Blendinger, Jack; Cornelious, Linda; McGrath, Vincent
Putting shared governance to work in the College of Education at Mississippi State University has been much more difficult than many faculty members anticipated. This case study reports the experiences of faculty members working toward shared governance over the 5 years from 1996 to 2001. The shared governance initiative included a 15-member…
Davis, Erin; Demby, Hilary; Jenner, Lynne Woodward; Gregory, Alethia; Broussard, Marsha
Maintaining contact with and collecting outcome data from adolescent study participants can present a significant challenge for researchers conducting longitudinal studies. Establishing an organized and effective protocol for participant follow-up is crucial to reduce attrition and maintain high retention rates. This paper describes our methods in using and adapting the evidence-based Engagement, Verification, Maintenance, and Confirmation (EVMC) model to follow up with adolescents 6 and 12 months after implementation of a health program. It extends previous research by focusing on two key modifications to the model: (1) the central role of cell phones and texting to maintain contact with study participants throughout the EVMC process and, (2) use of responsive two-way communication between staff and participants and flexible administration modes and methods in the confirmation phase to ensure that busy teens not only respond to contacts, but also complete data collection. These strategies have resulted in high overall retention rates (87-91%) with adolescent study participants at each follow-up data collection point without the utilization of other, more involved tracking measures. The methods and findings presented may be valuable for other researchers with limited resources planning for or engaged in collecting follow-up outcome data from adolescents enrolled in longitudinal studies. PMID:26539953
Estrada, Mica; Woodcock, Anna; Schultz, P. Wesley
Many psychological processes unfold over time, necessitating longitudinal research designs. Longitudinal research poses a host of methodological challenges, foremost of which is participant attrition. Building on Dillman’s work, we provide a review of how social influence and relationship research informs retention strategies in longitudinal studies. Objective: We introduce the tailored panel management (TPM) approach, which is designed to establish communal norms that increase commitment to a longitudinal study, and this commitment, in turn, increases response rates and buffers against attrition. Specifically, we discuss practices regarding compensation, communication, consistency, and credibility that increase longer term commitment to panel participation. Research design: Throughout the article, we describe how TPM is being used in a national longitudinal study of undergraduate minority science students. TheScienceStudy is a continuing panel, which has 12 waves of data collected across 6 academic years, with response rates ranging from 70% to 92%. Although more than 90% of participants have either left or graduated from their undergraduate degree program, this highly mobile group of people remains engaged in the study. TheScienceStudy has usable longitudinal data from 96% of the original panel. Conclusion: This article combines social psychological theory, current best practice, and a detailed case study to illustrate the TPM approach to longitudinal data collection. The approach provides guidance for other longitudinal researchers, and advocates for empirical research into longitudinal research methodologies. PMID:24590918
Hancock, Kirsten J.; Cunningham, Nadia K.; Lawrence, David; Zarb, David; Zubrick, Stephen R.
Objective This study aimed to examine friendship networks and social support outcomes for mothers according to patterns of playgroup participation. Methods Data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children were used to examine the extent to which patterns of playgroup participation across the ages of 3–19 months (Wave 1) and 2–3 years (Wave 2) were associated with social support outcomes for mothers at Wave 3 (4–5 years) and four years later at Wave 5 (8–9 years). Analyses were adjusted for initial friendship attachments at Wave 1 and other socio-demographic characteristics. Results Log-binomial regression models estimating relative risks showed that mothers who never participated in a playgroup, or who participated at either Wave 1 or Wave 2 only, were 1.7 and 1.8 times as likely to report having no support from friends when the child was 4–5 years, and 2.0 times as likely to have no support at age 8–9 years, compared with mothers who persistently participated in playgroup at both Wave 1 and Wave 2. Conclusion These results provide evidence that persistent playgroup participation may acts as a protective factor against poor social support outcomes. Socially isolated parents may find playgroups a useful resource to build their social support networks. PMID:26181426
Orozco, Fadya; Mota, Eduardo; Cole, Donald C
Objective To understand the impact of social organisation affiliation and farmers’ agricultural production practices on farmer health. Organisations facilitate the acquisition and exchange of forms of social capital which can influence the adoption of practices with potential health impacts. In countries such as Ecuador, smallholder agriculture is practised by socially vulnerable populations. Agricultural production often involves the use of extremely hazardous pesticides, while practices that reduce the use of chemicals through integrated pest management (IPM) remain uncommon. Design Longitudinal study (2007–2010). Setting 12 Ecuadorian communities, previously part of a participatory action research study. Participants 208 small-scale farmers. Inclusion criteria were: age between 18 and 65?years, literate and resident in the community for the previous 3?years. Primary outcomes The differential effects of the membership in social organisations (as an effect modifier), on the relationship between the implementation of IPM practices (main independent variable) and farmers’ health, measured by neurocognitive performance scores (better higher value; dependent variable). Results Among organisational participants, the coefficient of association between the implementation of IPM practices for the category good/very good (vs no use) and neurocognitive performance, when farmers were involved in organisations, was negative and moderate (?=?0.17, SE 0.21) though not significant (p>0.1); for the category little/moderate use, the coefficient was positive (?=0.34, SE 0.19) and significant. Among those who did not participate in organisations, both little/moderate use and good/very good use of IPM practices were associated with an increase in neurocognitive performance. Conclusions The effect of agricultural production practices on farmers’ health, transmitted through organisations, can be differentiated. Organisations as structures of social capital seem to be functional in the social reproduction process of the communities studied. Results highlight the need to redirect the analysis of social capital to a more integrated study of social determination of health. PMID:25344481
Martin, Andrew J.; Mansour, Marianne; Anderson, Michael; Gibson, Robyn; Liem, Gregory A. D.; Sudmalis, David
This longitudinal study draws on positive youth development frameworks and ecological models to examine the role of school-, home- and community-based arts participation in students' academic (e.g., motivation, engagement) and nonacademic (e.g., self-esteem, life satisfaction) outcomes. The study is based on 643 elementary and high school students…
Slater, S. J.
The long-running REU program is tacitly intended to increase retention and provide "an important educational experience" for undergraduates, particularly women, minorities and underrepresented groups. This 8-year, two-stage study was designed to explore the ways in which the REU acted as an educational experience for 51 women from a single scientific discipline. This paper describes the results of that analysis in two sections. The first section describes the results from an ex post facto longitudinal data analysis. This data included multiple interviews with each participant during their REU, annual open-ended alumni surveys, faculty interviews, and extensive field notes, over an 8-year period. As a result of this analysis, four themes emerged, related to developing understandings of the nature of professional scientific work, the nature of the scientific process, the culture of academia, and finally, an understanding of the "self." This analysis served as an initial theory that was used to design the second stage, interview protocol. In the second stage over 10 hours of interviews with 8 participants were conducted and analyzed. These 8 participants were selected to represent a variety of career stages, and for their potential to disconfirm the initial theory. Analysis of this interview data failed to provide disconfirming evidence. Results from this study indicate that the REU did not provide a substantive educational experience related to the nature of scientific work, the scientific process, or the culture of academia. Results further indicated that the REU did not serve to transform participants' conceptions about themselves as situated in science, and learning gains with regard to other aspects of the self, were somewhat limited. Instead, the data suggests that these women arrived at the REU with pre-existing and remarkably strong conceptions in these areas, and that the REU did not functional to alter those states. These conceptions were frequently the result of interactions with mentors/scientists from middle school until well into the undergraduate period. Formal and informal interactions with research scientists and instructors, in addition to family members, served as crucial forces in shaping highly developed, stable science identities. Sustained interactions with a single mentor at a home institution were particularly transformational. This study suggests further studies into the impact of long-term mentors on women in the sciences, at a variety of stages and across multiple disciplines.
Lee, RaeHyuck; Zhai, Fuhua; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Han, Wen-Jui; Waldfogel, Jane
Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (n ˜ 6,950), a nationally representative sample of children born in 2001, we examined school readiness (academic skills and socioemotional well-being) at kindergarten entry for children who attended Head Start compared with those who experienced other types of child care…
Parkes, Alison; Wight, Daniel; Henderson, Marion; West, Patrick
Negative effects of early sexual debut on academic outcomes can extend beyond secondary school, although concurrent changes in other psychosocial risk factors have not been investigated. Data from three waves of a longitudinal survey of Scottish teenagers were used to examine associations between early sexual debut (first heterosexual intercourse) and both expectations for (N=5,061) and participation in (N=2,130) tertiary education at college or university. Early debut was associated with reduced tertiary education, after adjusting for academic performance and wave 1 confounders relating to social background, attitudes and behaviours. Pregnancy/partner pregnancy did not explain all of this finding, as many sexually experienced teenagers opted out of tertiary education after leaving school early for other reasons. Changes in other psychosocial risk factors between waves 1 and 2 mediated much of the association found. Early sexual experience may predict disengagement from tertiary education, although further research is needed to explore causal pathways. PMID:19897236
Rees, Daniel I.; Sabia, Joseph J.
It has been argued that high school sports participation increases motivation and teaches teamwork and self-discipline. While several studies have shown that students who participate in athletic activities perform better in school than those who do not, it is not clear whether this association is a result of positive academic spillovers, or due to…
Anaby, Dana; Law, Mary; Hanna, Steven; DeMatteo, Carol
Aim: The purpose of this study was (1) to examine the changes in participation rates over 1 year among children and adolescents after acquired brain injury and (2) to explore the effect of child and family factors on these changes. Method: The participation levels of 136 children and young people (88 males; 48 females; age range 4y 11mo-17y 6mo;…
Denault, Anne-Sophie; Poulin, Francois
This study examined (a) growth curves of youth participation in sports, performance and fine arts, and youth clubs throughout the high school years and (b) the associations between a series of predictors and the initial participation rates and growth over time. The predictors included individual, friend, and family factors. The moderating effect…
Knopman, David S.; Roberts, Rosebud O.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Cha, Ruth H.; Rocca, Walter A.; Mielke, Michelle M.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Tangalos, Eric G.; Ivnik, Robert J.; Geda, Yonas E.; Petersen, Ronald C.
Although rates of incident dementia have been reported from several populations, the impact of nonparticipation on dementia incidence in studies of cognitive aging is unknown. In 2004, investigators with the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging selected persons aged 70–89 years from an enumeration of all Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents (age- and sex-stratified random sample). Of 4,398 potential participants, 2,050 agreed to undergo an in-person health assessment. Those participants were reevaluated in person using standard diagnostic procedures approximately every 15 months over a median follow-up period of 5.7 years (through September 15, 2013). There were 1,679 persons who refused any participation. A trained nurse abstractor reviewed the medical records of nonparticipants using the Rochester Epidemiology Project's medical record linkage system a median of 3.9 years after refusal. Nonparticipants had a higher prevalence of dementia than participants evaluated in person (6.5% vs. 3.3%; P < 0.0001). The standardized incidence of dementia was not significantly higher among the nonparticipants (23.2 per 1,000 person-years) than in those evaluated in person (19.6 per 1,000 person-years; hazard ratio = 1.17, 95% confidence interval: 0.95, 1.43 (P = 0.13); adjusted for education and sex, with age as the time scale). The small, nonsignificant impact of nonparticipation on rates of incident dementia is reassuring for future studies based on incident dementia cases. PMID:24859276
Fadigan, Kathleen Ann
The purpose of this study is to describe the educational trajectories of a sample of young women from urban, low-income, single-parent families who participated in the Women in Natural Sciences (WINS) program during their ninth and/or tenth grade years of high school. This study also attempts to determine how the WINS program affected the participants' educational and career choices in order to provide insight into the role informal science education programs play in increasing the participation of women and minorities in science, math, engineering, and technology (SMET)-related fields. The research takes the form of a longitudinal, descriptive case study. The case is composed of 152 WINS participants who applied for, were accepted into, and completed at least one year of the program between 1992 and 1997. Data were drawn from program records, surveys, and interviews. Pre-WINS desired educational and career trajectory data were available for 152 participants. Post-WINS actual educational and career trajectory data were available for 101 of the young women in the sample. Seventy-eight women completed a WINS survey. The researcher conducted semi-structured interviews with 12 former participants. Findings revealed a 100 percent high school completion rate. A total of 109 participants (93.16%) enrolled in a college program following high school completion. Careers in medical or health-related fields followed by careers in SMET emerged as the highest ranking career paths with 24 students (23.76%) and 21 students (20.79%), respectively, employed in or pursuing careers in these areas. Taking a greater number of advanced or honors level SMET high school courses was the only contextual variable showing a significant relationship to pursuing a career in SMET. The majority of participants perceived having the WINS staff as people you could talk to, the job skills learned in WINS, and having the museum as a safe place to go as having influenced their educational and career decisions. These findings reflect the need for continued support of informal science education programs for urban girls and at-risk youth. Additional longitudinal studies of similar programs are crucial to understanding their effects on the education and career paths of young women with an initial interest in science.
Fadigan, Kathleen A.; Hammrich, Penny L.
The purpose of this longitudinal case study is to describe the educational trajectories of a sample of 152 young women from urban, low-income, single-parent families who participated in the Women in Natural Sciences (WINS) program during high school. Utilizing data drawn from program records, surveys, and interviews, this study also attempts to determine how the program affected the participants' educational and career choices to provide insight into the role informal science education programs play in increasing the participation of women and minorities in science, math, engineering, and technology (SMET)-related fields. Findings revealed 109 participants (93.16%) enrolled in a college program following high school completion. Careers in medical or health-related fields followed by careers in SMET emerged as the highest ranking career paths with 24 students (23.76%) and 21 students (20.79%), respectively, employed in or pursuing careers in these areas. The majority of participants perceived having staff to talk to, the job skills learned, and having the museum as a safe place to go as having influenced their educational and career decisions. These findings reflect the need for continued support of informal science education programs for urban girls and at-risk youth.
Wu, Katie P; Chuang, Yu-fen; Chen, Chia-ling; Liu, I-shu; Liu, Hsiang-tseng; Chen, Hsieh-ching
This study identifies potential predictors of participation changes in various areas for preschool children with cerebral palsy (CP). Eighty children with CP (2-6 years) were enrolled. Seven potential predictors were identified: age; sex; socioeconomic status, CP subtype; cognitive function, Function Independence Measure for Children (WeeFIM), and motor composite variable from 5 motor factors (gross motor function classification system (GMFCS) level; bimanual fine motor function level; selective motor control score; Modified Ashworth Scale score; and Spinal Alignment and Range of Motion Measure). Outcome was assessed at baseline and at 6-month follow-up using the Assessment of Preschool Children's Participation (APCP) including diversity and intensity scores in the areas of play (PA), skill development (SD), active physical recreation, social activities (SA), and total areas. Dependent variables were change scores of APCP scores at baseline and 6-month follow-up. Regression analyses shows age and sex together predicted for APCP-total, APCP-SD diversity and APCP-total intensity changes (r(2)=0.13-0.25, p<0.001); cognitive function and WeeFIM were negative predictors for APCP-SA and APCP-PA diversity changes, respectively. CP subtype, motor composite variable, and socioeconomic status predicted for APCP changes in some areas. Findings suggest that young boys with poor cognitive function and daily activity predicted most on participation changes. PMID:25460224
Ochocka, Joanna; Nelson, Geoffrey; Janzen, Rich; Trainor, John
This article examines the outcomes of participation in mental health Consumer/Survivor Initiatives (CSIs) and identifies helpful qualities of CSIs through a longitudinal, qualitative study that involved in-depth interviews of people who experienced severe mental health challenges in Ontario, Canada. We used a nonequivalent control group design in…
Shipley, Martin J.; Welch, Catherine; Kivimaki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana
Background Participants’ non adherence to protocol affects data quality. In longitudinal studies, this leads to outliers that can be present at the level of the population or the individual. The purpose of the present study is to elaborate a method for detection of outliers in a study of cognitive ageing. Methods In the Whitehall II study, data on a cognitive test battery have been collected in 1997-99, 2002-04, 2007-09 and 2012-13. Outliers at the 2012-13 wave were identified using a 4-step procedure: (1) identify cognitive tests with potential non-adherence to protocol, (2) choose a prediction model between a simple model with socio-demographic covariates and one that also includes health behaviours and health measures, (3) define an outlier using a studentized residual, and (4) study the impact of exclusion of outliers by estimating the effect of age and diabetes on cognitive decline. Results 5516 participants provided cognitive data in 2012-13. Comparisons of rates of annual decline over the first three and all four waves of data suggested outliers in three of the 5 tests. Mean residuals for the 2012-13 wave were larger for the basic compared to the more complex prediction model (all p<0.001), leading us to use the latter for the identification of outliers. Residuals greater than two standard deviation of residuals identified approximately 7% of observations as being outliers. Removal of these observations from the analyses showed that both age and diabetes had associations with cognitive decline similar to that observed with the first three waves of data; these associations were weaker or absent in non-cleaned data. Conclusions Identification of outliers is important as they obscure the effects of known risk factor and introduce bias in the estimates of cognitive decline. We showed that an informed approach, using the range of data collected in a longitudinal study, may be able to identify outliers. PMID:26161552
Dang, Van Mô; Colver, Allan; Dickinson, Heather O.; Marcelli, Marco; Michelsen, Susan I.; Parkes, Jackie; Parkinson, Kathryn; Rapp, Marion; Arnaud, Catherine; Nystrand, Malin; Fauconnier, Jérôme
We investigated whether childhood factors that are amenable to intervention (parenting stress, child psychological problems and pain) predicted participation in daily activities and social roles of adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). We randomly selected 1174 children aged 8–12 years from eight population-based registers of children with CP in six European countries; 743 (63%) agreed to participate. One further region recruited 75 children from multiple sources. These 818 children were visited at home at age 8–12 years, 594 (73%) agreed to follow-up at age 13–17 years. We used the following measures: parent reported stress (Parenting Stress Index Short Form), their child's psychological difficulties (Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire) and frequency and severity of pain; either child or parent reported the child's participation (LIFE Habits questionnaire). We fitted a structural equation model to each of the participation domains, regressing participation in childhood and adolescence on parenting stress, child psychological problems and pain, and regressing adolescent factors on the corresponding childhood factors; models were adjusted for impairment, region, age and gender. Pain in childhood predicted restricted adolescent participation in all domains except Mealtimes and Communication (standardized total indirect effects ? ?0.05 to ?0.18, 0.01 < p < 0.05 to p < 0.001, depending on domain). Psychological problems in childhood predicted restricted adolescent participation in all domains of social roles, and in Personal Care and Communication (? ?0.07 to ?0.17, 0.001 < p < 0.01 to p < 0.001). Parenting stress in childhood predicted restricted adolescent participation in Health Hygiene, Mobility and Relationships (? ?0.07 to ?0.18, 0.001 < p < 0.01 to p < 0.001). These childhood factors predicted adolescent participation largely via their effects on childhood participation; though in some domains early psychological problems and parenting stress in childhood predicted adolescent participation largely through their persistence into adolescence. We conclude that participation of adolescents with CP was predicted by early modifiable factors related to the child and family. Interventions for reduction of pain, psychological difficulties and parenting stress in childhood are justified not only for their intrinsic value, but also for probable benefits to childhood and adolescent participation. PMID:25462516
Background Children and adults with impairments such as cerebral palsy have lower participation in life situations than able-bodied people. Less is known about their subjective perception of their lives, called their quality of life. During adolescence, rapid physical and psychological changes occur; although these may be more difficult for disabled than for able-bodied adolescents, little research has examined the lives of disabled adolescents. In 2003-4 a European Union funded project, SPARCLE, visited 818 children aged 8-12 years with cerebral palsy, sampled from population-based registers in nine European regions. The quality of life reported by these disabled children was similar to that of the general population but their participation was lower; levels of participation varied between countries even for children with similar severity of cerebral palsy. We are currently following up these children, now aged 13-17 years, to identify (i) to what extent contemporaneous factors (pain, impairment, psychological health and parental stress) predict their participation and quality of life, (ii) what factors modify how participation and quality of life at age 8-12 years are associated with participation and quality of life in adolescence, and (iii) whether differences between European countries in participation and quality of life can be explained by variations in environmental factors. Methods/Design Trained researchers will visit families to administer questionnaires to capture the adolescents' type and severity of impairment, socio-demographic characteristics, participation, quality of life, psychological health, pain, environmental access and parental stress. We will use multivariable models (linear, logistic or ordinal) to assess how adolescent participation, quality of life, psychological health, pain, environmental access and parental stress, vary with impairment and socio-demographic characteristics and, where possible, how these outcomes compare with general population data. For participation and quality of life, longitudinal analyses will assess to what extent these are predicted by corresponding levels in childhood and what factors modify this relationship. Structural equation modelling will be used to identify indirect relationships mediated by other factors. PMID:20504349
Lee, RaeHyuck; Zhai, Fuhua; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Han, Wen-Jui; Waldfogel, Jane
Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (n ? 6,950), a nationally representative sample of children born in 2001, we examined school readiness (academic skills and socio-emotional wellbeing) at kindergarten entry for children who attended Head Start compared to those who experienced other types of child care (prekindergarten, other center-based care, other non-parental care, or parental care). Using propensity score matching methods and OLS regressions with rich controls, we found that Head Start participants had higher early reading and math scores than children in other non-parental care or parental care, but also higher levels of conduct problems than those in parental care. Head Start participants had lower early reading scores compared to children in prekindergarten, and had no differences in any outcomes compared to children in other center-based care. Head Start benefits were more pronounced for children who had low initial cognitive ability or low-educated parents, or attended Head Start for more than 20 hours per week. PMID:23527496
This article describes two unique strategies for recruiting older patients into clinical trials. Development of a participant registry within an institution’s geographic area creates a well documented pool of potential study participants. Age-eligible individuals provide consent to be registered and contacted about future studies.
Zhu, Yuda; Weiss, Robert E
Longitudinal behavioral intervention trials to reduce HIV transmission risk collect complex multilevel and multivariate data longitudinally for each subject with important correlation structures across time, level, and variables. Accurately assessing the effects of these trials are critical for determining which interventions are effective. Both numbers of partners and numbers of sex acts with each partner are reported at each time point. Sex acts with each partner are further differentiated into protected and unprotected acts with correspondingly differing risks of HIV/STD transmission. These trials generally also have eligibility criteria limiting enrollment to participants with some minimal level of risky sexual behavior tied directly to the outcome of interest. The combination of these factors makes it difficult to quantify sexual behaviors and the effects of intervention. We propose a multivariate multilevel count model that simultaneously models the number of partners, acts within partners, and accounts for recruitment eligibility. Our methods are useful in the evaluation of intervention trials and provide a more accurate and complete model for sexual behavior. We illustrate the contributions of our model by examining seroadaptive behavior defined as risk reducing behavior that depends on the serostatus of the partner. Several forms of seroadaptive risk reducing behavior are quantified and distinguished from nonseroadaptive risk reducing behavior. PMID:23002948
Alingh, Rolinde A; Hoekstra, Femke; van der Schans, Cees P; Hettinga, Florentina J; Dekker, Rienk; van der Woude, Lucas H V
Introduction Stimulating physical activity behaviour in persons with a physical disability is important, especially after discharge from rehabilitation. A tailored counselling programme covering both the period of the rehabilitation treatment and the first months at home seems on the average effective. However, a considerable variation in response is observed in the sense that some patients show a relevant beneficial response while others show no or only a small response on physical activity behaviour. The Rehabilitation, Sports and Active lifestyle (ReSpAct) study aims to estimate the associations of patient and programme characteristics with patients’ physical activity behaviour after their participation in a tailored counselling programme. Methods and analysis A questionnaire-based nationwide longitudinal prospective cohort study is conducted. Participants are recruited from 18 rehabilitation centres and hospitals in The Netherlands. 2000 participants with a physical disability or chronic disease will be followed during and after their participation in a tailored counselling programme. Programme outcomes on physical activity behaviour and patient as well as programme characteristics that may be associated with differences in physical activity behaviour after programme completion are being assessed. Data collection takes place at baseline and 14, 33 and 52?weeks after discharge from rehabilitation. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol has been approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of the University Medical Centre Groningen and at individual participating institutions. All participants give written informed consent. The study results will provide new insights into factors that may help explain the differences in physical activity behaviour of patients with a physical disability after they have participated in the same physical activity and sports stimulation programme. Thereby, it will support healthcare professionals to tailor their guidance and care to individual patients in order to stimulate physical activity after discharge in a more efficient and effective way. Trial registration number NTR3961. PMID:25633288
The Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS) is a long-term study of a random sample of 10,317 men and women who graduated from Wisconsin high schools in 1957. The WLS provides an opportunity to study of the life course, intergenerational transfers and relationships, family functioning...
Saiepour, Nargess; Ware, Robert; Najman, Jake; Baker, Peter; Clavarino, Alexandra; Williams, Gail
Background To identify patterns of loss to follow-up and baseline predictors of each pattern. Methods The Mater-University Study of Pregnancy collected baseline information for 7718 pregnant women who attended Mater Hospital in Brisbane, Australia, from 1981 through 1983. Follow-up data for 6753 eligible participants were collected at 6 months, 5 years, 14 years, 21 years, and 27 years after giving birth. Participants were partitioned into groups of ‘Always Responders’, ‘Returners’, ‘Leavers’, ‘Intermittents’, and ‘Never Responders’. Multinomial logistic regression was used to simultaneously compare baseline characteristics of the last four groups with ‘Always Responders’. Results Being younger, less educated, having no partner, and living in rented housing were associated with being a ‘Returner’. Not owning housing, receiving welfare benefits, and being younger, less educated, not married, a smoker, an Aboriginal/Islander, and born in a non-English-speaking country were associated with being a ‘Leaver’, an ‘Intermittent’, or a ‘Never-responder’. Having higher mental health score and drinking before pregnancy were associated with being a ‘Leaver’ or an ‘Intermittent’. Being unemployed and not physically active were associated with being a ‘Leaver’ or ‘Never Responder’. The groups ‘Leavers’ and ‘Never Responders’ were the most different from the ‘Always Responders’. The group that was most similar to ‘Always Responders’ was the ‘Returners’. Conclusions Patterns of loss to follow-up should be considered in the application of missing data techniques, where researchers make assumptions about the characteristics of those subjects who do not respond to assess the type of missing data. This information can be used to prevent individuals who are at high risk of dropping out of a study from doing so. PMID:26321060
Background Previous research on the effects of online peer support on psychological well-being of patients with cancer showed mixed findings. There is a need for longitudinal studies explaining if and when online peer-led support groups are beneficial. How patients cope with emotions that come along with the cancer diagnosis might influence effectiveness of online participation. Emotional approach coping is a construct encompassing the intentional use of emotional processing and emotional expression in efforts to manage adverse circumstances. Objective In this longitudinal study, we hypothesize that mixed findings in previous research are partly caused by individual differences in coping with emotions, which may moderate the effects of online support group participation on patients’ well-being. Methods A total of 133 Dutch patients with breast cancer filled out a baseline (T0) and a follow-up (T1, 6 months later) questionnaire assessing intensity of online participation within the online support community, emotional approach coping (ie, actively processing and expressing emotions), and psychological well-being (depression, emotional well-being, and breast cancer–related concerns). There were 109 patients who visited an online support community at both points in time. Repeated measures ANOVAs assessed change in well-being over time. Results Results showed 3-way interactions of time, online intensity of participation, and emotional approach coping on emotional well-being (F 1,89=4.232, P=.04, ?2 ?=.045) and depression (F 1,88=8.167, P=.005, ?2 ?=.085). Online support group participation increased emotional well-being over time for patients who scored low on emotional approach coping at T0, provided that they were highly active online. Patients who were highly active online with a high score on emotional approach coping reported no change in sense of well-being, but showed the highest score on well-being overall. Participating less frequently online was only beneficial for patients who scored high on emotional approach coping, showing an increase in well-being over time. Patients participating less frequently and with a low score on emotional approach coping reported no significant change in well-being over time. Conclusions This study extends previous findings on the effects of online peer support in two ways: by testing changes in well-being as a function of intensity of online support group participation and by examining the role of individual differences in emotional coping styles. Findings showed no negative effects of intense support group participation. Participating frequently online was especially helpful for patients who approach their emotions less actively; their emotional well-being increased over time. In contrast, frequent online users who actively approach their emotions experienced no change in well-being, reporting highest levels of well-being overall. For patients who participate less intensively within the support community, coping style seems to outweigh effects of online participation; over time, patients who actively approached emotions experienced an increase in psychological well-being, whereas patients with a low score on emotional approach coping reported no change in depression and emotional well-being. PMID:25474819
Denault, Anne-Sophie; Poulin, Francois; Pedersen, Sara
The goal of this study was to explore the longitudinal associations between youth activity participation and adjustment over the high school years by examining (a) correlations between participation and adjustment growth curves, and (b) bidirectional links between participation and adjustment from one year to the next. Participation was…
Wamboldt, Frederick S.; Bender, Bruce G.; Rankin, Allison E.
Background Adherence with inhaled controller medications for asthma is known to be highly variable with many patients taking fewer doses than recommended for consistent control of lung inflammation. Adherence also worsens as children become teenagers, although the exact causes are not well established. Objective To use focus group methodology to examine beliefs, feelings, and behaviors about inhaled asthma controller medication in adolescents and young adults who had previously participated in a longitudinal study of asthma treatment adherence and outcome in order to develop more effective management strategies. Methods Twenty-six subjects participated in 6 focus groups comprised of 3-5 young adults (age range 12-20 years). Verbatim transcripts of these groups were analyzed using the long-table method of content analysis to identify key themes raised by participants. Results A variety of beliefs, feelings and behaviors influence the adolescent’s decision about how to use their asthma medication. Some of the adolescents understood the importance of daily medication and were committed to the treatment plan prescribed by their provider. Poorer adherence was the product of misinformation, incorrect assumptions about their asthma, and current life situations. Conclusions These results, by highlighting potential mechanisms underlying both better and worse adherence inform the development of strategies to improve adherence behavior in adolescents and young adults with asthma. Knowledge of the specific beliefs, feelings and behaviors that underlie adolescents’ use of inhaled asthma controller medication will help providers maximize treatment adherence in this notoriously difficult patient population. PMID:21854323
Moon Merchant, Vickie V
This longitudinal trend study (Gall, Borg & Gall, 1996) examined the effectiveness of a one-semester university-based teacher induction program as compared to a two-semester university-based teacher induction program based on the observation scores...
Neuropathologic assessment of participants in two multi-center longitudinal observational studies: the Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) and the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN)
Cairns, Nigel J.; Perrin, Richard J.; Franklin, Erin E.; Carter, Deborah; Vincent, Benjamin; Xie, Mingqiang; Bateman, Randall J.; Benzinger, Tammie; Friedrichsen, Karl; Brooks, William S; Halliday, Glenda M.; McLean, Catriona; Ghetti, Bernardino; Morris, John C.
It has been hypothesized that the relatively rare autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD) may be a useful model of the more frequent, sporadic, late-onset AD (LOAD). Individuals with ADAD have a predictable age at onset and the biomarker profile of ADAD participants in the preclinical stage may be used to predict disease progression and clinical onset. However, the extent to which the pathogenesis and neuropathology of ADAD overlaps with that of LOAD is equivocal. To address this uncertainty, two multicenter longitudinal observational studies, the Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) and the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN), leveraged the expertise and resources of the existing Knight Alzheimer Disease Research Center (ADRC) at Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA, to establish a Neuropathology Core (NPC). The ADNI/DIAN-NPC is systematically examining the brains of all participants who come to autopsy at the 59 ADNI sites in the USA and Canada and the 14 DIAN sites in the USA (8), Australia (3), UK (1), and Germany (2). By 2014, 41 ADNI and 24 DIAN autopsies (involving 9 participants and 15 family members) had been performed. The autopsy rate in the ADNI cohort in the most recent year was 93% (total since NPC inception: 70%). In summary, the ADNI/DIAN NPC has implemented a standard protocol for all sites to solicit permission for brain autopsy and to send brain tissue to the NPC for a standardized, uniform, and state-of-the-art neuropathologic assessment. The benefit to ADNI and DIAN of the implementation of the NPC is very clear. The NPC provides final ‘gold standard’ neuropathological diagnoses and data against which the antecedent observations and measurements of ADNI and DIAN can be compared. PMID:25964057
Neuropathologic assessment of participants in two multi-center longitudinal observational studies: the Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) and the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN).
Cairns, Nigel J; Perrin, Richard J; Franklin, Erin E; Carter, Deborah; Vincent, Benjamin; Xie, Mingqiang; Bateman, Randall J; Benzinger, Tammie; Friedrichsen, Karl; Brooks, William S; Halliday, Glenda M; McLean, Catriona; Ghetti, Bernardino; Morris, John C
It has been hypothesized that the relatively rare autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD) may be a useful model of the more frequent, sporadic, late-onset AD (LOAD). Individuals with ADAD have a predictable age at onset and the biomarker profile of ADAD participants in the preclinical stage may be used to predict disease progression and clinical onset. However, the extent to which the pathogenesis and neuropathology of ADAD overlaps with that of LOAD is equivocal. To address this uncertainty, two multicenter longitudinal observational studies, the Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) and the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN), leveraged the expertise and resources of the existing Knight Alzheimer Disease Research Center (ADRC) at Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA, to establish a Neuropathology Core (NPC). The ADNI/DIAN-NPC is systematically examining the brains of all participants who come to autopsy at the 59 ADNI sites in the USA and Canada and the 14 DIAN sites in the USA (eight), Australia (three), UK (one) and Germany (two). By 2014, 41 ADNI and 24 DIAN autopsies (involving nine participants and 15 family members) had been performed. The autopsy rate in the ADNI cohort in the most recent year was 93% (total since NPC inception: 70%). In summary, the ADNI/DIAN NPC has implemented a standard protocol for all sites to solicit permission for brain autopsy and to send brain tissue to the NPC for a standardized, uniform and state-of-the-art neuropathologic assessment. The benefit to ADNI and DIAN of the implementation of the NPC is very clear. The NPC provides final "gold standard" neuropathological diagnoses and data against which the antecedent observations and measurements of ADNI and DIAN can be compared. PMID:25964057
Roh, Hyun Woong; Hong, Chang Hyung; Lee, Yunhwan; Oh, Byoung Hoon; Lee, Kang Soo; Chang, Ki Jung; Kang, Dae Ryong; Kim, Jinhee; Lee, SooJin; Back, Joung Hwan; Chung, Young Ki; Lim, Ki Young; Noh, Jai Sung; Kim, Dongsoo; Son, Sang Joon
Background We examined the longitudinal association between participation in individual or combinations of physical, social, and religious activity and risk of depression in the elderly. Methods Elderly subjects aged ?60 years who completed the Living Profiles of Older People Survey in Korea (n = 6,647) were included. The baseline assessment, Wave 1, was conducted in 2008, and a follow-up assessment, Wave 2, was conducted in 2011. We defined participation in frequent physical activity as ?3 times weekly (at least 30 minutes per activity). Frequent participation in social and religious activity was defined as ?1 activity weekly. The primary outcome was depression at 3-year follow up. Results Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that subjects who participated in frequent physical, social, and religious activity had an adjusted odds ratio of 0.81 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69–0.96), 0.87 (95% CI, 0.75–1.00), and 0.78 (95% CI, 0.67–0.90), respectively, compared with participants who did not participate in each activity. Participants who participated in only one type of activity frequently and participants who participated in two or three types of activities frequently had an adjusted odds ratio of 0.86 (95% CI, 0.75–0.98) and 0.64 (95% CI, 0.52–0.79), respectively, compared with participants who did not participate in any type of physical, social, and religious activity frequently. Conclusion Participation in physical, social, and religious activity was associated with decreased risk of depression in the elderly. In addition, risk of depression was much lower in the elderly people who participated in two or three of the above-mentioned types of activity than that in the elderly who did not. PMID:26172441
Young, Janet A.; Symons, Caroline M.; Pain, Michelle D.; Harvey, Jack T.; Eime, Rochelle M.; Craike, Melinda J.; Payne, Warren R.
In light of the importance attributed to the presence of positive role models in promoting physical activity during adolescence, this study examined role models of adolescent girls and their influence on physical activity. Seven hundred and thirty two girls in Years 7 and 11 from metropolitan and non-metropolitan regions of Victoria, Australia,…
Jovicich, Jorge; Minati, Ludovico; Marizzoni, Moira; Marchitelli, Rocco; Sala-Llonch, Roser; Bartrés-Faz, David; Arnold, Jennifer; Benninghoff, Jens; Fiedler, Ute; Roccatagliata, Luca; Picco, Agnese; Nobili, Flavio; Blin, Oliver; Bombois, Stephanie; Lopes, Renaud; Bordet, Régis; Sein, Julien; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Didic, Mira; Gros-Dagnac, Hélène; Payoux, Pierre; Zoccatelli, Giada; Alessandrini, Franco; Beltramello, Alberto; Bargalló, Núria; Ferretti, Antonio; Caulo, Massimo; Aiello, Marco; Cavaliere, Carlo; Soricelli, Andrea; Parnetti, Lucilla; Tarducci, Roberto; Floridi, Piero; Tsolaki, Magda; Constantinidis, Manos; Drevelegas, Antonios; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Marra, Camillo; Schönknecht, Peter; Hensch, Tilman; Hoffmann, Karl-Titus; Kuijer, Joost P; Visser, Pieter Jelle; Barkhof, Frederik; Frisoni, Giovanni B
To date, limited data are available regarding the inter-site consistency of test-retest reproducibility of functional connectivity measurements, in particular with regard to integrity of the Default Mode Network (DMN) in elderly participants. We implemented a harmonized resting-state fMRI protocol on 13 clinical scanners at 3.0T using vendor-provided sequences. Each site scanned a group of 5 healthy elderly participants twice, at least a week apart. We evaluated inter-site differences and test-retest reproducibility of both temporal signal-to-noise ratio (tSNR) and functional connectivity measurements derived from: i) seed-based analysis (SBA) with seed in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), ii) group independent component analysis (ICA) separately for each site (site ICA), and iii) consortium ICA, with group ICA across the whole consortium. Despite protocol harmonization, significant and quantitatively important inter-site differences remained in the tSNR of resting-state fMRI data; these were plausibly driven by hardware and pulse sequence differences across scanners which could not be harmonized. Nevertheless, the tSNR test-retest reproducibility in the consortium was high (ICC=0.81). The DMN was consistently extracted across all sites and analysis methods. While significant inter-site differences in connectivity scores were found, there were no differences in the associated test-retest error. Overall, ICA measurements were more reliable than PCC-SBA, with site ICA showing higher reproducibility than consortium ICA. Across the DMN nodes, the PCC yielded the most reliable measurements (?4% test-retest error, ICC=0.85), the medial frontal cortex the least reliable (?12%, ICC=0.82) and the lateral parietal cortices were in between (site ICA). Altogether these findings support usage of harmonized multisite studies of resting-state functional connectivity to characterize longitudinal effects in studies that assess disease progression and treatment response. PMID:26163799
Background While there is considerable research on medical workforce supply trends, there is little research examining the determinants of labour supply decisions for the medical workforce. The "Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life (MABEL)" study investigates workforce participation patterns and their determinants using a longitudinal survey of Australian doctors. It aims to generate evidence to support developing effective policy responses to workforce issues such as shortages and maldistribution. This paper describes the study protocol and baseline cohort, including an analysis of response rates and response bias. Methods/Design MABEL is a prospective cohort study. All Australian doctors undertaking clinical work in 2008 (n = 54,750) were invited to participate, and annual waves of data collections will be undertaken until at least 2011. Data are collected by paper or optional online version of a questionnaire, with content tailored to four sub-groups of clinicians: general practitioners, specialists, specialists in training, and hospital non-specialists. In the baseline wave, data were collected on: job satisfaction, attitudes to work and intentions to quit or change hours worked; a discrete choice experiment examining preferences and trade-offs for different types of jobs; work setting; workload; finances; geographic location; demographics; and family circumstances. Discussion The baseline cohort includes 10,498 Australian doctors, representing an overall response rate of 19.36%. This includes 3,906 general practitioners, 4,596 specialists, 1,072 specialists in training, and 924 hospital non-specialists. Respondents were more likely to be younger, female, and to come from non-metropolitan areas, the latter partly reflecting the effect of a financial incentive on response for doctors in remote and rural areas. Specialists and specialists in training were more likely to respond, whilst hospital non-specialists were less likely to respond. The distribution of hours worked was similar between respondents and data from national medical labour force statistics. The MABEL survey provides a large, representative cohort of Australian doctors. It enables investigation of the determinants of doctors' decisions about how much, where and in what circumstances they practice, and of changes in these over time. MABEL is intended to provide an important resource for policy makers and other stakeholders in the Australian medical workforce. PMID:20181288
Rackley, Robin Ann
A longitudinal study was conducted to investigate the relationship between teachersÂ? perceptions of leadership capabilities and teachersÂ? efficacy beliefs in the context of their participation in a technology integration project. Participants...
Witte, John F.; Wolf, Patrick J.; Cowen, Joshua M.; Fleming, David J.; Lucas-McLean, Juanita
This report focuses on the initial design, implementation and baseline results of the five-year Longitudinal Educational Growth Study (LEGS) of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP) being conducted by the School Choice Demonstration Project (SCDP). The LEGS will be the first evaluation of the participant effects of the MPCP using…
Cheng, Tyrone C.
This longitudinal study examined the temporal-ordered causal relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV), five mental disorders (depression, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, panic attack, posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]), alcohol abuse/dependence, drug abuse/ dependence, treatment seeking (from physician, counselor, and…
Accurate exposure classification tools are required to link exposure with health effects in epidemiological studies. Exposure classification for occupational studies is relatively easy compared to predicting residential childhood exposures. Recent NHEXAS (Maryland) study articl...
Background SPARCLE is a study across nine European regions which examines the predictors of participation and quality of life of children with cerebral palsy. Children and their families were initially interviewed in 2004/2005 when the children were aged 8–12 years (SPARCLE1); they were approached again in 2009/2010 at age 13–17 years (SPARCLE2). The objective of this report is to assess potential for bias due to family non-response in SPARCLE2. Logistic regression was used to assess whether socio-demographic factors, parental stress and child impairment were related to non-response, both overall and by category (failure to trace families, death of child, traced families declining to participate). Results Of the 818 families who participated in SPARCLE1, 224/818 (27%) did not participate in SPARCLE2. 51/818 (6%) were not traced. Among the 767 traced families, 32/767 (4%) children with cerebral palsy had died, seven children had been incorrectly diagnosed as having cerebral palsy, thirteen families had moved out of the region and one family had language problems. Of the remaining 714 families, 120/714 (17%) declined to participate. Drop-out between SPARCLE1 and SPARCLE2 varied significantly between regions; families were more difficult to trace and more likely to decline to participate if the parents’ educational qualifications, as recorded in SPARCLE1, were lower; they were also more likely to decline to participate if SPARCLE1 recorded that they were more stressed or if they had not completed a SPARCLE1 stress questionnaire. Conclusions To reduce the risk of bias, all SPARCLE2 analyses should allow for factors (region and walking ability) which determined the sampling strategy, either by adjusting for these factors or by using sampling weights. Further analyses should be performed, adjusting for additional factors that were associated with non-response: parents' educational qualifications, family structure and parental stress. To allow for differential non-response in studies which sample from population registers, such registers should routinely record socio-demographic information. PMID:22704327
Derrett, Sarah; Wilson, Suzanne; Samaranayaka, Ari; Langley, John; Wyeth, Emma; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Lilley, Rebbecca; Davie, Gabrielle; Mauiliu, Melbourne
Introduction Most studies investigating disability outcomes following injury have examined hospitalised patients. It is not known whether variables associated with disability outcomes are similar for injured people who are not hospitalised. Aims This paper compares the prevalence of disability 24 months after injury for participants in the Prospective Outcomes of Injury Study who were hospitalised and those non-hospitalised, and also seeks to identify pre-injury and injury-related predictors of disability among hospitalised and non-hospitalised participants. Methods Participants, aged 18–64 years, were recruited from an injury claims register managed by New Zealand’s no-fault injury compensation insurer after referral by health care professionals. A wide range of pre-injury socio-demographic, health and psychosocial characteristics were collected, as well as injury-related characteristics; outcome is assessed using the WHODAS. Multivariable models estimating relative risks of disability for hospitalised and non-hospitalised participants were developed using Poisson regression methods. Results Of 2856 participants, analyses were restricted to 2184 (76%) participants for whom both pre-injury and 24 month WHODAS data were available. Of these, 25% were hospitalised. In both hospitalised and non-hospitalised groups, 13% experience disability (WHODAS?10) 24 months after injury; higher than pre-injury (5%). Of 28 predictor variables, seven independently placed injured participants in the hospitalised group at increased risk of disability 24 months after injury; eight in the non-hospitalised. Only four predictors (pre-injury disability, two or more pre-injury chronic conditions, pre-injury BMI?30 and trouble accessing healthcare services) were common to both the hospitalised and non-hospitalised groups. There is some evidence to suggest that among the hospitalised group, M?ori have higher risk of disability relative to non-M?ori. Conclusions At 24 months considerable disability is borne, equally, by hospitalised and non-hospitalised groups. However, predictors of disability are not necessarily consistent between the hospitalised and non-hospitalised groups, suggesting caution in generalising results from one group to the other. PMID:24278258
It has been eight years since the AAS Council unanimously endorsed the document, known as "Equity Now: The Pasadena Recommendations for Gender Equality in Astronomy," in January 2005. This document was the main product of the conference entitled “Women in Astronomy II: Ten Years After” (WIA II), held in June 2003 in Pasadena, CA. One of the key recommendations represented in that document was the need for a longitudinal study of astronomers. It was recognized that in order to understand our own field, how it is evolving, and the impact on individuals, we need to track people over time. I will discuss the fundamental questions that led to the recommendation, and set the stage for the current (ongoing) longitudinal study.
de Zarobe, Yolanda Ruiz
This longitudinal study examines the acquisition of subject pronouns in third language (L3) production. Participants were 90 Basque-Spanish bilingual students, learning English as a third language in a formal setting in the Basque Country. All the participants, who had received the same amount of exposure to English, were divided into three groups…
Larmarange, Joseph; Mossong, Joël; Bärnighausen, Till; Newell, Marie Louise
Population-based HIV surveillance is crucial to inform understanding of the HIV pandemic and evaluate HIV interventions, but little is known about longitudinal participation patterns in such settings. We investigated the dynamics of longitudinal participation patterns in a high HIV prevalence surveillance setting in rural South Africa between 2003 and 2012, taking into account demographic dynamics. At any given survey round, 22,708 to 30,495 persons were eligible. Although the yearly participation rates were relatively modest (26% to 46%), cumulative rates increased substantially with multiple recruitment opportunities: 68% of eligible persons participated at least once, 48% at least twice and 31% at least three times after five survey rounds. We identified two types of study fatigue: at the individual level, contact and consent rates decreased with multiple recruitment opportunities and, at the population level, these rates also decreased over calendar time, independently of multiple recruitment opportunities. Using sequence analysis and hierarchical clustering, we identified three broad individual participation profiles: consenters (20%), switchers (43%) and refusers (37%). Men were over represented among refusers, women among consenters, and temporary non-residents among switchers. The specific subgroup of persons who were systemically not contacted or refusers constitutes a challenge for population-based surveillance and interventions. PMID:25875851
Basterfield, Laura; Reilly, Jessica K.; Pearce, Mark S.; Parkinson, Kathryn N.; Adamson, Ashley J.; Reilly, John J.; Vella, Stewart A.
