Many young people in Sweden stop participating in club sports during their teens, but some continue. Drawing on a longitudinal study, the aim of this article is to highlight some of the characteristics of teenagers who continue with club sports and to discuss the relation between club-sport participation and social and cultural conditions, with…
Jakobsson, Britta Thedin; Lundvall, Suzanne; Redelius, Karin; Engstrom, Lars-Magnus
The purpose of this longitudinal case study is to describe the educational trajectories of a sample of 152 young women from urban, low-income, single-parent families who participated in the Women in Natural Sciences (WINS) program during high school. Utilizing data drawn from program records, surveys, and interviews, this study also attempts to determine how the program affected the participants' educational
Kathleen A. Fadigan; Penny L. Hammrich
Objective To understand the impact of social organisation affiliation and farmers’ agricultural production practices on farmer health. Organisations facilitate the acquisition and exchange of forms of social capital which can influence the adoption of practices with potential health impacts. In countries such as Ecuador, smallholder agriculture is practised by socially vulnerable populations. Agricultural production often involves the use of extremely hazardous pesticides, while practices that reduce the use of chemicals through integrated pest management (IPM) remain uncommon. Design Longitudinal study (2007–2010). Setting 12 Ecuadorian communities, previously part of a participatory action research study. Participants 208 small-scale farmers. Inclusion criteria were: age between 18 and 65?years, literate and resident in the community for the previous 3?years. Primary outcomes The differential effects of the membership in social organisations (as an effect modifier), on the relationship between the implementation of IPM practices (main independent variable) and farmers’ health, measured by neurocognitive performance scores (better higher value; dependent variable). Results Among organisational participants, the coefficient of association between the implementation of IPM practices for the category good/very good (vs no use) and neurocognitive performance, when farmers were involved in organisations, was negative and moderate (?=?0.17, SE 0.21) though not significant (p>0.1); for the category little/moderate use, the coefficient was positive (?=0.34, SE 0.19) and significant. Among those who did not participate in organisations, both little/moderate use and good/very good use of IPM practices were associated with an increase in neurocognitive performance. Conclusions The effect of agricultural production practices on farmers’ health, transmitted through organisations, can be differentiated. Organisations as structures of social capital seem to be functional in the social reproduction process of the communities studied. Results highlight the need to redirect the analysis of social capital to a more integrated study of social determination of health. PMID:25344481
Orozco, Fadya; Mota, Eduardo; Cole, Donald C
Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (n ? 6,950), a nationally representative sample of children born in 2001, we examined school readiness (academic skills and socioemotional well-being) at kindergarten entry for children who attended Head Start compared with those who experienced other types of child care (prekindergarten, other center-based care, other nonparental care, or parental care). Using propensity score matching methods and ordinary least squares regressions with rich controls, we found that Head Start participants had higher early reading and math scores than children in other nonparental care or parental care but also higher levels of conduct problems than those in parental care. Head Start participants had lower early reading scores compared with children in prekindergarten and had no differences in any outcomes compared with children in other center-based care. Head Start benefits were more pronounced for children who had low initial cognitive ability or parents with low levels of education or who attended Head Start for more than 20 hr per week. PMID:23527496
Lee, RaeHyuck; Zhai, Fuhua; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Han, Wen-Jui; Waldfogel, Jane
This study was designed to identify variables that predict participation in study abroad programs. A total of 179 undergraduates were followed through their 4-year college career. At year one, students completed a survey packet that included measures of study abroad expectations, ethnocentrism, prejudice, intercultural communication apprehension, language interest and competence, intolerance of ambiguity, and academic and demographic variables. During the
Susan B. Goldstein; Randi I. Kim
The purpose of this longitudinal case study is to describe the educational trajectories of a sample of 152 young women from urban, low-income, single-parent families who participated in the Women in Natural Sciences (WINS) program during high school. Utilizing data drawn from program records, surveys, and interviews, this study also attempts to…
Fadigan, Kathleen A.; Hammrich, Penny L.
The effects of participation in school-to-career (STC) on subsequent educational and career opportunities were examined in a longitudinal study of 1999 and 2000 graduates of the Lansing Area Manufacturing Partnership (LAMP), which is an STC program sponsored by the United Auto Workers, General Motors Corporation, and Michigan's Ingham County…
Bozick, Robert; MacAllum, Keith
Background People aged 85 and over are often excluded from research on the grounds of being difficult to recruit and problematic to retain. The Newcastle 85+ study successfully recruited a cohort of 854 85-year-olds to detailed health assessment at baseline and followed them up over 3 phases spanning 5 years. This paper describes the effectiveness of its retention strategies. Methods Primary retention strategies involved meticulous management of contact information and active maintenance of contact with participants between research visits and between phases of the study. For statistical analysis, data on post-inclusion attrition over the 3 follow-up phases was separated into ‘death’ and ‘withdrawal’ categories, with sub-categories ‘health’ and ‘non-health’ reasons created for ‘withdrawal’. Multinomial logistic regression was used to determine if particular socio-demographic and health characteristics were associated with post-inclusion attrition due to withdrawal at each of the 3 phase-to-phase transition points. Results For both sexes, at successive follow-up phases there was a decrease in attrition due to withdrawal and an increase due to death. Withdrawal was most prevalent between baseline and phase 2. Across the 5 years of the study total post-inclusion (post-baseline) attrition due to death accounted for a 40% (344/854) loss to cohort and total post-inclusion attrition due to withdraw a 19% (166/854) loss to cohort, with health reasons for withdrawal becoming more dominant over time. Adjusting for sex, parsimonious modelling showed only occupational class (National Statistics Socio-economic Classification) to be associated with withdrawal and only between baseline and phase 2 (routine/manual compared to managerial (OR 3.41; 95% CI [1.23 to 9.44]). Conclusion Following successful recruitment, we retained a high proportion of participants from a very old age group over 5 years of longitudinal research. No strong predictors of post-inclusion attrition due to withdrawal were found, suggesting the general effectiveness of our retention strategies. PMID:25302500
Davies, Karen; Kingston, Andrew; Robinson, Louise; Hughes, Joan; Hunt, Judith M.; Barker, Sally A. H.; Edwards, June; Collerton, Joanna; Jagger, Carol; Kirkwood, Thomas B. L.
Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (n ˜ 6,950), a nationally representative sample of children born in 2001, we examined school readiness (academic skills and socioemotional well-being) at kindergarten entry for children who attended Head Start compared with those who experienced other types of child care…
Lee, RaeHyuck; Zhai, Fuhua; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Han, Wen-Jui; Waldfogel, Jane
It has been argued that high school sports participation increases motivation and teaches teamwork and self-discipline. While several studies have shown that students who participate in athletic activities perform better in school than those who do not, it is not clear whether this association is a result of positive academic spillovers, or due to…
Rees, Daniel I.; Sabia, Joseph J.
Aim: The purpose of this study was (1) to examine the changes in participation rates over 1 year among children and adolescents after acquired brain injury and (2) to explore the effect of child and family factors on these changes. Method: The participation levels of 136 children and young people (88 males; 48 females; age range 4y 11mo-17y 6mo;…
Anaby, Dana; Law, Mary; Hanna, Steven; DeMatteo, Carol
Negative effects of early sexual debut on academic outcomes can extend beyond secondary school, although concurrent changes in other psychosocial risk factors have not been investigated. Data from three waves of a longitudinal survey of Scottish teenagers were used to examine associations between early sexual debut (first heterosexual intercourse) and both expectations for (N = 5,061) and participation in (N = 2,130) tertiary education at college or university. Early debut was associated with reduced tertiary education, after adjusting for academic performance and wave 1 confounders relating to social background, attitudes and behaviours. Pregnancy/partner pregnancy did not explain all of this finding, as many sexually experienced teenagers opted out of tertiary education after leaving school early for other reasons. Changes in other psychosocial risk factors between waves 1 and 2 mediated much of the association found. Early sexual experience may predict disengagement from tertiary education, although further research is needed to explore causal pathways. PMID:19897236
Parkes, Alison; Wight, Daniel; Henderson, Marion; West, Patrick
The aim of this paper is to describe the classroom participation of primary school children with disabilities who attend regular schools in Norway; to explore how relations between children with disabilities and their environment change, and further to chart how schools act in response to such change. The analyses are based on a life course study…
Wendelborg, Christian; Tossebro, Jan
Purpose Visual field progression can be determined by evaluating the visual field by serial examinations (longitudinal analysis), or by a change in classification derived from comparison to age-matched normal data in single examinations (cross-sectional analysis). We determined the agreement between these two approaches in data from the Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study (OHTS). Methods Visual field data from 3088 eyes of 1570 OHTS participants (median follow-up 7 yrs, 15 tests with static automated perimetry) were analysed. Longitudinal analyses were performed with change probability with total and pattern deviation, and cross-sectional analysis with Glaucoma Hemifield Test, Corrected Pattern Standard Deviation, and Mean Deviation. The rates of Mean Deviation and General Height change were compared to estimate the degree of diffuse loss in emerging glaucoma. Results The agreement on progression in longitudinal and cross-sectional analyses ranged from 50% to 61% and remained nearly constant across a wide range of criteria. In contrast, the agreement on absence of progression ranged from 97% to 99.7%, being highest for the stricter criteria. Analyses of pattern deviation were more conservative than total deviation, with a 3 to 5 times lesser incidence of progression. Most participants developing field loss had both diffuse and focal change. Conclusions Despite considerable overall agreement, between 40 to 50% of eyes identified as having progressed with either longitudinal or cross-sectional analyses were identified with only one of the analyses. Because diffuse change is part of early glaucomatous damage, pattern deviation analyses may underestimate progression in patients with ocular hypertension. PMID:21149774
Chauhan, Balwantray C; Keltner, John L; Cello, Kim E; Johnson, Chris A; Anderson, Douglas R; Gordon, Mae O; Kass, Michael A
Students returning from an international business study tour program were interviewed about their experiences and perceptions of the professional and personal impact of the program. When interviews were conducted within 3-4 months of the students' return, mixed responses were received, with some students highly positive about their…
Tucker, Mark; Weaver, Debbi
Objectives. We investigated the relationship between selected types of screen-based media (SBM) use, total SBM use, sports participation, and markers of well-being. Methods. Data came from the youth panel (n?=?4899) of Understanding Society, the UK Household Longitudinal Study, conducted in 2009. Well-being was measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and markers of happiness in different life domains. Results. The majority of young people used multiple types of SBM for at least 1 hour per day; only 30% participated in sports every day. Overall, young people with heavy SBM use were less happy than moderate users and more likely to have socioemotional difficulties. Chatting on social networking Web sites and game console use were associated with higher odds of socioemotional problems. Higher total SBM use was associated with lower odds of happiness and higher odds of socioemotional difficulties. Greater participation in sports was associated with higher odds of happiness and lower odds of socioemotional difficulties. Conclusions. Further longitudinal research could inform future interventions to reduce sedentary behavior and encourage healthy lifestyles among young people. PMID:25494209
Booker, Cara L; Skew, Alexandra J; Kelly, Yvonne J; Sacker, Amanda
This study identifies potential predictors of participation changes in various areas for preschool children with cerebral palsy (CP). Eighty children with CP (2-6 years) were enrolled. Seven potential predictors were identified: age; sex; socioeconomic status, CP subtype; cognitive function, Function Independence Measure for Children (WeeFIM), and motor composite variable from 5 motor factors (gross motor function classification system (GMFCS) level; bimanual fine motor function level; selective motor control score; Modified Ashworth Scale score; and Spinal Alignment and Range of Motion Measure). Outcome was assessed at baseline and at 6-month follow-up using the Assessment of Preschool Children's Participation (APCP) including diversity and intensity scores in the areas of play (PA), skill development (SD), active physical recreation, social activities (SA), and total areas. Dependent variables were change scores of APCP scores at baseline and 6-month follow-up. Regression analyses shows age and sex together predicted for APCP-total, APCP-SD diversity and APCP-total intensity changes (r(2)=0.13-0.25, p<0.001); cognitive function and WeeFIM were negative predictors for APCP-SA and APCP-PA diversity changes, respectively. CP subtype, motor composite variable, and socioeconomic status predicted for APCP changes in some areas. Findings suggest that young boys with poor cognitive function and daily activity predicted most on participation changes. PMID:25460224
Wu, Katie P; Chuang, Yu-fen; Chen, Chia-ling; Liu, I-shu; Liu, Hsiang-tseng; Chen, Hsieh-ching
This research provides an analysis of the relationship between a student's beliefs and mathematical behaviors over a seventeen-year period. Romina, the student of focus in this case study, was among the original participants in a longitudinal study which explored how students build mathematical ideas when working collaboratively on problem-solving…
This article examines the outcomes of participation in mental health Consumer/Survivor Initiatives (CSIs) and identifies helpful qualities of CSIs through a longitudinal, qualitative study that involved in-depth interviews of people who experienced severe mental health challenges in Ontario, Canada. We used a nonequivalent control group design in…
Ochocka, Joanna; Nelson, Geoffrey; Janzen, Rich; Trainor, John
We investigated whether childhood factors that are amenable to intervention (parenting stress, child psychological problems and pain) predicted participation in daily activities and social roles of adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). We randomly selected 1174 children aged 8–12 years from eight population-based registers of children with CP in six European countries; 743 (63%) agreed to participate. One further region recruited 75 children from multiple sources. These 818 children were visited at home at age 8–12 years, 594 (73%) agreed to follow-up at age 13–17 years. We used the following measures: parent reported stress (Parenting Stress Index Short Form), their child's psychological difficulties (Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire) and frequency and severity of pain; either child or parent reported the child's participation (LIFE Habits questionnaire). We fitted a structural equation model to each of the participation domains, regressing participation in childhood and adolescence on parenting stress, child psychological problems and pain, and regressing adolescent factors on the corresponding childhood factors; models were adjusted for impairment, region, age and gender. Pain in childhood predicted restricted adolescent participation in all domains except Mealtimes and Communication (standardized total indirect effects ? ?0.05 to ?0.18, 0.01 < p < 0.05 to p < 0.001, depending on domain). Psychological problems in childhood predicted restricted adolescent participation in all domains of social roles, and in Personal Care and Communication (? ?0.07 to ?0.17, 0.001 < p < 0.01 to p < 0.001). Parenting stress in childhood predicted restricted adolescent participation in Health Hygiene, Mobility and Relationships (? ?0.07 to ?0.18, 0.001 < p < 0.01 to p < 0.001). These childhood factors predicted adolescent participation largely via their effects on childhood participation; though in some domains early psychological problems and parenting stress in childhood predicted adolescent participation largely through their persistence into adolescence. We conclude that participation of adolescents with CP was predicted by early modifiable factors related to the child and family. Interventions for reduction of pain, psychological difficulties and parenting stress in childhood are justified not only for their intrinsic value, but also for probable benefits to childhood and adolescent participation. PMID:25462516
Dang, Van Mô; Colver, Allan; Dickinson, Heather O.; Marcelli, Marco; Michelsen, Susan I.; Parkes, Jackie; Parkinson, Kathryn; Rapp, Marion; Arnaud, Catherine; Nystrand, Malin; Fauconnier, Jérôme
An understanding of the most effective recruitment techniques and retention strategies for longitudinal, community-based, childrens environmental health studies such as the National Childrens Study (NCS) is needed. In early 2003, eighteen focus groups were conducted across the ...
Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (n ? 6,950), a nationally representative sample of children born in 2001, we examined school readiness (academic skills and socio-emotional wellbeing) at kindergarten entry for children who attended Head Start compared to those who experienced other types of child care (prekindergarten, other center-based care, other non-parental care, or parental care). Using propensity score matching methods and OLS regressions with rich controls, we found that Head Start participants had higher early reading and math scores than children in other non-parental care or parental care, but also higher levels of conduct problems than those in parental care. Head Start participants had lower early reading scores compared to children in prekindergarten, and had no differences in any outcomes compared to children in other center-based care. Head Start benefits were more pronounced for children who had low initial cognitive ability or low-educated parents, or attended Head Start for more than 20 hours per week. PMID:23527496
Lee, RaeHyuck; Zhai, Fuhua; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Han, Wen-Jui; Waldfogel, Jane
Longitudinal Study of an Operational Model for Enhancing Central City Youth's Self-Concept, Academic Achievement, Attitude Toward School, Participation in School, and Socialization/Maturation. Final Report.
This study has attempted to identify the longitudinal impact of a summer program model designed to enhance central city junior high school youth's self-concept, attitude toward school, participation in school, academic achievement, and socialization/maturation. Three sets of experimental/control groups were included in the study and after two…
Logsdon, David M.; Ewert, Barbara
This article describes two unique strategies for recruiting older patients into clinical trials. Development of a participant registry within an institution’s geographic area creates a well documented pool of potential study participants. Age-eligible individuals provide consent to be registered and contacted about future studies.
Longitudinal behavioral intervention trials to reduce HIV transmission risk collect complex multilevel and multivariate data longitudinally for each subject with important correlation structures across time, level, and variables. Accurately assessing the effects of these trials are critical for determining which interventions are effective. Both numbers of partners and numbers of sex acts with each partner are reported at each time point. Sex acts with each partner are further differentiated into protected and unprotected acts with correspondingly differing risks of HIV/STD transmission. These trials generally also have eligibility criteria limiting enrollment to participants with some minimal level of risky sexual behavior tied directly to the outcome of interest. The combination of these factors makes it difficult to quantify sexual behaviors and the effects of intervention. We propose a multivariate multilevel count model that simultaneously models the number of partners, acts within partners, and accounts for recruitment eligibility. Our methods are useful in the evaluation of intervention trials and provide a more accurate and complete model for sexual behavior. We illustrate the contributions of our model by examining seroadaptive behavior defined as risk reducing behavior that depends on the serostatus of the partner. Several forms of seroadaptive risk reducing behavior are quantified and distinguished from nonseroadaptive risk reducing behavior. PMID:23002948
Zhu, Yuda; Weiss, Robert E
Understanding what motivates participation is a central theme in the research on open source software (OSS) development. Our study contributes by revealing how the different motivations of OSS developers are interrelated, how these motivations influence participation leading to performance, and how past performance influences subsequent motivations. Drawing on theories of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, we develop a theoretical model relating
Jeffrey A. Roberts; Il-Horn Hann; Sandra A. Slaughter
The purpose of this study is to describe the educational trajectories of a sample of young women from urban, low-income, single-parent families who participated in the Women in Natural Sciences (WINS) program during their ninth and\\/or tenth grade years of high school. This study also attempts to determine how the WINS program affected the participants' educational and career choices in
Kathleen Ann Fadigan
Objective A number of social and sexual risk factors for bacterial vaginosis (BV) have been described. It is important to understand whether these factors are associated with non-participation or attrition of participants from longitudinal studies in order to examine potential for recruitment or attrition bias. We describe factors associated with participation and attrition in a 24-month prospective cohort study, investigating incident BV among Australian women who have sex with women. Study Design and Setting Participants negative for prevalent BV were offered enrolment in a longitudinal cohort study. Participants self-collected vaginal samples and completed questionnaires 3-monthly to endpoint (BV-positive/BV-negative by 24 months). Factors associated with participation in the cohort study were examined by logistic regression and factors associated with attrition from the cohort were examined by Cox regression. Results The cross-sectional study recruited 457 women. 334 BV-negative women were eligible for the cohort and 298 (89%, 95%CI 85, 92) enrolled. Lower educational levels (aOR 2.72, 95%CI 1.09, 6.83), smoking (aOR 2.44, 95%CI 1.13, 5.27), past BV symptoms (aOR 3.42, 95%CI 1.16, 10.10) and prior genital warts (aOR 2.71, 95%CI 1.14, 6.46) were associated with non-participation; a partner co-enrolling increased participation (aOR 3.73, 95%CI 1.43, 9.70). 248 participants (83%, 95%CI 78, 87) were retained to study endpoint (BV-negative at 24 months or BV-positive at any stage). Attrition was associated being <30 yrs (aHR 2.15, 95%CI 1.13, 4.10) and a male partner at enrolment (aHR 6.12, 95%CI 1.99, 18.82). Conclusion We achieved high participation and retention levels in a prospective cohort study and report factors influencing participation and retention of participants over a 24-month study period, which will assist in the design and implementation of future cohort studies in sexual health and disease. PMID:25412421
Forcey, Dana S.; Walker, Sandra M.; Vodstrcil, Lenka A.; Fairley, Christopher K.; Bilardi, Jade E.; Law, Matthew; Hocking, Jane S.; Fethers, Katherine A.; Petersen, Susan; Bellhouse, Clare; Chen, Marcus Y.; Bradshaw, Catriona S.
BACKGROUND: Children and adults with impairments such as cerebral palsy have lower participation in life situations than able-bodied people. Less is known about their subjective perception of their lives, called their quality of life. During adolescence, rapid physical and psychological changes occur; although these may be more difficult for disabled than for able-bodied adolescents, little research has examined the lives
Allan F Colver; Heather O Dickinson
Introduction Stimulating physical activity behaviour in persons with a physical disability is important, especially after discharge from rehabilitation. A tailored counselling programme covering both the period of the rehabilitation treatment and the first months at home seems on the average effective. However, a considerable variation in response is observed in the sense that some patients show a relevant beneficial response while others show no or only a small response on physical activity behaviour. The Rehabilitation, Sports and Active lifestyle (ReSpAct) study aims to estimate the associations of patient and programme characteristics with patients’ physical activity behaviour after their participation in a tailored counselling programme. Methods and analysis A questionnaire-based nationwide longitudinal prospective cohort study is conducted. Participants are recruited from 18 rehabilitation centres and hospitals in The Netherlands. 2000 participants with a physical disability or chronic disease will be followed during and after their participation in a tailored counselling programme. Programme outcomes on physical activity behaviour and patient as well as programme characteristics that may be associated with differences in physical activity behaviour after programme completion are being assessed. Data collection takes place at baseline and 14, 33 and 52?weeks after discharge from rehabilitation. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol has been approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of the University Medical Centre Groningen and at individual participating institutions. All participants give written informed consent. The study results will provide new insights into factors that may help explain the differences in physical activity behaviour of patients with a physical disability after they have participated in the same physical activity and sports stimulation programme. Thereby, it will support healthcare professionals to tailor their guidance and care to individual patients in order to stimulate physical activity after discharge in a more efficient and effective way. Trial registration number NTR3961. PMID:25633288
Alingh, Rolinde A; Hoekstra, Femke; van der Schans, Cees P; Hettinga, Florentina J; Dekker, Rienk; van der Woude, Lucas H V
Background Previous research on the effects of online peer support on psychological well-being of patients with cancer showed mixed findings. There is a need for longitudinal studies explaining if and when online peer-led support groups are beneficial. How patients cope with emotions that come along with the cancer diagnosis might influence effectiveness of online participation. Emotional approach coping is a construct encompassing the intentional use of emotional processing and emotional expression in efforts to manage adverse circumstances. Objective In this longitudinal study, we hypothesize that mixed findings in previous research are partly caused by individual differences in coping with emotions, which may moderate the effects of online support group participation on patients’ well-being. Methods A total of 133 Dutch patients with breast cancer filled out a baseline (T0) and a follow-up (T1, 6 months later) questionnaire assessing intensity of online participation within the online support community, emotional approach coping (ie, actively processing and expressing emotions), and psychological well-being (depression, emotional well-being, and breast cancer–related concerns). There were 109 patients who visited an online support community at both points in time. Repeated measures ANOVAs assessed change in well-being over time. Results Results showed 3-way interactions of time, online intensity of participation, and emotional approach coping on emotional well-being (F 1,89=4.232, P=.04, ?2 ?=.045) and depression (F 1,88=8.167, P=.005, ?2 ?=.085). Online support group participation increased emotional well-being over time for patients who scored low on emotional approach coping at T0, provided that they were highly active online. Patients who were highly active online with a high score on emotional approach coping reported no change in sense of well-being, but showed the highest score on well-being overall. Participating less frequently online was only beneficial for patients who scored high on emotional approach coping, showing an increase in well-being over time. Patients participating less frequently and with a low score on emotional approach coping reported no significant change in well-being over time. Conclusions This study extends previous findings on the effects of online peer support in two ways: by testing changes in well-being as a function of intensity of online support group participation and by examining the role of individual differences in emotional coping styles. Findings showed no negative effects of intense support group participation. Participating frequently online was especially helpful for patients who approach their emotions less actively; their emotional well-being increased over time. In contrast, frequent online users who actively approach their emotions experienced no change in well-being, reporting highest levels of well-being overall. For patients who participate less intensively within the support community, coping style seems to outweigh effects of online participation; over time, patients who actively approached emotions experienced an increase in psychological well-being, whereas patients with a low score on emotional approach coping reported no change in depression and emotional well-being. PMID:25474819
Background Adherence with inhaled controller medications for asthma is known to be highly variable with many patients taking fewer doses than recommended for consistent control of lung inflammation. Adherence also worsens as children become teenagers, although the exact causes are not well established. Objective To use focus group methodology to examine beliefs, feelings, and behaviors about inhaled asthma controller medication in adolescents and young adults who had previously participated in a longitudinal study of asthma treatment adherence and outcome in order to develop more effective management strategies. Methods Twenty-six subjects participated in 6 focus groups comprised of 3-5 young adults (age range 12-20 years). Verbatim transcripts of these groups were analyzed using the long-table method of content analysis to identify key themes raised by participants. Results A variety of beliefs, feelings and behaviors influence the adolescent’s decision about how to use their asthma medication. Some of the adolescents understood the importance of daily medication and were committed to the treatment plan prescribed by their provider. Poorer adherence was the product of misinformation, incorrect assumptions about their asthma, and current life situations. Conclusions These results, by highlighting potential mechanisms underlying both better and worse adherence inform the development of strategies to improve adherence behavior in adolescents and young adults with asthma. Knowledge of the specific beliefs, feelings and behaviors that underlie adolescents’ use of inhaled asthma controller medication will help providers maximize treatment adherence in this notoriously difficult patient population. PMID:21854323
Wamboldt, Frederick S.; Bender, Bruce G.; Rankin, Allison E.
The Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS) is a long-term study of a random sample of 10,317 men and women who graduated from Wisconsin high schools in 1957. The WLS provides an opportunity to study of the life course, intergenerational transfers and relationships, family functioning...
Introduction Obesity is a major risk factor for the development of endometrial cancer (EC). An improved understanding of biologic mechanisms associated with weight loss, including alteration in inflammation, hormonal balance, and cancer antigens expression may lead to the development of effective cancer prevention strategies. The goal of this study was to explore longitudinal biomarker changes in obese women who underwent weight loss intervention, testing the hypothesis biomarker levels can be altered through intentional weight loss. Methods Serum samples from 89 participants with Class II and Class III obesity and 43 non morbidly obese comparisons were obtained in Re-Energize with Nutrition, Exercise and Weight Loss (RENEW) study as previously reported. Twenty-one bead-based xMAP immunoassays were utilized, including cancer-associated antigens, cytokines, chemokines, and hormones. One-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to examine the association between changes in biomarker expression levels over time (baseline, 6 months and 12 months). Linear mixed effects models were used to examine longitudinal relationships between biomarker expression levels. Results Mean levels of VEGF, soluble E-selectin, GH, adiponectin, IL-6, IL-7, CA-125, and IGFBP-1 significantly differed between time periods. In adjusted mixed linear models, decreasing BMI was significantly associated with lower levels of soluble E-selectin and IL-6 and increases in GH, adiponectin, and IGFBP-1. Conclusions This is one of the first efforts to explore changes in cancer-associated biomarkers in a cohort of weight loss research participants at high risk for EC development. Our findings demonstrate that changes in the expression of markers can be achieved with weight loss intervention. PMID:22198242
Linkov, Faina; Maxwell, G. Larry; Felix, Ashley S.; Lin, Yan; Lenzner, Diana; Bovbjerg, Dana H.; Lokshin, Anna; Hennon, Meredith; Jakicic, John M.; Goodpaster, Bret H.; DeLany, James P.
This longitudinal trend study (Gall, Borg & Gall, 1996) examined the effectiveness of a one-semester university-based teacher induction program as compared to a two-semester university-based teacher induction program based on the observation scores...
Moon Merchant, Vickie V
Medic and colleagues (Medic, Starkes, & Young, 2007) found that relatively younger cohorts of Masters athletes had higher participation rates and achieved higher performances compared with a relatively older cohort. Considering that Medic and colleagues' (2007) study was cross-sectional in nature, the purpose of this investigation was to employ a retrospective longitudinal study design to examine the participation rates of
Nikola Medic; Bradley W. Young; Dragana Medic
Purpose The purpose of the current study was to identify and describe strategies available to optimize retention of a high-risk research cohort and assist in the recovery of study participants following participant dropout. Design and Methods The Maternal Lifestyle Study (MLS), which investigated the effects of prenatal substance exposure (cocaine or opiates) on child outcome, is a prospective longitudinal follow-up study that extended from birth through 15 years of age. Retention strategies to maximize participation and factors that might negatively impact compliance were examined over the course of five follow-up phases. Findings At the conclusion of the 15-year visits, MLS had successfully maintained compliance at 76%. Retention rates did not differ by exposure group. Conclusions Maintaining ongoing participation of enrolled study subjects is a critical element of any successful longitudinal study. Strategies that can be used to reengage and maintain participants in longitudinal research include persistence, flexibility with scheduling, home visits, long-distance trips, increased incentives, and development of a computerized tracking system. Establishing rapport with families and ensuring confidentiality contributed to overall participant retention. The use of multiple tracking techniques is essential. Clinical Relevance Researchers are challenged to maintain participants in longitudinal studies to ensure the integrity of their research. PMID:22458928
Graziotti, Ann L.; Hammond, Jane; Messinger, Daniel S.; Bann, Carla M.; Miller-Loncar, Cynthia; Twomey, Jean E.; Bursi, Charlotte; Woldt, Eunice; Nelson, Jay Ann; Fleischmann, Debra; Alexander, Barbara
A longitudinal study was conducted to investigate the relationship between teachersÂ? perceptions of leadership capabilities and teachersÂ? efficacy beliefs in the context of their participation in a technology integration project. Participants...
Rackley, Robin Ann
Objectives. We estimated the prevalence and longitudinal correlates of use of com- plementary and alternative medicine (CAM) at midlife among participants of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Methods. Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between baseline survey-reported symptoms and use of herbal, spiritual, and physical manipu- lation therapies 1 year later. Results. Almost
Yali A. Bair; Ellen B. Gold; Gail A. Greendale; Barbara Sternfeld; Shelley R. Adler; Rahman Azari; Martha Harkey
A longitudinal study followed up participants of three Florida Adult Migrant Projects in order to examine project success in converting unemployable migrant and seasonal farmworker clients of Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA), Title IV-A, Section 402, into independent wage earners and to determine the extent to which employment was consistent to…
Grisham, Linda J.
Ethical issues and their optimal solutions in longitudinal infant studies have not received adequate attention in the literature. To address this gap, this manuscript pulls from universal research ethics, ethical guidelines for infant and child research, and ethical guidelines for longitudinal research and combines them in the context of infant longitudinal research with typically-developing infants. Topics explored relate to participant consent to research studies, the participant-observer relationship, and closure of developmental studies in this targeted population. Additionally, this manuscript highlights the importance and need for new and more relevant considerations of ethical procedures that concern infants involved in longitudinal research. PMID:25626155
Thurman, Sabrina L
Factors influencing 834 Swedish men to participate in organized adult education programs on a life-long basis were studied. Indicators of social origins, cognitive ability, formal youth education, occupational status, job satisfaction, and attitudes toward education collectively explained little of the variation in participation. Factors possibly…
Tuijnman, Albert; Fagerlind, Ingemar
Introduction Most studies investigating disability outcomes following injury have examined hospitalised patients. It is not known whether variables associated with disability outcomes are similar for injured people who are not hospitalised. Aims This paper compares the prevalence of disability 24 months after injury for participants in the Prospective Outcomes of Injury Study who were hospitalised and those non-hospitalised, and also seeks to identify pre-injury and injury-related predictors of disability among hospitalised and non-hospitalised participants. Methods Participants, aged 18–64 years, were recruited from an injury claims register managed by New Zealand’s no-fault injury compensation insurer after referral by health care professionals. A wide range of pre-injury socio-demographic, health and psychosocial characteristics were collected, as well as injury-related characteristics; outcome is assessed using the WHODAS. Multivariable models estimating relative risks of disability for hospitalised and non-hospitalised participants were developed using Poisson regression methods. Results Of 2856 participants, analyses were restricted to 2184 (76%) participants for whom both pre-injury and 24 month WHODAS data were available. Of these, 25% were hospitalised. In both hospitalised and non-hospitalised groups, 13% experience disability (WHODAS?10) 24 months after injury; higher than pre-injury (5%). Of 28 predictor variables, seven independently placed injured participants in the hospitalised group at increased risk of disability 24 months after injury; eight in the non-hospitalised. Only four predictors (pre-injury disability, two or more pre-injury chronic conditions, pre-injury BMI?30 and trouble accessing healthcare services) were common to both the hospitalised and non-hospitalised groups. There is some evidence to suggest that among the hospitalised group, M?ori have higher risk of disability relative to non-M?ori. Conclusions At 24 months considerable disability is borne, equally, by hospitalised and non-hospitalised groups. However, predictors of disability are not necessarily consistent between the hospitalised and non-hospitalised groups, suggesting caution in generalising results from one group to the other. PMID:24278258
Derrett, Sarah; Wilson, Suzanne; Samaranayaka, Ari; Langley, John; Wyeth, Emma; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Lilley, Rebbecca; Davie, Gabrielle; Mauiliu, Melbourne
In fall 1987, a five-year longitudinal study was initiated by the Wyoming Community College Commission, in cooperation with the community colleges, to determine the variables that affect student progress toward their personal, academic, and career objectives. The sample for the study consisted of 181 randomly selected first-time, first-year…
Kitchens, Helen M.
The Longitudinal Study of Aging (LSOA) is a collaborative effort of the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) and the National Institute on Aging (NIA). The Supplement on Aging (SOA), conducted in conjunction with the 1984 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), served as...
Population-based HIV surveillance is crucial to inform understanding of the HIV pandemic and evaluate HIV interventions, but little is known about longitudinal participation patterns in such settings. We investigated the dynamics of longitudinal participation patterns in a high HIV prevalence surveillance setting in rural South Africa between 2003 and 2012, taking into account demographic dynamics. At any given survey round, 22,708 to 30,495 persons were eligible. Although the yearly participation rates were relatively modest (26% to 46%), cumulative rates increased substantially with multiple recruitment opportunities: 68% of eligible persons participated at least once, 48% at least twice and 31% at least three times after five survey rounds. We identified two types of study fatigue: at the individual level, contact and consent rates decreased with multiple recruitment opportunities and, at the population level, these rates also decreased over calendar time, independently of multiple recruitment opportunities. Using sequence analysis and hierarchical clustering, we identified three broad individual participation profiles: consenters (20%), switchers (43%) and refusers (37%). Men were over represented among refusers, women among consenters, and temporary non-residents among switchers. The specific subgroup of persons who were systemically not contacted or refusers constitutes a challenge for population-based surveillance and interventions. PMID:25875851
Larmarange, Joseph; Mossong, Joël; Bärnighausen, Till; Newell, Marie Louise
Objectives Several important research questions have been addressed: (1) What are the cross-sectional associations between sports club participation, objectively measured physical activity, and adiposity? (2) Do measures of physical activity and adiposity predict subsequent sports club participation? (3) Does sports club participation predict subsequent measures of physical activity and adiposity? and (4) Do changes in sports club participation predict changes in objective measures of physical activity and adiposity? Design Longitudinal and cross-sectional. Methods Data from the Gateshead Millennium Study birth cohort (n = 609 at age 7 years) were analysed for associations between adiposity, sports club participation and accelerometer-measured physical activity from ages 7y to 9y to 12y. Results Seventy-two per cent of 9 year olds and 63% of 12 year olds took part in a sports club. Sports club participation was significantly associated with overall accelerometer-measured physical activity at 12y (coefficient = 0.0.09; 95% CI: 0.01–0.16) but not 9y. An inverse relationship between fat mass (estimated from bioelectric impedance) and sport club participation, and between fat mass and accelerometer-measured physical activity was observed at 12y, but not 9y. Sports club participation at 9y was highly predictive of participation at 12y. Sports club participation was significantly associated with socioeconomic status; fewer children from poorer areas took part. Conclusions Sports club participation in adolescence may be associated with decreased levels of adiposity. Furthermore, the potential benefits of sports club participation for adiposity are likely generated from continuous participation in sports, rather than any long-term protective effects. PMID:24704422
Basterfield, Laura; Reilly, Jessica K.; Pearce, Mark S.; Parkinson, Kathryn N.; Adamson, Ashley J.; Reilly, John J.; Vella, Stewart A.
It has been eight years since the AAS Council unanimously endorsed the document, known as "Equity Now: The Pasadena Recommendations for Gender Equality in Astronomy," in January 2005. This document was the main product of the conference entitled “Women in Astronomy II: Ten Years After” (WIA II), held in June 2003 in Pasadena, CA. One of the key recommendations represented in that document was the need for a longitudinal study of astronomers. It was recognized that in order to understand our own field, how it is evolving, and the impact on individuals, we need to track people over time. I will discuss the fundamental questions that led to the recommendation, and set the stage for the current (ongoing) longitudinal study.
Purpose The study aimed to determine the longitudinal associations between several variables assessing positive youth development and HIV risk reduction practices. Methods Participants were 329 youth enrolled in out-of-school time programs in New York City. Longitudinal data were collected in 3 waves during 2008 (baseline, 6 month follow-up and 12 month follow-up). Due to the nested nature of the data, multivariate analyses were performed using multilevel models. Results At baseline, HIV risk reduction was associated with female gender, greater individual-level program participation, and greater school connectedness. Over time, HIV risk reduction was associated with program-level participation: Individuals in groups with program-level participation scores 1 SD below the average showed significant declines in risk reduction practices over the 1-year study period compared to individuals in more participatory programs. Conclusions This study provides support for the out-of-school environment as an important context for sustaining HIV risk reduction and positive health promotion practices. PMID:23561894
Tiffany, Jennifer Sarah; Exner-Cortens, Deinera; Eckenrode, John
We explored the extent to which intensity and breadth of participation in an after-school program (ASP) predicted academic achievement, as measured by changes in grades and attendance. The sample comprised 719 2nd-grade through 8th-grade Boys and Girls Clubs of Greater Dallas members during the 2009-2010 academic year. With respect to intensity,…
Springer, Ken; Diffily, Deborah
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the long-term impact of a childhood motor skill intervention on adolescent motor skills and physical activity. METHODS: In 2006, we undertook a follow-up of motor skill proficiency (catch, kick, throw, vertical jump, side gallop) and physical activity in adolescents who had participated in a one-year primary school intervention Move It Groove
Lisa M Barnett; Eric van Beurden; Philip J Morgan; Lyndon O Brooks; Avigdor Zask; John R Beard
Medic and colleagues (Medic, Starkes, & Young, 2007) found that relatively younger cohorts of Masters athletes had higher participation rates and achieved higher performances compared with a relatively older cohort. Considering that Medic and colleagues' (2007) study was cross-sectional in nature, the purpose of this investigation was to employ a retrospective longitudinal study design to examine the participation rates of Masters swimmers as a function of an individual's constituent year within any 5-year age category over a period of 6 years. Using archived data from the 2003 to 2009 US Masters Short Course National Championships, swimmers' attendance was followed for a period of six consecutive years. Results indicated that a participation-related relative age effect was observed among swimmers who, over a period of 6 years, competed in either at least one championship (N = 2596; Cochran's Q? = 64.16, r(s) = -0.92, both P < 0.0001) or at least three championships (N = 441; Cochran's Q? = 47.51, r(s) = -0.91, both P < 0.0001). Overall, effect size analyses indicated that the odds of a Masters swimmer participating in the championship during the first constituent year of any 5-year age category was more than two times greater than the odds of that athlete participating during the fifth constituent year. PMID:21077002
Medic, Nikola; Young, Bradley W; Medic, Dragana
Background/Context: Most reforms in elementary education rely on teacher learning and improved instruction to increase student learning. This study increases our understanding of which types of professional development effectively change teaching practice in ways that boost student achievement. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study:…
Desimone, Laura; Smith, Thomas M.; Phillips, Kristie J. R.
