body dissatisfaction from adolescence to young adulthood. Results revealed that: (a) female and male participants' body dissatisfaction increased between middle and high school, (b) body dissatisfaction increased further during the transition to young adulthood, and (c) this increase was associated with an increase in BMI over time, such that the upward trend in body dissatisfaction became nonsignificant when BMI was controlled. These results highlight a trend in which diverse female and male youth are increasingly dissatisfied with their bodies as their BMI increases from middle school to young adulthood, and emphasize the need for targeted prevention efforts to intervene in this trajectory and mitigate potential harm. PMID:23084464
Bucchianeri, Michaela M; Arikian, Aimee J; Hannan, Peter J; Eisenberg, Marla E; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Cybersex is a subcategory of online sexual activities (OSA) and is defined as when two or more people are engaging in sexual talk while online for the purposes of sexual pleasure and may or may not include masturbation. Cybersex is a growing phenomenon with a significant impact on participants but very little research has been done on this subject to date. This study is the first to attempt to delineate characteristics of those who engage in cybersex. Data were collected through an online questionnaire in Swedish, administered through the Swedish web portal Passagen.se. Out of the total sample (N = 1828), almost a third, both men and women, reported to have engaged in cybersex. A logistic regression analysis showed that age, sex, and sexual orientation were important demographic variables to consider when investigating cybersex. A comparison of interval data showed those engaging in cybersex to have a higher likelihood of spending more time online for OSA and having more offline sex partners than those not engaging in cybersex. PMID:15971014
Development does not take place in isolation; close others form an important dyad for exploring interrelationships. To examine spousal interrelations in level and change of cognitive functioning in old age, the authors applied dynamic models to 11-year longitudinal data of, initially, 304 married couples from the Australian LongitudinalStudy of Ageing (aged 64–98 years at Time 1; M = 76
Denis Gerstorf; Christiane A. Hoppmann; Kaarin J. Anstey; Mary A. Luszcz
The objective of this study was to characterize longitudinal patterns of drug injection behavior for individuals and to identify their early determinants. Participants were 1,339 injection drug users recruited into the AIDS Link to Intravenous Experience (ALIVE) Study in Baltimore, Maryland, through community outreach efforts. The study was initiated in 1988, and follow-up continued through 2000, with semiannual visits. Patterns
N. Galai; M. Safaeian; D. Vlahov; A. Bolotin; D. D. Celentano
Study Objective: This is a population-based longitudinalstudy that followed insomnia symptoms over a 6-year period in non-depressed individuals. The purpose of the study was to (1) investigate the longitudinal course of depression based on number of insomnia episodes; and (2) describe longitudinal associations between insomnia and depression, and insomnia and suicidal ideation. Design: Population-based longitudinalstudy. Setting: Community-based sample from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES). Participants: 1,282 non-depressed individuals (44% male, mean age 52.3 ± 7.14 years) Measurements and Results: This study prospectively assessed insomnia, depression, and suicidal ideation with 4 time points. Individuals were classified into no insomnia (NI), single episode insomnia (SEI), and persistent insomnia (PI; ? insomnia at 2+ time points) groups based on number of times insomnia was indicated. Mixed effects modeling indicated that depression scores increased significantly faster in the PI group compared to the NI (P < 0.001) and SEI (P = 0.02) groups. Additionally, the PI group had significantly increased odds of depression as compared to NI or SEI (OR 2.44, P = 0.001) groups, with 18.7% meeting criteria for depression compared to the NI (5.3%) and SEI (11.6%) groups at end point. The PI group also had significantly increased odds of suicidal ideation as compared to NI or SEI (OR 1.86, P = 0.002) groups. Conclusions: Persistent insomnia significantly increases the rate in which depression occurs over time in non-depressed individuals, which ultimately leads to higher risk for depression. Additionally, having persistent insomnia also increased the risk of suicidal ideation. Citation: Suh S; Kim H; Yang HC; Cho ER; Lee SK; Shin C. Longitudinal course of depression scores with and without insomnia in non-depressed individuals: a 6-year follow-up longitudinalstudy in a Korean cohort. SLEEP 2013;36(3):369-376.
Suh, Sooyeon; Kim, Hyun; Yang, Hae-Chung; Cho, Eo Rin; Lee, Seung Ku; Shin, Chol
In a national sample of the Italian population, surveyed four times between October 2002 and January 2007 (N = 2,008), we performed a multilevel longitudinalstudy aimed at predicting the increase in crime risk perception as a function of three families of independent variables, respectively lying at the within individual level (direct…
This study examines longitudinally the development of vocational maturity and ethnic identity in a majority and a minority group of 641 students in the Province of Québec, Canada. Ethnic identity and four components of vocational maturity were assessed in four cohorts at three times of measurement. Results show clearly different developmental trends in both ethnic identity and in vocational maturity
Jacques Perron; Fred W. Vondracek; Vladimir B. Skorikov; Chantal Tremblay; Marc Corbière
|A cooperative education experience (or internship placement) is an essential component of the curricula of vocational higher education. The efficacy of internship placements has become one of the major concerns facing those who develop education curricula. The purpose of this longitudinalstudy was to explore the relationships among the…
Wan, Chin-Sheng; Yang, Jen-te; Cheng, Shu-yun; Su, Chiakai
|Although a substantial amount of research on school leadership has focused on what principals may do to improve teaching and learning, little of this research has explored how principals' time spent on leadership activities may relate to and possibly affect student performance. This article presents results from a 3-year longitudinalstudy of…
|This longitudinalstudy examined the contribution of phonological awareness, phonological memory, and visuospatial ability to reading development in 142 English-speaking children from the start of kindergarten to the middle of Grade 2. Partial cross-lagged analyses revealed significant relationships between early performance on block design and…
Brunswick, Nicola; Martin, G. Neil; Rippon, Georgina
|The attributes of couples planning to marry can affect their future relationship satisfaction. To study this phenomenon, a social exchange model was applied to a sample of couples planning to marry to assess the predictive validity of a measure of positive exchange. The longitudinal design of the two-and-a-half year investigation provided direct…
The health records of 50 Navy and Marine personnel, who were ultimately disabled and separated from the service for psychiatric illness, were selected at random to study several parameters of life-change and illness patterns. A longitudinal analysis of th...
This study utilizes a school-improvement perspective to examine the role of curriculum coordination in the integration of information and communication technologies (ICT) into primary schools. The nature and impact of this role is examined in seven primary schools in Australia. These seven schools were drawn from a longitudinal intervention that…
A cooperative education experience (or internship placement) is an essential component of the curricula of vocational higher education. The efficacy of internship placements has become one of the major concerns facing those who develop education curricula. The purpose of this longitudinalstudy was to explore the relationships among the…
Wan, Chin-Sheng; Yang, Jen-te; Cheng, Shu-yun; Su, Chiakai
In an exploratory longitudinalstudy of business school alumni, we investigated changes in employment obligations as perceived by em- ployees. During the first two years of employment, employees came to perceive that they owed less to their employers while seeing tbeir em- ployers as owing them more. An employer's failure to fulfill its com- mitments was found to be significantly
SANDRA L. ROBINSON; MATTHEW S. KRAATZ; DENISE M. ROUSSEAU
|The National LongitudinalStudy of the High School Class of 1972 was initiated in the spring of 1972. A national probability sample of l8,000 students from 1,070 schools completed a Student Questionnaire dealing with factors related to personal and family background, educational and work experiences, plans, aspirations, attitudes, and opinions.…
|This study describes a longitudinal design (following subjects described in Rutherford & Rogers [2003, "Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorder", 33, 289-302]) to test for predictors of pretend play competence in a group of children with autism. We tested the hypothesis that developmental change in pretend play performance can be predicted…
Rutherford, M. D.; Young, Gregory S.; Hepburn, Susan; Rogers, Sally J.
Evidence of a change in transfer price offers a rare opportunity to examine underlying causes to explain the need for change. Three modern-day frameworks are employed in this longitudinal case study to interrogate the events and actions taken at an iron and coal company during the last quarter of the 19th century. This approach provides insights to potentially influential factors
Trevor Boyns; John Richard Edwards; Clive Emmanuel
|This paper uses socialization theory to re-examine a unique, 10-year longitudinalstudy of headteachers so as to describe the stages of headship transition. It outlines prior models of leadership succession in both business and schools and produces a stage theory of headship that can be used not only as a research tool, but also as a way to…
Beginning elementary teachers face numerous challenges in engaging in effective science teaching, and the expectations for elementary science teaching are becoming even more demanding. Since teachers' beliefs mediate their practice, characterizing their beliefs about effective science teaching can yield insights about ways to support beginning elementary teachers as they learn to teach science. This longitudinalstudy follows six elementary teachers
|The hypothesis that anxiety sensitivity (AS) is a risk factor for panic genesis has obtained compelling support, but the clinical/practical importance of AS in panic genesis has been questioned. In addition, the association between panic experience and AS increase has not been clearly demonstrated. Through this 1-year longitudinalstudy among…
This longitudinalstudy was designed to test hypotheses concerning the influence of environmental changes in different groups (educational status; sex) of adolescents on their future orientation (FO). FO was measured through a free-response questionnaire on which the subjects indicated their hopes and fears (which were later categorized into various domains of life by independent judges). On a second questionnaire the
This article reports the results of a 3-wave longitudinalstudy of a sizable, regionally representative sample of both noncustodial and custodial parents interviewed initially before their divorce was final. A model was tested that predicted the noncustodial parent's postdivorce contact with the child and the payment of child support from a series of factors related to a social exchange orientation.
Sanford L. Braver; Sharlene A. Wolchik; Irwin N. Sandler; Virgil L. Sheets; Bruce Fogas; R. Curtis Bay
|This longitudinalstudy of adolescent girls and boys examined the contributions of social (peer appearance context), psychological (internalized appearance ideals and appearance social comparison), and biological (body mass) factors to the development of body dissatisfaction. Students (165 girls and 139 boys) completed questionnaires when they…
This longitudinalstudy of adolescent girls and boys examined the contributions of social (peer appearance context), psychological (internalized appearance ideals and appearance social comparison), and biological (body mass) factors to the development of body dissatisfaction. Students (165 girls and 139 boys) completed questionnaires when they were either in 7th grade or 10th grade and again 1 year later. The results
The longitudinalstudy of religious transmission or influence across generations is an important but underexamined area of research, particularly in terms of the religious influence of grandparents. How much influence do grandparents have on grandchildren's religious beliefs and practices, and has this changed over the past 30 years? As grandparents have become increasingly important in multigenerational families, do they exert
Vern L. Bengtson; Casey E. Copen; Norella M. Putney; Merril Silverstein
|In a national sample of the Italian population, surveyed four times between October 2002 and January 2007 (N = 2,008), we performed a multilevel longitudinalstudy aimed at predicting the increase in crime risk perception as a function of three families of independent variables, respectively lying at the within individual level (direct…
The one-nucleon removal reactions from loosely bound carbon isotopes have been studied at FRS, GSI, using beam energies around 920 MeV\\/u. In particular, the longitudinal momentum distributions have been investigated, but cross sections have also been extracted.
Karin Markenroth; L. Axelsson; T. Baumann; M. J. G. Borge U. Bergmann; D. Cortina-Gil; L. Fraile; H. Geissel; M. Hellstrom; M. Ivanov; N. Iwasa; R. Janik; B. Jonson; H. Lenske; G. Munzenberg; F. Nickel; T. Nilsson; A. Ozawa; A. Richter; K. Riisager; C. Scheidenberger; G. Schrieder; W. Schwab; H. Simon; B. Sitar; M. H. Smedberg; P. Strmen; K. Summerer; T. Suzuki; M. Winkler; H. Wollnik; M. V. Zhukov
Using data from a longitudinalstudy of high-risk children (N = 174), the authors examined deflections from predicted achievement scores on the basis of the discrepancy of observed scores from an established regression line (from first to sixth grade and first grade to age 16 years). Years in special education and socioeconomic status (SES) were related to changes in math
The purpose of this study was to see whether 3 types of social support (enacted support, negative interaction, and anticipated support) are associated with change in meaning in life. Data from a nationwide longitudinal survey of older people suggested that greater anticipated support (i.e., the belief that others will provide assistance in the future if needed) is associated with a
Although a substantial amount of research on school leadership has focused on what principals may do to improve teaching and learning, little of this research has explored how principals' time spent on leadership activities may relate to and possibly affect student performance. This article presents results from a 3-year longitudinalstudy of principal activities and student performance. A 3-level HLM
Purpose – Mallorca is a traditional mass tourism destination that promotes golf tourism development in order to fight tourism seasonality and increase the tourist's average expenditure. Through a longitudinalstudy, the paper aims to analyze golf demand and its evolution; to evaluate the seasonal and economic impact of this type of tourism and to elaborate a prospective estimation of future
A common research question in the study of health behavior is why dont people do what is good for them. The purpose of this study was to address the question of preventive health behavior by exploring the specific case of decision making about the influen...
E. Coups G. Chapman L. Gross M. DiBonaventura P. Gerger
|A study examined the effects of factors (including television, family, peers, age, and socioeconomic status) on consumer socialization, the process by which individuals develop consumption-related cognitions and behaviors. The specific criterion variables studied included consumer affairs knowledge, puffery filtering, consumer finance management,…
The report (1971) presents an assessment of the long-term effects of an expanded program of vocational rehabilitation on successfully rehabilitated clients. The subjects for this study were 103 males and 90 females who had completed the expanded rehabilit...
A new comprehensive longitudinalstudy of aging, the National Institute for Longevity Sciences, LongitudinalStudy of Aging (NILS-LSA) started in November 1997. The participants of this study will be 2,400 residents aged 40 to 79 years who were age- and gender-stratified random samples selected from the NILS area. All participants provided written informed consent after a detailed explanation of the study. They will be examined at the NILS-LSA Examination Center every two years. Their first wave examinations will be finished by the end of March 2000. The examined variables number over 1,000, including clinical evaluations, medical examinations, anthropometry, body composition, physical functions, physical activities, psychological assessments, nutritional analysis and molecular epidemiology. By the end of September 1999, 1,643 men and women had completed their first wave examinations. PMID:10835822
This case study briefly reviews the development of tourism degrees in the United Kingdom before considering the experiences obtained by students on year-long internship programmes over a period of 8 years. Verbatim confidential comments, from students, are provided and specific transferable skills discussed. Whilst some skills can be developed during the course of an academic programme, it is argued that
The aim of this study was to develop an in vitro model of the tongue microflora in order to assess anti-malodour compounds before clinical evaluation. Biofilms, derived from the tongue microflora, were grown in a constant depth film fermentor (CDFF) with nutrients supplied in the form of mucin- and serum-containing artificial saliva. Differential agars and a halimeter were used to
J Pratten; M Pasu; G Jackson; A Flanagan; M Wilson
|Examines the importance of relevance criteria in end-user evaluation of valuable or high relevant information as users move through six stages of information seeking proposed by Kuhlthau (1994) and as they selected, obtained, and read information sources. Respondents were enrolled in graduate studies at the University of North Texas and Texas…
|During 1977-78 Pierce College undertook a study to (1) examine major reasons for attrition; (2) determine reasons for student attendance at Pierce; (3) determine the long-range effects of academic residence at Pierce for its students; and (4) experimentally determine the effects on retention of special treatment, through a "caring ombudsman."…
Affective development is considered an important outcome of compensatory programs. This study examines interactions among program, cognitive, and affective variables over an extended time period. Affective dimensions considered for measurement include attitudes toward school, self-concept, achievement motivation, and internal-external control.…
Student and institutional characteristics related to college freshman persistence were studied. Persistence was examined for 5 institutions (5,950 students) at 4 points in time: end of first term, reenrollment in the spring, end of spring term, and reenrollment in the fall of the sophomore year. Data from a variety of sources were used, and…
The current study documents the changing rates of cannabis use, misuse and cannabis-related social harms among Australian adolescents as they grow into young adulthood. It utilised data from a longitudinalstudy of young people at ages 15, 16, 17, and 19. The rates of cannabis use were found to increase as participants aged; past year use…
Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Patton, George C.; Toumbourou, John W.
|The current study documents the changing rates of cannabis use, misuse and cannabis-related social harms among Australian adolescents as they grow into young adulthood. It utilised data from a longitudinalstudy of young people at ages 15, 16, 17, and 19. The rates of cannabis use were found to increase as participants aged; past year use…
Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Patton, George C.; Toumbourou, John W.
The use of administrative segregation for inmates with and without mental illness has generated considerable criticism. Segregated inmates are locked in single cells for 23 hours per day, are subjected to rigorous security procedures, and have restricted access to programs. In this study, we examined whether inmates in segregation would show greater deterioration over time on psychological symptoms than would comparison offenders. The subjects were male inmates, with and without mental illness, in administrative segregation, general population, or special-needs prison. Subjects completed the Brief Symptom Inventory at regular intervals for one year. Results showed differentiation between groups at the outset and statistically significant but small positive change over time across all groups. All groups showed the same change pattern such that there was not the hypothesized differential change of inmates within administrative segregation. This study advances the empirical research, but replication research is needed to make a better determination of whether and under what conditions harm may or may not occur to inmates in solitary confinement. PMID:23503176
Patients with spina bifida have multiple ophthalmologic problems, many of which are preventable. Most of the problems are related to the hydrocephalus, which is caused by the coexisting Arnold-Chiari malformation. When patients are treated for hydrocephalus, and comprehensive eye care is available, 94% of the patients will have 6/12 visual acuity or better. Strabismus is common but it responds well to medical and surgical treatment. Children with spina bifida should have frequent examinations by an ophthalmologist who is familiar with the diagnosis and management of the defects recorded in this study. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12
The aim of this study was to develop an in vitro model of the tongue microflora in order to assess anti-malodour compounds before clinical evaluation. Biofilms, derived from the tongue microflora, were grown in a constant depth film fermentor (CDFF) with nutrients supplied in the form of mucin- and serum-containing artificial saliva. Differential agars and a halimeter were used to determine the bacterial microflora and production of volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs), respectively. The resulting biofilms had a bacterial population which contained, on average, 29% streptococci, 48% Gram-negative anaerobes and 2.5% with an H2S-producing phenotype. When the biofilms were pulsed with either chlorhexidine or zinc acetate there was a reduction in the number of H2S-producing bacteria, however these counts subsequently recovered as pulsing continued. The generation of VSCs was correlated to the viable counts of the H2S-producing bacteria. By pulsing with anti-malodour compounds over time we observed a reduction in the quantity of VSCs produced and a change in the composition of the plaque to one which contained fewer H2S-producing bacteria. PMID:14550375
Pratten, J; Pasu, M; Jackson, G; Flanagan, A; Wilson, M
OBJECTIVES: To find out to what extent nurses were perceived to be participating in audit, to identify factors thought to impede their involvement, and to assess progress towards multidisciplinary audit. RESEARCH DESIGN: Qualitative. METHODS: Focus groups and interviews. PARTICIPANTS: Chairs of audit groups and audit support staff in hospital, community and primary health care and audit leads in health authorities in the North West Region. RESULTS: In total 99 audit leads/support staff in the region participated representing 89% of the primary health care audit groups, 80% of acute hospitals, 73% of community health services, and 59% of purchasers. Many audit groups remain medically dominated despite recent changes to their structure and organisation. The quality of interprofessional relations, the leadership style of the audit chair, and nurses' level of seniority, audit knowledge, and experience influenced whether groups reflected a multidisciplinary, rather than a doctor centred approach. Nurses were perceived to be enthusiastic supporters of audit, although their active participation in the process was considered substantially less than for doctors in acute and community health services. Practice nurses were increasingly being seen as the local audit enthusiasts in primary health care. Reported obstacles to nurses' participation in audit included hierarchical nurse and doctor relationships, lack of commitment from senior doctors and managers, poor organisational links between departments of quality and audit, work load pressures and lack of protected time, availability of practical support, and lack of knowledge and skills. Progress towards multidisciplinary audit was highly variable. The undisciplinary approach to audit was still common, particularly in acute services. Multidisciplinary audit was more successfully established in areas already predisposed towards teamworking or where nurses had high involvement in decision making. Audit support staff were viewed as having a key role in helping teams to adopt a collaborative approach to audit. CONCLUSION: Although nurses were undertaking audit, and some were leading developments in their settings, a range of structural and organisational, interprofessional and intraprofessional factors was still impeding progress. If the ultimate goal of audit is to improve patient care, the obstacles that make it difficult for nurses to contribute actively to the process must be acknowledged and considered.