Objectives Several important research questions have been addressed: (1) What are the cross-sectional associations between sports club participation, objectively measured physical activity, and adiposity? (2) Do measures of physical activity and adiposity predict subsequent sports club participation? (3) Does sports club participation predict subsequent measures of physical activity and adiposity? and (4) Do changes in sports club participation predict changes in objective measures of physical activity and adiposity? Design Longitudinal and cross-sectional. Methods Data from the Gateshead Millennium Study birth cohort (n = 609 at age 7 years) were analysed for associations between adiposity, sports club participation and accelerometer-measured physical activity from ages 7y to 9y to 12y. Results Seventy-two per cent of 9 year olds and 63% of 12 year olds took part in a sports club. Sports club participation was significantly associated with overall accelerometer-measured physical activity at 12y (coefficient = 0.0.09; 95% CI: 0.01–0.16) but not 9y. An inverse relationship between fat mass (estimated from bioelectric impedance) and sport club participation, and between fat mass and accelerometer-measured physical activity was observed at 12y, but not 9y. Sports club participation at 9y was highly predictive of participation at 12y. Sports club participation was significantly associated with socioeconomic status; fewer children from poorer areas took part. Conclusions Sports club participation in adolescence may be associated with decreased levels of adiposity. Furthermore, the potential benefits of sports club participation for adiposity are likely generated from continuous participation in sports, rather than any long-term protective effects. PMID:24704422
Springer, Ken; Diffily, Deborah
We explored the extent to which intensity and breadth of participation in an after-school program (ASP) predicted academic achievement, as measured by changes in grades and attendance. The sample comprised 719 2nd-grade through 8th-grade Boys and Girls Clubs of Greater Dallas members during the 2009-2010 academic year. With respect to intensity,…
Yoon, Soweon; Jain, Anil K.
Human identification by fingerprints is based on the fundamental premise that ridge patterns from distinct fingers are different (uniqueness) and a fingerprint pattern does not change over time (persistence). Although the uniqueness of fingerprints has been investigated by developing statistical models to estimate the probability of error in comparing two random samples of fingerprints, the persistence of fingerprints has remained a general belief based on only a few case studies. In this study, fingerprint match (similarity) scores are analyzed by multilevel statistical models with covariates such as time interval between two fingerprints in comparison, subject’s age, and fingerprint image quality. Longitudinal fingerprint records of 15,597 subjects are sampled from an operational fingerprint database such that each individual has at least five 10-print records over a minimum time span of 5 y. In regard to the persistence of fingerprints, the longitudinal analysis on a single (right index) finger demonstrates that (i) genuine match scores tend to significantly decrease when time interval between two fingerprints in comparison increases, whereas the change in impostor match scores is negligible; and (ii) fingerprint recognition accuracy at operational settings, nevertheless, tends to be stable as the time interval increases up to 12 y, the maximum time span in the dataset. However, the uncertainty of temporal stability of fingerprint recognition accuracy becomes substantially large if either of the two fingerprints being compared is of poor quality. The conclusions drawn from 10-finger fusion analysis coincide with the conclusions from single-finger analysis. PMID:26124106
Yoon, Soweon; Jain, Anil K
Human identification by fingerprints is based on the fundamental premise that ridge patterns from distinct fingers are different (uniqueness) and a fingerprint pattern does not change over time (persistence). Although the uniqueness of fingerprints has been investigated by developing statistical models to estimate the probability of error in comparing two random samples of fingerprints, the persistence of fingerprints has remained a general belief based on only a few case studies. In this study, fingerprint match (similarity) scores are analyzed by multilevel statistical models with covariates such as time interval between two fingerprints in comparison, subject's age, and fingerprint image quality. Longitudinal fingerprint records of 15,597 subjects are sampled from an operational fingerprint database such that each individual has at least five 10-print records over a minimum time span of 5 y. In regard to the persistence of fingerprints, the longitudinal analysis on a single (right index) finger demonstrates that (i) genuine match scores tend to significantly decrease when time interval between two fingerprints in comparison increases, whereas the change in impostor match scores is negligible; and (ii) fingerprint recognition accuracy at operational settings, nevertheless, tends to be stable as the time interval increases up to 12 y, the maximum time span in the dataset. However, the uncertainty of temporal stability of fingerprint recognition accuracy becomes substantially large if either of the two fingerprints being compared is of poor quality. The conclusions drawn from 10-finger fusion analysis coincide with the conclusions from single-finger analysis. PMID:26124106
Desimone, Laura; Smith, Thomas M.; Phillips, Kristie J. R.
Background/Context: Most reforms in elementary education rely on teacher learning and improved instruction to increase student learning. This study increases our understanding of which types of professional development effectively change teaching practice in ways that boost student achievement. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study:…
Michalcáková, Radka; Lacinová, Lenka; Kyjonková, Hana; Bouša, Ondrej; Jelínek, Martin
The present study investigates developmental patterns of fear in adolescence. It is based on longitudinal data collected as a part of the European Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ELSPAC) project. A total of 186 Czech adolescents (43% girls) were assessed repeatedly at the age of 11, 13, and 15 years. The free-response method was…
Rantanen, Johanna; Tillemann, Kati; Metsäpelto, Riitta-Leena; Kokko, Katja; Pulkkinen, Lea
Reciprocal associations between the Big Five personality traits and parenting stress--including both parents' feelings of their distress and perception of their incompetence as parents--were studied with 248 participants (49% of which were males). Longitudinal data, collected at ages 33/36, 42 and 50 years, were used. Cross-lagged path…
Wisconsin at Madison, University of
March 2010 and Thanksgiving day 2012, we talked with nearly 10,000 people, 60% of whom were members and sisters. In this round, we interviewed all graduates and their siblings over the same time frame so we
This study provides a comprehensive view of the health and health behaviors of adolescents and the antecedents - personal, interpersonal, familial, and environmental of these outcomes. The study features a longitudinal, multi-level design with independent measurement at the indiv...
Brown, Judith; Neary, Joanne; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Thomson, Hilary; McQuaid, Ronald W; Leyland, Alastair H; Frank, John; Jeavons, Luke; de Pellette, Paul; Kiran, Sibel; Macdonald, Ewan B
Introduction Increasing employment among older workers is a policy priority given the increase in life expectancy and the drop in labour force participation after the age of 50. Reasons for this drop are complex but include poor health, age discrimination, inadequate skills/qualifications and caring roles; however, limited evidence exists on how best to support this group back to work. The Work Programme is the UK Government's flagship policy to facilitate return to work (RTW) among those at risk of long-term unemployment. ‘Supporting Older People Into Employment’ (SOPIE) is a mixed-methods longitudinal study involving a collaboration between academics and a major Work Programme provider (Ingeus). The study will investigate the relationship between health, worklessness and the RTW process for the over 50s. Methods and analysis There are three main study components. Embedded fieldwork will document the data routinely collected by Ingeus and the key interventions/activities delivered. The quantitative study investigates approximately 14?000 individuals (aged 16–64?years, with 20% aged over 50) who entered the Ingeus Work Programme (referred to as ‘clients’) in a 16-month period in Scotland and were followed up for 2?years. Employment outcomes (including progression towards work) and how they differ by client characteristics (including health), intervention components received and external factors will be investigated. The qualitative component will explore the experiences of clients and Ingeus staff, to better understand the interactions between health and (un)employment, Work Programme delivery, and how employment services can be better tailored to the needs of the over 50s. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was received from the University of Glasgow College of Social Sciences Research Ethics Committee (application number 400140186). Results Results will be disseminated through journal articles, national and international conferences. Findings will inform current and future welfare-to-work and job retention initiatives to extend healthy working lives. PMID:26674507
Williams, Izaak L; O'Donnell, Clifford R
The use of online resources to reduce the attrition of program participants in longitudinal studies is examined. Higher-risk individuals, those involved in illegal activities, and females with last name changes are typically more difficult to locate. The effectiveness of using online resources for these participants is addressed. These resources include social networking sites, people-finder search engines, telephone and address directories, judicial records, and death records. The strengths and limitations of these resources are presented and discussed. Longitudinal studies using these resources are examined to evaluate their successful follow-up rates. The results of these studies indicate that participant characteristics are more important to successful follow-up than the length of time since participation or sample size. The use of multiple online sites increased follow-up rates, especially for those who are typically difficult to locate. The variables and websites to consider are discussed, and six lessons learned are offered. The prospective use of online participant involvement is especially important for successful longitudinal evaluation and program planning. PMID:24769078
This study examined the longitudinal effects of participation in an all-girls STEM summer camp on young women's interest in STEM fields and motivation to pursue these fields. The SciGirls camp has been in existence since 2006, with its goal of providing a safe space for young women to explore STEM careers and strengthen their interest in these careers. Over 166 middle school age girls have participated in the program since it began in 2006. Of those participants, 60 responded to at least one of the follow up surveys that are sent every three years - 2009 and 2012. The surveys attempt to determine participants' level of interest in STEM. The survey was qualitative in nature and asked open ended questions. Results indicated that the camp had a positive effect on participants' perceptions of scientists and their work. This study adds to the literature that looks at the longitudinal impacts of informal STEM educational programs that expose young women to female scientist role models and mentors. This study supports the research that claims that exposing young women at an early age to science role models can positively alter their perception of science careers which can eventually increase the number of women who pursue these careers. This increase is important at a time when men still outnumber women in many science and engineering fields. This study was funded in part by the National Science Foundation Division of Materials Research through DMR 0654118.
Tal-Saban, Miri; Ornoy, Asher; Parush, Shula
We conducted a longitudinal study to assess the continuing influence of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) on quality of life and participation. Ninety-six participants (25 in the DCD group, 30 in the borderline group, and 41 in the control group) ages 22-29 yr who had been screened for DCD 3-4 yr previously completed the Participation in Every Day Activities of Life, the Life-Satisfaction Questionnaire, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) instrument. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed a significant between-groups difference, F(7, 95) = 2.89, p = .001, ? = 0.173, and post hoc analyses revealed that participants in the DCD and borderline groups scored lower overall on participation, quality of life, and life satisfaction. Linear regression found the Psychological Health domain of the WHOQOL-BREF to be a significant predictor of life satisfaction (B = 0.533; p = .001). PMID:24797194
Siddique, Juned; Reiter, Jerome P; Brincks, Ahnalee; Gibbons, Robert D; Crespi, Catherine M; Brown, C Hendricks
There are many advantages to individual participant data meta-analysis for combining data from multiple studies. These advantages include greater power to detect effects, increased sample heterogeneity, and the ability to perform more sophisticated analyses than meta-analyses that rely on published results. However, a fundamental challenge is that it is unlikely that variables of interest are measured the same way in all of the studies to be combined. We propose that this situation can be viewed as a missing data problem in which some outcomes are entirely missing within some trials and use multiple imputation to fill in missing measurements. We apply our method to five longitudinal adolescent depression trials where four studies used one depression measure and the fifth study used a different depression measure. None of the five studies contained both depression measures. We describe a multiple imputation approach for filling in missing depression measures that makes use of external calibration studies in which both depression measures were used. We discuss some practical issues in developing the imputation model including taking into account treatment group and study. We present diagnostics for checking the fit of the imputation model and investigate whether external information is appropriately incorporated into the imputed values. Copyright © 2015?John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26095855
The following principal investigators and studies are participating in PanScan. Note that the principal investigators for PanScan often are not the same individuals who are the principal investigators of the established cohorts.
Ewing-Taylor, Jacque M.
A longitudinal evaluation study of a science professional development program for K-12 teachers was conducted using the CIPP evaluation model. Eleven years of program data were described and analyzed. Elementary teachers comprised 62% of the 384 participants, 17% of all participants were middle school teachers, and 13% of all participants were…
Beauchamp, George A.; Conran, Patricia C.
This study was a sixth account of a longitudinal investigation of the effects of the operation of a curriculum engineering system in a school district. Specific objectives were to observe the effects of leadership, climate, and curriculum engineering on teacher attitudes and teacher performance in a curriculum system and on student achievement. A…
Richardson, Andrea S.; Meyer, Katie A.; Howard, Annie Green; Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Popkin, Barry M.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Kiefe, Catarina I.; Lewis, Cora E.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny
Cross-sectional studies suggest neighborhood socioeconomic (SES) disadvantage is associated with obesogenic food environments. Yet, it is unknown how exposure to neighborhood SES patterning through adulthood corresponds to food environments that also change over time. We used latent class analysis (LCA) to classify participants in the US-based Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study [n=5,114 at baseline 1985-1986 to 2005-2006] according to their longitudinal neighborhood SES residency patterns (upward, downward, stable high and stable low). For all classes of residents, the availability of fast food and non-fast food restaurants and supermarkets and convenience stores increased (p<0.001). Yet, socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhood residents had fewer fast food and non-fast food restaurants, more convenience stores, and the same number of supermarkets in their neighborhoods than the advantaged residents. In addition to targeting the pervasive fast food restaurant and convenient store retail growth, improving neighborhood restaurant options for disadvantaged residents may reduce food environment disparities. PMID:25280107
Richardson, Andrea S; Meyer, Katie A; Howard, Annie Green; Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Popkin, Barry M; Evenson, Kelly R; Kiefe, Catarina I; Lewis, Cora E; Gordon-Larsen, Penny
Cross-sectional studies suggest that neighborhood socioeconomic (SES) disadvantage is associated with obesogenic food environments. Yet, it is unknown how exposure to neighborhood SES patterning through adulthood corresponds to food environments that also change over time. We used latent class analysis (LCA) to classify participants in the U.S.-based Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study [n=5,114 at baseline 1985-1986 to 2005-2006] according to their longitudinal neighborhood SES residency patterns (upward, downward, stable high and stable low). For most classes of residents, the availability of fast food and non-fast food restaurants and supermarkets and convenience stores increased (p<0.001). Yet, socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhood residents had fewer fast food and non-fast food restaurants, more convenience stores, and the same number of supermarkets in their neighborhoods than the advantaged residents. In addition to targeting the pervasive fast food restaurant and convenient store retail growth, improving neighborhood restaurant options for disadvantaged residents may reduce food environment disparities. PMID:25280107
Veliz, Philip; Epstein-Ngo, Quyen M.; Meier, Elizabeth; Ross-Durow, Paula Lynn; Boyd, Carol J.; McCabe, Sean Esteban
Purpose The objective of this longitudinal study was to assess the prevalence of medical use, medical misuse, and nonmedical use of opioid medication among adolescents who participate in organized sports. Methods Data for this study were taken from the Secondary Student Life Survey (SSLS). A total of 1,540 adolescents participated in three waves of data collection occurring between the 2009–10 and 2011–12 school years, with 82% of the baseline sample completing all three waves. Results Using Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) models to analyze the longitudinal data, it was found that male adolescents who participated in organized sports during each wave of the SSLS had higher odds of being prescribed an opioid medication (i.e., medical use) during the past year (AOR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.23, 2.82), higher odds of past-year medical misuse of opioid medication due to taking too much (AOR = 10.5, 95% CI = 2.42, 45.5), and higher odds of past-year medical misuse of opioid medication in order to get high (AOR = 4.01, 95% CI = 1.13, 14.2) when compared to males who did not participate in organized sports during the study period. Among females, no association was found between participation in organized sports and medical use, medical misuse, and nonmedical use of opioid medication. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that adolescent males who participate in sports may have greater access to opioid medication, putting them at greater risk to misuse these controlled substances. PMID:24225446
Schaie, K. Warner
This article distinguishes between normal and pathological aging, provides an interdisciplinary context, and then considers a sample case of cognitive aging. Developmental influences on cognition include the physiological infrastructure, genetic predispositions, and environmental influences. Different types of longitudinal studies are distinguished, and contrasting findings of cross-sectional and longitudinal are examined in the sample case of the Seattle Longitudinal Study. Also considered is the longitudinal context for intervention studies and the role of longitudinal family studies in assessing rate of aging and generational differences in rates of aging. Finally, attention is given to the role of longitudinal studies in the early detection of risk for dementia in advanced age. PMID:16467912
Tewari, Shruti; Khan, Sammyh; Hopkins, Nick; Srinivasan, Narayanan; Reicher, Stephen
How does participation in a long-duration mass gathering (such as a pilgrimage event) impact well-being? There are good reasons to believe such collective events pose risks to health. There are risks associated with communicable diseases. Moreover, the physical conditions at such events (noise, crowding, harsh conditions) are often detrimental to well-being. Yet, at the same time, social psychological research suggests participation in group-related activities can impact well-being positively, and we therefore investigated if participating in a long-duration mass gathering can actually bring such benefits. In our research we studied one of the world's largest collective events – a demanding month-long Hindu religious festival in North India. Participants (comprising 416 pilgrims who attended the gathering for the whole month of its duration, and 127 controls who did not) completed measures of self-assessed well-being and symptoms of ill-health at two time points. The first was a month before the gathering commenced, the second was a month after it finished. We found that those participating in this collective event reported a longitudinal increase in well-being relative to those who did not participate. Our data therefore imply we should reconceptualise how mass gatherings impact individuals. Although such gatherings can entail significant health risks, the benefits for well-being also need recognition. Indeed, an exclusive focus on risk is misleading and limits our understanding of why such events may be so attractive. More importantly, as our research is longitudinal and includes a control group, our work adds robust evidence to the social psychological literature concerning the relationship between participation in social group activities and well-being. PMID:23082155
These documents have been created by the National Cancer Institute as resources for study staff and participants and is available as a ready-to-use PDF as well as in Word format to allow users to adapt the content as desired.
The following documents have been created by the National Cancer Institute as resources for study staff and participants. Each resource is available as a ready-to-use PDF as well as in Word format to allow users to adapt the content as desired.
Longitudinal investigations play an increasingly prominent role in epidemiologic research. espite the importance of the longitudinal study, satisfactory methods for the analysis of serial measurements are not readily available. ongitudinal studies typically have unbalanced design...
Demchik, Michael J.
Argues that treatment of one investigative longitudinal topic from start to finish in a high school biology class can illustrate many major ideas and concepts. Discusses ways to use various longitudinal studies of plant growth with General Biology classes. (WRM)
Gilmore, Devin; Kuperminc, Gabriel P.
Longitudinal substance abuse research has often been compromised by high rates of attrition, thought to be the result of the lifestyle that often accompanies addiction. Several studies have used strategies including collection of locator information at the baseline assessment, verification of the information, and interim contacts prior to…
Herd, Pamela; Carr, Deborah; Roan, Carol
The Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS) is a longitudinal study of men and women who graduated from Wisconsin high schools in 1957 and one of their randomly selected siblings. Wisconsin is located in the upper midwest of the United States and had a population of approximately 14 000 000 in 1957, making it the 14th most populous state at that time. Data spanning almost 60 years allow researchers to link family background, adolescent characteristics, educational experiences, employment experiences, income, wealth, family formation and social and religious engagement to midlife and late-life physical health, mental health, psychological well-being, cognition, end of life planning and mortality. The WLS is one of the few longitudinal data sets that include an administrative measure of cognition from childhood. Further, recently collected saliva samples allow researchers to explore the inter-relationships among genes, behaviours and environment, including genetic determinants of behaviours (e.g. educational attainment); the interactions between genes and environment; and how these interactions predict behaviours. Most panel members were born in 1939, and the sample is broadly representative of White, non-Hispanic American men and women who have completed at least a high school education. Siblings cover several adjoining cohorts: they were born primarily between 1930 and 1948. At each interview, about two-thirds of the sample lived in Wisconsin, and about one-third lived elsewhere in the United States or abroad. The data, along with documentation, are publicly accessible and can be accessed at http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/wlsresearch/. Requests for protected data or assistance should be sent to email@example.com. PMID:24585852
This longitudinal study draws on data from a larger project and examines how students' perceptions of their opportunities to influence their study environment may be enacted in approaches aimed at influencing their studies, and whether this changes during the course of their studies. Ten students from a 4.5-year Master's program in Engineering…
Jiang, Jieying; Liu, Mengling; Parvez, Faruque; Wang, Binhuan; Wu, Fen; Eunus, Mahbub; Bangalore, Sripal; Newman, Jonathan D.; Ahmed, Alauddin; Islam, Tariqul; Rakibuz-Zaman, Muhammad; Hasan, Rabiul; Sarwar, Golam; Levy, Diane; Slavkovich, Vesna; Argos, Maria; Bryan, Molly Scannell; Farzan, Shohreh F.; Hayes, Richard B.; Graziano, Joseph H.
Background Cross-sectional studies have shown associations between arsenic exposure and prevalence of high blood pressure; however, studies examining the relationship of arsenic exposure with longitudinal changes in blood pressure are lacking. Method We evaluated associations of arsenic exposure in relation to longitudinal change in blood pressure in 10,853 participants in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS). Arsenic was measured in well water and in urine samples at baseline and in urine samples every 2 years after baseline. Mixed-effect models were used to estimate the association of baseline well and urinary creatinine-adjusted arsenic with annual change in blood pressure during follow-up (median, 6.7 years). Result In the HEALS population, the median water arsenic concentration at baseline was 62 ?g/L. Individuals in the highest quartile of baseline water arsenic or urinary creatinine-adjusted arsenic had a greater annual increase in systolic blood pressure compared with those in the reference group (? = 0.48 mmHg/year; 95% CI: 0.35, 0.61, and ? = 0.43 mmHg/year; 95% CI: 0.29, 0.56 for water arsenic and urinary creatinine-adjusted arsenic, respectively) in fully adjusted models. Likewise, individuals in the highest quartile of baseline arsenic exposure had a greater annual increase in diastolic blood pressure for water arsenic and urinary creatinine-adjusted arsenic, (? = 0.39 mmHg/year; 95% CI: 0.30, 0.49, and ? = 0.45 mmHg/year; 95% CI: 0.36, 0.55, respectively) compared with those in the lowest quartile. Conclusion Our findings suggest that long-term arsenic exposure may accelerate age-related increases in blood pressure. These findings may help explain associations between arsenic exposure and cardiovascular disease. Citation Jiang J, Liu M, Parvez F, Wang B, Wu F, Eunus M, Bangalore S, Newman JD, Ahmed A, Islam T, Rakibuz-Zaman M, Hasan R, Sarwar G, Levy D, Slavkovich V, Argos M, Scannell Bryan M, Farzan SF, Hayes RB, Graziano JH, Ahsan H, Chen Y. 2015. Association between arsenic exposure from drinking water and longitudinal change in blood pressure among HEALS cohort participants. Environ Health Perspect 123:806–812;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409004 PMID:25816368
Ljungberg, Jessica K.; Hansson, Patrik; Andrés, Pilar; Josefsson, Maria; Nilsson, Lars-Göran
Typically, studies of cognitive advantages in bilinguals have been conducted previously by using executive and inhibitory tasks (e.g. Simon task) and applying cross-sectional designs. This study longitudinally investigated bilingual advantages on episodic memory recall, verbal letter and categorical fluency during the trajectory of life. Monolingual and bilingual participants (n?=?178) between 35–70 years at baseline were drawn from the Betula Prospective Cohort Study of aging, memory, and health. Results showed that bilinguals outperformed monolinguals at the first testing session and across time both in episodic memory recall and in letter fluency. No interaction with age was found indicating that the rate of change across ages was similar for bilinguals and monolinguals. As predicted and in line with studies applying cross-sectional designs, no advantages associated with bilingualism were found in the categorical fluency task. The results are discussed in the light of successful aging. PMID:24023803
This study extends previous understanding of the association between adolescent extracurricular activity participation and adjustment by asking whether participation in school-based extracurricular activities is associated with lower substance use and depression, higher grades and academic aspirations, and more positive attitude toward school. In…
Matuz, Tamara; Birbaumer, Niels; Hautzinger, Martin; Kübler, Andrea
For the current study the Lazarian stress-coping theory and the appendant model of psychosocial adjustment to chronic illness and disabilities (Pakenham, 1999) has shaped the foundation for identifying determinants of adjustment to ALS. We aimed to investigate the evolution of psychosocial adjustment to ALS and to determine its long-term predictors. A longitudinal study design with four measurement time points was therefore, used to assess patients' quality of life, depression, and stress-coping model related aspects, such as illness characteristics, social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies during a period of 2 years. Regression analyses revealed that 55% of the variance of severity of depressive symptoms and 47% of the variance in quality of life at T2 was accounted for by all the T1 predictor variables taken together. On the level of individual contributions, protective buffering, and appraisal of own coping potential accounted for a significant percentage in the variance in severity of depressive symptoms, whereas problem management coping strategies explained variance in quality of life scores. Illness characteristics at T2 did not explain any variance of both adjustment outcomes. Overall, the pattern of the longitudinal results indicated stable depressive symptoms and quality of life indices reflecting a successful adjustment to the disease across four measurement time points during a period of about two years. Empirical evidence is provided for the predictive value of social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies, but not illness parameters such as severity and duration for adaptation to ALS. The current study contributes to a better conceptualization of adjustment, allowing us to provide evidence-based support beyond medical and physical intervention for people with ALS. PMID:26441696
Chan-Yeung, M.; Enarson, D.A.; MacLean, L.; Irving, D.
We conducted a 6-y follow-up study that included workers in an aluminum smelter in British Columbia. Of the original cohort, 951 workers left the industry and 985 workers participated in both studies. Comparison of those who left and those who remained showed that those who left were (1) older, (2) had a slightly higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms, and (3) had lower lung function; this was especially true for workers who were 50 + y of age at the time the initial study was conducted. Analyses were conducted only on 586 male workers who did not change their job location or smoking habits between the initial and the follow-up study. Potroom workers in the ''high-exposure'' group had a significant reduction in the prevalence of cough, but experienced an increase in the prevalence of wheeze. There was no significant difference in the annual decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 sec and forced vital capacity between the potroom workers and controls. In general, older workers and smokers had a greater decline in lung function compared to younger workers and nonsmokers. Leukocyte count done during the initial study was found to be an independent predictor of longitudinal decline in lung function. The lack of exposure effect on longitudinal decline in lung function could be due to ''healthy worker'' effect and improvement in the working condition of the smelter.
Schlenger, William E; Corry, Nida H; Kulka, Richard A; Williams, Christianna S; Henn-Haase, Clare; Marmar, Charles R
The National Vietnam Veterans Longitudinal Study (NVVLS) is the second assessment of a representative cohort of US veterans who served during the Vietnam War era, either in Vietnam or elsewhere. The cohort was initially surveyed in the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study (NVVRS) from 1984 to 1988 to assess the prevalence, incidence, and effects of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other post-war problems. The NVVLS sought to re-interview the cohort to assess the long-term course of PTSD. NVVLS data collection began July 3, 2012 and ended May 17, 2013, comprising three components: a mailed health questionnaire, a telephone health survey interview, and, for a probability sample of theater Veterans, a clinical diagnostic telephone interview administered by licensed psychologists. Excluding decedents, 78.8% completed the questionnaire and/or telephone survey, and 55.0% of selected living veterans participated in the clinical interview. This report provides a description of the NVVLS design and methods. Together, the NVVRS and NVVLS constitute a nationally representative longitudinal study of Vietnam veterans, and extend the NVVRS as a critical resource for scientific and policy analyses for Vietnam veterans, with policy relevance for Iraq and Afghanistan veterans. PMID:26096554
Hayward, Becky J.; Schmidt-Davis, Holly
This report is the second in a series of four final reports that present the findings of the Longitudinal Study of the Vocational Rehabilitation (VR) Services Program. Initiated in fall 1992, the study has tracked VR participation and post-VR experiences of applicants to and consumers of VR services (n=8,500) for up to 3 years following exit from…
Swiatek, Mary Ann
This paper describes longitudinal studies on three cohorts of students accelerated academically as part of the Study of Mathematically Precocious Youth. Results do not support critics' contentions that acceleration produces academic gaps and early "burn out" but instead show positive psychosocial outcomes and high levels of participant…
Florit, Elena; Roch, Maja; Levorato, M. Chiara
A longitudinal study analyzed (a) which lower- and higher-level semantic components uniquely predicted listening text comprehension and (b) the nature of the relation (i.e., direct and indirect) between the predictors and listening text comprehension in preschoolers. One-hundred and fifty-two children participated in the present study (68 females;…
Marmorstein, Naomi R.; von Ranson, Kristin M.; Iacono, William G.; Succop, Paul A.
This study investigated longitudinal associations between externalizing behavior and dysfunctional eating attitudes and behaviors. Participants were girls drawn from the community-based Minnesota Twin Family Study and assessed at ages 11, 14, and 17. Cross-sectional correlations indicated that the strength of the associations between externalizing…
Ostrov, Jamie M.; Gentile, Douglas A.; Crick, Nicki R.
Preschool children (N = 78) enrolled in multi-informant, multi-method longitudinal study were participants in a study designed to investigate the role of media exposure (i.e., violent and educational) on concurrent and future aggressive and prosocial behavior. Specifically, the amount of media exposure and the nature of the content was used to…
Mazza, James J.; Abbott, Robert D.; Fleming, Charles B.; Harachi, Tracy W.; Cortes, Rebecca C.; Park, Jisuk; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Catalano, Richard F.
This study examined the longitudinal relationship of early elementary predictors to adolescent depression 7 years later. The sample consisted of 938 students who have been part of a larger longitudinal study that started in 1993. Data collected from parents, teachers, and youth self-reports on early risk factors when students were in 1st and 2nd…
Ruschena, Eda; Prior, Margot; Sanson, Ann; Smart, Diana
Background: This study examined the impact of family transitions, that is, parental separation, divorce, remarriage and death, upon the lives of Australian children and adolescents in a longitudinal study of temperament and development. Methods: Using longitudinal and concurrent questionnaire data, outcomes for young people experiencing…
Rutherford, M D; Young, Gregory S; Hepburn, Susan; Rogers, Sally J
This study describes a longitudinal design (following subjects described in Rutherford & Rogers [2003, Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorder, 33, 289-302]) to test for predictors of pretend play competence in a group of children with autism. We tested the hypothesis that developmental change in pretend play performance can be predicted by earlier measures of either executive function, intersubjectivity, imitation, or general development. Participants at the time of follow-up testing were 28 children with autistic disorder (mean chronological age (CA) 57.6 months), 18 children with other developmental disorders (mean CA 59.0 months), and 27 typically developing children (mean CA 30.1 months). Children with autism were profoundly delayed given both competence (prompted) measures as well as performance (spontaneous) measures. Joint attention at time 1 strongly and uniquely predicted pretend play development. PMID:17146707
Frintner, Mary Pat; Cull, William L; Byrne, Bobbi J; Freed, Gary L; Katakam, Shesha K; Leslie, Laurel K; Miller, Ashley A; Starmer, Amy J; Olson, Lynn M
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) launched the Pediatrician Life and Career Experience Study (PLACES), a longitudinal study that tracks the personal and professional experiences of early career pediatricians, in 2012. We used a multipronged approach to develop the study methodology and survey domains and items, including review of existing literature and qualitative research with the target population. We chose to include 2 cohorts of US pediatricians on the basis of residency graduation dates, including 1 group who were several years out of residency (2002-2004 Residency Graduates Cohort) and a second group who recently graduated from residency at study launch (2009-2011 Residency Graduates Cohort). Recruitment into PLACES was a 2-stage process: (1) random sample recruitment from the target population and completion of an initial intake survey and (2) completion of the first Annual Survey by pediatricians who responded positively to stage 1. Overall, 41.2% of pediatricians randomly selected to participate in PLACES indicated positive interest in the study by completing intake surveys; of this group, 1804 (93.7%) completed the first Annual Survey and were considered enrolled in PLACES. Participants were more likely to be female, AAP members, and graduates of US medical schools compared with the target sample; weights were calculated to adjust for these differences. We will survey PLACES pediatricians 2 times per year. PLACES data will allow the AAP to examine career and life choices and transitions experienced by early-career pediatricians. PMID:26216329
We review recent developments in longitudinal studies of aging, focusing on the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). Both studies are part of a trend toward biosocial surveys in which biological measurement is joined with traditional survey techniques, and a related trend toward greater harmonization across studies. Both studies have collected DNA samples and are working toward genotyping that would allow broadly based association studies. Increased attention to psychological measurement of personality and of cognitive ability using adaptive testing structures has also been shared across the studies. The HRS has expanded its economic measurement to longitudinal studies of consumption and to broader-based measurement of pension and Social Security wealth. It has added biomarkers of cardiovascular risk. The WLS has developed an integrated approach to the study of death and bereavement and an innovative use of high school yearbook photographs to capture information about health in early life of its participants. PMID:21302430
Henderson, Sharmakrenia D.
This longitudinal case study examined the effectiveness of the CO-OP Upward Bound Program activities from 2003 through 2008 applying cultural and social capital theories. The program was evaluated in order to give a local perspective to program implementation and operations in a community-based setting. The participant researcher used mixed…
This study used longitudinal data to examine the effects of spousal illness on depressive symptoms among middle-aged and older married individuals and the extent to which the adverse effects of illness in a spouse were mitigated by 2 psychological resources, mastery and self-esteem. Using 1,704 married participants who were 51 years of age on…
Murphy, Debra A.; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Herbeck, Diane; Evans, Elizabeth; Huang, David; Hser, Yih-Ing
Longitudinal trajectories for HIV risk were examined over 5 years following treatment among 1,393 patients who participated in the nationwide Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies. Both injection drug use and sexual risk behavior declined over time, with most of the decline occurring between intake and the first-year follow-up. However, results of…
Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Atwood, Ronald K.; Christopher, John E.
This research consists of a longitudinal study of 12 female elementary preservice teachers' conceptual understanding over the course of several months. The context in which the participants received instruction was in an inquiry-based physics course, and the targeted science content was the cause of moon phases. Qualitative research methods,…
Gillen-O'Neel, Cari; Fuligni, Andrew
This longitudinal study examined how school belonging changes over the years of high school, and how it is associated with academic achievement and motivation. Students from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds participated ("N" = 572; age span = 13.94-19.15 years). In ninth grade, girls' school belonging was higher than boys'. Over the…
Pham, Giang; Kohnert, Kathryn
This longitudinal study modeled lexical development among children who spoke Vietnamese as a first language (L1) and English as a second language (L2). Participants (n = 33, initial mean age of 7.3 years) completed a total of eight tasks (four in each language) that measured vocabulary knowledge and lexical processing at four yearly time points.…
Gepner, Adam D.; Colangelo, Laura A.; Reilly, Nicole; Korcarz, Claudia E.; Kaufman, Joel D.; Stein, James H.
Background Associations between carotid artery longitudinal displacement, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and events were evaluated in a large, multi-ethnic cohort. Materials and Methods A novel, reproducible protocol was developed for measuring right common carotid artery longitudinal displacement using ultrasound speckle-tracking. Total longitudinal displacement was measured in 389 randomly selected participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis that were free of cardiovascular disease at baseline. Univariate analyses and Pearson Correlations were used to define relationships between longitudinal displacement with traditional cardiovascular risk factors and traditional measures of arterial stiffness. Hazard ratios of longitudinal displacement for cardiovascular disease and coronary heart disease events were compared using Cox proportional hazards models. Results Participants were a mean (standard deviation) 59.0 (8.7) years old, 48% female, 39% White, 26% Black, 22% Hispanic, and 14% Chinese. They had 19 (4.9%) cardiovascular disease and 14 (3.6%) coronary heart disease events over a mean 9.5 years of follow-up. Less longitudinal displacement was associated with Chinese (? = -0.11, p = 0.02) compared to White race/ethnicity and greater longitudinal displacement was associated with higher carotid intima-media thickness (? = 0.26, p = 0.004). Longitudinal displacement was not associated with other cardiovascular disease risk factors or markers of arterial stiffness. After adjustment for age and sex, and heart rate, Chinese race/ethnicity (? = -0.10, p = 0.04) and carotid intima-media thickness (? = 0.30 p = 0.003) were associated independently with longitudinal displacement. Longitudinal displacement predicted coronary heart disease (Hazard ratio [HR] 3.3, 95% Confidence intervals [CI] 0.96–11.14, p = 0.06) and cardiovascular disease (HR 2.1, 95% CI 0.6–7.3, p = 0.23) events. Conclusions Less longitudinal displacement is associated with Chinese ethnicity and greater carotid artery longitudinal displacement is associated with thicker intima-media thickness. Longitudinal displacement may predict adverse coronary heart disease and cardiovascular disease events. PMID:26545210
Serbin, Lisa A.; Temcheff, Caroline E.; Cooperman, Jessica M.; Stack, Dale M.; Ledingham, Jane; Schwartzman, Alex E.
This 30-year longitudinal study examined pathways from problematic childhood behavior patterns to future disadvantaged conditions for family environment and child rearing in adulthood. Participants were mothers (n = 328) and fathers (n = 222) with lower income backgrounds participating in the ongoing Concordia Longitudinal Risk Project. Structural…
Carr, Themba; Lord, Catherine
The purpose of this study was to examine the stability of mothers' perceptions of the negative impact of having a child with ASD in a sample of African American and Caucasian families as their children transitioned to early adolescence. Participants were mothers and children participating in an ongoing longitudinal study of children referred…
Wang, Xiaofeng; Lu, Ming; Qian, Ji; Yang, Yajun; Li, Shilin; Lu, Daru; Yu, Shunzhang; Meng, Wei; Ye, Weimin; Jin, Li
Background Rapid economic growth in China in the past decades has been accompanied by dramatic changes in lifestyle and environmental exposures. The burdens of non-communicable diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and cancer, have also increased substantially. Methods/design We initiated a large prospective cohort–the Taizhou Longitudinal Study–in Taizhou (a medium-size city in China) to explore the environmental and genetic risk factors for common non-communicable diseases. The sample size of the cohort will be at least 100,000 adults aged 30–80 years drawn from the general residents of the districts of Hailin, Gaogang, and Taixing (sample frame, 1.8 million) of Taizhou. A three-stage stratified sampling method will be applied. Baseline investigations include interviewer-administered questionnaire, anthropometric measurements, and collection of buccal mucosal cells and blood specimens. DNA will be extracted for genetic studies and serum samples will be used for biochemical examinations. A follow-up survey will be conducted every three years to obtain information on disease occurrence and information on selected lifestyle exposures. Study participants will be followed-up indefinitely by using a chronic disease register system for morbidity and cause-specific mortality. Information on non-fatal events will be obtained for certain major categories of disease (e.g., cancer, stroke, myocardial infarction) through established registry systems. Discussion The Taizhou Longitudinal Study will provide a good basis for exploring the roles of many important environmental factors (especially those concomitant with the economic transformation in China) for common chronic diseases, solely or via interaction with genetic factors. PMID:19589173
Meltzer, Jed A.; Postman-Caucheteux, Whitney A.; McArdle, Joseph J.; Braun, Allen R.
Longitudinal fMRI studies of language production are of interest for evaluating recovery from post-stroke aphasia, but numerous methodological issues remain unresolved, particularly regarding strategies for evaluating single subjects at multiple timepoints. To address these issues, we studied of overt picture naming in eleven healthy subjects, scanned four times each at one-month intervals. To evaluate the natural variability present across repeated sessions, repeated scans were directly contrasted in a unified statistical framework on a per-voxel basis. The effect of stimulus familiarity was evaluated using explicitly overtrained pictures, novel pictures, and untrained pictures that were repeated across sessions. For untrained pictures, we found that activation declined across multiple sessions, equally for both novel and repeated stimuli. Thus, no repetition priming for individual stimuli at one-month intervals was found, but rather a general effect of task habituation was present. Using a set of overtrained pictures identical in each session, no decline was found, but activation was minimized and produced less consistent patterns across participants, as measured by intra-class correlation coefficients. Subtraction of a baseline task, in which subjects produced a stereotyped utterance to scrambled pictures, resulted in specific activations in the left inferior frontal gyrus and other language areas for untrained items, while overlearned stimuli relative to pseudo pictures activated only the fusiform gyrus and supplementary motor area. These findings indicate that longitudinal fMRI is an effective means of detecting changes in neural activation magnitude over time, as long as the effect of task habituation is taken into account. PMID:19427907
Odierna, Donna H.; Bero, Lisa A.
Loss to follow-up can introduce bias into research, making it difficult to develop inclusive evidence-based health policies and practice guidelines. We aimed to deepen understanding of reasons why participants leave or remain in longitudinal health studies. We interviewed 59 researchers and current and former research participants in six focus groups (n = 55) or interviews (n = 4) at three study centers in a large academic research institution. We used minimally structured interview guides and inductive thematic analysis to explore participant-level, study-level, and contextual participation barriers and facilitators. Four main themes emerged: transportation, incentives and motivation, caregiver concerns, and the social and physical environment. Themes shared crosscutting issues involving funding, flexibility, and relationships between researchers and research participants. Study-level and contextual factors appear to interact with participant characteristics, particularly socioeconomic status and disease severity to affect participant retention. Participants’ characteristics do not seem to be the main cause of study dropout. Researchers and funders might be able to address contextual and study factors in ways that reduce barriers to participation. PMID:25599003
Vipperla, Ravichander; Renals, Steve; Frankel, Joe
This paper presents the results of a longitudinal study of ASR performance on ageing voices. Experiments were conducted on the audio recordings of the proceedings of the Supreme Court Of The United States (SCOTUS). Results ...
innovation variances. Local polynomial smoothing estimation is proposed to model the nonpara- metricNonparametric Regression of Covariance Structures in Longitudinal Studies J. Pan, H. Ye & R. Li of Mathematics, The University of Manchester #12;Nonparametric Regression of Covariance Structures
Mills, Suzanne Barbara
Introduction: There has been a lack of longitudinal studies on maternal and infant factors associated with feeding difficulties. Feeding difficulties are common, cause much anxiety for parents, and are associated with a ...
Kopping, Dana; Nevarez, Holly; Goto, Keiko; Morgan, Irene; Frigaard, Martin; Wolff, Cindy
This longitudinal study examined the rates of overweight, elevated blood pressure, acanthosis nigricans, and their associated factors in third through fifth grade students over 4 years. Participants consisted of 279 students who participated in health screenings in 2002 and 2006. Hispanic students had significantly higher rates of overweight and…
Chen, Peiying; Wang, Ting
This article presents findings of a longitudinal case study conducted at a Taiwanese high school from 2006 to 2010. This school participated in the 'High Scope Programme' (HSP), which was sponsored by the Taiwanese National Science Council to promote curricular innovation in science education. Utilising interview data with 11 participating…
Anokhin, Andrey P; Golosheykin, Simon; Grant, Julia D; Heath, Andrew C
Delay discounting (DD) refers to the preference for smaller immediate rewards over larger but delayed rewards, and is considered to be a distinct component of a broader "impulsivity" construct. Although greater propensity for discounting the value of delayed gratification has been associated with a range of problem behaviors and substance abuse, particularly in adolescents, the origins of individual differences in DD remain unclear. We examined genetic and environmental influences on a real-life behavioral measure of DD using a longitudinal twin design. Adolescent participants were asked to choose between a smaller ($7) reward available immediately and a larger ($10) reward to be received in 7 days. Biometrical genetic analysis using linear structural equation modeling showed significant heritability of DD at ages 12 and 14 (30 and 51%, respectively) and suggested that the same genetic factors influenced the trait at both ages. DD was significantly associated with symptoms of conduct disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, substance use, and with higher novelty seeking and poor self-regulation. This study provides the first evidence for heritability of DD in humans and suggests that DD can be a promising endophenotype for genetic studies of addiction and externalizing disorders. PMID:20700643
Background Health inequality and its social determinants are well-studied, but the determinants of inequality of alcohol consumption are less well-investigated. Methods The total differential approach of decomposition of changes in the concentration index of the probability of participation in alcohol consumption was applied to 8-year longitudinal data for Swedish women aged 28-76 in 1988/89. Results Alcohol consumption showed a pro-rich inequality, with income being a strong contributor. Overall participation remained fairly constant, but the inequality decreased over time as abstinence became less common among the poor and more common among the rich. This was mainly due to changes in the relative weights of certain population groups, such as a decrease in the proportional size of the oldest cohorts. Conclusions Inequality in participation in alcohol consumption is pro-rich in Sweden. This inequality has tended to decrease over time, due to changes in population composition rather than to policy intervention. PMID:21306654
Lopez, Anna B.; Huynh, Virginia W.; Fuligni, Andrew J.
To examine the development of religious identity during the teenage years, adolescents (N = 477) from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds completed questionnaires in the 10th, 11th, and 12th grades (10th grade age: M = 15.81, SD = 0.36). Results indicated that religious identity remained stable across high school whereas religious…
Krumrei, Elizabeth J; Mahoney, Annette; Pargament, Kenneth I
This study represents the first longitudinal effort to use a spiritual stress and coping model to predict adults' psychosocial adjustment following divorce. A community sample of 89 participants completed measures at the time of their divorce and 1 year later. Though the sample endorsed slightly lower levels of religiosity than the general U.S. population, most reported spiritual appraisals and positive and negative religious coping tied to divorce. Hierarchical regression analyses controlling general religiousness and nonreligious forms of coping indicated that (a) appraising divorce as a sacred loss or desecration at the time it occurred predicted more depressive symptoms and dysfunctional conflict tactics with the ex-spouse 1 year later; (b) positive religious coping reported about the year following divorce predicted greater posttraumatic growth 1 year after divorce; and (c) negative religious coping reported about the year following divorce predicted more depressive symptoms 1 year after the divorce. Bootstrapping mediation analyses indicated that negative religious coping fully mediated links between appraising the divorce as a sacred loss or desecration at the time it occurred and depressive symptoms 1 year later. In addition, moderation analyses revealed that negative religious coping is more strongly associated with depressive symptoms among those who form high versus low appraisals of their divorce as a sacred loss or desecration. These findings are relevant to divorce education and intervention provided by professionals in legal, family, mental health, and clerical roles. Implications are discussed for clinical and counseling psychology and religious communities. PMID:22004433
Golden, Mark; And Others
In an effort to isolate the emergence and causes of social class differences in intellectual performance, this longitudinal study was undertaken as a follow-up on a cross-sectional study that yielded no social class differences on the Cattell Infant Intelligence Scale for 12-, 18-, and 24-month-old black children. In the present study, 89 children…
Gebreselassie, Tesfayi; Stephens, Robert L.; Maples, Connie J.; Johnson, Stacy F.; Tucker, Alyce L.