NASA’s Planetary Science Summer School is a program designed to prepare the next generation of scientists and engineers to participate in future missions of solar system exploration. The opportunity is advertised to science and engineering post-doctoral and graduate students with a strong interest in careers in planetary exploration. Preference is given to U.S. citizens. The “school” consists of a one-week intensive team exercise learning the process of developing a robotic mission concept into reality through concurrent engineering, working with JPL’s Advanced Project Design Team (Team X). This program benefits the students by providing them with skills, knowledge and the experience of collaborating with a concept mission design. A longitudinal study was conducted to assess the impact of the program on the past participants of the program. Data collected included their current contact information, if they are currently part of the planetary exploration community, if participation in the program contributed to any career choices, if the program benefited their career paths, etc. Approximately 37% of 250 past participants responded to the online survey. Of these, 83% indicated that they are actively involved in planetary exploration or aerospace in general; 78% said they had been able to apply what they learned in the program to their current job or professional career; 100% said they would recommend this program to a colleague.
Giron, Jennie M.; Sohus, A.
Previous studies implicate suprasegmental phonology in reading acquisition. However, little is known about how suprasegmental sensitivity develops or how it contributes to reading. Here, 130 Spanish primary-school children participated in this 2-year longitudinal study. Nonlinguistic rhythm, lexical-stress sensitivity and metrical-stress…
Calet, Nuria; Gutiérrez-Palma, Nicolás; Simpson, Ian C.; González-Trujillo, M. Carmen; Defior, Sylvia
Objective There is great variability in response to stressful life events (SLEs), with some individuals demonstrating substantial psychiatric symptoms while others remain largely asymptomatic. The source of this variability is poorly understood. The present study aimed to examine the genetic and environmental underpinning of resilience, defined as the difference between the twins’ total score on a broad measure of internalizing symptoms and their predicted score based on their cumulative exposure to SLEs. Method SLE exposure and internalizing symptoms were assessed at two time points in 7,500 adult twins. Using the residual between actual and predicted internalizing symptom total score, twin modeling was conducted for each wave separately, as well as longitudinally. Quantitative and qualitative sex effects were also tested. Results Resilience was found to have a mild to moderate genetic heritability at each individual wave (~31%). Additionally, qualitative sex effects were found. Incorporating error of measurement into the model increased the estimated heritability for the latent construct of resilience (~50%). Unconfounded by measurement error and occasion specific effects, environmental influences contributed roughly equally to determining the individual level of resilience. Conclusions Genetic factors influence the level of psychiatric resilience, and are largely stable over time. The genes that impact on resilience are not entirely the same in males and females, although the degree of heritability is equal across the sexes. Environmental influences can also have an enduring effect on resilience. The present findings of the genetic and environmental influences on adaptation to SLEs clarify the sources of individual variation to environmental stressors. PMID:24723629
Amstadter, Ananda B.; Myers, John M.; Kendler, Kenneth S.
This longitudinal study examined the impact of participation in the federally funded Talent Search program at The University of Tennessee, Knoxville. The Talent Search program provides career exploration and counseling services to low-income students with the potential to be first-generation college graduates. Postsecondary education enrollment…
Brewer, Ernest W.; Landers, Jama McMahan
Purpose: This study assessed self-reported pain in the oldest old and examined its changes over time and in relation to other measures of health and functioning. Design and Methods: A population-based sample of the oldest old (86-92 years of age) residing in Sweden who were participating in a multiwave longitudinal investigation were interviewed…
Zarit, Steven H.; Griffiths, Patricia C.; Berg, Stig
Reciprocal associations between the Big Five personality traits and parenting stress--including both parents' feelings of their distress and perception of their incompetence as parents--were studied with 248 participants (49% of which were males). Longitudinal data, collected at ages 33/36, 42 and 50 years, were used. Cross-lagged path…
Rantanen, Johanna; Tillemann, Kati; Metsäpelto, Riitta-Leena; Kokko, Katja; Pulkkinen, Lea
Life after College: A Descriptive Summary of 1992-93 Bachelor's Degree Recipients in 1997, with an Essay on Participation in Graduate and First-Professional Education. Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study. Statistical Analysis Report.
This report presents findings of the second follow-up in the Baccalaureate and Beyond Study, a longitudinal study which is tracking students who received a bachelor's degree in academic year 1992-93. Major findings indicated that: (1) when they graduated from college, 85 percent of the degree recipients expected to earn an advanced degree; by…
McCormick, Alexander C.; Nunez, Anne-Marie; Shah, Vishant; Choy, Susan P.
Noting that proposed models of literacy development suggest that reading and writing mutually influence and grow from each other, this paper summarizes aspects of stage theories of literacy development and an integrative model, and considers how the model fared in empirical longitudinal tests. The paper begins with a summary of the modal aspects…
Objectives. We estimated the prevalence and longitudinal correlates of use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) at midlife among participants of the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Methods. Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between baseline survey–reported symptoms and use of herbal, spiritual, and physical manipulation therapies 1 year later. Results. Almost half of all women had used CAM in the past year. Baseline psychological symptoms were associated with subsequent use of spiritual therapies among White and Chinese women. Baseline CAM use was a major predictor of subsequent use in White, Japanese, and Chinese women. Conclusions. Baseline CAM use, rather than presence of symptoms, was the major predictor of subsequent CAM use. Premenopausal health behaviors are important determinants of choice of therapy during midlife. PMID:12406817
Bair, Yali A.; Gold, Ellen B.; Greendale, Gail A.; Sternfeld, Barbara; Adler, Shelley R.; Azari, Rahman; Harkey, Martha
This study provides a comprehensive view of the health and health behaviors of adolescents and the antecedents - personal, interpersonal, familial, and environmental of these outcomes. The study features a longitudinal, multi-level design with independent measurement at the indiv...
The use of online resources to reduce the attrition of program participants in longitudinal studies is examined. Higher-risk individuals, those involved in illegal activities, and females with last name changes are typically more difficult to locate. The effectiveness of using online resources for these participants is addressed. These resources include social networking sites, people-finder search engines, telephone and address directories, judicial records, and death records. The strengths and limitations of these resources are presented and discussed. Longitudinal studies using these resources are examined to evaluate their successful follow-up rates. The results of these studies indicate that participant characteristics are more important to successful follow-up than the length of time since participation or sample size. The use of multiple online sites increased follow-up rates, especially for those who are typically difficult to locate. The variables and websites to consider are discussed, and six lessons learned are offered. The prospective use of online participant involvement is especially important for successful longitudinal evaluation and program planning. PMID:24769078
Williams, Izaak L; O'Donnell, Clifford R
This study addresses the relation between attrition and characteristics of the study protocol, specifically contact frequency, and respondent burden. The study is based on data from a longitudinal study with side studies on various topics, so that respondents have differential exposure to these study characteristics. Attrition outcomes are refusal and ineligibility through frailty. The effect of side study contact frequency
Dorly J. H. Deeg; Theo van Tilburg; Johannes H. Smit; Edith D. de Leeuw
Longitudinal studies are often considered to be a gold standard for research, but the operational management of such studies is not often discussed in detail; this paper describes strategies used to track and maintain high levels of participation in a longitudinal study involving annual personal interviews with a cohort of 1,253 undergraduates (first-time, first-year students at time of enrollment) at a large public mid-Atlantic university. PMID:22247739
Vincent, Kathryn B.; Kasperski, Sarah J.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Garnier-Dykstra, Laura M.; Pinchevsky, Gillian M.; O’Grady, Kevin E.; Arria, Amelia M.
Cross-sectional studies suggest that neighborhood socioeconomic (SES) disadvantage is associated with obesogenic food environments. Yet, it is unknown how exposure to neighborhood SES patterning through adulthood corresponds to food environments that also change over time. We used latent class analysis (LCA) to classify participants in the U.S.-based Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study [n=5,114 at baseline 1985-1986 to 2005-2006] according to their longitudinal neighborhood SES residency patterns (upward, downward, stable high and stable low). For most classes of residents, the availability of fast food and non-fast food restaurants and supermarkets and convenience stores increased (p<0.001). Yet, socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhood residents had fewer fast food and non-fast food restaurants, more convenience stores, and the same number of supermarkets in their neighborhoods than the advantaged residents. In addition to targeting the pervasive fast food restaurant and convenient store retail growth, improving neighborhood restaurant options for disadvantaged residents may reduce food environment disparities. PMID:25280107
Richardson, Andrea S; Meyer, Katie A; Howard, Annie Green; Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Popkin, Barry M; Evenson, Kelly R; Kiefe, Catarina I; Lewis, Cora E; Gordon-Larsen, Penny
A longitudinal evaluation study of a science professional development program for K-12 teachers was conducted using the CIPP evaluation model. Eleven years of program data were described and analyzed. Elementary teachers comprised 62% of the 384 participants, 17% of all participants were middle school teachers, and 13% of all participants were…
Ewing-Taylor, Jacque M.
Purpose The objective of this longitudinal study was to assess the prevalence of medical use, medical misuse, and nonmedical use of opioid medication among adolescents who participate in organized sports. Methods Data for this study were taken from the Secondary Student Life Survey (SSLS). A total of 1,540 adolescents participated in three waves of data collection occurring between the 2009–10 and 2011–12 school years, with 82% of the baseline sample completing all three waves. Results Using Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) models to analyze the longitudinal data, it was found that male adolescents who participated in organized sports during each wave of the SSLS had higher odds of being prescribed an opioid medication (i.e., medical use) during the past year (AOR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.23, 2.82), higher odds of past-year medical misuse of opioid medication due to taking too much (AOR = 10.5, 95% CI = 2.42, 45.5), and higher odds of past-year medical misuse of opioid medication in order to get high (AOR = 4.01, 95% CI = 1.13, 14.2) when compared to males who did not participate in organized sports during the study period. Among females, no association was found between participation in organized sports and medical use, medical misuse, and nonmedical use of opioid medication. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that adolescent males who participate in sports may have greater access to opioid medication, putting them at greater risk to misuse these controlled substances. PMID:24225446
Veliz, Philip; Epstein-Ngo, Quyen M.; Meier, Elizabeth; Ross-Durow, Paula Lynn; Boyd, Carol J.; McCabe, Sean Esteban
How does participation in a long-duration mass gathering (such as a pilgrimage event) impact well-being? There are good reasons to believe such collective events pose risks to health. There are risks associated with communicable diseases. Moreover, the physical conditions at such events (noise, crowding, harsh conditions) are often detrimental to well-being. Yet, at the same time, social psychological research suggests participation in group-related activities can impact well-being positively, and we therefore investigated if participating in a long-duration mass gathering can actually bring such benefits. In our research we studied one of the world's largest collective events - a demanding month-long Hindu religious festival in North India. Participants (comprising 416 pilgrims who attended the gathering for the whole month of its duration, and 127 controls who did not) completed measures of self-assessed well-being and symptoms of ill-health at two time points. The first was a month before the gathering commenced, the second was a month after it finished. We found that those participating in this collective event reported a longitudinal increase in well-being relative to those who did not participate. Our data therefore imply we should reconceptualise how mass gatherings impact individuals. Although such gatherings can entail significant health risks, the benefits for well-being also need recognition. Indeed, an exclusive focus on risk is misleading and limits our understanding of why such events may be so attractive. More importantly, as our research is longitudinal and includes a control group, our work adds robust evidence to the social psychological literature concerning the relationship between participation in social group activities and well-being. PMID:23082155
Tewari, Shruti; Khan, Sammyh; Hopkins, Nick; Srinivasan, Narayanan; Reicher, Stephen
How does participation in a long-duration mass gathering (such as a pilgrimage event) impact well-being? There are good reasons to believe such collective events pose risks to health. There are risks associated with communicable diseases. Moreover, the physical conditions at such events (noise, crowding, harsh conditions) are often detrimental to well-being. Yet, at the same time, social psychological research suggests participation in group-related activities can impact well-being positively, and we therefore investigated if participating in a long-duration mass gathering can actually bring such benefits. In our research we studied one of the world's largest collective events – a demanding month-long Hindu religious festival in North India. Participants (comprising 416 pilgrims who attended the gathering for the whole month of its duration, and 127 controls who did not) completed measures of self-assessed well-being and symptoms of ill-health at two time points. The first was a month before the gathering commenced, the second was a month after it finished. We found that those participating in this collective event reported a longitudinal increase in well-being relative to those who did not participate. Our data therefore imply we should reconceptualise how mass gatherings impact individuals. Although such gatherings can entail significant health risks, the benefits for well-being also need recognition. Indeed, an exclusive focus on risk is misleading and limits our understanding of why such events may be so attractive. More importantly, as our research is longitudinal and includes a control group, our work adds robust evidence to the social psychological literature concerning the relationship between participation in social group activities and well-being. PMID:23082155
Tewari, Shruti; Khan, Sammyh; Hopkins, Nick; Srinivasan, Narayanan; Reicher, Stephen
Longitudinal substance abuse research has often been compromised by high rates of attrition, thought to be the result of the lifestyle that often accompanies addiction. Several studies have used strategies including collection of locator information at the baseline assessment, verification of the information, and interim contacts prior to…
Gilmore, Devin; Kuperminc, Gabriel P.
Longitudinal investigations play an increasingly prominent role in epidemiologic research. espite the importance of the longitudinal study, satisfactory methods for the analysis of serial measurements are not readily available. ongitudinal studies typically have unbalanced design...
The Bielefeld Longitudinal Study of Adult Twins (BiLSAT) is a German longitudinal study of monozygotic and dizygotic twins reared together, including more than 1,100 twin pairs aged between 14 and 80 who participated in the first wave. Data were collected at five waves of assessment between 1993 and 2009. Initially, the study focused on genetic and environmental influences on the structure and the development in adult temperament and personality. Today, the study includes a broad range of individual variables, such as personality disorders, major life goals, interests, attitudes, values, life and work satisfaction, and major life events. A special feature of this genetically informative study lies in the multiple-rater approach (i.e., self-reports and peer reports). Longitudinal multiple-rater analyses allow researchers to go beyond the basic nature-nurture decomposition of variance in self-reports examining genetic and environmental influences on stability and change in more accurately measured individual attributes. In the current article, we briefly describe the design and contents of BiLSAT as well as some recent major findings and future plans. PMID:23046571
Kandler, Christian; Riemann, Rainer; Spinath, Frank M; Bleidorn, Wiebke; Thiel, Wolfgang; Angleitner, Alois
Sphingomyelin metabolism has been linked to several diseases and to longevity. However, few epidemiological studies have quantified individual plasma sphingomyelin species (identified by acyl-chain length and saturation) or their relationship between demographic factors and disease processes. In this study, we determined plasma concentrations of distinct sphingomyelin species in 992 individuals, aged 55 and older, enrolled in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Participants were followed, with serial measures, up to 6 visits and 38 years (3972 total samples). Quantitative analyses were performed on a high-performance liquid chromatography-coupled electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometer. Linear mixed models were used to assess variation in specific sphingomyelin species and associations with demographics, diseases, medications or lifestyle factors, and plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels. We found that most sphingomyelin species increased with age. Women had higher plasma levels of all sphingomyelin species and showed steeper trajectories of age-related increases compared to men. African Americans also showed higher circulating sphingomyelin concentrations compared to Caucasians. Diabetes, smoking, and plasma triglycerides were associated with lower levels of many sphingomyelins and dihydrosphingomyelins. Notably, these associations showed specificity to sphingomyelin acyl-chain length and saturation. These results demonstrate that longitudinal changes in circulating sphingomyelin levels are influenced by age, sex, race, lifestyle factors, and diseases. It will be important to further establish the intra-individual age- and sex-specific changes in each sphingomyelin species in relation to disease onset and progression. PMID:25345489
Mielke, Michelle M; Bandaru, Veera Venkata Ratnam; Han, Dingfen; An, Yang; Resnick, Susan M; Ferrucci, Luigi; Haughey, Norman J
Argues that treatment of one investigative longitudinal topic from start to finish in a high school biology class can illustrate many major ideas and concepts. Discusses ways to use various longitudinal studies of plant growth with General Biology classes. (WRM)
Demchik, Michael J.
The Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS) is a longitudinal study of men and women who graduated from Wisconsin high schools in 1957 and one of their randomly selected siblings. Wisconsin is located in the upper midwest of the United States and had a population of approximately 14 000 000 in 1957, making it the 14th most populous state at that time. Data spanning almost 60 years allow researchers to link family background, adolescent characteristics, educational experiences, employment experiences, income, wealth, family formation and social and religious engagement to midlife and late-life physical health, mental health, psychological well-being, cognition, end of life planning and mortality. The WLS is one of the few longitudinal data sets that include an administrative measure of cognition from childhood. Further, recently collected saliva samples allow researchers to explore the inter-relationships among genes, behaviours and environment, including genetic determinants of behaviours (e.g. educational attainment); the interactions between genes and environment; and how these interactions predict behaviours. Most panel members were born in 1939, and the sample is broadly representative of White, non-Hispanic American men and women who have completed at least a high school education. Siblings cover several adjoining cohorts: they were born primarily between 1930 and 1948. At each interview, about two-thirds of the sample lived in Wisconsin, and about one-third lived elsewhere in the United States or abroad. The data, along with documentation, are publicly accessible and can be accessed at http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/wlsresearch/. Requests for protected data or assistance should be sent to firstname.lastname@example.org. PMID:24585852
Herd, Pamela; Carr, Deborah; Roan, Carol
Background Participation is an important, yet seldom studied, outcome after total knee replacement (TKR). Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent and predictors of participation and participation restriction among people after TKR. Materials and Methods This study investigated the changes in pain, function, and participation scores (measured using a subscale of the Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument) from pre-TKR to ?1 year post-TKR among a subsample of participants from the Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study (MOST) longitudinal cohort (MOST is funded by the National Institutes of Health). The proportions of individuals with participation restriction pre-TKR and ?1 and ?2 years post-TKR were calculated for all participants and for important demographic subgroups. The association between demographic and clinical factors and participation was estimated using linear regression. The association between demographic and clinical factors and participation restriction was estimated using logistic regression. Results There were 292 individuals with outcome data ?1 year post-TKR. Of these, 218 (75%) had data pre-TKR and ?1 year post-TKR and 160 (55%) had data ?2 years post-TKR. There were mean improvements in pain, function, and participation at ?1 and 2 years. However, approximately 30% of the study sample had participation restriction pre-TKR and post-TKR, and the proportion decreased significantly only for those <65 years old. Non-whites had a higher proportion of participation restriction than any other subgroup (41% ?1 year, 48% ?2 years). Female sex and non-white race were associated with a worse participation score, and several demographic and modifiable factors were associated with participation restriction following TKR. Limitations The time between pre-TKR and post-TKR assessment varied across study participants, and data were not available on their rehabilitation utilization. Conclusions Although there was a mean increase in participation ?1 year following TKR, participation restriction was common. The likelihood of low participation was increased among women, non-whites, and those with depressive symptoms, severe pain in either knee, or worse pre-TKR function. PMID:23813082
Keysor, Julie J.; Niu, Jingbo; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Wise, Barton L.; Frey-Law, Laura; Nevitt, Michael C.; Felson, David T.
Background Relatively little empirical attention has focused on the association between social participation and depressive symptoms\\u000a amongst older adults in Asian nations, where persons over the age of 65 represent a rapidly growing segment of the population.\\u000a This study explores the dynamic relationship between participation in social activities and trajectories of depressive symptomatology\\u000a among older Taiwanese adults surveyed over 18 years.
Chi Chiao; Li-Jen Weng; Amanda L Botticello
The Quebec Longitudinal Study of Kindergarten Children (QLSKC) is an ongoing population-based prospective longitudinal study presently spanning ages 6–29 years, designed to study the prevalence, risk factors, development and consequences of behavioural and emotional problems during elementary school. Kindergarten boys and girls attending French-speaking public schools in the Canadian province of Quebec during the 1986–87 and 1987–88 school years were included in the cohort: 2000 children representative of the population and 1017 children exhibiting disruptive behaviour problems. To date, 12 waves of data have been collected, and three generations of participants have been involved in the study (i.e. the study child, his parents and the first child of the study child). Information on demographics, psycho-social and lifestyle factors, child and family member characteristics (physical and mental health), and outcomes such as psychiatric diagnoses, delinquency or school diploma were assessed during three important developmental stages (childhood, adolescence and early adulthood). Blood samples were also collected in early adulthood for genetic analyses. Information on publications, available data and access to data can be found on the following website (http://www.gripinfo.ca/Grip/Public/www/). PMID:23159828
Tremblay, Richard E
A longitudinal field experiment of job change was conducted over a 1-year period with 42 geographically dispersed railway track maintenance gangs. Experimental groups that employed participative goal setting were compared with a control unit that continued to employ the traditional work procedures. When perceptual, behavioral and affective responses were evaluated, over eight trials, it was determined that there were significantly
C. A. L. Pearson
...AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-New (Post-9/11 GI Bill Longitudinal Study Survey)] Proposed Information Collection (Post-9/11 GI Bill Education Longitudinal...outcomes of Veterans participating in VBA's Post-9/11GI Bill program. DATES:...
The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between childhood and adolescent physical and sexual abuse before the age of 18 and psychosocial functioning in mid-adolescence (age 15) and early adulthood (age 21) in a representative community sample of young adults. Subjects were 375 participants in an ongoing 17-year longitudinal study. At age 21, nearly 11% reported
Amy B. Silverman; Helen Z. Reinherz; Rose M. Giaconia
A longitudinal study analyzed (a) which lower- and higher-level semantic components uniquely predicted listening text comprehension and (b) the nature of the relation (i.e., direct and indirect) between the predictors and listening text comprehension in preschoolers. One-hundred and fifty-two children participated in the present study (68 females;…
Florit, Elena; Roch, Maja; Levorato, M. Chiara
The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between personality factors (hardiness, morningness, flexibility, and languidity) and longitudinal changes on different measures of shift work tolerance (fatigue, sleepiness, anxiety and depression) over one year among nurses working rotating shifts. A total of 642 female Norwegian nurses working in a rotating three-shift schedule participated in the study. The
Ingvild Saksvik-Lehouillier; Bjørn Bjorvatn; Hilde Hetland; Gro Mjeldheim Sandal; Bente E. Moen; Nils Magerøy; Allison Harvey; Giovanni Costa; Ståle Pallesen
This study examined the association of nurses' ethical conflict with hospitals with organizational commitment, stress, turnover intention, absence and turnover. Participants were 410 nurses working at four different Canadian hospitals. A longitudinal design was used where nurses completed a questionnaire to capture ethical conflict, stress and organizational commitment, and one year later, measures of turnover intention, absence and actual turnover were obtained for the same sample. We found three aspects of nurses' ethical conflict with hospitals: patient care values, value of nurses, and staffing policy values. Our findings showed that all three aspects of nurses' ethical conflict are associated with stress and patient care values is associated with actual turnover. We also found that staffing policy values is predictive of turnover intention, and that patient care values is predictive of absenteeism. Thus, our findings show the multidimensionality of nurses' ethical conflict with hospitals. Further implications of our findings for practice and theory are discussed. PMID:22619238
Gaudine, Alice; Thorne, Linda
This longitudinal study examines the impact of programs of study on high school academic and technical achievement. Two districts are participating in experimental and quasi-experimental strands of the study. This article describes the sample selection, baseline characteristics, study design, career and technical education and academic achievement…
Castellano, Marisa; Sundell, Kirsten; Overman, Laura T.; Aliaga, Oscar A.
This volume presents 16 papers describing recent longitudinal studies of giftedness. Papers have the following titles and authors: (1) "Longitudinal Study of Giftedness and Talent" (Rena F. Subotnik and Karen D. Arnold); (2) "The Illinois Valedictorian Project: Early Adult Careers of Academically Talented Male High School Students" (Karen D.…
Subotnik, Rena F., Ed.; Arnold, Karen D., Ed.
This paper presents aspects of a longitudinal study assessing integrative bilingual learning based on Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL), implemented in three Swiss primary schools. From Grades 1 to 6, three classes of German-speaking pupils were taught 50% of the curriculum, notably mathematics, in Italian or in Romansh as a second language (L2). The longitudinal study concerns the assessment
Background: This study examined the impact of family transitions, that is, parental separation, divorce, remarriage and death, upon the lives of Australian children and adolescents in a longitudinal study of temperament and development. Methods: Using longitudinal and concurrent questionnaire data, outcomes for young people experiencing…
Ruschena, Eda; Prior, Margot; Sanson, Ann; Smart, Diana
Study Objective: To investigate the longitudinal relationships between actigraph-derived sleep duration, fragmentation, and lipid levels. Design and Setting: Longitudinal data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Sleep Study (2003-05), an observational cohort at the Chicago site. Participants: There were 503 black and white adults, ages 32-51 years, with no prior history of cardiovascular disease. Interventions: N/A. Measurement and Results: Sleep duration and fragmentation were measured using 6 days of wrist actigraphy. Sleep quality was measured with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. The outcome variables, measured at 3 examinations over 10 years (Baseline [2000-01], 5-year [2005-06], and 10-year follow-up [2010-11]), were total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides (TG), and TC/HDL ratio. The associations between each sleep parameter and 10-year change in lipids were analyzed with generalized estimating equation models adjusting for relevant confounders. After adjustment, each hour increase in sleep duration was significantly associated with higher TC (5.2 mg/dL, 95%CI: 1.7, 8.6) and LDL (3.4 mg/dL, 95%CI: 0.2, 6.6) in the total sample, a 1.1 mg/dL increase in TG (95%CI: 1.0, 1.1) among men, and a borderline significant greater odds for a TC/HDL ratio ? 5 among men (OR: 1.37, 95%CI: 0.99, 1.90). Overall, sleep fragmentation and sleep quality scores were not associated with change in lipids. Conclusions: Beyond relevant covariates, over a 10-year follow-up, longer objective sleep duration was longitudinally and significantly associated with a poorer lipid profile. Greater objective sleep fragmentation and self-reported poor sleep quality were not related to a poorer lipid profile. Citation: Petrov MER; Kim Y; Lauderdale D; Lewis CE; Reis JP; Carnethon MR; Knutson K; Glasser SJ. Longitudinal associations between objective sleep and lipids: The CARDIA Study. SLEEP 2013;36(11):1587-1595. PMID:24179290
Petrov, Megan E. Ruiter; Kim, Yongin; Lauderdale, Diane; Lewis, Cora E.; Reis, Jared P.; Carnethon, Mercedes R.; Knutson, Kristen; Glasser, Stephen J.
It was hypothesized that occupational exposure to pesticides during a spraying season causes changes in semen quality that might be detected in a longitudinal study. We analyzed the within-person changes in semen quality and reproductive hormones across a spraying season in groups of farmers using and not using pesticides. A total of 248 men collected two semen samples (participation rate:
Solveig B. Larsen; Aleksander Giwercman; Marcello Spanò; Jens P. Bonde
This study used longitudinal data to examine the effects of spousal illness on depressive symptoms among middle-aged and older married individuals and the extent to which the adverse effects of illness in a spouse were mitigated by 2 psychological resources, mastery and self-esteem. Using 1,704 married participants who were 51 years of age on…
This longitudinal case study examined the effectiveness of the CO-OP Upward Bound Program activities from 2003 through 2008 applying cultural and social capital theories. The program was evaluated in order to give a local perspective to program implementation and operations in a community-based setting. The participant researcher used mixed…
Henderson, Sharmakrenia D.
The authors examined Hammen's (1991) model of stress generation in depression in a Black adolescent population. The longitudinal sample of 1,766 participants entered the study at ages 13 to 18. Stressful events and depressive and other symptom occurrence over a 1-year period were analyzed. Results supported the stress generation model. Depressive…
Wingate, LaRicka R.; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.
Longitudinal trajectories for HIV risk were examined over 5 years following treatment among 1,393 patients who participated in the nationwide Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies. Both injection drug use and sexual risk behavior declined over time, with most of the decline occurring between intake and the first-year follow-up. However, results of…
Murphy, Debra A.; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Herbeck, Diane; Evans, Elizabeth; Huang, David; Hser, Yih-Ing
This paper reports a 5-year design experiment on cumulative knowledge building as part of an international project. Through a longitudinal study and analysis of cumulative research data, we sought to answer the question, "what happened and why in knowledge building?" Research data constitute messages which participants have written into a shared…
Myllari, Jarkko; Ahlberg, Mauri; Dillon, Patrick
The present study examined the longitudinal links between perceptions of family connectedness and body satisfaction in 1,774 (52% female) adolescents. Participants (10-15 years of age at Time 1) completed self-report measures at three measurement occasions separated by 1 year each. Mean group difference results showed that both body satisfaction…
Crespo, Carla; Kielpikowski, Magdalena; Jose, Paul; Pryor, Jan
This research consists of a longitudinal study of 12 female elementary preservice teachers' conceptual understanding over the course of several months. The context in which the participants received instruction was in an inquiry-based physics course, and the targeted science content was the cause of moon phases. Qualitative research methods,…
Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Atwood, Ronald K.; Christopher, John E.
This report presents data from a longitudinal study of women in intercollegiate sports, highlighting: participation opportunities for female athletes and the status of women as head coaches, assistant coaches, administrators, sports information directors, and athletic trainers. The average number of teams for women offered per school is at an…
Acosta, R. Vivian; Carpenter, Linda Jean
This report focuses on the initial design, implementation and baseline results of the five-year Longitudinal Educational Growth Study (LEGS) of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP) being conducted by the School Choice Demonstration Project (SCDP). The LEGS will be the first evaluation of the participant effects of the MPCP using…
Witte, John F.; Wolf, Patrick J.; Cowen, Joshua M.; Fleming, David J.; Lucas-McLean, Juanita
The aim of this five-wave longitudinal study was to investigate the relationship between anxiety and adolescent identity development. Participants were 1,313 adolescents who annually completed measures of anxiety and identity. Growth Mixture Modeling (GMM) analyses demonstrated that the adolescent population was best typified by two latent growth…
Crocetti, Elisabetta; Klimstra, Theo; Keijsers, Loes; Hale, William W., III; Meeus, Wim
Recent years have witnessed considerable growth of research on the benefits of adult learning. Much of this is UK-based, and draws on evidence from large scale longitudinal data sets. Overwhelmingly, these studies have found clear evidence of economic, social and individual benefits as a result of participating in adult learning. While these…
The Lansing Area Manufacturing Partnership (LAMP) is an academically rigorous, business/labor-driven school-to-career (STC) program in Lansing, Michigan, that includes business, union, school, and parent partners. The effects of participation in LAMP on transitions from school to higher education and work were examined in a longitudinal study of…
MacAllum, Keith; Bozick, Robert
Discusses the methods used to maximize retention in a longitudinal study of adolescent drinking. Strategies to minimize attrition included the collection of detailed contact information, incentives for participation, postcard and telephone reminders and telephone interviews. Ninety-six percent of the original sample completed the first follow-up…
Boys, Annabel; Marsden, John; Stillwell, Garry; Hatchings, Kevin; Griffiths, Paul; Farrell, Michael
Loss to follow-up can introduce bias into research, making it difficult to develop inclusive evidence-based health policies and practice guidelines. We aimed to deepen understanding of reasons why participants leave or remain in longitudinal health studies. We interviewed 59 researchers and current and former research participants in six focus groups (n = 55) or interviews (n = 4) at three study centers in a large academic research institution. We used minimally structured interview guides and inductive thematic analysis to explore participant-level, study-level, and contextual participation barriers and facilitators. Four main themes emerged: transportation, incentives and motivation, caregiver concerns, and the social and physical environment. Themes shared crosscutting issues involving funding, flexibility, and relationships between researchers and research participants. Study-level and contextual factors appear to interact with participant characteristics, particularly socioeconomic status and disease severity to affect participant retention. Participants’ characteristics do not seem to be the main cause of study dropout. Researchers and funders might be able to address contextual and study factors in ways that reduce barriers to participation. PMID:25599003
Odierna, Donna H.; Bero, Lisa A.
We conducted a 2.5 week longitudinal study with five motor impaired (MI) and four non-impaired (NMI) participants, in which they learned to use the Vocal Joystick, a voice-based user interface control system. We found that the participants were able to learn the mapping between the vowel sounds and directions used by the Vocal Joystick, and showed marked improvement in their
Susumu Harada; Jacob O. Wobbrock; Jonathan Malkin; Jeff A. Bilmes; James A. Landay
Fisher TL, Laud PW, Byfield MG, Brown TT, Hayat MJ, Fiedler IG. Sexual health after spinal cord injury: a longitudinal study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;83:1043-51. Objectives: To clarify sexuality issues after spinal cord injury (SCI) and to identify the appropriate timing of sexual health interventions. Design: Longitudinal analysis of the survey responses of persons with SCI at 4 intervals
Thomas L. Fisher; Prakash W. Laud; Margaret G. Byfield; Traci T. Brown; Matthew J. Hayat; Irma G. Fiedler
This 30-year longitudinal study examined pathways from problematic childhood behavior patterns to future disadvantaged conditions for family environment and child rearing in adulthood. Participants were mothers (n = 328) and fathers (n = 222) with lower income backgrounds participating in the ongoing Concordia Longitudinal Risk Project. Structural…
Serbin, Lisa A.; Temcheff, Caroline E.; Cooperman, Jessica M.; Stack, Dale M.; Ledingham, Jane; Schwartzman, Alex E.
The purpose of this study was to examine the stability of mothers' perceptions of the negative impact of having a child with ASD in a sample of African American and Caucasian families as their children transitioned to early adolescence. Participants were mothers and children participating in an ongoing longitudinal study of children referred…
Carr, Themba; Lord, Catherine
Baseline, one-year and two-year follow-up interviews were obtained from 164 arrested youths processed at a juvenile assessment center in a prospective longitudinal study. A structural equation model that included cross-sectional and longitudinal associations among drug (alcohol and marijuana), drug sales and index offenses was supported by the data. Research, theoretical, and policy implications of the results are drawn.
Richard Dembo; Werner Wothke; William Seeberger; Marina Shemwell; Kimberly Pacheco; Matthew Rollie; James Schmeidler; Stephen Livingston; Amy Hartsfield
Background and objectives: Although uremic pruritus (UP) is a highly prevalent complication of chronic kidney disease, it remains poorly characterized. There have been no longitudinal studies of natural history, and no health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) instruments have been developed for UP. The objectives of this study were to describe the natural history of UP, to compare rating scales of itching intensity, and to assess usefulness and validity of HR-QOL instruments for UP. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: The intensity, severity, and effects of pathologic itching on HR-QOL were assessed prospectively in 103 patients with UP on chronic hemodialysis. Outcome measures were obtained at scheduled intervals over 3.5 months. Results: Itching daily or nearly daily was reported by 84% of patients and had been ongoing for >1 year in 59%. In 83%, pruritus involved large, nondermatomal areas with striking bilateral symmetry. Two thirds of the patients were using medications such as antihistamines, steroids, and various emollients without satisfactory relief of itching. Statistically significant associations were found among itching intensity, severity, and HR-QOL measures in domains such as mood, social relations, and sleep. Among patients with moderate-to-severe UP, changes in itching intensity of 20% or greater were associated with significant reductions in HR-QOL measures. Conclusions: This first longitudinal study of UP describes key features of UP and its effect on HR-QOL. The assessment instruments we have developed are easily used, are responsive to changes in UP intensity, and should facilitate clinical evaluation and research to meet the needs of afflicted patients. PMID:20558560
Mathur, Vandana S.; Lindberg, Jill; Germain, Michael; Block, Geoffrey; Tumlin, James; Smith, Mark; Grewal, Mandeep
The authors report on the Prototype Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Australia (PLSIA), which was begun in 1991. "Topics covered...include demographic and geographic characteristics, plus employment, education and housing, both in Australia and prior to migration. Other sections cover immigrants' experiences of government programs and services, health, welfare, income and internal migration. A special feature is the attention given to immigrants' expectations of life in Australia." PMID:12289767
Lukomskyj, O; Struik, A; Khoo, S
This longitudinal study examined the rates of overweight, elevated blood pressure, acanthosis nigricans, and their associated factors in third through fifth grade students over 4 years. Participants consisted of 279 students who participated in health screenings in 2002 and 2006. Hispanic students had significantly higher rates of overweight and…
Kopping, Dana; Nevarez, Holly; Goto, Keiko; Morgan, Irene; Frigaard, Martin; Wolff, Cindy
Background Alpha-Mannosidosis is a rare lysosomal storage disorder, caused by the deficiency of the enzyme alpha-Mannosidase. Clinically it is characterized by hearing impairment, skeletal and neurological abnormalities and mental retardation. In order to characterize the clinical features and disease progression of patients affected by alpha-Mannosidosis, a survey study was conducted. 43 patients from 4 European countries participated in this longitudinal study. Age range of the participants was 3 to 42 years. For each patient a medical history, complete physical and neurological examination, joint range of motion and assessment of physical endurance and of lung function were completed. In addition, serum and urinary oligosaccharide levels were analysed. Methods In this multicenter longitudinal study clinical data of 43 alpha-Mannosidosis patients were collected. In addition to objective clinical measurements biochemical assays were performed. Results Data analysis revealed a wide spectrum of clinical presentation regarding the severity and disease progression. Most clinical abnormalities were observed in the musculoskeletal and neurological system. All patients showed mental retardation and hearing loss from early childhood. An impairment in physical endurance was revealed by the 6-minute walk and 3-minute stair stair climb tests. There was only slight progression of a few clinical findings: Psychiatric troubles in both groups essentially, and respiratory dysfunction under 18 years. The serum and urinary oligosaccharide levels were increased in all affected individuals and correlated well with the 6-minute walk and 3-minute stair climb test results. Conclusions This study confirms that alpha-Mannosidosis is a very heterogeneous disorder regarding both, disease severity and progression. As it has been shown that Mannosidosis patients are able to perform lung function tests and the 6MWT and stair-climb test, these clinical parameters apparently can be used as clinical endpoints for clinical trials. Oligosaccharide levels appeared correlated with functional testing and may serve as biomarkers of disease severity, progression and response to treatment. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier = NCT00498420 and EuropeanCommission FP VI contract LHSM-CT-2006-018692. PMID:23786919
A longitudinal study with 6 years of cohort data examined the association between persistence at a private liberal arts university and participation in a study-abroad program. After adjustment for several factors that are known to affect persistence, results of regression analysis showed that students in the study-abroad program persisted longer…
Young, Denise Y.
Introduction: There has been a lack of longitudinal studies on maternal and infant factors associated with feeding difficulties. Feeding difficulties are common, cause much anxiety for parents, and are associated with a ...