OBJECTIVE Young children have an unacceptably high prevalence of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) at the clinical diagnosis of type 1 diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine whether knowledge of genetic risk and close follow-up for development of islet autoantibodies through participation in The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study results in lower prevalence of DKA at diabetes onset in children aged <2 and <5 years compared with population-based incidence studies and registries. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Symptoms and laboratory data collected on TEDDY participants diagnosed with type 1 diabetes between 2004 and 2010 were compared with data collected during the similar periods from studies and registries in all TEDDY-participating countries (U.S., SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study; Sweden, Swediabkids; Finland, Finnish Pediatric Diabetes Register; and Germany, Diabetes Patienten Verlaufsdokumenation [DPV] Register). RESULTS A total of 40 children younger than age 2 years and 79 children younger than age 5 years were diagnosed with type 1 diabetes in TEDDY as of December 2010. In children <2 years of age at onset, DKA prevalence in TEDDY participants was significantly lower than in all comparative registries (German DPV Register, P < 0.0001; Swediabkids, P = 0.02; SEARCH, P < 0.0001; Finnish Register, P < 0.0001). The prevalence of DKA in TEDDY children diagnosed at <5 years of age (13.1%) was significantly lower compared with SEARCH (36.4%) (P < 0.0001) and the German DPV Register (32.2%) (P < 0.0001) but not compared with Swediabkids or the Finnish Register. CONCLUSIONS Participation in the TEDDY study is associated with reduced risk of DKA at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in young children.
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease in childhood: A longitudinalstudy. One hundred fifty–four children aged eighteen years or younger from 83 families with autosomal–dominant polycystic kidney disease were studied by ultrasonography or excretory urography. Twenty–three children had bilateral renal involvement with at least five cysts (ADPKD), 28 children were classified as suspicious (SADPKD), and 103 children had no renal involvement
Aileen Sedman; Patricia Bell; Robert Schrier; Bradley A Warady; Edward O Heard; Patricia Gabow
Three studies were conducted to evaluate long-term memory longitudinally. In Study 1, 10-month-olds (N = 20) were taught to operate a toy in their homes and were tested at home after four months, as were age-matched (14 months) inexperienced controls (N = 20). Experienced infants were more willing to remain in the play situation, relearned faster than controls, and one
Incidence studies on tooth erosion among adolescents are scarce. This longitudinalstudy aimed at estimating the prevalence, incidence, progression, and distribution of erosion in young adolescents over a 1.5-year period. Erosion at baseline was present in 32.2% of the 622 children (mean age, 11.9 ± 0.9 yrs) and increased to 42.8% over 1.5 yrs. The prevalence of deep enamel or
BACKGROUND: Several cross-sectional studies reported that heavier children eat breakfast less often. However, no longitudinalstudies have addressed whether skipping breakfast leads to excessive weight gain.OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether skipping breakfast was prospectively associated with changes in body fatness.METHODS: A cohort of >14 000 boys and girls from all over the US, 9- to 14-y-old in 1996, returned annual mailed
C S Berkey; H R H Rockett; M W Gillman; A E Field; G A Colditz
This study focused on an audience at high risk for heavy use of licit and illicit substances: young adults who as children had attention-deficit\\/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The participants in this study were part of a longitudinalstudy of the life histories of 492 children, one third of whom were identified as hyperactive in 1974 and whose childhood symptom ratings
Gender schema theory proposes that children's acquisition of gender labels and gender stereotypes informs gender-congruent behaviour. Most previous studies have been cross-sectional and do not address the temporal relationship between knowledge and behaviour. We report the results of a longitudinalstudy of gender knowledge and sex-typed behaviour across three domains in children tested at 24 and 36 months (N = 56). Although both knowledge and sex-typed behaviour increased significantly between 2 and 3 years, there was no systematic pattern of cross-lagged correlations between the two, although some concurrent relationships were present at 24 months. Future longitudinal work might profitably focus on younger children using reliable preverbal measures of gender knowledge and employing a shorter lag between measurement times. PMID:15323112
In this paper I describe and discuss the way that a book I had written on a five-year longitudinalstudy of school science teaching was received by the pupils and teachers it featured. By and large the pupils' reception was positive. However, one group of teachers was deeply hurt by the book. I trace this mainly to my failure to consider adequately their fears of the consequences of the book's publication and possibly to my failure to consider with them the psychological significance of my withdrawing from the school after five years of regular study. I hope that there are lessons not only for myself but also for others considering longitudinal and ethnographic research in science education and more broadly.
The authors conducted a quasi-experimental longitudinalstudy spanning 6-7 years examining attempted religiously mediated sexual orientation change from homosexual orientation to heterosexual orientation. An initial sample was formed of 72 men and 26 women who were involved in a variety of Christian ministries, with measures of sexual attraction, infatuation and fantasy, and composite measures of sexual orientation and psychological distress, administered longitudinally. Evidence from the study suggested that change of homosexual orientation appears possible for some and that psychological distress did not increase on average as a result of the involvement in the change process. The authors explore methodological limitations circumscribing generalizability of the findings and alternative explanations of the findings, such as sexual identity change or adjustment. PMID:21961446
The role of parenting styles in the development of young adult narcissism is investigated with individuals from the Block and Block (1980) longitudinalstudy. At age 3, participants were assessed for the presence of narcissism precursors, and mothers and fathers provided information about their parenting styles. At age 23, the presence of both healthy and maladaptive narcissism was assessed, along
This longitudinalstudy examined whether social self-efficacy and self-disclosure serve as mediators between attachment and feelings of loneliness and subsequent depression. Participants were 308 freshmen at a large Midwestern university. Results indicated that social self-efficacy mediated the association between attachment anxiety and feelings…
|This 6-year longitudinalstudy examined girls' peer-nominated social preference and aggression in childhood as predictors of self- and parent-reported externalizing symptoms, substance use (i.e.. cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use), and sexual risk behavior in adolescence. Participants were 148 girls from diverse ethnic backgrounds, who were…
|This article examines the relationship between cultural affiliation and deaf adults' motivations for genetic testing for deafness in the first prospective, longitudinalstudy to examine the impact of genetic counseling and genetic testing on deaf adults and the deaf community. Participants (n = 256), classified as affiliating with hearing, Deaf,…
Boudreault, Patrick; Baldwin, Erin E.; Fox, Michelle; Dutton, Loriel; Tullis, LeeElle; Linden, Joyce; Kobayashi, Yoko; Zhou, Jin; Sinsheimer, Janet S.; Sininger, Yvonne; Grody, Wayne W.; Palmer, Christina G. S.
In this 15-year longitudinalstudy the authors investigated individual and contextual factors that predispose adolescents from a disadvantaged urban area to drug dependence in adulthood. Adolescents were recruited from schools serving East Harlem in New York City. Of the 838 participants followed to adulthood, 59% were women, 55% were African…
Brook, Judith S.; Lee, Jung Yeon; Brown, Elaine N.; Finch, Stephen J.; Brook, David W.
|In this 15-year longitudinalstudy the authors investigated individual and contextual factors that predispose adolescents from a disadvantaged urban area to drug dependence in adulthood. Adolescents were recruited from schools serving East Harlem in New York City. Of the 838 participants followed to adulthood, 59% were women, 55% were African…
Brook, Judith S.; Lee, Jung Yeon; Brown, Elaine N.; Finch, Stephen J.; Brook, David W.
This longitudinalstudy investigated differences in beliefs and perceived behavioural control between smokers and non-smokers in a large sample of adolescents. Positive and negative instrumental beliefs, normative beliefs, perceived behavioural control (PBC) and smoking status were assessed in the same participants at 11, 13 and 15 years of age. Prospective analyses among non-smokers revealed that for boys, negative instrumental beliefs
Sarah Grogan; Mark Conner; Gary Fry; Brendan Gough; Andrea Higgins
A 1988 study of a school-linked sample in a metropolitan and a regional urban area established baseline data for knowledge, attitudes, intentions, and behavior with regard to water management and conservation (Murphy, Watson, & Moore, 1991). This paper reports on a 1991 follow-up, utilising both longitudinal and cross-sectional samples of students, teachers and parents, which aimed at identifying changes within
This paper discusses a longitudinalstudy that explored the relationship between use of organizational memory and knowledge (OM\\/K) and knowledge worker productivity within the engineering group at a nuclear power plant. Three data points were taken over five years. An OM\\/K System (OM\\/KS) was identified that improved effectiveness\\/productivity of the organization. The basic components of the OM\\/KS remained the same
\\u000a Understanding the course of schizophrenia is essential to improve prophylaxis, early diagnosis, diagnostic validity, and prognosis.\\u000a While the majority of the longitudinalstudies of schizophrenia report that 50–70% of patients have a chronic, generally persistent\\u000a course of illness, the rest of the patients present with a heterogeneous course. Furthermore, there are no clear course predictors\\u000a at the time of the
Robert G. Bota; Stuart Munro; Charles Nguyen; Adrian Preda
This study uses prospective longitudinal data to examine who acquired a first tattoo among a national sample of adolescents (n = 13,101). Results indicate that social bonds, prior deviant involvement, self-protection, and negative self-appraisal all were predictive of tattoo acquisition. Results also show nontrivial differences in the likelihood of tattoo acquisition for different subgroups of adolescents, ranging from 1 in 5 for
The objective of the current study was to examine possible risk (school-bullying and victimization, exposure to media violence, callous-unemotional traits, impulsivity and narcissism) and protective (family, peer and school social support) factors that might be associated with cyberbullying and cyber-victimization by employing a longitudinal, two-wave design. The sample consisted of 1,416 (50.1% girls) adolescents living in Cyprus. The findings suggested
Kostas A. Fanti; Andreas G. Demetriou; Veronica V. Hawa
This study describes a longitudinal design (following subjects described in Rutherford & Rogers [2003, Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorder, 33, 289–302]) to test for predictors of pretend play competence in a group of children with autism. We tested the hypothesis\\u000a that developmental change in pretend play performance can be predicted by earlier measures of either executive function, intersubjectivity,\\u000a imitation,
M. D. Rutherford; Gregory S. Young; Susan Hepburn; Sally J. Rogers
|This longitudinalstudy examined the effect of all-day kindergarten programs on the academic achievement of students from racial language minority and low socioeconomic class. The study employed a series of 3-level longitudinal multilevel analyses using a nationally representative database, the Early Childhood LongitudinalStudy (ECLS). The study…
This longitudinalstudy examined how school belonging changes over the years of high school, and how it is associated with academic achievement and motivation. Students from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds participated (N = 572; age span = 13.94-19.15 years). In ninth grade, girls' school belonging was higher than boys'. Over the course of high school, however, girls' school belonging declined, whereas boys' remained stable. Within-person longitudinal analyses indicated that years in which students had higher school belonging were also years in which they felt that school was more enjoyable and more useful, above and beyond their actual level of achievement. Results highlight the importance of belonging for maintaining students' academic engagement during the teenage years. PMID:23002809
This study examined the relationship between stressors at work and personal initiative (PI), one proactive concept of extra-role performance. Using a control theory framework to describe the stress process, the authors hypothesized that stressors should be positively related to PI. This departs from findings of negative relationships between stressors and other types of performance. Furthermore, curvilinear relationships were tested. The analyses, based on 4 measurement waves of a longitudinal field study with 172 to 193 participants, showed that stressors were positively related to subsequent changes in PI; there was no support for a curvilinear relationship. PMID:12148954
This study is an examination of the melodic improvisations of a group of children (N = 62) for 3 years, from ages 7 through 9. Participants improvised as part of a class rondo for Orff instruments, in ABACADA form, in which the B, C, and D sections were 8-measure alto-xylophone improvisations in C pentatonic. Each participant improvised three…
After two surveys for indoor air pollutants (radon and other chemicals) the homeowners were surveyed for their reactions. The results of these participant evaluation surveys, assuming that the participants that responded to the survey were representative, indicate that homeowners will accept a significant level of monitoring activity as part of an indoor air quality field study. Those participants completing surveys
A. R. Hawthorne; C. S. Dudney; M. A. Cohen; J. D. Spengler
Although it is a well-accepted notion that sport participation enhances health, the precise nature of the relationship has been unclear. Based on a national survey of Icelandic adolescents, this study evaluates the direct and indirect effects of sport participation on perceived health status. It is shown that sport participation has a substantial direct effect on perceived health, controlling for other
Thorolfur Thorlindsson; Runar Vilhjalmsson; Gunnar Valgeirsson
This report describes the design, construction, implementation, quality control, and psychometric characteristics of the child assessment instruments used to measure developmental outcomes for young children participating in the Early Childhood Longitudin...
G. Mulligan J. Lennon K. Snow M. Najarian S. Kinsey
The aim of this study was to investigate changes in heart rate during submaximal exercise as an index of cardiovascular function in older adults participating in the Groningen Active Living Model recreational sports programme who were sedentary or underactive at baseline. A repeated measurement design was conducted; 151 participants were included, providing 398 heart rate files over a period of 18 months. Multi-level analyses were conducted; growth and final models were developed. Significant decreases in mean heart rate over time were observed for all walking speeds. The covariates of sex and body mass index (BMI) were significantly related to mean heart rate at each walking speed, except for BMI at 7 km x h(-1). No significant relationships were observed between energy expenditure for recreational sports activities and leisure-time physical activities and mean heart rate, except for energy expenditure for leisure-time physical activities at 7 km x h(-1). From baseline to December 2002, decreases in predicted mean heart rate were 5.5, 6.0, 10.0, and 9.0 beats x min(-1) at walking speeds of 4, 5, 6, and 7 km x h(-1); relative decreases ranged from 5.1 to 7.4%. Significant decreases in heart rate observed during submaximal exercise reflected a potential increase in cardiovascular function after 18 months of participation in the Groningen Active Living Model recreational sports programme. PMID:19629846
de Jong, Johan; Lemmink, Koen; Scherder, Erik; Stewart, Roy; King, Abby; Stevens, Martin
Objective To investigate longitudinal associations between community-level gasoline price and physical activity (PA). Method In the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study, 5,115 black and white participants aged 18–30 at baseline 1985–86 were recruited from four U.S. cities (Birmingham, Chicago, Minneapolis and Oakland) and followed over time. We used data from 3 follow-up exams: 1992–93, 1995–96, and 2000–01, when the participants were located across 48 states. From questionnaire data, a total PA score was summarized in exercise units (EU) based on intensity and frequency of 13 PA categories. Using Geographic Information Systems, participants’ residential locations were linked to county-level inflation-adjusted gasoline price data collected by the Council for Community & Economic Research. We used a random-effect longitudinal regression model to examine associations between time-varying gasoline price and time-varying PA, controlling for age, race, gender, baseline study center, and time-varying education, marital status, household income, county cost of living, county bus fare, census block-group poverty, and urbanicity. Results Holding all control variables constant, a 25-cent increase in inflation-adjusted gasoline price was significantly associated with an increase of 9.9 EU in total PA (95%CI: 0.8–19.1). Conclusion Rising prices of gasoline may be associated with an unintended increase in leisure PA.
Hou, Ningqi; Popkin, Barry M; Jacobs, David R; Song, Yan; Guilkey, David K; He, Ka; Lewis, Cora E.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny
Rationale End of test criteria can influence spirometry results. Epidemiology studies initiated before adoption of the 1987 American Thoracic Society (ATS) guidelines typically used a 1 or 2 second plateau on the volume-time curve, not a minimum test duration of 6 seconds, to terminate a test. Objectives To determine the effect of changing guidelines on FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC during a longitudinalstudy of young adults. Methods Spirometry was performed on participants in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. Values obtained at entry and 2, 5 and 10 years later using accepted procedures were re-evaluated using the 2005 ATS-ERS guidelines, which were in effect for the year 20 exam. Generalized estimating equations were used to adjust tests with short exhalations that were acceptable by then current end of test criteria. Results The percentage of participants at years 0, 2, 5, and 10 with exhalations less than six seconds but with an acceptable plateau was 33%, 29%, 9%, and 2%, respectively. Exhalations less than 6 seconds occurred more frequently in younger and female participants, and were associated with lower FVC and higher FEV1/FVC. For short exhalations the adjusted FVC was 47 ml and 110 ml higher than the measured FVC when 6 and 8 second exhalation times were used. Conclusions In longitudinalstudies of young adults, changing end of test criteria may affect lung function, especially among younger and female participants. Determining adjusted values for tests with short exhalations may better represent the lung health of participants.
Smith, Lewis J.; Arynchyn, Alexander; Kalhan, Ravi; Williams, O. Dale; Jensen, Robert; Crapo, Robert; Jacobs, David R.
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Modern accelerator applications, such as heavy ion fusion drivers, pulsed neutron sources, electron injectors for high-energy linear colliders, and X-ray Free Electron Lasers, demand beams with high intensity, low emittance and small energy spread. At low (non-relativistic) energies, the "electrostatic", collective interactions from space-charge forces existing in such intense beams play the dominant role; we characterize these beams as space-charge dominated beams. This dissertation presents numerous new findings on the longitudinal dynamics of a space-charge dominated beam, particularly on the propagation of density perturbations. In order to fully understand the complex physics of longitudinal space-charge waves, we combine the results of theory, computer simulation, and experiment. In the Long Solenoid Experimental system (LSE), with numerous diagnostic tools and techniques, we have, for the first time, experimentally measured the detailed energy profiles of longitudinal space-charge waves at different locations, both near the beam source and at the end of the transport system. Along with the current profiles, we have a complete set of experimental data for the propagation of space-charge waves. We compare these measured results to a 1-D theory and find better agreement for beams with perturbations in the linear regime, where the perturbation strength is less than 10%, than those with nonlinear perturbations. Using fast imaging techniques that we newly developed, we have, for the first time, obtained the progressive time-resolved images of longitudinal slices of a space-charge dominated beam. These images not only provide us time-resolved transverse density distribution of the beam, but also enable us to take time-resolved transverse phase space measurement using computerized tomography. By combining this information with the longitudinal energy measurement, we have, for the first time, experimentally constructed the full 6-D phase space. Part of the results from the 6-D phase space measurement has been used as initial conditions in computer simulations in order to explore the cause of discrepancies we have observed earlier between the experimental and theoretical models. After extensive simulation studies, we find that the beam loss inside the perturbation due to mismatch or misalignment is an important factor that needs to be included in the models for better reliability.
Developmental science rests on describing, explaining, and optimizing intraindividual changes and, hence, empirically requires longitudinal research. Problems of missing data arise in most longitudinalstudies, thus creating challenges for interpreting the substance and structure of intraindividual change. Using a sample of reports of longitudinalstudies obtained from three flagship developmental journals—Child Development, Developmental Psychology, and Journal of Research on Adolescence—we
Demonstrating causal relationships has been of particular importance in organizational stress research. Longitudinalstudies are typically suggested to overcome problems of reversed causation and third variables (e.g., social desirability and negative affectivity). This article reviews the empirical longitudinal literature and discusses designs and statistical methods used in these studies. Forty-three longitudinal field reports on organizational stress were identified. Most of
|Replication of research findings across independent longitudinalstudies is essential for a cumulative and innovative developmental science. Meta-analysis of longitudinalstudies is often limited by the amount of published information on particular research questions, the complexity of longitudinal designs and the sophistication of analyses, and…
... Canada, Finland, United Kingdom, Italy, Germany, Australia, and New Zealand. This network is dedicated to the study, prevention, and early treatment of type 1 diabetes. Learn More > Visit us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter TrialNet YouTube Channel TrialNet is funded by: Department of Health and ...
This comprehensive study of the largest community gardening program in the ... aims to understand the evolving role of community gardens in New York City. ... is gardeners' motivation for creating and participating in community gardens ...
The aim of the study was to examine predictors of eating disorder symptoms in a population based sample at the earliest age at which they can be measured using the Children's Eating Attitudes Test. Data were collected from the longitudinal Gateshead Millennium Study cohort; 609 children participated in the 7 year data sweep (and their mothers and teachers), and 589 children participated in the 9 year data sweep. Eating disorder symptoms at 9 years were higher in boys, and in children from more deprived families. Higher eating disorder symptoms were associated with more body dissatisfaction at 9 years. Higher symptoms were predicted by higher levels of dietary restraint and of emotional symptoms, but not greater body dissatisfaction, 2 years earlier. The study showed that some correlates of high eating disorder symptoms found in adolescents and adults are also found in children, before the rise in diagnosable eating disorders over the pubertal period. PMID:22465837
Parkinson, Kathryn N; Drewett, Robert F; Le Couteur, Ann S; Adamson, Ashley J
Summary When novel scientific questions arise after longitudinal binary data have been collected, the subsequent selection of subjects from the cohort for whom further detailed assessment will be undertaken is often necessary in order to efficiently collect new information. Key examples of additional data collection include retrospective questionnaire data, novel data linkage, or evaluation of stored biological specimens. In such cases, all data required for the new analyses are available except for the new target predictor or exposure. We propose a class of longitudinal outcome dependent sampling schemes and detail a design corrected conditional maximum likelihood analysis for highly efficient estimation of time-varying and time-invariant covariate coefficients when resource limitations prohibit exposure ascertainment on all participants. Additionally, we detail an important study planning phase that exploits available cohort data to proactively examine the feasibility of any proposed substudy as well as to inform decisions regarding the most desirable study design. The proposed designs and associated analyses are discussed in the context of a study which seeks to examine the modifying effect of an interleukin-10 cytokine single nucleotide polymorphism on asthma symptom regression in adolescents participating Childhood Asthma Management Program Continuation Study. Using this example we assume that all data necessary to conduct the study are available except subject-specific genotype data. We also assume that these data would be ascertained by analyzing stored blood samples, the cost of which limits the sample size.