Predictors of retention of participants in a longitudinal study and heterogeneity between communities were investigated using a multilevel logistic regression model. Data from the longitudinal outcome study of the national evaluation of the Comprehensive Community Mental Health Services for Children and Their Families program and information on…
Bergman, Brandon G.; Greene, M. Claire; Hoeppner, Bettina B.; Slaymaker, Valerie; Kelly, John F.
Background Evidence indicates 12-step mutual-help organizations (MHOs), such as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA), can play an important role in extending and potentiating the recovery benefits of professionally-delivered addiction treatment among young adults with substance use disorders (SUD). However, concerns have lingered regarding the suitability of 12-step organizations for certain clinical subgroups, such as those with dual diagnosis (DD). This study examined the influence of diagnostic status (DD vs. SUD-only) on both attendance and active involvement (e.g., having a sponsor, verbal participation during meetings) in, and derived benefits from, 12-step MHOs following residential treatment. Methods Young adults (N = 296; 18-24 years old; 26% female; 95% Caucasian; 47% DD [based on structured diagnostic interview]), enrolled in a prospective naturalistic study of SUD treatment effectiveness, were assessed at intake, and 3, 6, and 12 months post-treatment on 12-step attendance/active involvement and percent days abstinent (PDA). T-tests and lagged, hierarchical linear models (HLM) examined the extent to which diagnostic status influenced 12-step participation and any derived benefits, respectively. Results For DD and SUD-only patients, post-treatment attendance and active involvement in 12-step organizations was similarly high. Overall, DD patients had significantly lower PDA relative to SUD-only patients. All patients appeared to benefit significantly from attendance and active involvement on a combined eight-item index. Regarding the primary effects of interest, significant differences did not emerge in derived benefit between DD and SUD-only patients for either attendance (p = .436) or active involvement (p = .062). Subsidiary analyses showed, however, that DD patients experienced significantly greater abstinence-related benefit from having a 12-step sponsor. Conclusion Despite concerns regarding the clinical utility of 12-step MHOs for DD patients, findings indicate that DD young adults participate and benefit as much as SUD-only patients, and may benefit more from high levels of active involvement, particularly having a 12-step sponsor. Future work is needed to clarify how active 12-step involvement might offset the additional recovery burden of a comorbid mental illness on substance use outcomes. PMID:24033550
Byma, Elizabeth A; Given, Barbara A; Given, Charles W
Generalized estimating equation analyses models were used to examine the longitudinal association between pain and diagnosis of cancer among older adult, Home and Community Based Waiver Program participants. Daily pain was reported by over half, with 29% experiencing daily pain that was unusually intense. Diagnosis of cancer was a significant predictor of daily pain only as an interaction term with cognitive impairment. Being female, having a medical diagnosis of depression, or increasing measure of comorbid conditions significantly increased the likelihood of daily pain. In comparison, increasing age, being of African American, Hispanic, or "other" race resulted in a significantly decreased likelihood of daily pain. PMID:24372477
Shen, Aileen; Oo, Sarah; Tilahun, Hailu; Cohen, Marya J.; Berkowitz, Seth A.
Introduction Cross-sectional studies show an association between food insecurity and higher body mass index (BMI), but this finding has not been evaluated longitudinally. Patient perspectives on food choice in resource-constrained environments are not well understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate the longitudinal association between food insecurity and BMI. Methods This mixed methods study used both a retrospective matched cohort and focus groups. For the quantitative analysis, all patients in a community health center who reported food insecurity from October 2009 through March 2010 (n = 457) were followed through August 2013 and compared with controls matched by age, sex, and race/ethnicity (n = 1,974). We evaluated the association between food insecurity and change in BMI by using linear, mixed effects longitudinal models. The qualitative analysis included patients with food insecurity, stratified by BMI. Qualitative data were analyzed by using open coding and grounded theory. Results The mean age of participants was 51 years; 61% were women, and 73% were Hispanic. Baseline BMI was similar in food insecure participants and matched controls. After adjustment in longitudinal analyses, food insecurity was associated with greater increase in BMI (0.15 kg/m2 per year more than controls, P < .001). Themes identified in 4 focus groups included attitudes and knowledge about food, food access, and food practices. Participants with BMI of 30 kg/m2 or less highlighted skills such as budgeting and portion control. Conclusion Food insecurity is associated with increase in BMI. The skills of food insecure participants who were not obese, such as portion control and budgeting, may be useful in weight management interventions for vulnerable patients. PMID:26247425
Hanna, Linda G.
In a comprehensive study of two-hundred fifty homeschooling families in urban, rural and suburban areas of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the researcher examined all aspects of the instruction, materials and curricula employed by the families in a ten-year longitudinal study from 1998 through 2008. The researcher conducted interviews and…
Navarro, Jose I.; Aguilar, Manuel; Marchena, Esperanza; Ruiz, Gonzalo; Menacho, Inmaculada; Van Luit, Johannes E. H.
Background: Longitudinal studies allow us to identify, which specific maths skills are weak in young children, and whether there is a continuing weakness in these areas throughout their school years. Aims: This 2-year study investigated whether certain socio-demographic variables affect early mathematical competency in children aged 5-7 years.…
Rioux, Liliane; Pasquier, Daniel
In a previous study, we investigated the impact of an awareness-raising campaign on the behaviour of secondary school children in the Centre Region of France, regarding the recycling of used batteries. But, was it a question of pro-environmental behaviour or simply an environmental action? To answer this question, a three-year longitudinal study…
Lunz, Mary E.; O'Neill, Thomas R.
This retrospective longitudinal study was designed to show grading leniency patterns of judges within and across clinical examination administrations. Data from 17 different administrations of the histology examination of the American Society of Clinical Pathologists over 10 years were studied. Over the 10 years there were 4,683 candidates and 57…
McCormack, Bob; Kavanagh, Denise; Caffrey, Shay; Power, Anne
Background: There is a lack of longitudinal large-scale studies of sexual abuse in intellectual disability services. Such studies offer opportunities to examine patterns in disclosure, investigation and outcomes, and to report on incidence and trends. Methods: All allegations of sexual abuse (n = 250) involving service users as victims or…
Peterson, Jean Sunde
A qualitative, longitudinal, phenomenological case study explored how a gifted female experienced various life events and aspects of development during adolescence and young adulthood (ages 15-30 years), particularly as related to multiple traumatic experiences, which were revealed late in the first year of the study. Additional experiences, well…
information visualization (e.g. ), to virtual agents (e.g. ), technologies for health and behavior in longitudinal studies of users' experiences and behaviors with interactive products is mounting, while recent in the consumer electronics industry highlight the economic importance of studying prolonged use (see [11
Zwaan, Koos; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Raaijmakers, Quinten
Systematic studies of artistic careers are scarce and this is the first large-scale study on the career development of pop musicians. Using a prospective longitudinal approach we followed a sample of aspiring pop musicians in the Netherlands (N=369) over a three-year period. First we identified four groups of pop musicians with different career…
Qin, H; Davidson, R C; Chung, M; Barnard, J J; Wang, T F
The effect of a weakly coupled periodic lattice in terms of achieving emittance exchange between the transverse and longitudinal directions is investigated using the generalized Courant-Snyder theory for coupled lattices. Recently, the concept and technique of transverse-longitudinal emittance coupling have been proposed for applications in the Linac Coherent Light Source and other free-electron lasers to reduce the transverse emittance of the electron beam. Such techniques can also be applied to the driver beams for the heavy ion fusion and beam-driven high energy density physics, where the transverse emittance budget is typically tighter than the longitudinal emittance. The proposed methods consist of one or several coupling components which completely swap the emittances of one of the transverse directions and the longitudinal direction at the exit of the coupling components. The complete emittance exchange is realized in one pass through the coupling components. In the present study, we investigate the effect of a weakly coupled periodic lattice in terms of achieving emittance exchange between the transverse and longitudinal directions. A weak coupling component is introduced at every focusing lattice, and we would like to determine if such a lattice can realize the function of emittance exchange.
Jagust, William J.; Aisen, Paul; Jack, Clifford R.; Toga, Arthur W.; Beckett, Laurel; Gamst, Anthony; Soares, Holly; C. Green, Robert; Montine, Tom; Thomas, Ronald G.; Donohue, Michael; Walter, Sarah; Dale, Anders; Bernstein, Matthew; Felmlee, Joel; Fox, Nick; Thompson, Paul; Schuff, Norbert; Alexander, Gene; DeCarli, Charles; Bandy, Dan; Chen, Kewei; Morris, John; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.; Korecka, Magdalena; Crawford, Karen; Neu, Scott; Harvey, Danielle; Kornak, John; Saykin, Andrew J.; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Potkin, Steven; Shen, Li; Buckholtz, Neil; Kaye, Jeffrey; Dolen, Sara; Quinn, Joseph; Schneider, Lon; Pawluczyk, Sonia; Spann, Bryan M.; Brewer, James; Vanderswag, Helen; Heidebrink, Judith L.; Lord, Joanne L.; Petersen, Ronald; Johnson, Kris; Doody, Rachelle S.; Villanueva-Meyer, Javier; Chowdhury, Munir; Stern, Yaakov; Honig, Lawrence S.; Bell, Karen L.; Morris, John C.; Mintun, Mark A.; Schneider, Stacy; Marson, Daniel; Griffith, Randall; Clark, David; Grossman, Hillel; Tang, Cheuk; Marzloff, George; Toledo-Morrell, Leylade; Shah, Raj C.; Duara, Ranjan; Varon, Daniel; Roberts, Peggy; Albert, Marilyn S.; Pedroso, Julia; Toroney, Jaimie; Rusinek, Henry; de Leon, Mony J; De Santi, Susan M; Doraiswamy, P. Murali; Petrella, Jeffrey R.; Aiello, Marilyn; Clark, Christopher M.; Pham, Cassie; Nunez, Jessica; Smith, Charles D.; Given, Curtis A.; Hardy, Peter; Lopez, Oscar L.; Oakley, MaryAnn; Simpson, Donna M.; Ismail, M. Saleem; Brand, Connie; Richard, Jennifer; Mulnard, Ruth A.; Thai, Gaby; Mc-Adams-Ortiz, Catherine; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Martin-Cook, Kristen; DeVous, Michael; Levey, Allan I.; Lah, James J.; Cellar, Janet S.; Burns, Jeffrey M.; Anderson, Heather S.; Laubinger, Mary M.; Bartzokis, George; Silverman, Daniel H.S.; Lu, Po H.; Graff-Radford MBBCH, Neill R; Parfitt, Francine; Johnson, Heather; Farlow, Martin; Herring, Scott; Hake, Ann M.; van Dyck, Christopher H.; MacAvoy, Martha G.; Benincasa, Amanda L.; Chertkow, Howard; Bergman, Howard; Hosein, Chris; Black, Sandra; Graham, Simon; Caldwell, Curtis; Hsiung, Ging-Yuek Robin; Feldman, Howard; Assaly, Michele; Kertesz, Andrew; Rogers, John; Trost, Dick; Bernick, Charles; Munic, Donna; Wu, Chuang-Kuo; Johnson, Nancy; Mesulam, Marsel; Sadowsky, Carl; Martinez, Walter; Villena, Teresa; Turner, Scott; Johnson, Kathleen B.; Behan, Kelly E.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Rentz, Dorene M.; Johnson, Keith A.; Rosen, Allyson; Tinklenberg, Jared; Ashford, Wes; Sabbagh, Marwan; Connor, Donald; Jacobson, Sandra; Killiany, Ronald; Norbash, Alexander; Nair, Anil; Obisesan, Thomas O.; Jayam-Trouth, Annapurni; Wang, Paul; Lerner, Alan; Hudson, Leon; Ogrocki, Paula; DeCarli, Charles; Fletcher, Evan; Carmichael, Owen; Kittur, Smita; Mirje, Seema; Borrie, Michael; Lee, T-Y; Bartha, Dr Rob; Johnson, Sterling; Asthana, Sanjay; Carlsson, Cynthia M.; Potkin, Steven G.; Preda, Adrian; Nguyen, Dana; Tariot, Pierre; Fleisher, Adam; Reeder, Stephanie; Bates, Vernice; Capote, Horacio; Rainka, Michelle; Hendin, Barry A.; Scharre, Douglas W.; Kataki, Maria; Zimmerman, Earl A.; Celmins, Dzintra; Brown, Alice D.; Gandy, Sam; Marenberg, Marjorie E.; Rovner, Barry W.; Pearlson, Godfrey; Anderson, Karen; Saykin, Andrew J.; Santulli, Robert B.; Englert, Jessica; Williamson, Jeff D.; Sink, Kaycee M.; Watkins, Franklin; Ott, Brian R.; Wu, Chuang-Kuo; Cohen, Ronald; Salloway, Stephen; Malloy, Paul; Correia, Stephen; Rosen, Howard J.; Miller, Bruce L.; Mintzer, Jacobo
Objective: To investigate predictors of missing data in a longitudinal study of Alzheimer disease (AD). Methods: The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) is a clinic-based, multicenter, longitudinal study with blood, CSF, PET, and MRI scans repeatedly measured in 229 participants with normal cognition (NC), 397 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 193 with mild AD during 2005–2007. We used univariate and multivariable logistic regression models to examine the associations between baseline demographic/clinical features and loss of biomarker follow-ups in ADNI. Results: CSF studies tended to recruit and retain patients with MCI with more AD-like features, including lower levels of baseline CSF A?42. Depression was the major predictor for MCI dropouts, while family history of AD kept more patients with AD enrolled in PET and MRI studies. Poor cognitive performance was associated with loss of follow-up in most biomarker studies, even among NC participants. The presence of vascular risk factors seemed more critical than cognitive function for predicting dropouts in AD. Conclusion: The missing data are not missing completely at random in ADNI and likely conditional on certain features in addition to cognitive function. Missing data predictors vary across biomarkers and even MCI and AD groups do not share the same missing data pattern. Understanding the missing data structure may help in the design of future longitudinal studies and clinical trials in AD. PMID:22491869
Dixon, Lee J.; Gordon, Kristina Coop; Frousakis, Nikki N.; Schumm, Jeremiah A.
This longitudinal study investigated the effects of expectations of effort of self and spouse on the marital quality of marital enrichment seminar participants. Self-report measures of marital quality, expectations regarding effort put into implementing what was learned during the seminar, amount of perceived effort, and satisfaction with effort…
Khristenko, Nina A; Larina, Irina M; Domon, Bruno
Urine is a valuable material for the diagnosis of renal pathologies and to investigate the effects of their treatment. However, the variability in protein abundance in the context of normal homeostasis remains a major challenge in urinary proteomics. In this study, the analysis of urine samples collected from healthy individuals, rigorously selected to take part in the MARS-500 spaceflight simulation program, provided a unique opportunity to estimate normal concentration ranges for an extended set of urinary proteins. In order to systematically identify and reliably quantify peptides/proteins across a large sample cohort, a targeted mass spectrometry method was developed. The performance of parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) analyses was improved by implementing tight control of the monitoring windows during LC-MS/MS runs, using an on-the-fly correction routine. Matching the experimentally obtained MS/MS spectra with reference fragmentation patterns allowed dependable peptide identifications to be made. Following optimization and evaluation, the targeted method was applied to investigate protein abundance variability in 56 urine samples, collected from six volunteers participating in the MARS-500 program. The intrapersonal protein concentration ranges were determined for each individual and showed unexpectedly high abundance variation, with an average difference of 1 order of magnitude. PMID:26517171
Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Patton, George C.; Toumbourou, John W.
The current study documents the changing rates of cannabis use, misuse and cannabis-related social harms among Australian adolescents as they grow into young adulthood. It utilised data from a longitudinal study of young people at ages 15, 16, 17, and 19. The rates of cannabis use were found to increase as participants aged; past year use…
Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Reio, Thomas G., Jr.; Stipanovic, Natalie; Taylor, Jennifer E.
This study examines the mediating role of student-teacher relationship quality (conflict and closeness) in grades 4, 5, and 6 on the relation between background characteristics, difficult temperament at age 41/2 and risky behavior in 6th grade. The longitudinal sample of participants (N = 1156) was from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and…
Doramajian, Caroline; Bukowski, William M.
This study investigated the prospective association between moral disengagement and bystander behaviors in bullying situations, including both defending and passive bystanding. A diverse sample of Canadian school children (N = 130; 68 boys and 62 girls; mean age = 11.36 years) participated in a three-wave longitudinal study over a 4-month period.…
Redmond, WA Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract--Recently emerged app markets provide a centralizedA Longitudinal Study of the Google App Market Bogdan Carbunar Florida International University Miami, FL Email: email@example.com Rahul Potharaju Cloud and Information Services Lab, Microsoft
This paper uses socialization theory to re-examine a unique, 10-year longitudinal study of headteachers so as to describe the stages of headship transition. It outlines prior models of leadership succession in both business and schools and produces a stage theory of headship that can be used not only as a research tool, but also as a way to assist…
Russo, Silvia; Roccato, Michele; Vieno, Alessio
In a national sample of the Italian population, surveyed four times between October 2002 and January 2007 (N = 2,008), we performed a multilevel longitudinal study aimed at predicting the increase in crime risk perception as a function of three families of independent variables, respectively lying at the within individual level (direct…
National Longitudinal Mortality Study is to investigate social, economic, demographic and occupational differentials in mortality (total and by cause) within a national sample of the U.S. population. In a collaboration begun in 1999 with the Census Bureau and other federal agenci...
Wan, Chin-Sheng; Yang, Jen-te; Cheng, Shu-yun; Su, Chiakai
A cooperative education experience (or internship placement) is an essential component of the curricula of vocational higher education. The efficacy of internship placements has become one of the major concerns facing those who develop education curricula. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to explore the relationships among the…
Titzmann, Peter F.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Mesch, Gustavo
On the basis of general theories of delinquency and the specific situation of immigrants, this longitudinal study investigated predictors of initial levels and rates of change in delinquency among 188 male ethnic German Diaspora immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in Germany, 237 male native German adolescents, and 182 male Jewish…
Brunswick, Nicola; Martin, G. Neil; Rippon, Georgina
This longitudinal study examined the contribution of phonological awareness, phonological memory, and visuospatial ability to reading development in 142 English-speaking children from the start of kindergarten to the middle of Grade 2. Partial cross-lagged analyses revealed significant relationships between early performance on block design and…
A longitudinal study of students' developing understanding of decimal notation has been conducted by testing over 3000 students in Grades 4 to 10 up to 7 times. A pencil-and-paper test based on a carefully designed set of decimal comparison items enabled students' responses to be classified into 11 codes and tracked over time. The paper reports on…
Rutherford, M. D.; Young, Gregory S.; Hepburn, Susan; Rogers, Sally J.
This study describes a longitudinal design (following subjects described in Rutherford & Rogers [2003, "Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorder", 33, 289-302]) to test for predictors of pretend play competence in a group of children with autism. We tested the hypothesis that developmental change in pretend play performance can be predicted by…
Moschis, George P.; Moore, Roy L.
A study examined the effects of factors (including television, family, peers, age, and socioeconomic status) on consumer socialization, the process by which individuals develop consumption-related cognitions and behaviors. The specific criterion variables studied included consumer affairs knowledge, puffery filtering, consumer finance management,…
Halonen, Jaana I.; Kivimäki, Mika; Virtanen, Marianna; Pentti, Jaana; Subramanian, SV; Kawachi, Ichiro; Vahtera, Jussi
Aims We examined whether distance from home to the nearest bar, i.e. alcohol outlet permitting consumption on the premises, is associated with risky alcohol behaviours. Design Cross-sectional and longitudinal study. Setting and Participants The cross-sectional data consisted of 78 858 and the longitudinal data of 54 778 Finnish Public Sector Study participants in between 2000 and 2009 [mean follow-up 6.8 years (SD=2.0)]. Measurements Distances from home to the nearest bar were calculated using Global Positioning System-coordinates. The outcome variables were heavy alcohol use (drinking above the weekly guidelines) and extreme drinking occasions (passing out due to alcohol use). We used binomial logistic regression in cross-sectional analyses and in longitudinal mixed effects (between-individual) analyses. Conditional logistic regression was used in longitudinal fixed effects (within-individual) analyses. Findings Cross-sectionally, the likelihood of an extreme drinking occasion and heavy use was higher among those who resided <1 vs. ?1 km from a bar. Longitudinally, between individuals, a decrease from >1 km to ?1 km in distance was weakly associated with an extreme drinking occasion (1.18, 95% CI 0.98–1.41), and heavy use (1.12, 95% CI 0.97–1.29). Within-individual, the odds ratio for becoming a heavy user was 1.17 (95% CI, 1.02–1.34), per 1 km decrease in log-transformed continuous distance, the corresponding odds ratio for an extreme drinking occasion was 1.03 (95% CI, 0.89–1.18). Conclusions Moving place of residence close to or far from a bar appears to be associated with a small corresponding increase or decrease in risky alcohol behaviour. PMID:22897634
Richards, Rosalina; Poulton, Richie; Reeder, Anthony I.; Williams, Sheila
Purpose Although concurrent influences on adolescent physical activity are well documented, longitudinal studies offer additional insights about early life antecedents of participation. The aim of this study was to examine associations between childhood and contemporaneous factors and patterns of physical activity participation during adolescence. Methods Physical activity participation at ages 15 and 18 was assessed among members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study cohort using the interview-based Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between childhood factors (socioeconomic status, family ‘active-recreation’ orientation, home activities, motor ability, intelligence and psychiatric disorder), contemporaneous factors (parental health, BMI, predicted VO2max, general health, television viewing, smoking and alcohol use) and ‘Persistent Inactivity’, ‘Declining Participation’ or ‘Persistent Activity’ during adolescence. Results In multivariate models, Persistent Inactivity during adolescence was associated with lower childhood family active-recreation orientation, and poorer cardiorespiratory fitness and general health during adolescence. Declining participation was more likely among those who reported fewer activities at home during childhood. Persistent Activity was associated with better cardiorespiratory fitness and watched less television during adolescence. Conclusions This study found that childhood and contemporaneous factors were associated with Persistent Inactivity, Persistent Activity and Declining Participation during adolescence. The findings highlight several factors from the family and home environment of potential importance in early intervention programs to support adolescent participation in physical activity. PMID:19237112
Amer, Kenneth B
A theoretical analysis of helicopter maneuver stability is made and the results are compared with experimental results for both a single and a tandem rotor helicopter. Techniques are described for measuring in flight the significant stability derivatives for use with the theory to aid in design studies of means for achieving marginal maneuver stability for a prototype helicopter.
This case study briefly reviews the development of tourism degrees in the United Kingdom before considering the experiences obtained by students on year-long internship programmes over a period of 8 years. Verbatim confidential comments, from students, are provided and specific transferable skills discussed. Whilst some skills can be developed…
Nicogossian, A. E.; Pool, S. L.; Leach, C. S.; Moseley, E.; Rambaut, P. C.
Clinical data collected from a 15-year study of the homogenous group of pre-Shuttle astronauts have revealed no significant long-term effects from spaceflight. The current hypothesis suggests that repeated exposures to the space environment in the Shuttle era will similarly have no long-term health effects. However, a much more heterogenous group of astronauts and non-astronaut scientists will fly in Shuttle, and data on this group's adaptation to the space environment and readaptation to earth are currently sparse. In addition, very little information is available concerning the short- and long-term medical consequences of long duration exposure to space and subsequent readaptation to the earth environment. In this paper, retrospective clinical information on astronauts is reviewed and concepts for conducting epidemiological studies examining long-term health effects of spaceflight on humans, including associated occupational risks factors, are presented.
O'Brien, Richard J; Resnick, Susan M; Zonderman, Alan B; Ferrucci, Luigi; Crain, Barbara J; Pletnikova, Olga; Rudow, Gay; Iacono, Diego; Riudavets, Miguel A; Driscoll, Ira; Price, Donald L; Martin, Lee J; Troncoso, Juan C
The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) was established in 1958 and is one the oldest prospective studies of aging in the USA and the world. The BLSA is supported by the National Institute of Aging (NIA) and its mission is to learn what happens to people as they get old and how to sort out changes due to aging from those due to disease or other causes. In 1986, an autopsy program combined with comprehensive neurologic and cognitive evaluations was established in collaboration with the Johns Hopkins University Alzheimer's Disease Research Center (ADRC). Since then, 211 subjects have undergone autopsy. Here we review the key clinical neuropathological correlations from this autopsy series. The focus is on the morphological and biochemical changes that occur in normal aging, and the early neuropathological changes of neurodegenerative diseases, especially Alzheimer's disease (AD). We highlight the combined clinical, pathologic, morphometric, and biochemical evidence of asymptomatic AD, a state characterized by normal clinical evaluations in subjects with abundant AD pathology. We conclude that in some individuals, successful cognitive aging results from compensatory mechanisms that occur at the neuronal level (i.e., neuronal hypertrophy and synaptic plasticity) whereas a failure of compensation may culminate in disease. PMID:19661626
Biglan, A W
Patients with spina bifida have multiple ophthalmologic problems, many of which are preventable. Most of the problems are related to the hydrocephalus, which is caused by the coexisting Arnold-Chiari malformation. When patients are treated for hydrocephalus, and comprehensive eye care is available, 94% of the patients will have 6/12 visual acuity or better. Strabismus is common but it responds well to medical and surgical treatment. Children with spina bifida should have frequent examinations by an ophthalmologist who is familiar with the diagnosis and management of the defects recorded in this study. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 PMID:2095031
...Longitudinal Transitions Study--2012. SECURITY...programs, policies, and environment. AUTHORITY FOR MAINTENANCE OF THE SYSTEM: The study is authorized under...Longitudinal Transitions Study 2012. Data will be...programs, policies, and environment EXEMPTIONS CLAIMED...
Boudreault, Patrick; Baldwin, Erin E.; Fox, Michelle; Dutton, Loriel; Tullis, LeeElle; Linden, Joyce; Kobayashi, Yoko; Zhou, Jin; Sinsheimer, Janet S.; Sininger, Yvonne; Grody, Wayne W.; Palmer, Christina G. S.
This article examines the relationship between cultural affiliation and deaf adults' motivations for genetic testing for deafness in the first prospective, longitudinal study to examine the impact of genetic counseling and genetic testing on deaf adults and the deaf community. Participants (n = 256), classified as affiliating with hearing, Deaf,…
Brook, Judith S.; Lee, Jung Yeon; Brown, Elaine N.; Finch, Stephen J.; Brook, David W.
In this 15-year longitudinal study the authors investigated individual and contextual factors that predispose adolescents from a disadvantaged urban area to drug dependence in adulthood. Adolescents were recruited from schools serving East Harlem in New York City. Of the 838 participants followed to adulthood, 59% were women, 55% were African…
Prinstein, Mitchell J.; La Greca, Annette M.
This 6-year longitudinal study examined girls' peer-nominated social preference and aggression in childhood as predictors of self- and parent-reported externalizing symptoms, substance use (i.e.. cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use), and sexual risk behavior in adolescence. Participants were 148 girls from diverse ethnic backgrounds, who were…
Liu, Jiling; Xiang, Ping; McBride, Ron E.; Su, Xiaoxia; Juzaily, Nasnoor
Intrinsic motivation (IM) is an important predictor of children's physical activity participation. The present 3-year longitudinal study examined changes in IM toward physical activity among a group of at-risk boys (N = 92) at a summer sports camp. Results showed the boys were intrinsically motivated in their first camp year, but their IM levels…
Gerstorf, Denis; Ram, Nilam; Estabrook, Ryne; Schupp, Jurgen; Wagner, Gert G.; Lindenberger, Ulman
Longitudinal data spanning 22 years, obtained from deceased participants of the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP; N = 1,637; 70- to 100-year-olds), were used to examine if and how life satisfaction exhibits terminal decline at the end of life. Changes in life satisfaction were more strongly associated with distance to death than with…
Nantel-Vivier, Amelie; Kokko, Katja; Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Pastorelli, Concetta; Gerbino, Maria Grazia; Paciello, Marinella; Cote, Sylvana; Pihl, Robert O.; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.
Objectives: To longitudinally describe prosocial behaviour development from childhood to adolescence, using multiple informants within Canadian and Italian samples. Method: Participants in Study 1 were 1037 boys from low socioeconomic status (SES) areas in Montreal, Canada, for whom yearly teacher and mother reports were obtained between the ages…
Schaie, K. Warner; Willis, Sherry L.; Caskie, Grace I.L.
This article reviews the history, measures and principal findings of the Seattle Longitudinal Study. This study began in 1956 focusing upon age differences and age changes in cognitive abilities. Its sampling frame is a large HMO in the Pacific Northwest. The study has been expanded to investigate various influences on cognitive aging including, cognitive styles, personality traits, life styles, and family environment. Current interest is also in the early detection of risk for dementia. In addition, this article reports original analyses of the relation of personality dimensions to cognitive abilities (both concurrent and longitudinal). While personality remains relatively stable over the adult life span, modest proportions of variance are shared between various personality traits and the cognitive abilities. PMID:16755303
Haacker, R.; Sloan, V.
While there is widespread agreement about the benefits of research internship experiences for students, long-term tracking of student progress beyond the summer experience is challenging. Coordinated tracking can effectively document program impact, inform programmatic improvement, and identifying gaps in the internship effort. Tracking can also strengthen diversity efforts and the retention of students from underrepresented groups. Continuous follow-up and guidance can only be provided to students if we know where they are, what they are doing and what they need in order to stay engaged in the field. The SOARS Program at the National Center for Atmospheric Research has supported undergraduate students for over 18 years to enter and succeed in graduate school. Over 85% of SOARS participants have transitioned to geoscience graduate programs or the STEM workforce. The SOARS mission is to broaden participation in the atmospheric and related sciences by engaging students from groups historically under-represented in science, including Black or African-American, American Indian or Alaska Native, Hispanic or Latino, female, first-generation college students, and students with disabilities. SOARS relies on proven intervention strategies such as multi-year research experiences, multifaceted mentoring, and a strong learning community. Fostering relationships developed during this time using a wider range of technologies and program longevity play important roles in tracking participants over time. This presentation will highlight significant program results and share the tracking and evaluation techniques utilized in SOARS.
Song, Peter X.
Biometrics DOI: 10.1111/biom.12356 Merging Multiple Longitudinal Studies with Study@umich.edu email: firstname.lastname@example.org Summary. Merging multiple datasets collected from studies with identical concerns the development of an effective statistical method that enables to merge multiple longitudinal
Cabe Trundle, Kathy; Atwood, Ronald K.; Christopher, John E.
This research consists of a longitudinal study of 12 female elementary preservice teachers' conceptual understanding over the course of several months. The context in which the participants received instruction was in an inquiry-based physics course, and the targeted science content was the cause of moon phases. Qualitative research methods, including observations and interviews, were used to investigate and describe participants' conceptual understanding over time. Participants were interviewed on their understanding of the cause of moon phases before instruction, 3 weeks after instruction, and again in delayed post-interviews several months after instruction. Patterns and themes in the participants' conceptual understanding were identified through constant-comparative data analysis. Consistent with results reported earlier, participants who had instruction that included recording and analyzing moon observations over time and psychomotor modeling of changes in moon phases were very likely to hold a scientific conceptual understanding shortly after instruction. The present study indicates a majority of participants continued to hold a scientific understanding six months or more after instruction. However, some participants reverted to alternative conceptions they had shown during the pre-interview. These results are interpreted utilizing contemporary conceptual change theory.
Reiss, Michael J.
In this paper I describe and discuss the way that a book I had written on a five-year longitudinal study of school science teaching was received by the pupils and teachers it featured. By and large the pupils' reception was positive. However, one group of teachers was deeply hurt by the book. I trace this mainly to my failure to consider adequately their fears of the consequences of the book's publication and possibly to my failure to consider with them the psychological significance of my withdrawing from the school after five years of regular study. I hope that there are lessons not only for myself but also for others considering longitudinal and ethnographic research in science education and more broadly.
This longitudinal study examined the effect of all-day kindergarten programs on the academic achievement of students from racial language minority and low socioeconomic class. The study employed a series of 3-level longitudinal multilevel analyses using a nationally representative database, the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS). The study…
Bernstein, Eric F
Cryolipolysis treatment, or cold-induced destruction of adipocytes, provides a noninvasive option for localized subcutaneous fat reduction without damaging the overlying skin or adjacent structures. This case study examines the long-term visibility of fat layer reduction subsequent to cryolipolysis treatment, through longitudinal evaluation. Two male subjects were unilaterally treated on one flank. Baseline and postprocedure photographs (at 2 or 5 years) of the treated and contralateral untreated flanks display durable results despite natural fluctuations in body weight. PMID:23725309
...AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-New (VR&E Longitudinal Study Survey)] Proposed...Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment (VR&E) Program. DATES: Written comments...refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900--New (VR&E Longitudinal Study Survey)'' in...
van Geen, Alexander
Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS): Description of a multidisciplinary, New York, NY, USA Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS), a multidisciplinary and large arsenic (As) exposure on various health outcomes, including premalignant and malignant skin tumors, total
Arnold, Benjamin F; Khush, Ranjiv S; Ramaswamy, Padmavathi; Rajkumar, Paramasivan; Durairaj, Natesan; Ramaprabha, Prabhakar; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Colford, John M
Discreet collection of spot check observations to measure household hygiene conditions is a common measurement technique in epidemiologic studies of hygiene in low-income countries. The objective of this study was to determine whether the collection of spot check observations in longitudinal studies could itself induce reactivity (i.e., change participant behavior). We analyzed data from a 12-month prospective cohort study in rural Tamil Nadu, India that was conducted in the absence of any hygiene or toilet promotion activities. Our data included hygiene and toilet spot checks from 10,427 household visits. We found substantial evidence of participant reactivity to spot check observations of hygiene practices that were easy to modify on short notice. For example, soap observed at the household's primary handwashing location increased from 49% at enrollment to 81% by the fourth visit and remained at or above 77% for the remainder of the study. PMID:25385856
Sciberras, Emma; Ukoumunne, Obioha C.; Efron, Daryl
This study examined the prenatal, postnatal and demographic predictors of parent-reported attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in an Australian population-based sample. Participants were families participating in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. There were approximately even numbers of males (51%) and females (49%) in the…
Dreer, Laura E.; DeVivo, Michael J.; Novack, Thomas A.; Marson, Daniel C.
Objective To longitudinally investigate financial capacity (FC) following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Design Longitudinal study comparing FC in cognitively healthy adults and persons with moderate to severe TBI at time of acute hospitalization (Time 1) and at six months post injury (Time 2). Setting Inpatient brain injury rehabilitation unit. Participants Twenty healthy adult controls and 24 adult persons with moderate to severe TBI. Main Outcome Measures Participants were administered the Financial Capacity Instrument (FCI-9), a standardized instrument that measures performance on eighteen financial tasks, nine domains, and two global scores. Between and within group differences were examined for each FCI-9 domain and global scores. Using control group referenced cut scores, participants with TBI were also assigned an impairment rating (intact, marginal, or impaired) on each domain and global score. Results At Time 1, participants with TBI performed significantly below controls on the majority of financial variables tested. At Time 2, participants with TBI demonstrated within group improvement on both simple and complex financial skills, but continued to perform below adult controls on complex financial skills and both global scores. Group by time interactions were significant for five domains and both global scores. At Time 1, high percentages of participants with TBI were assigned either ‘marginal’ or ‘impaired’ ratings on the domains and global scores, with significant percentage increases of ‘intact’ ratings at Time 2. Conclusions Immediately following acute injury, persons with moderate to severe TBI show global impairment of FC. Findings indicate improvement of both simple and complex financial skills over a six month period, but continued impairment on more complex financial skills. Future studies should examine loss and recovery of FC following TBI over longer time periods and a wider range of injury severity. PMID:22369113
.... 2900-New (VR&E Longitudinal Study Survey)'' in any correspondence. For Further Information or a Copy of....email@example.com . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-New (VR&E Longitudinal Study Survey... Control Number: 2900-New (VR&E Longitudinal Study Survey). Type of Review: New data collection....
... Rehabilitation and Employment (VR&E) Program. DATES: Written comments and recommendations on the proposed... ``OMB Control No. 2900--New (VR&E Longitudinal Study Survey)'' in any correspondence. During the comment... Employment Longitudinal Study Survey. OMB Control Number: 2900--New (VR&E Longitudinal Study Survey). Type...
...AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-New (VR&E Longitudinal Study Survey)] Agency...refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-New (VR&E Longitudinal Study Survey)'' in any...refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-New (VR&E Longitudinal Study Survey)''....
Jorgensen, Terrence D.; Rhemtulla, Mijke; Schoemann, Alexander; McPherson, Brent; Wu, Wei; Little, Todd D.
Planned missing designs are becoming increasingly popular, but because there is no consensus on how to implement them in longitudinal research, we simulated longitudinal data to distinguish between strategies of assigning items to forms and of assigning forms to participants across measurement occasions. Using relative efficiency as the criterion,…
Hou, Ningqi; Popkin, Barry M; Jacobs, David R; Song, Yan; Guilkey, David K; He, Ka; Lewis, Cora E.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny
Objective To investigate longitudinal associations between community-level gasoline price and physical activity (PA). Method In the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study, 5,115 black and white participants aged 18–30 at baseline 1985–86 were recruited from four U.S. cities (Birmingham, Chicago, Minneapolis and Oakland) and followed over time. We used data from 3 follow-up exams: 1992–93, 1995–96, and 2000–01, when the participants were located across 48 states. From questionnaire data, a total PA score was summarized in exercise units (EU) based on intensity and frequency of 13 PA categories. Using Geographic Information Systems, participants’ residential locations were linked to county-level inflation-adjusted gasoline price data collected by the Council for Community & Economic Research. We used a random-effect longitudinal regression model to examine associations between time-varying gasoline price and time-varying PA, controlling for age, race, gender, baseline study center, and time-varying education, marital status, household income, county cost of living, county bus fare, census block-group poverty, and urbanicity. Results Holding all control variables constant, a 25-cent increase in inflation-adjusted gasoline price was significantly associated with an increase of 9.9 EU in total PA (95%CI: 0.8–19.1). Conclusion Rising prices of gasoline may be associated with an unintended increase in leisure PA. PMID:21338621
Parkinson, Kathryn N; Drewett, Robert F; Le Couteur, Ann S; Adamson, Ashley J
The aim of the study was to examine predictors of eating disorder symptoms in a population based sample at the earliest age at which they can be measured using the Children's Eating Attitudes Test. Data were collected from the longitudinal Gateshead Millennium Study cohort; 609 children participated in the 7 year data sweep (and their mothers and teachers), and 589 children participated in the 9 year data sweep. Eating disorder symptoms at 9 years were higher in boys, and in children from more deprived families. Higher eating disorder symptoms were associated with more body dissatisfaction at 9 years. Higher symptoms were predicted by higher levels of dietary restraint and of emotional symptoms, but not greater body dissatisfaction, 2 years earlier. The study showed that some correlates of high eating disorder symptoms found in adolescents and adults are also found in children, before the rise in diagnosable eating disorders over the pubertal period. PMID:22465837
Beckford, Sharlene T.; Ehrhardt, Anke A.
Project FIO (The Future Is Ours) was a three arm randomized controlled HIV prevention intervention trial carried out with heterosexually-active women in a high sero-prevalence area of New York City. The trial was effective and women in the eight-session intervention arm were significantly more likely to report decreased unsafe sex or no unsafe sex compared to controls at one month and one year post-intervention. The current investigation was a qualitative analysis of women’s sexual scripts at baseline and one year follow-up for a randomly selected subsample of participants in Project FIO. We examined the domains of sexual initiation, pace setting, sexual decision-making, communication about sexual needs, and the timing of condom introductions in the experimental and control arms at baseline and one year follow-up. At one year follow-up, among both the experimental and control arms, results showed changes away from male-dominated and toward female-dominated sexual initiation and sexual decision-making. Among both the experimental and control arms, results also showed that trial participants shifted from a late condom introduction (right before intercourse) toward much earlier mention of condoms (e.g. during a date). The fact that shifts in sexual scripts at one year follow-up occurred in both groups is likely reflective of the degree to which a lengthy assessment interview facilitated comfort with discussing and imagining new sexual behaviors, even for control group participants who did not receive the intervention. The value of empirically assessing sexual scripts in HIV/AIDS prevention and doing so longitudinally is assessed in light of the goals of HIV prevention interventions. PMID:17186128
Kern, Margaret L.; Hampson, Sarah E.; Goldberg, Lewis R.; Friedman, Howard S.
The present study used a collaborative framework to integrate 2 long-term prospective studies: the Terman Life Cycle Study and the Hawaii Personality and Health Longitudinal Study. Within a 5-factor personality-trait framework, teacher assessments of child personality were rationally and empirically aligned to establish similar factor structures…
Zhao, Ling; Yan, Xuemei; Dun, Wanghuan; Yang, Jing; Huang, Liyu; Kai, Yuan; Yu, Dahua; Qin, Wei; Jie, Tian
Background and Purpose Whether or not migraine can cause cumulative brain alterations due to frequent migraine-related nociceptive input in patients is largely unclear. The aim of this study was to characterize longitudinal changes in brain activity between repeated observations within a short time interval in a group of female migraine patients, using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Methods Nineteen patients and 20 healthy controls (HC) participated in the study. Regional homogeneity (ReHo) and functional interregional connectivity were assessed to determine the focal and global features of brain dysfunction in migraine. The relationship between changes in headache parameters and longitudinal brain alterations were also investigated. Results All patients reported that their headache activity increased over time. Abnormal ReHo changes in the patient group relative to the HC were found in the putamen, orbitofrontal cortex, secondary somatosensory cortex, brainstem, and thalamus. Moreover, these brain regions exhibited longitudinal ReHo changes at the 6-week follow-up examination. These headache activity changes were accompanied by disproportionately dysfunctional connectivity in the putamen in the migraine patients, as revealed by functional connectivity analysis, suggesting that the putamen plays an important role in integrating diverse information among other migraine-related brain regions. Conclusions The results obtained in this study suggest that progressive brain aberrations in migraine progress as a result of increased headache attacks. PMID:25045376
Background Major life events are associated with a change in daily routine and could thus also affect habitual levels of physical activity. Major life events remain largely unexplored as determinants of older adults’ participation in physical activity and sports. This study focused on two major life events, widowhood and retirement, and asked whether these major life events were associated with moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sports participation. Methods Data from the first (1992–93) and second (1995–96) wave of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA), a prospective cohort study among Dutch adults aged 55 and older, were used. Change in marital status and employment status between baseline and follow-up was assessed by self-report. Time spent in MVPA (min/d) and sports participation (yes/no) was calculated based on the LASA Physical Activity Questionnaire. The association of retirement and widowhood with MVPA and sports participation was assessed in separate multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses, respectively. Results Widowhood - N=136 versus 1324 stable married- was not associated with MVPA (B= 3.5 [95%CI:-57.9;64.9]) or sports participation (OR= 0.8 [95%CI:0.5;1.3]). Retired participants (N= 65) significantly increased their time spent in MVPA (B= 32.5 [95%CI:17.8;47.1]) compared to participants who continued to be employed (N= 121), but not their sports participation. Age was a significant effect modifier (B= 7.5 [90%CI:-1.1;13.8]), indicating a greater increase in MVPA in older retirees. Discussion Our results suggest that the associations found varied by the two major life events under investigation. MVPA increased after retirement, but no association with widowhood was seen. PMID:23245568
Norton, F H; Brown, W G
This investigation was carried out by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics at Langley Field in order to study as closely as possible the behavior of an airplane when it was making a longitudinal oscillation. The airspeed, the altitude, the angle with the horizon and the angle of attack were all recorded simultaneously and the resulting curves plotted to the same time scale. The results show that all the curves are very close to damped sine curves, with the curves for height and angle of attack in phase, that for angle with the horizon leading them by 18 per cent and that for path angle leading them by 25 per cent.
Ellison, J.; Shih, H.J.; Kummer, M.
A recent experiment at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) with electron cooling showed that rf phase modulation near 1:1 resonance leads to longitudinal beam splitting. Here we explain this by applying the method of averaging, a powerful tool from the study of dynamical systems, to the underlying equation of motion -- a pendulum equation with small damping and periodic forcing. The beam splitting is explained by showing that the associated Poincare map has two attracting fixed points, each with a well-defined basin of attraction. Our approach can be immediately applied to other accelerator physics problems governed by a similar equation.
Jelicic, Helena; Phelps, Erin; Lerner, Richard M.
Developmental science rests on describing, explaining, and optimizing intraindividual changes and, hence, empirically requires longitudinal research. Problems of missing data arise in most longitudinal studies, thus creating challenges for interpreting the substance and structure of intraindividual change. Using a sample of reports of longitudinal…
Jou, Roger J.; Frazier, Thomas W.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Hardan, Antonio Y.
Research has demonstrated the potential role of the brainstem in the pathobiology of autism. Previous studies have suggested reductions in brainstem volume and a relationship between this structure and sensory abnormalities. However, little is known regarding the developmental aspects of the brainstem across childhood and adolescence. The goal of this pilot study was to examine brainstem development via MRI volumetry using a longitudinal research design. Participants included 23 boys with autism and 23 matched controls (age range = 7–17 years), all without intellectual disability. Participants underwent structural MRI scans once at baseline and again at two-year follow-up. Brainstem volumetric measurements were performed using the BRAINS2 software package. There were no significant group differences in age, gender, handedness, and total brain volume; however, full-scale IQ was higher in controls. Autism and control groups showed different patterns of growth in brainstem volume. While whole brainstem volume remained stable in controls over the two-year period, the autism group showed increases with age reaching volumes comparable to controls by age 15 years. This increase of whole brainstem volume was primarily driven by bilateral increases in gray matter volume. Findings from this preliminary study are suggestive of developmental brainstem abnormalities in autism primarily involving gray matter structures. These findings are consistent with autism being conceptualized as a neurodevelopmental disorder with alterations in brain-growth trajectories. More longitudinal MRI studies are needed integrating longitudinal cognitive/behavioral data to confirm and elucidate the clinical significance of these atypical growth patterns. PMID:23619132
Moreno-Martínez, F. Javier; Rodríguez-Rojo, Inmaculada C.