Mills, Suzanne Barbara
This longitudinal study explores the relationship of postpartum depression (PPD) and marital dysfunction on infant outcomes from birth to 2 1/2 years of age among middle-class, postpartum women. Participants were recruited during the prenatal period. Twelve mothers completed the study throughout a 2 1/2-year period. Questionnaires, semistructured interviews, and observations were used to collect data. Content analysis of the interviews (Morse & Field, 1995) was conducted and thematic patterns were identified. Clinical PPD and marital dysfunction (defined as little or no support or closeness, or verbal, emotional or physical abuse) characterized nearly one in three mothers. Four themes describing the women's postpartum progression were identified: stress, isolation, resentment, and eventual adjustment by creating a new normal. No major developmental delays or behavioral problems were found among the infants. Eight of the 12 mothers who were initially identified as breastfeeding nursed their infants for 6–18 months. Regardless of financial and educational advantages, mothers in the study experienced depression and marital dysfunction. These findings support other studies that confirm the lack of association of PPD with social class or marital status. Childbirth educators and other health care professionals are encouraged to continue providing expectant families with anticipatory education and community resources in order to increase awareness of mental health and marital risks during the postpartum transition. PMID:17273318
Roux, Gayle; Anderson, Cheryl; Roan, Chris
Background Evidence indicates 12-step mutual-help organizations (MHOs), such as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA), can play an important role in extending and potentiating the recovery benefits of professionally-delivered addiction treatment among young adults with substance use disorders (SUD). However, concerns have lingered regarding the suitability of 12-step organizations for certain clinical subgroups, such as those with dual diagnosis (DD). This study examined the influence of diagnostic status (DD vs. SUD-only) on both attendance and active involvement (e.g., having a sponsor, verbal participation during meetings) in, and derived benefits from, 12-step MHOs following residential treatment. Methods Young adults (N = 296; 18-24 years old; 26% female; 95% Caucasian; 47% DD [based on structured diagnostic interview]), enrolled in a prospective naturalistic study of SUD treatment effectiveness, were assessed at intake, and 3, 6, and 12 months post-treatment on 12-step attendance/active involvement and percent days abstinent (PDA). T-tests and lagged, hierarchical linear models (HLM) examined the extent to which diagnostic status influenced 12-step participation and any derived benefits, respectively. Results For DD and SUD-only patients, post-treatment attendance and active involvement in 12-step organizations was similarly high. Overall, DD patients had significantly lower PDA relative to SUD-only patients. All patients appeared to benefit significantly from attendance and active involvement on a combined eight-item index. Regarding the primary effects of interest, significant differences did not emerge in derived benefit between DD and SUD-only patients for either attendance (p = .436) or active involvement (p = .062). Subsidiary analyses showed, however, that DD patients experienced significantly greater abstinence-related benefit from having a 12-step sponsor. Conclusion Despite concerns regarding the clinical utility of 12-step MHOs for DD patients, findings indicate that DD young adults participate and benefit as much as SUD-only patients, and may benefit more from high levels of active involvement, particularly having a 12-step sponsor. Future work is needed to clarify how active 12-step involvement might offset the additional recovery burden of a comorbid mental illness on substance use outcomes. PMID:24033550
Bergman, Brandon G.; Greene, M. Claire; Hoeppner, Bettina B.; Slaymaker, Valerie; Kelly, John F.
Our objective was to identify major dietary sources of whole grains and to describe the construction of a database of whole grain content of foods. Dietary information was collected with 7-d food records from men and women in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, mean age 62.1 ± 16.0 years, who participated in the dietary assessment portion of the study (n = 1516), and estimates of whole grain intake were obtained from a newly developed database. The Pyramid Servings database and 1994–1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) recipe ingredients database were then used to calculate both servings and gram weights of whole grain intakes. Mean intakes of whole grains, refined grains, and total grains, as well as frequency of intake for major whole grain food groups and whole grain content for each group, were calculated. Top contributors of whole grains were ready-to-eat breakfast cereals (made with whole grain as well as bran), hot breakfast cereals (made with whole grain), multi-grain bread, and whole wheat bread. While more research is needed to better understand the benefits of whole grains, the development of research tools, including databases to accurately assess whole grain intake, is a critical step in completing such research. PMID:20126297
Maras, Janice E.; Newby, P.K.; Bakun, Peter J.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Tucker, Katherine L.
Ideal cardiovascular health is a recently defined construct by the American Heart Association (AHA) to promote cardiovascular disease reduction. Arterial stiffness is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The extent to which the presence of multiple prevalent cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviors is associated with arterial stiffness is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the AHA construct of cardiovascular health and arterial stiffness, as indexed by pulse wave velocity and pulse pressure. The AHA health metrics, comprising of four health behaviors (smoking, body mass index, physical activity, and diet) and three health factors (total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose) were evaluated among 505 participants in the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study. Outcome measures were carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) and pulse pressure measured at 4 to 5-year follow-up. Better cardiovascular health, comprising both health factors and behaviors, was associated with lower arterial stiffness, as indexed by pulse wave velocity and pulse pressure. Those with at least five health metrics at ideal levels had significantly lower PWV (9.8 m/s) than those with two or less ideal health metrics (11.7 m/s) (P<0.001). This finding remained with the addition of demographic and PWV-related variables (P=0.004). PMID:24384629
Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F; Robbins, Michael A
This study is part of the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study, which was undertaken to assess the long-term interrelationships between cumulative frequency of geographic relocation (CFGR) and the development of personality characteristics (i.e., Inadequacy, Rigidity, Social Inadequacy, Dominance, Self-sufficiency, Self-esteem, and Hostility). We found that participants who had more mobility experiences had lower consistency in their personality characteristics (the exception being Rigidity). Residential mobility from different life stages was positively associated with the continuity and change of Inadequacy and Dominance. In addition, young adults with higher Rigidity personality experienced fewer geographic moves during the transition from young adulthood to mid-life. Our study provides evidence that CFGR in different life stages may be associated with the development of personality characteristics from young adulthood to mid-life in different ways. Increased awareness of the potential interrelationships between frequent geographic relocation and personality development may have positive consequences for adult psychological health. PMID:21486270
Lin, Kuan-Chia; Twisk, Jos W R; Rong, Jiin-Ru
This study investigated longitudinal associations between externalizing behavior and dysfunctional eating attitudes and behaviors. Participants were girls drawn from the community-based Minnesota Twin Family Study and assessed at ages 11, 14, and 17. Cross-sectional correlations indicated that the strength of the associations between externalizing behavior and dysfunctional eating attitudes and behaviors increased over time. Mixed-model analyses indicated that earlier externalizing
Naomi R. Marmorstein; Kristin M. von Ranson; William G. Iacono; Paul A. Succop
Background Conducting longitudinal research studies with low-income and/or minority participants present a unique set of challenges and opportunities. Purpose To outline the specific strategies employed to successfully recruit and retain participants in a longitudinal study of nutritional anticipatory guidance during early childhood, conducted with a low-income, ethnically diverse, urban population of mothers. Methods We describe recruitment and retention efforts made by the research team for the ‘MOMS’ Study (Making Our Mealtimes Special). The ‘multilayered’ approach for recruitment and retention included commitment of research leadership, piloting procedures, frequent team reporting, emphasis on participant convenience, incentives, frequent contact with participants, expanded budget, clinical staff buy-in, a dedicated phone line, and the use of research project branding and logos. Results Barriers to enrollment were not encountered in this project, despite recruiting from a low-income population with a large proportion of African-American families. Process evaluation with clinic staff demonstrated the perception of the MOMS staff was very positive Participant retention rate was 75% and 64% at 6 months and 12 months post-recruitment, respectively. We attribute retention success largely to a coordinated effort between the research team and the infrastructure support at the clinical sites, as well as project branding and a dedicated phone line. Conclusions Successful participant recruitment and retention approaches need to be specific and consistent with clinical staff buy in throughout the project. PMID:21276876
Nicholson, Lisa; Schwirian, Patricia M.; Klein, Elizabeth G.; Skybo, Theresa; Murray-Johnson, Lisa; Eneli, Ihuoma; Boettner, Bethany; French, Gina; Groner, Judith A.
On the basis of general theories of delinquency and the specific situation of immigrants, this longitudinal study investigated predictors of initial levels and rates of change in delinquency among 188 male ethnic German Diaspora immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in Germany, 237 male native German adolescents, and 182 male Jewish Diaspora adolescents from the FSU in Israel. The participants (15.2 years old) completed 3 annual assessments. Latent growth curve models showed that ethnic German adolescents reported higher initial levels of delinquency than native German adolescents and lower levels than the Russian Jewish adolescents. Groups did not differ in the rate of change, indicating a decrease in delinquency over time. Peer-oriented leisure related positively and parental knowledge negatively with levels and change rates in delinquency in all groups, but could not fully account for the ethnic differences in delinquency levels. School bonding was associated negatively with delinquency only among native German adolescents. Acculturation-related hassles were an additional predictor for higher levels and also associated with change rates in the immigrant groups. Thus, general theories of delinquency apply to immigrants, but may be complemented by adding acculturation-specific challenges. PMID:23586943
Titzmann, Peter F; Silbereisen, Rainer K; Mesch, Gustavo
Parent-offspring resemblance for drinking was investigated in a sample of 409 adopted and 208 non-adopted families participating in the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study. Drinking data was available for 1,229 offspring, assessed longitudinally up to three times in the age range from 10 to 28 years. A single drinking index was computed from four items measuring quantity, frequency and density of drinking. As expected, the mean drinking index increased with age, was greater in males as compared to females (although not at the younger ages), but did not vary significantly by adoption status. Parent-offspring correlation in drinking did not vary significantly by either offspring or parent gender but did differ significantly by adoption status. In adopted families, the parent-offspring correlation was statistically significant at all ages but decreased for the oldest age group (age 22-28). In non-adopted families, the parent-offspring correlation was statistically significant at all ages and increased in the oldest age group. Findings imply that genetic influences on drinking behavior increase with age while shared family environment influences decline, especially during the transition from late-adolescence to early adulthood. PMID:25224596
McGue, Matt; Malone, Steve; Keyes, Margaret; Iacono, William G
Predictors of retention of participants in a longitudinal study and heterogeneity between communities were investigated using a multilevel logistic regression model. Data from the longitudinal outcome study of the national evaluation of the Comprehensive Community Mental Health Services for Children and Their Families program and information on…
Gebreselassie, Tesfayi; Stephens, Robert L.; Maples, Connie J.; Johnson, Stacy F.; Tucker, Alyce L.
Longitudinal data spanning early (30s) and older (late 60s\\/mid-70s) adulthood were used to study spiritual development across the adult life course in a sample of men and women belonging to a younger (born 1928\\/29) and an older (born 1920\\/21) age cohort. All participants, irrespective of gender and cohort, increased significantly in spirituality between late middle (mid-50s\\/early 60s) and older adulthood.
Paul Wink; Michele Dillon
The present study examined the longitudinal links between perceptions of family connectedness and body satisfaction in 1,774\\u000a (52% female) adolescents. Participants (10–15 years of age at Time 1) completed self-report measures at three measurement\\u000a occasions separated by 1 year each. Mean group difference results showed that both body satisfaction levels and perceived\\u000a levels of family connectedness decreased over 2 years for the whole
Carla Crespo; Magdalena Kielpikowski; Paul E. Jose; Jan Pryor
This article contrasts four elementary teachers who were graduates of a teacher education program that incorporated a reform-based\\u000a mathematics methods course. The report provides results from a four-year longitudinal study that extended from the time that\\u000a the participants were preservice teachers until the end of their second year of teaching. The article provides background\\u000a information of each teacher, vignettes from
Diana F. Steele
Objectives To follow a population of preschool children with and without parent reported wheeze over a period of 6-11 years to determine prognosis and its important predictive factors.Design Longitudinal series of five postal surveys based on the international study of asthma and allergies in childhood questionnaire carried out between 1993 and 2004.Setting Two general practice populations, south Manchester.Participants 628 children
Peter I Frank; Julie A Morris; Michelle L Hazell; Mary F Linehan; Timothy L Frank
In an effort to isolate the emergence and causes of social class differences in intellectual performance, this longitudinal study was undertaken as a follow-up on a cross-sectional study that yielded no social class differences on the Cattell Infant Intelligence Scale for 12-, 18-, and 24-month-old black children. In the present study, 89 children…
Golden, Mark; And Others
This retrospective longitudinal study aims to describe reported Taekwondo injuries and to examine associations between competitor experience level, age and gender, and the type, location, and mechanism of injury sustained. Additionally, we examined whether recent rule changes concerning increased point value of head shots in adult Taekwondo competition had affected injury incidence. This study was a summation of 9 years of data of competition injury reports, which included 904 injury reports spanning 58 individual competitions. The data was collected on standardized injury reports at time of injury during competition. Care was provided to the athletes, but the type of care provided was not included in the study. Participants included athletes injured during competition who sought care by the health care team, and for whom an injury report was filled out. The data analysis was performed at the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College. The three most common locations of presenting injury were the head (19%), foot (16%), and thigh (9%). The most common mechanism of presenting injury was found to be a defensive kick (44%), followed by an offensive kick (35%). The most commonly diagnosed injuries were contusions (36%), sprains (19%), and strains (15%). Coloured belts had a higher incidence of contusions, while black belts sustained more joint irritation injuries. Black belts were more likely to suffer multiple injuries. Colored belts suffered more injuries while receiving a kick, while black belts had a larger influence of past history of injury. We found no significant difference in location or type of injury when comparing pre versus post rule change. The most common locations of injury are head, foot, and thigh respectively, and are areas for concern when considering preventative measures. Colour belt competitors are more likely to sustain contusions, which the authors believe is due to more aggressive tactics and lack of control. Those more likely to be injured tend to be younger than 18 years. Recent rule changes have no significant effect on head injuries. PMID:20037692
Kazemi, Mohsen; Chudolinski, Artur; Turgeon, Matt; Simon, Aaron; Ho, Eric; Coombe, Lianne
This retrospective longitudinal study aims to describe reported Taekwondo injuries and to examine associations between competitor experience level, age and gender, and the type, location, and mechanism of injury sustained. Additionally, we examined whether recent rule changes concerning increased point value of head shots in adult Taekwondo competition had affected injury incidence.This study was a summation of 9 years of data of competition injury reports, which included 904 injury reports spanning 58 individual competitions. The data was collected on standardized injury reports at time of injury during competition. Care was provided to the athletes, but the type of care provided was not included in the study. Participants included athletes injured during competition who sought care by the health care team, and for whom an injury report was filled out. The data analysis was performed at the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College.The three most common locations of presenting injury were the head (19%), foot (16%), and thigh (9%). The most common mechanism of presenting injury was found to be a defensive kick (44%), followed by an offensive kick (35%). The most commonly diagnosed injuries were contusions (36%), sprains (19%), and strains (15%). Coloured belts had a higher incidence of contusions, while black belts sustained more joint irritation injuries. Black belts were more likely to suffer multiple injuries. Colored belts suffered more injuries while receiving a kick, while black belts had a larger influence of past history of injury. We found no significant difference in location or type of injury when comparing pre versus post rule change. The most common locations of injury are head, foot, and thigh respectively, and are areas for concern when considering preventative measures. Colour belt competitors are more likely to sustain contusions, which the authors believe is due to more aggressive tactics and lack of control. Those more likely to be injured tend to be younger than 18 years. Recent rule changes have no significant effect on head injuries. PMID:20037692
Kazemi, Mohsen; Chudolinski, Artur; Turgeon, Matt; Simon, Aaron; Ho, Eric; Coombe, Lianne
Following a short discussion of conceptual and theoretical problems of giftedness, the methodological foundations and selected results of a (presently) four year longitudinal study are presented. This study is based on a multidimensional concept of giftedness: intelligence, creativity, social competence, musical ability, psychomotor ability (or practical intelligence). Both academic achievements and leisure activities, as well as cognitive and motivational personality
Kurt A. Heller
Gender schema theory proposes that children's acquisition of gender labels and gender stereotypes informs gender-congruent behaviour. Most previous studies have been cross-sectional and do not address the temporal relationship between knowledge and behaviour. We report the results of a longitudinal study of gender knowledge and sex-typed behaviour…
Campbell, Anne; Shirley, Louisa; Candy, Julia
We have conducted a partly longitudinal study using online questionnaires at four Swedish local online newspapers in two different studies. The objective of this paper is to describe the users' demographics and reading habits as well as the users' expectations of current and future issues regarding the online edition. We also discuss online questionnaires having tried three different approaches to
Carina Ihlström; Jonas Lundberg
Although adaptive coordination has been highlighted by several studies, research dealing with how adaptive coordination develops is still rare. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the development of coordination mechanisms and their task-related adaptation in a longitudinal observation of medical simulation-based training of final year students. We recorded six anaesthesia teams during a sequence of four task
M. Riethmüller; E. Fernandez Castelao; I. Eberhardt; A. Timmermann; M. Boos
This retrospective longitudinal study was designed to show grading leniency patterns of judges within and across clinical examination administrations. Data from 17 different administrations of the histology examination of the American Society of Clinical Pathologists over 10 years were studied. Over the 10 years there were 4,683 candidates and 57…
Lunz, Mary E.; O'Neill, Thomas R.
Risk factors and consequences of exposure to violence at work were examined through a systematic review of longitudinal studies of workplace violence. Literature in different databases was screened and the articles were selected on the basis of a set of inclusion criteria. Sixteen studies were included into the review and they were evaluated according to a number of criteria recommended
Annie Hogh; Eija Viitasara
In this longitudinal study of one region in the state of Texas, there was an examination of district leadership and the sustaining of high student achievement for their districts. The results of this study suggest that sustained improvement of student achievement is very difficult. The districts that had sustained improvement had stable district…
Sampson, Pauline M.
Systematic studies of artistic careers are scarce and this is the first large-scale study on the career development of pop musicians. Using a prospective longitudinal approach we followed a sample of aspiring pop musicians in the Netherlands (N=369) over a three-year period. First we identified four groups of pop musicians with different career…
Zwaan, Koos; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Raaijmakers, Quinten
English as a foreign language (EFL) spelling was examined longitudinally three times (4th, 9th, 12th grades) during 9 years of EFL study among Hebrew first language (L1) students. The study examined the impact of L1 literacy variables including phonemic awareness, word attack, and spelling on EFL spelling and the relationship between EFL literacy…
Kahn-Horwitz, Janina; Sparks, Richard L.; Goldstein, Zahava
In a previous study, we investigated the impact of an awareness-raising campaign on the behaviour of secondary school children in the Centre Region of France, regarding the recycling of used batteries. But, was it a question of pro-environmental behaviour or simply an environmental action? To answer this question, a three-year longitudinal study…
Rioux, Liliane; Pasquier, Daniel
The authors investigated a comprehensive set of predictors of high school completion and years of completed education for youth in the Chicago Longitudinal Study, an ongoing investigation of over 1500 low-income, minority children who grew up on high-poverty neighborhoods. The study sample included 1286 youth for whom educational attainment could…
Ou, Suh-Ruu; Reynolds, Arthur J.
Objective: To investigate predictors of missing data in a longitudinal study of Alzheimer disease (AD). Methods: The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) is a clinic-based, multicenter, longitudinal study with blood, CSF, PET, and MRI scans repeatedly measured in 229 participants with normal cognition (NC), 397 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 193 with mild AD during 2005–2007. We used univariate and multivariable logistic regression models to examine the associations between baseline demographic/clinical features and loss of biomarker follow-ups in ADNI. Results: CSF studies tended to recruit and retain patients with MCI with more AD-like features, including lower levels of baseline CSF A?42. Depression was the major predictor for MCI dropouts, while family history of AD kept more patients with AD enrolled in PET and MRI studies. Poor cognitive performance was associated with loss of follow-up in most biomarker studies, even among NC participants. The presence of vascular risk factors seemed more critical than cognitive function for predicting dropouts in AD. Conclusion: The missing data are not missing completely at random in ADNI and likely conditional on certain features in addition to cognitive function. Missing data predictors vary across biomarkers and even MCI and AD groups do not share the same missing data pattern. Understanding the missing data structure may help in the design of future longitudinal studies and clinical trials in AD. PMID:22491869
Jagust, William J.; Aisen, Paul; Jack, Clifford R.; Toga, Arthur W.; Beckett, Laurel; Gamst, Anthony; Soares, Holly; C. Green, Robert; Montine, Tom; Thomas, Ronald G.; Donohue, Michael; Walter, Sarah; Dale, Anders; Bernstein, Matthew; Felmlee, Joel; Fox, Nick; Thompson, Paul; Schuff, Norbert; Alexander, Gene; DeCarli, Charles; Bandy, Dan; Chen, Kewei; Morris, John; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.; Korecka, Magdalena; Crawford, Karen; Neu, Scott; Harvey, Danielle; Kornak, John; Saykin, Andrew J.; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Potkin, Steven; Shen, Li; Buckholtz, Neil; Kaye, Jeffrey; Dolen, Sara; Quinn, Joseph; Schneider, Lon; Pawluczyk, Sonia; Spann, Bryan M.; Brewer, James; Vanderswag, Helen; Heidebrink, Judith L.; Lord, Joanne L.; Petersen, Ronald; Johnson, Kris; Doody, Rachelle S.; Villanueva-Meyer, Javier; Chowdhury, Munir; Stern, Yaakov; Honig, Lawrence S.; Bell, Karen L.; Morris, John C.; Mintun, Mark A.; Schneider, Stacy; Marson, Daniel; Griffith, Randall; Clark, David; Grossman, Hillel; Tang, Cheuk; Marzloff, George; Toledo-Morrell, Leylade; Shah, Raj C.; Duara, Ranjan; Varon, Daniel; Roberts, Peggy; Albert, Marilyn S.; Pedroso, Julia; Toroney, Jaimie; Rusinek, Henry; de Leon, Mony J; De Santi, Susan M; Doraiswamy, P. Murali; Petrella, Jeffrey R.; Aiello, Marilyn; Clark, Christopher M.; Pham, Cassie; Nunez, Jessica; Smith, Charles D.; Given, Curtis A.; Hardy, Peter; Lopez, Oscar L.; Oakley, MaryAnn; Simpson, Donna M.; Ismail, M. Saleem; Brand, Connie; Richard, Jennifer; Mulnard, Ruth A.; Thai, Gaby; Mc-Adams-Ortiz, Catherine; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Martin-Cook, Kristen; DeVous, Michael; Levey, Allan I.; Lah, James J.; Cellar, Janet S.; Burns, Jeffrey M.; Anderson, Heather S.; Laubinger, Mary M.; Bartzokis, George; Silverman, Daniel H.S.; Lu, Po H.; Graff-Radford MBBCH, Neill R; Parfitt, Francine; Johnson, Heather; Farlow, Martin; Herring, Scott; Hake, Ann M.; van Dyck, Christopher H.; MacAvoy, Martha G.; Benincasa, Amanda L.; Chertkow, Howard; Bergman, Howard; Hosein, Chris; Black, Sandra; Graham, Simon; Caldwell, Curtis; Hsiung, Ging-Yuek Robin; Feldman, Howard; Assaly, Michele; Kertesz, Andrew; Rogers, John; Trost, Dick; Bernick, Charles; Munic, Donna; Wu, Chuang-Kuo; Johnson, Nancy; Mesulam, Marsel; Sadowsky, Carl; Martinez, Walter; Villena, Teresa; Turner, Scott; Johnson, Kathleen B.; Behan, Kelly E.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Rentz, Dorene M.; Johnson, Keith A.; Rosen, Allyson; Tinklenberg, Jared; Ashford, Wes; Sabbagh, Marwan; Connor, Donald; Jacobson, Sandra; Killiany, Ronald; Norbash, Alexander; Nair, Anil; Obisesan, Thomas O.; Jayam-Trouth, Annapurni; Wang, Paul; Lerner, Alan; Hudson, Leon; Ogrocki, Paula; DeCarli, Charles; Fletcher, Evan; Carmichael, Owen; Kittur, Smita; Mirje, Seema; Borrie, Michael; Lee, T-Y; Bartha, Dr Rob; Johnson, Sterling; Asthana, Sanjay; Carlsson, Cynthia M.; Potkin, Steven G.; Preda, Adrian; Nguyen, Dana; Tariot, Pierre; Fleisher, Adam; Reeder, Stephanie; Bates, Vernice; Capote, Horacio; Rainka, Michelle; Hendin, Barry A.; Scharre, Douglas W.; Kataki, Maria; Zimmerman, Earl A.; Celmins, Dzintra; Brown, Alice D.; Gandy, Sam; Marenberg, Marjorie E.; Rovner, Barry W.; Pearlson, Godfrey; Anderson, Karen; Saykin, Andrew J.; Santulli, Robert B.; Englert, Jessica; Williamson, Jeff D.; Sink, Kaycee M.; Watkins, Franklin; Ott, Brian R.; Wu, Chuang-Kuo; Cohen, Ronald; Salloway, Stephen; Malloy, Paul; Correia, Stephen; Rosen, Howard J.; Miller, Bruce L.; Mintzer, Jacobo
Few studies have examined the relationship between life events, suicide attempts, and personality disorders (PDs), in spite of the strong associations between PDs and suicidal behavior, and the poor coping strategies often exhibited by these individuals. The authors examined whether participants with PDs who attempted suicide during the first 3 years of a prospective, longitudinal study were more likely to
Shirley Yen; Maria E. Pagano; M. Tracie Shea; Carlos M. Grilo; John G. Gunderson; Andrew E. Skodol; Thomas H. McGlashan; Charles A. Sanislow; Donna S. Bender; Mary C. Zanarini
Alcohol use relapse is impacted by a variety of environmental, interpersonal, and intrapersonal factors. We examined the interaction between stressful life events, personality disorder subtype, and alcohol use relapse among individuals enrolled in the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study. Negative life events predicted relapse in all participants. In individuals with a history of an alcohol use disorder prior to study
Christina Delos Reyes; Maria Elizabeth Pagano; Robert J. Ronis
The underrepresentation of racial minorities and women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines is a national concern. Goal theory provides a useful framework from which to understand issues of underrepresentation. We followed a large sample of high-achieving African American and Latino undergraduates in STEM disciplines attending 38 institutions of higher education in the United States over 3 academic years. We report on the science-related environmental factors and person factors that influence the longitudinal regulation of goal orientations. Further, we examine how goal orientations in turn influence distal academic outcomes such as performance and persistence in STEM. Using SEM-based parallel process latent growth curve modeling, we found that (a) engagement in undergraduate research was the only factor that buffered underrepresented students against an increase in performance-avoidance goals over time; (b) growth in scientific self-identity exhibited a strong positive effect on growth in task and performance-approach goals over time; (c) only task goals positively influenced students' cumulative grade point average, over and above baseline grade point average; and (d) performance-avoidance goals predicted student attrition from the STEM pipeline. We discuss the implications of these findings for underrepresented students in STEM disciplines. PMID:24273342
Hernandez, Paul R.; Schultz, P. Wesley; Estrada, Mica; Woodcock, Anna; Chance, Randie C.
The underrepresentation of racial minorities and women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines is a national concern. Goal theory provides a useful framework from which to understand issues of underrepresentation. We followed a large sample of high-achieving African American and Latino undergraduates in STEM disciplines attending 38 institutions of higher education in the United States over 3 academic years. We report on the science-related environmental factors and person factors that influence the longitudinal regulation of goal orientations. Further, we examine how goal orientations in turn influence distal academic outcomes such as performance and persistence in STEM. Using SEM-based parallel process latent growth curve modeling, we found that (a) engagement in undergraduate research was the only factor that buffered underrepresented students against an increase in performance-avoidance goals over time; (b) growth in scientific self-identity exhibited a strong positive effect on growth in task and performance-approach goals over time; (c) only task goals positively influenced students' cumulative grade point average, over and above baseline grade point average; and (d) performance-avoidance goals predicted student attrition from the STEM pipeline. We discuss the implications of these findings for underrepresented students in STEM disciplines. PMID:24273342
Hernandez, Paul R; Schultz, P Wesley; Estrada, Mica; Woodcock, Anna; Chance, Randie C
The aim of this study was to investigate changes in heart rate during submaximal exercise as an index of cardiovascular function in older adults participating in the Groningen Active Living Model recreational sports programme who were sedentary or underactive at baseline. A repeated measurement design was conducted; 151 participants were included, providing 398 heart rate files over a period of
Johan de Jong; Koen Lemmink; Erik Scherder; Roy Stewart; Abby King; Martin Stevens
A cooperative education experience (or internship placement) is an essential component of the curricula of vocational higher education. The efficacy of internship placements has become one of the major concerns facing those who develop education curricula. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to explore the relationships among the multi-faceted predictors of intern commitment as a reflection of internship efficacy.
Chin-Sheng Wan; Jen-te Yang; Shu-yun Cheng; Chiakai Su
The Elementary and Secondary School Improvement Amendments of 1988 (P.L. 100-297) require the U.S. Department of Education to conduct a national longitudinal study of Chapter 1 of the Elementary Secondary Education Act (ESEA). The department commissioned the selection of experts qualified to provide design suggestions and advice for the national…
Policy Studies Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.
In a national sample of the Italian population, surveyed four times between October 2002 and January 2007 (N = 2,008), we performed a multilevel longitudinal study aimed at predicting the increase in crime risk perception as a function of three families of independent variables, respectively lying at the within individual level (direct…
Russo, Silvia; Roccato, Michele; Vieno, Alessio
This volume provides unique and valuable firsthand accounts of the most important longitudinal studies of attachment. Presented are a range of research programs that have broadened the understanding of early close relationships and their role in individual adaptation throughout life. In addition to discussing the findings that emerged from each…
Grossmann, Klaus E., Ed.; Grossmann, Karin, Ed.; Waters, Everett, Ed.
National Longitudinal Mortality Study is to investigate social, economic, demographic and occupational differentials in mortality (total and by cause) within a national sample of the U.S. population. In a collaboration begun in 1999 with the Census Bureau and other federal agenci...
On the basis of general theories of delinquency and the specific situation of immigrants, this longitudinal study investigated predictors of initial levels and rates of change in delinquency among 188 male ethnic German Diaspora immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in Germany, 237 male native German adolescents, and 182 male Jewish…
Titzmann, Peter F.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Mesch, Gustavo
This longitudinal study examined the contribution of phonological awareness, phonological memory, and visuospatial ability to reading development in 142 English-speaking children from the start of kindergarten to the middle of Grade 2. Partial cross-lagged analyses revealed significant relationships between early performance on block design and…
Brunswick, Nicola; Martin, G. Neil; Rippon, Georgina
A longitudinal study examined the relationship between the emergent literacy knowledge of preschool entrants and their subsequent reading performance, 5 years later. Subjects were selected randomly for the preliminary class lists of 6 separate preschools located in a mid-size midwestern city. Within the first 4 weeks of preschool, 8 informal…
Smith, Susan Sidney
This study utilizes a school-improvement perspective to examine the role of curriculum coordination in the integration of information and communication technologies (ICT) into primary schools. The nature and impact of this role is examined in seven primary schools in Australia. These seven schools were drawn from a longitudinal intervention that…
Tondeur, J.; Cooper, M.; Newhouse, C. P.
The frequency of exposure to media violence and eight additional risk factors were path-analyzed in a 2-year longitudinal study. The exposure to media violence (total score) affected students’ later violence (? = .28) and later violent delinquency (? = .30) more strongly than other risk factors. Direct effects were also caused by risk factors assessed at Time 1, which in
Werner H. Hopf; Günter L. Huber; Rudolf H. Weiß
A longitudinal field study conducted in Turku, Finland, traced the development of aggression as a function of the viewing of violence by children from the ages of 7 and 9 to the ages of 15 and 17 to explore the connection between violence viewing and viewers' aggression, and to shed light on the question of causality. The 220 subjects, both male…
A cooperative education experience (or internship placement) is an essential component of the curricula of vocational higher education. The efficacy of internship placements has become one of the major concerns facing those who develop education curricula. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to explore the relationships among the…
Wan, Chin-Sheng; Yang, Jen-te; Cheng, Shu-yun; Su, Chiakai
This study describes a longitudinal design (following subjects described in Rutherford & Rogers [2003, "Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorder", 33, 289-302]) to test for predictors of pretend play competence in a group of children with autism. We tested the hypothesis that developmental change in pretend play performance can be predicted by…
Rutherford, M. D.; Young, Gregory S.; Hepburn, Susan; Rogers, Sally J.
A study examined the effects of factors (including television, family, peers, age, and socioeconomic status) on consumer socialization, the process by which individuals develop consumption-related cognitions and behaviors. The specific criterion variables studied included consumer affairs knowledge, puffery filtering, consumer finance management,…
Moschis, George P.; Moore, Roy L.
Methods for identifying meaningful growth patterns of longitudinal trial data with both nonignorable intermittent and drop-out missingness are rare. In this study, a combined approach with statistical and data mining techniques is utilized to address the nonignorable missing data issue in growth pattern recognition. First, a parallel mixture model is proposed to model the nonignorable missing information from a real-world patient-oriented study and concurrently to estimate the growth trajectories of participants. Then, based on individual growth parameter estimates and their auxiliary feature attributes, a fuzzy clustering method is incorporated to identify the growth patterns. This case study demonstrates that the combined multi-step approach can achieve both statistical gener ality and computational efficiency for growth pattern recognition in longitudinal studies with nonignorable missing data. PMID:20336179
Fang, Hua; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Rizzo, Maria L.; Stopp, Christian; Wiebe, Sandra A.; Stroup, Walter W.
Purpose Although concurrent influences on adolescent physical activity are well documented, longitudinal studies offer additional insights about early life antecedents of participation. The aim of this study was to examine associations between childhood and contemporaneous factors and patterns of physical activity participation during adolescence. Methods Physical activity participation at ages 15 and 18 was assessed among members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study cohort using the interview-based Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between childhood factors (socioeconomic status, family ‘active-recreation’ orientation, home activities, motor ability, intelligence and psychiatric disorder), contemporaneous factors (parental health, BMI, predicted VO2max, general health, television viewing, smoking and alcohol use) and ‘Persistent Inactivity’, ‘Declining Participation’ or ‘Persistent Activity’ during adolescence. Results In multivariate models, Persistent Inactivity during adolescence was associated with lower childhood family active-recreation orientation, and poorer cardiorespiratory fitness and general health during adolescence. Declining participation was more likely among those who reported fewer activities at home during childhood. Persistent Activity was associated with better cardiorespiratory fitness and watched less television during adolescence. Conclusions This study found that childhood and contemporaneous factors were associated with Persistent Inactivity, Persistent Activity and Declining Participation during adolescence. The findings highlight several factors from the family and home environment of potential importance in early intervention programs to support adolescent participation in physical activity. PMID:19237112
Richards, Rosalina; Poulton, Richie; Reeder, Anthony I.; Williams, Sheila
This case study briefly reviews the development of tourism degrees in the United Kingdom before considering the experiences obtained by students on year-long internship programmes over a period of 8 years. Verbatim confidential comments, from students, are provided and specific transferable skills discussed. Whilst some skills can be developed…
The aim of this study was to develop an in vitro model of the tongue microflora in order to assess anti-malodour compounds before clinical evaluation. Biofilms, derived from the tongue microflora, were grown in a constant depth film fermentor (CDFF) with nutrients supplied in the form of mucin- and serum-containing artificial saliva. Differential agars and a halimeter were used to
J Pratten; M Pasu; G Jackson; A Flanagan; M Wilson
A theoretical analysis of helicopter maneuver stability is made and the results are compared with experimental results for both a single and a tandem rotor helicopter. Techniques are described for measuring in flight the significant stability derivatives for use with the theory to aid in design studies of means for achieving marginal maneuver stability for a prototype helicopter.
Amer, Kenneth B
This case study briefly reviews the development of tourism degrees in the United Kingdom before considering the experiences obtained by students on year-long internship programmes over a period of 8 years. Verbatim confidential comments, from students, are provided and specific transferable skills discussed. Whilst some skills can be developed during the course of an academic programme, it is argued that
Measurements of urinary proteins, blood and urinary cadmium, and in vivo kidney and liver cadmium have been made for a group of workers at several times between 1981 and 1990. The possibility of the introduction of measurement artifacts due to the use of different in vivo measurement systems has been assessed and is considered to be small. Changes in cadmium body burden with time have been studied in relation to kidney function. The results suggest several interesting patterns, although more data are needed to elucidate these further. They do, however, show the effectiveness of good hygiene in the workplace. PMID:1515347
Armstrong, R; Chettle, D R; Scott, M C; Blindt, M; Mason, H J
The use of administrative segregation for inmates with and without mental illness has generated considerable criticism. Segregated inmates are locked in single cells for 23 hours per day, are subjected to rigorous security procedures, and have restricted access to programs. In this study, we examined whether inmates in segregation would show greater deterioration over time on psychological symptoms than would comparison offenders. The subjects were male inmates, with and without mental illness, in administrative segregation, general population, or special-needs prison. Subjects completed the Brief Symptom Inventory at regular intervals for one year. Results showed differentiation between groups at the outset and statistically significant but small positive change over time across all groups. All groups showed the same change pattern such that there was not the hypothesized differential change of inmates within administrative segregation. This study advances the empirical research, but replication research is needed to make a better determination of whether and under what conditions harm may or may not occur to inmates in solitary confinement. PMID:23503176
O'Keefe, Maureen L; Klebe, Kelli J; Metzner, Jeffrey; Dvoskin, Joel; Fellner, Jamie; Stucker, Alysha
Patients with spina bifida have multiple ophthalmologic problems, many of which are preventable. Most of the problems are related to the hydrocephalus, which is caused by the coexisting Arnold-Chiari malformation. When patients are treated for hydrocephalus, and comprehensive eye care is available, 94% of the patients will have 6/12 visual acuity or better. Strabismus is common but it responds well to medical and surgical treatment. Children with spina bifida should have frequent examinations by an ophthalmologist who is familiar with the diagnosis and management of the defects recorded in this study. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 PMID:2095031
Biglan, A W
Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the course of alexithymia and its relation with anxiety and depression in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), over a period of 5 years. Methods Sixty-two MS patients were examined at two timepoints, 5 years apart, and they answered questionnaires collecting socio-demographic, medical, and psychological data (depression, anxiety, alexithymia). Results Our data show that emotional disorders remain stable over time in patients with MS, particularly as regards alexithymia and anxiety. Conversely, the rate of depression decreased between the two evaluations, falling from 40% to 26%. The two dimensions of alexithymia (i.e., difficulty describing and difficulty identifying feelings) were correlated with anxiety and depression, whereas the third component of alexithymia (externally oriented thinking) was independent, and was the only component to change over time, with a significant fall observed at 5 years. Conclusion Alexithymia was associated with increased severity of anxiety and attack relapses. PMID:24653957
Chahraoui, Khadija; Duchene, Céline; Rollot, Fabien; Bonin, Bernard; Moreau, Thibault
Objective: To investigate the relation between developmental phenotypes of parental smoking (trajectories of smoking from adolescence to adulthood) and the intergenerational transmission of smoking to their adolescent children. Design: A longitudinal, multigenerational study of a midwestern community sample followed individuals from adolescence into adulthood and was combined with Web-based assessment of participants' spouses and adolescent children. Mixture modeling identified multiple
Laurie Chassin; Clark Presson; Dong-Chul Seo; Steven J. Sherman; Jon Macy; R. J. Wirth; Patrick Curran
In this 15-year longitudinal study the authors investigated individual and contextual factors that predispose adolescents from a disadvantaged urban area to drug dependence in adulthood. Adolescents were recruited from schools serving East Harlem in New York City. Of the 838 participants followed to adulthood, 59% were women, 55% were African…
Brook, Judith S.; Lee, Jung Yeon; Brown, Elaine N.; Finch, Stephen J.; Brook, David W.
This longitudinal study investigated differences in beliefs and perceived behavioural control between smokers and non-smokers in a large sample of adolescents. Positive and negative instrumental beliefs, normative beliefs, perceived behavioural control (PBC) and smoking status were assessed in the same participants at 11, 13 and 15 years of age. Prospective analyses among non-smokers revealed that for boys, negative instrumental beliefs
Sarah Grogan; Mark Conner; Gary Fry; Brendan Gough; Andrea Higgins
Objectives: To longitudinally describe prosocial behaviour development from childhood to adolescence, using multiple informants within Canadian and Italian samples. Method: Participants in Study 1 were 1037 boys from low socioeconomic status (SES) areas in Montreal, Canada, for whom yearly teacher and mother reports were obtained between the ages…
Nantel-Vivier, Amelie; Kokko, Katja; Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Pastorelli, Concetta; Gerbino, Maria Grazia; Paciello, Marinella; Cote, Sylvana; Pihl, Robert O.; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.
This article examines the relationship between cultural affiliation and deaf adults' motivations for genetic testing for deafness in the first prospective, longitudinal study to examine the impact of genetic counseling and genetic testing on deaf adults and the deaf community. Participants (n = 256), classified as affiliating with hearing, Deaf,…
Boudreault, Patrick; Baldwin, Erin E.; Fox, Michelle; Dutton, Loriel; Tullis, LeeElle; Linden, Joyce; Kobayashi, Yoko; Zhou, Jin; Sinsheimer, Janet S.; Sininger, Yvonne; Grody, Wayne W.; Palmer, Christina G. S.