When novel scientific questions arise after longitudinal binary data have been collected, the subsequent selection of subjects from the cohort for whom further detailed assessment will be undertaken is often necessary to efficiently collect new information. Key examples of additional data collection include retrospective questionnaire data, novel data linkage, or evaluation of stored biological specimens. In such cases, all data required for the new analyses are available except for the new target predictor or exposure. We propose a class of longitudinal outcome-dependent sampling schemes and detail a design corrected conditional maximum likelihood analysis for highly efficient estimation of time-varying and time-invariant covariate coefficients when resource limitations prohibit exposure ascertainment on all participants. Additionally, we detail an important study planning phase that exploits available cohort data to proactively examine the feasibility of any proposed substudy as well as to inform decisions regarding the most desirable study design. The proposed designs and associated analyses are discussed in the context of a study that seeks to examine the modifying effect of an interleukin-10 cytokine single nucleotide polymorphism on asthma symptom regression in adolescents participating Childhood Asthma Management Program Continuation Study. Using this example we assume that all data necessary to conduct the study are available except subject-specific genotype data. We also assume that these data would be ascertained by analyzing stored blood samples, the cost of which limits the sample size. PMID:21457191
Objective To investigate the association between low functional health literacy (ability to read and understand basic health related information) and mortality in older adults. Design Population based longitudinal cohort study based on a stratified random sample of households. Setting England. Participants 7857 adults aged 52 or more who participated in the second wave (2004-5) of the English LongitudinalStudy of Ageing and survived more than 12 months after interview. Participants completed a brief four item test of functional health literacy, which assessed understanding of written instructions for taking an aspirin tablet. Main outcome measure Time to death, based on all cause mortality through October 2009. Results Health literacy was categorised as high (maximum score, 67.2%), medium (one error, 20.3%), or low (more than one error, 12.5%). During follow-up (mean 5.3 years) 621 deaths occurred: 321 (6.1%) in the high health literacy category, 143 (9.0%) in the medium category, and 157 (16.0%) in the low category. After adjusting for personal characteristics, socioeconomic position, baseline health, and health behaviours, the hazard ratio for all cause mortality for participants with low health literacy was 1.40 (95% confidence interval 1.15 to 1.72) and with medium health literacy was 1.15 (0.94 to 1.41) compared with participants with high health literacy. Further adjustment for cognitive ability reduced the hazard ratio for low health literacy to 1.26 (1.02 to 1.55). Conclusions A third of older adults in England have difficulties reading and understanding basic health related written information. Poorer understanding is associated with higher mortality. The limited health literacy capabilities within this population have implications for the design and delivery of health related services for older adults in England.
Background The influence of serum leptin levels on nutritional status and survival in chronic hemodialysis patients remained to be elucidated.\\u000a We conducted a prospective longitudinalstudy of leptin levels and nutritional parameters to determine whether changes of\\u000a serum leptin levels modify nutritional status and survival in a cohort of prevalent hemodialysis patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Leptin, dietary energy and protein intake, biochemical markers of
Ilia Beberashvili; Inna Sinuani; Ada Azar; Hila Yasur; Leonid Feldman; Zhan Averbukh; Joshua Weissgarten
This paper reports the results of a cross-national comparison of the ‘H70’ longitudinalstudy of elders in Gothenburg, Sweden, with the ‘Rural Missouri Elders’ longitudinalstudy in Missouri, USA. Analysis of the combined data sets focused on the question of how longevity was affected by culturally divergent forms of social network participation. The H70 study was a representative, systematic 3\\/10
Bo G. Eriksson; Richard M. Hessler; Valter Sundh; Bertil Steen
Background Paraoxonase (PON1) enzymatic activity assays are used to characterize sensitivity to organophosphates and oxidative stress. Length of sample storage, temperature and other factors may influence variability of PON1 measurements, especially in longitudinalstudies. Methods Effects of assay temperature, storage duration up to 7 y (?80°C), freeze-thaw cycles, the type of specimen (serum or heparinized plasma) and assay variability were evaluated for 4 PON1 substrate-specific assays using samples from two pediatric cohorts and laboratory volunteers. Results Intra- and inter- assay variation, as well as inter-laboratory variability for PON1 activities were <10%. The effect of storage duration up to 2 y was minimal. However, after 7 y, arylesterase, paraoxonase, and chlorpyrifos-oxonase activities decreased more noticeably. Similarly, while freeze-thaw cycles did not affect the PON1 activities in samples stored < 2 y, this factor was more significant after 7 y for arylesterase. Assay temperature and specimen type also influenced PON1 measurements. Conclusions Sources of technical variability of PON1 activity assays, including storage duration, freeze-thaw, and temperature should be monitored and minimized through study design, quality control procedures and statistical methods, especially in longitudinalstudies where specimens may be stored for years prior to analysis.
Objective This article describes the method and intake findings of the Brown Longitudinal Obsessive Compulsive Study, the first comprehensive prospective investigation of the naturalistic course of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in a large clinical sample using longitudinal research methodology. Method Intake data, collected between June 2001 and October 2004, are presented for 293 adult participants in a prospective, naturalistic study of OCD. Participants had a primary diagnosis of DSM-IV OCD and had sought treatment for the disorder. Results Our findings indicate that OCD typically has a gradual onset and a continuous course regardless of age at onset. There is a substantial lag between the onset of the disorder and initiation of treatment. OCD, which almost always coexists with other psychiatric symptoms, leads to serious social and occupational impairment. Compared with participants with late-onset OCD, early-onset participants had higher rates of lifetime panic disorder, eating disorders, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. The groups also differed on the types of obsessive-compulsive symptoms that were first noticed, as well as on rates of current obsessions and compulsions. Conclusion The demographics, clinical characteristics, comorbidity rates, and symptom presentation of the sample are consistent with those reported for cross-sectional studies of OCD, including the DSM-IV Field Trial. The current sample has a number of advantages over previously collected prospective samples of OCD in that it is large, diagnostically well characterized, recruited from multiple settings, and treatment seeking. This unique data set will contribute to the identification of meaningful phenotypes in OCD based on stability of symptom dimensions, prospective course patterns, and treatment response.
Pinto, Anthony; Mancebo, Maria C.; Eisen, Jane L.; Pagano, Maria E.; Rasmussen, Steve A.
This study investigated the roles of sex, age, and parent–child communication in moderating the association between digital game violence and direct aggression in a two-year longitudinalstudy. Finnish 12- and 15-year-old adolescents (N = 316) participated in the follow-up survey. As hypothesized, digital game violence was linked to direct aggression both longitudinally and synchronously, and the link was moderated by
We described longitudinal changes of movement performance in a population-based sample of women followed from age 70 to 78. We also studied the cross-sectional relationships between medical conditions and movement performance at baseline, and longitudinal relationships between baseline medical conditions and changes of movement performance. Two hundred and thirty-four women aged 70 years participated in the baseline study, and 88
Incomplete data are quite common in biomedical and other types of research, especially in longitudinalstudies. During the last three decades, a vast amount of work has been done in the area. This has led, on the one hand, to a rich taxonomy of missing-data concepts, issues, and methods and, on the other hand, to a variety of data-analytic tools. Elements of taxonomy include: missing data patterns, mechanisms, and modeling frameworks; inferential paradigms; and sensitivity analysis frameworks. These are described in detail. A variety of concrete modeling devices is presented. To make matters concrete, two case studies are considered. The first one concerns quality of life among breast cancer patients, while the second one examines data from the Muscatine children’s obesity study.
Objectives: We sought to explore the association between childhood maltreatment (e.g., neglect, physical and sexual abuse) and longitudinal growth trajectories of body mass index (BMI) from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods: We used latent curve modeling to examine data from the National LongitudinalStudy of Adolescent Health (N = 8,471),…
|Objectives: We sought to explore the association between childhood maltreatment (e.g., neglect, physical and sexual abuse) and longitudinal growth trajectories of body mass index (BMI) from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods: We used latent curve modeling to examine data from the National LongitudinalStudy of Adolescent Health (N = 8,471),…
|In their initial study, authors Boston, Ice, and Gibson (2011) explored the relationship between student demographics and interactions, and retention at a large online university. Participants in the preliminary study (n = 20,569) included degree-seeking undergraduate students who completed at least one course at the American Public University…
Objectives To study the duration of depression, recovery over time, and predictors of prognosis in an older cohort (?55 years) in primary care.Design Longitudinal cohort study, with three years’ follow-up.Setting 32 general practices in West Friesland, the Netherlands.Participants 234 patients aged 55 years or more with a prevalent major depressive disorder.Main outcome measures Depression at baseline and every six months
E Licht-Strunk; H W J Van Marwijk; T Hoekstra; J W R Twisk; M De Haan; A T F Beekman
The purpose of the study was to examine contributions of early personal and socialisation factors to the prediction of aggressive behaviour in Chinese children. A sample of children, initially at 2 years of age, and their parents in the People’s Republic of China participated in this two-year longitudinalstudy. Observational data were collected on children’s noncompliance in mother-child interactions at
Objective. To estimate incidence rates of drug-related hospitalizations (DRHs) in a longitudinal population-based study with prospective event assessment. Design. Cohort study and time-trend analysis. Setting. All departments of internal medicine and emergency departments in the urban regions of Jena and Rostock, Germany, serving about 520,000 residents. Participants. All patients admitted between October 1997 and March 2000. Patients with severe cutaneous
Sebastian Schneeweiss; Joerg Hasford; Martin Göttler; Annemarie Hoffmann; Ann-Kathrin Riethling; Jerry Avorn
This study examined the stability of eating disorder (ED) classifications among a population-based sample of male and female adolescents (n = 2,516) who participated in Project EAT-II, a five-year longitudinalstudy. Cross-tabulations using weighted data identified diagnostic stability across six classifications (Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, Binge Eating Disorder, Binge Eating and\\/or Compensatory Behaviors not meeting ED diagnosis, Body Image Disturbance
Diann M. Ackard; Jayne A. Fulkerson; Dianne Neumark-Sztainer
In longitudinal biomedical studies, there is often interest in the rate functions, which describe the functional rates of change of biomarker profiles. This paper proposes a semiparametric approach to model these functions as the realizations of stochastic processes defined by stochastic differential equations. These processes are dependent on the covariates of interest and vary around a specified parametric function. An efficient Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm is developed for inference. The proposed method is compared with several existing methods in terms of goodness-of-fit and more importantly the ability to forecast future functional data in a simulation study. The proposed methodology is applied to prostate-specific antigen profiles for illustration. Supplementary materials for this paper are available online.
In longitudinal biomedical studies, there is often interest in the rate functions, which describe the functional rates of change of biomarker profiles. This paper proposes a semiparametric approach to model these functions as the realizations of stochastic processes defined by stochastic differential equations. These processes are dependent on the covariates of interest and vary around a specified parametric function. An efficient Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm is developed for inference. The proposed method is compared with several existing methods in terms of goodness-of-fit and more importantly the ability to forecast future functional data in a simulation study. The proposed methodology is applied to prostate-specific antigen profiles for illustration. Supplementary materials for this paper are available online. PMID:22423170
Over the past two decades, there has been considerable progress in the assessment of function and disability among older persons. Tests of physical performance are now routinely included in longitudinalstudies to measure functional limitations, which are considered the building blocks of functioning. In addition, new strategies have been developed to assess the presence and onset of disability and to expand the scope of disability assessments beyond traditional indicators of difficulty and dependence. Contemporary measurement technologies, such as item response theory and computer adaptive testing, show great promise in the assessment of functional status and disability, but prospective studies are needed to demonstrate their true value, particularly to identify the circumstances in which their use will improve the assessment of functional outcomes in older persons. Another high priority for future research is to validate and further refine strategies to more completely and accurately ascertain the occurrence of disability among older persons.
Our objective was to investigate symptoms of depression in early rheumatoid arthritis (eRA) patients, and follow them longitudinally during a 3-year prospective study of 73 Hungarian and 45 Austrian early rheumatoid arthritis patients. Compared to validated national population data, mild symptoms of depression were detected in Hungarian early rheumatoid arthritis patients, which were independent of corticosteroid use. In the Hungarian subgroup, the Beck Depression Inventory scores were found to be stable during follow-up. Except at the baseline visit, depressive symptoms and functional status, as measured by the Health Assessment Questionnaire, were correlated. Significant differences were detected between Austrian and Hungarian patients despite of their geographical and cultural proximity. The mean depression score was higher in the Hungarian when compared to the Austrian patients. Depression is an important feature of early rheumatoid arthritis. Studies assessing depression in rheumatoid arthritis patients must be based on validated national data of normal population. PMID:17332982
After two surveys for indoor air pollutants (radon and other chemicals) the homeowners were surveyed for their reactions. The results of these participant evaluation surveys, assuming that the participants that responded to the survey were representative, indicate that homeowners will accept a significant level of monitoring activity as part of an indoor air quality field study. Those participants completing surveys overwhelmingly enjoyed being in the studies and would do it again. We believe that the emphasis placed on positive homeowner interactions and efforts made to inform participants throughout our studies were positive factors in this result. There was no substantial differences noted in the responses between the 70-house study, which included a homeowner compensation payment of $100, and the 300-house study, which did not include a compensation payment. These results provide encouragement to conduct future complex, multipollutant indoor air quality studies when they are scientifically sound and cost effective.
AIM—To determine whether aging causes detectable changes in the appearance of the optic disc.?METHODS—A retrospective longitudinalstudy was performed with quantitative and qualitative evaluations of digitised stereoscopic optic disc photographs of 224 eyes of 224 subjects. There were three groups: 100 normal subjects from the Framingham Eye Study, 68 glaucomatous patients followed longitudinally, and 56 normal subjects and glaucoma patients who had separate sets of disc photos taken on the same day. A disc was considered qualitatively worse if two of three experienced observers agreed that it was worse. Quantitative progression was defined as a >10% decrease in rim/disc area ratio measured with computer assisted planimetry.?RESULTS—With quantitative evaluation, normal eyes (mean follow up 13 years) and same day eyes displayed no statistically significant difference in change of rim/disc area ratios (p=0.095), nor in the number of discs that progressed—five of 100 (5%) v two of 56 (4%) respectively. Glaucomatous eyes (mean follow up 9 years) showed a quantitative loss of disc rim in 24 of 68 (35%), and differed significantly from the normal eyes both in the change of rim/disc area ratio (p<0.0005) and number of discs that progressed (p<0.0005). With qualitative evaluation, the number of progressive discs in the glaucomatous eyes (31%) differed significantly (p<0.0005) from the normal eyes (3%) and the same day eyes (0%).?CONCLUSIONS—Over a period of follow up appropriate for long term outcome studies in glaucoma, there was no quantitatively or qualitatively detectable neuroretinal rim loss in normal aging optic nerves with stereoscopic optic disc photographs.??
This longitudinalstudy examined the effect of all-day kindergarten programs on the academic achievement of students from racial language minority and low socioeconomic class. The study employed a series of 3-level longitudinal multilevel analyses using a nationally representative database, the Early Childhood LongitudinalStudy (ECLS). The study showed that Hispanic dual-language-speaking students who attended all-day kindergarten narrowed the achievement gap
This longitudinalstudy examined the effect of all-day kindergarten programs on the academic achievement of students from racial language minority and low socioeconomic class. The study employed a series of 3-level longitudinal multilevel analyses using a nationally representative database, the Early Childhood LongitudinalStudy (ECLS). The study showed that Hispanic dual-language-speaking students who attended all-day kindergarten narrowed the achievement gap
Background Cohort studies are an important study design however they are difficult to implement, often suffer from poor retention, low participation and bias. The aims of this paper are to describe the methods used to recruit and retain young women in a longitudinalstudy and to explore factors associated with loss to follow up. Methods The Chlamydia Incidence and Re-infection Rates Study (CIRIS) was a longitudinalstudy of Australian women aged 16 to 25 years recruited from primary health care clinics. They were followed up via the post at three-monthly intervals and required to return questionnaires and self collected vaginal swabs for chlamydia testing. The protocol was designed to maximise retention in the study and included using recruiting staff independent of the clinic staff, recruiting in private, regular communication with study staff, making the follow up as straightforward as possible and providing incentives and small gifts to engender good will. Results The study recruited 66% of eligible women. Despite the nature of the study (sexual health) and the mobility of the women (35% moved address at least once), 79% of the women completed the final stage of the study after 12 months. Loss to follow up bias was associated with lower education level [adjusted hazard ratio (AHR): 0.7 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.5, 1.0)], recruitment from a sexual health centre as opposed to a general practice clinic [AHR: 1.6 (95% CI: 1.0, 2.7)] and previously testing positive for chlamydia [AHR: 0.8 (95% CI: 0.5, 1.0)]. No other factors such as age, numbers of sexual partners were associated with loss to follow up. Conclusions The methods used were considered effective for recruiting and retaining women in the study. Further research is needed to improve participation from less well-educated women.
Guided by self-determination theory, the main purpose of this study was to explore demographic characteristics, attitudes toward casinos, and self-reported intrinsic and extrinsic reasons for casino gambling by urban elders. The study hypothesized that individuals would more frequently report intrinsic motivations for casino gambling (e.g., entertainment, enjoyment) rather than extrinsic motivation (e.g., financial gain). This longitudinal sample included 247 urban elders older who were 60 years and older and who had participated in surveys in 2002 and 2004. The initial survey consisted of (a) demographic items, (b) five items to measure attitudes toward casino gambling, (c) questions inquiring about motivations for casino gambling, and (d) questions about gambling frequency. The follow-up survey was an expanded questionnaire which still included these items. The sample consisted of the 247 participants, over 200 of whom were African-Americans, 188 were female, and 98 of the participants had a post graduate education. About half were widowed, and the sample generally reported a low income. The results supported the theoretical perspective underlying the project. The hypothesis that more participants would endorse intrinsic motivations for casino gambling rather than extrinsic motivations was supported. The implications of these findings represent for social workers, gambling counselors and health care services providers an important step toward understanding the attitudes, behaviors, and motivational factors involved in casino gambling among older adults.
In this longitudinalstudy, we followed a large sample of first-time parents (both partners) across the first 2 years of the transition to parenthood. Guided by attachment theory (Bowlby, 1969), we tested several predictions about how attachment anxiety and avoidance are related to the incidence, maintenance, increase, and decline of depressive symptoms in both sexes across the first 2 years of the transition. We found that (a) the association between attachment anxiety and depressive symptoms was moderated by factors related to the marital and/or romantic relationship; (b) the association between avoidance and depressive symptoms was moderated by factors related to family responsibilities; (c) styles of caregiving provided by romantic partners affected depressive symptoms differently among anxious and avoidant persons; and (d) in certain predictable situations, depressive symptoms persisted at higher levels or increased to higher levels in anxious or avoidant persons across the 2-year transition period. Important implications of these results are discussed. PMID:21443372
Rholes, W Steven; Simpson, Jeffry A; Kohn, Jamie L; Wilson, Carol L; Martin, A McLeish; Tran, Sisi; Kashy, Deborah A
|Retention management, i.e., keeping qualified employees, is a top priority for contemporary organizations. Commitment, and especially team commitment, can be the key to mastering this challenge. There is a lack of longitudinal research concerning the development and the direction of the effects of team commitment over time. In a longitudinal…
Participants analyzed actual and simulated longitudinal data from the Framingham Heart Study for various metabolic and cardiovascular traits. The genetic information incorporated into these investigations ranged from selected single-nucleotide polymorphisms to genome-wide association arrays. Genotypes were incorporated using a broad range of methodological approaches including conditional logistic regression, linear mixed models, generalized estimating equations, linear growth curve estimation, growth modeling, growth mixture modeling, population attributable risk fraction based on survival functions under the proportional hazards models, and multivariate adaptive splines for the analysis of longitudinal data. The specific scientific questions addressed by these different approaches also varied, ranging from a more precise definition of the phenotype, bias reduction in control selection, estimation of effect sizes and genotype associated risk, to direct incorporation of genetic data into longitudinal modeling approaches and the exploration of population heterogeneity with regard to longitudinal trajectories. The group reached several overall conclusions: (1) The additional information provided by longitudinal data may be useful in genetic analyses. (2) The precision of the phenotype definition as well as control selection in nested designs may be improved, especially if traits demonstrate a trend over time or have strong age-of-onset effects. (3) Analyzing genetic data stratified for high-risk subgroups defined by a unique development over time could be useful for the detection of rare mutations in common multifactorial diseases. (4) Estimation of the population impact of genomic risk variants could be more precise. The challenges and computational complexity demanded by genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism data were also discussed. PMID:19924713
Objective: To date there is a lack of tools to measure participation and the already existing measures are not properly used as yet. In 2005 the IMET (Index zur Messung von Einschränkungen der Teilhabe) was developed and is able to measure the ICF associated construct participation as a generic instrument in chronic diseases. IMET and numerous instruments were applied in our own study and results were compared with results of an unpublished study. In addition, to test IMET for its use in neurorehabilitation the effects of outpatient neurorehabilitation were investigated and compared with results obtained in an inpatient setting.Method: In a multicentric observational study, consecutively treated patients of 6 outpatient neurorehabilitation centres were asked to fill in a questionnaire at three time points (admission and discharge in the course of rehabilitation and at 4 months follow-up). Additionally, clinical experts were asked to rate the patients' status at admission and discharge. The data were compared with results of a sample of inpatients of an unpublished study.Results: The IMET seems to be the to date best instrument to measure participation in a global, ICF-defined and economic way. Especially participation, general health status and capacity in leisure time and daily routine show the biggest improvements. In comparison, the outpatients show improvements in their participation status. Participation-oriented outpatient neurorehabilitation seems to have a considerable impact on participation status in neurological patients through the course of rehabilitation. PMID:24081517
|The present study examined relationships among variables drawn from achievement goal theory and the expectancy-value model of achievement choice as well as mean level changes of these variables over time in elementary physical education. Participants (N = 207) completed questionnaires over a 2-year period: once while in the second and fourth…
|A follow-up study was made of cross-sectional research on the development of dichhaptic lateralization. One hundred and eighty students in grades 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11 from two school districts were tested. Participants were 9 boys and 9 girls from each grade level for each district. Subjects were at least 90 percent right-handed, as determined by…
The present study examined whether physical and verbal aggression in the family of origin were associated with similar patterns of aggression in young adult couples. Hypotheses were tested using a sample of 213 focal individuals who were followed from adolescence to adulthood. Results suggested that aggression in the family when focal participants were adolescents predicted aggression with romantic partners when participants were adults. The association between interparental aggression and later aggression in adult romantic unions was partially mediated through parents’ aggression to focal participants when they were adolescents. Both physical and verbal aggression revealed the same pattern of findings. All together, these findings are consistent with a developmental-interactional perspective (Capaldi & Gorman-Smith, 2003) concerning the developmental origins of aggression in intimate relationships.