The role of colour in object recognition is controversial; in this study, a critical review of previous studies, as well as a longitudinal study, was conducted. We examined whether colour benefits the ability of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and normal controls (NC) when naming items differing in colour diagnosticity: living things (LT) versus nonliving things (NLT). Eleven AD patients were evaluated twice with a temporal interval of 3 years; 26 NC were tested once. The participants performed a naming task (colour and greyscale photographs); the impact of nuisance variables (NVs) and potential ceiling effects were also controlled. Our results showed that (i) colour slightly favoured processing of items with higher colour diagnosticity (i.e., LT) in both groups; (ii) AD patients used colour information similarly to NC, retaining this ability over time; (iii) NVs played a significant role as naming predictors in all the participants, relegating domain to a minor plane; and (iv) category effects (better processing of NLT) were present in both groups. Finally, although patients underwent semantic longitudinal impairment, this was independent of colour deterioration. This finding provides better support to the view that colour is effective at the visual rather than at the semantic level of object processing. PMID:26074675
Boyd, Andrew W
Existing constructs for privacy concerns and behaviors do not adequately model deviations between user attitudes and behaviors. Although a number of studies have examined supposed deviations from rationality by online users, true explanations for these behaviors may lie in factors not previously addressed in privacy concern constructs. In particular, privacy attitudes and behavioral changes over time have not been examined within the context of an empirical study. This paper presents the results of an Agile, sprint-based longitudinal study of Social Media users conducted over a two year period between April of 2009 and March of 2011. This study combined concepts drawn from Privacy Regulation Theory with the constructs of the Internet Users' Information and Privacy Concern model to create a series of online surveys that examined changes of Social Media privacy attitudes and self-reported behaviors over time. The main findings of this study are that, over a two year period between 2009 and 2011, respondents' pr...
Summers, Kim M; Bronsvoort, B Mark C; Handel, Ian G; Clements, Dylan N
Background Internet-based data collection relies on well-designed and validated questionnaires. The theory behind designing and validating questionnaires is well described, but few practical examples of how to approach validation are available in the literature. Objective We aimed to validate data collected in an ongoing Internet-based longitudinal health study through direct visits to participants and recall of their health records. We demonstrate that despite extensive pre-planning, social desirability can still affect data in unexpected ways and that anticipation of poor quality data may be confounded by positive validation. Methods Dogslife is a large-scale, Web-based longitudinal study of canine health, in which owners of Labrador Retrievers were recruited and questioned at regular intervals about the lifestyle and health of their dogs using an Internet-based questionnaire. The Dogslife questionnaire predominantly consists of closed-answer questions. In our work, two separate validation methodologies were used: (1) direct interviews with 43 participants during visits to their households and (2) comparison of owner-entered health reports with 139 historical health records. Results Our results indicate that user-derived measures should not be regarded as a single category; instead, each measurement should be considered separately as each presents its own challenge to participants. We recommend trying to ascertain the extent of recall decay within a study and, if necessary, using this to guide data collection timepoints and analyses. Finally, we recommend that multiple methods of communication facilitate validation studies and aid cohort engagement. Conclusions Our study highlighted how the theory underpinning online questionnaire design and validation translates into practical data issues when applied to Internet-based studies. Validation should be regarded as an extension of questionnaire design, and that validation work should commence as soon as sufficient data are available. We believe that validation is a crucial step and hope our suggested guidelines will help facilitate validation of other Internet-based cohort studies. PMID:25887101
The nature of parental participation in children's education is changing rapidly. A growing body of research points to the positive effect that parental involvement has on outcomes of schooling and on children's well-being. This paper examines parental participation practices in terms of parents working together with a range of professionals,…
Racette, Susan B.; Inman, Cindi L.; Clark, B. Ruth; Royer, Nathaniel K.; Steger-May, Karen; Deusinger, Susan S.
Objective: To evaluate cardiometabolic risk of students longitudinally and compare them with age-matched national samples. Participants: Participants are 134 graduate students enrolled between August 2005 and May 2010. Methods: Students were assessed at the beginning and end of their 3-year curriculum. Comparative samples included 966 National…
Abstract Background Despite a reduction in income inequalities between men and women, there is still a large gap between income and retirement savings of Australian men and women. This is especially true for women who have health or disability problems. Mature age women are closest to retirement and, therefore, have less chance than younger women to build up enough retirement savings and may need to continue working to fund their older age. Continued workforce participation may be particularly difficult for women who are less healthy. Understanding which health problems lead to a decrease in workforce participation among mature age women is crucial. Therefore, this longitudinal study sought to identify which health problems are associated with employment among midage women over time. Methods Data were analyzed from the midage cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH), which involved 14,200 midage women (aged 45–50 years in 1996). The women have been surveyed four additional times, in 1998, 2001, 2004, and 2007. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to conduct nested multivariate longitudinal analyses. Results The percentages of women who were employed in the years 2001, 2004, and 2007 were 77%, 72%, and 68%, respectively. Results were adjusted for sociodemographic variables. Being employed decreased as physical and mental health deteriorated and with self-reported conditions: diabetes, high blood pressure, depression, anxiety, and other psychiatric conditions. Back pain, arthritis, cancer, obesity, and being a current smoker are associated with employment but not when quality of life is added to the model. Conclusions There were significant associations between health and employment. Understanding these relationships could inform policies and guidelines for preventing declines in employment in mature age women. PMID:22060315
Shin, Sunny Hyucksun; Miller, Daniel P.
Objectives: We sought to explore the association between childhood maltreatment (e.g., neglect, physical and sexual abuse) and longitudinal growth trajectories of body mass index (BMI) from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods: We used latent curve modeling to examine data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 8,471),…
Zhu, Bin; Taylor, Jeremy M.G.; Song, Peter X.-K.
In longitudinal biomedical studies, there is often interest in the rate functions, which describe the functional rates of change of biomarker profiles. This paper proposes a semiparametric approach to model these functions as the realizations of stochastic processes defined by stochastic differential equations. These processes are dependent on the covariates of interest and vary around a specified parametric function. An efficient Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm is developed for inference. The proposed method is compared with several existing methods in terms of goodness-of-fit and more importantly the ability to forecast future functional data in a simulation study. The proposed methodology is applied to prostate-specific antigen profiles for illustration. Supplementary materials for this paper are available online. PMID:22423170
Min, J. B.; Spanyer, K. S.; Brunair, R. M.
Welded joints are an essential part of rocket engine structures such as the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbopumps. Defects produced in the welding process can be detrimental to weld performance. Recently, review of the SSME high pressure fuel turbopump (HPFTP) titanium inlet X-rays revealed several weld discrepancies such as penetrameter density issues, film processing discrepancies, weld width discrepancies, porosity, lack of fusion, and weld offsets. Currently, the sensitivity of welded structures to defects is of concern. From a fatigue standpoint, weld offset may have a serious effect since local yielding, in general, aggravates cyclic stress effects. Therefore, the weld offset issue is considered in this report. Using the FEM and beamlike plate approximations, parametric studies were conducted to determine the influence of weld offsets and a variation of weld widths in longitudinally welded cylindrical structures with equal wall thicknesses on both sides of the joint. Following the study, some conclusions are derived for the weld offsets.
Kvaløy, Kirsti; Holmen, Jostein; Hveem, Kristian; Holmen, Turid Lingaas
Introduction The complexity of obesity and onset and susceptibility of cardio-metabolic disorders are still poorly understood and is addressed here through studies of genetic influence on weight gain and increased metabolic risk longitudinally. Subjects/Methods Twenty seven previously identified obesity, eating disorder or metabolic risk susceptibility SNPs were tested for association with weight or metabolically related traits longitudinally in 3999 adults participating both in the HUNT2 (1995–97) and HUNT3 (2006–08) surveys. Regression analyses were performed with changes from normal weight to overweight/obesity or from metabolically healthy to adverse developments with regards to blood pressure, glucose, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides or metabolic syndrome as outcomes. Additionally, a sub-sample of 1380 adolescents was included for testing association of nine SNPs with longitudinal weight gain into young adulthood. Results The most substantial effect on BMI-based weight gain from normal to overweight/obesity in adults was observed for the DRD2 variant (rs6277)(OR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.69–0.90, P = 3.9x10-4, adj. P = 0.015). DRD2 was not associated with BMI on a cross-sectional level. In the adolescent sample, FTO (rs1121980) was associated with change to overweight at adulthood in the combined male-female sample (OR: 1.27, 95% CI: 1.09–1.49, P = 3.0x10-3, adj. P = 0.019) and in females (OR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.23–1.91, P = 1.8x10-4, adj. P = 0.003). When testing for association to longitudinal adverse developments with regard to blood pressure, blood lipids and glucose, only rs964184 (ZNF259/APOA5) was significantly associated to unfavourable triglyceride changes (OR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.36–2.03, P = 5.7x10-7, adj. P = 0.001). Pleiotropic effects on metabolic traits, however, were observed for several genetic loci cross-sectionally, ZNF259/APOA5, LPL and GRB14 being the most important. Conclusions DRD2 exhibits effects on weight gain from normal weight to overweight/obesity in adults, while, FTO is associated to weight gain from adolescence to young adulthood. Unhealthy longitudinal triglyceride development is strongly affected by ZNF259/APOA. Our main finding, linking the DRD2 variant directly to the longitudinal weight gain observed, has not previously been identified. It suggests a genetic pre-disposition involving the dopaminergic signalling pathways known to play a role in food reward and satiety linked mechanisms. PMID:26445370
Yamakita, Mitsuya; Kanamori, Satoru; Kondo, Naoki; Kondo, Katsunori
Background Participation in a sports group is key for the prevention of incident functional disability. Little is known about the correlates of older adults’ participation in sports groups, although this could assist with the development of effective health strategies. The purpose of this study was to identify the demographic and biological, psychosocial, behavioral, social and cultural, and environmental correlates of sports group participation among Japanese older adults. Methods Data were obtained from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation study, which was a population–based cohort of people aged ?65 years without disability enrolled from 31 municipalities across Japan (n = 78,002). Poisson regression analysis was used to determine the associations between the factors and participation in sports groups. Results Non-regular participation in sports groups was associated with lower educational level, being employed, and working the longest in the agricultural/forestry/fishery industry among the demographic and biological factors and poor self-rated health and depression among the psychosocial factors. Of the behavioral factors, current smoking was negatively associated and current drinking was positively associated with regular participation in sports groups. Among the social and cultural factors, having emotional social support and participating in hobby clubs, senior citizen clubs, or volunteer groups were associated with a high prevalence of participation in sports groups. Perceptions of the presence of parks or sidewalks, good access to shops, and good accessibility to facilities were positively associated with participation in sports groups among the environmental factors. Conclusions Our study suggests that the promotion of activities that could increase older adults’ participation in sports groups should consider a broad range of demographic and biological, psychosocial, behavioral, social and cultural, and environmental factors. Although future longitudinal studies to elucidate the causal associations are needed, encouraging participation in community groups through social networks might be effective for participation in sports groups. PMID:26512895
Rubin, Robert T; Lin, Sonia; Curtis, Amy; Auerbach, Daniel; Win, Charlene
Introduction Because of its many participants and thorough records, competitive Masters swimming offers a rich data source for determining the rate of physical decline associated with aging in physically fit individuals. The decline in performance among national champion swimmers, both men and women and in short and long swims, is linear, at about 0.6% per year up to age 70–75, after which it accelerates in quadratic fashion. These conclusions are based primarily on cross-sectional studies, and little is known about individual performance declines with aging. Herein we present performance profiles of 19 male and 26 female national and international champion Masters swimmers, ages 25 to 96 years, participating in competitions for an average of 23 years. Methods and results Swimmers’ longitudinal data were compared with the fastest times of world record holders across ages 35–100 years by two regression methods. Neither method proved to accurately model this data set: compared with the rates of decline estimated from the world record data, which represent the best recorded times at given ages, there was bias toward shallower rates of performance decline in the longitudinal data, likely owing to a practice effect in some swimmers as they began their Masters programs. In swimmers’ later years, once maximum performance had been achieved, individual profiles followed the decline represented in the world records, and a few swimmers became the world record holders. In some instances, the individual profiles indicated performance better than the world record data; these swimmers achieved their times after the world record data were collected in 2005–2006. Conclusion Declining physiological functional capacity occurs with advancing age, and this is reflected in the performance decrements of aging Masters swimmers. Individual swimmers show different performance trajectories with aging, declines being mitigated by practice, which improves both physiological capacity and swimming technique, particularly in the early years of participation. The longitudinal data of this study indicate that individuals can participate in high-intensity swimming over several decades, competitively improving over those decades until, in some instances, they become world record holders for their age groups. PMID:24379710
Torres, Bianca; Santos, Raquel Luiza; Sousa, Maria Fernanda Barroso de; Simões Neto, José Pedro; Nogueira, Marcela Moreira Lima; Belfort, Tatiana T; Dias, Rachel; Dourado, Marcia Cristina Nascimento
Facial recognition is one of the most important aspects of social cognition. In this study, we investigate the patterns of change and the factors involved in the ability to recognize emotion in mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Through a longitudinal design, we assessed 30 people with AD. We used an experimental task that includes matching expressions with picture stimuli, labelling emotions and emotionally recognizing a stimulus situation. We observed a significant difference in the situational recognition task (p ? 0.05) between baseline and the second evaluation. The linear regression showed that cognition is a predictor of emotion recognition impairment (p ? 0.05). The ability to perceive emotions from facial expressions was impaired, particularly when the emotions presented were relatively subtle. Cognition is recruited to comprehend emotional situations in cases of mild dementia. PMID:26017202
Baum, Charles L; Ford, William F
We use National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) data to examine the effects of obesity on wages by gender. Sample means indicate that both men and women experience a persistent obesity wage penalty over the first two decades of their careers. We then control for a standard set of socioeconomic and familial variables but find that standard covariates do not explain why obese workers experience persistent wage penalties. This suggests that other variables -- including job discrimination, health-related factors and/or obese workers' behavior patterns -- may be the channels through which obesity adversely affects wages. The study closes with a discussion of the public policy implications suggested by these findings. PMID:15362180
Kemp, Alison M; Dunstan, Frank; Nuttall, Diane; Hamilton, M; Collins, Peter; Maguire, Sabine
Introduction This study aims to identify the prevalence and pattern of bruises in preschool children over time, and explore influential variables Methods Prospective longitudinal study of children (<6?years) where bruises were recorded on a body chart, weekly for up to 12?weeks. The number and location of bruises were analysed according to development. Longitudinal analysis was performed using multilevel modelling. Results 3523 bruises recorded from 2570 data collections from 328 children (mean age 19?months); 6.7% of 1010 collections from premobile children had at least one bruise (2.2% of babies who could not roll over and 9.8% in those who could), compared with 45.6% of 478 early mobile and 78.8% of 1082 walking child collections. The most common site affected in all groups was below the knees, followed by ‘facial T’ and head in premobile and early mobile. The ears, neck, buttocks, genitalia and hands were rarely bruised (<1% of all collections). None of gender, season or the level of social deprivation significantly influenced bruising patterns, although having a sibling increased the mean number of bruises. There was considerable variation in the number of bruises recorded between different children which increased with developmental stage and was greater than the variation between numbers of bruises in collections from the same child over time. Conclusions These data should help clinicians understand the patterns of ‘everyday bruising’ and recognise children who have an unusual numbers or distribution of bruises who may need assessment for physical abuse or bleeding disorders. PMID:25589561
Neininger, Alexandra; Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Kauffeld, Simone; Henschel, Angela
Retention management, i.e., keeping qualified employees, is a top priority for contemporary organizations. Commitment, and especially team commitment, can be the key to mastering this challenge. There is a lack of longitudinal research concerning the development and the direction of the effects of team commitment over time. In a longitudinal…
Adams, Dawn; Horsler, Kate; Mount, Rebecca; Oliver, Chris
Elevated laughing and smiling is a key characteristic of the Angelman syndrome behavioral phenotype, with cross-sectional studies reporting changes with environment and age. This study compares levels of laughing and smiling in 12 participants across three experimental conditions [full social interaction (with eye contact), social interaction with no eye contact, proximity only] at two data points. No differences were noted in frequency of laughing and smiling over time in any condition. However, with age as a covariate, the frequency of laughing and smiling decreased over time in the full social interaction (with eye contact) condition only. As this is the first longitudinal study to explore these behaviors in Angelman syndrome, the results suggest a gene-environment-time interaction within the behavioral phenotype. PMID:25749713
Pena, Melissa S Burroughs; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M; Sánchez, Juan F; Quispe, Renato; Pillay, Timesh D; Málaga, Germán; Gilman, Robert H; Smeeth, Liam; Miranda, J Jaime
Objective To compare all-cause and cause-specific mortality among 3 distinct groups: within-country, rural-to-urban migrants, and rural and urban dwellers in a longitudinal cohort in Peru. Methods The PERU MIGRANT Study, a longitudinal cohort study, used an age-stratified and sex-stratified random sample of urban dwellers in a shanty town community in the capital city of Peru, rural dwellers in the Andes, and migrants from the Andes to the shanty town community. Participants underwent a questionnaire and anthropomorphic measurements at a baseline evaluation in 2007–2008 and at a follow-up visit in 2012–2013. Mortality was determined by death certificate or family interview. Results Of the 989 participants evaluated at baseline, 928 (94%) were evaluated at follow-up (mean age 48 years; 53% female). The mean follow-up time was 5.1 years, totalling 4732.8 person-years. In a multivariable survival model, and relative to urban dwellers, rural participants had lower all-cause mortality (HR=0.27; 95% CI 0.07 to 0.98), and both the rural (HR=0.07; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.87) and migrant (HR=0.13; 95% CI 0.02 to 0.81) groups had lower cardiovascular mortality. Conclusions Cardiovascular mortality of migrants remains similar to that of the rural group, suggesting that rural-to-urban migrants do not appear to catch up with urban mortality in spite of having a more urban cardiovascular risk factor profile. PMID:25987723
Steinback, Craig D; King, Emily C; Davenport, Margie H
Normal cerebrovascular adaptation during pregnancy is poorly understood. We document a case study of progressively increased cerebrovascular reactivity to CO2, despite no change in resting blood flow, from prepregnancy to late gestation in a 36-year-old normotensive participant. Increased cerebral reactivity was related to progressive chronic respiratory alkalosis and specifically elevated pH and reduced HCO3(-). These novel data serve as important indicators of normative maternal cerebral adaptation and highlight novel areas of future study. PMID:25923578
Ning, H. K.; Downing, Kevin
Background: Whilst past studies have established the joint influence of student learning experience and study behaviour on academic achievement, few attempts have been made to determine their causal ordering in a longitudinal framework. Purpose: This study explored the reciprocal relationship between learning experience and study behaviour, and…
Crawford, Trevor J.; Devereaux, Alex; Higham, Steve; Kelly, Claire
Introduction: Eye tracking provides a convenient and promising biological marker of cognitive impairment in patients with neurodegenerative disease. Here we report a longitudinal study of saccadic eye movements in a sample of patients with Alzheimer's disease and elderly control participants who were assessed at the start of the study and followed up 12-months later. Methods: Eye movements were measured in the standard gap and overlap paradigms, to examine the longitudinal trends in the ability to disengage attention from a visual target. Results: Overall patients with Alzheimer's disease had slower reaction times than the control group. However, after 12-months, both groups showed faster and comparable reductions in reaction times to the gap, compared to the overlap stimulus. Interestingly, there was a general improvement for both groups with more accurately directed saccades and speeding of reaction times after 12-months. Conclusions: These findings point to the value of longer-term studies and follow-up assessment to ascertain the effects of dementia on oculomotor control. PMID:26157388
Winefield, Helen R; Delfabbro, Paul H; Winefield, Anthony H; Plueckhahn, Tania; Malvaso, Catia G
The importance of socially supportive relationships in assisting people to cope with stress and adverse events is well recognised, but the trajectories whereby individuals develop the capacity to attract those supports have been infrequently studied. Taking advantage of a substantial longitudinal data set, we aimed to explore the precursors during mid-adolescence, of satisfaction with social supports in young adulthood. Both personality factors (extraversion, neuroticism) and adolescent experiences of high-quality interpersonal relationships with parents and peers were hypothesised to predict subsequent satisfactory supports; we wished to compare the influence of these factors. Participants in a study of the school to work transition (N = 558) provided psychosocial information at 16-17 years of age and then again six years later at 23, using paper and online questionnaires and standardised measures. Personality and family climate variables both predicted adult social support, with family cohesiveness and neuroticism having the largest roles. The possible implications for mental health promotion are discussed. PMID:26232594
Guo, Jiesi; Parker, Philip D; Marsh, Herbert W; Morin, Alexandre J S
Drawing on the expectancy-value model, the present study explored individual and gender differences in university entry and selection of educational pathway (e.g., science, technology, engineering, and mathematics [STEM] course selection). In particular, we examined the multiplicative effects of expectancy and task values on educational outcomes during the transition into early adulthood. Participants were from a nationally representative longitudinal sample of 15-year-old Australian youths (N = 10,370). The results suggest that (a) both math self-concept and intrinsic value interact in predicting advanced math course selection, matriculation results, entrance into university, and STEM fields of study; (b) prior reading achievement has negative effects on advanced math course selection and STEM fields through math motivational beliefs; and (c) gender differences in educational outcomes are mediated by gender differences in motivational beliefs and prior academic achievement, while the processes underlying choice of educational pathway were similar for males and females. PMID:26053150
Eguchi, Megumi; Hamaguchi, Yoshikazu
This study examined the causal relationships between assertiveness and both internal and external adjustment in children. Elementary school children in grades four through six (N = 284) participated in the study, which used a short-term longitudinal design. The children completed questionnaires twice during a 6-months period. They responded to assertiveness questionnaires that included two components: "self-expression" and "consideration of others". They also completed a self-esteem scale as an index of internal adjustment, and the Class Life Satisfaction scale as an index of external adjustment. There was a positive causative relationship between "self-expression" and internal adjustment and between "consideration for others" and external adjustment. In addition, the effects on adjustment varied according to the type of assertiveness. Cluster analysis and MANOVA indicated that the group with high "self-expression" and "consideration for others" had high internal and external adjustment, while the children with poor assertiveness showed the lowest degree of adaptivity. PMID:26402950
Mehtälä, Juha; Auranen, Kari; Kulathinal, Sangita
Alternating presence and absence of a medical condition in human subjects is often modelled as an outcome of underlying process dynamics. Longitudinal studies provide important insights into research questions involving such dynamics. This article concerns optimal designs for studies in which the dynamics are modelled as a binary continuous-time Markov process. Either one or both the transition rate parameters in the model are to be estimated with maximum precision from a sequence of observations made at discrete times on a number of subjects. The design questions concern the choice of time interval between observations, the initial state of each subject and the choice between number of subjects versus repeated observations per subject. Sequential designs are considered due to dependence of the designs on the model parameters. The optimal time spacing can be approximated by the reciprocal of the sum of the two rates. The initial distribution of the study subjects should be taken into account when relatively few repeated samples per subject are to be collected. A study with a reasonably large size should be designed in more than one phase because there are then enough observations to be spent in the first phase to revise the time spacing for the subsequent phases. PMID:22170892
... Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records--National Longitudinal Transitions Study--2012 AGENCY: Institute of...) publishes this notice of a new system of records entitled ``National Longitudinal Transitions Study--2012... Institute of Education Sciences (IES) commissioned this study as part of the congressionally...
research. Behavioral studies of newborn primate infants show significant post- natal development of sensoryDevelopment of visually evoked cortical activity in infant macaque monkeys studied longitudinally Abstract We studied the development of visual activation longitudinally in two infant monkeys aged 103
This study examined a full path model of stress process for predicting illicit drug use among Asian and Latino immigrants' adolescent children. Using 2-year longitudinal data (National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health) from a sample of adolescents with Asian or Latino immigrant parents (N = 2,353), the study explored structural…
Miller, Nita Lewis; Shattuck, Lawrence G.; Matsangas, Panagiotis
Study Objectives: The study provided an opportunity to observe sleep patterns in a college-age population attending the United States Military Academy. Design: This 4-year longitudinal study investigated sleep patterns of cadets. A stratified sample of 80 cadets had sleep patterns monitored using actigraphy for 8 months: one month in both fall and spring academic semesters over a 4-year period. Setting: Data were collected at the United States Military Academy, West Point, NY. Participants: Participants were members of the class of 2007 (n˜1300) ranging in age from 17 to 22 when entering USMA. Measurements and Results: A sample of the class (n = 80) wore wrist activity monitors and completed activity logs for one month in fall and spring academic semesters for the 4-year period. On average over the 4 years, cadets slept < 5.5 h on school nights. Cadets napped extensively, perhaps in an attempt to compensate for chronic sleep debt. Cadets slept more during fall than spring semesters. Male and female cadet sleep patterns varied dramatically, with males consistently receiving less sleep than females (˜21 m for nighttime sleep and ˜23 m for daily sleep). Conclusions: Cadet sleep at USMA is related to academic year, semester, season, sex, school day or weekend, and day of the week. These students suffer from chronic sleep debt. Restrictions imposed by the military academy limit the generalizability of the findings to other college age populations. Citation: Miller NL; Shattuck LG; Matsangas P. Longitudinal study of sleep patterns of United States Military Academy cadets. SLEEP 2010;33(12):1623-1631. PMID:21120124
Ritakallio, Minna; Koivisto, Anna-Maija; von der Pahlen, Bettina; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Marttunen, Mauri; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu
The study investigated continuity, comorbidity and longitudinal associations between depression Beck depression inventory (RBDI) and antisocial behaviour Youth self-report (YSR) in middle adolescence. Data were used from a community sample of 2070 adolescents who participated in a 2-year prospective follow-up study. The results indicate that both…
Wallenius, Marjut; Punamaki, Raija-Leena
This study investigated the roles of sex, age, and parent-child communication in moderating the association between digital game violence and direct aggression in a two-year longitudinal study. Finnish 12- and 15-year-old adolescents (N = 316) participated in the follow-up survey. As hypothesized, digital game violence was linked to direct…
Vierhaus, Marc; Lohaus, Arnold
This study examines whether health risk behaviour in adolescence can be predicted by self- and by parental reports of psychopathology (externalizing and internalizing symptoms) assessed two and four years earlier. A total sample of 366 fourth graders participated in a longitudinal study with measurements taken in grades 4, 6, and 8. In grades 4…
Whittle, Sarah; Simmons, Julian G; Dennison, Meg; Vijayakumar, Nandita; Schwartz, Orli; Yap, Marie B H; Sheeber, Lisa; Allen, Nicholas B
Little work has been conducted that examines the effects of positive environmental experiences on brain development to date. The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate the effects of positive (warm and supportive) maternal behavior on structural brain development during adolescence, using longitudinal structural MRI. Participants were 188 (92 female) adolescents, who were part of a longitudinal adolescent development study that involved mother-adolescent interactions and MRI scans at approximately 12 years old, and follow-up MRI scans approximately 4 years later. FreeSurfer software was used to estimate the volume of limbic-striatal regions (amygdala, hippocampus, caudate, putamen, pallidum, and nucleus accumbens) and the thickness of prefrontal regions (anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal cortices) across both time points. Higher frequency of positive maternal behavior during the interactions predicted attenuated volumetric growth in the right amygdala, and accelerated cortical thinning in the right anterior cingulate (males only) and left and right orbitofrontal cortices, between baseline and follow up. These results have implications for understanding the biological mediators of risk and protective factors for mental disorders that have onset during adolescence. PMID:24269113
Luo, Jiali; Jamieson-Drake, David
This study examined US undergraduate students' intent to study abroad upon college entry and their actual participation in study abroad during their undergraduate years, correlating the college outcomes of three cohorts to identify trends. The findings show that study abroad intent and participation are interrelated and shaped by an array of…
Ruggiero, Carmelinda; Metter, E. Jeffrey; Cherubini, Antonio; Maggio, Marcello; Sen, Ranjan; Najjar, Samer S.; Windham, Gwen B.; Ble, Alessandro; Senin, Umberto; Ferrucci, Luigi
Objectives We investigated the secular trend in white blood cell (WBC) count and the relationship between WBC count and mortality between 1958 and 2002. Background The WBC count is a clinical marker of inflammation and a strong predictor of mortality. Limited data exist on the WBC count secular trend and the relationship between WBC and mortality. Methods One thousand eighty-three women and 1,720 men were evaluated longitudinally in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Blood samples and medical information were collected at the study entry and every 2 years during follow-up visits. The WBC count and all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality were assessed. Results A downward trend in WBC count was observed from 1958 to 2002. The secular downward trend was independent of age, gender, race, smoking, body mass index, and physical activity. The WBC count was nonlinearly associated with all-cause mortality and almost linearly associated with cardiovascular mortality. Participants with baseline WBC <3,500 cells/mm3 and WBC >6,000 cells/mm3 had higher mortality than those with 3,500 to 6,000 WBC/mm3. Within each WBC group, age-adjusted mortality rates declined in successive cohorts from the 1960s to the 1990s. Participants who died had higher WBC than those who survived, and the difference was statistically significant within 5 years before death. Conclusions Our study provides evidence for a secular downward trend in WBC count over the period from 1958 to 2002. Higher WBC counts are associated with higher mortality in successive cohorts. We found no evidence that the decline of age-specific mortality rates that occurred from 1960 to 2000 was attributable to a secular downward trend in WBC. PMID:17481443
Knowles, Eric D; Lowery, Brian S; Shulman, Elizabeth P; Schaumberg, Rebecca L
The Tea Party movement, which rose to prominence in the United States after the election of President Barack Obama, provides an ideal context in which to examine the roles of racial concerns and ideology in politics. A three-wave longitudinal study tracked changes in White Americans' self-identification with the Tea Party, racial concerns (prejudice and racial identification), and ideologies (libertarianism and social conservatism) over nine months. Latent Growth Modeling (LGM) was used to evaluate potential causal relationships between Tea Party identification and these factors. Across time points, racial prejudice was indirectly associated with movement identification through Whites' assertions of national decline. Although initial levels of White identity did not predict change in Tea Party identification, initial levels of Tea Party identification predicted increases in White identity over the study period. Across the three assessments, support for the Tea Party fell among libertarians, but rose among social conservatives. Results are discussed in terms of legitimation theories of prejudice, the "racializing" power of political judgments, and the ideological dynamics of the Tea Party. PMID:23825630
McGowan, Rebecca W.; McGowan, Richard S.; Denny, Margaret; Nittrouer, Susan
Purpose Ecologically realistic, spontaneous adult-directed longitudinal speech data of young children was described by acoustic analyses. Method The first two formant frequencies of vowels produced by six children from different American English dialect regions were analyzed from ages 18 to 48 months. The vowels were from largely conversational contexts and were classified according to dictionary pronunciation. Results Within-subject formant frequency variability remained relatively constant for the span of ages studied here. It was often difficult to detect overall decreases in the first two formant frequencies between the ages of 30 and 48 months. A study of the movement of the corner vowels with respect to the vowel centroid showed that the shape of the vowel space remained qualitatively constant from 30 through 48 months. Conclusions The shape of the vowel space is established early in life. Some aspects of regional dialect were observed in some of the subjects at 42 months of age. The present paper adds to the existing data on the development of vowel spaces by describing ecologically realistic speech. PMID:24687464
Schmidt, Maria Inês; Duncan, Bruce B; Mill, José Geraldo; Lotufo, Paulo A; Chor, Dóra; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Aquino, Estela ML; Passos, Valéria Maria Azeredo; Matos, Sheila MA; Molina, Maria del Carmen B; Carvalho, Marilia S; Bensenor, Isabela M
Chronic diseases are a global problem, yet information on their determinants is generally scant in low- and middle-income countries. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) aims to contribute relevant information regarding the development and progression of clinical and subclinical chronic diseases, particularly cardiovascular diseases and diabetes, in one such setting. At Visit 1, we enrolled 15 105 civil servants from predefined universities or research institutes. Baseline assessment (2008–10) included detailed interviews and measurements to assess social and biological determinants of health, as well as various clinical and subclinical conditions related to diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and mental health. A second visit of interviews and examinations is under way (2012–14) to enrich the assessment of cohort exposures and to detect initial incident events. Annual surveillance has been conducted since 2009 for the ascertainment of incident events. Biological samples (sera, plasma, urine and DNA) obtained at both visits have been placed in long-term storage. Baseline data are available for analyses, and collaboration via specific research proposals directed to study investigators is welcome. PMID:24585730
Dodge, R.; Solomon, P.; Moyers, J.; Hayes, C.
This study is a longitudinal comparison of the health of children exposed to markedly different concentrations of sulfur dioxide and moderately different concentrations of particulate sulfate. The four groups of subjects lived in two areas of one smelter town and in two other towns, one of which was also a smelter town. In the area of highest pollution, children were intermittently exposed to high SO/sub 2/ levels (peak three-hour average concentration exceeded 2,500 micrograms/m3) and moderate particulate SO/sub 4/= levels (average concentration was 10.1 micrograms/m3). When the children were grouped by the four gradients of pollution observed, the prevalence of cough (measured by questionnaire) correlated significantly with pollution levels (trend chi-square = 5.6, p = 0.02). No significant differences in the incidence of cough or other symptoms occurred among the groups of subjects over three years, and pulmonary function and lung function growth over the study were roughly equal among all the groups. These results suggest that intermittent elevations in SO/sub 2/ concentration, in the presence of moderate particulate SO/sub 4/= concentration, produced evidence of bronchial irritation in the subjects, but no chronic effect on lung function or lung function growth was detected.
-term effects, and the decision to return to play. In the present longitudinal study, we used diffusion tensorA longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging study assessing white matter fiber tracts after sports The extent of structural injury in sports related concussion is central to the course of recovery, long
Evans, Jonathan; Melotti, Roberto; Heron, Jon; Ramchandani, Paul; Wiles, Nicola; Murray, Lynne; Stein, Alan
Background: Maternal depression is known to be associated with impairments in child cognitive development, although the effect of timing of exposure to maternal depression is unclear. Methods: Data collected for the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a longitudinal study beginning in pregnancy, included self-report measures of…
Zwierzynska, Karolina; Wolke, Dieter; Lereya, Tanya S.
Traumatic childhood experiences have been found to predict later internalizing problems. This prospective longitudinal study investigated whether repeated and intentional harm doing by peers (peer victimization) in childhood predicts internalizing symptoms in early adolescence. 3,692 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and…
The doubly labeled water (DLW) method is considered the reference method for the measurement of energy expenditure under free-living conditions. However, the reproducibility of the DLW method in longitudinal studies is not well documented. This study was designed to evaluate the longitudinal reprodu...
Asendorpf, Jens B.; van de Schoot, Rens; Denissen, Jaap J. A.; Hutteman, Roos
Most longitudinal studies are plagued by drop-out related to variables at earlier assessments (systematic attrition). Although systematic attrition is often analysed in longitudinal studies, surprisingly few researchers attempt to reduce biases due to systematic attrition, even though this is possible and nowadays technically easy. This is…
Pham, Giang; Kohnert, Kathryn
This longitudinal study modeled lexical development among children who spoke Vietnamese as a first language (L1) and English as a second language (L2). Participants (n=33, initial mean age of 7.3 years) completed a total of eight tasks (four in each language) that measured vocabulary knowledge and lexical processing at four yearly time points. Multivariate hierarchical linear modeling was used to calculate L1 and L2 trajectories within the same model for each task. Main findings included (a) positive growth in each language, (b) greater gains in English resulting in shifts toward L2 dominance, and (c) different patterns for receptive and expressive domains. Timing of shifts to L2 dominance underscored L1 skills that are resilient and vulnerable to increases in L2 proficiency. PMID:23869741
Gerstorf, Denis; Ram, Nilam; Estabrook, Ryne; Schupp, Jürgen; Wagner, Gert G.; Lindenberger, Ulman
Longitudinal data spanning 22 years, obtained from deceased participants of the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP; N = 1,637; 70 to 100 year olds), were used to examine if and how life satisfaction exhibits terminal decline at the end of life. Changes in life satisfaction were more strongly associated with distance to death than with distance from birth (chronological age). Multi-phase growth models were used to identify a transition point roughly four years prior to death wherein the prototypical rate of decline in life satisfaction tripled from –0.64 to –1.94 T-score units per year. Further individual-level analyses suggest that individuals dying at older ages spend more years in the terminal periods of life satisfaction decline than individuals dying at earlier ages. Overall, the evidence suggests that late-life changes in aspects of well-being are driven by mortality-related mechanisms and characterized by terminal decline. PMID:18605841
Whitesell, Nancy Rumbaugh; Mitchell, Christina M; Spicer, Paul
Latent growth curve modeling was used to estimate developmental trajectories of self-esteem and cultural identity among American Indian high school students and to explore the relationships of these trajectories to personal resources, problem behaviors, and academic performance at the end of high school. The sample included 1,611 participants from the Voices of Indian Teens project, a 3-year longitudinal study of adolescents from 3 diverse American Indian cultural groups in the western United States. Trajectories of self-esteem were clearly related to academic achievement; cultural identity, in contrast, was largely unrelated, with no direct effects and only very small indirect effects. The relationships between self-esteem and success were mediated by personal resources and problem behaviors. PMID:19209979
Grant, Angela M; Fang, Shin-Yi; Li, Ping
In this paper we report a longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study that tested contrasting predictions about the time course of cognitive control in second language (L2) acquisition. We examined the neural correlates of lexical processing in L2 learners twice over the course of one academic year. Specifically, while in the scanner, participants were asked to judge the language membership of unambiguous first and second language words, as well as interlingual homographs. Our ROI and connectivity analyses reveal that with increased exposure to the L2, overall activation in control areas such as the anterior cingulate cortex decrease while connectivity with semantic processing regions such as the middle temporal gyrus increase. These results suggest that cognitive control is more important initially in L2 acquisition, and have significant implications for understanding developmental and neurocognitive models of second language lexical processing. PMID:25899988
Gracitelli, Carolina P. B.; Tatham, Andrew J.; Boer, Erwin R.; Abe, Ricardo Y.; Diniz-Filho, Alberto; Rosen, Peter N.; Medeiros, Felipe A.
Purpose To evaluate the ability of longitudinal Useful Field of View (UFOV) and simulated driving measurements to predict future occurrence of motor vehicle collision (MVC) in drivers with glaucoma. Design Prospective observational cohort study. Participants 117 drivers with glaucoma followed for an average of 2.1 ± 0.5 years. Methods All subjects had standard automated perimetry (SAP), UFOV, driving simulator, and cognitive assessment obtained at baseline and every 6 months during follow-up. The driving simulator evaluated reaction times to high and low contrast peripheral divided attention stimuli presented while negotiating a winding country road, with central driving task performance assessed as “curve coherence”. Drivers with MVC during follow-up were identified from Department of Motor Vehicle records. Main Outcome Measures Survival models were used to evaluate the ability of driving simulator and UFOV to predict MVC over time, adjusting for potential confounding factors. Results Mean age at baseline was 64.5 ± 12.6 years. 11 of 117 (9.4%) drivers had a MVC during follow-up. In the multivariable models, low contrast reaction time was significantly predictive of MVC, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.19 per 1 SD slower reaction time (95% CI, 1.30 to 3.69; P = 0.003). UFOV divided attention was also significantly predictive of MVC with a HR of 1.98 per 1 SD worse (95% CI, 1.10 to 3.57; P = 0.022). Global SAP visual field indices in the better or worse eye were not predictive of MVC. The longitudinal model including driving simulator performance was a better predictor of MVC compared to UFOV (R2 = 0.41 vs R2 = 0.18). Conclusions Longitudinal divided attention metrics on the UFOV test and during simulated driving were significantly predictive of risk of MVC in glaucoma patients. These findings may help improve the understanding of factors associated with driving impairment related to glaucoma. PMID:26426342
Adams, Jean; Stamp, Elaine; Nettle, Daniel; Milne, Eugene M. G.; Jagger, Carol
Anticipated Survival and Health Behaviours in Older English Adults: Cross Sectional and Longitudinal Analysis of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing Jean Adams1¤*, Elaine Stamp1, Daniel Nettle2, Eugene M. G. Milne3, Carol Jagger1,3 1 Institute of Health... March 23, 2015 1 / 12 OPEN ACCESS Citation: Adams J, Stamp E, Nettle D, Milne EMG, Jagger C (2015) Anticipated Survival and Health Behaviours in Older English Adults: Cross Sectional and Longitudinal Analysis of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing...
Reddon, Hudson; Gerstein, Hertzel C; Engert, James C; Mohan, Viswanathan; Bosch, Jackie; Desai, Dipika; Bailey, Swneke D; Diaz, Rafael; Yusuf, Salim; Anand, Sonia S; Meyre, David
Physical activity (PA) has been shown to reduce the impact of FTO variation and obesity genetic risk scores (GRS) on BMI. We examined this interaction using a quantitative measure of PA and two adiposity indexes in a longitudinal multi-ethnic study. We analyzed the impact of PA on the association between 14 obesity predisposing variants (analyzed independently and as a GRS) and baseline/follow-up obesity measures in the multi-ethnic prospective cohort EpiDREAM (17423 participants from six ethnic groups). PA was analyzed using basic (low-moderate-high) and quantitative measures (metabolic equivalents (METS)), while BMI and the body adiposity index (BAI) were used to measure obesity. Increased PA was associated with decreased BMI/BAI at baseline/follow-up. FTO rs1421085, CDKAL1 rs2206734, TNNl3K rs1514176, GIPR rs11671664 and the GRS were associated with obesity measures at baseline and/or follow-up. Risk alleles of three SNPs displayed nominal associations with increased (NTRK2 rs1211166, BDNF rs1401635) or decreased (NPC1 rs1805081) basic PA score independently of BMI/BAI. Both basic and quantitative PA measures attenuated the association between FTO rs1421085 risk allele and BMI/BAI at baseline and follow-up. Our results show that physical activity can blunt the genetic effect of FTO rs1421085 on adiposity by 36-75% in a longitudinal multi-ethnic cohort. PMID:26727462
Banks, Sarah Jane; Raman, Rema; He, Feng; Salmon, David P.; Ferris, Steven; Aisen, Paul; Cummings, Jeffrey
Background/Methods The Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study Prevention Instrument Project is a longitudinal study that recruited 644 cognitively healthy older subjects (aged between 75 and 93 years, 58% women) at baseline and evaluated their cognitive change over 4 years. The study was structured like a clinical trial to anticipate a prevention trial and to determine the performance of novel trial instruments in a longitudinal non-interventional trial framework. Behavioral symptoms were assessed at baseline. Results The existence of participant-reported behavioral symptoms at baseline predicted conversion to Clinical Dementia Rating scale score ?0.5 over the 4-year period. Conclusions The results imply that early anxiety and depression may be harbingers of future cognitive decline, and that patients exhibiting such symptoms, even in the absence of co-occurring cognitive symptoms, should be closely followed over time. PMID:25685141
Bowman, R J C; Faal, H; Myatt, M; Adegbola, R; Foster, A; Johnson, G J; Bailey, R L
Aim: Investigation of the natural history of trachomatous trichiasis in the Gambia and of the outcome of self epilation and surgery for the condition. Methods: A 1 year longitudinal study of 190 subjects with trichiasis was performed. Major trichiasis cases (five lashes or more) were referred for surgery and minor trichiasis cases were advised to epilate. Outcome measures included progression of trichiasis and corneal scarring; attendance for and results of surgery. Results: 34 of 148 (23%, 95% CI 16 to 31) subjects with major trichiasis attended for surgery over the year. Progression from minor to major trichiasis occurred in 18 of 55 subjects (33%, 95% CI 21 to 47). Progression of corneal scarring occurred in 60 of 167 patients (36%, 95% CI 29 to 44). Clinically active trachoma and conjunctival bacterial isolation predicted progression of corneal opacity. Surgery was successful in 39 of 54 (72%) eyes. Conclusions: Despite the overall decline in trachoma in the Gambia, patients with both minor and major trichiasis remain at risk of developing corneal opacity. Active trachomatous inflammation and additional infection with bacteria may accelerate this process. Antibiotic treatment for trichiasis patients (in addition to surgery) should be investigated. Surgery for minor trichiasis may be indicated. Regular audit of surgical results is necessary with retraining where needed. PMID:11864895
The Longitudinal Study of Astronomy Graduate Students (LSAGS), an ongoing, joint project of the American Astronomical Society (AAS) and the American Institute of Physics (AIP), first collected survey data from astronomy and astrophysics graduate students in 2007-08. The LSAGS follows the same people, all of whom were in graduate school in 2006-07, over time as they start their careers. Most of the respondents are currently working as postdocs. There have been two rounds of the survey so far, and we have recently received funding for a third round from the National Science Foundation (AST-1347723). Results from the first round showed the importance of mentoring for graduate students. Data collection for the second round has been completed, and AIP has just begun analysis of these data. At this talk, I will present the results of the second survey. Ultimately, the LSAGS will *provide detailed data on trends in employment over 10+ years for a single cohort, *collect data on people who leave the field of astronomy during or after graduate school, *determine whether there are sex differences in attrition from astronomy and reasons for this, and *examine factors that precede decisions to persist in, or leave, the field of astronomy.