The aim of this study was to develop an in vitro model of the tongue microflora in order to assess anti-malodour compounds before clinical evaluation. Biofilms, derived from the tongue microflora, were grown in a constant depth film fermentor (CDFF) with nutrients supplied in the form of mucin- and serum-containing artificial saliva. Differential agars and a halimeter were used to determine the bacterial microflora and production of volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs), respectively. The resulting biofilms had a bacterial population which contained, on average, 29% streptococci, 48% Gram-negative anaerobes and 2.5% with an H2S-producing phenotype. When the biofilms were pulsed with either chlorhexidine or zinc acetate there was a reduction in the number of H2S-producing bacteria, however these counts subsequently recovered as pulsing continued. The generation of VSCs was correlated to the viable counts of the H2S-producing bacteria. By pulsing with anti-malodour compounds over time we observed a reduction in the quantity of VSCs produced and a change in the composition of the plaque to one which contained fewer H2S-producing bacteria. PMID:14550375
Pratten, J; Pasu, M; Jackson, G; Flanagan, A; Wilson, M
Summary. Alcoholics Anonymous represent one of the few clearly successful treatment approaches for alcoholism. In an attempt to delineate the dynamics of this approach, six propositions were derived from previous research on A.A. and tested in a longitudinal study of post-discharge A.A. affiliation among 378 white males treated for alcoholism in a state hospital. Unlike previous studies, the present effort
Harrison M. Trice; Paul M. Roman
BACKGROUND: Several cross-sectional studies reported that heavier children eat breakfast less often. However, no longitudinal studies have addressed whether skipping breakfast leads to excessive weight gain.OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether skipping breakfast was prospectively associated with changes in body fatness.METHODS: A cohort of >14 000 boys and girls from all over the US, 9- to 14-y-old in 1996, returned annual mailed
C S Berkey; H R H Rockett; M W Gillman; A E Field; G A Colditz
Elevated depressive symptoms (DS) are associated with incident mild cognitive impairment and probable dementia in postmenopausal women. We examined the association of elevated DS with domain-specific cognitive changes and the moderating role of cardiovascular risk factor severity and cardiovascular disease (CVD). A total of 2221 elderly women who participated in the Women's Health Initiative Study of Cognitive Aging were separated into those with (N = 204) and without (N = 2017) elevated DS. The DS and multidomain cognitive outcomes were measured annually for an average follow-up of 5.04 years. Women with elevated DS showed baseline multidomain cognitive deficits but longitudinal declines in global cognition only. Persistent DS was related to greater global cognition, verbal knowledge and fluency, and memory declines. Significant DS-CVD interactions were observed cross-sectionally (but not longitudinally) for figural memory and fine motor speed. Future studies should investigate the role of nonvascular mechanisms linking DS and cognitive decline. PMID:24584465
Goveas, Joseph S; Espeland, Mark A; Hogan, Patricia E; Tindle, Hilary A; Shih, Regina A; Kotchen, Jane M; Robinson, Jennifer G; Barnes, Deborah E; Resnick, Susan M
Project FIO (The Future Is Ours) was a three arm randomized controlled HIV prevention intervention trial carried out with heterosexually-active women in a high sero-prevalence area of New York City. The trial was effective and women in the eight-session intervention arm were significantly more likely to report decreased unsafe sex or no unsafe sex compared to controls at one month and one year post-intervention. The current investigation was a qualitative analysis of women’s sexual scripts at baseline and one year follow-up for a randomly selected subsample of participants in Project FIO. We examined the domains of sexual initiation, pace setting, sexual decision-making, communication about sexual needs, and the timing of condom introductions in the experimental and control arms at baseline and one year follow-up. At one year follow-up, among both the experimental and control arms, results showed changes away from male-dominated and toward female-dominated sexual initiation and sexual decision-making. Among both the experimental and control arms, results also showed that trial participants shifted from a late condom introduction (right before intercourse) toward much earlier mention of condoms (e.g. during a date). The fact that shifts in sexual scripts at one year follow-up occurred in both groups is likely reflective of the degree to which a lengthy assessment interview facilitated comfort with discussing and imagining new sexual behaviors, even for control group participants who did not receive the intervention. The value of empirically assessing sexual scripts in HIV/AIDS prevention and doing so longitudinally is assessed in light of the goals of HIV prevention interventions. PMID:17186128
Beckford, Sharlene T.; Ehrhardt, Anke A.
This article reviews the history, measures and principal findings of the Seattle Longitudinal Study. This study began in 1956 focusing upon age differences and age changes in cognitive abilities. Its sampling frame is a large HMO in the Pacific Northwest. The study has been expanded to investigate various influences on cognitive aging including, cognitive styles, personality traits, life styles, and family environment. Current interest is also in the early detection of risk for dementia. In addition, this article reports original analyses of the relation of personality dimensions to cognitive abilities (both concurrent and longitudinal). While personality remains relatively stable over the adult life span, modest proportions of variance are shared between various personality traits and the cognitive abilities. PMID:16755303
Schaie, K. Warner; Willis, Sherry L.; Caskie, Grace I.L.
This study examined the prenatal, postnatal and demographic predictors of parent-reported attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in an Australian population-based sample. Participants were families participating in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. There were approximately even numbers of males (51%) and females (49%) in the…
Sciberras, Emma; Ukoumunne, Obioha C.; Efron, Daryl
Putaminal metabolites examined using cross-sectional magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can distinguish pre-manifest and early Huntington's Disease (HD) individuals from controls. An ideal biomarker, however, will demonstrate longitudinal change over short durations. The objective here was to evaluate longitudinal in vivo brain metabolite profiles in HD over 24 months. Eighty-four participants (30 controls, 25 pre-manifest HD, 29 early HD) recruited as part of TRACK-HD were imaged at baseline, 12 months, and 24 months using 3T MRS of left putamen. Automated putaminal volume measurement was performed simultaneously. To quantify partial volume effects, spectroscopy was performed in a second, white matter voxel adjacent to putamen in six subjects. Subjects underwent TRACK-HD motor assessment. Statistical analyses included linear regression and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). At all time-points N-acetyl aspartate and total N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), neuronal integrity markers, were lower in early HD than in controls. Total NAA was lower in pre-manifest HD than in controls, whereas the gliosis marker myo-inositol (MI) was robustly elevated in early HD. Metabolites were stable over 24 months with no longitudinal change. Total NAA was not markedly different in adjacent white matter than putamen, arguing against partial volume confounding effects in cross-sectional group differences. Total NAA correlations with disease burden score suggest that this metabolite may be useful in identifying neurochemical responses to therapeutic agents. We demonstrate almost consistent group differences in putaminal metabolites in HD-affected individuals compared with controls over 24 months. Future work establishing spectroscopy as an HD biomarker should include multi-site assessments in large, pathologically diverse cohorts. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. PMID:25690257
Sturrock, Aaron; Laule, Corree; Wyper, Katy; Milner, Ruth A; Decolongon, Joji; Santos, Rachelle Dar; Coleman, Allison J; Carter, Kimberley; Creighton, Susan; Bechtel, Natalie; Bohlen, Stefan; Reilmann, Ralf; Johnson, Hans J; Hayden, Michael R; Tabrizi, Sarah J; Mackay, Alex L; Leavitt, Blair R
Discreet collection of spot check observations to measure household hygiene conditions is a common measurement technique in epidemiologic studies of hygiene in low-income countries. The objective of this study was to determine whether the collection of spot check observations in longitudinal studies could itself induce reactivity (i.e., change participant behavior). We analyzed data from a 12-month prospective cohort study in rural Tamil Nadu, India that was conducted in the absence of any hygiene or toilet promotion activities. Our data included hygiene and toilet spot checks from 10,427 household visits. We found substantial evidence of participant reactivity to spot check observations of hygiene practices that were easy to modify on short notice. For example, soap observed at the household's primary handwashing location increased from 49% at enrollment to 81% by the fourth visit and remained at or above 77% for the remainder of the study. PMID:25385856
Arnold, Benjamin F; Khush, Ranjiv S; Ramaswamy, Padmavathi; Rajkumar, Paramasivan; Durairaj, Natesan; Ramaprabha, Prabhakar; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Colford, John M
In this paper I describe and discuss the way that a book I had written on a five-year longitudinal study of school science teaching was received by the pupils and teachers it featured. By and large the pupils' reception was positive. However, one group of teachers was deeply hurt by the book. I trace this mainly to my failure to consider adequately their fears of the consequences of the book's publication and possibly to my failure to consider with them the psychological significance of my withdrawing from the school after five years of regular study. I hope that there are lessons not only for myself but also for others considering longitudinal and ethnographic research in science education and more broadly.
Reiss, Michael J.
Gender schema theory proposes that children's acquisition of gender labels and gender stereotypes informs gender-congruent behaviour. Most previous studies have been cross-sectional and do not address the temporal relationship between knowledge and behaviour. We report the results of a longitudinal study of gender knowledge and sex-typed behaviour across three domains in children tested at 24 and 36 months (N = 56). Although both knowledge and sex-typed behaviour increased significantly between 2 and 3 years, there was no systematic pattern of cross-lagged correlations between the two, although some concurrent relationships were present at 24 months. Future longitudinal work might profitably focus on younger children using reliable preverbal measures of gender knowledge and employing a shorter lag between measurement times. PMID:15323112
Campbell, Anne; Shirley, Louisa; Candy, Julia
The objective of the current study was to examine possible risk (school-bullying and victimization, exposure to media violence, callous-unemotional traits, impulsivity and narcissism) and protective (family, peer and school social support) factors that might be associated with cyberbullying and cyber-victimization by employing a longitudinal, two-wave design. The sample consisted of 1,416 (50.1% girls) adolescents living in Cyprus. The findings suggested
Kostas A. Fanti; Andreas G. Demetriou; Veronica V. Hawa
This study uses prospective longitudinal data to examine who acquired a first tattoo among a national sample of adolescents (n = 13,101). Results indicate that social bonds, prior deviant involvement, self-protection, and negative self-appraisal all were predictive of tattoo acquisition. Results also show nontrivial differences in the likelihood of tattoo acquisition for different subgroups of adolescents, ranging from 1 in 5 for
Eric Silver; Matthew VanEseltine; Stacy J. Silver
A 1988 study of a school-linked sample in a metropolitan and a regional urban area established baseline data for knowledge, attitudes, intentions, and behavior with regard to water management and conservation (Murphy, Watson, & Moore, 1991). This paper reports on a 1991 follow-up, utilising both longitudinal and cross-sectional samples of students, teachers and parents, which aimed at identifying changes within
Susan Moore; Margot Murphy; Ray Watson
SummaryBackground Vascular causes of dementia may be more common than supposed. Vascular factors may also have a role in late-onset Alzheimer's disease, but the role of hypertension in the development of dementia is unclear.Methods As part of the Longitudinal Population Study of 70-year-olds in Göteborg, Sweden, we analysed the relation between blood pressure and the development of dementia in the
I Skoog; L Nilsson; G Persson; B Lernfelt; S Landahl; B Palmertz; L-A Andreasson; A Odén; A Svanborg
This study is an examination of the melodic improvisations of a group of children (N = 62) for 3 years, from ages 7 through 9. Participants improvised as part of a class rondo for Orff instruments, in ABACADA form, in which the B, C, and D sections were 8-measure alto-xylophone improvisations in C pentatonic. Each participant improvised three…
Brophy, Timothy S.
Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS): Description of a multidisciplinary, New York, NY, USA Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS), a multidisciplinary and large arsenic (As) exposure on various health outcomes, including premalignant and malignant skin tumors, total
van Geen, Alexander
This longitudinal study examined the effect of all-day kindergarten programs on the academic achievement of students from racial language minority and low socioeconomic class. The study employed a series of 3-level longitudinal multilevel analyses using a nationally representative database, the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS). The study…
Policy makers and researchers are increasingly showing interest in lifelong learning due to a rising unemployment rate in recent years. Much attention has been paid to determinants and benefits of lifelong learning but not to the impact of social capital on lifelong learning so far. In this article, we study how social and human capital can…
Knipprath, Heidi; De Rick, Katleen
Population-based, prospective longitudinal cohort studies are considering the issues surrounding returning findings to individuals as a result of genomic and other medical research studies. While guidance is being developed for clinical settings, the process is less clear for those conducting longitudinal research. This paper discusses work conducted on behalf of The UK Cohort and Longitudinal Study Enhancement Resource programme (CLOSER) to examine consent requirements, process considerations and specific examples of potential findings in the context of the 1958 British Birth cohort. Beyond deciding which findings to return, there are questions of whether re-consent is needed and the possible impact on the study, how the feedback process will be managed, and what resources are needed to support that process. Recommendations are made for actions a cohort study should consider taking when making vital decisions regarding returning findings. Any decisions need to be context-specific, arrived at transparently, communicated clearly, and in the best interests of both the participants and the study. PMID:25126104
IIenam , " n 1'tern'a ~Ran ament R* ' w, Rp 19RR, p. 1U. Background. of Participative Management In tracing the development of the theories and concepts which lead up to the idea of participative management, it can be said without too much...
Harms, Robert Arthur
This book outlines the basic elements of longitudinal qualitative data, focusing on micro-levels of change observed within individual cases and groups of participants, and presents 16 questions through which researchers can approach the analysis of longitudinal qualitative data. The chapters are: (1) "Longitudinal Qualitative Studies, Time, and…
This study focused on an audience at high risk for heavy use of licit and illicit substances: young adults who as children had attention-deficit\\/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The participants in this study were part of a longitudinal study of the life histories of 492 children, one third of whom were identified as hyperactive in 1974 and whose childhood symptom ratings
Nadine M. Lambert; Carolyn S. Hartsough
Background The aim of the study was to describe families with small children who participated in parent-child interaction interventions\\u000a at four centres in Sweden, and to examine long term and short term changes regarding the parents' experience of parental stress,\\u000a parental attachment patterns, the parents' mental health and life satisfaction, the parents' social support and the children's\\u000a problems.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods In this longitudinal
Kerstin Neander; Ingemar Engström
Objective: Strong opinions have been voiced about the “fit” between 12-step treatment, community-based 12-step practices, and American Indian beliefs and values. Little is known, however, about the relative benefit of 12-step programs for urban American Indians, although they are the most widely accessed type of treatment by American Indians. This study investigated rates of 12-step attendance, attrition, and substance use outcomes for American Indians for 9 months relative to non-Hispanic White participants. Method: This study compared urban American Indian (n = 63) and non-Hispanic White (n = 133) 12-step attendance, attrition, and substance use over 9 months. The sample was formed by merging data from two prospective single-group longitudinal studies investigating behavior change in community-based 12-step programs. Participants were interviewed at baseline and at 3-, 6-, and 9-month follow-ups. No intervention was provided. Participants were recruited from Alcoholics Anonymous meetings in the community and as they presented for outpatient substance use disorder treatment. Substance use and patterns of 12-step attendance were measured using the Form 90 calendar-based interview, and the General Alcoholics Anonymous Tools of Recovery was administered to assess the adoption of prescribed 12-step practices and beliefs. Results: Trajectories in 12-step meeting attendance over 9 months did not differ between American Indian and non-Hispanic White participants. However, American Indian participants discontinued 12-step attendance significantly less often than non-Hispanic White participants. Higher rates of 12-step attendance predicted increased alcohol abstinence and decreased drinking intensity for both American Indian and non-Hispanic White participants. Twelve-step attendance was unrelated to later illicit drug use for both American Indian and non-Hispanic White participants. Conclusions: Community-based 12-step program attendance is associated with drinking reductions among urban American Indians. PMID:23739014
Tonigan, J. Scott; Martinez-Papponi, Brenda; Hagler, Kyleei J.; Greenfield, Brenna L.; Venner, Kamilla L.
The present study used a collaborative framework to integrate 2 long-term prospective studies: the Terman Life Cycle Study and the Hawaii Personality and Health Longitudinal Study. Within a 5-factor personality-trait framework, teacher assessments of child personality were rationally and empirically aligned to establish similar factor structures…
Kern, Margaret L.; Hampson, Sarah E.; Goldberg, Lewis R.; Friedman, Howard S.
The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) is a panel study of a representative cohort of men and women living in England aged ?50 years. It was designed as a sister study to the Health and Retirement Study in the USA and is multidisciplinary in orientation, involving the collection of economic, social, psychological, cognitive, health, biological and genetic data. The study commenced in 2002, and the sample has been followed up every 2 years. Data are collected using computer-assisted personal interviews and self-completion questionnaires, with additional nurse visits for the assessment of biomarkers every 4 years. The original sample consisted of 11 391 members ranging in age from 50 to 100 years. ELSA is harmonized with ageing studies in other countries to facilitate international comparisons, and is linked to financial and health registry data. The data set is openly available to researchers and analysts soon after collection (http://www.esds.ac.uk/longitudinal/access/elsa/l5050.asp). PMID:23143611
Steptoe, Andrew; Breeze, Elizabeth; Banks, James; Nazroo, James
Background The Japanese Study on Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood (J-SHINE) aims to clarify the complex associations between social factors and health from an interdisciplinary perspective and to provide a database for use in various health policy evaluations. Methods J-SHINE is an ongoing longitudinal panel study of households of adults aged 25–50 years. The wave 1 survey was carried out in 2010 among adults randomly selected from the resident registry of four urban and suburban municipalities in the greater Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan. In 2011, surveys for the participants’ spouse/partner and child were additionally conducted. The wave 2 survey was conducted in 2012 for the wave 1 participants and will be followed by the wave 2 survey for spouse/partner and child in 2013. Results Wave 1 sample sizes were 4357 for wave 1 participants (valid response rate: 31.3%; cooperation rate: 51.8%), 1873 for spouse/partner (response rate: 61.9%), and 1520 for child (response rate: 67.7%). Wave 2 captured 69.0% of wave 1 participants. Information gathered covered socio-demographics, household economy, self-reported health conditions and healthcare utilization, stress and psychological values, and developmental history. A subpopulation underwent physiological (n = 2468) and biomarker (n = 1205) measurements. Conclusions Longitudinal survey data, including repeated measures of social factors evaluated based on theories and techniques of various disciplines, like J-SHINE, should contribute toward opening a web of causality for society and health, which may have important policy implications for recent global health promotion strategies such as the World Health Organization’s Social Determinants of Health approach and the second round of Japan’s Healthy Japan 21. PMID:24814507
Takada, Misato; Kondo, Naoki; Hashimoto, Hideki
Objectives To examine the independent influence of school economic deprivation, social fragmentation, and social cohesion on the likelihood of participating in no physical activity among students. Methods Data are from a large-scale longitudinal study of schools based in disadvantaged communities in Quebec, Canada. Questionnaires were administered every year between 2002 and 2008 among n?=?14,924 students aged 12 to 18 from a sample of 70 schools. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were conducted. Multilevel modeling was utilized to account for the clustering of students within schools. Schools were categorized as being low, moderate or high economic deprivation, social fragmentation and social cohesion. Those who indicated that they do no participate in any physical activity during the week were identified as being physically inactive. Results In baseline multilevel cross-sectional analyses, adolescents attending schools in the highest (compared to the lowest) levels of socioeconomic deprivation and social fragmentation were more likely to be physically inactive (OR?=?1.33, 95% CI?=?1.03, 1.72; and OR?=?1.24, 95% CI?=?0.98, 1.56, respectively). Conversely, students attending schools with the highest cohesion were less likely to be physically inactive (OR?=?0.78, 95% CI?=?0.61, 0.99). In longitudinal analysis, physically active students who attended schools with the highest social fragmentation were more likely to become physically inactive over two years (OR?=?1.65, 95% CI?=?1.09, 2.51). Conclusion The school socioeconomic environment appears to be an important contextual influence on participation in no physical activity among adolescents. Following adolescents beyond two years is necessary to determine if these environments have a lasting effect on physical activity behavior. PMID:24932679
Pabayo, Roman; Janosz, Michel; Bisset, Sherri; Kawachi, Ichiro
Phase I testing of investigational drugs relies on healthy volunteers as research participants. Many U.S. healthy volunteers enroll repeatedly in clinical trials for the financial compensation. Serial participants are incentivized to ignore restrictions on their participation, and no centralized clinical trial registry prevents dual enrollment. Little is currently known about how healthy volunteers participate in studies over time, hampering the development of policies to protect this group. We detail a methodology developed as part of a longitudinal study to track in real-time healthy volunteers' Phase I participation. Illustrating these data through three case studies, we document how healthy volunteers use strategies, such as qualifying for studies at more than one clinic and traveling significant distances, to maximize their participation. Our findings suggest that "clinical trial diaries" can generate critical information about serial research participation and point to ethical issues unique to healthy volunteers' involvement in Phase I clinical trials. PMID:25742668
Edelblute, Heather B; Fisher, Jill A
Objective?To assess longitudinally the relations between four parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, uninvolved, and indulgent) and child weight status in Mexican American families.?Methods?Sixty-nine low-income Mexican American mothers and their 4- to 8-year-old children participated in a 4-year longitudinal study. Mothers completed demographic and parenting measures. Children's body weight and height were assessed annually. Body mass index was calculated to determine weight status.?Results?At baseline, 65% of children were found to be normal weight, 14% were overweight, and 21% were obese. Analyses examined how parenting styles at baseline predicted child's weight status 3 years later, controlling for initial weight status. Children of indulgent mothers were more likely to become overweight 3 years later than children of authoritative or authoritarian mothers.?Conclusions?This study provides longitudinal evidence for the role of indulgent parenting in predicting overweight in Mexican American children. Possible mediating factors that may account for this relationship (e.g., dietary patterns, physical activity patterns, and children's self-regulation) are considered. PMID:19726552
Power, Thomas G.
Research has demonstrated the potential role of the brainstem in the pathobiology of autism. Previous studies have suggested reductions in brainstem volume and a relationship between this structure and sensory abnormalities. However, little is known regarding the developmental aspects of the brainstem across childhood and adolescence. The goal of this pilot study was to examine brainstem development via MRI volumetry using a longitudinal research design. Participants included 23 boys with autism and 23 matched controls (age range = 7–17 years), all without intellectual disability. Participants underwent structural MRI scans once at baseline and again at two-year follow-up. Brainstem volumetric measurements were performed using the BRAINS2 software package. There were no significant group differences in age, gender, handedness, and total brain volume; however, full-scale IQ was higher in controls. Autism and control groups showed different patterns of growth in brainstem volume. While whole brainstem volume remained stable in controls over the two-year period, the autism group showed increases with age reaching volumes comparable to controls by age 15 years. This increase of whole brainstem volume was primarily driven by bilateral increases in gray matter volume. Findings from this preliminary study are suggestive of developmental brainstem abnormalities in autism primarily involving gray matter structures. These findings are consistent with autism being conceptualized as a neurodevelopmental disorder with alterations in brain-growth trajectories. More longitudinal MRI studies are needed integrating longitudinal cognitive/behavioral data to confirm and elucidate the clinical significance of these atypical growth patterns. PMID:23619132
Jou, Roger J.; Frazier, Thomas W.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Hardan, Antonio Y.
This study represents the first longitudinal investigation of distal psychosocial predictors of pregnancy risk-taking in young Australian women. Participants were from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. Two mail-out surveys assessing sociodemographic, education\\/competence, psychosocial wellbeing, and aspiration\\/identity factors, were completed at ages 18 and 22 by 1647 young women in emerging adulthood, and a third survey assessing pregnancy risk-taking
Lauren Miller-Lewis; Tracey Wade; Christina Lee
The purpose of this article is to report on the system-level findings of a longitudinal study of four mental health consumer-run self-help organizations. Quantitative and qualitative data revealed that staff and members of the four Consumer/Survivor Initiatives (CSIs) participated actively in system-level activities, including community planning,…
Janzen, Rich; Nelson, Geoffrey; Trainor, John; Ochocka, Joanna
Developmental science rests on describing, explaining, and optimizing intraindividual changes and, hence, empirically requires longitudinal research. Problems of missing data arise in most longitudinal studies, thus creating challenges for interpreting the substance and structure of intraindividual change. Using a sample of reports of longitudinal…
Jelicic, Helena; Phelps, Erin; Lerner, Richard M.
The longitudinal anal muscle (LAM) has been described as a vertical layer of muscular tissue interposed between the circular layers of the internal (IAS) and external (EAS) anal sphincters. There is, however, no general agreement in the literature on its composition and attachments. The aim of this study was to investigate the histological structure, attachments, and topography of the LAM in order to evaluate its role in continence and defecation, thus enhancing knowledge of the surgical anatomy of this region. After in situ formalin fixation, the pelvic viscera were removed from eight male and eight female cadavers (age range: 52-72 years). Serial macrosections of the bladder base, lower rectum and anal canal, cervix and pelvic floor complex, cut in the transverse (six specimens) and coronal (six specimens) planes, underwent histological and immunohistochemical studies. Four specimens were studied using the E12 sheet plastination technique. The LAM was identified in 10/12 specimens (83%). Transverse and coronal sections made clear that it is a longitudinal layer of muscular tissue, marking the boundary between the internal and external anal sphincters. From the anorectal junction it extends along the anal canal, receives fibers from the innermost part of the puborectalis and the puboanalis muscles, and terminates with seven to nine fibro-elastic septa, which traverse the subcutaneous part of the external anal sphincter, reaching the perianal dermis. In the transverse plane, the mean thickness of the LAM was 1.68 +/- 0.27 mm. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the LAM consists of predominantly outer striated muscle fibers and smaller numbers of inner smooth muscle fibers, respectively coming from the levator ani muscle and from the longitudinal muscular layer of the rectum. The oblique fibers suggest that the LAM may represent the intermediate longitudinal course of small bridging muscle bundles going reciprocally from the striated EAS to the smooth IAS and vice versa. The spatial result is the helical course of striated and smooth muscle fibers between the EAS and IAS, which contribute not only to the narrowing but also to some shortening of the anal canal during sphincter contraction. Thus, rather than being a boundary, the LAM gives anatomical evidence of a functional connection between two muscle systems with different structures and topography. PMID:18561297
Macchi, Veronica; Porzionato, Andrea; Stecco, Carla; Vigato, Enrico; Parenti, Anna; De Caro, Raffaele
This article explores transition to postgraduate (PG) study in terms of the widening participation (WP) agenda. The research is located within a Communities of Practice framework, allowing for explanations of transition in terms of learning, identity and participation in practices. A qualitative ethnographic methodology is employed, and analysis…
O'Donnell, Victoria L.; Tobbell, Jane; Lawthom, Rebecca; Zammit, Maria
Purpose - Not only does leadership produce changes, but those changes produce leadership in organisations. The purpose of this paper is to present a theoretical and empirical analysis of the transformation of leadership at two different historical points in a health care organisation. It leans on the perspective of social constructionism, drawing especially from the ideas of Berger and Luckmann (1966). The paper seeks to improve understanding of how leaders themselves construct leadership in relation to organisational change. Design/methodology/approach - The empirical material was gathered in a longitudinal case study in a nursing organisation in two different historical and situational points. It consists of written narratives produced by nurse leaders that are analysed by applying discourse analysis. Findings - The empirical study revealed that the constructions of leadership were dramatically different at the two different historical and situational points. Leadership showed up as a complex, fragile and changing phenomenon, which fluctuates along with the other organisational changes. The results signal the importance of agency in leadership and the central role of "significant others". Originality/value - The paper questions the traditional categorisation and labelling of leadership as well as the cross-sectional studies in understanding leadership transformation. Its originality relates to the longitudinal perspective on transformation of leadership in the context of a health care organisation. PMID:25735420
This study examined the stability of eating disorder (ED) classifications among a population-based sample of male and female adolescents (n = 2,516) who participated in Project EAT-II, a five-year longitudinal study. Cross-tabulations using weighted data identified diagnostic stability across six classifications (Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, Binge Eating Disorder, Binge Eating and\\/or Compensatory Behaviors not meeting ED diagnosis, Body Image Disturbance
Diann M. Ackard; Jayne A. Fulkerson; Dianne Neumark-Sztainer
The purpose of this study was to examine whether older age is associated with increasing loneliness in people aged 60 and over. Data came from TamELSA, a population-based prospective longitudinal study in Tampere, Finland. The followup time was 20 years. Loneliness was measured by a single question--"Do you feel lonely?"--with the possible answers…
Objective: To evaluate cardiometabolic risk of students longitudinally and compare them with age-matched national samples. Participants: Participants are 134 graduate students enrolled between August 2005 and May 2010. Methods: Students were assessed at the beginning and end of their 3-year curriculum. Comparative samples included 966 National…
Racette, Susan B.; Inman, Cindi L.; Clark, B. Ruth; Royer, Nathaniel K.; Steger-May, Karen; Deusinger, Susan S.
In their initial study, authors Boston, Ice, and Gibson (2011) explored the relationship between student demographics and interactions, and retention at a large online university. Participants in the preliminary study (n = 20,569) included degree-seeking undergraduate students who completed at least one course at the American Public University…
Boston, Wallace; Ice, Phil; Burgess, Melissa
A longitudinal study involving 400 children, one third of whom were identified as hyperactive in 1974, investigated tobacco smoking and substance dependencies. The results found almost twice as many participants with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder smoked cigarettes daily as controls and twice as many were cocaine dependent. (CR)
Lambert, Nadine M.; Hartsough, Carolyn S.
We conducted a 5-year longitudinal study on 76 workers of a high and medium aluminium alloy die-casting factory. As in a previous cross-sectional study conducted in 1986 and in accordance with the data in the literature, the 1990 follow-up study showed: a low prevalence of chronic bronchitis (as defined by the ECSC questionnaire on respiratory symptoms); normal mean functional values of FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC%. We did not find any significant difference in the levels of lung function over the period of 1986-90. These results show that workers in the secondary aluminium industry are not exposed to a significant risk of chronic pulmonary disease. PMID:1297059
Discalzi, G L; Capellaro, F; Baracco, A
Aim To investigate the longitudinal association between television viewing time and risk of incident diabetes mellitus in an elderly sample of adults in England. Methods Analyses of data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. At baseline (2008), participants reported their television viewing time and physical activity level. Diabetes mellitus was recorded from self-reported physician diagnosis at 2-year follow-up. Associations between television viewing time and combined television viewing time and physical activity level with risk of incident diabetes mellitus at follow-up were examined using adjusted logistic regression models. Results A total of 5964 participants (mean ± sd age 65 ± 9 years at baseline, 44% male) were included in the analyses. There was an association between baseline television viewing time and risk of incident diabetes mellitus at 2-year follow-up (? 6 h/day compared with <2 h/day; odds ratio 4.27, 95% CI 1.69, 10.77), although the association was attenuated to the null in final adjusted models that included BMI. Participants who were inactive/had high television viewing time at baseline were almost twice as likely to have diabetes mellitus at 2-year follow-up than those who were active/had low television viewing time (fully adjusted odds ratio 1.94, 95% CI 1.02, 3.68), although active participants reporting high television viewing were not at risk. Conclusion Interventions to reduce the incidence of diabetes in the elderly that focus on both increasing physical activity and reducing television viewing time might prove useful. PMID:24975987
Smith, L; Hamer, M
Objectives: We sought to explore the association between childhood maltreatment (e.g., neglect, physical and sexual abuse) and longitudinal growth trajectories of body mass index (BMI) from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods: We used latent curve modeling to examine data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 8,471),…
Shin, Sunny Hyucksun; Miller, Daniel P.
Objective. The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitudes of students (n = 36) in an undergraduate occupational therapy program toward people with mental illness and physical disabilities, and the effect of educational experiences on attitudes.Method. Two attitude scales, the Attitude Toward Disabled Persons (ATDP-A) and Opinions About Mental Illness (OMI), were administered to participants over a three
Neil H. Penny
This study examined US undergraduate students' intent to study abroad upon college entry and their actual participation in study abroad during their undergraduate years, correlating the college outcomes of three cohorts to identify trends. The findings show that study abroad intent and participation are interrelated and shaped by an array of…
Luo, Jiali; Jamieson-Drake, David
Purpose The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the effects of dietary B vitamin intakes on creatinine-adjusted urinary total\\u000a arsenic concentration among individuals participating in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) cohort in\\u000a Araihazar, Bangladesh. Arsenic exposure is a major public health problem in Bangladesh, where nearly 77 million people have\\u000a been chronically exposed to arsenic through the consumption
Maria Argos; Paul J. Rathouz; Brandon L. Pierce; Tara Kalra; Faruque Parvez; Vesna Slavkovich; Alauddin Ahmed; Yu Chen; Habibul Ahsan
This longitudinal study examined the effect of all-day kindergarten programs on the academic achievement of students from racial language minority and low socioeconomic class. The study employed a series of 3-level longitudinal multilevel analyses using a nationally representative database, the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS). The study showed that Hispanic dual-language-speaking students who attended all-day kindergarten narrowed the achievement gap
This longitudinal study examined the effect of all-day kindergarten programs on the academic achievement of students from racial language minority and low socioeconomic class. The study employed a series of 3-level longitudinal multilevel analyses using a nationally representative database, the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS). The study showed that Hispanic dual-language-speaking students who attended all-day kindergarten narrowed the achievement gap
Longitudinal loss of lung function in 1677 coal-miners from five British collieries has been calculated from the results of serial cross-sectional epidemiological surveys and compared with measured concurrent individual respirable dust exposures and partially estimated previous cumulative exposures. Loss of forced expired volume in one second (FEV1) over approximately 11 years was found to increase with previous cumulative dust exposure after allowing for the effects of age, height, smoking, and overall colliery differences. This relationship was found to hold with concurrent dust exposure only when colliery differences were ignored. These results confirm by direct measurement inferences drawn indirectly from previous cross-sectional studies of the relationship between FEV1 and dust exposure. PMID:6980496
Love, R G; Miller, B G
Autonomic fear conditioning deficits have been linked to child aggression and adult criminal behavior. However, it is unknown if fear conditioning deficits are specific to certain subtypes of aggression, and longitudinal research is rare. In the current study, reactive and proactive aggression were assessed in a sample of males and females when aged 10, 12, 15, and 18 years old. Skin conductance fear conditioning data were collected when they were 18 years old. Individuals who were persistently high on proactive aggression measures had significantly poorer conditioned responses at 18 years old when compared to others. This association was not found for reactive aggression. Consistent with prior literature, findings suggest that persistent antisocial individuals have unique neurobiological characteristics and that poor autonomic fear conditioning is associated with the presence of increased instrumental aggressive behavior. PMID:25174802
Gao, Yu; Tuvblad, Catherine; Schell, Anne; Baker, Laura; Raine, Adrian
Background: Bone mass loss and muscle atrophy are the frequent complications occurring after spinal cord injury (SCI). The potential risks involved with these changes in the body composition have implications for the health of the SCI individual. Thus, there is a need to quantitate and monitor body composition changes accurately in an individual with SCI. Very few longitudinal studies have been reported in the literature to assess body composition and most include relatively small number of patients. The present prospective study aimed to evaluate the body composition changes longitudinally by DEXA in patients with acute SCI. Materials and Methods: Ninety five patients with acute SCI with neurological deficits were evaluated for bone mineral content (BMC), body composition [lean body mass (LBM) and fat mass] by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry during the first year of SCI. Results: There was a significant decrease in BMC (P < 0.05) and LBM (P < 0.05) and increase in total body fat mass (TBFM) and percentage fat at infra-lesional sites. The average decrease was 14.5% in BMC in lower extremities, 20.5% loss of LBM in legs and 15.1% loss of LBM in trunk, and increase of 0.2% in fat mass in legs and 17.3% increased fat in the lower limbs at 1 year. The tetraplegic patients had significant decrease in arm BMC (P < 0.001), arm LBM (P < 0.01) and fat percentage (P < 0.01) compared to paraplegics. Patients with complete motor injury had higher values of TBFM and fat percentage, but comparable values of BMC and LBM to patients with incomplete motor injury. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that there is a marked decrease in BMC and LBM with increase in adiposity during the first year of SCI. Although these changes depend on the level and initial severity of lesions, they are also influenced by the neurological recovery after SCI. PMID:24741139
Singh, Roop; Rohilla, Rajesh K; Saini, Gaurav; Kaur, Kiranpreet
Retention management, i.e., keeping qualified employees, is a top priority for contemporary organizations. Commitment, and especially team commitment, can be the key to mastering this challenge. There is a lack of longitudinal research concerning the development and the direction of the effects of team commitment over time. In a longitudinal…
Neininger, Alexandra; Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Kauffeld, Simone; Henschel, Angela
Cross-sectional studies on somatosensory perception in children demonstrate lower pain thresholds for children compared with adolescents. The aim of the present longitudinal study was to replicate these age-related differences in a longitudinal design. Total 38 children and adolescents aged 6 to 16 years (two girls and two boys within each year) participated in this study. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) according to the protocol of the German research network on neuropathic pain (DFNS) was assessed twice with an interval of 15.8 ± 3.0 months. Bland-Altman analyses describe the short-term reliability of the measurements. Intraindividual sensory development was measured using paired t-test and quantified by effect sizes Cohen's d between the two measurements. QST parameters showed good short-term reliability. Over a period of 1 year, children became less sensitive to painful stimuli, especially to cold pain, pressure pain, and mechanical pain. No systematic developmental changes were observed in response to the other somatosensory stimuli. QST is reliable over short retest intervals. In line with previous results from cross-sectional studies, we find a decrease in pain sensitivity with increasing age but no differences in nonnociceptive somatosensory processing over a period of 1 year in children between 6 and 16 years of age. Taken together, these results highlight the importance of a reference-based interpretation of the individual QST data. PMID:22430155
Hirschfeld, Gerrit; Zernikow, Boris; Kraemer, Nicole; Hechler, Tanja; Aksu, Fuat; Krumova, Elena; Maier, Christoph; Magerl, Walter; Blankenburg, Markus
Objective Research examining changes in eating disorder symptoms across adolescence suggests an increase in disordered eating from early to late adolescence. However, relevant studies have largely been cross-sectional in nature and most have not examined the changes in the attitudinal symptoms of eating disorders (e.g., weight concerns). This longitudinal study aimed to address gaps in the available data by examining the developmental trajectories of disordered eating in females from preadolescence into young adulthood. Method Participants were 745 same-sex female twins from the Minnesota Twin Family Study. Disordered eating was assessed using the Total Score, Body Dissatisfaction subscale, Weight Preoccupation subscale, and a combined Binge Eating and Compensatory Behavior subscale from the Minnesota Eating Behavior Survey assessed at the ages of 11, 14, 18, 21, and 25. Several latent growth models were fit to the data to identify the trajectory that most accurately captures the changes in disordered eating symptoms from 11 to 25 years. Results The best-fitting models for overall levels of disordered eating, body dissatisfaction, and weight preoccupation showed an increase in from 11 through 25 years. In contrast, bulimic behaviors increased to age of 18 and then stabilized to age of 25. Discussion The findings expanded upon extant research by investigating longitudinal, symptom specific, within-person changes and showing an increase in cognitive symptoms into young adulthood and the stability of disordered eating behaviors past late adolescence. PMID:24995824
Slane, Jennifer D.; Klump, Kelly L.; McGue, Matthew; Iacono, William G.