Cui, Ming; Durtschi, Jared A.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Lorenz, Frederick O.; Conger, Rand D.
The present study examined whether physical and verbal aggression in the family of origin were associated with similar patterns of aggression in young adult couples. Hypotheses were tested using a sample of 213 focal individuals who were followed from adolescence to adulthood. Results suggested that aggression in the family when focal participants were adolescents predicted aggression with romantic partners when participants were adults. The association between interparental aggression and later aggression in adult romantic unions was partially mediated through parents' aggression to focal participants when they were adolescents. Both physical and verbal aggression revealed the same pattern of findings. All together, these findings are consistent with a developmental-interactional perspective (Capaldi & Gorman-Smith, 2003) concerning the developmental origins of aggression in intimate relationships. PMID:21171767
Cui, Ming; Durtschi, Jared A; Donnellan, M Brent; Lorenz, Frederick O; Conger, Rand D
Recruitment of minority participants for clinical research studies has been the topic of several analytical works. Yet retention of participants, most notably minority and underserved populations, is less reported and understood, even though these populations have elevated health risks. This article describes two related, intervention-based formative research projects in which researchers used treatment theory to address issues of recruitment and retention of minority women participants in an exercise program to reduce obesity. Treatment theory incorporates a model of health promotion that allows investigators to identify and control sources of extraneous variables. The authors' research demonstrates that treatment theory can improve retention of minority women participants by considering critical inputs, mediating processes, and substantive participant characteristics in intervention design. PMID:15781904
Keller, Colleen S; Gonzales, Adelita; Fleuriet, K Jill
The need for people's participation in programs of national development is a widely accepted fact in a democratic society. This presentation is based on seven case studies of voluntary agencies which were conducted by four members of the Institute's facul...
S. R. Ramdev N. V. Lalitha V. D. Kaura R. M. Varma
The purpose of the study has been to replicate analyses originally done with the Consumer Panel data using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women. In spite of the differences between the two samples in demographic characteristics and th...
Background Many studies of health outcomes rely on data collected by interviewers administering highly-structured (quantitative) questionnaires to participants. Little appears to be known about the experiences of such interviewers. This paper explores interviewer experiences of working on a longitudinalstudy in New Zealand (the Prospective Outcomes of injury Study - POIS). Interviewers administer highly-structured questionnaires to participants, usually by telephone, and enter data into a secure computer program. The research team had expectations of interviewers including: consistent questionnaire administration, timeliness, proportions of potential participants recruited and an empathetic communication style. This paper presents results of a focus group to qualitatively explore with the team of interviewers their experiences, problems encountered, strategies, support systems used and training. Methods A focus group with interviewers involved in the POIS interviews was held; it was audio-recorded and transcribed. The analytical method was thematic, with output intended to be descriptive and interpretive. Results Nine interviewers participated in the focus group (average time in interviewer role was 31 months). Key themes were: 1) the positive aspects of the quantitative interviewer role (i.e. relationships and resilience, insights gained, and participants' feedback), 2) difficulties interviewers encountered and solutions identified (i.e. stories lost or incomplete, forgotten appointments, telling the stories, acknowledging distress, stories reflected and debriefing and support), and 3) meeting POIS researcher expectations (i.e. performance standards, time-keeping, dealing exclusively with the participant and maintaining privacy). Conclusions Interviewers demonstrated great skill in the way they negotiated research team expectations whilst managing the relationships with participants. Interviewers found it helpful to have a research protocol in place in the event of sensitive situations - this appeared to alleviate the pressure on interviewers to carry the burden of responsibility. Interviewers are employed to scientifically gather quantitative data, yet their effectiveness relies largely on their humanity. We propose that the personal connection generated between the interviewers and participants was important, and enabled successful follow-up rates for the study. The enjoyment of these relationships was crucial to interviewers and helped balance the negative aspects of their role. Our results suggest that experienced quantitative interviewers endeavour, as do many qualitative researchers, to carefully and respectfully negotiate the requirements of the interview within a relationship they form with participants: being sensitive to the needs of participants and respectful of their wishes - and establishing an ethical relationship.
A longitudinal evaluation study of a science professional development program for K-12 teachers was conducted using the CIPP evaluation model. Eleven years of program data were described and analyzed. Elementary teachers comprised 62% of the 384 participants, 17% of all participants were middle school teachers, and 13% of all participants were high school teachers. The program was focused on education reform initiatives as prescribed in the RFPs of each of three different funding agencies. Activities were congruent with the principles of adult, life-long and active learning. Program design was carefully planned and supported, and focused on content that was coherent with the state's science standards. The program duration was significant; it spread across two semesters and one summer, and incorporating over 180 hours of coursework. Participants worked in small groups, often coming from the same schools, throughout the program. The professional development program that was the subject of this evaluation study was informed by research findings on best practices and adhered to the research-based elements of effective professional development programs. Results indicated that the professional development model that was studied resulted in increased self-efficacy for the science teachers who participated in the program. Increases in self efficacy have been shown to positively affect student achievement. It is therefore reasonable to conclude that the program had a positive effect on student achievement through the teachers who participated in the professional development program. Additionally, this evaluation has demonstrated that the program and associated activities were designed to address national priorities in existence when each proposal was written.
This study focused on the perceptions of discrimination for Chinese American adolescents: how perceptions changed over time, how generational status and acculturation were related to these changes, and whether earlier discrimination experiences were related to subsequent depressive symptomatology. The sample included 309 Chinese American adolescents who participated in a 2 year, three-wave longitudinalstudy. Findings suggest that perceptions of discrimination became more acute over time for the majority of Chinese American adolescents in our study, that greater initial levels of perceptions of discrimination predicted a slower orientation to U.S. culture, that discrimination was not related to orientation to Chinese culture, and that an increase in perceptions of discrimination was associated with an increase in depressive symptoms. Greater orientation to Chinese culture was also related to fewer depressive symptoms. The findings are discussed in light of the unique cultural context of the study. PMID:19381814
Background: To determine whether retirement at age 60 is associated with improvement or deterioration in mental and physical health, when analysed by occupational grade and gender.Methods: Longitudinalstudy of civil servants aged 54 to 59 years at baseline, comparing changes in SF-36 health functioning in retired (n=392) and working (n=618) participants at follow up. Data were collected from self completed
G Mein; P Martikainen; H Hemingway; S Stansfeld; M Marmot
This 6-year longitudinalstudy examined girls' peer-nominated social preference and aggression in childhood as predictors of self- and parent-reported externalizing symptoms, substance use (i.e., cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use), and sexual risk behavior in adolescence. Participants were 148 girls from diverse ethnic backgrounds, who were initially assessed in Grades 4–6 and again in Grades 10–12. Results supported a moderator model,
OBJECTIVE: To determine the longitudinal relation of change in cardiopulmonary fitness to subsequent change in body weight in a cohort of healthy middle-aged adults.DESIGN: Prospective cohort study.SUBJECTS: Participants were 4599 men and 724 women (43±9 y) receiving at least three medical examinations between 1970 and 1994. Examinations included assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness by maximal exercise tests and measurement of body
Objectives To evaluate whether happiness can spread from person to person and whether niches of happiness form within social networks.Design Longitudinal social network analysis.Setting Framingham Heart Study social network.Participants 4739 individuals followed from 1983 to 2003.Main outcome measures Happiness measured with validated four item scale; broad array of attributes of social networks and diverse social ties.Results Clusters of happy and
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to show how participation in leisure-time physical activity changes between ages 13 to 23, and to what extent engaging in specific types of sports tracks into young adulthood. METHODS: The sample comprised 630 subjects who responded to questionnaires at age 13, with seven follow-ups over a 10-year period in the Norwegian Longitudinal Health
Background:Infancy may be a sensitive period regarding effects of sodium intake on future blood pressure (BP). This has only been demonstrated in one randomized trial of low sodium formulae with follow-up in adolescence in one-third of participants.Objective:To prospectively assess associations between sodium intake in infancy and BP at 7 years in the Avon LongitudinalStudy of Parents and Children (ALSPAC).Subjects:A
M-J Brion; A R Ness; G Davey Smith; P Emmett; I Rogers; P Whincup; D A Lawlor
Objective: A 10-year follow-up study to test the extent to which theory-based adolescent psychological and social factors directly predict and moderate the prediction of young adult smoking acquisition and cessation. Design: A prospective community-based sample. A total of 2,970 adolescents participated in the large Washington State Hutchinson Smoking Prevention Project (HSPP) longitudinal cohort. As predictors, psychological factors (i.e., parentnoncompliance, friendcompliance,
Roy Otten; Jonathan B. Bricker; Jingmin Liu; Bryan A. Comstock; Arthur V. Peterson
This study assessed the association between longitudinal patterns of illicit drug use and clinical progression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. Confidential computer-based interviews, which addressed illicit drug use and other factors, were completed by HIV-infected participants in Baltimore, Maryland, at 6-month intervals from 1998 onward. To assess this association, the authors used a random-effects model in which clinically defined
Gregory M. Lucas; Michael Griswold; Kelly A. Gebo; Jeanne Keruly; Richard E. Chaisson; Richard D. Moore
Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), a marker of arterial stiffness, is an established independent cardiovascular risk factor. Little information is available on the pattern and determinants of the longitudinal change in PWV with aging. Such information is crucial to elucidating mechanisms underlying arterial stiffness and the design of interventions to retard it. Between 1988 and 2013, we collected 2 to 9 serial measures of PWV in 354 men and 423 women of the Baltimore LongitudinalStudy of Aging, who were 21 to 94 years of age and free of clinically significant cardiovascular disease. Rates of PWV increase accelerated with advancing age in men more than women, leading to sex differences in PWV after the age of 50 years. In both sexes, not only systolic blood pressure (SBP) ?140 mm?Hg but also SBP of 120 to 139 mm?Hg was associated with steeper rates of PWV increase compared with SBP<120 mm?Hg. Furthermore, there was a dose-dependent effect of SBP in men with marked acceleration in PWV rate of increase with age at SBP ?140 mm?Hg compared with SBP of 120 to 139 mm?Hg. Except for waist circumference in women, no other traditional cardiovascular risk factors predicted longitudinal PWV increase. In conclusion, the steeper longitudinal increase of PWV in men than women led to the sex difference that expanded with advancing age. Age and SBP are the main longitudinal determinants of PWV, and the effect of SBP on PWV trajectories exists even in the prehypertensive range. PMID:24001897
Alghatrif, Majd; Strait, James B; Morrell, Chris H; Canepa, Marco; Wright, Jeanette; Elango, Palchamy; Scuteri, Angelo; Najjar, Samer S; Ferrucci, Luigi; Lakatta, Edward G
Cross-sectional studies on somatosensory perception in children demonstrate lower pain thresholds for children compared with adolescents. The aim of the present longitudinalstudy was to replicate these age-related differences in a longitudinal design. Total 38 children and adolescents aged 6 to 16 years (two girls and two boys within each year) participated in this study. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) according to the protocol of the German research network on neuropathic pain (DFNS) was assessed twice with an interval of 15.8 ± 3.0 months. Bland-Altman analyses describe the short-term reliability of the measurements. Intraindividual sensory development was measured using paired t-test and quantified by effect sizes Cohen's d between the two measurements. QST parameters showed good short-term reliability. Over a period of 1 year, children became less sensitive to painful stimuli, especially to cold pain, pressure pain, and mechanical pain. No systematic developmental changes were observed in response to the other somatosensory stimuli. QST is reliable over short retest intervals. In line with previous results from cross-sectional studies, we find a decrease in pain sensitivity with increasing age but no differences in nonnociceptive somatosensory processing over a period of 1 year in children between 6 and 16 years of age. Taken together, these results highlight the importance of a reference-based interpretation of the individual QST data. PMID:22430155
The study’s aims are to explore ethnic differences in rates of adverse childhood experiences and lifetime traumatic events and in rates of psychiatric disorders for patients exposed to similar traumas. Rates of these events and rates of major depressive disorder, posttraumatic stress, substance use, and borderline personality disorders were compared among 506 non-Hispanic Whites (N-HW), 108 Latina(o)s, and 94 African Americans (AA) participating in the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorder Study. We found that Whites reported higher rates of neglect than African Americans and Latina(o)s, higher rates of verbal/emotional abuse than African Americans, and higher rates of accidents and injuries/feared serious injury than Latina(o)s. African Americans had higher rates of seeing someone injured/killed than Whites. No significant interaction was observed between adverse events and ethnicity for mental disorders.
Perez Benitez, Carlos I.; Yen, Shirley; Shea, M. Tracie; Edelen, Maria O.; Markowitz, John C.; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Ansell, Emily B.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Skodol, Andrew E.; Gunderson, John G.; Morey, Leslie C.
We examined the relationship between parent-perceived neighborhood safety and children's physical activity, sedentary behavior, body mass, and obesity status using 9 years of longitudinal data (1999-2007) on a cohort of approximately 19,000 US kindergartners from the Early Childhood LongitudinalStudy. Children's height and weight measurements and parent perceptions of neighborhood safety were available in kindergarten and in the first, third, fifth, and eighth grades. Dependent variables included age- and gender-specific body mass index percentile, obesity status, and parent- or child-reported weekly physical activity and television-watching. Pooled cross-sectional and within-child longitudinal regression models that controlled for child, family, and school characteristics were fitted. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal models indicated that children whose parents perceived their neighborhoods as unsafe watched more television and participated in less physical activity, although the magnitude of this association was much weaker in longitudinal models. However, there was no significant association between parent-perceived neighborhood safety and children's body mass index. PMID:23579555
Our purpose in this article is to describe the objectives, design, overall coverage, and main domains of data collection of the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama Oriente LongitudinalStudy and subsequent follow-up studies. This supplementary feeding trial targeted to pregnant and lactating women and children from birth to 7 y of age, conducted in 4 rural Guatemalan villages (1969-77) with a series of follow-up studies (1988-2007), is one of the richest sources of information on the effects of nutrition, growth, development, and human capital in the developing world, with outstanding data from gestation to adult age and 40 y of follow-up. Its results have influenced nutrition knowledge and policy with over 300 scientific publications. We present brief descriptions of preliminary studies that were critical for the success of the trial and the design and methods used during the trial and in the follow-up studies, in chronological order. PMID:20032472
Anecdotal data have suggested that retention of HIV-infected patients with immune recovery in longitudinalstudies may be difficult as they resume normal activities. This study evaluated risk factors for attrition among patients with AIDS in a cohort study in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Patients with AIDS enrolled in the LongitudinalStudy of Ocular Complications of AIDS were
D. M. Brown; J. E. Thorne; G. L. Foster; J. L. Duncan; L. M. Brune; A. Muñana; C. L. Meinert; D. A. Jabs
Objective Children with unilateral hearing loss (UHL) have been found to have lower language scores, and increased rate of speech therapy, grade failures, or needing Individualized Education Plans (IEPs). The objective of this study was to determine whether language skills and educational performance improved or worsened over time in a cohort of children with UHL. Study Design Prospective longitudinal cohort study Methods Forty-six children with permanent UHL, ages 6 to 12 years, were studied using standardized cognitive, achievement, and language testing at yearly intervals for three years. Using standardized test scores allowed implicit comparison to norms established by national cross-sectional samples. Secondary outcomes included behavioral issues, IEPs, receipt of speech therapy, or teacher report of problems at school. Analysis utilized repeated measures ANOVA and multilevel random regression modeling. Results Several cognitive and language mean standardized scores increased over time. Possible predictors of increase with time included higher baseline cognitive levels and receipt of interventions through an IEP. However, standardized achievement scores and indicators of school performance did not show concomitant improvements. Rates of IEPs remained > 50% throughout, and rates of speech therapy were consistently about 20%. Conclusions Children with UHL demonstrated improvement in oral language and verbal IQ scores over time, but not improvements in school performance. Parents and teachers reported persistent behavioral problems and academic weaknesses or areas of concern in about 25%. The provision of IEPs for children with UHL, and acknowledging UHL as a hearing disability, may be an effective intervention to improve language skills over time.
This study investigates the relationship between three different cognitive processes underlying the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and adolescent smoking behaviors in a longitudinalstudy. We conducted a longitudinalstudy of 181 Chinese adolescents in Chengdu City, China. The participants were followed from 10th to 11th grade. When they were in the 10th grade (Time 1), we tested these adolescents' decision-making using the IGT and working memory capacity using the Self-ordered Pointing Test (SOPT). Self-report questionnaires were used to assess school academic performance and smoking behaviors. The same questionnaires were completed again at the 1-year follow-up (Time 2). The Expectancy-Valence (EV) Model was applied to distill the IGT performance into three different underlying psychological components: (i) a motivational component which indicates the subjective weight the adolescents assign to gains vs. losses; (ii) a learning-rate component which indicates the sensitivity to recent outcomes vs. past experiences; and (iii) a response component which indicates how consistent the adolescents are between learning and responding. The subjective weight to gains vs. losses at Time 1 significantly predicted current smokers and current smoking levels at Time 2, controlling for demographic variables and baseline smoking behaviors. Therefore, by decomposing the IGT into three different psychological components, we found that the motivational process of weight gain vs. losses may serve as a neuropsychological marker to predict adolescent smoking behaviors in a general youth population. PMID:24101911
Xiao, Lin; Koritzky, Gilly; Johnson, C Anderson; Bechara, Antoine
This study investigates the relationship between three different cognitive processes underlying the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and adolescent smoking behaviors in a longitudinalstudy. We conducted a longitudinalstudy of 181 Chinese adolescents in Chengdu City, China. The participants were followed from 10th to 11th grade. When they were in the 10th grade (Time 1), we tested these adolescents' decision-making using the IGT and working memory capacity using the Self-ordered Pointing Test (SOPT). Self-report questionnaires were used to assess school academic performance and smoking behaviors. The same questionnaires were completed again at the 1-year follow-up (Time 2). The Expectancy-Valence (EV) Model was applied to distill the IGT performance into three different underlying psychological components: (i) a motivational component which indicates the subjective weight the adolescents assign to gains vs. losses; (ii) a learning-rate component which indicates the sensitivity to recent outcomes vs. past experiences; and (iii) a response component which indicates how consistent the adolescents are between learning and responding. The subjective weight to gains vs. losses at Time 1 significantly predicted current smokers and current smoking levels at Time 2, controlling for demographic variables and baseline smoking behaviors. Therefore, by decomposing the IGT into three different psychological components, we found that the motivational process of weight gain vs. losses may serve as a neuropsychological marker to predict adolescent smoking behaviors in a general youth population.