This is among the first longitudinal studies to report student attitudes across 4 yr of a university program. We found that the attitudes of students in biology become significantly more expert-like from the first year to the fourth year of the program, that is, there was a significant positive shift in students’ overall percent favorable scores from 64.5 to 72%, as opposed to the expert response, which averaged 90%. There was a significant positive shift for the real world connection category (78–85%), the enjoyment (personal interest) category (74–82%), and the conceptual connections/memorization category (66–74%). Moreover, there was a significant correlation between students’ overall percent favorable scores and performance (cumulative grade point average) at the end, but not at the beginning, of the fourth year, with high-performing students having significantly more expert-like attitudes than low-performing students. The correlation between percent favorable score and performance was the strongest for the problem solving: synthesis and application category, in which the highest-performing students finished their fourth year with 90% favorable compared with 35% favorable for the lowest-performing students. A comparison of these results with previously reported results and their implications for teaching are discussed. PMID:26086663
Background The increased prevalence of malocclusions represents a secular trend attributed to the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. The analysis of factors related to the causes of these changes is essential for planning public health policies aimed at preventing and clinically intercepting malocclusion. This study investigated the sucking habits, nocturnal mouth breathing, as well as the relation of these factors with malocclusion. Methods This is a longitudinal study in which 80 mother-child pairs were monitored from the beginning of pregnancy to the 30th month after childbirth. Home visits for interviews with the mothers were made on the 12th, 18th and 30th months of age. Finger sucking, pacifier sucking, bottle feeding, breastfeeding and nocturnal mouth breathing, were the variables studies. On the 30th month, clinical examinations were performed for overjet, overbite and posterior crossbite. A previously calibrated single examiner (Kappa coefficient?=?0.92) was responsible for all examinations. Data were analyzed using the chi-squared or Fisher’s exact tests, at a significance level of 5%. Results Bottle feeding was the most prevalent habit at 12, 18 and 30 months (87.5%; 90% and 96.25%, respectively). Breastfeeding was 40%, 25% and 12.50% at 12, 18 and 30 months, respectively. Nearly 70% of the children in this study had some sort of malocclusion. Pacifier sucking habit at 12, 18 and 30 months of age was associated with overjet and open bite; and at 30 months, an association with overbite was also observed. Finger sucking habit and breastfeeding at 12, 18 and 30 months were also associated with overjet and open bite. The posterior crossbite was associated with bottle feeding at 12 and 30 months, and nocturnal mouth breathers at 12 and 18 months. Conclusions Sucking habits, low rates of breastfeeding, and nocturnal mouth breathing were risk factors for malocclusion. PMID:25091288
Vandentorren, Stéphanie; Bois, Corinne; Pirus, Claudine; Sarter, Hélène; Salines, Georges; Leridon, Henri
Background Many factors act simultaneously in childhood to influence health status, life chances and well being, including pre-birth influences, the environmental pollutants of early life, health status but also the social influences of family and school. A cohort study is needed to disentangle these influences and explore attribution. Methods Elfe will be a nationally representative cohort of 20 000 children followed from birth to adulthood using a multidisciplinary approach. The cohort will be based on the INSEE Permanent Demographic Panel (EDP) established using census data and civil records. The sample size has been defined in order to match the representativeness criteria and to obtain some prevalence estimation, but also to address the research area of low exposure/rare effects. The cohort will be based on repeated surveys by face to face or phone interview (at birth and each year) as well as medical interview (at 2 years) and examination (at 6 years). Furthermore, biological samples will be taken at birth to evaluate the foetal exposition to toxic substances, environmental sensors will be placed in the child's homes. Pilot studies have been initiated in 2007 (500 children) with an overall acceptance rate of 55% and are currently under progress, the 2-year survey being carried out in October this year. Discussion The longitudinal study will provide a unique source of data to analyse the development of children in their environment, to study the various factors interacting throughout the life course up to adulthood and to determine the impact of childhood experience on the individual's physical, psychological, social and professional development. PMID:19772571
Dror, Vered; Eliash, Sarah; Rehavi, Moshe; Assaf, Yaniv; Biton, Inbal E; Fattal-Valevski, Aviva
Selective neurodegeneration accompanied by mitochondrial dysfunction characterizes neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Thiamine deficiency (TD) in rats is a model for the study of cellular and molecular mechanisms that lead to selective neuronal loss caused by chronic oxidative deficits. Neurodegeneration in TD-rats develops over a period of 12 to 14 days and can be partially reversed by thiamine administration. The aim of this study was to characterize the in-vivo progression of neurodegeneration and the neuronal rescue processes in TD using T(2) magnetic resonance mapping and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Each rat was scanned prior to TD induction (day 0), before the appearance of neurological symptoms (day 10), during the symptomatic stage (days 12 and 14) and during the recuperation period (days 31 and 87). Time-dependent lesions were revealed mainly in the thalamus and the inferior colliculi. Early decrease in the fractional anisotropy (FA) was found on day 10 in the inferior colliculi and to a lesser degree in the thalamus, while the earliest detectable changes in the T(2) parameter occurred only on day 12. FA values in the thalamus remained significantly low after thiamine restoration, suggesting irreversible disarrangement and replacement of neuronal structures. While T(2) values in the frontal cortex demonstrated no lesions, FA values significantly increased on days 14 and 31. An enlargement of the lateral ventricles was observed and persevered during the recovery period. This longitudinal MRI study demonstrated that in TD MRI can detect neurodegeneration and neuronal recovery. DTI is more sensitive than T(2) mapping in the early detection of TD lesions. PMID:19857469
Wheaton, Nikita; Millar, Lynne; Allender, Steven; Nichols, Melanie
Objectives To investigate the sociodemographic and behavioural factors associated with incidence, persistence or remission of obesity in a longitudinal sample of Australian children aged 4–10?years. Setting Nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). Participants The sample for this analysis included all children in the Kinder cohort (aged 4–5?years at wave 1) who participated in all four waves of LSAC (wave 1, 2004, aged 4–5?years; wave 2, 2006, aged 6–7?years; wave 3, 2008, aged 8–9?years and wave 4, 2010, aged 10–11?years). Of the 4983 children who participated in the baseline (wave 1) survey, 4169 (83.7%) children completed all four waves of data collection. Primary and secondary outcome measures Movement of children between weight status categories over time and individual-level predictors of weight status change (sociodemographic characteristics, selected dietary and activity behaviours). Results The study found tracking of weight status across this period of childhood. There was an inverse association observed between socioeconomic position and persistence of overweight/obesity. Sugar-sweetened beverages and fruit and vegetable intake and screen time appeared to be important predictors of stronger tracking. Conclusions Overweight and obesity established early in childhood tracks strongly to the middle childhood years in Australia, particularly among children of lower socioeconomic position and children participating in some unhealthy behaviour patterns. PMID:25922101
Campisi, Lisa; Serbin, Lisa A.; Stack, Dale M.; Schwartzman, Alex E.; Ledingham, Jane E.
The current investigation examined whether inter-generational transfer of risk could be revealed through mothers' and preschool-aged children's expressive language, and whether continuity of risk persisted in these children's academic abilities, 3 years later. Participating families were drawn from the Concordia Longitudinal Risk Project, a…
Background The Longitudinal Analysis of Nursing Education (LANE) study was initiated in 2002, with the aim of longitudinally examining a wide variety of individual and work-related variables related to psychological and physical health, as well as rates of employee and occupational turnover, and professional development among nursing students in the process of becoming registered nurses and entering working life. The aim of this paper is to present the LANE study, to estimate representativeness and analyse response rates over time, and also to describe common career pathways and life transitions during the first years of working life. Methods Three Swedish national cohorts of nursing students on university degree programmes were recruited to constitute the cohorts. Of 6138 students who were eligible for participation, a total of 4316 consented to participate and responded at baseline (response rate 70%). The cohorts will be followed prospectively for at least three years of their working life. Results Sociodemographic data in the cohorts were found to be close to population data, as point estimates only differed by 0-3% from population values. Response rates were found to decline somewhat across time, and this decrease was present in all analysed subgroups. During the first year after graduation, nearly all participants had qualified as nurses and had later also held nursing positions. The most common reason for not working was due to maternity leave. About 10% of the cohorts who graduated in 2002 and 2004 intended to leave the profession one year after graduating, and among those who graduated in 2006 the figure was almost twice as high. Intention to leave the profession was more common among young nurses. In the cohort who graduated in 2002, nearly every fifth registered nurse continued to further higher educational training within the health professions. Moreover, in this cohort, about 2% of the participants had left the nursing profession five years after graduating. Conclusion Both high response rates and professional retention imply a potential for a thorough analysis of professional practice and occupational health. PMID:20423491
Akram, Umair; Ellis, Jason G.; Barclay, Nicola L.
Objectives Individuals with insomnia often report aspects of perfectionism and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Investigation of these factors together has been limited. As such, the aim of the present study was to examine the extent to which the association between perfectionism and insomnia symptoms was mediated by anxiety and depression, concurrently and longitudinally. Methods Seventy-six members from the general-population participated at baseline. Data from 57 participants were subsequently analysed at twelve-month follow-up. Insomnia symptoms were assessed using The Insomnia Severity Index (ISI). Perfectionism was assessed using two Multidimensional Perfectionism Scales (F-MPS; HF-MPS). Symptoms of anxiety and depression were assessed using The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Correlational analysis examined longitudinal associations between perfectionism and insomnia symptoms. Hierarchical regression analysis examined whether significant associations remained after controlling for anxiety and depression. Results Baseline insomnia symptoms were associated with future doubts about action. Further, this relationship was mediated by preceding symptoms of anxiety and concurrent symptoms of insomnia. Similarly, baseline insomnia symptoms were also associated with future parental criticism. However this relationship was partially mediated by preceding symptoms of anxiety, and was not mediated by concurrent insomnia symptoms. Conclusions Symptoms of insomnia appear to be related to an increase in negative perfectionistic thinking in the form of doubts about action and parental criticism, however these relationships appear to be mediated by symptoms of anxiety. Therefore, treatments for insomnia should address anxiety symptoms with the prospect of preventing the accentuation of aspects of perfectionism due to poor sleep. PMID:26465774
Underwood-Riordan, Heather; Randall, Fellana; Zhang, Yi; Constantino, John N.
Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the course of autistic symptoms, using a quantitative measure of core autistic traits, among risperidone-treated children who participated in a 10 year life course longitudinal study. Methods: Parents completed surveys of intervention history, as well as serial symptom severity measurements using the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), on their autism spectrum disorder (ASD)-affected children. Fifty participants (out of a total of 184 with full intervention histories) were reported to have been treated with risperidone during the course of the study. Serial SRS scores during risperidone treatment were available for a majority of children whose parents reported a positive effect from risperidone. Results: Two thirds of risperidone-treated children (n=33) were reported by parents to have improved by taking the medication, with the principal effects described being that children were calmer, better focused, and less aggressive. SRS scores of children reported to have responded positively to risperidone did not improve over time. Conclusions: Risperidone's beneficial effect on aggression and other elements of adaptive functioning were not necessarily accompanied by reduction in core ASD symptoms, as serially assessed by the same caregivers who reported improvement in their children. These results reflect the distinction between reduction in core symptom burden and improvement in adaptive functioning. Given the cumulative risks of atypical neuroleptics, the findings underscore the importance of periodic re-evaluation of medication benefit for children with ASD receiving neuroleptic treatment. PMID:25361070
Nikandrou, Irene; Apospori, Eleni; Papalexandris, Nancy
Purpose: To examine HRM strategies and practices and HRM position within organizations in various cultural, economic and sociopolitical contexts from a longitudinal perspective. Design/methodology/approach: The study uses the 1995 and 1999 Cranet data in a longitudinal methodological framework to explore the changes and trends in 18 European…
Finding Temporal Patterns in Noisy Longitudinal Data: A Study in Diabetic Retinopathy Vassiliki is a large longitudinal patient database collected as part of a diabetic retinopathy screening programme. The diabetic retinopathy application, the data warehousing and cleaning process, and the frequent pattern
Fairweather-Schmidt, A. Kate; Lee, Christina; Wade, Tracey D.
This longitudinal study of midage women has two main aims: to examine the effect of disordered eating (DE) on quality of life (QoL) among women, including a comparison with a younger cohort and to investigate the mediating roles of both depressive symptoms and social support on the longitudinal relationship between DE and QoL as potential…
A Portable Audio/Video Recorder for Longitudinal Study of Child Development Soroush Vosoughi MIT- istic, longitudinal recordings of child development. Categories and Subject Descriptors H.5.2 [User, privacy man- agement, video recorder, audio recorder, child development 1. INTRODUCTION Collection
Leblanc, Line; Swisher, Raymond; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.
A longitudinal and multilevel approach is used to examine the relationship between antisocial behavior during adolescence and high school social climate. The data are taken from a longitudinal study of 1,233 boys and girls who attended 217 public and private high schools. Students' disruptive behaviors were assessed yearly from 6 to 12 years of…
Wong, Sissy Sze-Mun
Experienced, prepared, and fully certified teachers have been related with higher student achievement, but teacher retention has been a challenge for many decades, especially retention of secondary science teachers. In order to support teachers and student learning, it is critical to understand what impacts secondary science teachers' decisions to persist in the field. This mixed methods study explored whether teacher beliefs were related to persistence over a three-year period. Participants were beginning secondary science teachers that participated in general induction programs provided by their school or district. These participants were selected due to their representative nature of the average beginning secondary science teacher in the United States. Participants' responses to annual semi-structured interviews were the source of data. Findings from quantitative and qualitative analyses revealed that the persisting teachers' beliefs remained stable over the three-year period. Quantitative analyses also revealed that there were no prevalent beliefs among the persisting teachers, even when the variables of gender and socioeconomic status of their schools were considered. When persisting teachers' beliefs about teaching and beliefs about learning were quantitatively analyzed, no relationship was found. Case study of one persisting teacher and one non-persisting teacher revealed that personal experiences and knowledge impacted their beliefs about teaching and learning. The persisting teacher that participated in inquiry-based experiences held student-centered beliefs, while the non-persisting teacher that participated in verification-type experiences held teacher-centered beliefs. This study contributes to the field of science education by examining science teacher persistence instead of attrition. It focused specifically on secondary science teachers while exploring their beliefs longitudinally. Implications from this study calls for teacher beliefs to be challenged during the induction phase, proper placement of new teachers into their first teaching positions, and mentoring programs that address general and content-specific needs. In order to promote retention, further studies need to be conducted on factors that impact secondary science teacher persistence. Through promoting and supporting teacher persistence, we can increase student learning and assist students in becoming scientifically literate adults.
Hoopes, Janet L.
A longitudinal study was conducted to determine factors predicting successful adoptions before placement and to identify differences and similarities between adoptive and biological families. Data collected on both adopted children and on their adoptive families before placement was related to data collected on the same children and families 6…
Endo, Jean J.; Harpel, Richard L.
As part of a Student Outcomes Model, a study was conducted of attrition in the 1975 freshman class at the University of Colorado using longitudinal survey data from nonreturning students and those currently enrolled. Discriminant analysis was employed to identify factors that distinguished persisters, academic dismissals, stopouts, and transfers.…
Background Dogslife is the first large-scale internet-based longitudinal study of canine health. The study has been designed to examine how environmental and genetic factors influence the health and development of a birth cohort of UK-based pedigree Labrador Retrievers. Results In the first 12 months of the study 1,407 Kennel Club (KC) registered eligible dogs were recruited, at a mean age of 119 days of age (SD 69 days, range 3 days – 504 days). Recruitment rates varied depending upon the study team’s ability to contact owners. Where owners authorised the provision of contact details 8.4% of dogs were recruited compared to 1.3% where no direct contact was possible. The proportion of dogs recruited was higher for owners who transferred the registration of their puppy from the breeder to themselves with the KC, and for owners who were sent an e-mail or postcard requesting participation in the project. Compliance with monthly updates was highly variable. For the 280 dogs that were aged 400 days or more on the 30th June 2011, we estimated between 39% and 45% of owners were still actively involved in the project. Initial evaluation suggests that the cohort is representative of the general population of the KC registered Labrador Retrievers eligible to enrol with the project. Clinical signs of illnesses were reported in 44.3% of Labrador Retrievers registered with Dogslife (median age of first illness 138 days), although only 44.1% of these resulted in a veterinary presentation (median age 316 days). Conclusions The web-based platform has enabled the recruitment of a representative population of KC registered Labrador Retrievers, providing the first large-scale longitudinal population-based study of dog health. The use of multiple different methods (e-mail, post and telephone) of contact with dog owners was essential to maximise recruitment and retention of the cohort. PMID:23332044
Berben, Sivera AA; Samsom, Melvin; Engelen, Lucien JLPG; Schoonhoven, Lisette
Background Patients increasingly use social media to communicate. Their stories could support quality improvements in participatory health care and could support patient-centered care. Active use of social media by health care institutions could also speed up communication and information provision to patients and their families, thus increasing quality even more. Hospitals seem to be becoming aware of the benefits social media could offer. Data from the United States show that hospitals increasingly use social media, but it is unknown whether and how Western European hospitals use social media. Objective To identify to what extent Western European hospitals use social media. Methods In this longitudinal study, we explored the use of social media by hospitals in 12 Western European countries through an Internet search. We collected data for each country during the following three time periods: April to August 2009, August to December 2010, and April to July 2011. Results We included 873 hospitals from 12 Western European countries, of which 732 were general hospitals and 141 were university hospitals. The number of included hospitals per country ranged from 6 in Luxembourg to 347 in Germany. We found hospitals using social media in all countries. The use of social media increased significantly over time, especially for YouTube (n = 19, 2% to n = 172, 19.7%), LinkedIn (n =179, 20.5% to n = 278, 31.8%), and Facebook (n = 85, 10% to n = 585, 67.0%). Differences in social media usage between the included countries were significant. Conclusions Social media awareness in Western European hospitals is growing, as well as its use. Social media usage differs significantly between countries. Except for the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, the group of hospitals that is using social media remains small. Usage of LinkedIn for recruitment shows the awareness of the potential of social media. Future research is needed to investigate how social media lead to improved health care. PMID:22549016
Background The influence of serum leptin levels on nutritional status and survival in chronic hemodialysis patients remained to be elucidated. We conducted a prospective longitudinal study of leptin levels and nutritional parameters to determine whether changes of serum leptin levels modify nutritional status and survival in a cohort of prevalent hemodialysis patients. Methods Leptin, dietary energy and protein intake, biochemical markers of nutrition and body composition (anthropometry and bioimpedance analysis) were measured at baseline and at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months following enrollment, in 101 prevalent hemodialysis patients (37% women) with a mean age of 64.6 ± 11.5 years. Observation of this cohort was continued over 2 additional years. Changes in repeated measures were evaluated, with adjustment for baseline differences in demographic and clinical parameters. Results Significant reduction of leptin levels with time were observed (linear estimate: -2.5010 ± 0.57 ng/ml/2y; p < 0.001) with a more rapid decline in leptin levels in the highest leptin tertile in both unadjusted (p = 0.007) and fully adjusted (p = 0.047) models. A significant reduction in body composition parameters over time was observed, but was not influenced by leptin (leptin-by-time interactions were not significant). No significant associations were noted between leptin levels and changes in dietary protein or energy intake, or laboratory nutritional markers. Finally, cumulative incidences of survival were unaffected by the baseline serum leptin levels. Conclusions Thus leptin levels reflect fat mass depots, rather than independently contributing to uremic anorexia or modifying nutritional status and/or survival in chronic hemodialysis patients. The importance of such information is high if leptin is contemplated as a potential therapeutic target in hemodialysis patients. PMID:21676262
There has been a recent increase in interest among evolutionary researchers in the hypothesis that humans evolved as cooperative breeders, using extended family support to help decrease offspring mortality and increase the number of children that can be successfully reared. In this study, data drawn from the 1970 longitudinal British cohort study were analysed to determine whether extended family support encourages fertility in contemporary Britain. The results showed that at age 30, reported frequency that participants saw their own parents (but not in-laws) and the closeness of the bond between the participant and their own parents were associated with an increased likelihood of having a child between ages 30 and 34. Financial help and reported grandparental childcare were not significantly positively associated with births from age 30 to 34. Men's income was positively associated with likelihood of birth, whereas women's income increased likelihood of birth only for working women with at least one child. While it was predicted that grandparental financial and childcare help would increase the likelihood of reproduction by lowering the cost to the parent of having a child, it appears that the mere physical presence of supportive parents rather than their financial or childcare help encouraged reproduction in the 1970 British birth cohort sample. PMID:21920986
Macy, Jonathan T; Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark C
Economic declines and their associated stress, shortage of financial resources, and changes in available time can impair health behaviors. This study tested the association between change in working hours, change in employment status, and financial strain and health behaviors measured after the 2008 recession after controlling for pre-recession levels of the health behaviors. The moderating influences of demographic factors and pre-recession levels of the health behaviors on the association between change in working hours and employment status and financial strain and the health behaviors were also tested. Participants (N = 3984) were from a longitudinal study of a U.S. Midwestern community-based sample. Regression analyses tested the unique relations between change in hours worked per week, change in employment status, and financial strain and five health behaviors over and above demographic factors and pre-recession levels of the same behavior. Models included predictor by covariate interactions. Participants who reported higher levels of financial strain engaged in lower levels of all but one of the five health behaviors, but there were no significant main effects of a change in the number of hours worked per week or change in employment status. Significant interactions revealed moderation of these relations by demographic characteristics, but findings differed across health behaviors. Financial strain negatively affected engagement in multiple healthy behaviors. Promoting the maintenance of healthy behaviors for disease prevention is an important public health goal during times of economic decline. PMID:23726210
Fielder, Robyn L.; Walsh, Jennifer L.; Carey, Kate B.; Carey, Michael P.
“Hookups” are sexual encounters between partners who are not in a romantic relationship and do not expect commitment. We examined the associations between sexual hookup behavior and depression, sexual victimization (SV), and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among first-year college women. In this longitudinal study, 483 women completed 13 monthly surveys assessing oral and vaginal sex with hookup and romantic partners, depression, SV, and self-reported STIs. Participants also provided biological specimens that were tested for STIs. During the study, 50% of participants reported hookup sex, and 62% reported romantic sex. Covariates included previous levels of the outcome, alcohol use, impulsivity, sensation-seeking, and romantic sex. Autoregressive cross-lagged models showed that controlling for covariates, hookup behavior during college was correlated with depression, Bs = .21, ps < .05, and SV, Bs = .19, ps < .05. Additionally, pre-college hookup behavior predicted SV early in college, B = .62, p < .05. Hookup sex, OR 1.32, p < .05, and romantic sex, OR 1.19, p < .05, were associated with STIs. Overall, sexual hookup behavior among college women was positively correlated with experiencing depression, SV, and STIs, but the nature of these associations remains unclear, and hooking up did not predict future depression. PMID:24350600
"Children?s Voices" is a longitudinal research project to document and understand children's perceptions of live arts performance and the impact on their teachers and school communities. The research conducted in South Australia with 135 5?12-year-olds in four schools involves collaboration between the South Australian Department of Education and…
Pandey, Shanta; Guo, Baorong
Data from a longitudinal survey of families from three reservations (Navajo Nation, San Carlos, and Salt River) in Arizona were used to examine their probability of welfare use. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the effects of individual, family, and structural factors on welfare exit. Results indicate that their probability of…
Oxford, University of
Psychology is widely regarded as one of the leading psychology departments in the United Kingdom with strong psychology www.psy.ox.ac.uk/undergrad BA in Experimental Psychology (C830) Get in touch... Our website www regarding studying Psychology at Oxford, please do email: firstname.lastname@example.org Department of Experimental
...survey that focuses on children's early school experiences beginning with...Like its sister study, the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten...its scope and coverage of child development, early learning, and school...
Dionne, Ginette; Touchette, Evelyne; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Petit, Dominique; Tremblay, Richard E.; Montplaisir, Jacques Y.; Boivin, Michel
Study Objectives: The objectives were (1) to assess associations between sleep consolidation at 6, 18 and 30 months and language skills at 18, 30, and 60 months; and (2) to investigate the genetic/environmental etiology of these associations. Design: Longitudinal study of a population-based twin cohort. Participants: 1029 twins from the Quebec Newborn Twin Study. Measurements and Results: Sleep consolidation was derived from parental reports of day/night consecutive sleeping durations. Language skills were assessed with the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory at 18 and 30 months and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test at 60 months. The day/night sleep ratio decreased significantly from 6 to 30 months. The 6- and 18-month ratios were negatively correlated with subsequent language skills. Children with language delays at 60 months had less mature sleep consolidation at both 6 and 18 months than children without delays and those with transient early delays. Genetic and regression analyses revealed that the sleep ratio at 6 months was highly heritable (64%) and predicted 18-month (B = ?0.06) and 30-month language (B = ?0.11) mainly through additive genetic influences (RGs = 0.32 and 0.33, respectively). By contrast, the sleep ratio at 18 months was mainly due to shared environment influences (58%) and predicted 60-month language (B = ?0.08) through shared environment influences (RCs = 0.24). Conclusions: Poor sleep consolidation during the first 2 years of life may be a risk factor for language learning, whereas good sleep consolidation may foster language learning through successive genetic and environmental influences. Citation: Dionne G; Touchette E; Forget-Dubois N; Petit D; Tremblay RE; Montplaisir JY; Boivin M. Associations between sleep-wake consolidation and language development in early childhood: a longitudinal twin study. SLEEP 2011;34(8):987-995. PMID:21804661
Luk, Andrew L; Chan, W U; Hu, Sydney X X
This study investigated the effectiveness of a positive youth development program for Chinese Secondary 3 students in two schools, who had been followed up since their entry to Secondary 1. A mixed research method was carried out using a pre- and post-test pre-experimental design and a focus group for the participants. The subjective outcome evaluations included participants' perceptions of the program, program instructors, benefits of the program and overall satisfaction, and were positive. The longitudinal data from the objective outcome evaluation showed some notable improvements, and the overall effect of the program was also found to be positive for newcomers in the junior secondary years. The focus group interviews revealed mostly positive feedback in terms of the students' general impressions of the program, with the majority of participants perceiving benefits to themselves from the program. The findings offer positive evidence of the effectiveness of the program. PMID:24350227
Luk, Andrew L.; Chan, W. U.; Hu, Sydney X. X.
This study investigated the effectiveness of a positive youth development program for Chinese Secondary 3 students in two schools, who had been followed up since their entry to Secondary 1. A mixed research method was carried out using a pre- and post-test pre-experimental design and a focus group for the participants. The subjective outcome evaluations included participants’ perceptions of the program, program instructors, benefits of the program and overall satisfaction, and were positive. The longitudinal data from the objective outcome evaluation showed some notable improvements, and the overall effect of the program was also found to be positive for newcomers in the junior secondary years. The focus group interviews revealed mostly positive feedback in terms of the students’ general impressions of the program, with the majority of participants perceiving benefits to themselves from the program. The findings offer positive evidence of the effectiveness of the program. PMID:24350227
Chylack, Leon T., Jr.; Peterson, Leif E.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Tung, William H.; Wear, Mary L.; Marak, Lisa J.; Hardy, Dale S.; Cucinotta, Francis A.
The NASA Study of Cataract in Astronauts (NASCA) was a five-year longitudinal study of the effect of space radiation exposure on the severity/progression of nuclear (N), cortical (C), and posterior subcapsular (PSC) lens opacities. It began in 2003 and was completed in December, 2009. Participants included 171 consenting astronauts who flew at least one mission in space, and comparison subjects consisted of three groups, a) 53 astronauts who had not flown in space, b) 95 military aircrew personnel, and c) 99 non-aircrew, ground-based subjects.
Lernmark, Barbro; Lynch, Kristian; Baxter, Judith; Roth, Roswith; Simell, Tuula; Smith, Laura; Swartling, Ulrica; Johnson, Suzanne Bennett; Teddy Study Group
Background. To characterize participant reasons for withdrawing from a diabetes focused longitudinal clinical observational trial (TEDDY) during the first three study years. Methods. 8677 children were recruited into the TEDDY study. At participant withdrawal staff recorded any reason parents provided for withdrawal. Reasons were categorized into (1) family characteristics and (2) protocol reasons. Families who informed staff of their withdrawal were classified as active withdrawals (AW); families without a final contact were considered passive withdrawals (PW). Results. Withdrawal was highest during the first study year (n = 1220). Most families were AW (n = 1549; 73.4%). PW was more common in the United States (n = 1001; 37.8%) and among young mothers (p = 0.001). The most frequent protocol characteristic was blood draw (55%) and the most common family reason was not having enough time (66%). The blood draw was more common among female participants; being too busy was more common among males. Both reasons were associated with study satisfaction. Conclusions. Results suggest that, for families of children genetically at risk for diabetes, procedures that can be painful/frightening should be used with caution. Study procedures must also be considered for the demands placed on participants. Study satisfaction should be regularly assessed as an indicator of risk for withdrawal. PMID:26682228
Lernmark, Barbro; Lynch, Kristian; Baxter, Judith; Roth, Roswith; Simell, Tuula; Smith, Laura; Swartling, Ulrica; Johnson, Suzanne Bennett; TEDDY Study Group
Background. To characterize participant reasons for withdrawing from a diabetes focused longitudinal clinical observational trial (TEDDY) during the first three study years. Methods. 8677 children were recruited into the TEDDY study. At participant withdrawal staff recorded any reason parents provided for withdrawal. Reasons were categorized into (1) family characteristics and (2) protocol reasons. Families who informed staff of their withdrawal were classified as active withdrawals (AW); families without a final contact were considered passive withdrawals (PW). Results. Withdrawal was highest during the first study year (n = 1220). Most families were AW (n = 1549; 73.4%). PW was more common in the United States (n = 1001; 37.8%) and among young mothers (p = 0.001). The most frequent protocol characteristic was blood draw (55%) and the most common family reason was not having enough time (66%). The blood draw was more common among female participants; being too busy was more common among males. Both reasons were associated with study satisfaction. Conclusions. Results suggest that, for families of children genetically at risk for diabetes, procedures that can be painful/frightening should be used with caution. Study procedures must also be considered for the demands placed on participants. Study satisfaction should be regularly assessed as an indicator of risk for withdrawal. PMID:26682228
Barra, J; Chauvineau, V; Ohlmann, T; Gresty, M; Pérennou, D
Background and aims To investigate the hypothesis that patients with a hemisphere stroke may perceive their longitudinal body axis (LBA) rotated in the frontal plane. This error in an egocentric frame of reference could be detrimental to posture, as tilted LBA would imply an unequal distribution of body mass about the true vertical. Method 26 healthy subjects matched in age with 18 patients living with stroke participated in the study. The 18 patients were tested on average 80?days after a first left (n?=?8) or right (n?=?10) hemisphere stroke. Participants perceived their LBA by adjustments of the orientation of a luminous rod pivoting around a dorsonavel axis to the subjective direction of LBA. Participants were studied in the supine position to dissociate somaesthetic cues from graviceptive cues. Results Patients with stroke perceived their LBA rotated to the contralesional side in comparison with controls (p?=?0.004). For all controls and 10 patients with stroke, the perceived LBA was very close to true LBA (mean (SD) 0.24° (1.31°)). For eight patients with stroke (six right stroke, two left stroke), the perceived LBA was rotated from true body orientation in the direction opposite to the lesioned side (range 3–9.5°, mean 5.2°). These eight patients provided similar estimates by tactile manipulation of the rod (without vision). The rotation of perceived LBA was more pronounced for right?hemisphere strokes. The magnitudes of perceptual rotations correlated with sensory loss, signs of spatial neglect and the degree of postural and gait disability. Conclusion This is the first study showing that certain patients with a hemisphere stroke perceive their LBA rotated to the contralesional side. The consequences for perceptuomotor coordination have implications for their postural disorders. PMID:16868067
Hawthorne, A.R.; Dudney, C.S.; Cohen, M.A.; Spengler, J.D.
After two surveys for indoor air pollutants (radon and other chemicals) the homeowners were surveyed for their reactions. The results of these participant evaluation surveys, assuming that the participants that responded to the survey were representative, indicate that homeowners will accept a significant level of monitoring activity as part of an indoor air quality field study. Those participants completing surveys overwhelmingly enjoyed being in the studies and would do it again. We believe that the emphasis placed on positive homeowner interactions and efforts made to inform participants throughout our studies were positive factors in this result. There was no substantial differences noted in the responses between the 70-house study, which included a homeowner compensation payment of $100, and the 300-house study, which did not include a compensation payment. These results provide encouragement to conduct future complex, multipollutant indoor air quality studies when they are scientifically sound and cost effective.
Cannon, Tyrone D; Sun, Frank; McEwen, Sarah Jacobson; Papademetris, Xenophon; He, George; van Erp, Theo G M; Jacobson, Aron; Bearden, Carrie E; Walker, Elaine; Hu, Xiaoping; Zhou, Lei; Seidman, Larry J; Thermenos, Heidi W; Cornblatt, Barbara; Olvet, Doreen M; Perkins, Diana; Belger, Aysenil; Cadenhead, Kristin; Tsuang, Ming; Mirzakhanian, Heline; Addington, Jean; Frayne, Richard; Woods, Scott W; McGlashan, Thomas H; Constable, R Todd; Qiu, Maolin; Mathalon, Daniel H; Thompson, Paul; Toga, Arthur W
Multisite longitudinal neuroimaging designs are used to identify differential brain structural change associated with onset or progression of disease. The reliability of neuroanatomical measurements over time and across sites is a crucial aspect of power in such studies. Prior work has found that while within-site reliabilities of neuroanatomical measurements are excellent, between-site reliability is generally more modest. Factors that may increase between-site reliability include standardization of scanner platform and sequence parameters and correction for between-scanner variations in gradient nonlinearities. Factors that may improve both between- and within-site reliability include use of registration algorithms that account for individual differences in cortical patterning and shape. In this study 8 healthy volunteers were scanned twice on successive days at 8 sites participating in the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study (NAPLS). All sites employed 3 Tesla scanners and standardized acquisition parameters. Site accounted for 2 to 30% of the total variance in neuroanatomical measurements. However, site-related variations were trivial (<1%) among sites using the same scanner model and 12-channel coil or when correcting for between-scanner differences in gradient nonlinearity and scaling. Adjusting for individual differences in sulcal-gyral geometries yielded measurements with greater reliabilities than those obtained using an automated approach. Neuroimaging can be performed across multiple sites at the same level of reliability as at a single site, achieving within- and between-site reliabilities of 0.95 or greater for gray matter density in the majority of voxels in the prefrontal and temporal cortical surfaces as well as for the volumes of most subcortical structures. PMID:23982962
Wallin, Mitchell T.; Pretell, E. Javier; Bustos, Javier A.; Caballero, Marianella; Alfaro, Mercedes; Kane, Robert; Wilken, Jeffrey; Sullivan, Cynthia; Fratto, Timothy; Garcia, Hector H.
Background Few studies have focused on the cognitive morbidity of neurocysticercosis (NCC), one of the most common parasitic infections of the central nervous system. We longitudinally assessed the cognitive status and quality of life (QoL) of patients with incident symptomatic NCC cases and matched controls. Methodology/Principal Findings The setting of the study was the Sabogal Hospital and Cysticercosis Unit, Department of Transmissible Diseases, National Institute of Neurological Sciences, Lima, Peru. The design was a longitudinal study of new onset NCC cases and controls. Participants included a total of 14 patients with recently diagnosed NCC along with 14 healthy neighborhood controls and 7 recently diagnosed epilepsy controls. A standardized neuropsychological battery was performed at baseline and at 6 months on NCC cases and controls. A brain MRI was performed in patients with NCC at baseline and 6 months. Neuropsychological results were compared between NCC cases and controls at both time points. At baseline, patients with NCC had lower scores on attention tasks (p<0.04) compared with epilepsy controls but no significant differences compared to healthy controls. Six months after receiving anti-parasitic treatment, the NCC group significantly improved on tasks involving psychomotor speed (p<0.02). QoL at baseline suggested impaired mental function and social function in both the NCC and epilepsy group compared with healthy controls. QoL gains in social function (p?=?0.006) were noted at 6 months in patients with NCC. Conclusions/Significance Newly diagnosed patients with NCC in this sample had mild cognitive deficits and more marked decreases in quality of life at baseline compared with controls. Improvements were found in both cognitive status and quality of life in patients with NCC after treatment. PMID:22303492
Chur-Hansen, Anna; Werner, Lucy-Kate; McGuiness, Clare E; Hazel, Susan
There are no published studies that consider the experiences of guide dog puppy raisers. As these people are volunteers, their continued willingness to participate in the training of dogs for assisting the vision impaired and blind is essential for the viability of guide dog schools around the world. Using a qualitative, longitudinal methodology, data were collected from nine guide dog puppy raisers at four time points: before receiving the puppy, one week, then three months after the puppy arrived, and 13 months after the puppy arrived (at which time all puppies had left the raisers). Participants reported more challenges than benefits in raising the puppies. Volunteering to be a guide dog puppy raiser may not be the pleasant experience that is anticipated when community members first offer their services. Understanding what it is like to be a puppy raiser and working towards ways in which to address problems is essential, given that, without volunteers to train and care for puppies, vision impaired and blind people would not have access to guide dogs. PMID:26479133
Carmona-Reyes, Jorge; Land-Zandstra, Anna; Stark, Gary; Tarman, Lisa; Menefee, Matt; Wang, Li; Cook, Mike; Schmoke, Jimmy; Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell
The CASPER Physics Circus was specifically designed to increase student interest in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) careers where the current generation of scientists and engineers is rapidly approaching retirement age. The Physics Circus followed Waco and LaVega ISD students starting in the sixth grade and ending in the twelfth grade with this cohort group attending the Physics Circus event on the Baylor University campus, interacting with CASPER graduate students and participating in hands-on instructional activities. The event was designed as an informal learning environment intervention and operated under the discovery, project and guided-inquiry base framework wrapped in a learner-center ideology. Participating students were allowed to experiment with hands-on manipulatives while interacting with physicists, science educators and graduate students in both STEM and science education fields. Professional Development was also a part of the Physics Circus for all science teachers within the cohort. This paper presents the results of a seven-year longitudinal study on the Physics Circus and presents future plans to expand the program's effectiveness and impact.
Gee, Dylan G.; McEwen, Sarah C.; Forsyth, Jennifer K.; Haut, Kristen M.; Bearden, Carrie E.; Addington, Jean; Goodyear, Bradley; Cadenhead, Kristin S.; Mirzakhanian, Heline; Cornblatt, Barbara A.; Olvet, Doreen; Mathalon, Daniel H.; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Perkins, Diana O.; Belger, Aysenil; Seidman, Larry J.; Thermenos, Heidi; Tsuang, Ming T.; van Erp, Theo G.M.; Walker, Elaine F.; Hamann, Stephan; Woods, Scott W.; Constable, Todd; Cannon, Tyrone D.
Multisite neuroimaging studies can facilitate the investigation of brain-related changes in many contexts, including patient groups that are relatively rare in the general population. Though multisite studies have characterized the reliability of brain activation during working memory and motor functional magnetic resonance imaging tasks, emotion processing tasks, pertinent to many clinical populations, remain less explored. A traveling participants study was conducted with eight healthy volunteers scanned twice on consecutive days at each of the eight North American Longitudinal Prodrome Study sites. Tests derived from generalizability theory showed excellent reliability in the amygdala (E?2=0.82), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG;E?2=0.83), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC;E?2=0.76), insula (E?2=0.85), and fusiform gyrus (E?2=0.91) for maximum activation and fair to excellent reliability in the amygdala (E?2=0.44), IFG (E?2=0.48), ACC (E?2=0.55), insula (E?2=0.42), and fusiform gyrus (E?2=0.83) for mean activation across sites and test days. For the amygdala, habituation (E?2=0.71) was more stable than mean activation. In a second investigation, data from 111 healthy individuals across sites were aggregated in a voxelwise, quantitative meta-analysis. When compared with a mixed effects model controlling for site, both approaches identified robust activation in regions consistent with expected results based on prior single-site research. Overall, regions central to emotion processing showed strong reliability in the traveling participants study and robust activation in the aggregation study. These results support the reliability of blood oxygen level-dependent signal in emotion processing areas across different sites and scanners and may inform future efforts to increase efficiency and enhance knowledge of rare conditions in the population through multisite neuroimaging paradigms. PMID:25821147
Lang, Delia L.; Sales, Jessica M.; Salazar, Laura F.; Hardin, James W.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Rose, Eve
Objectives: African-American women are affected by disproportionately high rates of violence and sexually transmitted infections (STI)/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. It is imperative to address the intersection of these two urgent public health issues, particularly as these affect African-American adolescent girls. This study assessed the prevalence of rape victimization (RV) among a sample of African-American adolescent females and examined the extent to which participants with a history of RV engage in STI/HIV associated risk behaviors over a 12-month time period. Methods: Three hundred sixty-seven African-American adolescent females ages 15–21, seeking sexual health services at three local teenager-oriented community health agencies in an urban area of the Southeastern United States, participated in this study. Participants were asked to complete an audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI) at baseline, 6- and 12-month follow-up. We assessed sociodemographics, history of RV and sexual practices. At baseline, participants indicating they had experienced forced sex were classified as having a history of RV. Results: Twenty-five percent of participants reported a history of RV at baseline. At 6- and 12-months, victims of RV had significantly lower proportions of condom-protected sex (p=.008), higher frequency of sex while intoxicated (p=.005), more inconsistent condom use (p=.008), less condom use at last sex (p=.017), and more sex partners (p=.0001) than non-RV victims. Over the 12-month follow-up period, of those who did not report RV at baseline, 9.5% reported that they too had experienced RV at some point during the 12-month time frame. Conclusion: African-American adolescent females who experience RV are engaging in more risky sexual behaviors over time than non-RV girls, thereby placing themselves at higher risk for contracting STIs. In light of the results from this unique longitudinal study, we discuss considerations for policies and guidelines targeting healthcare, law enforcement and educational and community settings. The complexities of RV screening in healthcare settings are examined as is the need for tighter collaboration between healthcare providers and law enforcement. Finally, we consider the role of prevention and intervention programs in increasing awareness about RV as well as serving as an additional safe environment for screening and referral. PMID:21731791
A large longitudinal cohort study designed to evaluate the association between children's exposures to environmental agents and health outcomes presents many challenges for exposure monitoring. Exposure of the child must be measured for multiple chemicals through multiple path...
Whalley, Lawrence J; Deary, Ian J
Objectives: To test the association between childhood IQ and mortality over the normal human lifespan. Design: Longitudinal cohort study. Setting: Aberdeen. Subjects: All 2792 children in Aberdeen born in 1921 and ...
Gaddy, Melinda Ann
Hostility is thought by some researchers to be a correlate of depressive symptoms and by others to be a risk factor for depression. Previous studies of longitudinal trends in depression and hostility suggest that hostility confers risk...
Egan, Matt; Lawson, Louise; Kearns, Ade; Conway, Ellie; Neary, Joanne
We conducted a qualitative longitudinal study to explore how adult residents of disadvantaged urban neighbourhoods (Glasgow, UK) experienced neighbourhood demolition and relocation. Data from 23 households was collected in 2011 and 2012. Some participants described moves to new or improved homes in different neighbourhoods as beneficial to their and their families’ wellbeing. Others suggested that longstanding illnesses and problems with the new home and/or neighbourhood led to more negative experiences. Individual-level contextual differences, home and neighbourhood-level factors and variations in intervention implementation influence the experiences of residents involved in relocation programmes. PMID:25814338
Noll, Jennie G.; Putnam, Frank W.
This is a report on the research design and findings of a 23-year longitudinal study of the impact of intrafamilial sexual abuse on female development. The conceptual framework integrated concepts of psychological adjustment with theory regarding how psychobiological factors might impact development. Participants included 6- to 16-year-old females with substantiated sexual abuse and a demographically similar comparison group. A cross-sequential design was used and six assessments have taken place, with participants at median age 11 at the first assessment and median age 25 at the sixth assessment. Mothers of participants took part in the early assessments and offspring took part at the sixth assessment. Results of many analyses, both within circumscribed developmental stages and across development, indicated that sexually abused females (on average) showed deleterious sequelae across a host of biopsychosocial domains including: earlier onsets of puberty, cognitive deficits, depression, dissociative symptoms, maladaptive sexual development, hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal attenuation, asymmetrical stress responses, high rates of obesity, more major illnesses and healthcare utilization, dropping out of high school, persistent psottraumatic stress disorder, self-mutilation, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders diagnoses, physical and sexual revictimization, premature deliveries, teen motherhood, drug and alcohol abuse, and domestic violence. Offspring born to abused mothers were at increased risk for child maltreatment and overall maldevelopment. There was also a pattern of considerable within group variability. Based on this complex network of findings, implications for optimal treatments are elucidated. Translational aspects of extending observational research into clinical practice are discussed in terms that will likely have a sustained impact on several major public health initiatives. PMID:23786689
Murugavel, Murali; Cubon, Valerie; Putukian, Margot; Echemendia, Ruben; Cabrera, Javier; Osherson, Daniel
Abstract The extent of structural injury in sports-related concussion (SRC) is central to the course of recovery, long-term effects, and the decision to return to play. In the present longitudinal study, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to assess white matter (WM) fiber tract integrity within 2 days, 2 weeks, and 2 months of concussive injury. Participants were right-handed male varsity contact-sport athletes (20.2±1.0 years of age) with a medically diagnosed SRC (no loss of consciousness). They were compared to right-handed male varsity non-contact-sport athletes serving as controls (19.9±1.7 years). We found significantly increased radial diffusivity (RD) in concussed athletes (n=12; paired t-test, tract-based spatial statistics; p<0.025) at 2 days, when compared to the 2-week postinjury time point. The increase was found in a cluster of right hemisphere voxels, spanning the posterior limb of the internal capsule (IC), the retrolenticular part of the IC, the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (sagittal stratum), and the anterior thalamic radiation. Post-hoc, univariate, between-group (controls vs. concussed), mixed-effects analysis of the cluster showed significantly higher RD at 2 days (p=0.002), as compared to the controls, with a trend in the same direction at 2 months (p=0.11). Results for fractional anisotropy (FA) in the same cluster showed a similar, but inverted, pattern; FA was decreased at 2 days and at 2 months postinjury, when compared to healthy controls. At 2 weeks postinjury, no statistical differences between concussed and control athletes were found with regard to either RD or FA. These results support the hypothesis of increased RD and reduced FA within 72?h postinjury, followed by recovery that may extend beyond 2 weeks. RD appears to be a sensitive measure of concussive injury. PMID:24786666
Devries, Karen M.; Mak, Joelle Y.; Bacchus, Loraine J.; Child, Jennifer C.; Falder, Gail; Petzold, Max; Astbury, Jill; Watts, Charlotte H.
Background Depression and suicide are responsible for a substantial burden of disease globally. Evidence suggests that intimate partner violence (IPV) experience is associated with increased risk of depression, but also that people with mental disorders are at increased risk of violence. We aimed to investigate the extent to which IPV experience is associated with incident depression and suicide attempts, and vice versa, in both women and men. Methods and Findings We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies published before February 1, 2013. More than 22,000 records from 20 databases were searched for studies examining physical and/or sexual intimate partner or dating violence and symptoms of depression, diagnosed major depressive disorder, dysthymia, mild depression, or suicide attempts. Random effects meta-analyses were used to generate pooled odds ratios (ORs). Sixteen studies with 36,163 participants met our inclusion criteria. All studies included female participants; four studies also included male participants. Few controlled for key potential confounders other than demographics. All but one depression study measured only depressive symptoms. For women, there was clear evidence of an association between IPV and incident depressive symptoms, with 12 of 13 studies showing a positive direction of association and 11 reaching statistical significance; pooled OR from six studies?=?1.97 (95% CI 1.56–2.48, I2?=?50.4%, pheterogeneity?=?0.073). There was also evidence of an association in the reverse direction between depressive symptoms and incident IPV (pooled OR from four studies?=?1.93, 95% CI 1.51–2.48, I2?=?0%, p?=?0.481). IPV was also associated with incident suicide attempts. For men, evidence suggested that IPV was associated with incident depressive symptoms, but there was no clear evidence of an association between IPV and suicide attempts or depression and incident IPV. Conclusions In women, IPV was associated with incident depressive symptoms, and depressive symptoms with incident IPV. IPV was associated with incident suicide attempts. In men, few studies were conducted, but evidence suggested IPV was associated with incident depressive symptoms. There was no clear evidence of association with suicide attempts. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:23671407
Abbasi, Alireza; Kapucu, Naim
We present longitudinal analysis of the evolution of inter-organizational disaster coordination networks during natural disasters. We suggest that social networks are a useful paradigm for exploring this complex phenomenon from both theoretical and methodological perspective aiming to develop a quantitative assessment framework which could aid in developing a better understanding of the optimal functioning of these emerging inter-organizational networks during natural disasters. We highlight the importance of network metrics in order to investigate disaster response coordination networks. Results suggest that in disasters, rate of communication increases and creates the conditions where organizational structures need to move at that same pace to exchange new information.