Study Objectives: To longitudinally examine sleep patterns, habits, and parent-reported sleep problems during the first year of life. Methods: Seven hundred four parent/child pairs participated in a longitudinal cohort study. Structured interview recording general demographic data, feeding habits, intercurrent diseases, family history, sleep habits, and parental evaluation of the infant's sleep carried out at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months Results: Nocturnal, daytime, and total sleep duration showed a high inter-individual variability in the first year of life associated with changes in the first 6 months and stability from 6 to 12 months. Bedtime was at around 22:00 and remained stable at 6, 9, and 12 months of age. Approximately 20% of the infants had more than 2 awakenings and slept more often in the parent bed. Nearly 10% of the infants were considered as having a problematic sleep by parents and this significantly correlated with nocturnal awakenings and difficulties falling asleep. Conclusions: Sleep patterns change during the first year of life but most sleep variables (i.e., sleep latency and duration) show little variation from 6 to 12 months. Our data provide a context for clinicians to discuss sleep issues with parents and suggest that prevention efforts should focus to the first 3-6 months, since sleep patterns show stability from that time point to 12 months. Citation: Bruni O, Baumgartner E, Sette S, Ancona M, Caso G, Di Cosimo ME, Mannini A, Ometto M, Pasquini A, Ulliana A, Ferri R. Longitudinal study of sleep behavior in normal infants during the first year of life. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(10):1119-1127. PMID:25317093
Bruni, Oliviero; Baumgartner, Emma; Sette, Stefania; Ancona, Mario; Caso, Gianni; Di Cosimo, Maria Elisabetta; Mannini, Andrea; Ometto, Mariangela; Pasquini, Anna; Ulliana, Antonella; Ferri, Raffaele
This article describes a 10-year longitudinal study of eating attitudes and behaviors. A sample of 509 women and 206 men completed a detailed survey in 1982 while they were in college. The authors contacted participants 10 years later and administered a 2nd questionnaire to assess stability and change in eating behaviors that occurred during the transition to early adulthood. Women in the study had substantial declines in disordered eating behavior as well as increased body satisfaction. However, body dissatisfaction and desires to lose weight remained at relatively high levels. Men, who rarely dieted or had eating problems in college, were prone to weight gain following college, and many of them reported increased dieting or disordered eating. The authors conclude that disordered eating generally tends to decline during the transition to early adulthood. However, body dissatisfaction remains a problem for a substantial segment of the adult population. PMID:9103723
Heatherton, T F; Mahamedi, F; Striepe, M; Field, A E; Keel, P
This study investigated the roles of sex, age, and parent-child communication in moderating the association between digital game violence and direct aggression in a two-year longitudinal study. Finnish 12- and 15-year-old adolescents (N = 316) participated in the follow-up survey. As hypothesized, digital game violence was linked to direct…
Wallenius, Marjut; Punamaki, Raija-Leena
This dissertation research comprised three studies focused on vision-specific skills, and their association with functional and academic outcomes for school-age students with visual impairment. The studies involved analysis of secondary data for 850 students with visual impairment who participated in the Special Education Elementary Longitudinal…
Anderson, Dawn L.
This study examines whether health risk behaviour in adolescence can be predicted by self- and by parental reports of psychopathology (externalizing and internalizing symptoms) assessed two and four years earlier. A total sample of 366 fourth graders participated in a longitudinal study with measurements taken in grades 4, 6, and 8. In grades 4…
Vierhaus, Marc; Lohaus, Arnold
The study investigated continuity, comorbidity and longitudinal associations between depression Beck depression inventory (RBDI) and antisocial behaviour Youth self-report (YSR) in middle adolescence. Data were used from a community sample of 2070 adolescents who participated in a 2-year prospective follow-up study. The results indicate that both…
Ritakallio, Minna; Koivisto, Anna-Maija; von der Pahlen, Bettina; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Marttunen, Mauri; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu
Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), a marker of arterial stiffness, is an established independent cardiovascular (CV) risk factor. Little information is available on the pattern and determinants of the longitudinal change in PWV with aging. Such information is crucial to elucidating mechanisms underlying arterial stiffness and the design of interventions to retard it. Between 1988 and 2013, we collected 2 to 9 serial measures of PWV in 354 men and 423 women of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, who were 21 to 94 years of age and free of clinically significant CV disease. Rates of PWV increase accelerated with advancing age in men more than women, leading to gender differences in PWV after the age of 50. In both sexes, not only systolic blood pressure (SBP) ?140mmHg, but also SBP of 120–139mmHg was associated with steeper rates of PWV increase compared to SBP<120mmHg. Furthermore, there was a dose-dependent effect SBP in men with marked acceleration in PWV rate of increase with age at SBP ?140mmHg compared to SBP of 120–139mmHg. Except for waist circumference in women, no other traditional CV risk factors predicted longitudinal PWV increase. In conclusion, the steeper longitudinal increase of PWV in men than women led to gender difference that expanded with advancing age. Age and systolic blood pressure are the main longitudinal determinants of pulse wave velocity and the effect of systolic blood pressure on PWV trajectories exists even in the pre-hypertensive range. PMID:24001897
AlGhatrif, Majd; Strait, James B.; Morrell, Chris; Canepa, Marco; Wright, Jeanette; Elango, Palchamy; Scuteri, Angelo; Najjar, Samer S.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Lakatta, Edward G.
Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), a marker of arterial stiffness, is an established independent cardiovascular risk factor. Little information is available on the pattern and determinants of the longitudinal change in PWV with aging. Such information is crucial to elucidating mechanisms underlying arterial stiffness and the design of interventions to retard it. Between 1988 and 2013, we collected 2 to 9 serial measures of PWV in 354 men and 423 women of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, who were 21 to 94 years of age and free of clinically significant cardiovascular disease. Rates of PWV increase accelerated with advancing age in men more than women, leading to sex differences in PWV after the age of 50 years. In both sexes, not only systolic blood pressure (SBP) ?140 mm?Hg but also SBP of 120 to 139 mm?Hg was associated with steeper rates of PWV increase compared with SBP<120 mm?Hg. Furthermore, there was a dose-dependent effect of SBP in men with marked acceleration in PWV rate of increase with age at SBP ?140 mm?Hg compared with SBP of 120 to 139 mm?Hg. Except for waist circumference in women, no other traditional cardiovascular risk factors predicted longitudinal PWV increase. In conclusion, the steeper longitudinal increase of PWV in men than women led to the sex difference that expanded with advancing age. Age and SBP are the main longitudinal determinants of PWV, and the effect of SBP on PWV trajectories exists even in the prehypertensive range. PMID:24001897
AlGhatrif, Majd; Strait, James B; Morrell, Chris H; Canepa, Marco; Wright, Jeanette; Elango, Palchamy; Scuteri, Angelo; Najjar, Samer S; Ferrucci, Luigi; Lakatta, Edward G
Background: Whilst past studies have established the joint influence of student learning experience and study behaviour on academic achievement, few attempts have been made to determine their causal ordering in a longitudinal framework. Purpose: This study explored the reciprocal relationship between learning experience and study behaviour, and…
Ning, H. K.; Downing, Kevin
This study examined the prenatal, postnatal and demographic predictors of parent-reported attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity\\u000a disorder (ADHD) in an Australian population-based sample. Participants were families participating in the Longitudinal Study\\u000a of Australian Children. There were approximately even numbers of males (51%) and females (49%) in the sample. Predictors of\\u000a parent-reported ADHD status at Wave 2 (children aged 6–7 years) which were measured at Wave
Emma Sciberras; Obioha C. Ukoumunne; Daryl Efron
This study examined a full path model of stress process for predicting illicit drug use among Asian and Latino immigrants' adolescent children. Using 2-year longitudinal data (National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health) from a sample of adolescents with Asian or Latino immigrant parents (N = 2,353), the study explored structural…
Little work has been conducted that examines the effects of positive environmental experiences on brain development to date. The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate the effects of positive (warm and supportive) maternal behavior on structural brain development during adolescence, using longitudinal structural MRI. Participants were 188 (92 female) adolescents, who were part of a longitudinal adolescent development study that involved mother-adolescent interactions and MRI scans at approximately 12 years old, and follow-up MRI scans approximately 4 years later. FreeSurfer software was used to estimate the volume of limbic-striatal regions (amygdala, hippocampus, caudate, putamen, pallidum, and nucleus accumbens) and the thickness of prefrontal regions (anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal cortices) across both time points. Higher frequency of positive maternal behavior during the interactions predicted attenuated volumetric growth in the right amygdala, and accelerated cortical thinning in the right anterior cingulate (males only) and left and right orbitofrontal cortices, between baseline and follow up. These results have implications for understanding the biological mediators of risk and protective factors for mental disorders that have onset during adolescence. PMID:24269113
Whittle, Sarah; Simmons, Julian G; Dennison, Meg; Vijayakumar, Nandita; Schwartz, Orli; Yap, Marie B H; Sheeber, Lisa; Allen, Nicholas B
In a family-based genetic study such as the Framingham Heart Study (FHS), longitudinal trait measurements are recorded on subjects collected from families. Observations on subjects from the same family are correlated due to shared genetic composition or environmental factors such as diet. The data have a 3-level structure with measurements nested in subjects and subjects nested in families. We propose a semiparametric variance components model to describe phenotype observed at a time point as the sum of a nonparametric population mean function, a nonparametric random quantitative trait locus (QTL) effect, a shared environmental effect, a residual random polygenic effect and measurement error. One feature of the model is that we do not assume a parametric functional form of the age-dependent QTL effect, and we use penalized spline-based method to fit the model. We obtain nonparametric estimation of the QTL heritability defined as the ratio of the QTL variance to the total phenotypic variance. We use simulation studies to investigate performance of the proposed methods and apply these methods to the FHS systolic blood pressure data to estimate age-specific QTL effect at 62cM on chromosome 17. PMID:21933778
Wang, Yuanjia; Huang, Chiahui
The present study examined relationships among variables drawn from achievement goal theory and the expectancy-value model of achievement choice as well as mean level changes of these variables over time in elementary physical education. Participants (N = 207) completed questionnaires over a 2-year period: once while in the second and fourth grades and again when they were in the third and fifth grades. Results indicated that achievement goals, expectancy-related beliefs, and subjective task values were related to one another and were predictive of children's intention for future participation in physical education. Children's subjective task values of physical education decreased over time. Children in Cohort 1 (across second to third grades) generally had stronger motivation for learning in physical education than children in Cohort 2 (across fourth to fifth grades). Findings suggest the importance of integrating achievement goal theory and the expectancy-value model of achievement choice in understanding student motivation. PMID:15532363
Xiang, Ping; McBride, Ron; Guan, Jianmin
Study Objectives: To assess the longitudinal course of cognitive functions in a cohort of patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD). Design: Prospective study with baseline and 2-year follow-up. Setting: Sleep disorders center. Participants: Twenty-four cognitively asymptomatic iRBD patients (18 M; mean age: 69.5 ± 7.3 y) and 12 sex-, age-, and education-matched healthy subjects. Interventions: Participants underwent to a video-PSG, a focused neuropsychological evaluation and a neurological examination. Following the first evaluation, subjects were reassessed after a mean interval of 25.8 months. Measurements and Results: Executive functions, attention and language were normal at baseline and at 2 year follow-up examination. At baseline, iRBD patients showed poorer performance than controls in delayed verbal memory (story recall test: P = 0.001) and in visuo-constructional abilities (Copy of the Rey-Osterrieth complex figure: P = 0.0005). At follow-up, they not only performed worse than controls in the same tests (story recall: P = 0.0001; Copy of the Rey-Osterrieth complex figure: P = 0.0004), but they also showed an impairment in visuo-spatial learning (Corsi supraspan test; P < 0.0001). ANOVAs showed a significant worsening in visuo-spatial learning over time in RBD compared to controls (P = 0.0001). Furthermore, 3 patients fulfilled the UK Brain Bank criteria for Parkinson disease, but this was unrelated to cognitive deterioration. Conclusions: Although no patients developed dementia, the decline observed in some tests involving the memory and visuo-constructional domains in idiopathic RBD suggests the presence of an underlying evolving degenerative process. Citation: Fantini ML; Farini E; Ortelli P; Zucconi M; Manconi M; Cappa S; Ferini-Strambi L. Longitudinal study of cognitive function in idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder. SLEEP 2011;34(5):619-625. PMID:21532955
Fantini, Maria Livia; Farini, Elena; Ortelli, Paola; Zucconi, Marco; Manconi, Mauro; Cappa, Stefano; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi
We investigated whether consent forms adhere to Federal Common Rule regulations pertaining to withdrawal from research, described the language of withdrawal provisions, and assessed differences in studies by withdrawal provisions. A random sample of 114 consent forms from a midwestern, academic medical center were examined for descriptive content of withdrawal parameters stated within consent forms. All consent forms included the
ELISA J. GORDON; THOMAS R. PROHASKA
This study explores the relationship between organizational health climate and worksite health promotion program participation, specifically engaging individuals who are unlikely to make positive health behavior choices on their own. Participants consisted of employees at three separate furniture-manufacturing facilities completing a voluntary survey. Using responses (n = 349) from the health climate instrument, which is a measure of the collective attitudes, beliefs, and readiness to change a health behavior, this study identified two factors that were significant contributors to worksite health promotion program participation. Health norms, the collective attitudes regarding healthy lifestyle, as measured by the subscales-health scale and intention to make a behavior change-and "optimistic bias," the overassessment of one's personal health, were found to be predictors of participation. Additionally, significant (p < .05) predictors of self-assessed health, included perceived control to initiate, competence to carry out, and the organizational support of the health behavior change. The findings suggest that the organization's health norms and self-assessed health are associated with the worker's motivation to become involved with health promotion interventions. Offering worksite health screenings and advanced programming and creating a culture of health at work can help address program participation. PMID:24231632
Hall, Michael Edward; Bergman, Randall J; Nivens, Samantha
This longitudinal study modeled lexical development among children who spoke Vietnamese as a first language (L1) and English as a second language (L2). Participants (n=33, initial mean age of 7.3 years) completed a total of eight tasks (four in each language) that measured vocabulary knowledge and lexical processing at four yearly time points. Multivariate hierarchical linear modeling was used to calculate L1 and L2 trajectories within the same model for each task. Main findings included (a) positive growth in each language, (b) greater gains in English resulting in shifts toward L2 dominance, and (c) different patterns for receptive and expressive domains. Timing of shifts to L2 dominance underscored L1 skills that are resilient and vulnerable to increases in L2 proficiency. PMID:23869741
Pham, Giang; Kohnert, Kathryn
A 3-year longitudinal study was conducted on a multi-site farrow-to-finish production system. For each of 18 cohorts at three finishing sites, 50 pigs were randomly selected. Faecal samples were collected every 2 weeks for 16 weeks. Salmonella was cultured from 453 (6·6%) of 6836 faecal samples. The pig-level incidence of Salmonella was 20·8% (187/899 pigs). Salmonella prevalence varied between cohorts and within pigs. The adjusted Salmonella prevalence decreased over the finishing period from 6·4% to 0·8%. Intermittent detection of Salmonella was found in more than 50% of pigs that were positive at more than one collection. The finding that the majority of pigs shed intermittently has implications for surveillance and research study design when determining Salmonella status. The variability in shedding over time, as well as between and within cohorts and pigs suggests that there may be time-variant risk factors for Salmonella shedding in swine. PMID:23148875
Pires, A F A; Funk, J A; Bolin, C A
Chronic diseases are a global problem, yet information on their determinants is generally scant in low- and middle-income countries. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) aims to contribute relevant information regarding the development and progression of clinical and subclinical chronic diseases, particularly cardiovascular diseases and diabetes, in one such setting. At Visit 1, we enrolled 15 105 civil servants from predefined universities or research institutes. Baseline assessment (2008–10) included detailed interviews and measurements to assess social and biological determinants of health, as well as various clinical and subclinical conditions related to diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and mental health. A second visit of interviews and examinations is under way (2012–14) to enrich the assessment of cohort exposures and to detect initial incident events. Annual surveillance has been conducted since 2009 for the ascertainment of incident events. Biological samples (sera, plasma, urine and DNA) obtained at both visits have been placed in long-term storage. Baseline data are available for analyses, and collaboration via specific research proposals directed to study investigators is welcome. PMID:24585730
Schmidt, Maria Inês; Duncan, Bruce B; Mill, José Geraldo; Lotufo, Paulo A; Chor, Dóra; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Aquino, Estela ML; Passos, Valéria Maria Azeredo; Matos, Sheila MA; Molina, Maria del Carmen B; Carvalho, Marilia S; Bensenor, Isabela M
With substantive evidence suggesting that adolescents’ disclosure is likely a protective factor against problem behaviors, as well as evidence that many adolescents will go to great lengths to avoid sharing information with parents, one may conclude that parents’ face a formidable task. Previous studies have identified parental acceptance as a concurrent correlate of adolescents’ behavioral disclosure, but have neglected to investigate potential ways that parents could encourage their adolescents to feel comfortable disclosing emotional information. The present study extends the literature by using a longitudinal, multi-method, multi-reporter design to examine whether maternal acceptance is predictive of emotional disclosure over time among a racially/socioeconomically diverse sample of 184 adolescents (53% female). Results indicate that adolescents who perceive their mothers as high in acceptance during early adolescence exhibit greater relative increases in both self-reported emotional communication and observed emotional disclosure to their mothers 3 years later. Interestingly, mothers’ perceptions of their own acceptance does not provide any additional predictive value. These findings support the notion that adolescents’ emotional disclosure is an ongoing process that can be fostered in early adolescence, and emphasize the importance of considering adolescents’ perceptions of the relationship to successfully do so. PMID:20820894
Hare, Amanda L.; Marston, Emily G.; Allen, Joseph P.
The Tea Party movement, which rose to prominence in the United States after the election of President Barack Obama, provides an ideal context in which to examine the roles of racial concerns and ideology in politics. A three-wave longitudinal study tracked changes in White Americans’ self-identification with the Tea Party, racial concerns (prejudice and racial identification), and ideologies (libertarianism and social conservatism) over nine months. Latent Growth Modeling (LGM) was used to evaluate potential causal relationships between Tea Party identification and these factors. Across time points, racial prejudice was indirectly associated with movement identification through Whites’ assertions of national decline. Although initial levels of White identity did not predict change in Tea Party identification, initial levels of Tea Party identification predicted increases in White identity over the study period. Across the three assessments, support for the Tea Party fell among libertarians, but rose among social conservatives. Results are discussed in terms of legitimation theories of prejudice, the “racializing” power of political judgments, and the ideological dynamics of the Tea Party. PMID:23825630
Knowles, Eric D.; Lowery, Brian S.; Shulman, Elizabeth P.; Schaumberg, Rebecca L.
This study is a longitudinal comparison of the health of children exposed to markedly different concentrations of sulfur dioxide and moderately different concentrations of particulate sulfate. The four groups of subjects lived in two areas of one smelter town and in two other towns, one of which was also a smelter town. In the area of highest pollution, children were intermittently exposed to high SO/sub 2/ levels (peak three-hour average concentration exceeded 2,500 micrograms/m3) and moderate particulate SO/sub 4/= levels (average concentration was 10.1 micrograms/m3). When the children were grouped by the four gradients of pollution observed, the prevalence of cough (measured by questionnaire) correlated significantly with pollution levels (trend chi-square = 5.6, p = 0.02). No significant differences in the incidence of cough or other symptoms occurred among the groups of subjects over three years, and pulmonary function and lung function growth over the study were roughly equal among all the groups. These results suggest that intermittent elevations in SO/sub 2/ concentration, in the presence of moderate particulate SO/sub 4/= concentration, produced evidence of bronchial irritation in the subjects, but no chronic effect on lung function or lung function growth was detected.
Dodge, R.; Solomon, P.; Moyers, J.; Hayes, C.
The doubly labeled water (DLW) method is considered the reference method for the measurement of energy expenditure under free-living conditions. However, the reproducibility of the DLW method in longitudinal studies is not well documented. This study was designed to evaluate the longitudinal reprodu...
Background: Maternal depression is known to be associated with impairments in child cognitive development, although the effect of timing of exposure to maternal depression is unclear. Methods: Data collected for the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a longitudinal study beginning in pregnancy, included self-report measures of…
Evans, Jonathan; Melotti, Roberto; Heron, Jon; Ramchandani, Paul; Wiles, Nicola; Murray, Lynne; Stein, Alan
Traumatic childhood experiences have been found to predict later internalizing problems. This prospective longitudinal study investigated whether repeated and intentional harm doing by peers (peer victimization) in childhood predicts internalizing symptoms in early adolescence. 3,692 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and…
Zwierzynska, Karolina; Wolke, Dieter; Lereya, Tanya S.
OBJECTIVESThe drop out rates in different longitudinal studies of musculoskeletal disorders range between 7% and 57%, and little is known about the characteristics of the subjects who dropped out. The aim was to analyse various consequences of drop out in a longitudinal study of musculoskeletal disorders and occupational risk factors during 1969–97.METHODData about occupational conditions and health in 1969 and
C Bildt; L Alfredsson; L Punnett; H Theobald; M Torgén; A Wikman
Objectives. We examined the association between time spent in physical education and academic achievement in a longitudinal study of students in kinder- garten through fifth grade. Methods. We used data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kinder- garten Class of 1998 to 1999, which employed a multistage probability design to select a nationally representative sample of students in kindergarten (analytic
Susan A. Carlson; Janet E. Fulton; Sarah M. Lee; L. Michele Maynard; David R. Brown; Harold W. Kohl III; William H. Dietz
To explore long-range outcomes of the Mt. Druitt Early Childhood intervention project and to investigate the development of children in Australian government schools, research was begun in 1981 which included elements of both followup and longitudinal studies. The Mt. Druitt Longitudinal Study, discussed in this report, broadened the emphasis of…
O'Brien, Peter; And Others
Study abroad is an expensive, resource intensive activity for both students and their home institution. With an estimated 200,000 American students studying abroad in 2006, and an annual growth rate of eight percent, program administrators and international scholars are increasingly being asked to document the learning outcomes associated with…
Rexeisen, Richard J.; Anderson, Philip H.; Lawton, Leigh; Hubbard, Ann C.
Background/Methods The Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study Prevention Instrument Project is a longitudinal study that recruited 644 cognitively healthy older subjects (aged between 75 and 93 years, 58% women) at baseline and evaluated their cognitive change over 4 years. The study was structured like a clinical trial to anticipate a prevention trial and to determine the performance of novel trial instruments in a longitudinal non-interventional trial framework. Behavioral symptoms were assessed at baseline. Results The existence of participant-reported behavioral symptoms at baseline predicted conversion to Clinical Dementia Rating scale score ?0.5 over the 4-year period. Conclusions The results imply that early anxiety and depression may be harbingers of future cognitive decline, and that patients exhibiting such symptoms, even in the absence of co-occurring cognitive symptoms, should be closely followed over time. PMID:25685141
Banks, Sarah Jane; Raman, Rema; He, Feng; Salmon, David P.; Ferris, Steven; Aisen, Paul; Cummings, Jeffrey
The Longitudinal Study of Astronomy Graduate Students (LSAGS), an ongoing, joint project of the American Astronomical Society (AAS) and the American Institute of Physics (AIP), first collected survey data from astronomy and astrophysics graduate students in 2007-08. The LSAGS follows the same people, all of whom were in graduate school in 2006-07, over time as they start their careers. Most of the respondents are currently working as postdocs. There have been two rounds of the survey so far, and we have recently received funding for a third round from the National Science Foundation (AST-1347723). Results from the first round showed the importance of mentoring for graduate students. Data collection for the second round has been completed, and AIP has just begun analysis of these data. At this talk, I will present the results of the second survey. Ultimately, the LSAGS will *provide detailed data on trends in employment over 10+ years for a single cohort, *collect data on people who leave the field of astronomy during or after graduate school, *determine whether there are sex differences in attrition from astronomy and reasons for this, and *examine factors that precede decisions to persist in, or leave, the field of astronomy.
Serum samples collected from individuals of a wide range of ages in South Yorkshire between 1969 and 1990 provided the basis for a longitudinal seroprevalence survey of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies. Sera numbering 3868 were screened for T. gondii specific antibodies using a commercial latex agglutination test. The resultant temporal series of serological profiles revealed a rise, with age, in seroprevalence, the rate of which showed a decrease through time. A plateau of around 40-50% prevalence was attained by the 41- to 45-year age-class in 1969 which was not approached until the 66- to 70-year class in the 1988-90 data set. This trend for decline in seroprevalence was confirmed by statistical analysis for the age range 21-60 years. These results may be indicative of a decrease in the rate of toxoplasma exposure in this study community over the 20-year period. The survey of 1988-90 provides a base-line profile of present-day seroprevalence in which 11% of individuals in the age range 16-45 years (roughly corresponding to the childbearing age-range) show evidence of past infection. The representative nature of the serum collection and public-health implications of these results are discussed. PMID:1547845
Walker, J.; Nokes, D. J.; Jennings, R.
Background The increased prevalence of malocclusions represents a secular trend attributed to the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. The analysis of factors related to the causes of these changes is essential for planning public health policies aimed at preventing and clinically intercepting malocclusion. This study investigated the sucking habits, nocturnal mouth breathing, as well as the relation of these factors with malocclusion. Methods This is a longitudinal study in which 80 mother-child pairs were monitored from the beginning of pregnancy to the 30th month after childbirth. Home visits for interviews with the mothers were made on the 12th, 18th and 30th months of age. Finger sucking, pacifier sucking, bottle feeding, breastfeeding and nocturnal mouth breathing, were the variables studies. On the 30th month, clinical examinations were performed for overjet, overbite and posterior crossbite. A previously calibrated single examiner (Kappa coefficient?=?0.92) was responsible for all examinations. Data were analyzed using the chi-squared or Fisher’s exact tests, at a significance level of 5%. Results Bottle feeding was the most prevalent habit at 12, 18 and 30 months (87.5%; 90% and 96.25%, respectively). Breastfeeding was 40%, 25% and 12.50% at 12, 18 and 30 months, respectively. Nearly 70% of the children in this study had some sort of malocclusion. Pacifier sucking habit at 12, 18 and 30 months of age was associated with overjet and open bite; and at 30 months, an association with overbite was also observed. Finger sucking habit and breastfeeding at 12, 18 and 30 months were also associated with overjet and open bite. The posterior crossbite was associated with bottle feeding at 12 and 30 months, and nocturnal mouth breathers at 12 and 18 months. Conclusions Sucking habits, low rates of breastfeeding, and nocturnal mouth breathing were risk factors for malocclusion. PMID:25091288
The class quasi-experiment was conducted to determine whether using computer simulation teaching strategy enhanced student understanding of statistics concepts for students enrolled in an introductory course. One hundred and ninety-three sophomores in hospitality management department were invited as participants in this two-year longitudinal…
A longitudinal study provides a more detailed analysis of the career pathways of graduates than the First Destination Survey can achieve. This survey of 41% of graduates from a BSc (Honours) Outdoor Studies degree also examines the importance of named skills to their careers and the success of the degree in developing each skill. Two thirds of…
Little information exists about the causal relationships of sport and exercise participation with goal orientations, perceived athletic competence and intrinsic motivation in physical education. A longitudinal study was conducted involving 882 Greek students who completed questionnaires on three occasions: 3 – 5 weeks into the academic year, 3 – 6 weeks before the end of the academic year, and 7 months later. The data
Athanasios Papaioannou; Evaggelos Bebetsos; Yannis Theodorakis; Triantafyllos Christodoulidis; Olga Kouli
Because frailty may represent impaired response to physiological stress we explored the associations between frailty and orthostatic hypotension (OH), and orthostatic intolerance (OI). This study was based on a cross-sectional analysis of 5692 community dwelling adults aged 50 years and older included in wave 1 of the Irish Longitudinal Study on Aging. Frailty was assessed using both the phenotypic (FP) and frailty index (FI) models. OH was defined as a drop of ?20mmHg in systolic blood pressure or a drop of ?10mmHg diastolic pressure on standing from a seated position. OI was defined as reporting feeling dizzy, light headed or unsteady during this test. 346 (6.1%) participants had OH and 381 (6.7%) participants had OI. The prevalence OH in frail participants was 8.9%, compared to 5% in robust. Similarly the prevalence of OI was 14.3% in frail and 5.7% in robust participants. After adjustment for age and gender, OH was not significantly related to the FP (OR=1.10 95% CI=0.67, 1.81). Conversely OI was (OR=1.80 95% CI=1.13, 2.87), even after adjustment for age, gender, cardiovascular factors and mental health. In fully adjusted models OI remained related to slowness and low muscle strength and to higher FI scores. These data suggest OI symptoms in older adults may reflect various important underlying health deficits, indicative of increasing levels of frailty. Further assessment of frailty in patients experiencing OI is a potential opportunity for early intervention to delay functional decline. PMID:25687529
O'Connell, Matthew D L; Savva, George M; Fan, Chie Wei; Kenny, Rose Anne
Ventral hernias are a common clinical problem. Immediate repair is recommended for most ventral hernias despite significant recurrence rates. This practice may be related to a lack of understanding of the natural history of ventral hernias. The purpose of this study was to determine the natural history of ventral hernias and to determine if watchful waiting is an acceptable and safe option. Forty-one patients with ventral hernias were enrolled in a longitudinal cohort study of watchful waiting. Primary outcomes were functional impairment resulting from hernia disease as measured by the Activities Assessment Scale (AAS) and changes from baseline to two years in the physical and mental component score of the SF-36 Health Survey. Secondary outcomes included complications such as incarceration. Mixed-effects model for repeated measures and Student's t tests were used to evaluate scale performance. The mean age of enrollees was 64 years, and the mean hernia size was 239 cm(2). Eleven patients were lost to follow-up, and seven patients died of other causes. All remaining patients were followed for two years. There was one incarceration during the follow-up period. There was no deterioration in the AAS score (baseline vs 24 months = 28 vs 25, P = 0.60). There was deterioration of the physical functioning dimension of the SF-36 (baseline vs 24 months = 40 vs 32, P < 0.01), but the mental functioning dimension was improved (45 vs 51; P = 0.01). Watchful waiting was a safe option for patients in this study with ventral hernias. PMID:24666865
Bellows, Charles F; Robinson, Celia; Fitzgibbons, Robert J; Webber, Larry S; Berger, David H
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Recent genome-wide association (GWA) studies have pinpointed many loci associated with CVD risk factors in adults. It is unclear, however, if these loci predict trait levels at all ages, if they are associated with how a trait develops over time, or if they could be used to screen individuals who are pre-symptomatic to provide the opportunity for preventive measures before disease onset. We completed a genome-wide association study on participants in the longitudinal Bogalusa Heart Study (BHS) and have characterized the association between genetic factors and the development of CVD risk factors from childhood to adulthood. We report 7 genome-wide significant associations involving CVD risk factors, two of which have been previously reported. Top regions were tested for replication in the Young Finns Study (YF) and two associations strongly replicated: rs247616 in CETP with HDL levels (combined P?=?9.7 x 10(-24)), and rs445925 at APOE with LDL levels (combined P?=?8.7 x 10(-19)). We show that SNPs previously identified in adult cross-sectional studies tend to show age-independent effects in the BHS with effect sizes consistent with previous reports. Previously identified variants were associated with adult trait levels above and beyond those seen in childhood; however, variants with time-dependent effects were also promising predictors. This is the first GWA study to evaluate the role of common genetic variants in the development of CVD risk factors in children as they advance through adulthood and highlights the utility of using longitudinal studies to identify genetic predictors of adult traits in children. PMID:20838585
Smith, Erin N; Chen, Wei; Kähönen, Mika; Kettunen, Johannes; Lehtimäki, Terho; Peltonen, Leena; Raitakari, Olli T; Salem, Rany M; Schork, Nicholas J; Shaw, Marian; Srinivasan, Sathanur R; Topol, Eric J; Viikari, Jorma S; Berenson, Gerald S; Murray, Sarah S
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Recent genome-wide association (GWA) studies have pinpointed many loci associated with CVD risk factors in adults. It is unclear, however, if these loci predict trait levels at all ages, if they are associated with how a trait develops over time, or if they could be used to screen individuals who are pre-symptomatic to provide the opportunity for preventive measures before disease onset. We completed a genome-wide association study on participants in the longitudinal Bogalusa Heart Study (BHS) and have characterized the association between genetic factors and the development of CVD risk factors from childhood to adulthood. We report 7 genome-wide significant associations involving CVD risk factors, two of which have been previously reported. Top regions were tested for replication in the Young Finns Study (YF) and two associations strongly replicated: rs247616 in CETP with HDL levels (combined P?=?9.7×10?24), and rs445925 at APOE with LDL levels (combined P?=?8.7×10?19). We show that SNPs previously identified in adult cross-sectional studies tend to show age-independent effects in the BHS with effect sizes consistent with previous reports. Previously identified variants were associated with adult trait levels above and beyond those seen in childhood; however, variants with time-dependent effects were also promising predictors. This is the first GWA study to evaluate the role of common genetic variants in the development of CVD risk factors in children as they advance through adulthood and highlights the utility of using longitudinal studies to identify genetic predictors of adult traits in children. PMID:20838585
Smith, Erin N.; Chen, Wei; Kähönen, Mika; Kettunen, Johannes; Lehtimäki, Terho; Peltonen, Leena; Raitakari, Olli T.; Salem, Rany M.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Shaw, Marian; Srinivasan, Sathanur R.; Topol, Eric J.; Viikari, Jorma S.; Berenson, Gerald S.; Murray, Sarah S.
Developmental scientists have argued that the implementation of longitudinal methods is necessary for obtaining an accurate picture of the nature and sources of developmental change (Magnusson & Cairns, 1996; Morrison & Ornstein, 1996; Magnusson & Stattin, 2006). Developmentalists studying cognition have been relatively slow to embrace longitudinal research, and thus few exemplar studies have tracked individual children’s cognitive performance over time and even fewer have examined contexts that are associated with this growth. In this article we first outline some of the benefits of implementing longitudinal designs. Using illustrations from existing studies of children’s basic cognitive development and of their school-based academic performance, we discuss when it may be appropriate to employ longitudinal (versus other) methods. We then outline methods for integrating longitudinal data into one’s research portfolio, contrasting the leveraging of existing longitudinal data sets with the launching of new longitudinal studies in order to address specific questions concerning cognitive development. Finally, for those who are interested in conducting longitudinal investigations of their own, we provide practical on-the-ground guidelines for designing and carrying out such studies of cognitive development. PMID:24955035
Grammer, Jennie K.; Coffman, Jennifer L.; Ornstein, Peter A.; Morrison, Frederick J.
Background Longitudinal time-activity data are important for exposure modeling, since the extent to which short-term time-activity data represent long-term activity patterns is not well understood. This study was designed to evaluate longitudinal variations in human time-activity patterns. Method We report on 24-hour recall diaries and questionnaires collected via the internet from 151 parents of young children (mostly under age 55), and from 55 older adults of ages 55 and older, for both a weekday and a weekend day every three months over an 18-month period. Parents also provided data for their children. The self-administrated diary and questionnaire distinguished ~30 frequently visited microenvironments and ~20 activities which we selected to represent opportunities for exposure to toxic environmental compounds. Due to the non-normal distribution of time-location/activity data, we employed generalized linear mixed-distribution mixed-effect models to examine intra- and inter-individual variations. Here we describe variation in the likelihood of and time spent engaging in an activity or being in a microenvironment by age group, day-type (weekday/weekend), season (warm/cool), sex, employment status, and over the follow-up period. Results As expected, day-type and season influence time spent in many location and activity categories. Longitudinal changes were also observed, e.g., young children slept less with increasing follow-up, transit time increased, and time spent on working and shopping decreased during the study, possibly related to human physiological changes with age and changes in macro-economic factors such as gas prices and the economic recession. Conclusions This study provides valuable new information about time-activity assessed longitudinally in three major age groups and greatly expands our knowledge about intra- and inter-individual variations in time-location/activity patterns. Longitudinal variations beyond weekly and seasonal patterns should be taken into account in simulating long-term time-activity patterns in exposure modeling. PMID:21933379
Background Online health communication has the potential to reach large audiences, with the additional advantages that it can be operational at all times and that the costs per visitor are low. Furthermore, research shows that Internet-delivered interventions can be effective in changing health behaviors. However, exposure to Internet-delivered health-communication programs is generally low. Research investigating predictors of exposure is needed to be able to effectively disseminate online interventions. Objective In the present study, the authors used a longitudinal design with the aim of identifying demographic, psychological, and behavioral predictors of visiting, using, and revisiting an online program promoting physical activity in the general population. Methods A webpage was created providing the public with information about health and healthy behavior. The website included a “physical activity check,” which consisted of a physical activity computer-tailoring expert system where visitors could check whether their physical activity levels were in line with recommendations. Visitors who consented to participate in the present study (n = 489) filled in a questionnaire that assessed demographics, mode of recruitment, current physical activity levels, and health motivation. Immediately after, participants received tailored feedback concerning their current physical activity levels and completed a questionnaire assessing affective and cognitive user experience, attitude toward being sufficiently physically active, and intention to be sufficiently physically active. Three months later, participants received an email inviting them once more to check whether their physical activity level had changed. Results Analyses of visiting showed that more women (67.5%) than men (32.5%) visited the program. With regard to continued use, native Dutch participants (odds ratio [OR] = 2.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.16-6.81, P = .02) and participants with a strong motivation to be healthy (OR = 1.46, CI = 1.03-2.07, P = .03) were most likely to continue usage of the program. With regard to revisiting, older participants (OR = 1.04, CI = 1.01-1.06, P = .01) and highly educated participants (OR = 4.69, CI = 1.44-15.22, P = .01) were more likely to revisit the program after three months. In addition, positive affective user experience predicted revisiting (OR = 1.64, CI = 1.12-2.39, P = .01). Conclusions The results suggest that online interventions could specifically target men, young people, immigrant groups, people with a low education, and people with a weak health motivation to increase exposure to these interventions. Furthermore, eliciting positive feelings in visitors may contribute to higher usage rates. PMID:20813716
Crutzen, Rik; De Vries, Hein
Venous leg ulcer pain experienced during compression bandaging is poorly understood. A prospective, pilot cohort study was initiated to determine the feasibility of conducting a large-scale, repeated measures cohort study of venous leg ulcer pain and to document and describe the venous leg ulcer pain experience during the first 5 weeks of treatment with compression bandages. Eligible individuals admitted to a nurse-led community leg ulcer service in one Canadian community were recruited for the 5-week study. Pain assessment tools (ie, numerical rating scale and short form McGill Pain Questionnaire) were evaluated by 20 venous ulcer patients (mean age = 73.7 years) and their nurses for ease of use during one baseline and five weekly follow-up visits. Health-related quality of life (HRQL) information was obtained. Nurses reported on ease of integrating pain data collection into regular clinical care. Each pain assessment tool was audited for completion. Most participants found the pain assessment tools easy to use, but nurses reported lengthened visit times with some participants as a result of tool administration difficulties, particularly the visual analogue scale (VAS). Overall completeness of pain assessment tools ranged from 85.0% (visual analogue scale) to 96.3% (present pain intensity and word descriptor list). The vast majority of patients (18) reported ulcer pain at baseline. Total mean scores for all pain assessment tools used decreased over time, but most patients reported pain throughout the study. The most common pain descriptors used were "aching," "stabbing," "sharp," "tender," and "tiring." Health-related quality of life was low and did not change during the 5-week study. The results of this study suggest that the vast majority of venous ulcer patients experience pain and that it is feasible to examine this pain in individuals receiving care in the community over time. PMID:14712004
Nemeth, Kathleen A; Harrison, Margaret B; Graham, Ian D; Burke, Sharon
Background: Rearing practices are a major determinant of nutritional and health status of infants. Therefore these practices need to be better understood. Objectives: To find out infant rearing practices in the study area. Materials and Methods: A longitudinal study was conducted on a birth cohort of 194 infants. Information on rearing practices and anthropometric measurements were recorded every month for a period of 1 year. Results: Only 67 (34.5%) newborns were breast fed within half an hour of delivery. Prelacteal feeds was given to 65 (33.5%) newborns and this was seen more among home deliveries (P=0.018). Demand feeding was practiced by 169 (87.1%) mothers. Exclusive breast feeding (EBF) for 6 months was practiced by 81 (41.7%) mothers. Bottle feeding was seen in 7 (3.6%) cases. Weight gain during infancy was found to be maximum when infants were EBF for 6 months (P<0.001) and weaned with semi-solid and solid diet alone in the following 6 months (P=0.002). Gain in all anthropometric measurements was more in the initial 6 months of infancy compared to latter. Four (2.1%) infants were malnourished. Oil massage before bath was practiced by 189 (97.4%) mothers. Over 50% mothers practiced oil application to eyes or ears of infants. Delayed initiation of bath (beyond 1week) was seen in 15 (7.7%) cases. Conclusion: Faulty rearing practices need to be corrected in order to improve the health status of infants. PMID:24479041
Joseph, Nitin; Unnikrishnan, B.; Naik, Vijaya A.; Mahantshetti, N.S.; Mallapur, M.D.; Kotian, Shashidhar M.; Nelliyanil, Maria
A Portable Audio/Video Recorder for Longitudinal Study of Child Development Soroush Vosoughi MIT- istic, longitudinal recordings of child development. Categories and Subject Descriptors H.5.2 [User, privacy man- agement, video recorder, audio recorder, child development 1. INTRODUCTION Collection
A longitudinal and multilevel approach is used to examine the relationship between antisocial behavior during adolescence and high school social climate. The data are taken from a longitudinal study of 1,233 boys and girls who attended 217 public and private high schools. Students' disruptive behaviors were assessed yearly from 6 to 12 years of…
Leblanc, Line; Swisher, Raymond; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.