Xiao, Lin; Koritzky, Gilly; Johnson, C. Anderson; Bechara, Antoine
Engaging in trading sex is associated with many co-occurring problems, including elevated risk for sexually transmitted infections. Various dimensions of social support from parents, schools, and mentors may be protective against sex trading and may ameliorate the impact of risk factors. This study analyzes data from respondents to Waves I and III of the National LongitudinalStudy of Adolescent Health (Add Health) who had not participated in sex trading for money or drugs in Wave I so that risk and protective factors for first initiations of selling or buying sex could be examined longitudinally. About 2% of the study sample began selling sex and about 2% began buying sex between Wave I and Wave III. The respondent's sex, race/ethnicity, history of sexual abuse, shoplifting, marijuana use, and experiences of homelessness or running away were significant predictors of trading sex (p?0.05). Being happy at school was associated with lower selling of sex, and feeling part of school was associated with lower buying of sex even after controlling for demographics and risk factors (p?0.05). Results indicate a need for early intervention for youth who experience sexual abuse or running away. Elements of school connectedness have a protective effect on selling and buying sex. Promoting school connectedness may advance public health goals. PMID:22350114
Twenty Navy Underwater Demolition Team (UDT) trainees were repeatedly tested during their first two months of training to obtain longitudinal information concerning the correlations of subjects' mood and feeling states of motivation, arousal, happiness, d...
R. H. Rahe R. T. Rubin E. K. E. Gunderson R. J. Arthur
|Problems in making inferences from a sample to a population and from one cohort to other cohorts are discussed. It is concluded that in most cases a longitudinal design using repeated measures is preferable to an independent samples design. (Author)|
In this paper we present a case study of a longitudinal in-situ observation that involves a new social application for mobile communication. Our study demonstrates the need for an adaptive approach to planning, design, and implementation that is responsive to emerging social and infrastructure conditions. This represents a shift from traditional longitudinalstudies that observe prototype systems with fixed sets
This study examined a full path model of stress process for predicting illicit drug use among Asian and Latino immigrants' adolescent children. Using 2-year longitudinal data (National LongitudinalStudy of Adolescent Health) from a sample of adolescents with Asian or Latino immigrant parents (N = 2,353), the study explored structural…
|This study examined a full path model of stress process for predicting illicit drug use among Asian and Latino immigrants' adolescent children. Using 2-year longitudinal data (National LongitudinalStudy of Adolescent Health) from a sample of adolescents with Asian or Latino immigrant parents (N = 2,353), the study explored structural…
|Background: Whilst past studies have established the joint influence of student learning experience and study behaviour on academic achievement, few attempts have been made to determine their causal ordering in a longitudinal framework. Purpose: This study explored the reciprocal relationship between learning experience and study behaviour, and…
Background There is a growing ethical imperative to feedback research results to participants but there remains a striking lack of empirical research on how people respond to individualised feedback. We sought to explore longitudinalstudyparticipants' response to receiving individual written feedback of weight-related and blood results, and to consider the balance of harms against benefits. Methods A qualitative study with face-to-face and telephone interviews conducted with 50 men and women who had participated in the fifth and most recent wave of the cohort study 'West of Scotland Twenty-07' and received a feedback letter containing body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage, cholesterol and glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) results. Results Expectations of, and response to, the feedback of their individual results varied. Whilst half of the participants were on the whole 'pleased' with their results or held neutral views, half reported negative responses such as 'shock' or 'concern', particularly in relation to the weight-related results. Participants who were overweight and obese used the most negative language about their results, with some being quite distressed and reporting feelings of powerlessness, low self-image and anxiety over future health. Nevertheless, some people reported having implemented lifestyle changes in direct response to the feedback, resulting in significant weight-loss and/or dietary improvements. Others reported being motivated to change their behaviour. Age and gender differences were apparent in these narratives of behaviour change. Conclusions The potential harm caused to some participants may be balanced against the benefit to others. More evaluation of the impact of the format, content and means of individualised feedback of research findings in non-trial studies is required given the growing ethical imperative to offer participants a choice of receiving their results, and the likelihood that a high percentage will choose to receive them.
This study examined exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). A major public health problem, ETS has been found to be associated with an increased risk of adverse health effects in children. This study utilizes data from a community-based, longitudinal investigation examining the relation between children’s exposure to ETS and later internalizing symptoms and externalizing behaviors. Interviews were administered to a representative community sample of participants from two New York State counties in 1983, with subsequent interviews in 1985–1986, 1992, 1997, and 2002–2003 (when the participants’ mean age was 32). Data was collected on various personality and behavioral characteristics of the participants, and on internalizing symptoms and externalizing behaviors demonstrated by their children. Results indicated that children’s exposure to ETS was associated with an increased risk for both internalizing symptoms and externalizing behaviors. This relationship was maintained despite control on a number of parental psychosocial risk factors (e.g., demographic variables, personality and behavioral attributes) that have been found to be associated with both parental cigarette smoking and behavior problems among children. These data, which indicate an association between exposure to ETS and internalizing symptoms and externalizing behaviors among children, support public health policies to further restrict children’s exposure to ETS.
Objective To investigate whether deliberate self harm is associated with contemporary Goth youth subculture. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Setting School and community based study of young people living in the Central Clydeside Conurbation, Scotland. Participants 1258 people aged 19, surveyed in 2002-4 and followed-up since age 11 (1994). Main outcome measures Lifetime prevalence of self harm and attempted suicide and their association with Goth youth subculture, before and after adjusting for confounders. Results Identification as belonging to the Goth subculture was strongly associated with lifetime self harm and attempted suicide, with a prevalence of 53% and 47%, respectively among the most highly identified group, and evidence for a dose-response relation. Adjusting for potential confounders did not significantly attenuate this association. Analysis of other youth subcultures showed that this effect was primarily associated with Goth subculture. Conclusions Identification as belonging to the Goth subculture was the best predictor of self harm and attempted suicide. Although based on small numbers, additional longitudinal analysis suggests both selection and modelling mechanisms are involved, selection mechanisms possibly being more likely.
The Tea Party movement, which rose to prominence in the United States after the election of President Barack Obama, provides an ideal context in which to examine the roles of racial concerns and ideology in politics. A three-wave longitudinalstudy tracked changes in White Americans’ self-identification with the Tea Party, racial concerns (prejudice and racial identification), and ideologies (libertarianism and social conservatism) over nine months. Latent Growth Modeling (LGM) was used to evaluate potential causal relationships between Tea Party identification and these factors. Across time points, racial prejudice was indirectly associated with movement identification through Whites’ assertions of national decline. Although initial levels of White identity did not predict change in Tea Party identification, initial levels of Tea Party identification predicted increases in White identity over the study period. Across the three assessments, support for the Tea Party fell among libertarians, but rose among social conservatives. Results are discussed in terms of legitimation theories of prejudice, the “racializing” power of political judgments, and the ideological dynamics of the Tea Party.
Knowles, Eric D.; Lowery, Brian S.; Shulman, Elizabeth P.; Schaumberg, Rebecca L.
A 3-year longitudinalstudy was conducted on a multi-site farrow-to-finish production system. For each of 18 cohorts at three finishing sites, 50 pigs were randomly selected. Faecal samples were collected every 2 weeks for 16 weeks. Salmonella was cultured from 453 (6·6%) of 6836 faecal samples. The pig-level incidence of Salmonella was 20·8% (187/899 pigs). Salmonella prevalence varied between cohorts and within pigs. The adjusted Salmonella prevalence decreased over the finishing period from 6·4% to 0·8%. Intermittent detection of Salmonella was found in more than 50% of pigs that were positive at more than one collection. The finding that the majority of pigs shed intermittently has implications for surveillance and research study design when determining Salmonella status. The variability in shedding over time, as well as between and within cohorts and pigs suggests that there may be time-variant risk factors for Salmonella shedding in swine. PMID:23148875
Study Objectives: To estimate trajectories of sleep lost over worry as a function of age, using longitudinal modeling, and compare these trajectories with those for insomnia symptoms. Design and Setting: Data from two prospective, occupational cohorts (the Whitehall II and Finnish Public Sector studies) comprising 84,384 observations from four to eight repeat measurements in 1985-2010. Participants: There were 16,408 men and women age 34-79 yr. Measurements and Results: Age-related trajectories of sleep lost over worry and insomnia symptoms (sleep initiation or maintenance problems, nonrefreshing sleep) were estimated using repeated-measures log-binomial regression analysis and generalized estimating equations. These analyses were adjusted for year of birth and time of measurement to minimize confounding by cohort or period effects. The prevalence ratio for insomnia symptoms was higher in older age groups compared with participants age 34-45 yr. In contrast, the age-related trajectory of sleep lost over worry included two phases: a period of high prevalence of sleep complaints at age 34-60 yr followed by a declining trajectory at older ages. Compared with participants age 34-45 yr, prevalence ratios for sleep lost over worry were 0.63 (0.49-0.80) and 0.59 (0.41-0.84) in the Whitehall II studyparticipants ages 61-65 and 71-79 years. Corresponding figures were 0.62 (0.52-0.75) and 0.46 (0.32-0.66) in the Finnish Public Sector study. Conclusion: This study shows a general age-related decrease in sleep lost over worry between late midlife and old age, a pattern strikingly different from the age-related increase in insomnia symptoms. Citation: Salo P; Vahtera J; Ferrie JE; Akbaraly T; Goldberg M; Zins M; Pentti J; Virtanen M; Shipley MJ; Singh-Manoux A; Dauvilliers Y; Kivimaki M. Trajectories of sleep complaints from early midlife to old age: longitudinal modeling study. SLEEP 2012;35(11):1559-1568.
Salo, Paula; Vahtera, Jussi; Ferrie, Jane E.; Akbaraly, Tasnime; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie; Pentti, Jaana; Virtanen, Marianna; Shipley, Martin J.; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Dauvilliers, Yves; Kivimaki, Mika
An important challenge in epidemiology is the difficulty in inferring causality from observational studies. Even the best longitudinalstudies have limitations in this regard, and when clinical trials are feasible they will provide more definite evidence of causality. However, even when clinical trials are feasible, we can learn a great deal about the disease process, assessment techniques, subject selection criteria, and the impact of potential interventions from longitudinalstudies. This review covers the theoretical issues supporting the value and limitations of longitudinalstudies, the practical utilization in clinical trials of different aspects of knowledge that can be gained from longitudinalstudies, critical issues in the translation of longitudinal observational studies into clinical trials, and the value of observational studies in broadening the applicability of specific trials. Relevant issues are illustrated with examples of both unsuccessful and successful trials, with a major emphasis on clinical trials of physical activity in older persons.
Objectives We investigated the secular trend in white blood cell (WBC) count and the relationship between WBC count and mortality between 1958 and 2002. Background The WBC count is a clinical marker of inflammation and a strong predictor of mortality. Limited data exist on the WBC count secular trend and the relationship between WBC and mortality. Methods One thousand eighty-three women and 1,720 men were evaluated longitudinally in the Baltimore LongitudinalStudy of Aging. Blood samples and medical information were collected at the study entry and every 2 years during follow-up visits. The WBC count and all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality were assessed. Results A downward trend in WBC count was observed from 1958 to 2002. The secular downward trend was independent of age, gender, race, smoking, body mass index, and physical activity. The WBC count was nonlinearly associated with all-cause mortality and almost linearly associated with cardiovascular mortality. Participants with baseline WBC <3,500 cells/mm3 and WBC >6,000 cells/mm3 had higher mortality than those with 3,500 to 6,000 WBC/mm3. Within each WBC group, age-adjusted mortality rates declined in successive cohorts from the 1960s to the 1990s. Participants who died had higher WBC than those who survived, and the difference was statistically significant within 5 years before death. Conclusions Our study provides evidence for a secular downward trend in WBC count over the period from 1958 to 2002. Higher WBC counts are associated with higher mortality in successive cohorts. We found no evidence that the decline of age-specific mortality rates that occurred from 1960 to 2000 was attributable to a secular downward trend in WBC.
Ruggiero, Carmelinda; Metter, E. Jeffrey; Cherubini, Antonio; Maggio, Marcello; Sen, Ranjan; Najjar, Samer S.; Windham, Gwen B.; Ble, Alessandro; Senin, Umberto; Ferrucci, Luigi
|This paper reviews educational effectiveness theory, concentrating on the time stability of the teacher and school effect. The contribution of longitudinalstudies investigating the long-term effect of schools and teachers to modelling educational effectiveness is discussed. Findings of a longitudinalstudy on the progress of students (N=1681) in…
|Background: Maternal depression is known to be associated with impairments in child cognitive development, although the effect of timing of exposure to maternal depression is unclear. Methods: Data collected for the Avon LongitudinalStudy of Parents and Children, a longitudinalstudy beginning in pregnancy, included self-report measures of…
|Traumatic childhood experiences have been found to predict later internalizing problems. This prospective longitudinalstudy investigated whether repeated and intentional harm doing by peers (peer victimization) in childhood predicts internalizing symptoms in early adolescence. 3,692 children from the Avon LongitudinalStudy of Parents and…
Zwierzynska, Karolina; Wolke, Dieter; Lereya, Tanya S.
The study of longitudinal instabilities such as microwave instability remains a very active research area for both light source storage rings and high energy physics collider rings. Extensive efforts have been devoted to two areas of studies: simulations of the longitudinal instabilities under the influence of the broadband impedances and high-Q impedances, and the measurements of bunch lengthening and energy
Y. K. Wu; O. A. Shevchenko; V. N. Litvinenko; J. Li
Researchers conducting longitudinalstudies with children or adults are inevitably confronted with problems of attrition and missing data. Missing data in longitudinalstudies is frequently handled by excluding from analyses those cases for whom data are incomplete. This approach to missing data is not optimal. On the one hand, if data are missing at random, then dropping incomplete cases ignores
David J. Francis; Donna R. Copeland; Bartlett D. Moore
Objectives. We examined the association between time spent in physical education and academic achievement in a longitudinalstudy of students in kinder- garten through fifth grade. Methods. We used data from the Early Childhood LongitudinalStudy, Kinder- garten Class of 1998 to 1999, which employed a multistage probability design to select a nationally representative sample of students in kindergarten (analytic
Susan A. Carlson; Janet E. Fulton; Sarah M. Lee; L. Michele Maynard; David R. Brown; Harold W. Kohl III; William H. Dietz
BACKGROUND: Cognitive dysfunction is common among depressed patients. However, the pattern and magnitude of impairment during episodes of major depressive disorder (MDD) through to clinical remission remains unclear. Heterogeneity of depressive patients and the lack of longitudinalstudies may account for contradictory results in previous research. METHODS\\/DESIGN: This longitudinalstudy will analyze cognitive differences between CORE-defined melancholic depressed patients (n
Saray Monzón; Margalida Gili; Margalida Vives; Maria Jesus Serrano; Natalia Bauza; Rosa Molina; Mauro García-Toro; Joan Salvà; Joan Llobera; Miquel Roca
Although Scrum is an important topic in software engineering and information systems, few longitudinal industrial studies have investigated the effects of Scrum on software quality, in terms of defects and defect density, and the quality assurance process. In this paper we report on a longitudinalstudy in which we have followed a project over a three-year period. We compared software
The experimental and computational study of longitudinal vortices in turbulent boundary layers are reported. Three types of flow were considered. In the first, flow in a curved duct with a 90 degree bend was measured and calculated to study a naturally occurring longitudinal vortex near the corner of the convex wall. In the second, contrarotating (common-up and common-down) pairs of
|This study addresses the utility of the resilient, overcontrolled, and undercontrolled personality prototypes for predicting children's and adolescents' problem behaviour in a longitudinal general population sample (N = 491). Both parents and one child participated in the study at two measurement occasions separated by a 3-year interval. The…
van Leeuwen, Karla; de Fruyt, Filip; Mervielde, Ivan
|This dissertation research comprised three studies focused on vision-specific skills, and their association with functional and academic outcomes for school-age students with visual impairment. The studies involved analysis of secondary data for 850 students with visual impairment who participated in the Special Education Elementary Longitudinal…
|This report is the first in a series of four final reports that present the findings of the LongitudinalStudy of the Vocational Rehabilitation (VR) Services Program. Initiated in fall 1992, the study has tracked VR participation and post-VR experiences of applicants to and consumers of VR services (n=8,500) for up to 3 years following exit from…
The study investigated continuity, comorbidity and longitudinal associations between depression Beck depression inventory (RBDI) and antisocial behaviour Youth self-report (YSR) in middle adolescence. Data were used from a community sample of 2070 adolescents who participated in a 2-year prospective follow-up study. The results indicate that both…
Ritakallio, Minna; Koivisto, Anna-Maija; von der Pahlen, Bettina; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Marttunen, Mauri; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu
|This study investigated the roles of sex, age, and parent-child communication in moderating the association between digital game violence and direct aggression in a two-year longitudinalstudy. Finnish 12- and 15-year-old adolescents (N = 316) participated in the follow-up survey. As hypothesized, digital game violence was linked to direct…
|The study investigated continuity, comorbidity and longitudinal associations between depression Beck depression inventory (RBDI) and antisocial behaviour Youth self-report (YSR) in middle adolescence. Data were used from a community sample of 2070 adolescents who participated in a 2-year prospective follow-up study. The results indicate that both…
Ritakallio, Minna; Koivisto, Anna-Maija; von der Pahlen, Bettina; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Marttunen, Mauri; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu
Aim: Investigation of the natural history of trachomatous trichiasis in the Gambia and of the outcome of self epilation and surgery for the condition. Methods: A 1 year longitudinalstudy of 190 subjects with trichiasis was performed. Major trichiasis cases (five lashes or more) were referred for surgery and minor trichiasis cases were advised to epilate. Outcome measures included progression of trichiasis and corneal scarring; attendance for and results of surgery. Results: 34 of 148 (23%, 95% CI 16 to 31) subjects with major trichiasis attended for surgery over the year. Progression from minor to major trichiasis occurred in 18 of 55 subjects (33%, 95% CI 21 to 47). Progression of corneal scarring occurred in 60 of 167 patients (36%, 95% CI 29 to 44). Clinically active trachoma and conjunctival bacterial isolation predicted progression of corneal opacity. Surgery was successful in 39 of 54 (72%) eyes. Conclusions: Despite the overall decline in trachoma in the Gambia, patients with both minor and major trichiasis remain at risk of developing corneal opacity. Active trachomatous inflammation and additional infection with bacteria may accelerate this process. Antibiotic treatment for trichiasis patients (in addition to surgery) should be investigated. Surgery for minor trichiasis may be indicated. Regular audit of surgical results is necessary with retraining where needed.
Bowman, R J C; Faal, H; Myatt, M; Adegbola, R; Foster, A; Johnson, G J; Bailey, R L
The Framingham Heart Study is a very successful longitudinal research for cardiovascular diseases. The completion of a 10-cM genome scan in Framingham families provided an opportunity to evaluate linkage using longitudinal data. Several descriptive traits based on simulated longitudinal data from the Genetic Analysis Workshop 13 (GAW13) were generated, and linkage analyses were performed for these traits. We compared the power of detecting linkage for baseline and slope genes in the simulated data of GAW13 using these traits. We found that using longitudinal traits based on multiple follow-ups may not be more powerful than using cross-sectional traits for genetic linkage analysis.
Study abroad is an expensive, resource intensive activity for both students and their home institution. With an estimated 200,000 American students studying abroad in 2006, and an annual growth rate of eight percent, program administrators and international scholars are increasingly being asked to document the learning outcomes associated with…
Rexeisen, Richard J.; Anderson, Philip H.; Lawton, Leigh; Hubbard, Ann C.
Longitudinal data spanning 22 years, obtained from deceased participants of the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP; N = 1,637; 70 to 100 year olds), were used to examine if and how life satisfaction exhibits terminal decline at the end of life. Changes in life satisfaction were more strongly associated with distance to death than with distance from birth (chronological age). Multi-phase growth models were used to identify a transition point roughly four years prior to death wherein the prototypical rate of decline in life satisfaction tripled from –0.64 to –1.94 T-score units per year. Further individual-level analyses suggest that individuals dying at older ages spend more years in the terminal periods of life satisfaction decline than individuals dying at earlier ages. Overall, the evidence suggests that late-life changes in aspects of well-being are driven by mortality-related mechanisms and characterized by terminal decline.
Background Many factors act simultaneously in childhood to influence health status, life chances and well being, including pre-birth influences, the environmental pollutants of early life, health status but also the social influences of family and school. A cohort study is needed to disentangle these influences and explore attribution. Methods Elfe will be a nationally representative cohort of 20 000 children followed from birth to adulthood using a multidisciplinary approach. The cohort will be based on the INSEE Permanent Demographic Panel (EDP) established using census data and civil records. The sample size has been defined in order to match the representativeness criteria and to obtain some prevalence estimation, but also to address the research area of low exposure/rare effects. The cohort will be based on repeated surveys by face to face or phone interview (at birth and each year) as well as medical interview (at 2 years) and examination (at 6 years). Furthermore, biological samples will be taken at birth to evaluate the foetal exposition to toxic substances, environmental sensors will be placed in the child's homes. Pilot studies have been initiated in 2007 (500 children) with an overall acceptance rate of 55% and are currently under progress, the 2-year survey being carried out in October this year. Discussion The longitudinalstudy will provide a unique source of data to analyse the development of children in their environment, to study the various factors interacting throughout the life course up to adulthood and to determine the impact of childhood experience on the individual's physical, psychological, social and professional development.