Fortes, Leonardo de Sousa; Almeida, Sebastião de Sousa; Cipriani, Flávia Marcele; Ferreira, Maria Elisa C.
Objective: To evaluate the inappropriate eating behaviors (IEB) of female adolescents over a one-year period. Methods: 290 adolescents aged between 11 and 14 years old participated in the three research stages (T1: first four months, T2: second four months and T3: third four months). The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was applied to assess the IEB. Weight and height were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI) in the three study periods. Analysis of variance for repeated measures was used to analyze the data, adjusted for the scores of the Body Shape Questionnaire and the Brazil Economic Classification Criteria. Results: Girls at T1 showed a higher frequency of IEB compared to T2 (p=0.001) and T3 (p=0.001). The findings also indicated higher values for BMI in T3 in relation to T1 (p=0.04). The other comparisons did not show statistically significant differences. Conclusions: IEB scores of female adolescents declined over one year. PMID:24676195
?ela?niewicz, Agnieszka; Paw?owski, Bogus?aw
Disgust, an emotion triggering behavioral avoidance of pathogens, serves as a first line of defense against infections. Since behavior related to disgust involves some cost, the aversive reaction should be adjusted to the level of an individual's immunocompetence, and raise only when immunological function is lower (e.g. during pregnancy). We studied changes in disgust sensitivity in pregnant women, and tested if disgust sensitivity is related to a fetus's sex. 92 women participated in a three-stage research, answering the Disgust Scale-Revised questionnaire at each trimester of pregnancy. The result showed that total disgust and disgust sensitivity in the Core Domain were the highest in the first trimester (when maternal immunosuppression is also the highest), and decreased during pregnancy in women bearing daughters. Women bearing sons had relatively high disgust sensitivity persisting in the first and in the second trimester. The elevation in disgust sensitivity during the second trimester for mothers bearing male fetus can be explained by the necessity to protect for a longer time, a more ecologically sensitive fetus, and also herself when bearing a more energetically costly sex. The proximate mechanism may involve the differences in maternal testosterone and cortisol concentrations in the second trimester of pregnancy. PMID:25449396
Prasher, V. P.; Chung, Man Cheung; Haque, M. S.
A study examined underlying factors for age-related decline in adaptive behavior in 128 adults with trisomy 21 over a three-year period. Presence of dementia was the only determining factor, although the difference in trend over time as compared to subjects without dementia was not significant. (Author/CR)
Hasler, Brant P.; Martin, Christopher S.; Wood, D. Scott; Rosario, Bedda; Clark, Duncan B.
Background Sleep disturbances are both common and well-characterized in adults with alcohol use disorders (AUDs), but have received little study in adolescents with AUDs. Furthermore, a handful of studies suggest that sleep complaints are a risk factor for AUDs. However, no published studies have yet examined the longitudinal course of sleep complaints in adolescents with AUDs; in particular, it remains unclear how persistent AUD-associated sleep complaints are in this age group, and what types of sleep complaints are most relevant to alcohol use symptoms. We investigated these questions in a 5-year longitudinal study of adolescents with and without AUDs at baseline. Methods Participants were 696 adolescents (age 12–19) from a longitudinal study at the Pittsburgh Adolescent Alcohol Research Center. At baseline, 347 participants had a current AUD (AUD+), while 349 had no current or past AUD (AUD?). We examined sleep and alcohol involvement at baseline as well as 1, 3, and 5-year follow-up visits. Sleep variables included self-reported insomnia and hypersomnia, as well as variability in weekday-weekend sleep duration, all at baseline. Covariates included sex, age, current alcohol symptoms, and depression severity. Results The AUD+ group reported more overall sleep disturbance at baseline, including greater insomnia and hypersomnia complaints, and greater variability in weekday-weekend sleep duration. Group differences in insomnia and hypersomnia complaints persisted to the 5-year and 3-year follow-ups, respectively. In the AUD? group, greater insomnia complaints at baseline predicted an increase in alcohol symptoms at the 1-year follow-up, while greater variability in sleep duration at baseline predicated an increase in alcohol symptoms at the 3- and 5-year follow-ups. Conclusions These results complement previous findings in other samples, indicating that insomnia and other sleep problems are a chronic predicament for adolescents with AUDs. The findings also suggest that sleep disturbances may place adolescents without AUDs at an elevated risk of developing alcohol problems. PMID:24976511
Jaber, R.; Madhivanan, P.; Veledar, E.; Khader, Y.; Mzayek, F.; Maziak, W.
SETTING According to anecdotal evidence, waterpipe smoking may lead to the initiation of cigarette smoking among young people. This hypothesis is yet to be examined using an appropriate study design and a theoretical model for behavioral change. OBJECTIVE To compare the risk of cigarette smoking initiation among waterpipe-only smokers and never smokers in a school-based sample of adolescents from Irbid, Jordan. METHODS A total of 1454 cigarette-naïve participants were drawn from a longitudinal study on smoking behavior conducted in Irbid among 1781 seventh graders who were enrolled at baseline (2008) and completed the study questionnaire on smoking behavior annually until 2011. Grouped time-survival analysis was used to compare the risk of subsequent initiation of cigarette smoking between waterpipe smokers (n = 298) and never smokers (n = 1156) using adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). RESULTS Risk of initiation of cigarette smoking among waterpipe smokers was significantly higher than among never smokers after adjusting for potential confounders (aHR 1.67, 95%CI 1.46–1.92). The association between waterpipe and cigarette smoking initiation was dose-dependent. The risk of initiating cigarette smoking increased with increase in the frequency of waterpipe smoking (P for linear trend < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Waterpipe smoking led to the initiation of cigarette smoking among this cohort of Jordanian adolescents; the effect was dose-dependent. PMID:25860006
Dyregrov, Kari; Dyregrov, Atle; Johnsen, Iren
Based on the results from the qualitative part of the study "Grief Groups in Norway" conducted in 2009-2011, this article focuses on grief group participants' recommendations for good or ideal grief groups. Participants have insightful observations about grief groups and how they can be improved, and taking their point of view seriously is one important way of ensuring that users of such group get an optimal experience from joining such groups. Using their experiences to adjust the structure and function of the groups, one can allow for practical solutions for organizations that have difficulties starting up grief support groups, for example, in areas where the population density is low. A major finding in this study was that grief group participants stressed the importance of thorough information before and at the start of grief groups. This concerned information about the aim, structure, organization, and possible effects and limitations of group participation. PMID:24416876
Pymont, Carly; Butterworth, Peter
Objectives To describe patterns of frequent attendance in Australian primary care, and identify the prospective risk factors for persistent frequent attendance. Design, setting and participants This study draws on data from the Personality and Total Health (PATH) Through Life Project, a representative community cohort study of residents from the Canberra region of Australia. Participants were assessed on 3 occasions over 8?years. The survey assessed respondents’ experience of chronic physical conditions, self-reported health, symptoms of common mental disorders, personality, life events, sociodemographic characteristics and self-reported medication use. A balanced sample was used in analysis, comprising 1734 respondents with 3 waves of data. The survey data for each respondent were individually linked to their administrative health service use data which were used to generate an objective measure of general practitioner (GP) consultations in the 12?months surrounding their interview date. Main outcome measures Respondents in the (approximate) highest decile of attenders on number of GP consultations over a 12-month period at each time point were defined as frequent attenders (FAs). Results Baseline FAs (8.4%) were responsible for 33.4% of baseline consultations, while persistent FAs (3.6%) for 15.5% of all consultations over the 3 occasions. While there was considerable movement between FA status over time, consistency was greater than expected by chance alone. While there were many factors that differentiated non-FAs from FAs in general, persistent frequent attendance was specifically associated with gender, baseline reports of depression, self-reported physical conditions and disability, and medication use. Conclusions The degree of persistence in GP consultations was limited. The findings of this study contribute to our understanding of the risk factors that predict subsequent persistent frequent attendance in primary care. However, further detailed investigation of longitudinal patterns of frequent attendance and consideration of time-varying determinants of frequent attendance is required. PMID:26443661
Bandyopadhyay, Soumava; Bandyopadhyay, Kakoli
This paper proposes a theoretical framework to investigate the factors that influence student participation in college study abroad programs. The authors posit that students' general perceptions regarding the study abroad experience and their expectations of intercultural awareness from study abroad programs will impact their perceptions of…
Fornés-Vives, Joana; Garcia-Banda, Gloria; Frias-Navarro, Dolores; Rosales-Viladrich, Gerard
The purpose of this study was to examine the dominant stress coping style in nursing students, its relationships with stressful life events and personality traits, and the students' changes during their academic training. A non-experimental two-wave longitudinal design was carried out in 199 nursing students recruited from three Spanish nursing schools. The Stressful Life Events Scale, NEO-FFI, and COPE questionnaire were administered at the beginning (T1) and end (T2) of their nursing studies. Descriptive statistics, Anova(s), NPar tests, and Pearson correlations were carried out. Results show that nursing students' dominant coping style was emotion-focused coping, both at T1 and T2. Highly significant correlations between emotional coping and the neuroticism trait were found. Coping, stress, and personality changed positively during the training program. At T2, the use of problem-focused strategies increased, and participants became more extroverted, agreeable, and conscientious. Coping and personality changes experienced by nursing students throughout their degree program seem to mirror the professional competences needed by future licensed nurses. PMID:26343997
López-Larraz, Eduardo; Montesano, Luis; Gil-Agudo, Ángel; Minguez, Javier; Oliviero, Antonio
Spinal cord injury (SCI) does not only produce a lack of sensory and motor function caudal to the level of injury, but it also leads to a progressive brain reorganization. Chronic SCI patients attempting to move their affected limbs present a significant reduction of brain activation in the motor cortex, which has been linked to the deafferentation. The aim of this work is to study the evolution of the motor-related brain activity during the first months after SCI. Eighteen subacute SCI patients were recruited to participate in bi-weekly experimental sessions during at least two months. Their EEG was recorded to analyze the temporal evolution of the event-related desynchronization (ERD) over the motor cortex, both during motor attempt and motor imagery of their paralyzed hands. The results show that the ? and ? ERD evolution after SCI is negatively correlated with the clinical progression of the patients during the first months after the injury. This work provides the first longitudinal study of the event-related desynchronization during the subacute phase of spinal cord injury. Furthermore, our findings reveal a strong association between the ERD changes and the clinical evolution of the patients. These results help to better understand the brain transformation after SCI, which is important to characterize the neuroplasticity mechanisms involved after this lesion and may lead to new strategies for rehabilitation and motor restoration of these patients. PMID:26177457
RICHMOND, TRACY K.; MILLIREN, CARLY; WALLS, COURTNEY E.; KAWACHI, ICHIRO
BACKGROUND Social capital in neighborhoods and workplaces positively affects health. Less is known about the inAuence of school social capital on student health outcomes, in particular weight status. We sought to examine the association between individual- and school-level social capital and student body mass index (BMI). METHODS Analyzing data from The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a nationally representative sample of adolescents in grades 7-12 (N = 13,428), we used principal components analysis to define 3 school social capital factors: “connectedness” (feel part of/close to people/safe in school), “treatment” (get along with teachers/students, teachers treat students fairly), and “parental involvement” (school administrator reported percent family/parent self-reported participation in Parent Teacher Organization, average daily school attendance). We examined the associations between individual- and school-level social capital and individual BMI using multilevel modeling techniques. RESULTS In girls, both feeling connected to one's school (b = ?0.06, p < .05) and attending schools with overall high connectedness (b = ?0.43, p < .01) were associated with lower BM Is. In boys only attending a school with high "treatment" was inversely associated with BMI (b = ?0.61, p < .01), adjusting for individual and school demographics. CONCLUSIONS Although further studies are needed, our findings suggest enhancing school social capital as a novel approach to addressing student obesity. PMID:25388592
Cigrang, Jeffrey A; Talcott, G Wayne; Tatum, JoLyn; Baker, Monty; Cassidy, Daniel; Sonnek, Scott; Snyder, Douglas K; Balderrama-Durbin, Christina; Heyman, Richard E; Smith Slep, Amy M
Although previous research has indicated an elevated prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other mental health problems among veterans of Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom following deployment, most of this research has been cross-sectional and has focused on a limited range of military groups and outcome criteria. This investigation was a longitudinal study of U.S. Air Force security forces assigned to a year-long high-threat ground mission in Iraq to determine the degree to which airmen's emotional and behavioral health and committed relationships were adversely impacted by an extended deployment to a warzone. Participants were a cohort of 164 security forces airmen tasked to a 365-day deployment to train Iraqi police. Airmen completed study measures both prior to and 6-9 months following deployment. Rates of deterioration in individual and interpersonal adjustment were both significant and medium to large in magnitude of effect, d = 0.43 to 0.90. Results suggest that the negative effects of deployment are related to levels of traumatic experiences and do not spontaneously remit within the first 6-9 months following return from deployment-particularly among those service members having relatively lower levels of social support. PMID:24464429
de Graaf, Hanneke; van de Schoot, Rens; Woertman, Liesbeth; Hawk, Skyler T; Meeus, Wim
Although the relation between family relationships and the timing of sexual debut has been the focus of many studies, research on mediating factors is scarce. This study examines whether low levels of family cohesion result in an earlier onset of romantic and sexual experiences, and whether the link between family cohesion and an early sexual debut is mediated by early romantic initiation. A longitudinal sample of 314 adolescent girls and 222 boys, aged 12-17 at Wave 1, completed questionnaires at three measurement points with three year intervals. The results showed that sexual debut followed romantic initiation for 77% of the participants. For early adolescent females (aged 12-14), high levels of family cohesion resulted in a later sexual debut and this association was fully mediated by a delay of romantic initiation. Among boys and older girls, timing of romantic initiation did not mediate the link between family cohesion and timing of sexual initiation. Early adolescent girls who have negative relationships with their parents turn to romantic relationships for intimacy and support, which subsequently provide the opportunity for an early sexual debut. Low levels of family cohesion thus primarily precipitate romantic initiation and sexual initiation appears to be secondary to this process among girls in this age group. PMID:21853354
Santos, Kelli Maria Souza; de Cerqueira Neto, Manoel Luiz; Carvalho, Vitor Oliveira; de Santana Filho, Valter Joviniano; da Silva Junior, Walderi Monteiro; Araújo Filho, Amaro Afrânio; Cerqueira, Telma Cristina Fontes; Cacau, Lucas de Assis Pereira
Introduction Peripheral muscle strength has been little explored in the literature in the context of cardiac rehabilitation. Objective To evaluate the peripheral muscle strength of patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. Methods This was a longitudinal observational study. The peripheral muscle strength was measured using isometric dynamometry lower limb (knee extensors and flexors) at three different times: preoperatively (M1), the day of discharge (M2) and hospital discharge (M3). Participants received physiotherapy pre and postoperatively during the days of hospitalization during the morning and afternoon. Results Twenty-two patients were evaluated. The values of peripheral muscle strength of knee extensors preoperative found were about 50% lower than those predicted for the healthy population. When comparing muscle strength prior (M1), with the remaining evaluation, found himself in a fall of 29% for the movement of knee extension and 25% for knee flexion in M2 and a decrease of 10% movement for knee extension and 13% for knee flexion in M3 when comparing with M1. Conclusion The values of peripheral muscle strength prior of the study patients were lower than predicted for the healthy population of the same age. After the surgical event this reduction is even more remarkable, being reestablished until the time of discharge, to values close to baseline. PMID:25372909
Nelson, Jon P
This paper assesses the methodology employed in longitudinal studies of advertising and youth drinking and smoking behaviors. These studies often are given a causal interpretation in the psychology and public health literatures. Four issues are examined from the perspective of econometrics. First, specification and validation of empirical models. Second, empirical issues associated with measures of advertising receptivity and exposure. Third, potential endogeneity of receptivity and exposure variables. Fourth, sample selection bias in baseline and follow-up surveys. Longitudinal studies reviewed include 20 studies of youth drinking and 26 studies of youth smoking. Substantial shortcomings are found in the studies, which preclude a causal interpretation. PMID:20617009
Flynn, M.A.; Nolph, G.B.; Baker, A.S.; Martin, W.M.; Krause, G. )
Total body potassium (TBK) data calculated from longitudinal measurements over 18 y of 40K by whole-body counting of 564 male and 61 female healthy humans in a 2-pi liquid scintillation counter show little change in females younger than 50 y compared with males of those ages. Males show less TBK from 41 y onward as they age, with most rapid rate of loss between 41 and 60 y. Females have a rapid loss of TBK when they are older than 60 y; the loss is at a greater rate than that of males. Percent total body fat calculated from total body weight and lean body mass (LBM) derived from TBK document greater adiposity in females at all ages except ages 51-60 y when females are similar to males in change in percent fat per year per centimeter.
Chur-Hansen, Anna; Werner, Lucy-Kate; McGuiness, Clare E.; Hazel, Susan
Simple Summary Guide dogs are important service animals. They cannot be trained without the input of volunteer puppy raisers, who serve as custodians for the animals for around 12 months. To date very little research has considered the experience of being a guide dog puppy raiser, including the costs and benefits to psychological, physical and social health. In this study one litter of puppies and their raisers were followed from before the animal arrived until one year had passed. Overall, less positive experiences were reported than more negative ones. This has implications for the organisations that seek volunteers to raise service animals. Abstract There are no published studies that consider the experiences of guide dog puppy raisers. As these people are volunteers, their continued willingness to participate in the training of dogs for assisting the vision impaired and blind is essential for the viability of guide dog schools around the world. Using a qualitative, longitudinal methodology, data were collected from nine guide dog puppy raisers at four time points: before receiving the puppy, one week, then three months after the puppy arrived, and 13 months after the puppy arrived (at which time all puppies had left the raisers). Participants reported more challenges than benefits in raising the puppies. Volunteering to be a guide dog puppy raiser may not be the pleasant experience that is anticipated when community members first offer their services. Understanding what it is like to be a puppy raiser and working towards ways in which to address problems is essential, given that, without volunteers to train and care for puppies, vision impaired and blind people would not have access to guide dogs. PMID:26479133
Kopping, Dana; Nevarez, Holly; Goto, Keiko; Morgan, Irene; Frigaard, Martin; Wolff, Cindy
This longitudinal study examined the rates of overweight, elevated blood pressure, acanthosis nigricans, and their associated factors in third through fifth grade students over 4 years. Participants consisted of 279 students who participated in health screenings in 2002 and 2006. Hispanic students had significantly higher rates of overweight and acanthosis nigricans compared to White students. There was a sharp increase in elevated blood pressure from 2002 to 2006 among obese children. While 20% of the matched obese students were above the 90th percentile in 2002, 82% of the same students were above the 90th percentile in 2006. After controlling for sex, ethnicity, and grade, preadolescent obesity in 2002 continued to be a significant factor associated with elevated blood pressure and acanthosis nigricans in 2006. These findings demonstrate that prevention and treatment of obesity during preadolescence is critical for the prevention of elevated high blood pressure in early adolescence. PMID:22147837
Xu, Hong; Huang, Xiaoyan; Risérus, Ulf; Cederholm, Tommy; Sjögren, Per; Lindholm, Bengt; Ärnlöv, Johan; Carrero, Juan Jesús
Background Both albuminuria and kidney dysfunction may affect circadian blood pressure (BP) rhythm, while exacerbating each other's effects. We investigated associations and interactions of these two risk factors with circadian BP rhythm variation and non-dipper pattern progression in community-dwelling older men. Methods This was a cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses in the third and fourth cycles of the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men, including 1051 men (age 71 years) with assessments on urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER), 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) and cystatin-C-estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Of these, 574 men attended re-examination after 6 years. Study outcomes were ABMP changes and non-dipping BP pattern (prevalence and progression). Results UAER associated with circadian BP rhythm both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Longitudinally, significant interactions were observed between UAER and kidney dysfunction (eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2) in its association with the changes of both night-time systolic BP (SBP) and night–day SBP ratio. After stratification, UAER strongly predicted night–day SBP ratio change only in those with concurrent kidney dysfunction. At re-examination, 221 new cases of non-dipper were identified. In multivariable logistic models, high UAER associated with increased likelihood of non-dipper progression, but more strongly so among individuals with concurrent kidney dysfunction. These associations were evident also in the subpopulation of non-diabetics and in participants with normal range UAER. Conclusions UAER associates with circadian BP rhythm variation and non-dipper progression in elderly men. Concurrent renal dysfunction modifies and exacerbates these associations. PMID:26413281
Brown, Gavin T. L.; Chai, Constance
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Self Assessment of Leadership of Teaching and Learning (SALTAL) inventory, in conditions of repeated administration. Design/methodology/approach: In 2006 and 2007, nearly all of New Zealand's newly-appointed school principals participated in an 18 month induction…
Kjønniksen, Lise; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Wold, Bente
Background The purpose of this study was to show how participation in leisure-time physical activity changes between ages 13 to 23, and to what extent engaging in specific types of sports tracks into young adulthood. Methods The sample comprised 630 subjects who responded to questionnaires at age 13, with seven follow-ups over a 10-year period in the Norwegian Longitudinal Health Behaviour Study. The associations between adolescent participation in global and specific types of leisure-time physical activity were examined by analyses of variance, regression analysis and growth curve analysis. Results The findings suggest that the transition from adolescence to adulthood is, on average, a period of decline in physical activity, but with the decline levelling off into adulthood. The decline was significantly greater among males than females. There were substantial individual differences in the amount of change, in particular among males. Jogging alone and cycling, recreational activities such as skiing and hiking, and ball games, showed a high degree of tracking from age 15 to 23. The findings indicate low associations between participation in specific types of activities during adolescence and global leisure-time physical activity in young adulthood, while participation in several adolescent physical activities simultaneously was moderately related to later activity. Thus, being involved in various types of physical activity may offer good opportunities for establishing lifelong involvement in physical activity, independent of the specific type of activity. Conclusion The observed variation in change might suggest a need for a more targeted approach, with a focus on subgroups of individuals. The group of inactive youth may be considered as a high risk group, and the findings suggest that adolescent males who are inactive early seem likely to continue to be inactive later. The observed heterogeneity in change highlights the limitation of previous approaches to analyzing physical levels over time, and suggests that multilevel analysis should be used in future research on longitudinal data on physical activity. PMID:19113990
Cross-sectional studies are likely to underestimate age-related changes in skeletal muscle strength and mass. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to assess whole muscle and single muscle fiber alterations in the same cohort of 12 older (mean age: start of study=71.1+/-5.4 yrs and end of study...
Gaspar, Phyllis Meyer; Bautch, Judith C; Strodthoff, Caritas M
Longitudinal studies are recognized as contributing to understanding the complexity of aging and generating insights that cannot be gained using other research methods. However, conducting longitudinal studies is recognized as challenging, especially among older adults. The purpose of the current review is to describe how the authors addressed the limitations and challenges of longitudinal studies in a study of the health status of a community of religious sisters. Methods of this specific longitudinal study are presented to provide background to the discussion. Challenges, limitations, and advantages of the current longitudinal study are organized into three categories (i.e., sample, method, and data analysis) that have been addressed in the literature as contributing to the fidelity of longitudinal studies. The unique characteristics of the current study sample, particularly their access to health care, creates a comparison group for the study of older women in general. PMID:25860013
Holden, Libby; Ware, Robert S; Lee, Christina
This article used data from 5,171 young women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study, to identify longitudinal trajectory patterns of mental health across 6 surveys over 16 years of early adulthood, from age 18-23 to age 34-39. In addition, we identified both predictors and outcomes of these trajectories. Using group-based trajectory modeling, we identified 4 distinct trajectory groups of mental health. The mental health of most participants (55%) was consistently high, with 12% improving, 24% varying, and 9% frequently low. The authors considered characteristics at the beginning and end of the trajectory period, taking a life-course perspective to understand vulnerabilities to, and outcomes of, low or variable poor mental health trajectories. Financial difficulties, poor general health, and weight or shape dissatisfaction were characteristics at Survey 1 that distinguished all other trajectory groups from those with consistently high mental health. Other differences were specific to 1 or 2 groups. By the end of the trajectory period, the improving mental health group showed few differences from those with consistently high mental health. However, those with varying and low mental health showed evidence of social disadvantage, poor physical and emotional health, and unhealthy behaviors, and were less likely to be mothers. The ability to identify distinct trajectories of mental health in early adulthood, and their correlates, provides evidence to underpin population health interventions targeting the prevention of mental health problems among this population group. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26524380
Slater, T. F.; Slater, S. J.
For more than two decades, federal agencies have been enthusiastically supporting summer research experiences for undergraduates. These REU programs are tacitly intended to increase retention and provide "an important educational experience" for undergraduates, particularly women, minorities and underrepresented groups. Numerous authors (viz., Laursen, Lopatto, Dolan, among many others) have enthusiastically described positive impacts of summer REU programs from exit interview data. These results include enhanced persistence to pursue STEM careers and confirmed desire to attend graduate school in the field targeted by a particular REU. Perhaps surprisingly, negative student experiences are rarely described in the scholarly literature, but do appear in more informal publications (viz., Gueterma, 2007). One wonders how REU alumni, looking back over their entire collective portfolio of experiences, now perceive the educational value of their REU experience relative to their other educational experiences. To obtain a backwards-looking, reflective description from REU alumni on the value of their REU experiences, we conducted a 10-year, two-stage study was designed to explore the ways in which the REU acted as an educational experience for 51 women from a single geoscience sub-discipline. The first phase was an ex post facto longitudinal analysis of data, including multiple interviews with each participant during their REU, annual open-ended alumni surveys, faculty interviews, and extensive field notes, over a 10-year period. This analysis informed the second phase, a clinical interview. Over 10 hours of interviews with 8 participants were conducted and analyzed. These 8 participants were selected to represent a variety of career stages, and for their potential to reflect on a wide variety of educational experiences. Results from the interviews, done many years after their REU experience, indicate that the interviewees' REU did not provide a substantive educational experience related to the nature of scientific work, the scientific process, or the culture of academia when considered in a comparative context of students' other educational experiences. Results further indicated that the REU did not serve to transform participants' conceptions about themselves as situated in science, and learning gains with regard to other aspects of the self, were somewhat limited. Instead, the data suggests that these women arrived at the REU with pre-existing and remarkably strong conceptions in these areas, and that the REU did not functional to alter those states. These conceptions were frequently the result of interactions with mentors/scientists from middle school until well into the undergraduate period.
Shoji, Yumiko; Nishio, Yoshiyuki; Baba, Toru; Uchiyama, Makoto; Yokoi, Kayoko; Ishioka, Toshiyuki; Hosokai, Yoshiyuki; Hirayama, Kazumi; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Aoki, Masashi; Hasegawa, Takafumi; Takeda, Atsushi; Mori, Etsuro
Background The neuropsychological features and neuropathological progression patterns associated with rapidly evolving cognitive decline or dementia in Parkinson's disease (PD) remain to be elucidated. Methods Fifty-three PD patients without dementia were recruited to participate in a 3-year longitudinal cohort study. The patients were grouped according to the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR). Group-wise comparisons were made with regard to demographic characteristics, motor symptoms, neuropsychological performances and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. Results Patients who had memory-plus cognitive impairment (patients whose CDR was 0 at baseline and 0.5 in memory and other domains at follow-up, and those whose baseline CDR was 0.5 in memory and other domains) exhibited higher age at onset, visuoperceptual impairment, non-tremor-dominant motor disturbance, rapid symptomatic progression and posterior neocortical hypometabolism. In patients who were cognitively unimpaired and those who had memory-dominant cognitive impairment (patients whose CDR was 0 at baseline and 0.5 only in memory domain at follow-up, and those whose baseline CDR was 0.5 only in memory domain), the posterior neocortex was relatively unaffected until a later stage of the disease. Conclusions These results suggest that visuoperceptual impairment and the early involvement of the posterior neocortex may be risk factors for rapid symptomatic progression and dementia in PD. PMID:25330390
Goetz, Katja; Hess, Sigrid; Jossen, Marianne; Huber, Felix; Rosemann, Thomas; Brodowski, Marc; Künzi, Beat; Szecsenyi, Joachim
Objectives To examine the effectiveness of the quality management programme—European Practice Assessment—in primary care in Switzerland. Design Longitudinal study with three points of measurement. Setting Primary care practices in Switzerland. Participants In total, 45 of 91 primary care practices completed European Practice Assessment three times. Outcomes The interval between each assessment was around 36?months. A variance analyses for repeated measurements were performed for all 129 quality indicators from the domains: ‘infrastructure’, ‘information’, ‘finance’, and ‘quality and safety’ to examine changes over time. Results Significant improvements were found in three of four domains: ‘quality and safety’ (F=22.81, p<0.01), ‘information’ (F=27.901, p<0.01) and ‘finance’ (F=4.073, p<0.02). The 129 quality indicators showed a significant improvement within the three points of measurement (F=33.864, p<0.01). Conclusions The European Practice Assessment for primary care practices thus provides a functioning quality management programme, focusing on the sustainable improvement of structural and organisational aspects to promote high quality of primary care. The implementation of a quality management system which also includes a continuous improvement process would give added value to provide good care. PMID:25900466
Ruiz, Francisco J; Odriozola-González, Paula
This study analyzed the interrelationships between key constructs of cognitive therapy (CT; depressogenic schemas), metacognitive therapy (MCT; dysfunctional metacognitive beliefs), and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT; psychological inflexibility) in the prediction of depressive symptoms. With a lapse of nine months, 106 nonclinical participants responded twice to an anonymous online survey containing the following questionnaires: the Depression subscale of the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS), the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale Revised (DAS-R), the Positive beliefs, Negative beliefs and Need to control subscales of the Metacognitions Questionnaire-30 (MCQ-30), and the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire - II (AAQ-II). Results showed that when controlling for baseline levels of depressive symptoms and demographic variables, psychological inflexibility longitudinally mediated the effect of depressogenic schemas (path ab = .023, SE = .010; 95% BC CI [.008, .048]) and dysfunctional metacognitive beliefs on depressive symptoms (positive metacognitive beliefs: path ab = .052, SE = .031; 95% BC CI [.005, .134]; negative metacognitive beliefs: path ab = .087, SE = .049; 95% BC CI [.016, .214]; need to control: path ab = .087, SE = .051; 95% BC CI [.013, .220]). Results are discussed emphasizing the role of psychological inflexibility in the CT and MCT models of depression. PMID:26076977
King, Daniel L; Delfabbro, Paul H; Griffiths, Mark D
A three-wave, longitudinal study examined the long-term trajectory of problem gaming symptoms among adult regular video gamers. Potential changes in problem gaming status were assessed at two intervals using an online survey over an 18-month period. Participants (N=117) were recruited by an advertisement posted on the public forums of multiple Australian video game-related websites. Inclusion criteria were being of adult age and having a video gaming history of at least 1 hour of gaming every week over the past 3 months. Two groups of adult video gamers were identified: those players who did (N=37) and those who did not (N=80) identify as having a serious gaming problem at the initial survey intake. The results showed that regular gamers who self-identified as having a video gaming problem at baseline reported more severe problem gaming symptoms than normal gamers, at all time points. However, both groups experienced a significant decline in problem gaming symptoms over an 18-month period, controlling for age, video gaming activity, and psychopathological symptoms. PMID:23098213
SANTANA, Vilma Sousa; FERNANDES DE SOUZA, Luis Eugênio Portela; PINTO, Isabela Cardoso de Matos
Work injuries are a worldwide public health problem but little is known about their socioeconomic impact. This prospective longitudinal study estimates the direct health care costs and socioeconomic consequences of work injuries for 406 workers identified in the emergency departments of the two largest public hospitals in Salvador, Brazil, from June through September 2005. After hospital discharge workers were followed up monthly until their return to work. Most insured workers were unaware of their rights or of how to obtain insurance benefits (81.6%). Approximately half the cases suffered loss of earnings, and women were more frequently dismissed than men. The most frequently reported family consequences were: need for a family member to act as a caregiver and difficulties with daily expenses. Total costs were US$40,077.00 but individual costs varied widely, according to injury severity. Out-of-pocket costs accounted for the highest proportion of total costs (50.5%) and increased with severity (57.6%). Most out-of-pocket costs were related to transport and purchasing medicines and other wound care products. The second largest contribution (40.6%) came from the public National Health System ? SUS. Employer participation was negligible. Health care funding must be discussed to alleviate the economic burden of work injuries on workers. PMID:23803496
Kern, Margaret L.; Hampson, Sarah E.; Goldberg, Lewis R.; Friedman, Howard S.
The present study used a collaborative framework to integrate two long-term prospective studies: the Terman Life Cycle Study and the Hawaii Personality and Health Longitudinal Study. Using a five-factor personality-trait framework, teacher assessments of child personality were rationally and empirically aligned to establish similar factor structures across samples. Comparable items related to adult self-rated health, education, and alcohol use were harmonized, and data were pooled on harmonized items. A structural model was estimated, allowing paths to differ by sample. Harmonized child personality factors were then used to examine markers of physiological dysfunction in the Hawaii sample and mortality risk in the Terman sample. Harmonized conscientiousness predicted less physiological dysfunction in the Hawaii sample and lower mortality risk in the Terman sample. These results illustrate how collaborative, integrative work with multiple samples offers the exciting possibility that samples from different cohorts and ages can be linked together to directly test lifespan theories of personality and health. PMID:23231689
Zwikker, Hanneke E; van den Bemt, Bart J; Vriezekolk, Johanna E; van den Ende, Cornelia H; van Dulmen, Sandra
Objectives Several cross-sectional studies suggest that psychosocial factors are associated with non-adherence to chronic preventive maintenance medication (CPMM); however, results from longitudinal associations have not yet been systematically summarized. Therefore, the objective of this study was to systematically synthesize evidence of longitudinal associations between psychosocial predictors and CPMM non-adherence. Materials and methods PUBMED, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsychINFO databases were searched for studies meeting our inclusion criteria. The reference lists and the ISI Web of Knowledge of the included studies were checked. Studies were included if they had an English abstract, involved adult populations using CPMM living in Western countries, and if they investigated associations between psychosocial predictors and medication non-adherence using longitudinal designs. Data were extracted according to a literature-based extraction form. Study quality was independently judged by two researchers using a framework comprising six bias domains. Studies were considered to be of high quality if ?four domains were free of bias. Psychosocial predictors for non-adherence were categorized into five pre-defined categories: beliefs/cognitions; coping styles; social influences and social support; personality traits; and psychosocial well-being. A qualitative best evidence synthesis was performed to synthesize evidence of longitudinal associations between psychosocial predictors and CPMM non-adherence. Results Of 4,732 initially-identified studies, 30 (low-quality) studies were included in the systematic review. The qualitative best evidence synthesis demonstrated limited evidence for absence of a longitudinal association between CPMM non-adherence and the psychosocial categories. The strength of evidence for the review’s findings is limited by the low quality of included studies. Conclusion The results do not provide psychosocial targets for the development of new interventions in clinical practice. This review clearly demonstrates the need for high-quality, longitudinal research to identify psychosocial predictors of medication non-adherence. PMID:24851043
Atkinson, Leslie; Beitchman, Joseph; Gonzalez, Andrea; Young, Arlene; Wilson, Beth; Escobar, Michael; Chisholm, Vivienne; Brownlie, Elizabeth; Khoury, Jennifer E.; Ludmer, Jaclyn; Villani, Vanessa
Cumulative risk (CR) models provide some of the most robust findings in the developmental literature, predicting numerous and varied outcomes. Typically, however, these outcomes are predicted one at a time, across different samples, using concurrent designs, longitudinal designs of short duration, or retrospective designs. We predicted that a single CR index, applied within a single sample, would prospectively predict diverse outcomes, i.e., depression, intelligence, school dropout, arrest, smoking, and physical disease from childhood to adulthood. Further, we predicted that number of risk factors would predict number of adverse outcomes (cumulative outcome; CO). We also predicted that early CR (assessed at age 5/6) explains variance in CO above and beyond that explained by subsequent risk (assessed at ages 12/13 and 19/20). The sample consisted of 284 individuals, 48% of whom were diagnosed with a speech/language disorder. Cumulative risk, assessed at 5/6-, 12/13-, and 19/20-years-old, predicted aforementioned outcomes at age 25/26 in every instance. Furthermore, number of risk factors was positively associated with number of negative outcomes. Finally, early risk accounted for variance beyond that explained by later risk in the prediction of CO. We discuss these findings in terms of five criteria posed by these data, positing a “mediated net of adversity” model, suggesting that CR may increase some central integrative factor, simultaneously augmenting risk across cognitive, quality of life, psychiatric and physical health outcomes. PMID:26030616
Bentler, R A; Niebuhr, D P; Getta, J P; Anderson, C V
This report is the second of two detailing a longitudinal follow-up of hearing aid users. The experimental group (N = 65) was followed closely for a 12-month period after obtaining amplification. Factors of degree of hearing loss, configuration of hearing loss, previous experience with hearing aids, daily use time, and circuit type were defined. Subjective tests included the "Understanding Speech" subsection of the Hearing Performance Inventory (HPI) (Giolas, Owens, Lamb, & Schubert, 1979; Lamb, Owens, & Schubert, 1983), an expectations checklist, a qualitative judgment task, and a satisfaction questionnaire that included items of use time, battery life, and main reason for satisfaction rating. Only those items of the HPI describing fairly quiet backgrounds showed significant change (improvement) over the year. The expectation checklist showed a mean reduction in score indicative of performance exceeding expectations. The qualitative judgment task did not significantly differentiate among the circuits used, although the linear circuit was judged as having better sound quality than those circuits considered to be noise-reduction. Correlations with the objective tests reported previously in Part I suggest a weak relationship between speech recognition performance and self-assessment of communication performance. Questions of the validity of subjective measures, the best time frame for obtaining outcome measures, and the usefulness of group data are addressed. PMID:8377494
Bentler, R A; Niebuhr, D P; Getta, J P; Anderson, C V
This report is the first of two detailing a longitudinal follow-up of hearing aid users. Sixty-five subjects were followed for 12 months post-hearing aid fitting. Objective tests included insertion gain, the Speech Perception in Noise (SPIN) test (Kalikow, Stevens & Elliot, 1977; Bilger, Neutzel, Rabinowitz, & Rzeczkowski, 1984) and the Nonsense Syllable Test (NST) (Levitt & Resnick, 1978) presented in quiet and noise backgrounds. Initially each subject's hearing aid was fit to the revised National Acoustic Laboratories prescriptive formula (NAL-R) (Byrne & Dillon, 1986) using insertion gain measures. Use gain, measured at 6 and 12 months post-fitting, indicated that subjects generally used those prescribed values, except for subjects in the steeply sloping configuration subgroup. The NST and SPIN tests were administered at the fitting and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months post-fitting. No change in performance, or training effect, was found for the group or for factors of experience, degree of hearing loss, configuration of hearing loss, use time, or circuit type. Failure to demonstrate a training effect may be attributed, in part, to the fact that initial speech recognition testing was done with the hearing aid volume set at the prescribed values. None of the circuits used showed performance superiority, except when comparing scores for the NST obtained in a quiet background to those obtained in a background of speech-weighted noise. In that comparison, the users of adaptive filter circuits exhibited less deterioration of performance in a noise background. PMID:8377493
Does religion still play a role in explorations of romance and sexuality among adolescents and young adults in a secular society such as Norway? Does it influence the type of living arrangements chosen? A population-based sample (n = 2,454) was followed longitudinally from their midteens to their late 20s using survey and register data. Christian involvement in teenage years was associated with subsequent less "precoital" exploration, less masturbation, delayed sexual intercourse, and a smaller number of sex partners. However, there were no associations with prevalence of same-sex experiences. Christians also postponed initiating romantic relationships and chose marriage over cohabitation. Associations were reduced after controlling for confounding factors but remained significant. Some associations (for example, the form of residential union chosen) were present only in the most "active" Christians. In other areas, such as "precoital explorations" and the age at which intercourse is initiated, Christian norms seem to play a role in much broader segments of the population. The findings indicate that Christianity may continue to influence young Norwegians' experiences of sexuality and cohabitation more than has been expected. PMID:23631689
McCabe, Marita P.; Ricciardelli, Lina A.
Recent studies have examined the prevalence of disordered eating and other health risk behaviors among adolescent boys and girls. However, these studies generally have not examined predictors of these behaviors, and have not embedded the investigations within a theoretical framework. This study employed a longitudinal design to evaluate the…
Cuffe, Steven P.; McKeown, Robert E.; Addy, Cheryl L.; Garrison, Carol Z.
Objective: To study the association of family and social risk factors with psychopathology in a longitudinal study of adolescents. Method: From 1986 to 1988, 3,419 seventh through ninth graders were screened with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. The top decile scorers and a random sample of the remainder were interviewed…
Rutter, Michael; Kumsta, Robert; Schlotz, Wolff; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund
Objective: To summarize the advantages and limitations of general population, high-risk and "natural experiment" longitudinal studies for studying psychological change. The English and Romanian Adoptees study is used as an example of a "natural experiment," and detailed findings are provided. Method: What is new is a focus on the young people who…
Margel, Hannah; Eylon, Bat-Sheva; Scherz, Zahava
This longitudinal study investigated the progression in junior high school (JHS) students' conceptions of the structure of matter while studying a new instructional approach dealing with "Materials." In particular, we studied the progression of students' learning along two dimensions: (a) the conceptual model; and (b) the context of application.…
Using the nationally representative, cohort-based data of the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS:02), this study employs multiple regression to examine the effects of exit exams on student achievement and school completion. This study finds that exit exams as a whole do not have substantial effects on student achievement in mathematics,…
Goldman-Mellor, Sidra; Gregory, Alice M.; Caspi, Avshalom; Harrington, HonaLee; Parsons, Michael; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.
Study Objectives: Insomnia is a highly prevalent condition that constitutes a major public health and economic burden. However, little is known about the developmental etiology of adulthood insomnia. Design: We examined whether indicators of psychological vulnerability across multiple developmental periods (psychiatric diagnoses in young adulthood and adolescence, childhood behavioral problems, and familial psychiatric history) predicted subsequent insomnia in adulthood. Setting and Participants: We used data from the ongoing Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, a population-representative birth cohort study of 1,037 children in New Zealand who were followed prospectively from birth (1972–1973) through their fourth decade of life with a 95% retention rate. Measurements: Insomnia was diagnosed at age 38 according to DSM-IV criteria. Psychiatric diagnoses, behavioral problems, and family psychiatric histories were assessed between ages 5 and 38. Results: In cross-sectional analyses, insomnia was highly comorbid with multiple psychiatric disorders. After controlling for this concurrent comorbidity, our results showed that individuals who have family histories of depression or anxiety, and who manifest lifelong depression and anxiety beginning in childhood, are at uniquely high risk for age-38 insomnia. Other disorders did not predict adulthood insomnia. Conclusions: The link between lifelong depression and anxiety symptoms and adulthood insomnia calls for further studies to clarify the neurophysiological systems or behavioral conditioning processes that may underlie this association. Citation: Goldman-Mellor S, Gregory AM, Caspi A, Harrington H, Parsons M, Poulton R, Moffitt TE. Mental health antecedents of early midlife insomnia: evidence from a four-decade longitudinal study. SLEEP 2014;37(11):1767-1775. PMID:25364072
Selman, John Thomas, Jr.
Millions of Americans profess belief in God and follow a Protestant Christian belief system. However, very little research or literature explores their participation in religious adult education. Several areas within adult education are exhaustively researched such as health care, leisure, and career related courses, but studies within religion go…
Gouweloos, Juul; Postma, Ingri L E; Te Brake, Hans; Sijbrandij, Marit; Kleber, Rolf J; Goslings, J Carel
In 2009, a commercial airplane crashed near Amsterdam. This longitudinal study aims to investigate (1) the proportion of survivors of the airplane crash showing a probable posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD) or depressive disorder, and (2) whether symptoms of PTSD and depression were predicted by trauma characteristics. Identifying these trauma characteristics is crucial for early detection and treatment. Of the 121 adult survivors, 82 participated in this study 2 months after the crash and 76 participated 9 months after the crash. Risk for PTSD and depression was measured with the self-report instruments Trauma Screening Questionnaire and Patient Health Questionnaire-2. Trauma characteristics assessed were Injury Severity Score (ISS), hospitalisation, length of hospital stay, and seating position in the plane. Two months after the crash, 32 participants (of N=70, 46%) were at risk for PTSD and 28 (of N=80, 32%) were at risk for depression. Nine months after the crash, 35 participants (of N=75, 47%) were at risk for PTSD and 24 (of N=76, 35%) were at risk for depression. There was a moderate correlation between length of hospital stay and symptoms of PTSD and depression 9 months after the crash (r=.33 and r=.45, respectively). There were no differences in seating position between participants at high risk vs. participants at low risk for PTSD or depression. Mixed design ANOVAs showed also no association between the course of symptoms of PTSD and depression 2 and 9 months after the crash and ISS or hospitalisation. This suggests that health care providers need to be aware that survivors may be at risk for PTSD or depression, regardless of the objective severity of their physical injuries. PMID:26210753
Brook, Judith S.; Zhang, Chenshu; Fagan, Pebbles
This study examined exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), a major public health problem. ETS has been found to be associated with an increased risk of adverse health effects in children. This study utilizes data from a community-based, longitudinal investigation examining the relation between children's exposure to ETS and later…
Glenn, Catherine R.; Klonsky, E. David
Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) has become a significant public health problem. Although numerous studies have examined cross-sectional psychological correlates of NSSI, there has been little research examining predictors of NSSI over time. The present study examined cross-sectional and longitudinal correlates of NSSI in 81 young adult…
Professor Stephen Reder presented the Longitudinal Study of Adult Learning (LSAL) at The Centre's 2011 Fall Institute--IALS: Its Meaning and Impact for Policy and Practice--whose findings had implications far beyond assessment. Based on evidence from the ten-year study of more than a thousand adult high school drop-outs, Dr. Reder challenges many…
Attout, Lucie; Noël, Marie-Pascale; Majerus, Steve
Despite numerous studies, the link between verbal working memory (WM) and calculation abilities remains poorly understood. The present longitudinal study focuses specifically on the role of serial order retention capacities, based on recent findings suggesting a link between ordinal processing in verbal WM and numerical processing tasks. Children…
Tal, Tali; Morag, Orly
In this case-study, we present a longitudinal study of one elementary (grades 1-6) school's environmental education (EE) in order to understand the ways in which the school culture supports outdoor EE as a critical component of their science education program. The school, which was known for its school-based EE curriculum that encompasses an…
Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Fitzelle, Dawn B.; Johnson, Erin P.; Wish, Eric D.