In longitudinal studies data is collected in a series of waves. Each wave after the first suffers from attrition. Therefore it can be difficult to discriminate between changes in sample parameters due to a longitudinal process (e.g. ageing) and changes due to attrition. The problem is particularly vexing if one of the purposes is to compare…
Madhyastha, Tara M.; Hunt, Earl; Deary, Ian J.; Gale, Catharine R.; Dykiert, Dominika
Finding Temporal Patterns in Noisy Longitudinal Data: A Study in Diabetic Retinopathy Vassiliki is a large longitudinal patient database collected as part of a diabetic retinopathy screening programme. The diabetic retinopathy application, the data warehousing and cleaning process, and the frequent pattern
Economic declines and their associated stress, shortage of financial resources, and changes in available time can impair health behaviors. This study tested the association between change in working hours, change in employment status, and financial strain and health behaviors measured after the 2008 recession after controlling for pre-recession levels of the health behaviors. The moderating influences of demographic factors and pre-recession levels of the health behaviors on the association between change in working hours and employment status and financial strain and the health behaviors were also tested. Participants (N = 3984) were from a longitudinal study of a U.S. Midwestern community-based sample. Regression analyses tested the unique relations between change in hours worked per week, change in employment status, and financial strain and five health behaviors over and above demographic factors and pre-recession levels of the same behavior. Models included predictor by covariate interactions. Participants who reported higher levels of financial strain engaged in lower levels of all but one of the five health behaviors, but there were no significant main effects of a change in the number of hours worked per week or change in employment status. Significant interactions revealed moderation of these relations by demographic characteristics, but findings differed across health behaviors. Financial strain negatively affected engagement in multiple healthy behaviors. Promoting the maintenance of healthy behaviors for disease prevention is an important public health goal during times of economic decline. PMID:23726210
Macy, Jonathan T.; Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark C.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood disorder that is associated with many behavioral and social problems. These problems may continue when an individual continues to meet criteria for ADHD as an adult. In this study, we describe the outcome patterns for three different groups: individuals who had ADHD as children, but no longer meet criteria as adults (Childhood-Limited ADHD, n = 71); individuals who met ADHD criteria as children and continue to meet criteria as young adults (Persistent ADHD n = 79); and a control group of individuals who did not meet ADHD diagnostic criteria in childhood or adulthood (n = 69). Groups were compared with examine differences in change in rates of alcohol, marijuana, and nicotine dependence over 3 time points in young adulthood (mean ages 18, 20, and 22 years). The method used is notable as this longitudinal study followed participants from childhood into young adulthood instead of relying on retrospective self-reports from adult participants. Results indicated that there were no significant group differences in change in rates of substance dependence over time. However, individuals whose ADHD persisted into adulthood were significantly more likely to meet DSM-IV criteria for alcohol, marijuana, and nicotine dependence across the 3 time points after controlling for age, sex, childhood stimulant medication use, and childhood conduct problems. Implications of these findings, as well as recommendations for future research, are discussed. PMID:24731117
Breyer, Jessie L; Lee, Susanne; Winters, Ken C; August, Gerald J; Realmuto, George M
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood disorder that is associated with many behavioral and social problems. These problems may continue when an individual continues to meet criteria for ADHD as an adult. In this study, we describe the outcome patterns for three different groups: individuals who had ADHD as children, but no longer meet criteria as adults (Childhood-Limited ADHD, n = 71); individuals who met ADHD criteria as children and continue to meet criteria as young adults (Persistent ADHD n = 79); and a control group of individuals who did not meet ADHD diagnostic criteria in childhood or adulthood (n = 69). Groups were compared to examine differences in change in rates of alcohol, marijuana, and nicotine dependence over three time points in young adulthood (mean ages 18, 20 and 22 years). The method used is notable as this longitudinal study followed participants from childhood into young adulthood instead of relying on retrospective self-reports from adult participants. Results indicated that there were no significant group differences in change in rates of substance dependence over time. However, individuals whose ADHD persisted into adulthood were significantly more likely to meet DSM-IV criteria for alcohol, marijuana, and nicotine dependence across the three time points after controlling for age, sex, childhood stimulant medication use, and childhood conduct problems. Implications of these findings, as well as recommendations for future research, are discussed. PMID:24731117
Breyer, Jessie L.; Lee, Susanne; Winters, Ken; August, Gerald; Realmuto, George
“Hookups” are sexual encounters between partners who are not in a romantic relationship and do not expect commitment. We examined the associations between sexual hookup behavior and depression, sexual victimization (SV), and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among first-year college women. In this longitudinal study, 483 women completed 13 monthly surveys assessing oral and vaginal sex with hookup and romantic partners, depression, SV, and self-reported STIs. Participants also provided biological specimens that were tested for STIs. During the study, 50% of participants reported hookup sex, and 62% reported romantic sex. Covariates included previous levels of the outcome, alcohol use, impulsivity, sensation-seeking, and romantic sex. Autoregressive cross-lagged models showed that controlling for covariates, hookup behavior during college was correlated with depression, Bs = .21, ps < .05, and SV, Bs = .19, ps < .05. Additionally, pre-college hookup behavior predicted SV early in college, B = .62, p < .05. Hookup sex, OR 1.32, p < .05, and romantic sex, OR 1.19, p < .05, were associated with STIs. Overall, sexual hookup behavior among college women was positively correlated with experiencing depression, SV, and STIs, but the nature of these associations remains unclear, and hooking up did not predict future depression. PMID:24350600
Fielder, Robyn L.; Walsh, Jennifer L.; Carey, Kate B.; Carey, Michael P.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether involvement in sporting activity in mid-adolescence would deter delinquent behaviour in late adolescence. METHODS: Members of a longitudinal cohort study were interviewed at ages 15 and 18 years and, among other topics, were asked questions relating to involvement in physical activity and delinquent behaviour. Logistic regression models were used to examine the relation between sports involvement and delinquency at age 15 years and delinquency at age 18. RESULTS: After controlling for delinquent behaviour and psychosocial factors at age 15, females with moderate or high levels of sporting activity, and males with high levels of sporting activity, were significantly more likely to be delinquent at age 18 years than those with low levels of sporting activity. No significant association was found between sporting activity and aggressive behaviour, team sport participation and delinquency, and team sport participation and aggressive behaviour. CONCLUSIONS: This study did not support the deterrence hypothesis and showed that high involvement in sporting activity, but not team sport, was associated with a subsequent increase in delinquent behaviour. PMID:9015598
Begg, D J; Langley, J D; Moffitt, T; Marshall, S W
There has been a recent increase in interest among evolutionary researchers in the hypothesis that humans evolved as cooperative breeders, using extended family support to help decrease offspring mortality and increase the number of children that can be successfully reared. In this study, data drawn from the 1970 longitudinal British cohort study were analysed to determine whether extended family support encourages fertility in contemporary Britain. The results showed that at age 30, reported frequency that participants saw their own parents (but not in-laws) and the closeness of the bond between the participant and their own parents were associated with an increased likelihood of having a child between ages 30 and 34. Financial help and reported grandparental childcare were not significantly positively associated with births from age 30 to 34. Men's income was positively associated with likelihood of birth, whereas women's income increased likelihood of birth only for working women with at least one child. While it was predicted that grandparental financial and childcare help would increase the likelihood of reproduction by lowering the cost to the parent of having a child, it appears that the mere physical presence of supportive parents rather than their financial or childcare help encouraged reproduction in the 1970 British birth cohort sample. PMID:21920986
Objectives To assess the associations among age, health status, and resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a large population of older adults. Design Cross-Sectional Analysis Setting Community-dwelling volunteers from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) Participants Four hundred twenty persons aged 40 – 96 (mean 68.2 ± 11.0) who underwent a comprehensive physical examination, cognitive assessment, resting metabolic rate testing, body composition assessment, and physical function testing during a three-day clinic visit. Measurements Participants were assigned to “IDEAL” (Insight into the Determination of Exceptional Aging and Longevity) or “non-IDEAL” categories based on health status. IDEAL participants were defined by the absence of: physical and cognitive impairments, chronic conditions/comorbidities and blood profile alterations. A three-stage linear regression model was used to assess the relationship between RMR and age, using IDEAL classification as a predictor, adjusting for sex and body composition. Results RMR averaged 1512.4 (± 442.9) kcal/day and was lower with advancing age (? = ?8.55, p < 0.001). After adjusting for age, sex, and body composition RMR was 109.6 kcals/day lower in IDEAL than non-IDEAL participants (p < 0.005). Conclusions Individuals who are fully functional and free of major medical conditions have lower RMR than those affected by disease and functional impairments. These findings suggest that health status plays a role in energy utilization and regulation independent of age and body composition and that elevated RMR may be a global biomarker of poor health in older persons. PMID:24635835
Schrack, Jennifer A.; Knuth, Nicolas D.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Ferrucci, Luigi
We argue that the transverse shape of the fireball created in the heavy-ion collision could be strongly influenced by event-by-event fluctuations of the eccentricity vectors for the forward-going and backward-going wounded nucleons: ??nF??nFein?n*F and ? ?nB??nBein?n*B. Due to the asymmetric energy deposition of each wounded nucleon along its direction of motion, the eccentricity vector of the produced fireball is expected to interpolate between ? ?nF and ??nB along the pseudorapidity, and hence exhibits sizable forward-backward (FB) asymmetry (?nB??nF) and/or FB twist (?n*F??n*B). A transport model calculation shows that these initial-state longitudinal fluctuations for n =2 and 3 survive the collective expansion, and result in similar FB asymmetry and/or a twist in the final-state event-plane angles. These novel event-by-event longitudinal flow fluctuations should be accessible at RHIC and the LHC using the event-shape selection technique proposed in earlier papers. If these effects are observed experimentally, it could improve our understanding of the initial-state fluctuations, particle production, and collective expansion dynamics of the heavy-ion collision.
Jia, Jiangyong; Huo, Peng
Background Dogslife is the first large-scale internet-based longitudinal study of canine health. The study has been designed to examine how environmental and genetic factors influence the health and development of a birth cohort of UK-based pedigree Labrador Retrievers. Results In the first 12 months of the study 1,407 Kennel Club (KC) registered eligible dogs were recruited, at a mean age of 119 days of age (SD 69 days, range 3 days – 504 days). Recruitment rates varied depending upon the study team’s ability to contact owners. Where owners authorised the provision of contact details 8.4% of dogs were recruited compared to 1.3% where no direct contact was possible. The proportion of dogs recruited was higher for owners who transferred the registration of their puppy from the breeder to themselves with the KC, and for owners who were sent an e-mail or postcard requesting participation in the project. Compliance with monthly updates was highly variable. For the 280 dogs that were aged 400 days or more on the 30th June 2011, we estimated between 39% and 45% of owners were still actively involved in the project. Initial evaluation suggests that the cohort is representative of the general population of the KC registered Labrador Retrievers eligible to enrol with the project. Clinical signs of illnesses were reported in 44.3% of Labrador Retrievers registered with Dogslife (median age of first illness 138 days), although only 44.1% of these resulted in a veterinary presentation (median age 316 days). Conclusions The web-based platform has enabled the recruitment of a representative population of KC registered Labrador Retrievers, providing the first large-scale longitudinal population-based study of dog health. The use of multiple different methods (e-mail, post and telephone) of contact with dog owners was essential to maximise recruitment and retention of the cohort. PMID:23332044
This study investigated the effectiveness of a positive youth development program for Chinese Secondary 3 students in two schools, who had been followed up since their entry to Secondary 1. A mixed research method was carried out using a pre- and post-test pre-experimental design and a focus group for the participants. The subjective outcome evaluations included participants’ perceptions of the program, program instructors, benefits of the program and overall satisfaction, and were positive. The longitudinal data from the objective outcome evaluation showed some notable improvements, and the overall effect of the program was also found to be positive for newcomers in the junior secondary years. The focus group interviews revealed mostly positive feedback in terms of the students’ general impressions of the program, with the majority of participants perceiving benefits to themselves from the program. The findings offer positive evidence of the effectiveness of the program. PMID:24350227
Luk, Andrew L.; Chan, W. U.; Hu, Sydney X. X.
Background Little is known about the patterns and influences of physical activity change in mid-aged adults. This study describes the design, sampling, data collection, and analytical plan of HABITAT, an innovative study of (i) physical activity change over five years (2007–2011) in adults aged 40–65 years at baseline, and (ii) the relative contribution of psychological variables, social support, neighborhood perceptions, area-level factors, and sociodemographic characteristics to physical activity change. Methods/Design HABITAT is a longitudinal multi-level study. 1625 Census Collection Districts (CCDs) in Brisbane, Australia were ranked by their index of relative socioeconomic disadvantage score, categorized into deciles, and 20 CCDs from each decile were selected to provide 200 local areas for study inclusion. From each of the 200 CCDs, dwellings with individuals aged between 40–65 years (in 2007) were identified using electoral roll data, and approximately 85 people per CCD were selected to participate (N = 17,000). A comprehensive Geographic Information System (GIS) database has been compiled with area-level information on public transport networks, footpaths, topography, traffic volume, street lights, tree coverage, parks, public services, and recreational facilities Participants are mailed a questionnaire every two years (2007, 2009, 2011), with items assessing physical activity (general walking, moderate activity, vigorous activity, walking for transport, cycling for transport, recreational activities), sitting time, perceptions of neighborhood characteristics (traffic, pleasant surroundings, streets, footpaths, crime and safety, distance to recreational and business facilities), social support, social cohesion, activity-related cognitions (attitudes, efficacy, barriers, motivation), health, and sociodemographic characteristics. Analyses will use binary and multinomial logit regression models, as well as generalized linear latent growth models. Discussion HABITAT will provide unique information to improve our understanding of the determinants of physical activity, and to help identify "people" and "place" priority targets for public policy and health promotion aimed at increasing physical activity participation among mid-aged men and women. PMID:19265552
Burton, Nicola W; Haynes, Michele; Wilson, Lee-Ann M; Giles-Corti, Billie; Oldenburg, Brian F; Brown, Wendy J; Giskes, Katrina; Turrell, Gavin
Based on 1984 data from the Longitudinal Study on Aging, one-third of White persons aged 80 or older living in the community (N = 1,791) were defined as having no difficulty in walking 1/4 of a mile, in lifting 10 pounds, in climbing 10 steps without resting, or in stooping, crouching or kneeling. Physical ability was associated with lower risk of death over two years mean follow-up; Relative odds (RO) = .4 (95 percent confidence interval = .4, .6) and in survivors, lower utilization of hospitals RO = .4 (CI = .3, .7), physicians RO = .6 (CI = .5, .8) and nursing homes RO = .3 (CI = .2, .5) compared with those having difficulty on any of the four functional measures included in the definition of physical ability. Fifty percent of the women and 42 percent of the men physically able at the time of the baseline survey in 1984 remained physically able at follow-up. Continued physical ability in this group was associated with never having had cardiovascular disease RO = 2.1, (CI = 1.2, 3.7), never having had arthritic complaints RO = 1.9 (CI = 1.2, 2.7), a body mass index less than the 75th percentile RO = 1.8 (CI = 1.2, 2.9), younger age (for each decade of age, RO = 2.0 (CI = 1.1, 3.6), and higher level of education (greater than 13 years versus 0-6 years) RO = 2.4 (CI = 1.2, 4.7). These correlates include factors amenable to preventive measures and highlight the need to consider the heterogeneity of the oldest-old in formulating programs aimed at prevention and postponement of disability. PMID:2729466
Harris, T; Kovar, M G; Suzman, R; Kleinman, J C; Feldman, J J
Aspergillosis (a fungal disease) is affecting sea fan corals Gorgonia spp. throughout the Caribbean. To measure the impact of this disease, we established longitudinal, or in other words individual-based, monitoring studies on 3 reefs in the Florida Keys, USA, to obtain estimates of incidence, rates of disease progress, recovery, and mortality. At Western Dry Rocks (near Key West), 40 Gorgonia ventalina colonies (20 initially healthy and 20 initially diseased) were photo-monitored between June 1996 and May 1998. Additional sea fans were visually monitored during 2 localized outbreaks at Conch (May 1998 to September 1999) and Carysfort (July 2000 to May 2001) reefs located in the Upper Keys. Data from Western Dry Rocks showed that over a 2 yr period, the incidence rate was 0.58 sea fans yr(-1) and that tissue purpling can lead to tissue loss and subsequently to mortality, albeit at low frequencies. Most sea fans, once infected, maintained a low level of damage over time. Only 3 fans recovered from the disease; however 2 were subsequently re-infected. Case fatality rate was 10% (2 of 20 initially infected died), which is equivalent to 5% yr(-1). However, mortality can increase during localized outbreaks. At Conch, mortality was 46% yr(-1) among infected sea fans (compared to 8% yr(-1) at Carysfort, a less impacted site, during the same period). During an outbreak at Carysfort, mortality was 95% yr(-1) among diseased sea fans. These data clearly demonstrate the significant role aspergillosis plays in the population ecology of sea fan corals. PMID:16703771
Kim, Kiho; Alker, Alisa P; Shuster, Kara; Quirolo, Craig; Harvell, C Drew
Data from a longitudinal survey of families from three reservations (Navajo Nation, San Carlos, and Salt River) in Arizona were used to examine their probability of welfare use. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the effects of individual, family, and structural factors on welfare exit. Results indicate that their probability of…
Pandey, Shanta; Guo, Baorong
The issue of whether there is consistency in prosocial dispositions was examined with a longitudinal data set extending from ages 4 to 5 years into early adulthood (N = 32). Spontaneous prosocial behaviors observed in the preschool classroom predicted actual prosocial behavior, other- and self-reported prosocial behavior, self-reported sympathy, and perspective taking in childhood to early adulthood. Prosocial behaviors that
Nancy Eisenberg; Ivanna K. Guthrie; Bridget C. Murphy; Stephanie A. Shepard; Amanda Cumberland; Gustavo Carlo
An interval estimation procedure for proportion of explained observed variance in latent curve analysis is discussed, which can be used as an aid in the process of choosing between linear and nonlinear models. The method allows obtaining confidence intervals for the R[squared] indexes associated with repeatedly followed measures in longitudinal…
Raykov, Tenko; Zajacova, Anna
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine organisational learning (OL) and individual managerial learning and provide a comparative evaluation of the ability of each to generate organisational benefits. Design/methodology/approach: A theoretical model of organisational learning is developed which was then longitudinally tested…
Campbell, Timothy T.; Armstrong, Steven J.
Examined antecedents of two components of need for approval (the approach component and the avoidance component) on a longitudinal basis. For females, need for approval was positively related to mothers' withdrawal of love and the avoidance component was negatively related to mothers' encouragement of their daughters to fight back. (Author)
Lobel, Thalma E.
Quality management activities in five large Australian organisations have been monitored over a decade and present the basis for an insight into the factors which impact on the sustainability and direction of quality management over the longer term. Using a longitudinal research approach, the quality management strategies and activities in these organisations have been examined through periodic interviews with quality
Ton van der Wiele; Alan Brown
The NASA Study of Cataract in Astronauts (NASCA) was a five-year longitudinal study of the effect of space radiation exposure on the severity/progression of nuclear (N), cortical (C), and posterior subcapsular (PSC) lens opacities. It began in 2003 and was completed in December, 2009. Participants included 171 consenting astronauts who flew at least one mission in space, and comparison subjects consisted of three groups, a) 53 astronauts who had not flown in space, b) 95 military aircrew personnel, and c) 99 non-aircrew, ground-based subjects.
Chylack, Leon T., Jr.; Peterson, Leif E.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Tung, William H.; Wear, Mary L.; Marak, Lisa J.; Hardy, Dale S.; Cucinotta, Francis A.
Many longitudinal cohort studies have both genome-wide measures of genetic variation and repeated measures of phenotypes and environmental exposures. Genome-wide association study analyses have typically used only cross-sectional data to evaluate quantitative phenotypes and binary traits. Incorporation of repeated measures may increase power to detect associations, but also requires specialized analysis methods. Here, we discuss one such method-generalized estimating equations (GEE)-in the contexts of analysis of main effects of rare genetic variants and analysis of gene-environment interactions. We illustrate the potential for increased power using GEE analyses instead of cross-sectional analyses. We also address challenges that arise, such as the need for small-sample corrections when the minor allele frequency of a genetic variant and/or the prevalence of an environmental exposure is low. To illustrate methods for detection of gene-drug interactions on a genome-wide scale, using repeated measures data, we conduct single-study analyses and meta-analyses across studies in three large cohort studies participating in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology consortium-the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, the Cardiovascular Health Study, and the Rotterdam Study. PMID:25297442
Sitlani, Colleen M; Rice, Kenneth M; Lumley, Thomas; McKnight, Barbara; Cupples, L Adrienne; Avery, Christy L; Noordam, Raymond; Stricker, Bruno H C; Whitsel, Eric A; Psaty, Bruce M
Objectives. We examined the longitudinal associations between different types and severities of childhood trauma and suicide attempts among illicit drug users. Methods. Data came from 2 prospective cohort studies of illicit drug users in Vancouver, Canada, in 2005 to 2010. We used recurrent event proportional means models to estimate adjusted and weighted associations between types and severities of childhood maltreatment and suicide attempts. Results. Of 1634 participants, 411 (25.2%) reported a history of suicidal behavior at baseline. Over 5 years, 80 (4.9%) participants reported 97 suicide attempts, a rate of 2.6 per 100 person-years. Severe to extreme levels of sexual abuse (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR]?=?2.5; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?1.4, 4.4), physical abuse (AHR?=?2.0; 95% CI?=?1.1, 3.8), and emotional abuse (AHR?=?3.5; 95% CI?=?1.4, 8.7) predicted suicide attempts. Severe forms of physical and emotional neglect were not significantly associated with an increased risk of suicidal behavior. Conclusions. Severe sexual, physical, and emotional childhood abuse confer substantial risk of repeated suicidal behavior in adulthood. Illicit drug users require intensive secondary suicide prevention efforts, particularly among those with a history of childhood trauma. PMID:23865651
Galea, Sandro; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas
Biases in cognition such as Jumping to Conclusions (JTC) and Verbal Self-Monitoring (VSM) are thought to underlie the formation of psychotic symptoms. This prospective study in people with an At Risk Mental State (ARMS) for psychosis examined how these cognitive biases changed over time, and predicted clinical and functional outcomes. Twenty-three participants were assessed at clinical presentation and a mean of 31 months later. Performance on a JTC and VSM tasks were measured at both time points. Relationships to symptom severity, level of function and the incidence of psychotic disorder were then examined. The levels of symptoms, function and VSM all improved over time, while JTC was stable. Five participants (22%) developed a psychotic disorder during the follow-up period, but the risk of transition was not related to performance on either task at baseline, or to longitudinal changes in task performance. JTC performance correlated with symptom severity at baseline and follow-up. Similarly, performance on the two tasks was not related to the level of functioning at follow-up. Thus, while the ARMS is associated with both VSM and JTC biases, neither predict the onset of psychosis or the overall functional outcome. PMID:25511317
Winton-Brown, T T; Broome, M R; Allen, P; Valli, I; Howes, O; Garety, P A; Johns, L C; McGuire, P
This study examines the process and effects of using facebook (FB) to locate and re-contact study participants targeted for follow up in a longitudinal study of adult methamphetamine users (N = 649). A follow-up interview was conducted in 2009–11 approximately 8 years after previous study participation. Our paper describes re-contact efforts involving FB, including IRB regulatory issues and the effectiveness of using FB compared to mailings and phone calls. A total of 48 of the 551 surviving non-incarcerated participants who agreed to be contacted for follow up studies were contacted via FB, of whom 11 completed the follow-up interview. Those contacted through FB were more likely to be younger, female, relocated out-of-state, and reported somewhat higher rates of anxiety and cognitive problems compared to those not located on FB. Although participants contacted through FB are likely to differ demographically from those contacted by phone or mail, FB provides a potentially effective means to expand conventional methods of correspondence for contacting hard to reach participants. PMID:22879750
Bolanos, Franklin; Herbeck, Diane; Christou, Dayna; Lovinger, Katherine; Pham, Aurora; Raihan, Adnan; Rodriguez, Luz; Sheaff, Patricia; Brecht, Mary-Lynn
Longitudinal studies that research homeless persons or transient drug users face particular challenges in retaining subjects. Between 2005 and 2006, 101 mobile young injection drug users were recruited in Los Angeles into a 2-year longitudinal study. Several features of ethnographic methodology, including fieldwork and qualitative interviews, and modifications to the original design, such as toll-free calls routed directly to ethnographer cell phones and wiring incentive payments, resulted in retention of 78% of subjects for the first follow-up interview. Longitudinal studies that are flexible and based upon qualitative methodologies are more likely to retain mobile subjects while also uncovering emergent research findings. PMID:20222779
Lankenau, Stephen E; Sanders, Bill; Hathazi, Dodi; Bloom, Jennifer Jackson
Nonparticipants in epidemiological studies may differ in important respects from participants but the magnitude of this potential bias is rarely quantified. This study estimates the effect of nonparticipation on estimates of mental health problems following stillbirth, neonatal death or sudden infant death syndrome. Of 805 families approached, 512 (64 per cent) were recruited, of whom 77 per cent of mothers and 71 per cent of fathers completed four study interviews. Younger, unmarried, unemployed parents without private health insurance were less often recruited, and even if recruited, were less likely to complete the interview. By evaluating several possible scenarios, we estimated that had mothers lost to follow-up remained in the study, anxiety rates would have varied by no more than +/-4 per cent. Relative risks associated with bereaved-control comparisons would have differed little from the observed estimate of 2.33. Estimating the effects of initial nonresponse is more difficult but the adoption of a worst-case scenario produced a relative risk of 3.47. Despite systematic nonparticipation suggestive of social disadvantage, attrition-related bias may have had only a modest effect on anxiety and depression rate estimates. However, this may not be the case when sample loss is high, when associations between attrition and outcome are strong, and when attrition-related behaviour differs across comparison groups. PMID:8987217
Boyle, F M; Najman, J M; Vance, J C; Thearle, M J
Mixed longitudinal studies may be employed for the estimation of trends over time because they give more comparable data than a series of cross-sectional studies, or because of multiple objectives. The estimation of trends from such studies is an example of their use for a cross-sectional rather than longitudinal objective, for which the appropriate analysis is different from that usually described for the analysis of longitudinal data. The efficiency of mixed longitudinal studies for measuring trends in measurements, such as height and weight relative to a comparable series of cross-sectional studies, is calculated for various designs, percentage follow-up and correlation between measurements on the same subjects. The relative efficiency was over 0.8 for most designs and sometimes greater than 1.0. It generally decreased as the number of surveys increased, but increased as the difference between age groups studied increased. PMID:3250326
Purpose Missing data in clinical efficacy and effectiveness trials continue to be a major threat to the validity of study findings. The purpose of this report is to describe methods developed to ensure completion of outcome assessments with public mental health sector subjects participating in a longitudinal, repeated measures study for the treatment of major depressive disorder. We developed longitudinal assessment procedures that included telephone-based clinician interviews in order to minimize missing data commonly encountered with face-to-face assessment procedures. Methods A pre-planned, multi-step strategy was developed to ensure completeness of data collection. The procedure included obtaining multiple pieces of patient contact information at baseline, careful education of both staff and patients concerning the purpose of assessments, establishing good patient rapport, and finally being flexible and persistent with phone appointments to ensure the completion of telephone-based follow-up assessments. A well-developed administrative and organizational structure was also put in place prior to study implementation. Results The assessment completion rate for the primary outcome for 310 of 504 subjects who enrolled and completed 52 weeks (at the time of manuscript) of telephone-based follow-up assessments was 96.8%. Conclusion By utilizing telephone-based follow-up procedures and adapting our easy-to-use pre-defined multi-step approach, researchers can maximize patient data retention in longitudinal studies. PMID:18761427
Claassen, Cindy; Kurian, Ben; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Grannemann, Bruce D.; Tuli, Ekta; Pipes, Ronny; Preston, Anne Marie; Flood, Ariell
Objective Cross-sectional research indicates high rates of mental health concerns among youth with perinatal HIV infection (PHIV), but few studies have examined emerging psychiatric symptoms over time. Methods Youth with PHIV and peer comparisons who were HIV-exposed but uninfected or living in house-holds with HIV-infected family members (HIV-affected) and primary caregivers participated in a prospective, multisite, longitudinal cohort study. Groups were compared for differences in the incidence of emerging psychiatric symptoms during 2 years of follow-up and for differences in psychotropic drug therapy. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association of emerging symptoms with HIV status and psychosocial risk factors. Results Of 573 youth with study entry assessments, 92% attended at least 1 annual follow-up visit (PHIV: 296; comparisons: 229). A substantial percentage of youth who did not meet symptom criteria for a psychiatric disorder at study entry did so during follow-up (PHIV = 36%; comparisons = 42%). In addition, those who met criteria at study entry often met criteria during follow-up (PHIV = 41%; comparisons = 43%). Asymptomatic youth with PHIV were significantly more likely to receive psychotropic medication during follow-up than comparisons. Youth with greater HIV disease severity (entry CD4% <25% vs 25% or more) had higher probability of depression symptoms (19% vs 8%, respectively). Conclusions Many youth in families affected by HIV are at risk for development of psychiatric symptoms. PMID:22772819
Gadow, Kenneth D.; Angelidou, Konstantia; Chernoff, Miriam; Williams, Paige L.; Heston, Jerry; Hodge, Janice; Nachman, Sharon
Objectives This study aimed to investigate whether violent and non-violent offending were related to elevated risk of suicide. We also investigated whether the risk was higher among those with repeated offences and how experiences of substance misuse and suicide attempt modified the relationship. Design A nationwide prospective cohort study. Setting A register study of 48 834 conscripted men in 1969/1970 in Sweden followed up during a 35-year period in official registers. Participants A birth cohort of 48 834 men who were mandatory conscripted for military service in 1969/70 at the age of 18–20?years. Possible confounders were retrieved from psychological assessments at conscription and the cohort was linked to mortality and hospitalisation and crime records from 1970 onwards. Estimates of suicide risks were calculated as HR with 95% CIs using Cox proportional regression analyses with adjustment for potential confounding by family, psychological and behavioural factors including substance use and psychiatric disorders. Results Of the total cohort, 2671 (5.5%) persons died during the follow-up period. Of these, 615 (23%) persons died due to suicide. Non-violent criminality was evident for 29% and violent criminality for 4.7% of all the participants. In the crude model, the violent offenders had nearly five times higher risk (HR=4.69, 3.56 to 6.19) to die from suicide and non-violent criminals had about two times higher risk (HR=2.08, 1.72 to 2.52). In the fully adjusted model, the HRs were still significant for suicide in the non-violent group. Conclusions Experiences of violent or non-violent criminality were associated with increased risk of suicide. Comorbidity with alcohol and substance use and psychiatric disorders modified the risk, but the suicide risk remained significantly elevated for non-violent criminals. It is crucial to identify offenders and especially repeated offenders who also suffer from alcohol or substance misuse and psychiatric illness in clinical settings in order to prevent suicide. PMID:24491380
Stenbacka, M; Romelsjö, A; Jokinen, J
This is a report on the research design and findings of a 23-year longitudinal study of the impact of intrafamilial sexual abuse on female development. The conceptual framework integrated concepts of psychological adjustment with theory regarding how psychobiological factors might impact development. Participants included 6- to 16-year-old females with substantiated sexual abuse and a demographically similar comparison group. A cross-sequential design was used and six assessments have taken place, with participants at median age 11 at the first assessment and median age 25 at the sixth assessment. Mothers of participants took part in the early assessments and offspring took part at the sixth assessment. Results of many analyses, both within circumscribed developmental stages and across development, indicated that sexually abused females (on average) showed deleterious sequelae across a host of biopsychosocial domains including: earlier onsets of puberty, cognitive deficits, depression, dissociative symptoms, maladaptive sexual development, hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal attenuation, asymmetrical stress responses, high rates of obesity, more major illnesses and healthcare utilization, dropping out of high school, persistent psottraumatic stress disorder, self-mutilation, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders diagnoses, physical and sexual revictimization, premature deliveries, teen motherhood, drug and alcohol abuse, and domestic violence. Offspring born to abused mothers were at increased risk for child maltreatment and overall maldevelopment. There was also a pattern of considerable within group variability. Based on this complex network of findings, implications for optimal treatments are elucidated. Translational aspects of extending observational research into clinical practice are discussed in terms that will likely have a sustained impact on several major public health initiatives. PMID:23786689
Noll, Jennie G.; Putnam, Frank W.
A large longitudinal cohort study designed to evaluate the association between children's exposures to environmental agents and health outcomes presents many challenges for exposure monitoring. Exposure of the child must be measured for multiple chemicals through multiple path...
Recruitment and Retention Issues for a Large Longitudinal Study of Children's Environmental Health *D Lobdell, S Gilboa, P Mendola (US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, 27711) An understanding of the most effective recruitment techniques and rete...
This study examined longitudinal predictive relationships between young children's classroom behaviors and their growth in mathematics skills during the primary grades. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study—Kindergarten cohort, the authors tested a longitudinal model featuring positive (interpersonal skills and approaches to learning) and negative (internalizing and externalizing) behaviors at kindergarten entry as predictors of growth in mathematics achievement through 3rd
James Clyde DiPerna; Pui-Wa Lei; Erin E. Reid
Objective: To evaluate the inappropriate eating behaviors (IEB) of female adolescents over a one-year period. Methods: 290 adolescents aged between 11 and 14 years old participated in the three research stages (T1: first four months, T2: second four months and T3: third four months). The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was applied to assess the IEB. Weight and height were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI) in the three study periods. Analysis of variance for repeated measures was used to analyze the data, adjusted for the scores of the Body Shape Questionnaire and the Brazil Economic Classification Criteria. Results: Girls at T1 showed a higher frequency of IEB compared to T2 (p=0.001) and T3 (p=0.001). The findings also indicated higher values for BMI in T3 in relation to T1 (p=0.04). The other comparisons did not show statistically significant differences. Conclusions: IEB scores of female adolescents declined over one year. PMID:24676195
Fortes, Leonardo de Sousa; Almeida, Sebastião de Sousa; Cipriani, Flávia Marcele; Ferreira, Maria Elisa C.
Disgust, an emotion triggering behavioral avoidance of pathogens, serves as a first line of defense against infections. Since behavior related to disgust involves some cost, the aversive reaction should be adjusted to the level of an individual's immunocompetence, and raise only when immunological function is lower (e.g. during pregnancy). We studied changes in disgust sensitivity in pregnant women, and tested if disgust sensitivity is related to a fetus's sex. 92 women participated in a three-stage research, answering the Disgust Scale-Revised questionnaire at each trimester of pregnancy. The result showed that total disgust and disgust sensitivity in the Core Domain were the highest in the first trimester (when maternal immunosuppression is also the highest), and decreased during pregnancy in women bearing daughters. Women bearing sons had relatively high disgust sensitivity persisting in the first and in the second trimester. The elevation in disgust sensitivity during the second trimester for mothers bearing male fetus can be explained by the necessity to protect for a longer time, a more ecologically sensitive fetus, and also herself when bearing a more energetically costly sex. The proximate mechanism may involve the differences in maternal testosterone and cortisol concentrations in the second trimester of pregnancy. PMID:25449396
?ela?niewicz, Agnieszka; Paw?owski, Bogus?aw
Consistency of measures of a prosocial personality and prosocial moral judgment over time, and the interrelations among them, were examined. Participants' and friends' reports of prosocial characteristics were obtained at ages 21-22, 23-24, and 25-26 years. In addition, participants' prosocial judgment was assessed with interviews and with an objective measure of prosocial moral reasoning at several ages. Reports of prosocial
Nancy Eisenberg; Ivanna K. Guthrie; Amanda Cumberland; Bridget C. Murphy; Stephanie A. Shepard; Qing Zhou; Gustavo Carlo
Background The Boston Puerto Rican Health Study is an ongoing longitudinal cohort study designed to examine the role of psychosocial stress on presence and development of allostatic load and health outcomes in Puerto Ricans, and potential modification by nutritional status, genetic variation, and social support. Methods Self-identified Puerto Ricans, aged 45-75 years and residing in the Boston, MA metro area, were recruited through door-to-door enumeration and community approaches. Participants completed a comprehensive set of questionnaires and tests. Blood, urine and salivary samples were extracted for biomarker and genetic analysis. Measurements are repeated at a two-year follow-up. Results A total of 1500 eligible participants completed baseline measurements, with nearly 80% two-year follow-up retention. The majority of the cohort is female (70%), and many have less than 8th grade education (48%), and fall below the poverty level (59%). Baseline prevalence of health conditions is high for this age range: considerable physical (26%) and cognitive (7%) impairment, obesity (57%), type 2 diabetes (40%), hypertension (69%), arthritis (50%) and depressive symptomatology (60%). Conclusions The enrollment of minority groups presents unique challenges. This report highlights approaches to working with difficult to reach populations, and describes some of the health issues and needs of Puerto Rican older adults. These results may inform future studies and interventions aiming to improve the health of this and similar communities. PMID:20193082
This study examined whether the discrepancy between measured and self-identified good weight (weight discrepancy) predicts metabolic syndrome (MetSyn). This study included 6,413 participants enrolled in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (mean follow-up: 4.8±3.8 years). Weight discrepancy was defined as measured weight minus self-identified good weight. MetSyn was defined using standard definitions. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for incident MetSyn, by weight discrepancy category, were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. The multivariable-adjusted HR for MetSyn was 3.48 (95% CI=2.48-4.86) for those who maintained higher weight discrepancy over time compared to individuals with lower weight discrepancy. Additional adjustment for body mass index did not change this interpretation (HR=3.44; 95% CI=2.46-4.82). Weight discrepancy may be a useful screening characteristic and target for future interventions to further reduce the risk of chronic weight-related disorders, included MetSyn. PMID:25544742
Wirth, Michael D; Blake, Christine E; Hébert, James R; Sui, Xuemei; Blair, Steven N
This study aimed to examine how emotional and behavioral problems of parents and children and the characteristics of family relationships can be predictors of internalizing symptoms manifested by children after one year. This was a quantitative research study, of the longitudinal type, with a one year interval between the first and second evaluation. Participants were 139 adolescents, and their parents, with ages ranged from 11 to 16 years (M age = 12.90, SD = 1.07). The instruments used were: a Socio-Demographic Data Sheet, Youth Self-Report of 11 to 18 years old (YSR), Adult Self-Report of 18 to 59 years old (ASR), Familiogram (FG), the Family Climate Inventory (FCI) and Inventory of Stressful Events in Adolescence (ISEA). Results indicated that family relationships did not have a significant explanatory power in relation to internalizing symptoms of the adolescent after a year. Based on this study, it is possible to think that during adolescence, the power of the family to influence becomes more restricted in comparison with social and peer influence. PMID:24230920
Hess, Adriana Raquel Binsfeld; Teodoro, Maycoln Leoni Martins; Falcke, Denise
Aims To examine the associations between self-reported bullying perpetration and victimization in Years 7 and 10 and a range of psychosocial outcomes in Year 11. Method This analysis draws on data from the International Youth Development Study (IYDS), a longitudinal study of 5,769 students from Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States (US) who were recruited through schools in Years 5, 7, and 9 in 2002. Data for the current results are taken from participants in the youngest (Year 5) Victorian cohort of the study. Results Rates of bullying victimisation exceeded 30% and up to one in five students had engaged in bullying. Adjusted logistic regression analyses revealed that bullying perpetration and bullying victimisation in Year 7 did not significantly predict psychosocial outcomes in Year 11. Bullying perpetration in Year 10 was associated with an increased likelihood of theft, violent behaviour, and binge drinking. Year 10 bullying victimisation was associated with an increased likelihood of Year 11 depressive symptoms. Conclusions Prevention approaches that target bullying perpetration and victimization are necessary. Programs that lessen bullying may also have an impact on other proximally related behaviours, including binge drinking and depression. PMID:21370296
Hemphill, Sheryl. A.; Kotevski, Aneta; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Bond, Lyndal; Kim, Min-Jung; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F.