A longitudinal experiment was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of new methods for learning neuroanatomy with computer-based instruction. Using a 3D graphical model of the human brain, and sections derived from the model, tools for exploring neuroanatomy were developed to encourage adaptive exploration. This is an instructional method which incorporates graphical exploration in the context of repeated testing and feedback. With this approach, 72 participants learned either sectional anatomy alone or whole anatomy followed by sectional anatomy. Sectional anatomy was explored either with perceptually continuous navigation through the sections or with discrete navigation (as in the use of an anatomical atlas). Learning was measured longitudinally to a high performance criterion. Subsequent tests examined transfer of learning to the interpretation of biomedical images and long-term retention. There were several clear results of this study. On initial exposure to neuroanatomy, whole anatomy was learned more efficiently than sectional anatomy. After whole anatomy was mastered, learners demonstrated high levels of transfer of learning to sectional anatomy and from sectional anatomy to the interpretation of complex biomedical images. Learning whole anatomy prior to learning sectional anatomy led to substantially fewer errors overall than learning sectional anatomy alone. Use of continuous or discrete navigation through sectional anatomy made little difference to measured outcomes. Efficient learning, good long-term retention, and successful transfer to the interpretation of biomedical images indicated that computer-based learning using adaptive exploration can be a valuable tool in instruction of neuroanatomy and similar disciplines.
Objective . The purpose of this study was to examine differences in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors across four cross-tabulated groups of cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index in 8- to 18-year-old children and adolescents. Methods. The sample included 296 boys and 188 girls (mean age \\/15.7 years) participating in the Aerobics Center LongitudinalStudy. Participants were cross tabulated into
Joey C. Eisenmann; Gregory J. Welk; Eric E. Wickel; Steven N. Blair
This study examined the prenatal, postnatal and demographic predictors of parent-reported attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity\\u000a disorder (ADHD) in an Australian population-based sample. Participants were families participating in the LongitudinalStudy\\u000a of Australian Children. There were approximately even numbers of males (51%) and females (49%) in the sample. Predictors of\\u000a parent-reported ADHD status at Wave 2 (children aged 6–7 years) which were measured at Wave
Background: Literature suggests that early patterns of aggressive behaviour in both girls and boys are predictive of a variety of health risks in adulthood. However, longitudinal examination of the predictive links between childhood aggression, negative physical health outcomes in adulthood and overall use of health care has not been done. We looked at use of health care and a variety of physical health outcomes in adulthood to extend the current body of knowledge regarding the long-term negative sequelae of childhood aggression. Methods: Participants of the Concordia Longitudinal Risk Project were eligible for the current study if they had received medical care in the province of Quebec between 1992 and 2006, and if we were able to retrieve their medical and education records. Our primary outcome was use of the health care system, as determined using records from the Régie de l’assurance maladie du Québec and the Ministère de la santé et des services sociaux. Our controlled variables were socioeconomic status of the neighbourhood in which participants lived in 1986 and level of education. We used hierarchical multiple regression to explore the association between childhood behaviour and physical health in adulthood. Results: During the 15-year period studied, childhood agression corresponded to an increase in medical visits (8.1% per 1 standard deviation increase in agression), and injuries (10.7%) or lifestyle-related illnesses (44.2%), visits to specialists (6.2%) and visits to emergency departments (12.4%). We saw a positive relation between social withdrawal during childhood and government-funded visits to dentists. Peer-rated likeability during childhood showed negative relations with use of health care (overall), medical visits due to injuries and government-funded visits to dentists. Interpretation: Childhood aggression is a health risk that should be considered when designing interventions to improve public health and diminish the costs of medical services, particularly when considering interventions targeting children and families.
Temcheff, Caroline E.; Serbin, Lisa A.; Martin-Storey, Alexa; Stack, Dale M.; Hastings, Paul; Ledingham, Jane; Schwartzman, Alex E.
Objectives To assess the relationship between telomere length and adiposity, using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in addition to conventional anthropometric proxies including body mass index (BMI) and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Methods A cross-sectional sample of 309 non-Hispanic white participants in the Fels LongitudinalStudy aged 8 to 80 yr (52% female) was included. Average telomere length was measured by quantitative PCR. Results Telomere length was negatively correlated with age (r = ?0.32, P < 0.0001) and had numerous significant correlations with established cardiovascular disease risk factors including waist circumference (r = ?0.33), apolipoprotein B (r = ?0.26), systolic blood pressure (r = ?0.28), and fasting serum glucose (r = ?0.15); all P < 0.0025. In back-ward selection linear regression models of telomere length, adiposity measures were consistently retained in the best models; BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, total body fat, and visceral adipose tissue volume were all inversely associated with telomere length at the nominal P < 0.05 level or lower, independent of age, sex, systolic blood pressure, and fasting serum lipid, lipoprotein, and glucose concentrations. The negative association of BMI with telomere length was stronger among younger than older participants (P for interaction, 0.03). Conclusions Individuals with higher total and abdominal adiposity have lower telomere length, a marker of cellular senescence, suggesting obesity may hasten the aging process. Longitudinalstudies are required to establish the causal association of early life adiposity with biological aging.
LEE, MIRYOUNG; MARTIN, HILARIE; FIRPO, MATTHEW A.; DEMERATH, ELLEN W.
Objective To explore views of patients with type 2 diabetes about self monitoring of blood glucose over time. Design Longitudinal, qualitative study. Setting Primary and secondary care settings across Lothian, Scotland. Participants 18 patients with type 2 diabetes. Main outcome measures Results from repeat in-depth interviews with patients over four years after clinical diagnosis. Results Analysis revealed three main themes—the role of health professionals, interpreting readings and managing high values, and the ongoing role of blood glucose self monitoring. Self monitoring decreased over time, and health professionals' behaviour seemed crucial in this: participants interpreted doctors' focus on levels of haemoglobin A1c, and lack of perceived interest in meter readings, as indicating that self monitoring was not worth continuing. Some participants saw readings as a proxy measure of good and bad behaviour—with women especially, chastising themselves when readings were high. Some participants continued to find readings difficult to interpret, with uncertainty about how to respond to high readings. Reassurance and habit were key reasons for continuing. There was little indication that participants were using self monitoring to effect and maintain behaviour change. Conclusions Clinical uncertainty about the efficacy and role of blood glucose self monitoring in patients with type 2 diabetes is mirrored in patients' own accounts. Patients tended not to act on their self monitoring results, in part because of a lack of education about the appropriate response to readings. Health professionals should be explicit about whether and when such patients should self monitor and how they should interpret and act upon the results, especially high readings.
Background Longitudinal time-activity data are important for exposure modeling, since the extent to which short-term time-activity data represent long-term activity patterns is not well understood. This study was designed to evaluate longitudinal variations in human time-activity patterns. Method We report on 24-hour recall diaries and questionnaires collected via the internet from 151 parents of young children (mostly under age 55), and from 55 older adults of ages 55 and older, for both a weekday and a weekend day every three months over an 18-month period. Parents also provided data for their children. The self-administrated diary and questionnaire distinguished ~30 frequently visited microenvironments and ~20 activities which we selected to represent opportunities for exposure to toxic environmental compounds. Due to the non-normal distribution of time-location/activity data, we employed generalized linear mixed-distribution mixed-effect models to examine intra- and inter-individual variations. Here we describe variation in the likelihood of and time spent engaging in an activity or being in a microenvironment by age group, day-type (weekday/weekend), season (warm/cool), sex, employment status, and over the follow-up period. Results As expected, day-type and season influence time spent in many location and activity categories. Longitudinal changes were also observed, e.g., young children slept less with increasing follow-up, transit time increased, and time spent on working and shopping decreased during the study, possibly related to human physiological changes with age and changes in macro-economic factors such as gas prices and the economic recession. Conclusions This study provides valuable new information about time-activity assessed longitudinally in three major age groups and greatly expands our knowledge about intra- and inter-individual variations in time-location/activity patterns. Longitudinal variations beyond weekly and seasonal patterns should be taken into account in simulating long-term time-activity patterns in exposure modeling.
Field studies of pollutant concentrations, housing characteristics, and occupant behavior in occupied houses provide researchers with the best current estimates of indoor air quality in the residential environment. Information obtained from comprehensive multipollutant studies is quite valuable in assessing potential exposure to indoor pollutants. These studies require substantial resources to implement and are frequently sponsored by multiple organizations. A major goal of researchers is to maximize the information obtained from a particular study by performing as many measurements and characterizations as possible without adverse homeowner response. Two major indoor air quality field studies involving extensive indoor air quality characterizations were recently conducted by staff of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Following completion of the field phase of these studies, a participant evaluation survey was sent to all participants requesting their feedback on various aspects of the study. Results of these surveys are discussed.
Hawthorne, A.R.; Dudney, C.S. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Cohen, M.A.; Spengler, J.D. (Harvard Univ., Boston, MA (USA))
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) is an emerging pathogen in dogs and has been found in Europe, Asia and North America. To date most studies are one-point prevalence studies and therefore little is known about the dynamics of MRSP in dogs and their surrounding. In this longitudinalstudy MRSP colonization in dogs and the transmission of MRSP to humans, contact animals and the environment was investigated. Sixteen dogs with a recent clinical MRSP infection were included. The index dogs, contact animals, owners and environments were sampled once a month for six months. Samples taken from the nose, perineum and infection site (if present) of the index cases and contact animals, and the nares of the owners were cultured using pre-enrichment. Index cases were found positive for prolonged periods of time, in two cases during all six samplings. In five of the 12 households that were sampled during six months, the index case was intermittently found MRSP-positive. Contact animals and the environment were also found MRSP-positive, most often in combination with a MRSP-positive index dog. In four households positive environmental samples were found while no animals or humans were MRSP-positive, indicating survival of MRSP in the environment for prolonged periods of time. Genotyping revealed that generally similar or indistinguishable MRSP isolates were found in patients, contact animals and environmental samples within the same household. Within two households, however, genetically distinct MRSP isolates were found. These results show that veterinarians should stay alert with (former) MRSP patients, even after repeated MRSP-negative cultures or after the disappearance of the clinical infection. There is a considerable risk of transmission of MRSP to animals in close contact with MRSP patients. Humans were rarely MRSP-positive and never tested MRSP-positive more than once suggesting occasional contamination or rapid elimination of colonization of the owners.
Laarhoven, Laura M.; de Heus, Phebe; van Luijn, Jeanine; Duim, Birgitta; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; van Duijkeren, Engeline
Selective neurodegeneration accompanied by mitochondrial dysfunction characterizes neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Thiamine deficiency (TD) in rats is a model for the study of cellular and molecular mechanisms that lead to selective neuronal loss caused by chronic oxidative deficits. Neurodegeneration in TD-rats develops over a period of 12 to 14 days and can be partially reversed by thiamine administration. The aim of this study was to characterize the in-vivo progression of neurodegeneration and the neuronal rescue processes in TD using T(2) magnetic resonance mapping and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Each rat was scanned prior to TD induction (day 0), before the appearance of neurological symptoms (day 10), during the symptomatic stage (days 12 and 14) and during the recuperation period (days 31 and 87). Time-dependent lesions were revealed mainly in the thalamus and the inferior colliculi. Early decrease in the fractional anisotropy (FA) was found on day 10 in the inferior colliculi and to a lesser degree in the thalamus, while the earliest detectable changes in the T(2) parameter occurred only on day 12. FA values in the thalamus remained significantly low after thiamine restoration, suggesting irreversible disarrangement and replacement of neuronal structures. While T(2) values in the frontal cortex demonstrated no lesions, FA values significantly increased on days 14 and 31. An enlargement of the lateral ventricles was observed and persevered during the recovery period. This longitudinal MRI study demonstrated that in TD MRI can detect neurodegeneration and neuronal recovery. DTI is more sensitive than T(2) mapping in the early detection of TD lesions. PMID:19857469
|The aim of the study is to compare longitudinal patterns from Mathematics and Reading data from the direct child assessment of Early Child LongitudinalStudy, Kindergarten (ECLS-K, US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics 2006), utilizing Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS). PAMS has been used…
|The current investigation examined whether inter-generational transfer of risk could be revealed through mothers' and preschool-aged children's expressive language, and whether continuity of risk persisted in these children's academic abilities, 3 years later. Participating families were drawn from the Concordia Longitudinal Risk Project, a…
Campisi, Lisa; Serbin, Lisa A.; Stack, Dale M.; Schwartzman, Alex E.; Ledingham, Jane E.
|This longitudinalstudy spanning 18 years examined the role of social strategies in early career adaptation. The aim was to find out whether individuals' social strategies measured during their university studies had an impact on work burnout and work engagement measured 10-18 years later. A sample of 292 university students completed the SAQ…
This longitudinalstudy spanning 18years examined the role of social strategies in early career adaptation. The aim was to find out whether individuals' social strategies measured during their university studies had an impact on work burnout and work engagement measured 10–18years later. A sample of 292 university students completed the SAQ questionnaire three times while at university and the work
Katariina Salmela-Aro; Asko Tolvanen; Jari-Erik Nurmi
Recent longitudinalstudies of aging have suggested that intellectually inferior subjects selectively drop out during the course of the investigation. This issue of subject attrition was addressed in a neuropsychological study of 314 veterans who had sustained head or peripheral nerve injuries in World War II. These men were examined originally by Teuber and his colleagues at New York University in the 1940s and 1950s, and the veterans' participation was sought for a 40-year follow-up study at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In the current follow-up study, the veterans were subdivided according to their response to recent recruitment letters: those who agreed to be retested, those with whom recent contact was established but who declined to participate, those who did not reply to our correspondence, and those who were deceased. Those who agreed to be retested in the 1980s had significantly more education and achieved significantly higher Army General Classification Test scores both before and after injury than did the untested cohort. Even with the selective subject attrition, however, the remaining sample represented a broad range of intellectual competence. PMID:6491184
Purpose – To examine HRM strategies and practices and HRM position within organizations in various cultural, economic and sociopolitical contexts from a longitudinal perspective. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study uses the 1995 and 1999 Cranet data in a longitudinal methodological framework to explore the changes and trends in 18 European countries with regard to certain HRM issues between the points of
A longitudinal and multilevel approach is used to examine the relationship between antisocial behavior during adolescence and high school social climate. The data are taken from a longitudinalstudy of 1,233 boys and girls who attended 217 public and private high schools. Students' disruptive behaviors were assessed yearly from 6 to 12 years of…
Leblanc, Line; Swisher, Raymond; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.
Purpose: To examine HRM strategies and practices and HRM position within organizations in various cultural, economic and sociopolitical contexts from a longitudinal perspective. Design/methodology/approach: The study uses the 1995 and 1999 Cranet data in a longitudinal methodological framework to explore the changes and trends in 18 European…
In longitudinalstudies data is collected in a series of waves. Each wave after the first suffers from attrition. Therefore it can be difficult to discriminate between changes in sample parameters due to a longitudinal process (e.g. ageing) and changes due to attrition. The problem is particularly vexing if one of the purposes is to compare…
Madhyastha, Tara M.; Hunt, Earl; Deary, Ian J.; Gale, Catharine R.; Dykiert, Dominika
BACKGROUND: The Longitudinal Analysis of Nursing Education (LANE) study was initiated in 2002, with the aim of longitudinally examining a wide variety of individual and work-related variables related to psychological and physical health, as well as rates of employee and occupational turnover, and professional development among nursing students in the process of becoming registered nurses and entering working life. The
Ann Rudman; Marianne Omne-Pontén; Lars Wallin; Petter J Gustavsson
|Developmental science rests on describing, explaining, and optimizing intraindividual changes and, hence, empirically requires longitudinal research. Problems of missing data arise in most longitudinalstudies, thus creating challenges for interpreting the substance and structure of intraindividual change. Using a sample of reports of…
This paper provides an overview of the major results of a large-scale longitudinalstudy of students' misconceptions of decimal notation, drawing them together and presenting refined results. Best estimates of the prevalence of various misconceptions about decimal numbers from both cross-sectional and longitudinal perspectives are provided, as well as some estimates of persistence. Strengths, limitations and suggestions for improvements to
|In longitudinalstudies data is collected in a series of waves. Each wave after the first suffers from attrition. Therefore it can be difficult to discriminate between changes in sample parameters due to a longitudinal process (e.g. ageing) and changes due to attrition. The problem is particularly vexing if one of the purposes is to compare…
Madhyastha, Tara M.; Hunt, Earl; Deary, Ian J.; Gale, Catharine R.; Dykiert, Dominika
|This paper aims at investigating the causal effects of social behaviors on subsequent reading growth in elementary school, using the "Early Childhood LongitudinalStudy-Kindergarten" ("ECLS-K") data. The sample was 8,869 subjects who provided longitudinal measures of reading IRT scores from kindergarten (1998-1999) to fifth grades (2003-2004) in…
|Purpose: To examine HRM strategies and practices and HRM position within organizations in various cultural, economic and sociopolitical contexts from a longitudinal perspective. Design/methodology/approach: The study uses the 1995 and 1999 Cranet data in a longitudinal methodological framework to explore the changes and trends in 18 European…
|Longitudinal research into personal and ethnic identity has expanded considerably in the first decade of the present century. The longitudinalstudies have shown that personal identity develops progressively during adolescence, but also that many individuals do not change identity, especially ethnic identity. Researchers have found rank-order…
|This article presents a longitudinal qualitative study of the cognitive value of female friendships formed in college and seeks to appraise the meaning of the phenomenon for the participants. To grasp the temporal effects of the longitudinal data in this study, the author examines and assesses the relevant developmental literature, particularly…
Background Shoulder pain affects all ages, with a lifetime prevalence of one in three. The most effective treatment is not known. Physiotherapy is often recommended as the first choice of treatment. At present, it is not possible to identify, from the initial physiotherapy assessment, which factors predict the outcome of physiotherapy for patients with shoulder pain. The primary objective of this study is to identify which patient characteristics and baseline measures, typically assessed at the first physiotherapy appointment, are related to the functional outcome of shoulder pain 6 weeks and 6 months after starting physiotherapy treatment. Methods/Design Participants with musculoskeletal shoulder pain of any duration will be recruited from participating physiotherapy departments. For this longitudinal cohort study, the participants care pathway, including physiotherapy treatment will be therapist determined. Potential prognostic variables will be collected from participants during their first physiotherapy appointment and will include demographic details, lifestyle, psychosocial factors, shoulder symptoms, general health, clinical examination, activity limitations and participation restrictions. Outcome measures (Shoulder Pain and Disability Index, Quick Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand, and Global Impression of Change) will be collected by postal self-report questionnaires 6 weeks and 6 months after commencing physiotherapy. Details of attendance and treatment will be collected by the treating physiotherapist. Participants will be asked to complete an exercise dairy. An initial exploratory analysis will assess the relationship between potential prognostic factors at baseline and outcome using univariate statistical tests. Those factors significant at the 5% level will be further considered as prognostic factors using a general linear model. It is estimated that 780 subjects will provide more than 90% power to detect an effect size of less than 0.25 adjusted for other variables which have a co-efficient of determination (R-squared) with the outcome of up to 0.5. Assuming a 22% loss to follow up at 6 months, 1000 participants will initially be recruited. Discussion This study may offer service users and providers with guidance to help identify whether or not physiotherapy is likely to be of benefit. Clinicians may have some direction as to what key factors indicate a patient’s likely response to physiotherapy.
|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore reciprocal relationships between work/family resources, work/family enrichment (WFE), and work/family satisfaction in a Chinese society. Design/methodology/approach: A longitudinal design was adopted using a three-wave panel sample. Data were obtained from 310 Taiwanese employees on three…
Longitudinal investigations play an increasingly prominent role in biomedical research. Much of the literature on specifying and fitting linear models for serial measurements uses methods based on the standard multivariate linear model. This article proposes a more flexible approach that permits specification of the expected response as an arbitrary linear function of fixed and time-varying covariates so that mean-value functions
|An interval estimation procedure for proportion of explained observed variance in latent curve analysis is discussed, which can be used as an aid in the process of choosing between linear and nonlinear models. The method allows obtaining confidence intervals for the R[squared] indexes associated with repeatedly followed measures in longitudinal…
Purpose – This paper aims to provide a research framework to explore the change in corporate environmental strategy based on the resource-based view of the firm and institutionalization theory and to present empirical evidence that illustrates how environmental strategy has changed. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The framework and propositions are examined by using a longitudinal empirical analysis using mail surveys conducted in
Detailed education, employment and training histories have been constructed for a cohort of 440 male respondents from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. The data show that most respondents without college degrees have experienced at least one occupational break, defined as a change from one occupation to another sufficiently occupational skills acquired previously. The data also show that most of
|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine organisational learning (OL) and individual managerial learning and provide a comparative evaluation of the ability of each to generate organisational benefits. Design/methodology/approach: A theoretical model of organisational learning is developed which was then longitudinally tested…
A longitudinal examination of the relation between separation experiences and the development of separation anxiety at age 3, 11 and 18 years was conducted. Three associative pathways (Rachman, S.J. (1978). Fear and courage. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman) were assessed. Conditioning events were not related to separation anxiety at age 3. Vicarious learning (modelling) in middle childhood (age 9 years) was
Richie Poulton; Barry J. Milne; Michelle G Craske; Ross G Menzies
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine organisational learning (OL) and individual managerial learning and provide a comparative evaluation of the ability of each to generate organisational benefits. Design/methodology/approach: A theoretical model of organisational learning is developed which was then longitudinally tested…
Increased bone turnover is a sequel of spinal cord injury (SCI) and predisposes to a number of clinically relevant complications, includ- ing osteoporosis and fractures. There are limited data available re- garding the changes in modern markers of bone metabolism after SCI. We report a 6-month longitudinal follow-up of biochemical markers of bone metabolism (free and total deoxypyridinoline, total pyridino-
DAVID ROBERTS; WINNIFRED LEE; ROSS C. CUNEO; JOHANNES WITTMANN; GREG WARD; ROBERT FLATMAN; BRETT MCWHINNEY; PETER E. HICKMAN
College students have high rates of heavy drinking and other risky behaviors, but little is known about trends in their use of cocaine. In this longitudinalstudy of 1,253 college students at one large, public university in the mid-Atlantic region, annual interviews assessed opportunity to use cocaine, cocaine use, and DSM-IV criteria for cocaine abuse and dependence. Follow-up rates exceeded 87% annually. Data from the first four years of college were analyzed to detect changes over time and possible gender differences. By their fourth year of college, 36%wt of students had been offered cocaine at least once in their lifetime, and 13%wt had used cocaine. Annual prevalence of cocaine use increased significantly over time (4%wt in Year 1 to 10%wt in Year 4) and remained similar across genders. Opportunities to use cocaine were significantly more prevalent for males than females during Years 2 through 4. Cocaine use given opportunity increased significantly over time for both males and females. Among 243 cocaine users, females (n=113) had more serious use patterns than males, with higher average frequency of use (18.39 vs. 8.83 days during the peak year of use, p<.05) and greater likelihood of meeting criteria for cocaine dependence (9.3% vs. 2.5%, p<.05). Gender differences in typical cocaine dosage were not apparent. College administrators and health providers should be aware of the prevalence of cocaine use among student populations and design strategies to address the problem.