Underage drinking and drug use among college students are major public health concerns, yet few studies have examined these behaviors and their associated risk factors and consequences prospectively. This paper describes the sampling and recruitment methods of a longitudinal study of 1253 college students at a large, mid-Atlantic university.…
Harel, Brian; Cannizzaro, Michael; Snyder, Peter J.
Nearly two centuries ago, Parkinson (1817) first observed that a particular pattern of speech changes occur in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). Numerous studies have documented these changes using a wide variety of acoustic measures, and yet few studies have attempted to quantify any such changes longitudinally, through the early…
Normand, Sebastien; Flora, David B.; Toplak, Maggie E.; Tannock, Rosemary
Recent factor analytic studies in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have shown that hierarchical models provide a better fit of ADHD symptoms than correlated models. A hierarchical model includes a general ADHD factor and specific factors for inattention, and hyperactivity/impulsivity. The aim of this 12-month longitudinal study was…
Kochanska, Grazyna; Aksan, Nazan; Joy, Mary E.
Findings from 2 longitudinal studies replicate and considerably extend past work on child temperament as a moderating link between parenting and successful socialization outcomes. In Study 1 (N = 106 mothers and children), child fearfulness, mother-child positive relationship, and maternal power assertion were assessed at 22 and 33 months; the…
Schredl, Michael; Fricke-Oerkermann, Leonie; Mitschke, Alexander; Wiater, Alfred; Lehmkuhl, Gerd
Nightmares are defined as dreams with strong negative emotions which awaken the dreamer and are common during childhood: cross-sectional data shows the highest prevalence rates between the ages of five and ten. The present longitudinal study was designed to study the stability of nightmares over the course of 2 years. Sleep questionnaires and…
A longitudinal study of emoticon use in text messaging from smartphones Chad C. Tossell a, , Philip a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Available online 10 December 2011 Keywords: Emoticons Gender Text messaging Smartphone Emotion Mediated communication a b s t r a c t Our goal in the present study
Carolan, Brian V.; Weiss, Christopher C.; Matthews, Jamaal S.
There are few areas of school organization that reflect more dissatisfaction than how to structure the education of adolescents in the middle grades. This study uses multilevel models on nationally representative data provided by the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study to investigate the relationship between schools' middle-level grade span and…
Chou, Kee-Lee; Chi, Iris
Depression is quite common among the elderly members of Hong Kong Chinese society. This study examined the impact of a series of chronic illnesses on change in depressive symptoms among the older people. The respondents were 260 people aged 70 years or older from a longitudinal study of a representative community sample of the elderly population…
Sivertsen, Borge; Posserud, Maj-Britt; Gillberg, Christopher; Lundervold, Astri J.; Hysing, Mari
This study examined the prevalence and chronicity of sleep problems in children who manifest problems believed to be typical of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Using data from a longitudinal total population study, symptoms of ASD, insomnia and potential explanatory factors were assessed at ages 7-9 and 11-13. Children were included in a group…
Mauno, Saija; Kinnunen, Ulla; Ruokolainen, Mervi
By utilizing a 2-year longitudinal design, the present study investigated the experience of work engagement and its antecedents among Finnish health care personnel (n = 409). The data were collected by questionnaires in 2003 (Time 1) and in 2005 (Time 2). The study showed that work engagement--especially vigor and dedication--was relatively…
who lack access to traditional search-based advertisements. We overcome several obstacles to longitudinal studies by amalga- mating different resources and adapting our measurement infras- tructure by search engines and browsers to combat their effectiveness. We also study the efforts of hosts to remedy
Mann, Emily A.; Reynolds, Arthur J.
This study investigated the role of an early educational intervention and child-, family-, peer-, and school-level predictors on court-reported juvenile delinquency. Data were provided from the Chicago Longitudinal Study, an ongoing investigation of the scholastic and social development of more than 1,500 low-income youths (93% of whom were…
Crain, Robert L.
Four groups of people were requested to review the Rand Corporation's design for a longitudinal study of school desegregation. When the study design documents were sent to the reviewers, an evaluation questionnaire was attached. The reviewers were asked to add any needed clarifying comments in the spaces provided after each question, and to write…
Chan, Ko Ling; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Fong, Daniel Y. T.; Tiwari, Agnes; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ho, Pak Chung
Objective: To assess the impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women on subsequent perpetration of child abuse and neglect (CAN) by parents; and to test the mediation effect of recent IPV on the link between IPV during pregnancy and subsequent CAN. Methods: This study was a longitudinal follow-up of a population-based study on…
Kochanska, Grazyna; Woodard, Jarilyn; Kim, Sanghag; Koenig, Jamie L.; Yoon, Jeung Eun; Barry, Robin A.
Background: Implications of early attachment have been extensively studied, but little is known about its long-term indirect sequelae, where early security organization moderates future parent-child relationships, serving as a catalyst for adaptive and maladaptive processes. Two longitudinal multi-trait multi-method studies examined whether early…
Gerstorf, Denis; Hoppmann, Christiane A.; Kadlec, Kelly M.; McArdle, John J.
This study examined dyadic interrelations between episodic memory and depressive symptom trajectories of change in old and advanced old age. The authors applied dynamic models to 10-year incomplete longitudinal data of initially 1,599 married couples from the study of Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old (M[subscript age] = 75 years at…
Oades-Sese, Geraldine V.; Esquivel, Giselle B.; Kaliski, Pamela K.; Maniatis, Lisette
This longitudinal study was conducted to gain understanding of the social-emotional and academic development of economically disadvantaged bilingual preschool children. In Study 1, the authors combined cognitive, psychosocial, and cultural-linguistic factors to determine profiles of social competence as measured by peer play. A person-centered…
A longitudinal study of tremor frequencies in Parkinson's disease and essential tremor B. Hellwig a November 2008 Available online 19 December 2008 Keywords: Parkinson's disease Essential tremor Tremor) decreases with time. Lon- gitudinal studies on the evolution of tremor frequencies in Parkinson's disease
Polat, Brittany; Kim, Youjin
This longitudinal case study follows a dynamic systems approach to investigate an under-studied research area in second language acquisition, the development of complexity and accuracy for an advanced untutored learner of English. Using the analytical tools of dynamic systems theory (Verspoor et al. 2011) within the framework of complexity,…
Russell, Ginny; Golding, Jean; Norwich, Brahm; Emond, Alan; Ford, Tamsin; Steer, Colin
Objective: To compare social and behavioural outcomes between children formally diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) with those of children who displayed autistic traits at preschool age, but remained undiagnosed as teenagers. Method: A secondary analysis of data from a birth cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and…
St. Jean, Beth Lenore
This study consisted of a longitudinal investigation into the information behavior of people diagnosed with a particular chronic serious health condition, type 2 diabetes. This study sought to identify the factors that motivate or impede the information seeking and use of these individuals and to discover how these factors and their influences…
Goswami, Usha; Mead, Natasha; Fosker, Tim; Huss, Martina; Barnes, Lisa; Leong, Victoria
Prosodic patterning is a key structural element of spoken language. However, the potential role of prosodic awareness in the phonological difficulties that characterise children with developmental dyslexia has been little studied. Here we report the first longitudinal study of sensitivity to syllable stress in children with dyslexia, enabling the…
Cable, Carrie; Driscoll, Patricia; Mitchell, Rosamond; Sing, Sue; Cremin, Teresa; Earl, Justine; Eyres, Ian; Holmes, Bernardette; Martin, Cynthia; Heins, Barbara
This paper discusses some of the findings from a 3-year longitudinal study of language learning in the upper stage of English primary schools, i.e. at Key Stage 2. This largely qualitative study (commissioned by the then Department for Children, Schools and Families) was designed to explore and document developing provision and practice in a…
This article reports on a longitudinal study that aims to investigate pre-service EFL teacher beliefs about learning and teaching in Greece. The study attempts to track possible changes in those beliefs during a 3-year teacher education program and explores the impact of teaching practice, in particular, on student teachers' beliefs. The results…
Wine, Jennifer S.; Heuer, Ruth E.; Wheeless, Sara C.; Francis, Talbric L.; Franklin, Jeff W.; Dudley, Kristin M.
Describes the procedures and results of the full-scale Implementation of the final followup interview with the Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study 1996/2001. This study follows a cohort first interviewed in 1996 in their first year of postsecondary education. (SLD)
Carless, Sally A.; Arnup, Jessica L.
The present longitudinal field study investigated the antecedents and consequences of an actual career change. The framework for this study was Rhodes and Doering's (1983) model of career change. We examined the effect of individual and organisational characteristics on career change behaviour. The individual characteristics were: traits (Openness…
Knell, Ellen Shipley
The present study investigated the efficacy of early English immersion in the Shi Da Fu Elementary School in Xi'an, China. Three hundred and fifty one students were tested in Grades 1-6. There were two main purposes that motivated this longitudinal and cross-sectional study. The first goal was to compare the L1 and L2 language and literacy…
Schultze-Krumbholz, Anja; Jakel, Anne; Schultze, Martin; Scheithauer, Herbert
Although many studies have reported on internalising and externalising problems related to cyberbullying roles, there is a lack of longitudinal research in this area. This study reports (1) cross-sectional data from 412 German middle-school students to examine differences between cyberbullies, cybervictims and cyberbully-victims compared to…
Brandmaier, Andreas M.; von Oertzen, Timo; Ghisletta, Paolo; Hertzog, Christopher; Lindenberger, Ulman
Researchers planning a longitudinal study typically search, more or less informally, a multivariate space of possible study designs that include dimensions such as the hypothesized true variance in change, indicator reliability, the number and spacing of measurement occasions, total study time, and sample size. The main search goal is to select a research design that best addresses the guiding questions and hypotheses of the planned study while heeding applicable external conditions and constraints, including time, money, feasibility, and ethical considerations. Because longitudinal study selection ultimately requires optimization under constraints, it is amenable to the general operating principles of optimization in computer-aided design. Based on power equivalence theory (MacCallum et al., 2010; von Oertzen, 2010), we propose a computational framework to promote more systematic searches within the study design space. Starting with an initial design, the proposed framework generates a set of alternative models with equal statistical power to detect hypothesized effects, and delineates trade-off relations among relevant parameters, such as total study time and the number of measurement occasions. We present LIFESPAN (Longitudinal Interactive Front End Study Planner), which implements this framework. LIFESPAN boosts the efficiency, breadth, and precision of the search for optimal longitudinal designs. Its initial version, which is freely available at http://www.brandmaier.de/lifespan, is geared toward the power to detect variance in change as specified in a linear latent growth curve model. PMID:25852596
Maryland Univ., College Park. Maryland Longitudinal Study Steering Committee.
As part of the Maryland Longitudinal Study of 772 students entering the University of Maryland, College Park (UMCP) in 1980, the use and ratings of UMCP campus services by students in the third year of the study were analyzed. Findings included the following: (1) Representative Group (containing members of all ethnic groups) and Black Group…
Fang, Hua; Brooks, Gordon P.; Rizzo, Maria L.; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Barcikowski, Robert S.
Because the power properties of traditional repeated measures and hierarchical multivariate linear models have not been clearly determined in the balanced design for longitudinal studies in the literature, the authors present a power comparison study of traditional repeated measures and hierarchical multivariate linear models under 3…
Introduction: This study has aimed to investigate the relationship between the development of working memory and performance on arithmetic activities. Method: We conducted a 3-year longitudinal study of a sample of 90 children, that was followed during the first, second and third year of primary school. All children were tested on measures of WM…
Schneider, Wolfgang; Kron, Veronika; Hunnerkopf, Michael; Krajewski, Kristin
This article reports the first findings of the Wurzburg Longitudinal Memory Study, which focuses on children's verbal memory development, particularly the acquisition of memory strategies. At the beginning of the study, 100 kindergarten children (mean age 6-and-1/2 years) were tested on various memory measures, including sort--recall, text recall,…
Camacho, Kathleen; Ehrensaft, Miriam K.; Cohen, Patricia
The present study examines the quality of peer relations as a mediator between exposure to IPV (intimate partner violence) and internalizing behaviors in a sample of 129 preadolescents and adolescents (ages 10-18), who were interviewed via telephone as part of a multigenerational, prospective, longitudinal study. Relational victimization is also…
Wu, Chin-Chin; Chiang, Chung-Hsin
To explore the different developmental trajectories of social-communicative skills in children with autism and typically developing infants, two longitudinal studies were conducted. In Study 1, we examined the developmental sequence of social-communicative skills in 26 typically developing infants when they were 9 months old and reexamined them…
Wang, Weibing; Zhao, Qi; Yuan, Zhengan; Zheng, Yihui; Zhang, Yixing; Lu, Liping; Hou, Yun; Zhang, Yue
Abstract Objective To determine excess mortality in a cohort of people with tuberculosis in Shanghai. Methods Participants were local residents in 4 (of 19) districts in Shanghai, registered in one of four tuberculosis clinics between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2008. Baseline data were collected at the most recent diagnosis of tuberculosis and mortality was assessed between March and May of 2014. We calculated standardized mortality ratios (SMR) and case-fatality rates for all participants and for subgroups. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression models were used to quantify associations between co-morbidities and mortality from all causes and from tuberculosis. Findings We registered 4569 subjects in the cohort. Overall, the cohort had an SMR for deaths from all causes of 5.2 (95% confidence interval, CI: 4.8–5.6). Males had a higher SMR than females (6.1 versus 3.0). After adjustment for age and sex, hazard ratios (HR) for deaths from all causes were significantly greater in previously treated people (HR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.08–1.49) and sputum smear-test positive people (HR: 1.55; 95% CI: 1.35–1.78). The risk of death from tuberculosis was also significantly greater for previously treated people (HR: 1.88; 95% CI: 1.24–2.86) and smear positive people (HR: 3.16; 95% CI: 2.06–4.87). Conclusion People with tuberculosis in Shanghai have an increased risk of mortality. Earlier diagnosis and more vigilant follow-up may help to reduce mortality in this group. PMID:26668434
Tang, Wenbo; Kowgier, Matthew; Loth, Daan W.; Soler Artigas, María; Joubert, Bonnie R.; Hodge, Emily; Gharib, Sina A.; Smith, Albert V.; Ruczinski, Ingo; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Mathias, Rasika A.; Harris, Tamara B.; Hansel, Nadia N.; Launer, Lenore J.; Barnes, Kathleen C.; Hansen, Joyanna G.; Albrecht, Eva; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Allerhand, Michael; Barr, R. Graham; Brusselle, Guy G.; Couper, David J.; Curjuric, Ivan; Davies, Gail; Deary, Ian J.; Dupuis, Josée; Fall, Tove; Foy, Millennia; Franceschini, Nora; Gao, Wei; Gläser, Sven; Gu, Xiangjun; Hancock, Dana B.; Heinrich, Joachim; Hofman, Albert; Imboden, Medea; Ingelsson, Erik; James, Alan; Karrasch, Stefan; Koch, Beate; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Kumar, Ashish; Lahousse, Lies; Li, Guo; Lind, Lars; Lindgren, Cecilia; Liu, Yongmei; Lohman, Kurt; Lumley, Thomas; McArdle, Wendy L.; Meibohm, Bernd; Morris, Andrew P.; Morrison, Alanna C.; Musk, Bill; North, Kari E.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rotter, Jerome I.; Schulz, Holger; Smith, Lewis J.; Sood, Akshay; Starr, John M.; Strachan, David P.; Teumer, Alexander; Uitterlinden, André G.; Völzke, Henry; Voorman, Arend; Wain, Louise V.; Wells, Martin T.; Wilk, Jemma B.; Williams, O. Dale; Heckbert, Susan R.; Stricker, Bruno H.; London, Stephanie J.; Fornage, Myriam; Tobin, Martin D.; O?Connor, George T.; Hall, Ian P.; Cassano, Patricia A.
Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous loci influencing cross-sectional lung function, but less is known about genes influencing longitudinal change in lung function. Methods We performed GWAS of the rate of change in forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) in 14 longitudinal, population-based cohort studies comprising 27,249 adults of European ancestry using linear mixed effects model and combined cohort-specific results using fixed effect meta-analysis to identify novel genetic loci associated with longitudinal change in lung function. Gene expression analyses were subsequently performed for identified genetic loci. As a secondary aim, we estimated the mean rate of decline in FEV1 by smoking pattern, irrespective of genotypes, across these 14 studies using meta-analysis. Results The overall meta-analysis produced suggestive evidence for association at the novel IL16/STARD5/TMC3 locus on chromosome 15 (P ?=? 5.71 × 10-7). In addition, meta-analysis using the five cohorts with ?3 FEV1 measurements per participant identified the novel ME3 locus on chromosome 11 (P ?=? 2.18 × 10-8) at genome-wide significance. Neither locus was associated with FEV1 decline in two additional cohort studies. We confirmed gene expression of IL16, STARD5, and ME3 in multiple lung tissues. Publicly available microarray data confirmed differential expression of all three genes in lung samples from COPD patients compared with controls. Irrespective of genotypes, the combined estimate for FEV1 decline was 26.9, 29.2 and 35.7 mL/year in never, former, and persistent smokers, respectively. Conclusions In this large-scale GWAS, we identified two novel genetic loci in association with the rate of change in FEV1 that harbor candidate genes with biologically plausible functional links to lung function. PMID:24983941
Armenta, Brian E.; Sittner Hartshorn, Kelley J.; Whitbeck, Les B.; Crawford, Devan M.; Hoyt, Dan R.
We examined the longitudinal measurement properties and predictive utility of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) from early to late adolescence among a sample of North American Indigenous youths. Participants were 632 North American Indigenous adolescents (n = 632; 50.3% girls; M age at baseline = 11.11 years) participating in an 8-year, 8-wave longitudinal study. Via in-person interviews, participants completed the CES-D at Waves 1, 3, 5, and 7, and the major depressive disorder (MDD) module of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children at Waves 1, 4, 6, and 8. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that responses to the CES-D were similarly explained by 2-, 3-, and 4-factor models, as well as a 1-factor model with correlations between the error variances for the positively worded items. Longitudinal measurement equivalence analyses indicated full structural (i.e., factor structure), metric (i.e., factor loadings), and scalar (i.e., observed item intercepts) equivalence for each factor structure. Substantive analyses showed that the CES-D was significantly associated with MDD both concurrently and prospectively, although these effects were smaller than might be expected. Finally, the CES-D negative affect and somatic complaints subscales were the strongest and most consistent predictors of MDD. Among our sample of North American Indigenous youths, the measurement properties of the CES-D were stable from early to late adolescence. Moreover, somatic difficulties and depressed affect were the strongest predictors of MDD. PMID:25181394
Woodman, Dan; Tyler, Debra
The Life-Patterns project is a panel-cohort longitudinal study following the life trajectories of 1,908 young people who left school in Victoria in 1991. The project attempts to obtain nuanced pictures of young people's lives in three ways: using a reflexive longitudinal study design, with opportunities for participant feedback and influence on…
There is a growing body of evidence attesting to links between early life exposure to stress and childhood asthma. However, available evidence is largely based on small, genetically high risk samples. The aim of this study was to explore the associations between the course of maternal depressive symptoms across early childhood and childhood asthma in a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study of Australian children. Participants were 4164 children and their biological mothers from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Latent class analysis identified three trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms across four biennial waves from the first postnatal year to when children were 6–7 years: minimal symptoms (74.6%), sub-clinical symptoms (20.8%), and persistent and increasing high symptoms (4.6%). Logistic regression analyses revealed that childhood asthma at age 6–7 years was associated with persistent and increasing high depressive symptoms after accounting for known risk factors including smoking during pregnancy and maternal history of asthma (adjusted OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.61–3.45), p.001). Our findings from a nationally representative sample of Australian children provide empirical support for a relationship between maternal depressive symptoms across the early childhood period and childhood asthma. The burden of disease from childhood asthma may be reduced by strengthening efforts to promote maternal mental health in the early years of parenting. PMID:25811851
Zis, Panagiotis; Dickinson, Mark; Shende, Sima; Walker, Zuzana; Strydom, Andre
By the age of 40, virtually all patients with Down syndrome (DS) have neuropathological changes characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aim of our study was to investigate whether the levels of superoxide dismutase enzymes (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), or their ratio could predict cognitive decline in people with DS over a 4-year period. Thirty-two adults with DS participated in a longitudinal study with SOD and GPx assays at baseline. Informants rated their functional ability and memory function at baseline and at 4 years follow-up. The more able adults with DS also completed assessments of language skills and memory, at two different time points 4 years apart. Twenty-six individuals with DS completed assessments of memory (Modified Memory Object Task, MOMT), adaptive behavior (ABAS), and receptive vocabulary (British Picture vocabulary, BPVS) at both time-points. SOD positively correlated with change on the MOMT score (r = 0.578, p = 0.015). There were no significant correlations between GPx level or SOD/GPx ratio and temporal changes in ABAS, BPVS, or MOMT scores. Our results suggest that SOD predicts memory decline over time and that these antioxidant enzymes could be a potential target for prevention of memory deterioration in adults with DS. Further research is required to test whether supplements which improve SOD function can also prevent cognitive decline. These findings may also have implications for prevention of cognitive decline in other groups which are at high risk of developing dementia, such as adults with familial AD or mild cognitive impairment. PMID:22561328
Sayal, Kapil; Mills, Jonathan; White, Kate; Merrell, Christine; Tymms, Peter
Many children with, or at risk of, ADHD do not receive healthcare services for their difficulties. This longitudinal study investigates barriers to and predictors of specialist health service use. This is a 5-year follow-up study of children who participated in a cluster randomised controlled trial, which investigated school-level interventions (provision of books with evidence-based information and/or feedback of names of children) for children at risk of ADHD. 162 children who had high levels of ADHD symptoms at age 5 (baseline) were followed up at age 10 years. Using baseline data and follow-up information collected from parents and teachers, children who had and had not used specialist health services over the follow-up period were compared and predictors (symptom severity, comorbid problems, parental perception of burden, parental mental health, and socio-demographic factors) of specialist service use investigated. The most common parent-reported barrier reflected lack of information about who could help. Amongst children using specialist health services who met criteria for ADHD at follow-up, 36% had been prescribed stimulant medication. Specialist health service use was associated with each one-point increase in teacher-rated symptoms at baseline [inattention symptoms (adjusted OR = 1.40; 95% CI 1.12-1.76) and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms (adjusted OR = 1.23; 95% CI 1.05-1.44)]. Parental mental health problems were also independently associated with service use (for each one-point increase in symptoms, adjusted OR = 1.41; 95% CI 1.04-1.91). Severity of teacher-rated ADHD symptoms in early school years is a determinant of subsequent service use. Clinicians and teachers should be aware that parental mental health problems are independently associated with service use for children at risk of ADHD. PMID:25201055
Mohades, Seyede Ghazal; Van Schuerbeek, Peter; Rosseel, Yves; Van De Craen, Piet; Luypaert, Robert; Baeken, Chris
Although numerous people grow up speaking more than one language, the impact of bilingualism on brain developing neuroanatomy is still poorly understood. This study aimed to determine whether the changes in the mean fractional-anisotropy (MFA) of language pathways are different between bilingual and monolingual children. Simultaneous-bilinguals, sequential-bilinguals and monolingual, male and female 10–13 years old children participated in this longitudinal study over a period of two years. We used diffusion tensor tractography to obtain mean fractional-anisotropy values of four language related pathways and one control bundle: 1-left-inferior-occipitofrontal fasciculus/lIFOF, 2-left-arcuate fasciculus/lAF/lSLF, 3-bundle arising from the anterior part of corpus-callosum and projecting to orbital lobe/AC-OL, 4-fibres emerging from anterior-midbody of corpus-callosum (CC) to motor cortices/AMB-PMC, 5- right-inferior-occipitofrontal fasciculus rIFOF as the control pathway unrelated to language. These values and their rate of change were compared between 3 groups. FA-values did not change significantly over two years for lAF/lSLF and AC-OL. Sequential-bilinguals had the highest degree of change in the MFA value of lIFOF, and AMB-PMC did not present significant group differences. The comparison of MFA of lIFOF yielded a significantly higher FA-value in simultaneous bilinguals compared to monolinguals. These findings acknowledge the existing difference of the development of the semantic processing specific pathway between children with different semantic processing procedure. These also support the hypothesis that age of second language acquisition affects the maturation and myelination of some language specific white-matter pathways. PMID:25706865
Thing, James P.; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Schwartz, Seth J.; Soto, Daniel W.; Unger, Jennifer B.
Context Cultural variables have been associated with sexual risk behaviors among Latino youth, but findings across studies are inconsistent. Methods We analyzed data from a longitudinal study of Latino youth in Southern California followed from 2005–2012 to test whether cultural variables measured in high school were associated with sexual risk behaviors in emerging adulthood, and whether gender moderated these associations. We conducted logistic and ordinal regression analyses. Participants were 995 Latino youth. Results The cultural value of respect for parents was negatively associated with an earlier age at sexual debut (odds ratio, 0.8) and not using a condom at most recent sexual intercourse (0.8). U.S. cultural practices (a measure of acculturation) was positively associated with being sexually active (1.2), having concurrent sexual partners (1.5), and among males only, with a higher number of sexual partners (1.3). Second- and third- generation immigrant youth had lower odds of not using a condom at most recent sexual intercourse when compared to first-generation youth (0.6 and 0.5, respectively). Among females, a stronger endorsement of Latino cultural practices was associated with lower odds of more sexual partners (0.8). By contrast, among males, a stronger endorsement of Latino cultural practices was associated with higher odds of more sexual partners (1.4). Conclusions The cultural measures associated with Latino youth’s sexual behaviors differed across outcomes and by gender. Understanding how culture is related to the sexual behaviors of Latino youth may help inform the development of culturally-sensitive sexual health interventions. PMID:24786352
Marizzoni, Moira; Antelmi, Luigi; Bosch, Beatriz; Bartrés-Faz, David; Müller, Bernhard W; Wiltfang, Jens; Fiedler, Ute; Roccatagliata, Luca; Picco, Agnese; Nobili, Flavio; Blin, Olivier; Bombois, Stephanie; Lopes, Renaud; Sein, Julien; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Didic, Mira; Gros-Dagnac, Hélène; Payoux, Pierre; Zoccatelli, Giada; Alessandrini, Franco; Beltramello, Alberto; Bargalló, Núria; Ferretti, Antonio; Caulo, Massimo; Aiello, Marco; Cavaliere, Carlo; Soricelli, Andrea; Salvadori, Nicola; Parnetti, Lucilla; Tarducci, Roberto; Floridi, Piero; Tsolaki, Magda; Constantinidis, Manos; Drevelegas, Antonios; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Marra, Camillo; Hoffmann, Karl-Titus; Hensch, Tilman; Schönknecht, Peter; Kuijer, Joost P; Visser, Pieter Jelle; Barkhof, Frederik; Bordet, Régis; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Jovicich, Jorge
Recently, there has been an increased interest in the use of automatically segmented subfields of the human hippocampal formation derived from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, little is known about the test-retest reproducibility of such measures, particularly in the context of multisite studies. Here, we report the reproducibility of automated Freesurfer hippocampal subfields segmentations in 65 healthy elderly enrolled in a consortium of 13 3T MRI sites (five subjects per site). Participants were scanned in two sessions (test and retest) at least one week apart. Each session included two anatomical 3D T1 MRI acquisitions harmonized in the consortium. We evaluated the test-retest reproducibility of subfields segmentation (i) to assess the effects of averaging two within-session T1 images and (ii) to compare subfields with whole hippocampus volume and spatial reliability. We found that within-session averaging of two T1 images significantly improved the reproducibility of all hippocampal subfields but not that of the whole hippocampus. Volumetric and spatial reproducibility across MRI sites were very good for the whole hippocampus, CA2-3, CA4-dentate gyrus (DG), subiculum (reproducibility error?2% and DICE?>?0.90), good for CA1 and presubiculum (reproducibility error ? 5% and DICE ? 0.90), and poorer for fimbria and hippocampal fissure (reproducibility error ? 15% and DICE?0.80). Spearman's correlations confirmed that test-retest reproducibility improved with volume size. Despite considerable differences of MRI scanner configurations, we found consistent hippocampal subfields volumes estimation. CA2-3, CA4-DG, and sub-CA1 (subiculum, presubiculum, and CA1 pooled together) gave test-retest reproducibility similar to the whole hippocampus. Our findings suggest that the larger hippocampal subfields volume may be reliable longitudinal markers in multisite studies. PMID:26043939
Slaughter, K. A.; Bates, S. P.; Galloway, R. K.
Student success in a physics degree has been shown to depend on more than just performance in course assessment: important additional factors include student attitudes and beliefs about their subject. We have used an instrument (CLASS) that measures how student epistemologies evolve over the course of their undergraduate degree. Our previous work has sampled a cross-section of students at all levels across the physics undergraduate programme at Edinburgh in a single academic year, and found that student attitudes and beliefs remain essentially static. Here, we present fully longitudinal data collected over the past three years, where we track the evolution of the attitudes and beliefs of one group of students. We find broadly similar results: attitudes and beliefs remain surprisingly consistent over time. This suggests that a 'cross-sectional' or 'pseudo-longitudinal' study (collecting snapshot data in one year) is a valid methodology, rather than necessarily having to wait several years to accumulate truly longitudinal data.
Zhang, H.; Wu, S. Z.; Zhou, C. T.; He, X. T.; Key Laboratory of HEDP of the Ministry of Education, CAPT, Peking University, Beijing 100871 ; Zhu, S. P.
The dispersion relation of one-dimensional longitudinal plasma waves in relativistic homogeneous plasmas is investigated with both linear theory and Vlasov simulation in this paper. From the Vlasov-Poisson equations, the linear dispersion relation is derived for the proper one-dimensional Jüttner distribution. Numerically obtained linear dispersion relation as well as an approximate formula for plasma wave frequency in the long wavelength limit is given. The dispersion of longitudinal wave is also simulated with a relativistic Vlasov code. The real and imaginary parts of dispersion relation are well studied by varying wave number and plasma temperature. Simulation results are in agreement with established linear theory.
Cook, Sherry J.; Parker, R. Stephen; Pettijohn, Charles E.
In this study, the authors examined students' attitudes toward specific elements of an ongoing internship program. The study sample consisted of 351 student interns from 12 different colleges and universities. The results indicate that perceptions have remained relatively constant over the 10-year time frame studied and that internships provide a…
Høstgaard, Anna Marie
The Change readiness research method (CRR) has become a well- known method in Denmark to identify issues needed to be discussed on a hospital ward before implementation of a new IT-system and to start a dialogue. A precondition for a constructive dialogue, however, is a high degree of participation. The latest experiences of the CRR method were gained from its use in eight wards in the Danish Gepka project during 2003-4 (The Gepka project was established by The Danish Ministry of the Interior and Health, The National Board of Health, the County Council Society and H:S. Its purpose is to validate the "Basic Structure for The Electronic Health Record" (B-EHR) using prototypes. http://medinfo.dk/epj/proj/gepka/). In the Gepka project the participation varied from 33.3% to 78.9%. The objective of this study is to set out themes by which this variation can be studied. A qualitative explorative research design has been applied, where four instructions from the "Instruction for use" (Instructions for using the CRR method. Can be downloaded the Internet: (http://www.epjobservatoriet.dk/publikationer/forandringsparathed.pdf)) have been studied as themes. The methods used have been telephone interviews and direct observations. The results showed that the seven wards (one was excluded) followed the "Instructions for use" to different degrees. It was found that one instruction, in particular, seems to be especially important to follow to motivate the employees on a ward to participate in the CRR; the management of the ward must be engaged/actively involved in the project, as they are key figures when it comes to motivating the other ward employees. The aim of this study is not to prove a causal relationship between the degree to which the "Instructions for use" are followed and the degree of participation--it is to suggest a qualitative relationship between the two. Neither does this study try to generalize the results, as further research on more wards would be needed to do so. This study does, however, set out themes that can be a useful tool in future CRR projects in order to maximize the degree of participation. In a modified way, these themes can probably be used as a tool in other studies of human-machine interactions. PMID:17108598
Scott, Timothy P.; Schroeder, Carolyn; Tolson, Homer; Huang, Tse-Yang; Williams, Omah M.
The Center for Mathematics and Science Education at Texas A&M University contracted with Region 4 Education Service Center (ESC) and a large, diverse school district to conduct a longitudinal study from 2005-2009. The state achievement test scores of 5th graders who were taught using a Grade 5 science textbook designed by Region 4 ESC were…
Nerdrum, Per; Rustoen, Tone; Helge Ronnestad, Michael
In this study, we present longitudinal data on changes in psychological distress among 232 Norwegian undergraduate students of nursing, physiotherapy, and occupational therapy. Psychological distress was assessed by applying the 12-item version of the General Health Questionnaire. Nursing students became substantially more distressed during the…
Irwin, Jennifer D.
The health and financial costs of physical inactivity are staggering. Few researchers have assessed the prevalence of physical activity at the level needed to gain health benefits. Objective: The author's purpose in this longitudinal study was to assess the prevalence of university students who maintained physical activity at the level necessary…
Trono, John A.
A Longitudinal Study of Regional Bracket Equality in the NCAA Men's Basketball Tournament John A that will be invited, as the non-automatic-qualifiers, to the NCAA men's basketball tournament. These are the positions Athletic Association (NCAA) basketball championship tournament was expanded from 8 to 16 teams in 1951
Lofgren, Lena; Hellden, Gustav
In this paper we present results from a 10-year (1997-2006) longitudinal study in which we, by interviews once or twice every year, followed how students, throughout the compulsory school, developed their understanding of three situations in which transformations of matter occur. We believe that students have to meet scientific ideas early in…
Zhang, Xiao; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
Based on a two-year and three-wave longitudinal sample of 118 Chinese preschoolers, the present study examined the cross-lagged associations between teacher-child relationships and social competence, and the cross-system generalization of social competence between home and school. At each of the three waves, teachers rated the children's…
Meyer, John P.; Hecht, Tracy D.; Gill, Harjinder; Toplonytsky, Laryssa
This longitudinal study examines how person-organization fit, operationalized as congruence between perceived and preferred organizational culture, relates to employees' affective commitment and intention to stay with an organization during the early stages of a strategic organizational change. Employees in a large energy company completed surveys…
Strand, Paul S.; Cerna, Sandra; Downs, Andrew
The present study utilized a short-term longitudinal research design to examine the hypothesis that shyness in preschoolers is differentially related to different aspects of emotion processing. Using teacher reports of shyness and performance measures of emotion processing, including (1) facial emotion recognition, (2) non-facial emotion…
Diamond, Lisa M.
Debates persist over whether bisexuality is a temporary stage of denial or transition, a stable "3rd type" of sexual orientation, or a heightened capacity for sexual fluidity. The present study uses 5 waves of longitudinal data collected from 79 lesbian, bisexual, and "unlabeled" women to evaluate these models. Both the "3rd orientation" and…
Katsiyannis, Antonis; Thompson, Martie P.; Barrett, David E.; Kingree, J. B.
School-related problems such as poor academic performance, truancy, frequent suspensions, and grade repeating have been identified as risk factors for adolescent behavior problems. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effect of school-related factors on violent criminality in adulthood, based on data from the National Longitudinal…
Kokaliari, Efrosini D.; Brainerd, Mary; Roy, Ann
Presented is a longitudinal study evaluating a Bachelor of Social Work writing program. The independent variable is a BSW curriculum in which social work courses include American Psychological Association 5th edition writing modules. In 2005, a baseline was established. From 2006 to 2010, a writing program was implemented. Using a brief rating…
Harden, Jeni; Dickson, Adele
Objective: Young children living in socioeconomically deprived areas of Scotland have an increased risk of becoming overweight or obese. To enhance understanding of the wider contexts within which family food practices are developed, this study examined the experiences of low-income mothers with young children. Design: Qualitative longitudinal…
Gao, Yihong; Jia, Zengyan; Zhou, Yan
Combining psychological and social perspectives and using mixed methods, this 4-year longitudinal study examined the EFL learning and self-identity development of about 1,000 students from 5 universities in Beijing, China. The self-designed questionnaire, administered 5 times during the 4 years, consisted of 7 identity categories of identity…
Tõugu, Pirko; Tulviste, Tiia; Suits, Kristi
Personal recollections constitute autobiographical memory that develops intensively during the preschool years. The two-wave longitudinal study focuses on gender differences in preschool children's independent recollections. The same children (N = 275; 140 boys, 135 girls) were asked to talk about their previous birthday and the past weekend…
Mataric, Maja J.
literature shows that activities, such as music therapy, can help individuals with dementia and cognitiveAbstract Title: Music Therapist Robot for People Suffering from Dementia: Longitudinal Study Main area: Therapeutic strategies; Social, Behavioral and Care Research Keywords: assistive robotics, music
Hannust, Triin; Kikas, Eve
This longitudinal study examined the acquisition of early knowledge of astronomy to determine whether children's knowledge at any point in time is consistent with a naive "mental model." Children were first assessed by means of open questions and drawing tasks at 2 and 3 years of age (N = 143). The knowledge was reassessed over the course of the…
Van de gaer, Eva; Pustjens, Heidi; Van Damme, Jan; De Munter, Agnes
The present study investigated (1) gender differences in the longitudinal development of language achievement and school engagement (i.e., effort for language, attitude toward learning tasks, interest in learning tasks, and relationship with teachers) across secondary school (Grades 7-12, ages 12-18) and (2) gender differences in the association…
Shek, Daniel T. L.
This longitudinal study examines the relationships between perceived family functioning and adolescent psychological well-being and problem behavior in Chinese adolescents with economic disadvantage (N = 199). Results showed that perceived family functioning was concurrently related to measures of adolescent psychological well-being (existential…
Ethier, L.S.; Lemelin, J.P.; Lacharite, C.
Objective: The aim of the present longitudinal study was to examine the links between chronicity of maltreatment and child behavioral and emotional problems. Method: Forty-nine maltreated children (32 victims of continuous, or chronic, maltreatment; 17 victims of transitory maltreatment) and their mothers were evaluated in their homes three times…
Bosacki, Sandra Leanne
This longitudinal study explored Theory of Mind (ToM), self-perceptions, and teacher ratings of peer relations of 91 children (52 females, ages 6-8?years) drawn from two schools situated in a mainly Euro-Canadian, middle socioeconomic status, semi-rural central Canadian context. ToM, self-perceptions, and teacher ratings of peer relations were…
Ní Chróinín, Déirdre; O'Sullivan, Mary
A better understanding of the relationship between beginning teachers' beliefs and the pedagogies of teacher education (TE) programmes that support their learning across time can enhance TE programme effectiveness. This 6-year longitudinal study examined the development and change of beginning primary classroom teachers' (n = 6) beliefs…
Liang, Belle; Williams, Linda M.; Siegel, Jane A.
This longitudinal study examines the effects of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on the intimate and marital relationships of adult survivors from a sample composed primarily of African American women. In addition, the authors explore the protective role of maternal support. Interview data are collected on 136 women with documented histories of CSA…
Mancilla-Martinez, Jeannette; Lesaux, Nonie K.
This longitudinal study modeled growth rates, from ages 4.5 to 11, in English and Spanish oral language and word reading skills among 173 Spanish-speaking children from low-income households. Individual growth modeling was employed using scores from standardized measures of word reading, expressive vocabulary, and verbal short-term language…
The basis for this longitudinal study was to find the predictors of transferable skills acquisition and portability among university sophomore students. The method employed was the path analysis using as variables: (1) the theoretical framework of transferable skills representations (Evers and Rush in "Manag Learn" 27(4):275-300, 1996;…
Zhao, Jensen, J.; Alexander, Melody W.; Perrreault, Heidi; Waldman, Lila
This longitudinal study compared business faculty's use of information technology in distance education as well as their perception of the technology's impact on their productivity and technology preferences between 2000 and 2006. Data were collected from 81 professors in 2000 and 140 professors in 2006 at AACSB-accredited business colleges across…
Cook, Jean Marie
The University of West Georgia's Ingram Library has offered a fifteen-week two-hour credit course since 1998. In a longitudinal study covering twelve years, the library analyzed the progression and graduation rates of more than fifteen thousand students. Students who took the class during their undergraduate career were found to graduate at much…
De Mulder, Hannah
This longitudinal study involving 101 Dutch four- and five-year-olds charts indirect request (IR) and mental state term (MST) understanding and investigates the role that Theory of Mind (ToM) and general linguistic ability (vocabulary, syntax, and spatial language) play in this development. The results showed basic understanding of IR and MST in…
Bratter, Jenifer; Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert
Despite the recent growth in multiracial children among American children, we know very little about their well-being. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class (N?=?17,706), we evaluated the likelihood of living in poverty and near poverty for multiracial and monoracial children. Most multiracial groups have poverty or near…
Raby, K. Lee; Lawler, Jamie M.; Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Hesemeyer, Paloma S.; Collins, W. Andrew; Sroufe, L. Alan
This study drew on prospective, longitudinal data to test the hypothesis that the intergenerational transmission of positive parenting is mediated by competence in subsequent relationships with peers and romantic partners. Interview-based ratings of supportive parenting were completed with a sample of 113 individuals (46% male) followed from birth…
Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Patton, George C.; Toumbourou, John W.
This study examined longitudinal relationships between depressive symptoms and use of alcohol, cigarettes, and illicit substances among adolescents, addressing methodological limitations and potential confounding in the extant literature. The sample comprised adolescents who were surveyed in Grades 6 (n = 916), 9 (n = 804), and 11 (n = 791).…
This study explores the development of multiple dimensions of linguistic complexity in the writing of beginning learners of German both as a group and as individuals. The data come from an annotated, longitudinal learner corpus. The development of lexicogrammatical complexity is explored at 2 intersections: (a) between cross-sectional trendlines…
Werner, Emmy E.
A 30-year longitudinal study was undertaken in order to document the course, and determine the outcome, of all pregnancies in a community of Asian Americans on Kauai, the western most of the Hawaiian Islands and equidistant from the continental United States and Japan. The project's goal was to document both the good and poor outcomes of the…
Colorado at Boulder, University of
Longitudinal study of student conceptual understanding in electricity and magnetism S. J. Pollock at the freshman level on juniors' performance on a conceptual survey of Electricity and Magnetism E&M . We measured student performance on a research-based conceptual instrument--the Brief Electricity & Magnetism
Rosato, M; Harding, S; McVey, E; Brown, J
In this article we outline significant changes in the way the ONS Longitudinal Study data are stored, accessed and analysed. The data were held previously on mainframe computers. Recent technological changes have made it possible to introduce PC-based systems without compromising confidentiality. The advantages of this new computing environment are illustrated with recent findings on geographic inequalities in health. PMID:9575541
Four groups of people were requested to review the Rand Corporation's design for a longitudinal study of school desegregation. These groups can be labeled as Desegregation and Minority Student Education Experts, Distinguished Social Scientists, Federal Officals Responsible for Desegregation Research, and U.S. Commission on Civil Rights (USCCR)…
This article draws on a longitudinal and qualitative study of students in a master's program in engineering. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to analyze annual, semi-structured interviews with ten students, from the first semester until one year after graduation. The program enjoys a high status and has a reputation of being…
LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF SEMEN QUALITY AFTER INTERMITTENT EXPOSURE TO AIR POLLUTION. J. Rubes*, D. Zudova*, Veterinary Research Institute, Brno, CR, S.G. Selevan*, US EPA/ORD/NCEA, Washington, DC, D.P. Evenson, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD, and S.D. Perreault, US ...
Cleave, Patricia; Bird, Elizabeth Kay-Raining; Czutrin, Rachael; Smith, Lindsey
The present study examined narrative development in children and adolescents with Down syndrome longitudinally. Narratives were collected from 32 children and adolescents with Down syndrome three times over a 1-year period. Both micro- and macrolevel analyses were conducted. Significant growth over the 1-year period was seen in semantic complexity…
Kieser, Jules A.; Dall'Alba, Gloria; Livingstone, Vicki
This longitudinal study examines changes in understanding of dental practice among a cohort of students in the early years of a dentistry programme. In their first two professional years, we identified five distinct understandings of dental practice that we have ordered from least to most comprehensive: "relieving pain or generally caring for…
Arellano, Paula A. Errazuriz; Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Thakar, Dhara A.
This longitudinal study examined whether mothers' depressive symptomatology predicted parenting practices in a sample of 199 mothers of 3-year-old children with behavior problems who were assessed yearly until age 6. Higher maternal depressive symptoms were associated with higher overreactivity and laxness and lower warmth when children were 6…
Busse, Vera; Walter, Catherine
This article reports on a study involving first-year modern foreign languages students enrolled in German degree courses at two major universities in the United Kingdom. It explores the experience of these students from a motivational angle. A longitudinal mixed-methods approach was employed in order to address the time- and context-sensitive…
Ennemoser, Marco; Schneider, Wolfgang
This longitudinal study explored the long-term effects of television viewing on the development of children's reading competencies. Among 2 cohorts of German children (N[subscript 1] = 165, N[subscript 2] = 167), measures of television viewing were collected over 4 years, and tests of reading speed and reading comprehension were administered…
Creswell, J. David
. Laboratory studies tend to expose people to brief stressors, such as challenging video games, and examine Linda Siminerio University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Dorothy Becker Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh (hemoglobin A1c) from medical records. Results: Using longitudinal growth curve modeling, stressful life
Peterson, Jean; Duncan, Nancy; Canady, Kate
An 11-year mixed-methods, cross-sectional longitudinal study began with a group of 121 children, identified as gifted, and followed them until high-school graduation. Parents annually identified negative life events experienced by child and family, and, at graduation, students completed an open-ended retrospective questionnaire, focusing on…
Mandonnet, Emmanuel; Nouet, Aurelien; Gatignol, Peggy; Capelle, Laurent; Duffau, Hugues
Although advances in diffusion tensor imaging have enabled us to better study the anatomy of the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), its function remains poorly understood. Recently, it was suggested that the subcortical network subserving the language semantics could be constituted, in parallel with the inferior occipitofrontal fasciculus, by…
A better understanding of the most effective recruitment techniques and retention strategies for longitudinal, community-based, children's environmental health studies is needed. A series of 18 focus groups were conducted across the U.S. in February 2003. Pregnant women and exp...