Kasperski, Sarah J.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Garnier-Dykstra, Laura M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Arria, Amelia M.
Background Limitations in our current knowledge of normative physiologic changes in thyroid function during the periconception window narrow our ability to establish an optimal approach to screening and diagnosis of thyroid disease in pregnant women. The objective of this study was to characterize changes in thyroid function during the transition from the pre-pregnant to pregnant state in normal fertile women. Methods Women (N = 60) ages 30-42 years without a history of thyroid disease, who were planning pregnancy, were observed prospectively before and during early pregnancy. Thyroid function (thyroid stimulating hormone, TSH and free thyroxine, FT4) was measured before conception and between 6 and 9 weeks gestation. Pre-pregnancy samples were analyzed for thyroid antibodies. Bivariate analyses and longitudinal curves (general estimating equation models) were used to analyze changes in thyroid function during the periconception window by antibody status. Results Pre-pregnancy TSH values were significantly higher than early pregnancy TSH (p < 0.001), but FT4 values did not differ (p = 0.53). TSH declined as gestational age increased (P < 0.01). Thyroid antibody positive women had a higher pre-pregnancy TSH compared to antibody negative women (p < 0.01). Periconceptional change in thyroid function was more variable among women with antibodies (p < 0.001). 50% of women with elevated pre-pregnancy TSH values (TSH > 3.0 mIU/L) had normal TSH values (TSH < 2.5 mIU/L) in pregnancy. Conclusions TSH values decline during the transition from pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy. The change in TSH appears to be less predictable in women with thyroid antibodies. Periconceptional changes in thyroid function should be considered in formulating prenatal thyroid screening guidelines.
Background Patients increasingly use social media to communicate. Their stories could support quality improvements in participatory health care and could support patient-centered care. Active use of social media by health care institutions could also speed up communication and information provision to patients and their families, thus increasing quality even more. Hospitals seem to be becoming aware of the benefits social media could offer. Data from the United States show that hospitals increasingly use social media, but it is unknown whether and how Western European hospitals use social media. Objective To identify to what extent Western European hospitals use social media. Methods In this longitudinalstudy, we explored the use of social media by hospitals in 12 Western European countries through an Internet search. We collected data for each country during the following three time periods: April to August 2009, August to December 2010, and April to July 2011. Results We included 873 hospitals from 12 Western European countries, of which 732 were general hospitals and 141 were university hospitals. The number of included hospitals per country ranged from 6 in Luxembourg to 347 in Germany. We found hospitals using social media in all countries. The use of social media increased significantly over time, especially for YouTube (n = 19, 2% to n = 172, 19.7%), LinkedIn (n =179, 20.5% to n = 278, 31.8%), and Facebook (n = 85, 10% to n = 585, 67.0%). Differences in social media usage between the included countries were significant. Conclusions Social media awareness in Western European hospitals is growing, as well as its use. Social media usage differs significantly between countries. Except for the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, the group of hospitals that is using social media remains small. Usage of LinkedIn for recruitment shows the awareness of the potential of social media. Future research is needed to investigate how social media lead to improved health care.
This article provides an overview of the longitudinal Survey in Europe on Nutrition and the Elderly: a Concerted Action (SENECA) study, which was designed to assess differences in dietary and lifestyle factors among elderly Europeans, and to identify the factors that contribute to healthy aging. Elderly people from Belgium, Denmark, France, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland, and The Netherlands participated in
Groot de C. P. G. M; Marieke W. Verheijden; Stefaan de Henauw; Marianne Schroll; Staveren van W. A
Little information exists about the causal relationships of sport and exercise participation with goal orientations, perceived athletic competence and intrinsic motivation in physical education. A longitudinalstudy was conducted involving 882 Greek students who completed questionnaires on three occasions: 3 – 5 weeks into the academic year, 3 – 6 weeks before the end of the academic year, and 7 months later. The data
Athanasios Papaioannou; Evaggelos Bebetsos; Yannis Theodorakis; Triantafyllos Christodoulidis; Olga Kouli
This longitudinalstudy was designed to test three hypotheses that medical students who can cope better with adversity would: (1) have a more positive personality profile, (2) report less physical illnesses, (3) perform better academically. Total participants were 2114 medical students at Jefferson Medical College who completed a set of psychosocial questionnaires, and were prospectively followed up during medical school
Mohammadreza Hojat; Joseph S Gonnella; James B Erdmann; Wolfgang H Vogel
A longitudinalstudy examined the relationship between contact with successful ingroup members and women’s stereotypes about their own leadership abilities, career goals, and assertive behavior in class. Upon entry into college and toward the end of their sophomore year we measured (1) participants’ quantity and quality of contact with successful ingroup members (female professors), (2) implicit and explicit leadership self-concept,
|This report describes the 1994 postsecondary education assistance patterns, job experiences, lifestyles, and values of the eighth grade class of 1988. The data from the report are from the 1994 Third Follow-up of the National Education LongitudinalStudy of 1988 which collected information on postsecondary education participation, employment,…
Background Online health communication has the potential to reach large audiences, with the additional advantages that it can be operational at all times and that the costs per visitor are low. Furthermore, research shows that Internet-delivered interventions can be effective in changing health behaviors. However, exposure to Internet-delivered health-communication programs is generally low. Research investigating predictors of exposure is needed to be able to effectively disseminate online interventions. Objective In the present study, the authors used a longitudinal design with the aim of identifying demographic, psychological, and behavioral predictors of visiting, using, and revisiting an online program promoting physical activity in the general population. Methods A webpage was created providing the public with information about health and healthy behavior. The website included a “physical activity check,” which consisted of a physical activity computer-tailoring expert system where visitors could check whether their physical activity levels were in line with recommendations. Visitors who consented to participate in the present study (n = 489) filled in a questionnaire that assessed demographics, mode of recruitment, current physical activity levels, and health motivation. Immediately after, participants received tailored feedback concerning their current physical activity levels and completed a questionnaire assessing affective and cognitive user experience, attitude toward being sufficiently physically active, and intention to be sufficiently physically active. Three months later, participants received an email inviting them once more to check whether their physical activity level had changed. Results Analyses of visiting showed that more women (67.5%) than men (32.5%) visited the program. With regard to continued use, native Dutch participants (odds ratio [OR] = 2.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.16-6.81, P = .02) and participants with a strong motivation to be healthy (OR = 1.46, CI = 1.03-2.07, P = .03) were most likely to continue usage of the program. With regard to revisiting, older participants (OR = 1.04, CI = 1.01-1.06, P = .01) and highly educated participants (OR = 4.69, CI = 1.44-15.22, P = .01) were more likely to revisit the program after three months. In addition, positive affective user experience predicted revisiting (OR = 1.64, CI = 1.12-2.39, P = .01). Conclusions The results suggest that online interventions could specifically target men, young people, immigrant groups, people with a low education, and people with a weak health motivation to increase exposure to these interventions. Furthermore, eliciting positive feelings in visitors may contribute to higher usage rates.
Experienced, prepared, and fully certified teachers have been related with higher student achievement, but teacher retention has been a challenge for many decades, especially retention of secondary science teachers. In order to support teachers and student learning, it is critical to understand what impacts secondary science teachers' decisions to persist in the field. This mixed methods study explored whether teacher beliefs were related to persistence over a three-year period. Participants were beginning secondary science teachers that participated in general induction programs provided by their school or district. These participants were selected due to their representative nature of the average beginning secondary science teacher in the United States. Participants' responses to annual semi-structured interviews were the source of data. Findings from quantitative and qualitative analyses revealed that the persisting teachers' beliefs remained stable over the three-year period. Quantitative analyses also revealed that there were no prevalent beliefs among the persisting teachers, even when the variables of gender and socioeconomic status of their schools were considered. When persisting teachers' beliefs about teaching and beliefs about learning were quantitatively analyzed, no relationship was found. Case study of one persisting teacher and one non-persisting teacher revealed that personal experiences and knowledge impacted their beliefs about teaching and learning. The persisting teacher that participated in inquiry-based experiences held student-centered beliefs, while the non-persisting teacher that participated in verification-type experiences held teacher-centered beliefs. This study contributes to the field of science education by examining science teacher persistence instead of attrition. It focused specifically on secondary science teachers while exploring their beliefs longitudinally. Implications from this study calls for teacher beliefs to be challenged during the induction phase, proper placement of new teachers into their first teaching positions, and mentoring programs that address general and content-specific needs. In order to promote retention, further studies need to be conducted on factors that impact secondary science teacher persistence. Through promoting and supporting teacher persistence, we can increase student learning and assist students in becoming scientifically literate adults.
Objective Sleep disturbances are prevalent problems in the general population. Symptoms of insomnia can impact various physical and\\u000a mental conditions. Furthermore, sleep disturbances may worsen the quality of life independently of co-occurring medical conditions.\\u000a In this study, we examined the relationships between self-reported sleep disturbance symptoms and health-related quality of\\u000a life measures in the Fels LongitudinalStudy.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design Cross-sectional study.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Participants A total
M. Lee; A. C. Choh; E. W. Demerath; K. L. Knutson; D. L. Duren; R. J. Sherwood; S. S. Sun; W. M. C. Chumlea; B. Towne; R. M. Siervogel; S. A. Czerwinski
Background Dogslife is the first large-scale internet-based longitudinalstudy of canine health. The study has been designed to examine how environmental and genetic factors influence the health and development of a birth cohort of UK-based pedigree Labrador Retrievers. Results In the first 12 months of the study 1,407 Kennel Club (KC) registered eligible dogs were recruited, at a mean age of 119 days of age (SD 69 days, range 3 days – 504 days). Recruitment rates varied depending upon the study team’s ability to contact owners. Where owners authorised the provision of contact details 8.4% of dogs were recruited compared to 1.3% where no direct contact was possible. The proportion of dogs recruited was higher for owners who transferred the registration of their puppy from the breeder to themselves with the KC, and for owners who were sent an e-mail or postcard requesting participation in the project. Compliance with monthly updates was highly variable. For the 280 dogs that were aged 400 days or more on the 30th June 2011, we estimated between 39% and 45% of owners were still actively involved in the project. Initial evaluation suggests that the cohort is representative of the general population of the KC registered Labrador Retrievers eligible to enrol with the project. Clinical signs of illnesses were reported in 44.3% of Labrador Retrievers registered with Dogslife (median age of first illness 138 days), although only 44.1% of these resulted in a veterinary presentation (median age 316 days). Conclusions The web-based platform has enabled the recruitment of a representative population of KC registered Labrador Retrievers, providing the first large-scale longitudinal population-based study of dog health. The use of multiple different methods (e-mail, post and telephone) of contact with dog owners was essential to maximise recruitment and retention of the cohort.
Economic declines and their associated stress, shortage of financial resources, and changes in available time can impair health behaviors. This study tested the association between change in working hours, change in employment status, and financial strain and health behaviors measured after the 2008 recession after controlling for pre-recession levels of the health behaviors. The moderating influences of demographic factors and pre-recession levels of the health behaviors on the association between change in working hours and employment status and financial strain and the health behaviors were also tested. Participants (N = 3984) were from a longitudinalstudy of a U.S. Midwestern community-based sample. Regression analyses tested the unique relations between change in hours worked per week, change in employment status, and financial strain and five health behaviors over and above demographic factors and pre-recession levels of the same behavior. Models included predictor by covariate interactions. Participants who reported higher levels of financial strain engaged in lower levels of all but one of the five health behaviors, but there were no significant main effects of a change in the number of hours worked per week or change in employment status. Significant interactions revealed moderation of these relations by demographic characteristics, but findings differed across health behaviors. Financial strain negatively affected engagement in multiple healthy behaviors. Promoting the maintenance of healthy behaviors for disease prevention is an important public health goal during times of economic decline. PMID:23726210
Macy, Jonathan T; Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark C
In the study, the Longitudinal Barrier Special Studies (LBSS) file was cleaned for use in examining the real-world performance of longitudinal barriers. Given that impact speeds were mostly missing from the LBSS file, impact speeds were reconstructed for ...
O. Erinle W. Hunter M. Bronstad F. Council R. Stewart K. Hancock
The study provided an opportunity to observe sleep patterns in a college-age population attending the United States Military Academy. This 4-year longitudinalstudy investigated sleep patterns of cadets. A stratified sample of 80 cadets had sleep patterns...
This paper outlines the results of a longitudinalstudy of airsickness in a large sample population of Naval Flight Officers (NFOs) being trained to perform various nonpilot flight duties prior to assignment to operational fleet squadrons. The study has c...
|This report presents data from three longitudinalstudies conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics. The National LongitudinalStudy of the Class of 1972, the High School and Beyond study, and the National Education LongitudinalStudy of 1988 (NELS:88) were all designed to assess the educational experiences and achievements of…
Background International humanitarian aid workers providing care in emergencies are subjected to numerous chronic and traumatic stressors. Objectives To examine consequences of such experiences on aid workers' mental health and how the impact is influenced by moderating variables. Methodology We conducted a longitudinalstudy in a sample of international non-governmental organizations. Study outcomes included anxiety, depression, burnout, and life and job satisfaction. We performed bivariate regression analyses at three time points. We fitted generalized estimating equation multivariable regression models for the longitudinal analyses. Results Studyparticipants from 19 NGOs were assessed at three time points: 212 participated at pre-deployment; 169 (80%) post-deployment; and 154 (73%) within 3–6 months after deployment. Prior to deployment, 12 (3.8%) participants reported anxiety symptoms, compared to 20 (11.8%) at post-deployment (p?=?0·0027); 22 (10.4%) reported depression symptoms, compared to 33 (19.5%) at post-deployment (p?=?0·0117) and 31 (20.1%) at follow-up (p?=?.00083). History of mental illness (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 4.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1·45–12·50) contributed to an increased risk for anxiety. The experience of extraordinary stress was a contributor to increased risk for burnout depersonalization (AOR 1.5; 95% CI 1.17–1.83). Higher levels of chronic stress exposure during deployment were contributors to an increased risk for depression (AOR 1·1; 95% CI 1·02–1.20) comparing post- versus pre-deployment, and increased risk for burnout emotional exhaustion (AOR 1.1; 95% CI 1.04–1.19). Social support was associated with lower levels of depression (AOR 0·9; 95% CI 0·84–0·95), psychological distress (AOR?=?0.9; [CI] 0.85–0.97), burnout lack of personal accomplishment (AOR 0·95; 95% CI 0·91–0·98), and greater life satisfaction (p?=?0.0213). Conclusions When recruiting and preparing aid workers for deployment, organizations should consider history of mental illness and take steps to decrease chronic stressors, and strengthen social support networks.
Background Little is known about the patterns and influences of physical activity change in mid-aged adults. This study describes the design, sampling, data collection, and analytical plan of HABITAT, an innovative study of (i) physical activity change over five years (2007–2011) in adults aged 40–65 years at baseline, and (ii) the relative contribution of psychological variables, social support, neighborhood perceptions, area-level factors, and sociodemographic characteristics to physical activity change. Methods/Design HABITAT is a longitudinal multi-level study. 1625 Census Collection Districts (CCDs) in Brisbane, Australia were ranked by their index of relative socioeconomic disadvantage score, categorized into deciles, and 20 CCDs from each decile were selected to provide 200 local areas for study inclusion. From each of the 200 CCDs, dwellings with individuals aged between 40–65 years (in 2007) were identified using electoral roll data, and approximately 85 people per CCD were selected to participate (N = 17,000). A comprehensive Geographic Information System (GIS) database has been compiled with area-level information on public transport networks, footpaths, topography, traffic volume, street lights, tree coverage, parks, public services, and recreational facilities Participants are mailed a questionnaire every two years (2007, 2009, 2011), with items assessing physical activity (general walking, moderate activity, vigorous activity, walking for transport, cycling for transport, recreational activities), sitting time, perceptions of neighborhood characteristics (traffic, pleasant surroundings, streets, footpaths, crime and safety, distance to recreational and business facilities), social support, social cohesion, activity-related cognitions (attitudes, efficacy, barriers, motivation), health, and sociodemographic characteristics. Analyses will use binary and multinomial logit regression models, as well as generalized linear latent growth models. Discussion HABITAT will provide unique information to improve our understanding of the determinants of physical activity, and to help identify "people" and "place" priority targets for public policy and health promotion aimed at increasing physical activity participation among mid-aged men and women.
Burton, Nicola W; Haynes, Michele; Wilson, Lee-Ann M; Giles-Corti, Billie; Oldenburg, Brian F; Brown, Wendy J; Giskes, Katrina; Turrell, Gavin
Study Objectives: The objectives were (1) to assess associations between sleep consolidation at 6, 18 and 30 months and language skills at 18, 30, and 60 months; and (2) to investigate the genetic/environmental etiology of these associations. Design: Longitudinalstudy of a population-based twin cohort. Participants: 1029 twins from the Quebec Newborn Twin Study. Measurements and Results: Sleep consolidation was derived from parental reports of day/night consecutive sleeping durations. Language skills were assessed with the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory at 18 and 30 months and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test at 60 months. The day/night sleep ratio decreased significantly from 6 to 30 months. The 6- and 18-month ratios were negatively correlated with subsequent language skills. Children with language delays at 60 months had less mature sleep consolidation at both 6 and 18 months than children without delays and those with transient early delays. Genetic and regression analyses revealed that the sleep ratio at 6 months was highly heritable (64%) and predicted 18-month (B = ?0.06) and 30-month language (B = ?0.11) mainly through additive genetic influences (RGs = 0.32 and 0.33, respectively). By contrast, the sleep ratio at 18 months was mainly due to shared environment influences (58%) and predicted 60-month language (B = ?0.08) through shared environment influences (RCs = 0.24). Conclusions: Poor sleep consolidation during the first 2 years of life may be a risk factor for language learning, whereas good sleep consolidation may foster language learning through successive genetic and environmental influences. Citation: Dionne G; Touchette E; Forget-Dubois N; Petit D; Tremblay RE; Montplaisir JY; Boivin M. Associations between sleep-wake consolidation and language development in early childhood: a longitudinal twin study. SLEEP 2011;34(8):987-995.
Dionne, Ginette; Touchette, Evelyne; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Petit, Dominique; Tremblay, Richard E.; Montplaisir, Jacques Y.; Boivin, Michel
Longitudinalstudies that research homeless persons or transient drug users face particular challenges in retaining subjects. Between 2005 and 2006, 101 mobile young injection drug users were recruited in Los Angeles into a 2-year longitudinalstudy. Several features of ethnographic methodology, including fieldwork and qualitative interviews, and modifications to the original design, such as toll-free calls routed directly to ethnographer cell phones and wiring incentive payments, resulted in retention of 78% of subjects for the first follow-up interview. Longitudinalstudies that are flexible and based upon qualitative methodologies are more likely to retain mobile subjects while also uncovering emergent research findings.
Lankenau, Stephen E.; Sanders, Bill; Hathazi, Dodi; Jackson Bloom, Jennifer
Objective: To examine current research payment practices and to inform development of clearer guidelines for researchers and ethics committees. Design: Exploratory email based questionnaire study of current research participant reimbursement practices. A diverse sample of organisations and individuals were targeted. Setting: Australia. Participants: Contacts in 84 key research organisations and select electronic listservers across Australia. A total of 100 completed questionnaires were received with representations from a variety of research areas (for example, market, alcohol and drug, medical, pharmaceutical and social research). Main measurements: Open-ended and fixed alternative questions about type of research agency; type of research; type of population under study; whether payment is standard; amounts and mechanisms of payment; factors taken into account when deciding on payment practices; and whether payment policies exist. Results: Reimbursement practice is highly variable. Where it occurs (most commonly for drug dependent rather than health professional or general population samples) it is largely monetary and is for time and out-of-pocket expenses. Ethics committees were reported to be often involved in decision making around reimbursement. Conclusions: Research subject payment practices vary in Australia. Researchers who do provide payments to research participants generally do so without written policy and procedures. Ethics committees have an important role in developing guidelines in this area. Specific guidelines are needed considering existing local policies and procedures; payment models and their application in diverse settings; case study examples of types and levels of reimbursement; applied definitions of incentive and inducement; and the rationale for diverse payment practices in different settings.
It is increasingly recognized that in order to understand the complex phenomenon of antisocial behavior, interrelations between biological and social risk factors should be taken into account. In the current study, this biosocial approach was applied to examine the mediating role of deviant peers in longitudinal associations linking the level of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity to aggression and rule-breaking. Participants were 425 boys and girls from the general population, who were assessed yearly at ages 15, 16, and 17. As a measure of HPA axis activity, cortisol was assessed at awakening, 30, and 60min later (the cortisol awakening response, CAR). Participants, as well as their best friend, reported on their own aggressive and rule-breaking behavior, thereby allowing to assess bidirectional influences within friendships. Aggression was only predicted by a decreased cortisol level at awakening, and not by aggressive behavior of their friend. Decreased levels of cortisol at awakening predicted adolescents' rule-breaking, which subsequently predicted increased rule-breaking of their best friend. The latter was only found for adolescents who changed friends, as compared to adolescents with the same friend in every year. Gender differences were not found. These findings suggest that interrelations between biological and social risk factors are different for the development of aggression versus rule-breaking. Furthermore, decreased levels of HPA axis activity may represent a susceptibility to selecting deviant peers. PMID:23927935
Platje, E; Vermeiren, R R J M; Raine, A; Doreleijers, T A H; Keijsers, L G M T; Branje, S J T; Popma, A; van Lier, P A C; Koot, H M; Meeus, W H J; Jansen, L M C
In the seven decades since Leopold's groundbreaking 1939 study, there has been no longitudinalstudy covering more than two years of a Japanese bilingual subject's development. Despite the lack of longitudinal research, however, we have been broadly informed by the veritable outpouring of research on a short-term basis since the late twentieth century. This longitudinalstudy tracks a Japanese–English bilingual
When interest in self-esteem exploded in the 1980s, many longitudinalstudies were already under way and thus did not administer self-esteem measures. Consequently, not much is known about the developmental course of self-esteem during adulthood. In order to facilitate life-span research using existing longitudinalstudies, a new self-esteem scale (CPI-SE) was derived from the California Psychological Inventory. Study 1 documented
Virginia S. Y. Kwan; Oliver P. John; Seinenu M. Thein
Objectives To explore individual determinants of workplace injury among Thai workers. Design Cross-sectional analysis of a large national cohort. Setting Thailand. Participants Thai Cohort Studyparticipants who responded to the 2009 follow-up survey were included if they reported doing paid work or being self-employed (n=51?751). Outcome measures Self-reported injury incidence over the past 12?months was calculated. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to test associations between individual determinants and self-reported workplace injury. Results Workplace injuries were reported by 1317 studyparticipants (2.5%); the incidence was 34 (95% CI 32 to 36)/1000 worker-years for men, and 18 (17–20) for women. Among men working ?41?h and earning <10?000 Baht, the injury rate was four times higher compared with men working <11?h and earning ?20?001 Baht; differences in injury rates were less pronounced in women. Multivariate modelling showed that working ?49?h/week (23%) and working for ?10?000 Bath/month (37%) were associated with workplace injury. The increase in injury risk with increased working hours did not exceed the risk expected from increased exposure. Conclusions Reductions in occupational injury rates could be achieved by limiting working hours to 48/week. Particularly for Thai low wage earners and those with longer workdays, there is a need for effective injury preventive programmes.
Berecki-Gisolf, Janneke; Tawatsupa, Benjawan; McClure, Roderick; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian
Longitudinal standards for height and height velocity are essential to monitor for appropriate linear growth. We aimed to construct standards in Korean children and adolescents through the population-based longitudinal Kangwha study. Our study was a part of a community-based prospective cohort study from 1986 to 1999 with 800 school children. Height and height velocity were recorded annually from age 6 until final height. Results were compared with cross-sectional data from the 2007 Korean National Growth Charts. Final height was 173.5 cm in boys and 160.5 cm in girls. Although final height was similar between longitudinal and cross-sectional standards, the mean height for age was higher in the longitudinal standard by 1-4 cm from age 6 until the completion of puberty. Using the longitudinal standard, age at peak height velocity (PHV) was 12 in boys and 10 in girls; height velocity at PHV was 8.62 cm/yr in boys and 7.07 cm/yr in girls. The mean height velocity was less than 1 cm/yr at age 17 in boys and 15 in girls. Thus, we have presented the first report of longitudinal standards for height and height velocity in Korean children and adolescents by analyzing longitudinal data from the Kangwha cohort.
Chae, Hyun Wook; Suh, Il; Kwon, Ah Reum; Kim, Ye Jin; Kim, Yong Hyuk; Kang, Dae Ryong; Kim, Ha Yan; Oh, Sun Min; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Kim, Duk Hee
Longitudinal standards for height and height velocity are essential to monitor for appropriate linear growth. We aimed to construct standards in Korean children and adolescents through the population-based longitudinal Kangwha study. Our study was a part of a community-based prospective cohort study from 1986 to 1999 with 800 school children. Height and height velocity were recorded annually from age 6 until final height. Results were compared with cross-sectional data from the 2007 Korean National Growth Charts. Final height was 173.5 cm in boys and 160.5 cm in girls. Although final height was similar between longitudinal and cross-sectional standards, the mean height for age was higher in the longitudinal standard by 1-4 cm from age 6 until the completion of puberty. Using the longitudinal standard, age at peak height velocity (PHV) was 12 in boys and 10 in girls; height velocity at PHV was 8.62 cm/yr in boys and 7.07 cm/yr in girls. The mean height velocity was less than 1 cm/yr at age 17 in boys and 15 in girls. Thus, we have presented the first report of longitudinal standards for height and height velocity in Korean children and adolescents by analyzing longitudinal data from the Kangwha cohort. PMID:24133358
Chae, Hyun Wook; Suh, Il; Kwon, Ah Reum; Kim, Ye Jin; Kim, Yong Hyuk; Kang, Dae Ryong; Kim, Ha Yan; Oh, Sun Min; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Kim, Duk Hee; Kim, Ho-Seong
Purpose More than 3 million cataract extractions are undertaken in India annually. Almost 60% of these operations are intracapsular Cataract Extractions. The subsequent optical correction is provided by aphakic spectacles. The aim of this study is to assess visual outcome and perceived benefits of post-operative use of aphakic spectacles. Methods One hundred and sixty-seven persons who had undergone intracapsular cataract extraction and had been given best corrected aphakic spectacles were evaluated one year following prescription of the best corrected aphakic spectacles. Out of these, 82.6% were re-examined in this interview-based longitudinalstudy. Results The mean age of the male participants was 65.95 years and that of females was 71.26 years. 81.2% of the participants were using the provided spectacles. There was no significant association between the spectacle use and gender of the participant. The commonest reason stated by the respondents, for the non-use of the spectacles was 'poor vision'. 61.7% of the current users of provided spectacles had a visual acuity of 6/18 or better. 91.1% of the current users were very satisfied with the spectacles. All the current users could now manage personal activities and the spectacles had facilitated independent mobility. There was no difference in the level of satisfaction between mono-aphakics and bi-aphakics. Among the satisfied users, the modal spherical power was +10 D followed by + 11 D. About one-third of these required a cylindrical correction. Conclusion Following intracapsular cataract extraction, provision of the best correction after cataract surgery is desirable to obtain an optimal visual outcome.
A growing body of research indicates benefits of cognitive training in older adults, but the neuronal mechanisms underlying the effect of cognitive intervention remains largely unexplored. Neuroimaging methods are sensitive to subtle changes in brain structure and show potential for enhancing our understanding of both aging- and training-related neuronal plasticity. Specifically, studies using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) suggest substantial changes in white matter (WM) in aging, but it is not known whether cognitive training might modulate these structural alterations. We used tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) optimized for longitudinal analysis to delineate the effects of 8 weeks intensive memory training on WM microstructure. 41 participants (mean age 61 years) matched for age, sex and education were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. All participants underwent MRI-scanning and neuropsychological assessments at the beginning and end of the study. Longitudinal analysis across groups revealed significant increase in frontal mean diffusivity (MD), indicating that DTI is sensitive to WM structural alterations over a 10-week interval. Further, group analysis demonstrated positive effects of training on the short-term changes. Participants in the training group showed a relative increase in fractional anisotropy (FA) compared with controls. Further, a significant relationship between memory improvement and change in FA was found, suggesting a possible functional significance of the reported changes. The training effect on FA seemed to be driven by a relative decrease in radial diffusivity, which might indicate a role for myelin-related processes in WM plasticity. PMID:21823209
Engvig, Andreas; Fjell, Anders M; Westlye, Lars T; Moberget, Torgeir; Sundseth, Øyvind; Larsen, Vivi Agnete; Walhovd, Kristine B
Research on citizen participation has been guided by two core issues: first, the observation of a widening repertory of modes of participation, and second, the argument that participation is not an undifferentiated phenomenon, but must be conceived as an inherently multidimensional reality. In this article, we argue that conventional participation research has focused too one-sidedly on quantitatively expanding the range
The Developmental Processes in Schizophrenic Disorders project is a longitudinalstudy of schizophrenic patients who have recently had a first episode of psychosis. The project focuses on discriminating characteristics of schizophrenic patients that are \\
Keith H. Nuechterlein; Michael E. Dawson; Michael Gitlin; Joseph Ventura; Michael J. Goldstein; Karen S. Snyder; Cindy M. Yee; Jim Mintz
The report summarized here is an outline of a plan for conducting a longitudinalstudy to determine the effects of the National Nutrition Program for the Elderly. The plan includes (1) evaluation design strategy, (2) data collection and analysis systems, ...
D. W. Berry R. T. Fink S. Johnson W. S. Peters N. E. Sandusky
Longitudinal cohort studies are ideal for investigating how epigenetic patterns change over time and relate to changing exposure patterns and the development of disease. We highlight the challenges and opportunities in this approach.
|Presents the statistical results for the theater for children component of the ASU LongitudinalStudy, utilizing Dr. Patricia Goldberg's interview instrument, which categorizes the free responses of a child audience after viewing a theatrical production. (JC)|
The longitudinalstudy attempts to develop an optimum accident prediction system using nine year driving history records of a large sample of California drivers and biographical and mileage exposure data collected through a questionnaire survey. An explor...
|Part of the persistent deficiencies in understanding the nature" of science that were detected in a longitudinalstudy of students using a four-year biology progrram may be due to linguistic problems. (AL)|
A large longitudinal cohort study designed to evaluate the association between children's exposures to environmental agents and health outcomes presents many challenges for exposure monitoring. Exposure of the child must be measured for multiple chemicals through multiple path...
Context Although longitudinal community-based care of patients provides opportunities for teaching patient centredness and chronic disease management, there is a paucity of literature assessing learning outcomes of these clerkships. This study examines learning outcomes among students participating in longitudinal community based follow-up of patients discharged from the hospital. Methods The authors conducted a thematic analysis of 253 student narratives written by 44 third-year medical students reflecting on their longitudinal interactions with patients with chronic medical illnesses. The narratives were written over three periods: after acute hospital encounter, after a home visit and at the end of the 10-month follow-up. Analysis involved coding of theme content and counting of aggregate themes. Results The most frequent theme was ‘chronic disease management’ (25%) followed by ‘patient-centred care’ (22%), ‘health care systems’ (20.9%), ‘biomedical issues’ (19.7%), ‘community services’ (9.5%) and ‘student’s role conflict’ (2.3%). There was a shift in the relative frequency of the different themes, as students moved from hospital to community with their patients. Biomedical (44.3%) and health systems (18.2%) were the dominant themes following the acute hospitalization encounter. Chronic disease management (35.1%) and patient centredness (31.8%) were the dominant themes after the 10-month longitudinal follow-up. Conclusion Longitudinal community-based interaction with patients resulted in learning about chronic disease management, patient centredness and health care systems over time. Students shifted from learning biomedical knowledge during the acute hospitalization, to focus on better understanding of long-term care and patient centredness, at the end of the module.
Puvanendran, Rukshini; Vasanwala, Farhad Fakhrudin; Kamei, Robert K.; Hock, Lee Kheng; Lie, Desiree A.
This study examines the process and effects of using facebook (FB) to locate and re-contact studyparticipants targeted for follow up in a longitudinalstudy of adult methamphetamine users (N = 649). A follow-up interview was conducted in 2009–11 approximately 8 years after previous studyparticipation. Our paper describes re-contact efforts involving FB, including IRB regulatory issues and the effectiveness of using FB compared to mailings and phone calls. A total of 48 of the 551 surviving non-incarcerated participants who agreed to be contacted for follow up studies were contacted via FB, of whom 11 completed the follow-up interview. Those contacted through FB were more likely to be younger, female, relocated out-of-state, and reported somewhat higher rates of anxiety and cognitive problems compared to those not located on FB. Although participants contacted through FB are likely to differ demographically from those contacted by phone or mail, FB provides a potentially effective means to expand conventional methods of correspondence for contacting hard to reach participants.
BACKGROUND: Although neighbourhood environments are often blamed for contributing to rising levels of obesity, current evidence is based predominantly on cross-sectional samples. This study examined associations between objectively-measured environmental characteristics of neighbourhoods and adiposity cross-sectionally and longitudinally over three years in children and their female carers. METHODS: Longitudinalstudy of 140 5-6 year-old and 269 10-12 year-old children and their
Anna Timperio; Robert W Jeffery; David Crawford; Rebecca Roberts; Billie Giles-Corti; Kylie Ball
Objective Cross-sectional research indicates high rates of mental health concerns among youth with perinatal HIV infection (PHIV), but few studies have examined emerging psychiatric symptoms over time. Methods Youth with PHIV and peer comparisons who were HIV-exposed but uninfected or living in house-holds with HIV-infected family members (HIV-affected) and primary caregivers participated in a prospective, multisite, longitudinal cohort study. Groups were compared for differences in the incidence of emerging psychiatric symptoms during 2 years of follow-up and for differences in psychotropic drug therapy. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association of emerging symptoms with HIV status and psychosocial risk factors. Results Of 573 youth with study entry assessments, 92% attended at least 1 annual follow-up visit (PHIV: 296; comparisons: 229). A substantial percentage of youth who did not meet symptom criteria for a psychiatric disorder at study entry did so during follow-up (PHIV = 36%; comparisons = 42%). In addition, those who met criteria at study entry often met criteria during follow-up (PHIV = 41%; comparisons = 43%). Asymptomatic youth with PHIV were significantly more likely to receive psychotropic medication during follow-up than comparisons. Youth with greater HIV disease severity (entry CD4% <25% vs 25% or more) had higher probability of depression symptoms (19% vs 8%, respectively). Conclusions Many youth in families affected by HIV are at risk for development of psychiatric symptoms.
This is a report on the research design and findings of a 23-year longitudinalstudy of the impact of intrafamilial sexual abuse on female development. The conceptual framework integrated concepts of psychological adjustment with theory regarding how psychobiological factors might impact development. Participants included 6- to 16-year-old females with substantiated sexual abuse and a demographically similar comparison group. A cross-sequential design was used and six assessments have taken place, with participants at median age 11 at the first assessment and median age 25 at the sixth assessment. Mothers of participants took part in the early assessments and offspring took part at the sixth assessment. Results of many analyses, both within circumscribed developmental stages and across development, indicated that sexually abused females (on average) showed deleterious sequelae across a host of biopsychosocial domains including: earlier onsets of puberty, cognitive deficits, depression, dissociative symptoms, maladaptive sexual development, hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal attenuation, asymmetrical stress responses, high rates of obesity, more major illnesses and healthcare utilization, dropping out of high school, persistent psottraumatic stress disorder, self-mutilation, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders diagnoses, physical and sexual revictimization, premature deliveries, teen motherhood, drug and alcohol abuse, and domestic violence. Offspring born to abused mothers were at increased risk for child maltreatment and overall maldevelopment. There was also a pattern of considerable within group variability. Based on this complex network of findings, implications for optimal treatments are elucidated. Translational aspects of extending observational research into clinical practice are discussed in terms that will likely have a sustained impact on several major public health initiatives.
Participation in aftercare may reduce risk of recidivism among women offenders with substance use problems following their release to the community. This study examines motivation to participate in aftercare among women offenders and whether their participation in both in-custody and aftercare treatment reduces their risk of recidivism. Surveys were conducted with women (N = 1,158) in prison-based substance abuse treatment programs. Return-to-prison was examined among participants in community-based aftercare (N = 1,182) over 12 months following treatment discharge. Higher treatment motivation was associated with child welfare involvement, prior treatment, and use of "harder" drugs; ethnic minority women had lower treatment motivation compared with White women. Participants who completed the aftercare program, or who had longer treatment duration, and those who had participated in an in-prison program prior to parole had reduced risk of recidivism. Study findings suggest the value of community aftercare for women offenders, particularly when combined with prior in-prison treatment. PMID:22185040
PURPOSE: To report the rate of ultrasonically visible vitreous incarceration and longitudinal changes of incarcerated vitreous in pars plana sclerotomies after conventional suturing or sutureless technique using ultrasound biomicroscopy.METHODS: Twenty-five consecutive eyes (25 patients) undergoing primary three-port pars plana vitrectomy participated. The first 16 pars plana vitrectomies were performed with standard conventional sutured sclerotomies, and the following nine pars plana
Alvin K. H Kwok; Clement C. Y Tham; Angela V. P Loo; Dorothy S. P Fan; Dennis S. C Lam
Previous studies have suggested that adolescent mothers with higher social support have lower depressive symptoms. This is a longitudinalstudy of adolescent mothers to examine the association of social support and depressive symptoms over one year postpartum. This was a prospective study of adolescent mothers (N at baseline = 120, N at 1 year = 89; age < 19 years) enrolled in a teen tot program. Participants completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for children (CES-DC) and the Duke-UNC Functional Social Support Questionnaire at baseline, 12 weeks, and 1 year. A score of ? 16 on the CES-DC was suggestive of major depression. The mean CES-DC scores of the adolescent mothers were ? 16 points at all three time points (baseline: mean = 18.7 ± 10.3; 53% ? 16; 12 weeks: mean = 18.4 ± 11.4, 57% ? 16; one year: mean = 20.0 ± 11.4; 57% ? 16). Social support had a significant, inverse association with depressive symptoms for all participants from baseline to 12 weeks with a stronger association for those with more depressive symptoms (score ? 16) at baseline (beta = -0.030 ± 0.007; P < 0.001) than for those with fewer depressive symptoms (score < 16) at baseline (beta = -0.013 ± 0.006; P = 0.021). From 12 weeks to one year, increased social support was only significantly associated with decreased depressive symptoms for those with a higher baseline level of depressive symptoms (beta = - 0.039 ± 0.009; P < 0.001). Depressive symptoms were prevalent among adolescent mothers. For more depressed adolescent mothers, higher levels of social support were associated with less depressive symptoms over the 1 year follow-up. Effective long-term interventions are needed to lessen depression and enhance social support. PMID:21556696
Brown, Joanna D; Harris, Sion Kim; Woods, Elizabeth R; Buman, Matthew P; Cox, Joanne E
Objective: Longitudinalstudies of dementia rely on the assumption that individuals who drop out are comparable to those who remain in the study, adjusting for measured covariates. Existing methods to handle dropouts account for differences based on past health and cognitive measures. We assess whether such adjustments fully account for differences in future dementia risk. Methods: Among Three-City Studyparticipants in Dijon, France, with 1 (n = 1,633) or 2 (n = 1,168) brain MRI scans, we tested whether white matter lesion volume (WMLV), hippocampal volume, or brain CSF volume predicted dropout (“unable to contact” or “refused interview”) in repeated-measures logistic regression with up to 4 follow-ups (average 3.5 waves). Using linear regression, we also estimated differences in MRI volumes and MRI changes by subsequent dropout status and estimated plausible ranges for selective attrition bias based on these associations. Models were adjusted for demographic, health, and cognitive score covariates. Results: Baseline greater WMLV predicted increased odds of dropping o