Recruitment and Retention Issues for a Large Longitudinal Study of Children's Environmental Health *D Lobdell, S Gilboa, P Mendola (US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, 27711)
An understanding of the most effective recruitment techniques and rete...
Luster, Jane Nell; Durrett, John
This paper discusses the outcomes of a longitudinal study that investigated whether significant change has occurred in the number of Louisiana students in general education, resource, and separation placements from 1990 to 1999; whether significant differences in placement by age category have continued; and which school systems show a tendency…
Campbell, James Reed; Feng, Annie Xuemei
In the 1950s, Terman summarized the results of his longitudinal study of the gifted and compared the "life success" of the 150 most successful men (Group A) with the 150 least successful men (Group C) at the midpoint of their careers (age 30). The objective of this article is to replicate the original Terman work with a modern sample of the most…
Campbell, James Reed; Feng, Annie Xuemei
In the 1950s Terman summarized the results of his longitudinal study of the gifted and compared the "life success" of the 150 most successful men (Group A) with the 150 least successful men (Group C) at the midpoint of their careers (age 30). The objective of this article is to replicate the original Terman work with a modern sample of the most…
Dan, Orrie; Sagi-Schwartz, Abraham; Bar-haim, Yair; Eshel, Yohanan
People's response to stress depends to a large extent on their sense of perceived control over the situations they encounter. This longitudinal study of 136 children (70 girls) examined associations between attachment patterns and maternal sensitivity at 12 months of age, and perceived primary and secondary control at 11 years of age. Compared…
This article is based on a qualitative longitudinal study of children's changing peer relationships through childhood, with particular emphasis on experiences of disabled children. Initial observation of face-to-face-encounters among children in school made us aware of social inclusion and exclusion mechanisms relating to informal interaction…
Menendez, Susana; Hidalgo, M. Victoria
Within the framework of a longitudinal investigation, a group of parents were studied during their transition to parenthood. The families were selected according to distinct socio-demographic variables. Fathers and mothers were interviewed separately before becoming parents, and again when the infants were 10- to 12-months of age. The interview…
Johnson, Nan E.
Purpose: I examine whether less favorable self-rated health raises the risk of outmigration more for young-old adults (aged 53-63 at the start of the 10-year longitudinal study in 1994) in nonmetro than metro counties and increases the odds that both groups of outmigrants will choose metro over nonmetro destinations. Finally, I examine whether…
Niehaus, Kate; Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Rakes, Christopher R.
The current longitudinal study examines the extent to which school connectedness (i.e., students' perceptions of school support and the number of adults with whom they have a positive relationship) is associated with academic outcomes across sixth grade for students from high poverty neighborhoods. Data were collected from 330 sixth-grade students…
Kobayashi, Hiroe; Rinnert, Carol
This longitudinal case study, supplemented by cross-sectional comparisons among five groups of writers with differing backgrounds, investigates how Natsu, a Japanese multilingual writer, developed her L1, L2 (English), and L3 (Chinese) writing competence over two and a half years. To create a comprehensive picture of this multilingual writer, the…
Cox, M. V.; Parkin, C. E.
This cross-sectional and longitudinal study investigated the development of human figure drawing in 42 children aged two to four years and eleven months. Drawings were categorized as scribbles, distinct forms, tadpoles, transitional, or conventional figures. Results suggest that young children draw the human figure in a tadpole form before they…
In this, the first long term longitudinal study of cryptosporidiosis in cattle, 30 pure-bred Holstein female cattle on a dairy farm in Maryland were examined consecutively at weekly, biweekly, or monthly intervals from 1 week to 24 months of age for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts. Feces wer...
Galbraith, Craig S.; Merrill, Gregory B.
We examined the interaction between academic burnout and work-related burnout for a sample of working undergraduate university students. Using a longitudinal design we found that the factors of burnout (Exhaustion, Cynicism, and Efficacy) change significantly over the semester. In addition, the study suggests there are distinct differences in how…
Russo, Silvia; Roccato, Michele
We studied the relationship between victimization and fear of crime longitudinally, analyzing data from the Observatory of the North-West (Italian national sample, N = 1,701, two waves: January 2006 and January 2007). We modeled fear of crime at T[subscript 2] using as independent variables: (a) the main sociodemographic variables and fear of…
Ellickson, Phyllis L.
Longitudinal studies conducted with children typically experience non-response problems that can make substantial inroads on sample size and introduce bias into the analysis. Three methods for limiting non-response in school-based research programs were assessed: (1) asking parents to return consent forms only if they do not want their children to…
A longitudinal study was conducted at William Rainey Harper College (WRHC), in Illinois, to observe the performance and achievement of students entering the college each fall from 1967 through 1986. Academic and personal data from transcripts were analyzed for randomly selected samples of 200 full- and 200 part-time students from each fall's…
Swanson, H. Lee
The role of working memory (WM) in children's growth in mathematical problem solving was examined in a longitudinal study of children (N = 127). A battery of tests was administered that assessed problem solving, achievement, WM, and cognitive processing (inhibition, speed, phonological coding) in Grade 1 children, with follow-up testing in Grades…
Use and cost of hospitalization in dementia: longitudinal results from a community-based study of hospitalization and costs. Methods: A prospective cohort of Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 and older who with dementia at enrollment). Hospitalization and Medicare expenditures data (19992010) were ob- tained from
languages and system design. Still, little is known about the characteristics governing scattering, whichFeature Scattering in the Large: A Longitudinal Study of Linux Kernel Device Drivers Leonardo@dcc.ufmg.br Abstract Feature code is often scattered across wide parts of the code base. But, scattering
Luoma, Ilona; Kaukonen, Palvi; Mantymaa, Mirjami; Puura, Kaija; Tamminen, Tuula; Salmelin, Raili
The aim of this longitudinal study was to examine the associations between maternal depressive symptoms and perceptions of children's problems. One hundred and nineteen mother-child dyads were followed from the third trimester of pregnancy for almost 10 years. Depressive symptoms and background factors of the mothers and the anticipated/perceived…
Morgan, Elizabeth M.; Thorne, Avril; Zurbriggen, Eileen L.
Emerging adulthood is a time of sexual and romantic relationship development as well as change in the parent-child relationship. This study provides a longitudinal analysis of 30 young adults' (17 women, 13 men) sexual experiences, attitudes about sexuality and dating, and reported conversations with parents about sexuality and dating from the 1st…
Boivin, Michel; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Dionne, Ginette; Girard, Alain; Perusse, Daniel; Tremblay, Richard E.
This study assessed the genetic and environmental contributions to peer difficulties in the early school years. Twins' peer difficulties were assessed longitudinally in kindergarten (796 twins, "M"[subscript age] = 6.1 years), Grade 1 (948 twins, "M"[subscript age] = 7.1 years), and Grade 4 (868 twins, "M"[subscript age] = 10 years) through…
Wachs, Peter M.; Cooper, Diane L.
Study assessed the effectiveness of the Student Developmental Task and Lifestyle Assessment (SDTLA) in measuring psychosocial changes from the freshman year through the senior year using longitudinal research design. Results provide evidence of validity for the SDTLA and demonstrate that as a measurement tool, the SDTLA is sensitive to changes…
White, Douglas R.
NSF Proposal #00-- Longitudinal Social Network Studies and Predictive Social Cohesion Theory years, Starting Date: July 1, 1999 ABSTRACT A new theory of social cohesion is developed for analysis of algorithms for large- network analysis. These sets are hypothesized to have greater cohesiveness related
Research has shown how cochlear implants (CIs), in children with hearing impairments, have improved speech perception and production, but very little is known about the children's pragmatic language development. During a 4-year longitudinal study of three children with CIs, certain aspects of pragmatic language development were observed in free…
Hunter, Russell; Sheldon, M. Stephen
As the fourth in a series of reports on a longitudinal study of over 7,000 students who entered 15 California community colleges in Fall 1978, this eight-chapter report profiles the students as of Spring 1980 in terms of: (1) demography, academic progress, and employment status; and (2) their distribution among 18 "prototypes," defined by the…
Raty, Hannu; Kasanen, Kati
This longitudinal study set out to examine, in the light of the parents' education and gender and the child's gender, the changes that occurred in the course of five years in parents' satisfaction with the functioning of their child's school. Academically and vocationally educated mothers and fathers (N = 391) were asked to indicate their…
Kandiko, Camille B.; Kinchin, Ian M.
Competing notions of what a Ph.D. has been, is and should be are undercurrents in doctoral education. A longitudinal study of Ph.D. supervision based on interviews and concept mapping was used to surface understandings of the purpose of a Ph.D. This research tracks change over time for both the student and the supervisor. The data were analysed…
Brambati, Simona Maria; Amici, Serena; Racine, Caroline A; Neuhaus, John; Miller, Zachary; Ogar, Jenny; Dronkers, Nina; Miller, Bruce L; Rosen, Howard; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa
The present study investigated the pattern of longitudinal changes in cognition and anatomy in three variants of primary progressive aphasia (PPA). Eight patients with the non-fluent variant of PPA (nfvPPA), 13 patients with the semantic variant (svPPA), seven patients with the logopenic variant (lvPPA), and 29 age-matched, neurologically healthy controls were included in the study. All participants underwent longitudinal MRI, neuropsychological and language testing at baseline and at a 1-year follow-up. Tenser-based morphometry (TBM) was applied to T1-weighted MRI images in order to map the progression of gray and white matter atrophy over a 1-year period. Results showed that each patient group was characterized by a specific pattern of cognitive and anatomical changes. Specifically, nfvPPA patients showed gray matter atrophy progression in the left frontal and subcortical areas as well as a decline in motor speech and executive functions; svPPA patients presented atrophy progression in the medial and lateral temporal lobe and decline in semantic memory abilities; and lvPPA patients showed atrophy progression in lateral/posterior temporal and medial parietal regions with a decline in memory, sentence repetition and calculations. In addition, in all three variants, the white matter fibers underlying the abovementioned cortical areas underwent significant volume contraction over a 1-year period. Overall, these results indicate that the three PPA variants present distinct patterns of neuroanatomical contraction, which reflect their clinical and cognitive progression. PMID:26106560
Fabbri, Elisa; An, Yang; Schrack, Jennifer A; Gonzalez-Freire, Marta; Zoli, Marco; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Guralnik, Jack M; Boyd, Cynthia M; Studenski, Stephanie A; Ferrucci, Luigi
Excessively elevated resting metabolic rate (RMR) for persons of a certain age, sex, and body composition is a mortality risk factor. Whether elevated RMR constitutes an early marker of health deterioration in older adult has not been fully investigated. Using data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, we hypothesized that higher RMR (i) was cross-sectionally associated with higher multimorbidity and (ii) predicted higher multimorbidity in subsequent follow-ups. The analysis included 695 Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging participants, aged 60 or older at baseline, of whom 248 had follow-up data available 2 years later and 109 four years later. Multimorbidity was assessed as number of chronic diseases. RMR was measured by indirect calorimetry and was tested in regression analyses adjusted for covariates age, sex, and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry-measured total body fat mass and lean mass. Baseline RMR and multimorbidity were positively associated, independent of covariates (p = .002). Moreover, in a three-wave bivariate autoregressive cross-lagged model adjusted for covariates, higher prior RMR predicted greater future multimorbidity above and beyond the cross-sectional and autoregressive associations (p = .034). RMR higher than expected, given age, sex, and body composition, predicts future higher multimorbidity in older adults and may be used as early biomarker of impending health deterioration. Replication and the development of normative data are required for clinical translation. PMID:25409892
Brambati, Simona Maria; Amici, Serena; Racine, Caroline A.; Neuhaus, John; Miller, Zachary; Ogar, Jenny; Dronkers, Nina; Miller, Bruce L.; Rosen, Howard; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa
The present study investigated the pattern of longitudinal changes in cognition and anatomy in three variants of primary progressive aphasia (PPA). Eight patients with the non-fluent variant of PPA (nfvPPA), 13 patients with the semantic variant (svPPA), seven patients with the logopenic variant (lvPPA), and 29 age-matched, neurologically healthy controls were included in the study. All participants underwent longitudinal MRI, neuropsychological and language testing at baseline and at a 1-year follow-up. Tenser-based morphometry (TBM) was applied to T1-weighted MRI images in order to map the progression of gray and white matter atrophy over a 1-year period. Results showed that each patient group was characterized by a specific pattern of cognitive and anatomical changes. Specifically, nfvPPA patients showed gray matter atrophy progression in the left frontal and subcortical areas as well as a decline in motor speech and executive functions; svPPA patients presented atrophy progression in the medial and lateral temporal lobe and decline in semantic memory abilities; and lvPPA patients showed atrophy progression in lateral/posterior temporal and medial parietal regions with a decline in memory, sentence repetition and calculations. In addition, in all three variants, the white matter fibers underlying the abovementioned cortical areas underwent significant volume contraction over a 1-year period. Overall, these results indicate that the three PPA variants present distinct patterns of neuroanatomical contraction, which reflect their clinical and cognitive progression. PMID:26106560
Gillespie, NA; Henders, AK; Davenport, TA; Hermens, DF; Wright, MJ; Martin, NG; Hickie, IB
We describe the data being collected from the Brisbane Longitudinal Twin Study (BLTS) in Australia as part of the US National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) funded project Pathways to Cannabis Use, Abuse and Dependence. The history, recruitment, assessment and retention of twin families in this project are described in detail along with preliminary findings and plans for future research. The goal of this NIDA project is to make a significant contribution to the discovery of quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing cannabis use disorders. Although the focus is cannabis use, abuse and dependence in young adults, measures of comorbid illicit drug use disorders are also being collected. In addition, a variety of internalizing and externalizing disorders are being assessed, funded by support from the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council. Because these same twins have participated in numerous twin studies since 1992, future plans will include linking different phenotypes to investigate relationships between drug use, psychiatric disorders and psychological phenotypes within cross-sectional and longitudinal or developmental frameworks. PMID:23187020
De Jong, Eddy J.; Gunstone, Richard F.
The broad focus of this study was on the role students' existing conceptions play in the process of constructing and understanding mechanics concepts. The study was a naturalistic one, conducted over a number of years, at all grade levels, in one all-boys secondary school in Australia. In particular it was concerned with identifying and…
Sasanguie, Delphine; Van den Bussche, Eva; Reynvoet, Bert
Numerical processing has been extensively studied by examining the performance on basic number processing tasks, such as number priming, number comparison, and number line estimation. These tasks assess the innate "number sense," which is assumed to be the breeding ground for later mathematics development. Indeed, several studies have associated…
Dembo, Richard; Wareham, Jennifer; Schmeidler, James
We report the results of latent growth model analyses examining the continuity of cocaine use among adolescents. This study examined a sample of 278 justice-involved juveniles completing at least one of three follow-up interviews as part of a National Institute on Drug Abuse funded study. Latent growth models were analyzed examining (1) changes in…
Asher, Steven R.; And Others
This is a report on a study of racial interrelationships among students in desegregated schools. Sociometric measures of third graders' willingness to play and work with their classmates (indicating cross-race acceptance) showed evidence of racial bias; however, the amount of bias appeared small compared to the findings of earlier studies which…
Flueckiger, Lavinia; Lieb, Roselind; Meyer, Andrea H.; Mata, Jutta
Objective This intensive longitudinal study examined how sleep and physical activity relate to university students’ affect and academic performance during a stressful examination period. Methods On 32 consecutive days, 72 first-year students answered online questionnaires on their sleep quality, physical activity, positive and negative affect, learning goal achievement, and examination grades. First-year university students are particularly well-suited to test our hypotheses: They represent a relatively homogeneous population in a natural, but controlled setting, and simultaneously deal with similar stressors, such as examinations. Data were analyzed using multilevel structural equation models. Results Over the examination period, better average sleep quality but not physical activity predicted better learning goal achievement. Better learning goal achievement was associated with increased probability of passing all examinations. Relations of average sleep quality and average physical activity with learning goal achievement were mediated by experienced positive affect. In terms of day-to-day dynamics, on days with better sleep quality, participants reported better learning goal achievement. Day-to-day physical activity was not related to daily learning goal achievement. Daily positive and negative affect both mediated the effect of day-to-day sleep quality and physical activity on daily learning goal achievement. Conclusion Health behaviors such as sleep quality and physical activity seem important for both academic performance and affect experience, an indicator of mental health, during a stressful examination period. These results are a first step toward a better understanding of between- and within-person variations in health behaviors, affect, and academic performance, and could inform prevention and intervention programs for university students. PMID:25353638
Pearce, Anna; Marshall, Helen; Bedford, Helen; Lynch, John
Objectives To examine barriers to childhood immunisation experienced by parents in Australia. Design Cross-sectional analysis of secondary data. Setting Nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). Participants Five thousand one hundred seven infants aged 3–19 months in 2004. Main outcome measure Maternal report of immunisation status: incompletely or fully immunised. Results Overall, 9.3% (473) of infants were incompletely immunised; of these just 16% had mothers who disagreed with immunisation. Remaining analyses focussed on infants whose mother did not disagree with immunisation (N = 4994) (of whom 8%  were incompletely immunised). Fifteen variables representing potential immunisation barriers and facilitators were available in LSAC; these were entered into a latent class model to identify distinct clusters (or ‘classes’) of barriers experienced by families. Five classes were identified: (1) ‘minimal barriers’, (2) ‘lone parent, mobile families with good support’, (3) ‘low social contact and service information; psychological distress’, (4) ‘larger families, not using formal childcare’, (5) ‘child health issues/concerns’. Compared to infants from families experiencing minimal barriers, all other barrier classes had a higher risk of incomplete immunisation. For example, the adjusted risk ratio (RR) for incomplete immunisation was 1.51 (95% confidence interval: 1.08–2.10) among those characterised by ‘low social contact and service information; psychological distress’, and 2.47 (1.87–3.25) among ‘larger families, not using formal childcare’. Conclusions Using the most recent data available for examining these issues in Australia, we found that the majority of incompletely immunised infants (in 2004) did not have a mother who disagreed with immunisation. Barriers to immunisation are heterogeneous, suggesting a need for tailored interventions. PMID:26003493
Hull, Jay G.; Brunelle, Timothy J.; Prescott, Anna T.; Sargent, James D.
Character-based video games do more than allow one to practice various kinds of behaviors in a virtual environment, they allow one to practice being a different kind of person. As such, we propose that games can alter self-perceptions of personal characteristics, attitudes, and values with broad consequences for behavior. In a multiwave, longitudinal study of adolescents, we examined the extent to which play of mature-rated, risk-glorifying (MRRG) games was associated with increases in alcohol use, cigarette smoking, aggression, delinquency, and risky sex as a consequence of its effects on personality, attitudes, and affiliations indicative of increased tolerance of deviance. Participants were selected using random digit dial procedures and followed for four years. Data were analyzed using linear mixed modeling to assess change over time and structural equation modeling with latent variables to test hypothesized mediational processes. Among those who play video games, playing MRRG games was associated with increases in all measures of behavioral deviance. Mediational models support the hypothesis that these effects are in part a consequence of the effects of such gameplay on sensation seeking and rebelliousness, attitudes toward deviant behavior in oneself and others, and affiliation with deviant peers. Effects were similar for males and females, and strongest for those who reported heavy play of mature-rated games and games that involved protagonists who represent non-normative and anti-social values. In sum, the current research supports the perspective that MRRG gameplay can have consequences for deviant behavior broadly defined by affecting the personality, attitudes, and values of the player. PMID:25090130
Rugg, Sue; Paterson, Charlotte; Britten, Nicky; Bridges, Jackie; Griffiths, Peter
Background People with medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) are helped by interventions that combine physical and psychological explanations and treatment. Traditional acupuncture may offer such a perspective, but its use for these patients has not been investigated. Aim To ascertain how patients with MUPS perceive and experience five-element acupuncture treatment. Design and setting A longitudinal qualitative interview study, nested in a randomised controlled trial was carried out in four general practices in socioeconomically diverse areas of London. Method A purposive sample of 20 trial participants was interviewed twice, at the start and the end of 6 months of acupuncture treatment. Semi-structured interviews were transcribed, coded, and analysed thematically, summarising both across-case as themes and within-case individual vignettes. Results Acupuncture, initially accepted as ‘just another referral’ — one like many others that had been tried and proved unsuccessful — was valued for the amount of time allotted with a caring practitioner who listened and responded, as well as for the interactive and holistic nature of the sessions. These attributes encouraged many patients to take an active role in their treatment, including making cognitive or behavioural lifestyle changes. Interviewees cited a wide range of changes in their health that spanned physical, psychological, and social dimensions. These were largely positive and included an increase in physical and/or mental energy, as well as feelings of greater personal control, calmness, and relaxation. Three interviewees reported worsening health but did not ascribe this to acupuncture. Conclusion Many patients who were treated with five-element acupuncture perceived a range of positive effects and appeared to take on a more active role in consultations and self-care. PMID:21801509
Brunner, Eric J; Shipley, Martin J; Ahmadi-Abhari, Sara; Tabak, Adam G; McEniery, Carmel M; Wilkinson, Ian B; Marmot, Michael G; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Kivimaki, Mika
We sought to determine whether adiposity in later midlife is an independent predictor of accelerated stiffening of the aorta. Whitehall II study participants (3789 men; 1383 women) underwent carotid-femoral applanation tonometry at the mean age of 66 and again 4 years later. General adiposity by body mass index, central adiposity by waist circumference and waist:hip ratio, and fat mass percent by body impedance were assessed 5 years before and at baseline. In linear mixed models adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, and mean arterial pressure, all adiposity measures were associated with aortic stiffening measured as increase in pulse wave velocity (PWV) between baseline and follow-up. The associations were similar in the metabolically healthy and unhealthy, according to Adult Treatment Panel-III criteria excluding waist circumference. C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 levels accounted for part of the longitudinal association between adiposity and PWV change. Adjusting for chronic disease, antihypertensive medication and risk factors, standardized effects of general and central adiposity and fat mass percent on PWV increase (m/s) were similar (0.14, 95% confidence interval: 0.05-0.24, P=0.003; 0.17, 0.08-0.27, P<0.001; 0.14, 0.05-0.22, P=0.002, respectively). Previous adiposity was associated with aortic stiffening independent of change in adiposity, glycaemia, and lipid levels across PWV assessments. We estimated that the body mass index-linked PWV increase will account for 12% of the projected increase in cardiovascular risk because of high body mass index. General and central adiposity in later midlife were strong independent predictors of aortic stiffening. Our findings suggest that adiposity is an important and potentially modifiable determinant of arterial aging. PMID:26056335
Hull, Jay G; Brunelle, Timothy J; Prescott, Anna T; Sargent, James D
Character-based video games do more than allow one to practice various kinds of behaviors in a virtual environment; they allow one to practice being a different kind of person. As such, we propose that games can alter self-perceptions of personal characteristics, attitudes, and values with broad consequences for behavior. In a multiwave, longitudinal study of adolescents, we examined the extent to which play of mature-rated, risk-glorifying (MRRG) games was associated with increases in alcohol use, cigarette smoking, aggression, delinquency, and risky sex as a consequence of its effects on personality, attitudes, and affiliations indicative of increased tolerance of deviance. Participants were selected with random-digit-dial procedures and followed for 4 years. Data were analyzed with linear mixed modeling to assess change over time and structural equation modeling with latent variables to test hypothesized mediational processes. Among those who play video games, playing MRRG games was associated with increases in all measures of behavioral deviance. Mediational models support the hypothesis that these effects are in part a consequence of the effects of such gameplay on sensation seeking and rebelliousness, attitudes toward deviant behavior in oneself and others, and affiliation with deviant peers. Effects were similar for males and females and were strongest for those who reported heavy play of mature-rated games and games that involved protagonists who represent nonnormative and antisocial values. In sum, the current research supports the perspective that MRRG gameplay can have consequences for deviant behavior broadly defined by affecting the personality, attitudes, and values of the player. PMID:25090130
Berecki-Gisolf, Janneke; Tawatsupa, Benjawan; McClure, Roderick; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian
Objectives To explore individual determinants of workplace injury among Thai workers. Design Cross-sectional analysis of a large national cohort. Setting Thailand. Participants Thai Cohort Study participants who responded to the 2009 follow-up survey were included if they reported doing paid work or being self-employed (n=51?751). Outcome measures Self-reported injury incidence over the past 12?months was calculated. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to test associations between individual determinants and self-reported workplace injury. Results Workplace injuries were reported by 1317 study participants (2.5%); the incidence was 34 (95% CI 32 to 36)/1000 worker-years for men, and 18 (17–20) for women. Among men working ?41?h and earning <10?000 Baht, the injury rate was four times higher compared with men working <11?h and earning ?20?001 Baht; differences in injury rates were less pronounced in women. Multivariate modelling showed that working ?49?h/week (23%) and working for ?10?000 Bath/month (37%) were associated with workplace injury. The increase in injury risk with increased working hours did not exceed the risk expected from increased exposure. Conclusions Reductions in occupational injury rates could be achieved by limiting working hours to 48/week. Particularly for Thai low wage earners and those with longer workdays, there is a need for effective injury preventive programmes. PMID:23869104
Kojima, Narumi; Kim, Miji; Saito, Kyoko; Yoshida, Hideyo; Yoshida, Yuko; Hirano, Hirohiko; Obuchi, Shuichi; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Takao; Kim, Hunkyung
This cross-sectional and 4-year longitudinal cohort study aimed to clarify how various lifestyle-related variables affect knee extension strength in elderly Japanese women. The participants were community-dwelling women (n = 575) living in the Itabashi Ward of Tokyo, Japan aged 75-85 years at baseline (in 2008) who returned for a follow-up examination 4 years later (in 2012). Maximum isometric knee extension strength in the dominant leg was measured during comprehensive medical check-ups at baseline and follow-up. Interviews with participants included questions on their history of 11 diseases and lifestyle-related factors such as physical activity as well as dietary, smoking, and drinking habits. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses yielded inconsistent results regarding the associations between lifestyle-related factors and knee extension strength. While going out more frequently and regular physical exercise positively affected baseline knee extension strength, they did not affect knee extension strength in the longitudinal analysis. The longitudinal analysis revealed that more frequent intake of soy products or green and yellow vegetables at baseline decreased age-related knee extension strength decline. The inconsistent results from the cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses indicate that conducting both types of analyses is crucial for researching this type of subject. The present study demonstrates that the age-related decline in muscle strength is lower in those who frequently eat soy products or green and yellow vegetables. Thus, recommending higher intake of soy products, and green and yellow vegetables for the elderly might help maintain their muscle health. PMID:26177292
Kojima, Narumi; Kim, Miji; Saito, Kyoko; Yoshida, Hideyo; Yoshida, Yuko; Hirano, Hirohiko; Obuchi, Shuichi; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Takao; Kim, Hunkyung
This cross-sectional and 4-year longitudinal cohort study aimed to clarify how various lifestyle-related variables affect knee extension strength in elderly Japanese women. The participants were community-dwelling women (n = 575) living in the Itabashi Ward of Tokyo, Japan aged 75–85 years at baseline (in 2008) who returned for a follow-up examination 4 years later (in 2012). Maximum isometric knee extension strength in the dominant leg was measured during comprehensive medical check-ups at baseline and follow-up. Interviews with participants included questions on their history of 11 diseases and lifestyle-related factors such as physical activity as well as dietary, smoking, and drinking habits. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses yielded inconsistent results regarding the associations between lifestyle-related factors and knee extension strength. While going out more frequently and regular physical exercise positively affected baseline knee extension strength, they did not affect knee extension strength in the longitudinal analysis. The longitudinal analysis revealed that more frequent intake of soy products or green and yellow vegetables at baseline decreased age-related knee extension strength decline. The inconsistent results from the cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses indicate that conducting both types of analyses is crucial for researching this type of subject. The present study demonstrates that the age-related decline in muscle strength is lower in those who frequently eat soy products or green and yellow vegetables. Thus, recommending higher intake of soy products, and green and yellow vegetables for the elderly might help maintain their muscle health. PMID:26177292
Taura, Hideyuki; Taura, Amanda
In the seven decades since Leopold's groundbreaking 1939 study, there has been no longitudinal study covering more than two years of a Japanese bilingual subject's development. Despite the lack of longitudinal research, however, we have been broadly informed by the veritable outpouring of research on a short-term basis since the late twentieth…
Bolton, Patrick F.; Golding, Jean; Emond, Alan; Steer, Colin D.
Objective: To chart the emergence of precursors and early signs of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and autistic traits in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a prospective longitudinal cohort study of the surviving offspring of 14,541 pregnant women from southwestern England with an expected delivery date between April 1991 and…
Mistry, Rashmita S; White, Elizabeth S; Benner, Aprile D; Huynh, Virginia W
This short-term longitudinal study investigated the simultaneous influences of adults' (mothers and teachers) educational expectations and youth's achievement (standardized test scores and teachers' ratings of academic performance) across a 3-year time span on youth's performance in school (GPA). Participants were an ethnically diverse sample of 426 low-income urban youth, ages 6 through 16 at T1. Results from cross-lagged and autoregressive path analyses indicated stability in adults' expectations and youth's standardized test scores; cross-lagged influences of teachers', but not mothers', expectations across time; and effects of youth's achievement outcomes on adults' expectations at T2, but not vice versa. Overall, the pattern of findings demonstrate that adults' educational expectations are dynamic and responsive to how youth are faring in school and to changes in academic performance across time. PMID:19636784
Pre-Service Teachers' Beliefs about Language Teaching and Learning: A Longitudinal Study (Creencias de profesores principiantes acerca de la enseñanza y aprendizaje de lengua: un estudio longitudinal)
Cota Grijalva, Sofía D.; Ruiz-Esparza Barajas, Elizabeth
This paper contains the description of a research project that was carried out in the Bachelor of Arts in English Language Teaching program at a Mexican university. The study was longitudinal and it tracked fourteen students for four semesters of the eight semester program. The aim was to identify pre-service teachers' beliefs about English…
Fitriah, Amaliah; Sumintono, Bambang; Subekti, Nanang Bagus; Hassan, Zainudin
Parental participation in school management is regarded as a good thing according to the rationale that local people know better and are able to be more responsive to their own needs. However, little is understood about the implications of the School Operational Support policy for community participation in education. This study investigated…
Jepsen, David A.; Noeth, Richard J.
A study was conducted to examine the predictive relationship between job values and early employment satisfaction and success as well as to provide information about the stability of job values over time. (Job values refer to generalized concepts of desirable future outcomes anticipated from jobs and describe qualities of satisfactions desired as…
Kragler, Sherry; Martin, Linda; Schreier, Virginia
In this three-year study, the authors examined the reading strategy use of 16 primary-grade students as they read fiction and expository text. The students (9 boys and 7 girls) represented low, average, and above-average readers. Structured interviews and observational data were collected each year as they progressed from first to third grade.…
Buck, Nicole; Verhulst, Frank; van Marle, Hjalmar; van der Ende, Jan
Moffitt, Caspi, Harrington, and Milne (2002) found in a follow-up study that many of the supposedly adolescence-limited offenders had committed offenses past adolescence. This finding raises the question of whether adulthood starts later or whether there are two distinct delinquency types, adolescence limited and adolescence onset, each with its…
Turker, Duygu; Altuntas, Ceren
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse how newcomers' perceptions of organisational culture can change over time. The study tries to address whether initial working experience changes newcomers' perceptions about the ideal organisational culture, and whether these perceptions converge with those of their supervisors.…
Clapham, Maria M.; Cowdery, Edwina M.; King, Kelly E.; Montang, Melissa A.
This study examined whether divergent thinking test scores obtained from engineering students during college predicted creative work activities fifteen years later. Results showed that a subscore of the "Owens Creativity Test", which assesses divergent thinking about mechanical objects, correlated significantly with self-ratings of creative work…
Keijzer, Ronald; Terwel, Jan
Studied the teaching and learning of fractions in two matched groups of 10 9-10-year-olds in the Netherlands. In the experimental group, fractions were introduced using the bar and number line as mental models, while the control group used fair sharing and the circle model. The experimental group showed more proficiency in fractions after 1 year.…
Theories of socialization have developed independently of established facts against which to measure their adequacy. Studies showing low levels of skin conductance and slow latency of response among criminals have supported a bio-social theory that criminals inherit neurological systems that impede reduction of fear and interfere with learning.…
Moeller, Aleidine J.; Theiler, Janine M.; Wu, Chaorong
The connection between goals and student motivation has been widely investigated in the research literature, but the relationship of goal setting and student achievement at the classroom level has remained largely unexplored. This article reports the findings of a 5-year quasi-experimental study examining goal setting and student achievement in…
Because most studies of adolescent alcohol use have focused primarily on the frequency and quantity of consumption, we know little about how adolescent drinking patterns change during the high school years. The purpose of this article is to provide such data, as well as to identify some of the indiv...
Sedova, Ekaterina; Goryacheva, Tatiana
The research studies features of self-regulation of schoolchildren in the age of eight to nine and 11 to 12 years. The sample consisting of 30 students (12 boys and 18 girls) has been divided into two groups--students with good and poor school progress. The school results are compared with the results of neuropsychological tests and the level of…
Britton, Joseph H.; Britton, Jean O.
The specific aims of the investigation reported in this book were: (1) to determine the consistency or change in personality and adjustment of older adults over time and to learn what factors are related to consistency or changes; (2) to study the problem of survivorship by analyzing differences between survivors in regard to socio-psychological…
Clement, Madeleine; Jankowski, Louis W.; Bouchard, Louise; Perreault, Michel; Lepage, Yves
A 3-year study compared 52 undergraduate nursing students with 93 education majors and with the general population. No significant differences among students on 9 health behaviors appeared. Compared with the general population, nursing students had inadequate time for sleep, exercise, and eating breakfast. (Contains 77 references.) (SK)
The purpose of the study was to investigate how grading in primary school affected students' achievement measured by grades in 7th, 8th and 9th Grade and educational attainment in upper secondary school (12th Grade), and how the effect varied as a function of students' cognitive ability, gender and socio-economic status. The data derived from the…
Burton, Neal C.; Guilarte, Tomás R.
Background Exposure to excess levels of the essential trace element manganese produces cognitive, psychiatric, and motor abnormalities. The understanding of Mn neurotoxicology is heavily governed by pathologic and neurochemical observations derived from rodent studies that often employ acute Mn exposures. The comparatively sparse studies incorporating in vivo neuroimaging in nonhuman primates provide invaluable insights on the effects of Mn on brain chemistry. Objectives The purpose of this review is to discuss important aspects of Mn neurotoxicology and to synthesize recent findings from one of the largest cohorts of nonhuman primates used to study the neurologic effects of chronic Mn exposure. Discussion We reviewed our recent in vivo and ex vivo studies that have significantly advanced the understanding of Mn-induced neurotoxicity. In those studies, we administered weekly doses of 3.3–5.0 (n = 4), 5.0–6.7 (n = 5), or 8.3–10.0 mg Mn/kg (n = 3) for 7–59 weeks to cynomolgus macaque monkeys. Animals expressed subtle deficits in cognition and motor function and decreases in the N-acetylaspartate-to-creatine ratio in the parietal cortex measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy reflective of neuronal dysfunction. Impaired striatal dopamine release measured by positron emission tomography was observed in the absence of changes in markers of dopamine neuron degeneration. Neuropathology indicated decreased glutamine synthetase expression in the globus pallidus with otherwise normal markers of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission. Increased amyloid beta (A4) precursor-like protein 1 gene expression with multiple markers of neurodegeneration and glial cell activation was observed in the frontal cortex. Conclusions These findings provide new information on mechanisms by which Mn affects behavior, neurotransmitter function, and neuropathology in nonhuman primates. PMID:19337503
Abner, EL; Schmitt, FA; Nelson, PT; Lou, W; Wan, L; Gauriglia, R; Dodge, HH; Woltjer, RL; Yu, L; Bennett, DA; Schneider, JA; Chen, R; Masaki, K; Katz, MJ; Lipton, RB; Dickson, DW; Lim, KO; Hemmy, LS; Cairns, NJ; Grant, E; Tyas, SL; Xiong, C; Fardo, DW; Kryscio, RJ
Longitudinal cognitive trajectories and other factors associated with mixed neuropathologies (such as Alzheimer’s disease with co-occurring cerebrovascular disease) remain incompletely understood, despite being the rule and not the exception in older populations. The Statistical Modeling of Aging and Risk of Transition study (SMART) is a consortium of 11 different high-quality longitudinal studies of aging and cognition (N=11,541 participants) established for the purpose of characterizing risk and protective factors associated with subtypes of age-associated mixed neuropathologies (N=3,001 autopsies). While brain donation was not required for participation in all SMART cohorts, most achieved substantial autopsy rates (i.e., > 50%). Moreover, the studies comprising SMART have large numbers of participants who were followed from intact cognition and transitioned to cognitive impairment and dementia, as well as participants who remained cognitively intact until death. These data provide an exciting opportunity to apply sophisticated statistical methods, like Markov processes, that require large, well-characterized samples. Thus, SMART will serve as an important resource for the field of mixed dementia epidemiology and neuropathology. PMID:25984574
Neander, Kerstin; Engström, Ingemar
Background The aim of the study was to describe families with small children who participated in parent-child interaction interventions at four centres in Sweden, and to examine long term and short term changes regarding the parents' experience of parental stress, parental attachment patterns, the parents' mental health and life satisfaction, the parents' social support and the children's problems. Methods In this longitudinal study a consecutive sample of 101 families (94 mothers and 54 fathers) with 118 children (median age 3 years) was assessed, using self-reports, at the outset of the treatment (T1), six months later (T2) and 18 months after the beginning of treatment (T3). Analysis of the observed differences was carried out using Wilcoxon's Signed-Rank test and Cohen's d. Results The results from commencement of treatment showed that the parents had considerable problems in all areas examined. At the outset of treatment (T1) the mothers showed a higher level of problem load than the fathers on almost all scales. In the families where the children's problems have also been measured (children from the age of four) it appeared that they had problems of a nature and degree otherwise found in psychiatric populations. We found a clear general trend towards a positive development from T1 to T2 and this development was also reinforced from T2 to T3. Aggression in the child was one of the most common causes for contact. There were few undesired or unplanned interruptions of the treatment, and the attrition from the study was low. Conclusion This study has shown that it is possible to reach mothers as well as fathers with parenting problems and to create an intervention program with very low dropout levels – which is of special importance for families with small children displaying aggressive behaviour. The parents taking part in this study showed clear improvement trends after six months and this development was reinforced a year later. This study suggests the necessity of clinical development and future research concerning the role of fathers in parent-child interaction interventions. PMID:19284556
Cederlöf, Martin; Thornton, Laura M; Baker, Jessica; Lichtenstein, Paul; Larsson, Henrik; Rück, Christian; Bulik, Cynthia M; Mataix-Cols, David
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) often co-occurs with anorexia nervosa (AN), a comorbid profile that complicates the clinical management of both conditions. This population-based study aimed to examine patterns of comorbidity, longitudinal risks, shared familial risks and shared genetic factors between OCD and AN at the population level. Participants were individuals with a diagnosis of OCD (N=19,814) or AN (N=8,462) in the Swedish National Patient Register between January 1992 and December 2009; their first-, second- and third-degree relatives; and population-matched (1:10 ratio) unaffected comparison individuals and their relatives. Female twins from the population-based Swedish Twin Register (N=8,550) were also included. Females with OCD had a 16-fold increased risk of having a comorbid diagnosis of AN, whereas males with OCD had a 37-fold increased risk. Longitudinal analyses showed that individuals first diagnosed with OCD had an increased risk for a later diagnosis of AN (risk ratio, RR=3.6), whereas individuals first diagnosed with AN had an even greater risk for a later diagnosis of OCD (RR=9.6). These longitudinal risks were about twice as high for males than for females. First- and second-degree relatives of probands with OCD had an increased risk for AN, and the magnitude of this risk tended to increase with the degree of genetic relatedness. Bivariate twin models revealed a moderate but significant degree of genetic overlap between self-reported OCD and AN diagnoses (ra=0.52, 95% CI: 0.26-0.81), but most of the genetic variance was disorder-specific. The moderately high genetic correlation supports the idea that this frequently observed comorbid pattern is at least in part due to shared genetic factors, though disorder-specific factors are more important. These results have implications for current gene-searching efforts and for clinical practice. PMID:26407789
Cederlöf, Martin; Thornton, Laura M; Baker, Jessica; Lichtenstein, Paul; Larsson, Henrik; Rück, Christian; Bulik, Cynthia M; Mataix-Cols, David
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) often co-occurs with anorexia nervosa (AN), a comorbid profile that complicates the clinical management of both conditions. This population-based study aimed to examine patterns of comorbidity, longitudinal risks, shared familial risks and shared genetic factors between OCD and AN at the population level. Participants were individuals with a diagnosis of OCD (N=19,814) or AN (N=8,462) in the Swedish National Patient Register between January 1992 and December 2009; their first-, second- and third-degree relatives; and population-matched (1:10 ratio) unaffected comparison individuals and their relatives. Female twins from the population-based Swedish Twin Register (N=8,550) were also included. Females with OCD had a 16-fold increased risk of having a comorbid diagnosis of AN, whereas males with OCD had a 37-fold increased risk. Longitudinal analyses showed that individuals first diagnosed with OCD had an increased risk for a later diagnosis of AN (risk ratio, RR=3.6), whereas individuals first diagnosed with AN had an even greater risk for a later diagnosis of OCD (RR=9.6). These longitudinal risks were about twice as high for males than for females. First- and second-degree relatives of probands with OCD had an increased risk for AN, and the magnitude of this risk tended to increase with the degree of genetic relatedness. Bivariate twin models revealed a moderate but significant degree of genetic overlap between self-reported OCD and AN diagnoses (ra =0.52, 95% CI: 0.26-0.81), but most of the genetic variance was disorder-specific. The moderately high genetic correlation supports the idea that this frequently observed comorbid pattern is at least in part due to shared genetic factors, though disorder-specific factors are more important. These results have implications for current gene-searching efforts and for clinical practice. PMID:26407789
Arfken, Cynthia L; Broadbridge, Carissa L; Jamil, Hikmet; Arnetz, Bengt B
English proficiency is associated with alcohol use in some immigrants groups, but little is known about its association among Arab Americans. Ethnographic work suggests gender, religion, education, and age influence prevalence of alcohol use among Arab Americans. Two years prospective study of recent Iraqi refugees and non-Iraqi Arab immigrants in Michigan using bilingual surveys and interviewers. At Time 1, prevalence of lifetime alcohol use was 20.5 % with males, Christians, better educated, older, and those with greater proficiency in English more likely to report ever drank. At Time 2, lifetime prevalence of drinking had increased to 34.0 %. In analysis of male new drinkers, risk factors were Christian, older age and greater proficiency in English. This study confirms drinking among recent immigrant Arab Americans varies by subgroups and suggests English proficiency may contribute to the increase in prevalence over time. PMID:24322655
Arfken, Cynthia L.; Broadbridge, Carissa L.; Jamil, Hikmet; Arnetz, Bengt B.
INTRODUCTION English proficiency is associated with alcohol use in some immigrants groups, but little is known about its association among Arab Americans. Ethnographic work suggests gender, religion, education, and age influence prevalence of alcohol use among Arab Americans. METHODS Two year prospective study of recent Iraqi refugees and non-Iraqi Arab immigrants in Michigan using bilingual surveys and interviewers. RESULTS At Time 1, prevalence of lifetime alcohol use was 20.5% with males, Christians, better educated, older, and those with greater proficiency in English more likely to report ever drank. At Time 2, lifetime prevalence of drinking had increased to 34.0%. In analysis of male new drinkers, risk factors were Christian, older age and greater proficiency in English. DISCUSSION This study confirms drinking among recent immigrant Arab Americans varies by subgroups and suggests English proficiency may contribute to the increase in prevalence over time. PMID:24322655
Galambos, Nancy L; Fang, Shichen; Krahn, Harvey J; Johnson, Matthew D; Lachman, Margie E
Happiness is an important indicator of well-being, and little is known about how it changes in the early adult years. We examined trajectories of happiness from early adulthood to midlife in 2 Canadian longitudinal samples: high school seniors followed from ages 18-43 and university seniors followed from ages 23-37. Happiness increased into the 30s in both samples, with a slight downturn by age 43 in the high school sample. The rise in happiness after high school and university remained after controlling for important baseline covariates (gender, parents' education, grades, self-esteem), time-varying covariates known to be associated with happiness (marital status, unemployment, self-rated physical health), and number of waves of participation. The upward trend in happiness runs counter to some previous cross-sectional research claiming a high point in happiness in the late teens, decreasing into midlife. As cross-sectional designs do not assess within-person change, longitudinal studies are necessary for drawing accurate conclusions about patterns of change in happiness across the life span. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26347986
Lee, Kyu Eun; Park, Young Joo; Cho, Belong; Hwang, Yunji; Choi, June Young; Kim, Su-jin; Choi, Hoonsung; Choi, Ho-Chun; An, Ah Reum; Park, Do Joon; Park, Sue K; Youn, Yeo-Kyu
Introduction Thyroid cancer incidence in Korea is the highest in the world and has recently increased steeply. However, factors contributing to this sudden increase have not been fully elucidated, and few studies have explored the postoperative prognosis. The Thyroid Cancer Longitudinal Study (T-CALOS) was initiated with three aims: (1) to identify factors predicting quality of life, recurrence, and incidence of other diseases after thyroid cancer treatments; (2) to investigate environmental exposure to radiation, toxicants and molecular factors in relation to tumour aggressiveness; and (3) to evaluate gene–environment interactions that increase thyroid cancer in comparison with healthy participants from a pool of nationwide population-based healthy examinees. Methods and analysis T-CALOS enrols patients with incident thyroid cancer from three general hospitals, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital and National Medical Center, Korea. The study is an ongoing project expecting to investigate 5000 patients with thyroid cancer up until 2017. Healthy examinees with a normal thyroid confirmed by sonography have been enrolled at the Healthy Examination Center at Seoul National University Hospital. We are also performing individual matching using two nationwide databases that are open to the public. Follow-up information is obtained at patients’ clinical visits and by linkage to the national database. For statistical analysis, we will use conditional logistic regression models and a Cox proportional hazard regression model. A number of stratifications and sensitivity analyses will be performed to confirm the results. Ethics and dissemination Based on a large sample size, a prospective study design, comprehensive data collection and biobank, T-CALOS has been independently peer-reviewed and approved by the three hospitals and two funding sources (National Research Foundation of Korea and Korean Foundation for Cancer Research). The results of T-CALOS will be published according to the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) criteria. PMID:25564151