Perceptions concerning training and development continue to appear in practitioner literature; however, the fact that those perceptions are not explored in HRD literature is a problem. The purpose of this study was to examine perspectives of participants in organization-sponsored training. A general qualitative methodology was utilized in this…
Mathis, Robin Smith
In the investigation of the effect of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms on school careers there is a need to study the role of adolescent and childhood ADHD symptoms and academic achievement, and to incorporate measures that include the individual's perspective. Our aim was to gain an overview of the long-term development of school careers in relation to ADHD symptoms. We studied associations between ADHD symptoms and academic achievement at different time-points and future orientation at the end of high school, and assessed the role of self-perceptions of academic competence in these associations. Participants were 192 children (47% girls) with a range of ADHD symptoms taken from a community sample. Collecting data at three time points, in 6th, 11th and 12th grade we tested a structural equation model. Results showed that ADHD symptoms in 6th grade negatively affected academic achievement concurrently and longitudinally. ADHD symptoms in 11th grade negatively affected concurrent academic achievement and academic self-perception and future orientation in 12th grade. Academic achievement had a positive influence on academic self-perception and future orientation. Given the other factors, self-perception of academic competence did not contribute to outcomes. We concluded that early ADHD symptoms may cast long shadows on young people's academic progress. This happens mainly by way of stability in symptoms and relations to early low academic achievement. PMID:23510262
Scholtens, Sara; Rydell, Ann-Margret; Yang-Wallentin, Fan
Although the relation between family relationships and the timing of sexual debut has been the focus of many studies, research on mediating factors is scarce. This study examines whether low levels of family cohesion result in an earlier onset of romantic and sexual experiences, and whether the link between family cohesion and an early sexual debut is mediated by early romantic initiation. A longitudinal sample of 314 adolescent girls and 222 boys, aged 12-17 at Wave 1, completed questionnaires at three measurement points with three year intervals. The results showed that sexual debut followed romantic initiation for 77% of the participants. For early adolescent females (aged 12-14), high levels of family cohesion resulted in a later sexual debut and this association was fully mediated by a delay of romantic initiation. Among boys and older girls, timing of romantic initiation did not mediate the link between family cohesion and timing of sexual initiation. Early adolescent girls who have negative relationships with their parents turn to romantic relationships for intimacy and support, which subsequently provide the opportunity for an early sexual debut. Low levels of family cohesion thus primarily precipitate romantic initiation and sexual initiation appears to be secondary to this process among girls in this age group. PMID:21853354
de Graaf, Hanneke; van de Schoot, Rens; Woertman, Liesbeth; Hawk, Skyler T; Meeus, Wim
The German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) is a wide-ranging representative longitudinal study of private households in Germany. The same private households, persons and families have been surveyed annually since 1984. In June of 1990, "the survey was extended to include the territory of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR)." Some 5,900 households participated in the first survey in 1984, and 4,285 households were included in the latest wave in 1998, giving the survey a high degree of stability. Topics in the survey study include household composition, occupational and family biographies, employment and professional mobility, earnings, health, and personal satisfaction. Separate topical modules also cover such issues as social security, education, time allocation, and family and social services. According to its creators, "the GSOEP data give researchers the opportunity to observe and to analyze political and social transformations." In addition, the site's search engine features extensive search capabilities that provide detailed information on the variables in the GSOEP dataset. Users can determine statistical parameters and then output frequencies information, item correspondence, and even generate SPSS, SAS, TDA (6.1), and Stata (4.0) command files.
Objective To examine changes in depressive symptoms and treatment in the first three years following bariatric surgery. Design and Methods The Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery-2 is an observational cohort study of adults (n=2,458) who underwent a bariatric surgical procedure at one of ten US hospitals between 2006–9. This study includes 2,148 participants who completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) at baseline and ? one follow-up visit in years 1–3. Results At baseline, 40.4% self-reported treatment for depression. At least mild depressive symptoms (BDI score?10) were reported by 28.3%; moderate (BDI score 19–29) and severe (BDI score ?30) symptoms were uncommon (4.2% and 0.5%, respectively). Mild-to-severe depressive symptoms independently increased the odds (OR=1.75; p=.03) of a major adverse event within 30 days of surgery. Compared with baseline, symptom severity was significantly lower at all follow-up time points (e.g., mild-to-severe symptomatology was 8.9%, 6 months; 8.4%, 1yr; 12.2%, 2yrs; 15.6%, 3yrs; ps<.001), but increased between 1 and 3 years postoperatively (p<.01). Change in depressive symptoms was significantly related to change in body mass index (r=.42; p<0001). Conclusion Bariatric surgery has a positive impact on depressive features. However, data suggest some deterioration in improvement after the first postoperative year. PMID:24634371
Mitchell, James E.; King, Wendy C.; Chen, Jia-Yuh; Devlin, Michael J.; Flum, David; Garcia, Luis; Pender, John R.; Kalarchian, Melissa A.; Khandelwal, Saurabh; Marcus, Marsha D.; Schrope, Beth; Strain, Gladys; Wolfe, Bruce; Yanovski, Susan
Ten couples, the women beginning treatment for carcinoma of the vulva, participated in a 2-year longitudinal study on sexual functioning before and after treatment. Sexual functioning was measured on admission and at 6, 12, and 24 months posttreatment. Sexual functioning was made operational in terms of current sexual behavior, sexual motivation, sexual (dis)satisfaction, and the perception of genital sensations of sexual arousal. An age-matched nonpatient control group was added to the study and the impact of physical variables was also evaluated. Within 1 year, all women who were sexually active before the treatment had resumed their sexual activities. At the 6-month assessment an increase in relational sexual dissatisfaction could be detected. Over the remaining observation period the women's satisfaction with sexual interaction with the partner was not found to be different from their pretreatment satisfaction and not different from the satisfaction in the control group, in spite of the physical damage and persisting poor perception of genital symptoms of sexual arousal during lovemaking. Satisfaction with sexual interaction with the partner under these circumstances appears to be more an expression of satisfaction with the intimate aspects of the sexual relationship than of satisfaction with the physiologic arousal aspects of the sexual relationship. It is argued that psychological and social variables are more crucial for sexual rehabilitation than physical variables. Therefore, psychosocial issues constitute the most promising focus for intervention. PMID:2369721
Weijmar Schultz, W C; van de Wiel, H B; Bouma, J; Janssens, J; Littlewood, J
Consistency of measures of a prosocial personality and prosocial moral judgment over time, and the interrelations among them, were examined. Participants and friends' reports of prosocial characteristics were obtained at ages 21-22, 23-24, and 25-26 years. In addition, participants' prosocial judgment was assessed with interviews and with an objective measure of prosocial moral reasoning at several ages. Reports of prosocial behavior and empathy-related responding in childhood and observations of prosocial behavior in preschool also were obtained. There was interindividual consistency in prosocial dispositions, and prosocial dispositions in adulthood related to empathy/sympathy and prosocial behavior at much younger ages. Interview and objective measures of moral reasoning were substantially interrelated in late adolescence/early adulthood and correlated with participants' and friends' reports of a prosocial disposition. PMID:12051585
Eisenberg, Nancy; Guthrie, Ivanna K; Cumberland, Amanda; Murphy, Bridget C; Shepard, Stephanie A; Zhou, Qing; Carlo, Gustavo
The preventive effect of late-life physical exercise on cognitive deterioration has been reported in many cohort studies. However, the effect of exercise, independent of other cognitively demanding and social activities, is equivocal and little is known about the relative contributions of frequency, intensity, and duration of exercise. This study aimed to examine the relationships of exercise and its underlying components with cognitive function and rate of cognitive change over an 8-year period in a nationally representative sample of older Taiwanese. Data from the 1999, 2003, and 2007 phases of the nationwide longitudinal survey were used. Data from a fixed cohort of 1,268 participants aged 70 years or older in 1999 with 8 years of follow-up were analyzed. Cognitive function was assessed using the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire. Self-reported frequency, intensity, and duration of exercise were collected. A generalized estimating equation with multivariate adjustment for sociodemographic variables, cognitive and social leisure activities, lifestyle behaviors, and health status was calculated. Participants who were physically active during leisure time had better subsequent cognitive function (incident rate ratios [IRR]?=?0.63; 95 % CI, 0.54-0.75) and a slower rate of cognitive decline (p?=?0.01). Among the components of exercise, only duration emerged as a predictor of cognitive function (p?=?0.01). Older adults engaging in exercise for at least 30 min or more per session are likely to reduce the risk of subsequent cognitive decline. This research supports the case for physical exercise programs for older adults in order to help prevent loss of cognitive function. PMID:25297968
Chu, Da-Chen; Fox, Kenneth R; Chen, Li-Jung; Ku, Po-Wen
This study examines whether health risk behaviour in adolescence can be predicted by self- and by parental reports of psychopathology\\u000a (externalizing and internalizing symptoms) assessed two and four years earlier. A total sample of 366 fourth graders participated\\u000a in a longitudinal study with measurements taken in grades 4, 6, and 8. In grades 4 and 6 the children completed the
Marc Vierhaus; Arnold Lohaus
Total body potassium (TBK) data calculated from longitudinal measurements over 18 y of 40K by whole-body counting of 564 male and 61 female healthy humans in a 2-pi liquid scintillation counter show little change in females younger than 50 y compared with males of those ages. Males show less TBK from 41 y onward as they age, with most rapid rate of loss between 41 and 60 y. Females have a rapid loss of TBK when they are older than 60 y; the loss is at a greater rate than that of males. Percent total body fat calculated from total body weight and lean body mass (LBM) derived from TBK document greater adiposity in females at all ages except ages 51-60 y when females are similar to males in change in percent fat per year per centimeter.
Flynn, M.A.; Nolph, G.B.; Baker, A.S.; Martin, W.M.; Krause, G. (Univ. of Missouri-Columbia (USA))
Few researchers have longitudinally examined families caring for technology-dependent children at home. We tested a theoretically and empirically-based conceptual model by examining family functioning and normalization in 82 mothers (female primary caregivers) twice over 12 months. Time 1 and Time 2 cross-sectional findings were consistent; the only predictor of family functioning was mothers’ depressive symptoms. Contrary to the proposed model, normalization, caregiving duration, and home nursing hours were not directly related to family functioning. Baseline family functioning significantly predicted future family functioning. Also, mothers whose children were no longer technology-dependent at Time 2 reported significant improvements in family functioning and normalization. An intervention to address high levels of depressive symptoms of these mothers is essential to optimizing family functioning. PMID:22161731
Musil, Carol M.; Carl, John C.
Design for intervention studies may combine longitudinal data collected from sampled locations over several survey rounds and cross-sectional data from other locations in the study area. In this case, modeling the impact of the intervention requires an approach that can accommodate both types of data, accounting for the dependence between individuals followed up over time. Inadequate modeling can mask intervention effects, with serious implications for policy making. In this paper we use data from a large-scale larviciding intervention for malaria control implemented in Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania, collected over a period of almost 5 years. We apply a longitudinal Bayesian spatial model to the Dar es Salaam data, combining follow-up and cross-sectional data, treating the correlation in longitudinal observations separately, and controlling for potential confounders. An innovative feature of this modeling is the use of Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process to model random time effects. We contrast the results with other Bayesian modeling formulations, including cross-sectional approaches that consider individual-level random effects to account for subjects followed up in two or more surveys. The longitudinal modeling approach indicates that the intervention significantly reduced the prevalence of malaria infection in Dar es Salaam by 20% whereas the joint model did not suggest significance within the results. Our results suggest that the longitudinal model is to be preferred when longitudinal information is available at the individual level. PMID:24713159
Lawson, Andrew B; Carroll, Rachel; Castro, Marcia
For more than two decades, federal agencies have been enthusiastically supporting summer research experiences for undergraduates. These REU programs are tacitly intended to increase retention and provide "an important educational experience" for undergraduates, particularly women, minorities and underrepresented groups. Numerous authors (viz., Laursen, Lopatto, Dolan, among many others) have enthusiastically described positive impacts of summer REU programs from exit interview data. These results include enhanced persistence to pursue STEM careers and confirmed desire to attend graduate school in the field targeted by a particular REU. Perhaps surprisingly, negative student experiences are rarely described in the scholarly literature, but do appear in more informal publications (viz., Gueterma, 2007). One wonders how REU alumni, looking back over their entire collective portfolio of experiences, now perceive the educational value of their REU experience relative to their other educational experiences. To obtain a backwards-looking, reflective description from REU alumni on the value of their REU experiences, we conducted a 10-year, two-stage study was designed to explore the ways in which the REU acted as an educational experience for 51 women from a single geoscience sub-discipline. The first phase was an ex post facto longitudinal analysis of data, including multiple interviews with each participant during their REU, annual open-ended alumni surveys, faculty interviews, and extensive field notes, over a 10-year period. This analysis informed the second phase, a clinical interview. Over 10 hours of interviews with 8 participants were conducted and analyzed. These 8 participants were selected to represent a variety of career stages, and for their potential to reflect on a wide variety of educational experiences. Results from the interviews, done many years after their REU experience, indicate that the interviewees' REU did not provide a substantive educational experience related to the nature of scientific work, the scientific process, or the culture of academia when considered in a comparative context of students' other educational experiences. Results further indicated that the REU did not serve to transform participants' conceptions about themselves as situated in science, and learning gains with regard to other aspects of the self, were somewhat limited. Instead, the data suggests that these women arrived at the REU with pre-existing and remarkably strong conceptions in these areas, and that the REU did not functional to alter those states. These conceptions were frequently the result of interactions with mentors/scientists from middle school until well into the undergraduate period.
Slater, T. F.; Slater, S. J.
In order for DNA biobanks to be a valuable reservoir of genetic information, large numbers of participants from all racial and ethnic backgrounds need to be recruited. This study explored reasons for participating in a new biobank among primarily Hispanic and African American individuals, as well as their general attitudes towards genetic research, and their views on obtaining genetic tests. Focus groups were conducted with Mount Sinai Biobank participants recruited from predominantly lower income, minority communities. The topic guide included questions on The Mount Sinai Biobank, genetic research, and genetic testing. All focus groups were audio recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using thematic analysis. The six focus groups comprised 43 participants: 39 females and four males, aged 27-76 years, with a median household income category of $20,000-$39,999. Twenty-one participants were Hispanic, 20 African American, one Asian, and one White. Participants' reasons for participating in the biobank included altruism, personal and family benefit, and general curiosity. Although there was evidence of conflation between genetic research and genetic testing, most participants held positive views of genetic research and expressed interest in receiving personal genetic test results. Participants wanted to learn more about genetic research and suggested various venues such as health fairs for disseminating information. Participation in biobanks by racial and ethnic minorities is apparently driven by altruism, and desire for personal or collective health benefits. Participants had generally positive attitudes, limited understanding of genetics and genetic research, and made useful suggestions regarding information dissemination mechanisms. PMID:22109822
Streicher, Samantha A; Sanderson, Saskia C; Jabs, Ethylin Wang; Diefenbach, Michael; Smirnoff, Meg; Peter, Inga; Horowitz, Carol R; Brenner, Barbara; Richardson, Lynne D
Objective To determine whether the link between high success and longevity extends to academy award winning screenwriters. Design Retrospective cohort analysis. Participants All screenwriters ever nominated for an academy award. Main outcome measures Life expectancy and all cause mortality. Results A total of 850 writers were nominated; the median duration of follow up from birth was 68 years; and 428 writers died. On average, winners were more successful than nominees, as indicated by a 14% longer career (27.7 v 24.2, P=0.004), 34% more total films (23.2 v 17.3, P<0.001), 58% more four star films (4.8 v 3.1, P<0.001), and 62% more nominations (2.1 v 1.3, P<0.001). However, life expectancy was 3.6 years shorter for winners than for nominees (74.1 v 77.7 years, P=0.004), equivalent to a 37% relative increase in death rates (95% confidence interval 10 to 70). After adjustment for year of birth, sex, and other factors, a 35% relative increase in death rates was found (7% to 70%). Additional wins were associated with a 22% relative increase in death rates (3% to 44%). Additional nominations and additional other films in a career otherwise caused no significant increase in death rates. Conclusion The link between occupational achievement and longevity is reversed in screenwriters who win academy awards. Doubt is cast on simple biological theories for the survival gradients found for other members of society. What is already known on this topicHigh achievement has been associated with decreased all cause mortality for people in many different occupationsSuch an association is compatible with behavioural and biological theories for the role of social determinantsWhat this study addsScreenwriters nominated for an academy award show a paradoxical survival pattern, where greater success is associated with a large decrease in life expectancyThe paradox is not easily explained by talent, prestige, financial earnings, material conditions, reverse causality, measurement error, or simple demographicsIt might reflect the unusual lifestyles of writers, where success is not linked to exemplary conduct or control; this underscores the importance of behaviour PMID:11751368
Redelmeier, Donald A; Singh, Sheldon M
Work injuries are a worldwide public health problem but little is known about their socioeconomic impact. This prospective longitudinal study estimates the direct health care costs and socioeconomic consequences of work injuries for 406 workers identified in the emergency departments of the two largest public hospitals in Salvador, Brazil, from June through September 2005. After hospital discharge workers were followed up monthly until their return to work. Most insured workers were unaware of their rights or of how to obtain insurance benefits (81.6%). Approximately half the cases suffered loss of earnings, and women were more frequently dismissed than men. The most frequently reported family consequences were: need for a family member to act as a caregiver and difficulties with daily expenses. Total costs were US$40,077.00 but individual costs varied widely, according to injury severity. Out-of-pocket costs accounted for the highest proportion of total costs (50.5%) and increased with severity (57.6%). Most out-of-pocket costs were related to transport and purchasing medicines and other wound care products. The second largest contribution (40.6%) came from the public National Health System ? SUS. Employer participation was negligible. Health care funding must be discussed to alleviate the economic burden of work injuries on workers. PMID:23803496
SANTANA, Vilma Sousa; FERNANDES DE SOUZA, Luis Eugênio Portela; PINTO, Isabela Cardoso de Matos
A three-wave, longitudinal study examined the long-term trajectory of problem gaming symptoms among adult regular video gamers. Potential changes in problem gaming status were assessed at two intervals using an online survey over an 18-month period. Participants (N=117) were recruited by an advertisement posted on the public forums of multiple Australian video game-related websites. Inclusion criteria were being of adult age and having a video gaming history of at least 1 hour of gaming every week over the past 3 months. Two groups of adult video gamers were identified: those players who did (N=37) and those who did not (N=80) identify as having a serious gaming problem at the initial survey intake. The results showed that regular gamers who self-identified as having a video gaming problem at baseline reported more severe problem gaming symptoms than normal gamers, at all time points. However, both groups experienced a significant decline in problem gaming symptoms over an 18-month period, controlling for age, video gaming activity, and psychopathological symptoms. PMID:23098213
King, Daniel L; Delfabbro, Paul H; Griffiths, Mark D
The objectives of this study were to assess differences in premigration, transit, and resettlement stressor exposure and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms as a function of demographic characteristics (i.e., gender, ethnicity, age, time in United States) and to examine the concurrent and longitudinal relations between stressor exposure and PTSD symptoms. The sample consisted of adult (18-78 years) Somali and Oromo refugee men and women (N = 437). Qualitative data regarding participants' self-nominated worst stressors collected at Time 2 (T2) informed the development of quantitative scales assessing premigration, transit, and resettlement stress created using items collected at Time 1 (T1). PTSD symptoms were measured at both T1 and T2. Quantitative analyses showed that levels of stressor exposure and PTSD symptoms differed as a function of refugee demographic characteristics. For example, Oromo, more recent, women, and older refugees reported more premigration and resettlement stressors. Oromo refugees and refugee men reported more PTSD symptoms in regression analyses with other factors controlled. Premigration, transit, and resettlement stressor exposure generally was associated with higher PTSD symptom levels. Results underscore the importance of assessing stress exposure comprehensively throughout the refugee experience and caution against overgeneralizing between and within refugee groups. PMID:24164519
Perera, Sulani; Gavian, Margaret; Frazier, Patricia; Johnson, David; Spring, Marline; Westermeyer, Joseph; Butcher, James; Halcon, Linda; Robertson, Cheryl; Savik, Kay; Jaranson, James
Purpose: The purpose of this 1-year longitudinal study is to investigate the change in flow experience among occupational therapy students (OTS). Methods: In December 2012, we prospectively recruited 97 OTS from the Department of Occupational Therapy, Kibi International University. To assess flow experience in daily life, we used the Flow Experience Checklist. Results: The dataset included 87 OTS, of which 75 participated in the assessment at 1 year (follow-up rate, 86.2%). The mean age at baseline of 45 male and 30 female OTS was 19.59±1.1 years (range, 18 to 24 years). A comparison of the ‘frequency of flow experience’ showed significant differences between baseline values and those after 1 year (December 2013) among male OTS (P<0.05). Conclusion: The present results indicate that, for male OTS, the frequency of flow was significantly reduced after 1 year compared with baseline values. This finding suggests the need for further education to increase the frequency of flow among male OTS. PMID:25043928
The goal of this research was to determine the long-term viability of a sun health message. A multi-part educational intervention on hazards of sun exposure and methods of protection was delivered to fifth- and sixth-grade students, followed by a questionnaire to assess learning of the message. Four years later, participants were tracked and a questionnaire administered to assess retention of
Karen LaBat; Marilyn DeLong; Sherri A. Gahring
The impact of cancer on young people superimposed on the developmental processes toward adulthood is recognised (NICE 2005). Despite this there has been limited in-depth research to understand the experiences of young adults with cancer. This study aimed to explore the issues that contribute to the impact of cancer, on young adults' evolving sense of self and identity, by listening to the stories of young adults over one year from the time of diagnosis. This longitudinal narrative study was grounded in Ricoeur's (1984) notion of narratives as stories of experience. 18 young adults (16 to 30 years of age) took part in the study. Eight of the participants took part in three interviews over a year, 6 participants in two interviews. Data included conversational style interviews using free association; reflection of images taken; and detailed reflexive notes. Regular psychotherapeutic debriefing and an ongoing psychosocial research seminar group at the Tavistock Clinic created the space for reflection and awareness. Data were analysed longitudinally across individual cases; an integrated data framework from all the data was then developed. One participant is used to illustrate the interplay between the psyche and the social, the internal and external worlds in the year from diagnosis to the end of life. This also illustrates the framework across all the data involving the renegotiation of self over time, expressed in narrative, through the core components of: the inner world, (psyche, emotion and coping); self as embodied; self as relating others, and self as relating to place. This study demonstrates the value of storytelling over time for making sense, for patient centred practice and getting beneath the surface of experience. The importance of exploring both the 'said' and 'unsaid'; the challenge of 'being with' and 'standing alongside'; and the nature of psychosocial reflexivity all have important implications for empathic and compassionate care . PMID:25869708
Does religion still play a role in explorations of romance and sexuality among adolescents and young adults in a secular society such as Norway? Does it influence the type of living arrangements chosen? A population-based sample (n = 2,454) was followed longitudinally from their midteens to their late 20s using survey and register data. Christian involvement in teenage years was associated with subsequent less "precoital" exploration, less masturbation, delayed sexual intercourse, and a smaller number of sex partners. However, there were no associations with prevalence of same-sex experiences. Christians also postponed initiating romantic relationships and chose marriage over cohabitation. Associations were reduced after controlling for confounding factors but remained significant. Some associations (for example, the form of residential union chosen) were present only in the most "active" Christians. In other areas, such as "precoital explorations" and the age at which intercourse is initiated, Christian norms seem to play a role in much broader segments of the population. The findings indicate that Christianity may continue to influence young Norwegians' experiences of sexuality and cohabitation more than has been expected. PMID:23631689
Objectives Several cross-sectional studies suggest that psychosocial factors are associated with non-adherence to chronic preventive maintenance medication (CPMM); however, results from longitudinal associations have not yet been systematically summarized. Therefore, the objective of this study was to systematically synthesize evidence of longitudinal associations between psychosocial predictors and CPMM non-adherence. Materials and methods PUBMED, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsychINFO databases were searched for studies meeting our inclusion criteria. The reference lists and the ISI Web of Knowledge of the included studies were checked. Studies were included if they had an English abstract, involved adult populations using CPMM living in Western countries, and if they investigated associations between psychosocial predictors and medication non-adherence using longitudinal designs. Data were extracted according to a literature-based extraction form. Study quality was independently judged by two researchers using a framework comprising six bias domains. Studies were considered to be of high quality if ?four domains were free of bias. Psychosocial predictors for non-adherence were categorized into five pre-defined categories: beliefs/cognitions; coping styles; social influences and social support; personality traits; and psychosocial well-being. A qualitative best evidence synthesis was performed to synthesize evidence of longitudinal associations between psychosocial predictors and CPMM non-adherence. Results Of 4,732 initially-identified studies, 30 (low-quality) studies were included in the systematic review. The qualitative best evidence synthesis demonstrated limited evidence for absence of a longitudinal association between CPMM non-adherence and the psychosocial categories. The strength of evidence for the review’s findings is limited by the low quality of included studies. Conclusion The results do not provide psychosocial targets for the development of new interventions in clinical practice. This review clearly demonstrates the need for high-quality, longitudinal research to identify psychosocial predictors of medication non-adherence. PMID:24851043
Zwikker, Hanneke E; van den Bemt, Bart J; Vriezekolk, Johanna E; van den Ende, Cornelia H; van Dulmen, Sandra
Objective: To summarize the advantages and limitations of general population, high-risk and "natural experiment" longitudinal studies for studying psychological change. The English and Romanian Adoptees study is used as an example of a "natural experiment," and detailed findings are provided. Method: What is new is a focus on the young people who…
Rutter, Michael; Kumsta, Robert; Schlotz, Wolff; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund
The present study longitudinally investigates the cognitive processes of advanced L2 learners engaged in a multimedia task that elicited status-equal and status-unequal refusals in English during their study abroad. Data were collected three times by retrospective verbal report from 20 Chinese learners who were studying abroad over the course of…
A longitudinal study of student growth gains was conducted in Title I schools to assess growth in reading comprehension and critical thinking. Results suggested that all students benefited from the intervention of Project Athena units of study designed for high-ability learners. In addition, the study suggested that the comparison curriculum also…
VanTassel-Baska, Joyce; Bracken, Bruce; Feng, Annie; Brown, Elissa
This paper describes the methods and outcomes of a 12-year longitudinal study into the effects of an early intervention program, while reflecting back on changes that have occurred in approaches to research, learning and instruction since the preliminary inception stages of the study in the mid 1960s. We began the study to challenge the prevailing…
Novak, Joseph D.
Using the nationally representative, cohort-based data of the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS:02), this study employs multiple regression to examine the effects of exit exams on student achievement and school completion. This study finds that exit exams as a whole do not have substantial effects on student achievement in mathematics,…
The present study tested whether theoretically derived risk factors predicted increases in body dissatisfaction and whether gender moderated these relations with data from a longitudinal study of 428 adolescent girls and boys because few prospective studies have examined these aims, despite evidence that body dissatisfaction increases risk for various psychiatric disturbances. Body dissatisfaction showed significant increases for girls and significant
Sarah Kate Bearman; Katherine Presnell; Erin Martinez; Eric Stice
This longitudinal study investigated the progression in junior high school (JHS) students' conceptions of the structure of matter while studying a new instructional approach dealing with "Materials." In particular, we studied the progression of students' learning along two dimensions: (a) the conceptual model; and (b) the context of application.…
Margel, Hannah; Eylon, Bat-Sheva; Scherz, Zahava
This document reports one of the studies conducted as part of the longitudinal Vocational Development Study (VDS) project started in Altoona, Pennsylvania, in 1968. The main goals of the project are to conduct studies involving the evaluation of vocational programs, the validation guidance instruments, and the investigation of vocational…
Brown, Richard H.; Kapes, Jerome T.
Quantitative clinicopathological correlation studies are one way to address the question of the relevance of morphological abnormalities in Alzheimer's dementia (AD). This paper summarizes results of the Vienna Longitudinal Study on Dementia obtained during the past few years and presents a critical discussion on the relevance of clinicopathological correlation studies for the pathogenesis of AD. Plotting of psychometric test scores
C. Bancher; K. Jellinger; H. Lassmann; P. Fischer; F. Leblhuber
Objective: To study the association of family and social risk factors with psychopathology in a longitudinal study of adolescents. Method: From 1986 to 1988, 3,419 seventh through ninth graders were screened with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. The top decile scorers and a random sample of the remainder were interviewed…
Cuffe, Steven P.; McKeown, Robert E.; Addy, Cheryl L.; Garrison, Carol Z.
Objectives To explore individual determinants of workplace injury among Thai workers. Design Cross-sectional analysis of a large national cohort. Setting Thailand. Participants Thai Cohort Study participants who responded to the 2009 follow-up survey were included if they reported doing paid work or being self-employed (n=51?751). Outcome measures Self-reported injury incidence over the past 12?months was calculated. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to test associations between individual determinants and self-reported workplace injury. Results Workplace injuries were reported by 1317 study participants (2.5%); the incidence was 34 (95% CI 32 to 36)/1000 worker-years for men, and 18 (17–20) for women. Among men working ?41?h and earning <10?000 Baht, the injury rate was four times higher compared with men working <11?h and earning ?20?001 Baht; differences in injury rates were less pronounced in women. Multivariate modelling showed that working ?49?h/week (23%) and working for ?10?000 Bath/month (37%) were associated with workplace injury. The increase in injury risk with increased working hours did not exceed the risk expected from increased exposure. Conclusions Reductions in occupational injury rates could be achieved by limiting working hours to 48/week. Particularly for Thai low wage earners and those with longer workdays, there is a need for effective injury preventive programmes. PMID:23869104
Berecki-Gisolf, Janneke; Tawatsupa, Benjawan; McClure, Roderick; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian
Objective Diarrhoea is a significant contributer to morbidity and is among the leading causes of death of children living in poverty. As such, the incidence, duration and severity of diarrhoeal episodes in the household are often key variables of interest in a variety of community-based studies. However, there currently exists no means of defining diarrhoeal severity that are (A) specifically designed and adapted for community-based studies, (B) associated with poorer child outcomes and (C) agreed on by the majority of researchers. Clinical severity scores do exist and are used in healthcare settings, but these tend to focus on relatively moderate-to-severe dehydrating and dysenteric disease, require trained observation of the child and, given the variability of access and utilisation of healthcare, fail to sufficiently describe the spectrum of disease in the community setting. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Setting Santa Clara de Nanay, a rural community in the Northern Peruvian Amazon. Participants 442 infants and children 0–72?months of age. Main outcome measures Change in weight over 1-month intervals and change in length/height over 9-month intervals. Results Diarrhoeal episodes with symptoms of fever, anorexia, vomiting, greater number of liquid stools per day and greater number of total stools per day were associated with poorer weight gain compared with episodes without these symptoms. An instrument to measure the severity was constructed based on the duration of these symptoms over the course of a diarrhoeal episode. Conclusions In order to address limitations of existing diarrhoeal severity scores in the context of community-based studies, we propose an instrument comprised of diarrhoea-associated symptoms easily measured by community health workers and based on the association of these symptoms with poorer child growth. This instrument can be used to test the impact of interventions on the burden of diarrhoeal disease. PMID:24907244
Lee, Gwenyth; Peñataro Yori, Pablo; Paredes Olortegui, Maribel; Caulfield, Laura E; Sack, David A; Fischer-Walker, Christa; Black, Robert E; Kosek, Margaret
Parental participation in school management is regarded as a good thing according to the rationale that local people know better and are able to be more responsive to their own needs. However, little is understood about the implications of the School Operational Support policy for community participation in education. This study investigated…
Fitriah, Amaliah; Sumintono, Bambang; Subekti, Nanang Bagus; Hassan, Zainudin
Two separate studies of space charge longitudinal dynamics in the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring have been completed. The first of these studies is a benchmark of a longitudinal instability caused by three ferrite inductors used in the ring to provide longitudinal space charge compensation. We use the ORBIT code to benchmark the growth time, mode spectrum, and intensity threshold of the instability. The second study concerns the 201.5 MHz linac microbunch structure of the beam. We find that this microbunch structure persists in the ring over long periods of time with no RF bunching. We show through analysis of the experimental data and simulations that space charge, coupled with energy spread effects, is responsible for the sustained structure.
Cousineau, S.; Danilov, V.; Holmes, J.; Macek, R.
Background The selection methodology for UK general practice is designed to accommodate several thousand applicants per year and targets six core attributes identified in a multi-method job-analysis study Aim To evaluate the predictive validity of selection methods for entry into postgraduate training, comprising a clinical problem-solving test, a situational judgement test, and a selection centre. Design and setting A three-part longitudinal predictive validity study of selection into training for UK general practice. Method In sample 1, participants were junior doctors applying for training in general practice (n = 6824). In sample 2, participants were GP registrars 1 year into training (n = 196). In sample 3, participants were GP registrars sitting the licensing examination after 3 years, at the end of training (n = 2292). The outcome measures include: assessor ratings of performance in a selection centre comprising job simulation exercises (sample 1); supervisor ratings of trainee job performance 1 year into training (sample 2); and licensing examination results, including an applied knowledge examination and a 12-station clinical skills objective structured clinical examination (OSCE; sample 3). Results Performance ratings at selection predicted subsequent supervisor ratings of job performance 1 year later. Selection results also significantly predicted performance on both the clinical skills OSCE and applied knowledge examination for licensing at the end of training. Conclusion In combination, these longitudinal findings provide good evidence of the predictive validity of the selection methods, and are the first reported for entry into postgraduate training. Results show that the best predictor of work performance and training outcomes is a combination of a clinical problem-solving test, a situational judgement test, and a selection centre. Implications for selection methods for all postgraduate specialties are considered. PMID:24267856
Patterson, Fiona; Lievens, Filip; Kerrin, Máire; Munro, Neil; Irish, Bill
In a typical case-control study, exposure information is collected at a single time-point for the cases and controls. However, case-control studies are often embedded in existing cohort studies containing a wealth of longitudinal exposure history on the participants. Recent medical studies have indicated that incorporating past exposure history, or a constructed summary measure of cumulative exposure derived from the past exposure history, when available, may lead to more precise and clinically meaningful estimates of the disease risk. In this paper, we propose a flexible Bayesian semiparametric approach to model the longitudinal exposure profiles of the cases and controls and then use measures of cumulative exposure based on a weighted integral of this trajectory in the final disease risk model. The estimation is done via a joint likelihood. In the construction of the cumulative exposure summary, we introduce an influence function, a smooth function of time to characterize the association pattern of the exposure profile on the disease status with different time windows potentially having differential influence/weights. This enables us to analyze how the present disease status of a subject is influenced by his/her past exposure history conditional on the current ones. The joint likelihood formulation allows us to properly account for uncertainties associated with both stages of the estimation process in an integrated manner. Analysis is carried out in a hierarchical Bayesian framework using Reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo (RJMCMC) algorithms. The proposed methodology is motivated by, and applied to a case-control study of prostate cancer where longitudinal biomarker information is available for the cases and controls. PMID:22313248
Bhadra, Dhiman; Daniels, Michael J.; Kim, Sungduk; Ghosh, Malay; Mukherjee, Bhramar
Objective To determine whether individual fruits are differentially associated with risk of type 2 diabetes. Design Prospective longitudinal cohort study. Setting Health professionals in the United States. Participants 66 105 women from the Nurses’ Health Study (1984-2008), 85 104 women from the Nurses’ Health Study II (1991-2009), and 36 173 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2008) who were free of major chronic diseases at baseline in these studies. Main outcome measure Incident cases of type 2 diabetes, identified through self report and confirmed by supplementary questionnaires. Results During 3 464 641 person years of follow-up, 12 198 participants developed type 2 diabetes. After adjustment for personal, lifestyle, and dietary risk factors of diabetes, the pooled hazard ratio of type 2 diabetes for every three servings/week of total whole fruit consumption was 0.98 (95% confidence interval 0.96 to 0.99). With mutual adjustment of individual fruits, the pooled hazard ratios of type 2 diabetes for every three servings/week were 0.74 (0.66 to 0.83) for blueberries, 0.88 (0.83 to 0.93) for grapes and raisins, 0.89 (0.79 to 1.01) for prunes, 0.93 (0.90 to 0.96) for apples and pears, 0.95 (0.91 to 0.98) for bananas, 0.95 (0.91 to 0.99) for grapefruit, 0.97 (0.92 to 1.02) for peaches, plums, and apricots, 0.99 (0.95 to 1.03) for oranges, 1.03 (0.96 to 1.10) for strawberries, and 1.10 (1.02 to 1.18) for cantaloupe. The pooled hazard ratio for the same increment in fruit juice consumption was 1.08 (1.05 to 1.11). The associations with risk of type 2 diabetes differed significantly among individual fruits (P<0.001 in all cohorts). Conclusion Our findings suggest the presence of heterogeneity in the associations between individual fruit consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes. Greater consumption of specific whole fruits, particularly blueberries, grapes, and apples, is significantly associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes, whereas greater consumption of fruit juice is associated with a higher risk. PMID:23990623
Objective The aims of this study were twofold: 1) to provide a brief introduction to the prospective, longitudinal Great Smoky Mountains Study and review recent findings; and 2) to use this sample to conduct an epidemiologic analysis of common childhood anxiety disorders. Method The population-based Great Smoky Mountains Study assessed 1,420 participants from 11 counties in southeastern US up to 11 times between ages 9 and 26 with the structured Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment and its upward extension, the Young Adult Psychiatric Assessment. Results The U-shaped age prevalence curve for any anxiety disorder was the product of high levels of childhood separation anxiety and adult panic, agoraphobia, and generalized anxiety. Over 1 in 5 subjects met criteria for an anxiety disorder by early adulthood. In terms of cumulative comorbidity, there was evidence of overlap between anxiety disorders, but the level of overlap was generally consistent with what is seen amongst other common childhood disorders. All childhood anxiety disorders were associated with adverse functioning in at least one young adult functional domain with the poorest outcomes for childhood generalized anxiety and DSM-III-R overanxious disorder. Conclusion Clinically significant anxiety is a common mental health problem to have had by adulthood. There was little evidence to support the consolidation of anxiety disorders, and some evidence to justify reintroduction of DSM-III-R overanxious disorder. The transition to young adulthood appears to be a key period for understanding the development of common adult anxiety disorders such as panic and agoraphobia. PMID:24342383
Copeland, William E.; Angold, Adrian; Shanahan, Lilly; Costello, E. Jane
Background After a stroke, patients often suffer from varying degrees of disability that require acute inpatient treatment and extended care at home. Therefore, the caregivers assume multiple responsibilities that can result in stress, particularly when their own needs are inadequately addressed during the patient’s recovery. Objectives This study aimed to explore the changing needs of family caregivers of stroke patients and factors related to the needs in four stages, before the transfer from intensive care unit to neurological unit, before discharge, 2 weeks post-hospitalization, and 3 months post-hospitalization. Methods The design of this study was based on longitudinal research, and the participants were family caregivers of stroke patients. Sixty family caregivers were recruited in this study. Data were collected at four time points by questionnaire. Results We found that the total number of needs of family caregivers decreased as the illness duration increased and that needs differed significantly between the four time points (P<0.01). Although the needs were different in each stage, health information, professional support, and community networks were the leading need domains in all four stages. The major factors affecting the care needs of family caregivers were the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores of patients on admission, length of hospital stay, and physical dependence of patients. Conclusion Family caregivers expected to obtain assistance and related care information from professionals during the course of the disease. Assessing the needs of family caregivers is important for health care workers in understanding problems from the caregivers’ perspectives. Relevant information and counseling should be provided to family caregivers to help them access support when needed. PMID:25834409
Tsai, Pei-Chun; Yip, Ping-Keung; Tai, John Jen; Lou, Meei-Fang
Background Current and prior psychopathology in bariatric surgery candidates is believed to be common. Accurate prevalence estimates, however, are difficult to obtain given that bariatric surgery candidates often wish to appear psychiatrically healthy when they are undergoing psychiatric evaluation prior to being approved for the surgery. Also, structured diagnostic assessments have been utilized infrequently. Methods This report concerns the 199 patients who were enrolled in the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (LABS) study who also participated in the LABS-3 Psychopathology sub-study. All were interviewed independent of the usual preoperative psychosocial evaluation process. Patients were explicitly told that the data would not be shared with the surgical team unless certain high risk behaviors such as suicidality that could lead to adverse peri-operative outcomes were reported. Results The majority of the sample was female (82.9%) and Caucasian (non-white 7.6%, Hispanic 5.0%). The median age was 46.0 years with a median body mass index (BMI) of 44.9 kg/m2; 33.7% had at least one current Axis I disorder and 68.8% at least one lifetime Axis I disorder. Of note, 38.7% had a lifetime history of major depressive disorder, and 33.2% had a lifetime diagnosis of alcohol abuse or dependence, all much higher than population-based prevalence rates obtained for this age group in the National Comorbidity Survey--Replication Study. With respect to binge eating disorder, 13.1% had a lifetime diagnosis, while 10.1% had a current diagnosis. Conclusion Current and lifetime rates of psychopathology are high in bariatric surgery candidates, and lifetime rates of affective disorder and alcohol use disorders are particularly prominent. Binge eating disorder is present in approximately 1 in 10 bariatric surgery candidates. PMID:22920965
Mitchell, James E.; Selzer, Faith; Kalarchian, Melissa A.; Devlin, Michael J.; Strain, Gladys; Elder, Katherine A.; Marcus, Marsha D.; Wonderlich, Steve; Christian, Nicholas J.; Yanovski, Susan Z.
Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous loci influencing cross-sectional lung function, but less is known about genes influencing longitudinal change in lung function. Methods We performed GWAS of the rate of change in forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) in 14 longitudinal, population-based cohort studies comprising 27,249 adults of European ancestry using linear mixed effects model and combined cohort-specific results using fixed effect meta-analysis to identify novel genetic loci associated with longitudinal change in lung function. Gene expression analyses were subsequently performed for identified genetic loci. As a secondary aim, we estimated the mean rate of decline in FEV1 by smoking pattern, irrespective of genotypes, across these 14 studies using meta-analysis. Results The overall meta-analysis produced suggestive evidence for association at the novel IL16/STARD5/TMC3 locus on chromosome 15 (P ?=? 5.71 × 10-7). In addition, meta-analysis using the five cohorts with ?3 FEV1 measurements per participant identified the novel ME3 locus on chromosome 11 (P ?=? 2.18 × 10-8) at genome-wide significance. Neither locus was associated with FEV1 decline in two additional cohort studies. We confirmed gene expression of IL16, STARD5, and ME3 in multiple lung tissues. Publicly available microarray data confirmed differential expression of all three genes in lung samples from COPD patients compared with controls. Irrespective of genotypes, the combined estimate for FEV1 decline was 26.9, 29.2 and 35.7 mL/year in never, former, and persistent smokers, respectively. Conclusions In this large-scale GWAS, we identified two novel genetic loci in association with the rate of change in FEV1 that harbor candidate genes with biologically plausible functional links to lung function. PMID:24983941
Tang, Wenbo; Kowgier, Matthew; Loth, Daan W.; Soler Artigas, María; Joubert, Bonnie R.; Hodge, Emily; Gharib, Sina A.; Smith, Albert V.; Ruczinski, Ingo; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Mathias, Rasika A.; Harris, Tamara B.; Hansel, Nadia N.; Launer, Lenore J.; Barnes, Kathleen C.; Hansen, Joyanna G.; Albrecht, Eva; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Allerhand, Michael; Barr, R. Graham; Brusselle, Guy G.; Couper, David J.; Curjuric, Ivan; Davies, Gail; Deary, Ian J.; Dupuis, Josée; Fall, Tove; Foy, Millennia; Franceschini, Nora; Gao, Wei; Gläser, Sven; Gu, Xiangjun; Hancock, Dana B.; Heinrich, Joachim; Hofman, Albert; Imboden, Medea; Ingelsson, Erik; James, Alan; Karrasch, Stefan; Koch, Beate; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Kumar, Ashish; Lahousse, Lies; Li, Guo; Lind, Lars; Lindgren, Cecilia; Liu, Yongmei; Lohman, Kurt; Lumley, Thomas; McArdle, Wendy L.; Meibohm, Bernd; Morris, Andrew P.; Morrison, Alanna C.; Musk, Bill; North, Kari E.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rotter, Jerome I.; Schulz, Holger; Smith, Lewis J.; Sood, Akshay; Starr, John M.; Strachan, David P.; Teumer, Alexander; Uitterlinden, André G.; Völzke, Henry; Voorman, Arend; Wain, Louise V.; Wells, Martin T.; Wilk, Jemma B.; Williams, O. Dale; Heckbert, Susan R.; Stricker, Bruno H.; London, Stephanie J.; Fornage, Myriam; Tobin, Martin D.; O?Connor, George T.; Hall, Ian P.; Cassano, Patricia A.
This longitudinal multi-method study assessed changes in institutional autonomy at 30 community colleges in one state. Six years after legislated changes intended to increase autonomy and create a uniform fiscal operation system had been implemented, the study found that changes in autonomy in selected fiscal, personnel, and operational matters…
Voogt, Anita Claire; Volkwein, James Fredericks
The Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B:93) tracks the experiences of a cohort of recent college graduates, those who received the baccalaureate degree during the 1992-93 academic year and were first interviewed as part of the National Postsecondary Student Aid Study. The experiences of this group in the areas of academic enrollment,…
Green, Patricia J.; And Others
A theory of relational humility asserts that humility can promote strengthening social bonds. To complement prior, cross-sectional research on this topic, two longitudinal studies were conducted. In Study 1, college students in romantic relationships (N = 123), all of whom had been hurt or offended by their partners within the last two months, completed measures of humility and unforgiveness for six consecutive
Don E. Davis; Everett L Worthington Jr; Joshua N. Hook; Robert A. Emmons; Peter C. Hill; Richard A. Bollinger; Daryl R. Van Tongeren
This longitudinal case study follows a dynamic systems approach to investigate an under-studied research area in second language acquisition, the development of complexity and accuracy for an advanced untutored learner of English. Using the analytical tools of dynamic systems theory (Verspoor et al. 2011) within the framework of complexity,…
Polat, Brittany; Kim, Youjin
Nearly two centuries ago, Parkinson (1817) first observed that a particular pattern of speech changes occur in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). Numerous studies have documented these changes using a wide variety of acoustic measures, and yet few studies have attempted to quantify any such changes longitudinally, through the early…
Harel, Brian; Cannizzaro, Michael; Snyder, Peter J.
Objective: To compare social and behavioural outcomes between children formally diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) with those of children who displayed autistic traits at preschool age, but remained undiagnosed as teenagers. Method: A secondary analysis of data from a birth cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and…
Russell, Ginny; Golding, Jean; Norwich, Brahm; Emond, Alan; Ford, Tamsin; Steer, Colin
Standardized testing has been implemented in most school districts as part of an effort to improve student achievement in mathematics, reading, science, and English. There have been heated debates as to the effects of these improvement efforts on student achievement. In studying these issues, it is important to examine longitudinal growth patterns for individuals. In most of the studies, however,
Cody S. Ding; Mark L. Davison
Recent factor analytic studies in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have shown that hierarchical models provide a better fit of ADHD symptoms than correlated models. A hierarchical model includes a general ADHD factor and specific factors for inattention, and hyperactivity/impulsivity. The aim of this 12-month longitudinal study was…
Normand, Sebastien; Flora, David B.; Toplak, Maggie E.; Tannock, Rosemary
Despite numerous studies, the link between verbal working memory (WM) and calculation abilities remains poorly understood. The present longitudinal study focuses specifically on the role of serial order retention capacities, based on recent findings suggesting a link between ordinal processing in verbal WM and numerical processing tasks. Children…
Attout, Lucie; Noël, Marie-Pascale; Majerus, Steve
A study was conducted by the Wyoming Community College Commission to describe the variables that affect students' progress toward their personal, academic and career objectives, and to evaluate their progress in reaching those objectives. The 5-year longitudinal study focused on a random sample of 181 students who were first-time, first-year…
Wyoming Community Coll. Commission, Cheyenne.
A longitudinal study of tremor frequencies in Parkinson's disease and essential tremor B. Hellwig a November 2008 Available online 19 December 2008 Keywords: Parkinson's disease Essential tremor Tremor) decreases with time. Lon- gitudinal studies on the evolution of tremor frequencies in Parkinson's disease
Summary Alcoholics Anonymous represent one of the fewclearly successful treatment approaches for alcoholism. In an attempt to delineate the dynamics of this approach, six propositions were derived from previous research on A. A. and tested in a longitudinal study of post-discharge A. A. affiliation among 378 white males treated for alcoholism in a state hospital. Unlike previous studies, the present
Harrison M. Trice; Paul M. Roman
This study consisted of a longitudinal investigation into the information behavior of people diagnosed with a particular chronic serious health condition, type 2 diabetes. This study sought to identify the factors that motivate or impede the information seeking and use of these individuals and to discover how these factors and their influences…
St. Jean, Beth Lenore
The aims of the current study were to assess the development and determine the underlying mechanisms of sprinting and dribbling needed to compete at the highest level in youth soccer. Talented soccer players aged 12–19 years (n = 267) were measured on a yearly basis in a longitudinal study over 7 years, resulting in 519 measurements. Two field tests, the Shuttle Sprint
Barbara C. H. Huijgen; Marije T. Elferink-Gemser; Wendy Post; Chris Visscher
This study examined dyadic interrelations between episodic memory and depressive symptom trajectories of change in old and advanced old age. The authors applied dynamic models to 10-year incomplete longitudinal data of initially 1,599 married couples from the study of Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old (M[subscript age] = 75 years at…
Gerstorf, Denis; Hoppmann, Christiane A.; Kadlec, Kelly M.; McArdle, John J.
Parental involvement in children's schooling is an important component of children's early school success. Few studies have examined this construct exclusively among Latino families. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K), the present investigation (N = 2,051) explored relations between Latino parents' home and school…
Durand, Tina M.
Findings from a longitudinal study of language acquisition in a group of autistic children are presented. Six autistic subjects and six children with Down syndrome, matched on age and MLU at the start of the study, were followed over a period of between 12 and 26 months. Language samples were collected in the children's homes while they interacted with their
Helen Tager-Flusberg; Susan Calkins; Tina Nolin; Therese Baumberger; Marcia Anderson; Ann Chadwick-Dias
Researchers planning a longitudinal study typically search, more or less informally, a multivariate space of possible study designs that include dimensions such as the hypothesized true variance in change, indicator reliability, the number and spacing of measurement occasions, total study time, and sample size. The main search goal is to select a research design that best addresses the guiding questions and hypotheses of the planned study while heeding applicable external conditions and constraints, including time, money, feasibility, and ethical considerations. Because longitudinal study selection ultimately requires optimization under constraints, it is amenable to the general operating principles of optimization in computer-aided design. Based on power equivalence theory (MacCallum et al., 2010; von Oertzen, 2010), we propose a computational framework to promote more systematic searches within the study design space. Starting with an initial design, the proposed framework generates a set of alternative models with equal statistical power to detect hypothesized effects, and delineates trade-off relations among relevant parameters, such as total study time and the number of measurement occasions. We present LIFESPAN (Longitudinal Interactive Front End Study Planner), which implements this framework. LIFESPAN boosts the efficiency, breadth, and precision of the search for optimal longitudinal designs. Its initial version, which is freely available at http://www.brandmaier.de/lifespan, is geared toward the power to detect variance in change as specified in a linear latent growth curve model. PMID:25852596
Brandmaier, Andreas M.; von Oertzen, Timo; Ghisletta, Paolo; Hertzog, Christopher; Lindenberger, Ulman
Background. Despite an increased prevalence of depression among people of low socio-economic position, it remains unclear whether their treatment with antidepressants appropriately matches their increased need compared with people from more affluent backgrounds. This study examined socio-economic differences in antidepressant prescriptions and mortality related to depressive dis- orders. Method. A longitudinal register study of 17 947 male and 47 458
MIKA KIVIMÄKI; DAVID GUNNELL; DEBBIE A. LAWLOR; GEORGE DAVEY SMITH; JAANA PENTTI; MARIANNA VIRTANEN; MARKO ELOVAINIO; TIMO KLAUKKA; JUSSI VAHTERA
Prosodic patterning is a key structural element of spoken language. However, the potential role of prosodic awareness in the phonological difficulties that characterise children with developmental dyslexia has been little studied. Here we report the first longitudinal study of sensitivity to syllable stress in children with dyslexia, enabling the…
Goswami, Usha; Mead, Natasha; Fosker, Tim; Huss, Martina; Barnes, Lisa; Leong, Victoria
Underage drinking and drug use among college students are major public health concerns, yet few studies have examined these behaviors and their associated risk factors and consequences prospectively. This paper describes the sampling and recruitment methods of a longitudinal study of 1253 college students at a large, mid-Atlantic university. Incoming first-year students were screened during the unique window between high
Amelia M. Arria; Kimberly M. Caldeira; Kevin E. O’Grady; Kathryn B. Vincent; Dawn B. Fitzelle; Erin P. Johnson; Eric D. Wish
The present study examines the quality of peer relations as a mediator between exposure to IPV (intimate partner violence) and internalizing behaviors in a sample of 129 preadolescents and adolescents (ages 10-18), who were interviewed via telephone as part of a multigenerational, prospective, longitudinal study. Relational victimization is also…
Camacho, Kathleen; Ehrensaft, Miriam K.; Cohen, Patricia
Objective: To assess the impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women on subsequent perpetration of child abuse and neglect (CAN) by parents; and to test the mediation effect of recent IPV on the link between IPV during pregnancy and subsequent CAN. Methods: This study was a longitudinal follow-up of a population-based study on…
Chan, Ko Ling; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Fong, Daniel Y. T.; Tiwari, Agnes; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ho, Pak Chung
This preliminary analysis is part of the baseline phase of a longitudinal study designed to investigate the professional development of primary and secondary teachers across England. The study addresses four key research areas. The prevailing models of professional development for teachers in England are identified in this baseline phase and the…
Boyle, Bill; While, David; Boyle, Trudy
Professor Stephen Reder presented the Longitudinal Study of Adult Learning (LSAL) at The Centre's 2011 Fall Institute--IALS: Its Meaning and Impact for Policy and Practice--whose findings had implications far beyond assessment. Based on evidence from the ten-year study of more than a thousand adult high school drop-outs, Dr. Reder challenges many…
Because the power properties of traditional repeated measures and hierarchical multivariate linear models have not been clearly determined in the balanced design for longitudinal studies in the literature, the authors present a power comparison study of traditional repeated measures and hierarchical multivariate linear models under 3…
Fang, Hua; Brooks, Gordon P.; Rizzo, Maria L.; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Barcikowski, Robert S.
This study examined the prevalence and chronicity of sleep problems in children who manifest problems believed to be typical of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Using data from a longitudinal total population study, symptoms of ASD, insomnia and potential explanatory factors were assessed at ages 7-9 and 11-13. Children were included in a group…
Sivertsen, Borge; Posserud, Maj-Britt; Gillberg, Christopher; Lundervold, Astri J.; Hysing, Mari
To explore the different developmental trajectories of social-communicative skills in children with autism and typically developing infants, two longitudinal studies were conducted. In Study 1, we examined the developmental sequence of social-communicative skills in 26 typically developing infants when they were 9 months old and reexamined them…
Wu, Chin-Chin; Chiang, Chung-Hsin
Use and cost of hospitalization in dementia: longitudinal results from a community-based study 18months for over 10years (1805 never diagnosed with dementia during study period, 221 diagnosed with dementia at enrollment). Hospitalization and Medicare expenditures data (19992010) were ob- tained from
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of outpatient substance abuse treatment for youth with high traumatic stress compared to youth without high traumatic stress in substance abuse treatment centers across the United States. The data for this study were gathered using a longitudinal survey design with purposive sampling from nine drug treatment delivery systems across the
Julie K. Williams; Douglas C. Smith; Hyonggin An; James A. Hall
This paper presents a four-year longitudinal study of student teachers' beliefs about language learning and teaching over the course of an English teacher education (ELT) program. The study attempts to track possible changes in the beliefs and to analyze the impact of an ELT pre-service program by taking the program itself as a dynamic variable.…
Ozmen, Kemal Sinan
This longitudinal study examines factors that explain differences in levels of state appropriations for higher education across states, sectors, and institutions between 1984 and 2004. The study sheds light on the complex relationship between institutional mission, state fiscal health, and state political context in explaining appropriations for…
Weerts, David J.; Ronca, Justin M.
By utilizing a 2-year longitudinal design, the present study investigated the experience of work engagement and its antecedents among Finnish health care personnel (n = 409). The data were collected by questionnaires in 2003 (Time 1) and in 2005 (Time 2). The study showed that work engagement--especially vigor and dedication--was relatively…
Mauno, Saija; Kinnunen, Ulla; Ruokolainen, Mervi
BACKGROUND: General opinion is that doctors are increasingly dissatisfied with their job, but few longitudinal studies exist. This study has been conducted to investigate a possible decline in professional and personal satisfaction among doctors by the turn of the century. METHODS: We have done a survey among a representative sample of 1 174 Norwegian doctors in 2002 (response rate 73
Magne Nylenna; Pål Gulbrandsen; Reidun Førde; Olaf G Aasland
Based on survey data and interview data collected over four academic years, this longitudinal study examined how a ubiquitous computing project evolved along with the changes in teachers, students, the human infrastructure, and technology infrastructure in the school. This study also investigated what conditions were necessary for successful…
Nightmares are defined as dreams with strong negative emotions which awaken the dreamer and are common during childhood: cross-sectional data shows the highest prevalence rates between the ages of five and ten. The present longitudinal study was designed to study the stability of nightmares over the course of 2 years. Sleep questionnaires and…
Schredl, Michael; Fricke-Oerkermann, Leonie; Mitschke, Alexander; Wiater, Alfred; Lehmkuhl, Gerd
The present longitudinal field study investigated the antecedents and consequences of an actual career change. The framework for this study was Rhodes and Doering's (1983) model of career change. We examined the effect of individual and organisational characteristics on career change behaviour. The individual characteristics were: traits (Openness…
Carless, Sally A.; Arnup, Jessica L.
This study examined exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), a major public health problem. ETS has been found to be associated with an increased risk of adverse health effects in children. This study utilizes data from a community-based, longitudinal investigation examining the relation between children's exposure to ETS and later…
Brook, Judith S.; Zhang, Chenshu; Fagan, Pebbles
This paper presents the results of a longitudinal study which examined the development of the Turkish EFL learners' pragmatic awareness in an EFL context in a four-year period. The data which were originally collected from American native speakers and used by Bulut and Ozkan (2005) were also used in this study as the baseline to compare Turkish…
In a longitudinal study at North Carolina State University, a cohort of students took five chemical engineering courses taught by the same instructor in five consecutive semesters. The course instruction made extensive use of active and cooperative learning and a variety of other techniques designed to address a broad spectrum of learning styles. Previous reports on the study summarized the
Richard M. Felder; Gary N. Felder; E. Jacquelin Dietz
Bullying perpetration and victimisation are common issues confronting schools. To understand the extent of bullying in schools and differences in the experiences of boys and girls, longitudinal studies of different subtypes of bullying perpetration and victimisation are essential. The current study aims to describe the rates of bullying…
Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Tollit, Michelle; Kotevski, Aneta
The purpose of this longitudinal study is to examine the effects of personal factors and contextual determinants on the career maturity change of Korean adolescents over a 5-year period. This study used data from the Korea Youth Panel Survey which was administered to 3,449 junior high students from Grades 8 to 12, starting in 2003. A linear…
Yon, Kyu Jin; Joeng, Ju-Ri; Goh, Michael
Introduction: This study has aimed to investigate the relationship between the development of working memory and performance on arithmetic activities. Method: We conducted a 3-year longitudinal study of a sample of 90 children, that was followed during the first, second and third year of primary school. All children were tested on measures of WM…
This final report concentrates on conclusions and recommendations from a three-year longitudinal study of 48 mentally retarded adults who were graduates or dropouts from senior high schools in six rural Iowa school districts during academic years 1976-1982. Using data from structured interviews, the study sought to assess social and vocational…
Keystone Area Education, Elkader, IA.
Recounts the pedagogical history of the Anglo-Welsh Adams family that spans the 1840s to the 1930s in England and Wales. Comprises summarized biographical details of relevant family members and offers generalizations drawn from this longitudinal case study. Argues that this study highlights neglected aspects within educational history. (DSK)
We examined the longitudinal measurement properties and predictive utility of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) from early to late adolescence among a sample of North American Indigenous youths. Participants were 632 North American Indigenous adolescents (n = 632; 50.3% girls; M age at baseline = 11.11 years) participating in an 8-year, 8-wave longitudinal study. Via in-person interviews, participants completed the CES-D at Waves 1, 3, 5, and 7, and the major depressive disorder (MDD) module of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children at Waves 1, 4, 6, and 8. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that responses to the CES-D were similarly explained by 2-, 3-, and 4-factor models, as well as a 1-factor model with correlations between the error variances for the positively worded items. Longitudinal measurement equivalence analyses indicated full structural (i.e., factor structure), metric (i.e., factor loadings), and scalar (i.e., observed item intercepts) equivalence for each factor structure. Substantive analyses showed that the CES-D was significantly associated with MDD both concurrently and prospectively, although these effects were smaller than might be expected. Finally, the CES-D negative affect and somatic complaints subscales were the strongest and most consistent predictors of MDD. Among our sample of North American Indigenous youths, the measurement properties of the CES-D were stable from early to late adolescence. Moreover, somatic difficulties and depressed affect were the strongest predictors of MDD. PMID:25181394
Armenta, Brian E.; Sittner Hartshorn, Kelley J.; Whitbeck, Les B.; Crawford, Devan M.; Hoyt, Dan R.
With aging, customary gait patterns change and energetic efficiency declines, but the relationship between these alterations is not well understood. If gait characteristics that develop with aging explain part of the decline in energetic efficiency that occur in most aging individuals, then efforts to modify these characteristics could delay or prevent mobility limitation. This study characterizes gait patterns in older persons with and without knee pain and tests the hypothesis that changes in gait characteristics due to knee pain are associated with increased energetic cost of walking in older adults. Study participants were 364 men and 170 women aged 60 to 96 years enrolled in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA), of whom 86 had prevalent knee pain. Gait patterns were assessed at participant self-selected usual pace in the gait laboratory, and the energetic cost of walking was assessed by indirect calorimetry during self-selected usual pace walking over 2.5 min in a tiled corridor using a portable equipment. Participants with knee pain were less energetically efficient than those without pain (oxygen consumption 0.97 vs. 0.88 ml/(10 m?·?100 kg); p?=?0.002) and had slower gait speed and smaller range of motion (ROM) at the hip and knee joints (p?0.05, for all). Slower gait speed and lower knee ROM in participants with knee pain and longer double support time and higher ankle ROM in participants without knee pain were associated with lower energetic efficiency (p?0.05, for all). Slower gait speed and lower knee ROM were correlates of knee pain and were found to mediate the association between age and oxygen consumption. Although knee pain is associated with a higher energetic cost of walking, gait characteristics associated with energetic efficiency differ by pain status which suggests that compensatory strategies both in the presence and absence of pain may impact gait efficiency. PMID:25666574
Ko, Seung-Uk; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Ferrucci, Luigi
Background Theory of mind allows the understanding and prediction of other people’s behaviours based on their mental states (e.g. beliefs). It is important for healthy social relationships and thus may contribute towards children’s involvement in bullying. The present study investigated whether children involved in bullying during early adolescence had poor theory of mind in childhood. Method Participants were members of the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally-representative sample of 2,232 children and their families. Families were visited by the authors when children were 5, 7, 10 and 12 years. Theory of mind was assessed when the children were 5 years using eight standardized tasks. Identification of those children who were involved in bullying as victims, bullies and bully-victims using mothers’, teachers’ and children’s reports was carried out when they were 12 years’ old. Results Poor theory of mind predicted becoming a victim (effect size, d=0.26), bully (d=0.25) or bully-victim (d=0.44) in early adolescence. These associations remained for victims and bully-victims when child-specific (e.g., IQ) and family factors (e.g., child maltreatment) were controlled for. Emotional and behavioural problems during middle childhood did not modify the association between poor theory of mind and adolescent bullying experiences. Conclusion Identifying and supporting children with poor theory of mind early in life could help reduce their vulnerability for involvement in bullying and thus limit its adverse effects on mental health. PMID:22081896
Sania, Shakoor; Jaffee, Sara R; Bowes, Lucy; Ouellet-Morin, Isabelle; Andreou, Penelope; Happé, Francesca; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise
Many children with, or at risk of, ADHD do not receive healthcare services for their difficulties. This longitudinal study investigates barriers to and predictors of specialist health service use. This is a 5-year follow-up study of children who participated in a cluster randomised controlled trial, which investigated school-level interventions (provision of books with evidence-based information and/or feedback of names of children) for children at risk of ADHD. 162 children who had high levels of ADHD symptoms at age 5 (baseline) were followed up at age 10 years. Using baseline data and follow-up information collected from parents and teachers, children who had and had not used specialist health services over the follow-up period were compared and predictors (symptom severity, comorbid problems, parental perception of burden, parental mental health, and socio-demographic factors) of specialist service use investigated. The most common parent-reported barrier reflected lack of information about who could help. Amongst children using specialist health services who met criteria for ADHD at follow-up, 36 % had been prescribed stimulant medication. Specialist health service use was associated with each one-point increase in teacher-rated symptoms at baseline [inattention symptoms (adjusted OR = 1.40; 95 % CI 1.12-1.76) and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms (adjusted OR = 1.23; 95 % CI 1.05-1.44)]. Parental mental health problems were also independently associated with service use (for each one-point increase in symptoms, adjusted OR = 1.41; 95 % CI 1.04-1.91). Severity of teacher-rated ADHD symptoms in early school years is a determinant of subsequent service use. Clinicians and teachers should be aware that parental mental health problems are independently associated with service use for children at risk of ADHD. PMID:25201055
Sayal, Kapil; Mills, Jonathan; White, Kate; Merrell, Christine; Tymms, Peter
Context Cultural variables have been associated with sexual risk behaviors among Latino youth, but findings across studies are inconsistent. Methods We analyzed data from a longitudinal study of Latino youth in Southern California followed from 2005–2012 to test whether cultural variables measured in high school were associated with sexual risk behaviors in emerging adulthood, and whether gender moderated these associations. We conducted logistic and ordinal regression analyses. Participants were 995 Latino youth. Results The cultural value of respect for parents was negatively associated with an earlier age at sexual debut (odds ratio, 0.8) and not using a condom at most recent sexual intercourse (0.8). U.S. cultural practices (a measure of acculturation) was positively associated with being sexually active (1.2), having concurrent sexual partners (1.5), and among males only, with a higher number of sexual partners (1.3). Second- and third- generation immigrant youth had lower odds of not using a condom at most recent sexual intercourse when compared to first-generation youth (0.6 and 0.5, respectively). Among females, a stronger endorsement of Latino cultural practices was associated with lower odds of more sexual partners (0.8). By contrast, among males, a stronger endorsement of Latino cultural practices was associated with higher odds of more sexual partners (1.4). Conclusions The cultural measures associated with Latino youth’s sexual behaviors differed across outcomes and by gender. Understanding how culture is related to the sexual behaviors of Latino youth may help inform the development of culturally-sensitive sexual health interventions. PMID:24786352
Thing, James P.; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Schwartz, Seth J.; Soto, Daniel W.; Unger, Jennifer B.
Purpose. To study cone photoreceptor structure and function in patients with inherited retinal degenerations treated with sustained-release ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF). Methods. Two patients with retinitis pigmentosa and one with Usher syndrome type 2 who participated in a phase 2 clinical trial received CNTF delivered by an encapsulated cell technology implant in one eye and sham surgery in the contralateral eye. Patients were followed longitudinally over 30 to 35 months. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO) provided high-resolution images at baseline and at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. AOSLO measures of cone spacing and density and optical coherence tomography measures of retinal thickness were correlated with visual function, including visual acuity (VA), visual field sensitivity, and full-field electroretinography (ERG). Results. No significant changes in VA, visual field sensitivity, or ERG responses were observed in either eye of the three patients over 24 months. Outer retinal layers were significantly thicker in CNTF-treated eyes than in sham-treated eyes (P < 0.005). Cone spacing increased by 2.9% more per year in sham-treated eyes than in CNTF-treated eyes (P < 0.001, linear mixed model), and cone density decreased by 9.1%, or 223 cones/degree2 more per year in sham-treated than in CNTF-treated eyes (P = 0.002, linear mixed model). Conclusions. AOSLO images provided a sensitive measure of disease progression and treatment response in patients with inherited retinal degenerations. Larger studies of cone structure using high-resolution imaging techniques are urgently needed to evaluate the effect of CNTF treatment in patients with inherited retinal degenerations. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00447980.) PMID:21087953
Talcott, Katherine E.; Ratnam, Kavitha; Sundquist, Sanna M.; Lucero, Anna S.; Lujan, Brandon J.; Tao, Weng; Porco, Travis C.; Roorda, Austin
Although numerous people grow up speaking more than one language, the impact of bilingualism on brain developing neuroanatomy is still poorly understood. This study aimed to determine whether the changes in the mean fractional-anisotropy (MFA) of language pathways are different between bilingual and monolingual children. Simultaneous-bilinguals, sequential-bilinguals and monolingual, male and female 10-13 years old children participated in this longitudinal study over a period of two years. We used diffusion tensor tractography to obtain mean fractional-anisotropy values of four language related pathways and one control bundle: 1-left-inferior-occipitofrontal fasciculus/lIFOF, 2-left-arcuate fasciculus/lAF/lSLF, 3-bundle arising from the anterior part of corpus-callosum and projecting to orbital lobe/AC-OL, 4-fibres emerging from anterior-midbody of corpus-callosum (CC) to motor cortices/AMB-PMC, 5- right-inferior-occipitofrontal fasciculus rIFOF as the control pathway unrelated to language. These values and their rate of change were compared between 3 groups. FA-values did not change significantly over two years for lAF/lSLF and AC-OL. Sequential-bilinguals had the highest degree of change in the MFA value of lIFOF, and AMB-PMC did not present significant group differences. The comparison of MFA of lIFOF yielded a significantly higher FA-value in simultaneous bilinguals compared to monolinguals. These findings acknowledge the existing difference of the development of the semantic processing specific pathway between children with different semantic processing procedure. These also support the hypothesis that age of second language acquisition affects the maturation and myelination of some language specific white-matter pathways. PMID:25706865
Mohades, Seyede Ghazal; Van Schuerbeek, Peter; Rosseel, Yves; Van De Craen, Piet; Luypaert, Robert; Baeken, Chris
Although numerous people grow up speaking more than one language, the impact of bilingualism on brain developing neuroanatomy is still poorly understood. This study aimed to determine whether the changes in the mean fractional-anisotropy (MFA) of language pathways are different between bilingual and monolingual children. Simultaneous-bilinguals, sequential-bilinguals and monolingual, male and female 10–13 years old children participated in this longitudinal study over a period of two years. We used diffusion tensor tractography to obtain mean fractional-anisotropy values of four language related pathways and one control bundle: 1-left-inferior-occipitofrontal fasciculus/lIFOF, 2-left-arcuate fasciculus/lAF/lSLF, 3-bundle arising from the anterior part of corpus-callosum and projecting to orbital lobe/AC-OL, 4-fibres emerging from anterior-midbody of corpus-callosum (CC) to motor cortices/AMB-PMC, 5- right-inferior-occipitofrontal fasciculus rIFOF as the control pathway unrelated to language. These values and their rate of change were compared between 3 groups. FA-values did not change significantly over two years for lAF/lSLF and AC-OL. Sequential-bilinguals had the highest degree of change in the MFA value of lIFOF, and AMB-PMC did not present significant group differences. The comparison of MFA of lIFOF yielded a significantly higher FA-value in simultaneous bilinguals compared to monolinguals. These findings acknowledge the existing difference of the development of the semantic processing specific pathway between children with different semantic processing procedure. These also support the hypothesis that age of second language acquisition affects the maturation and myelination of some language specific white-matter pathways. PMID:25706865
Mohades, Seyede Ghazal; Van Schuerbeek, Peter; Rosseel, Yves; Van De Craen, Piet; Luypaert, Robert; Baeken, Chris
Background Animal studies have shown that zinc intake has protective effects against type 2 diabetes, but few studies have been conducted to examine this relationship in humans. The aim of this study is to investigate if dietary zinc is associated with risk of type 2 diabetes in a longitudinal study of mid-age Australian women. Methods Data were collected from a cohort of women aged 45-50 years at baseline, participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary intake and other nutrients. Predictors of 6-year incidence of type 2 diabetes were examined using multivariable logistic regression. Results From 8921 participants, 333 incident cases of type 2 diabetes were identified over 6 years of follow-up. After adjustment for dietary and non-dietary factors, the highest quintile dietary zinc intake had almost half the odds of developing type 2 diabetes (OR?=?0.50, 95% C.I. 0.32–0.77) compared with the lowest quintile. Similar findings were observed for the zinc/iron ratio; the highest quintile had half the odds of developing type 2 diabetes (OR?=?0.50, 95% C.I 0.30-0.83) after multivariable adjustment of covariates. Conclusions Higher total dietary zinc intake and high zinc/iron ratio are associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes in women. This finding is a positive step towards further research to determine if zinc supplementation may reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. PMID:24093747
There is a growing body of evidence attesting to links between early life exposure to stress and childhood asthma. However, available evidence is largely based on small, genetically high risk samples. The aim of this study was to explore the associations between the course of maternal depressive symptoms across early childhood and childhood asthma in a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study of Australian children. Participants were 4164 children and their biological mothers from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Latent class analysis identified three trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms across four biennial waves from the first postnatal year to when children were 6–7 years: minimal symptoms (74.6%), sub-clinical symptoms (20.8%), and persistent and increasing high symptoms (4.6%). Logistic regression analyses revealed that childhood asthma at age 6–7 years was associated with persistent and increasing high depressive symptoms after accounting for known risk factors including smoking during pregnancy and maternal history of asthma (adjusted OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.61–3.45), p.001). Our findings from a nationally representative sample of Australian children provide empirical support for a relationship between maternal depressive symptoms across the early childhood period and childhood asthma. The burden of disease from childhood asthma may be reduced by strengthening efforts to promote maternal mental health in the early years of parenting. PMID:25811851
Links between sibling relationships, mother-partner, and parent-child relationships were studied in a longitudinal community sample of 3681 sibling pairs. Individual differences in sibling relationship quality were related to mother-partner affection and hostility assessed 4 years earlier, to contemporary parent-child negativity, and to indices of social adversity. Evidence for both direct and indirect pathways (via parent-child relations) linking mother-partner and sibling relations were found. Comparisons of prediction for non-stepfamilies and stepfather families showed similarities in patterns of association, but also differences: In stepfather families, mother-partner hostility was unrelated to parent-child negativity and sibling relationship quality. Both positivity and negativity towards young siblings decreased with the age of older siblings, and older sisters were more positive than older brothers. PMID:10576533
Dunn, J; Deater-Deckard, K; Pickering, K; Golding, J
Background and purpose To determine baseline volume and rate of volume change of whole brain, hippocampus, and entorhinal cortex in patients with atrial fibrillation. Methods We analyzed clinical and neuroimaging data collected as part of Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative in the United States and Canada. Patients with atrial fibrillation were identified based on baseline clinical/cognitive assessments, and age and gender-matched controls without atrial fibrillations were selected (1:1 ratio). All participants underwent 1.5 T structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at specified intervals (6 or 12 months) for 2–3 years. Results A total of 33 persons with atrial fibrillation were included. There was no difference in whole brain and ventricular volumes at baseline MRI between cases and controls. There was significantly lower entorhinal cortex volume on right (p = 0.01) and left (p = 0.01) sides in patients with atrial fibrillation. There was significantly lower volume for middle temporal lobes on right (p = 0.04) and left (p = 0.001) sides. The rate of progression of atrophy in entorhinal cortex and middle temporal lobes was not different between patients with atrial fibrillation and controls. Conclusions The association of atrial fibrillation with volume loss in entorhinal cortex and middle temporal lobes may provide new insights into pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation. PMID:25566337
Qureshi, Adnan I; Saed, Aveen; Tasneem, Nudrat; Adil, Malik M
This exploratory case study examines the participation of Native American students in study abroad and institutional policies and practices that either impede or enhance participation. The study surveys all Native students enrolled at the American university that produces the most Native graduates with bachelor's degrees. Although Native students…
Wanger, Stephen P.; Minthorn, Robin Starr; Weinland, Kathryn A.; Appleman, Boomer; James, Michael; Arnold, Allen
Student success in a physics degree has been shown to depend on more than just performance in course assessment: important additional factors include student attitudes and beliefs about their subject. We have used an instrument (CLASS) that measures how student epistemologies evolve over the course of their undergraduate degree. Our previous work has sampled a cross-section of students at all levels across the physics undergraduate programme at Edinburgh in a single academic year, and found that student attitudes and beliefs remain essentially static. Here, we present fully longitudinal data collected over the past three years, where we track the evolution of the attitudes and beliefs of one group of students. We find broadly similar results: attitudes and beliefs remain surprisingly consistent over time. This suggests that a 'cross-sectional' or 'pseudo-longitudinal' study (collecting snapshot data in one year) is a valid methodology, rather than necessarily having to wait several years to accumulate truly longitudinal data.
Slaughter, K. A.; Bates, S. P.; Galloway, R. K.
Ensuring retention in longitudinal studies of individuals with substance use disorders (SUD) is a continual challenge for researchers. This study made several modifications to a highly intensive follow-up protocol (Scott, 2004), originally designed for adults with SUD, in order to adapt it to a group of adolescents in low-intensity outpatient SUD treatment (N = 127, M age 16.7 yrs) and to accommodate limitations in the financial resources available for study staffing and transportation. In the present sample, adolescent participants generally found it unreasonable for study staff to request to contact people outside their immediate family in order to locate them and to attempt to schedule interviews 3-6 months in advance, as specified in the original protocol. Changes were made to accommodate these concerns and follow-up rates remained high (85-91%). Even though this study is limited by its non-experimental nature, it provides a replicable example of a scaled-down, less costly version of a highly intensive follow-up protocol that can be used to achieve high follow-up rates in studies of adolescents with SUD. We hope this will be encouraging for researchers and program evaluators who have limited resources or who work with participants who express concerns about privacy or study burden. PMID:24260012
Yeterian, Julie D; Dow, Sarah J; Kelly, John F
In this study, the authors examined students' attitudes toward specific elements of an ongoing internship program. The study sample consisted of 351 student interns from 12 different colleges and universities. The results indicate that perceptions have remained relatively constant over the 10-year time frame studied and that internships provide a…
Cook, Sherry J.; Parker, R. Stephen; Pettijohn, Charles E.
An ethnographic study in a 10th grade remedial class was undertaken in order to discern patterns of school bullying. Twenty 10th graders were observed over the course of one academic year as they interacted with their peers and teachers. The observations helped us identify dispositional and situational factors which influenced participant roles. In-depth interviews of students involved in school bullying showed how participants interpreted and explained their classroom behaviors. The analysis of the data gathered allowed the identification of four main actor roles recognized in the existing literature on bullying-the pure victim, the pure bully, the provocative-victim, and the bystander-as well as the differentiation between aggressive bullies and the bully managers. Most roles fluctuated according to specific circumstances and often appeared to be moderated by the teacher's management style and contextual variables. Some pupils assumed different roles in different contexts, sometimes changing roles within or between episodes. Teacher personality and style also had an impact on the frequencies and types of aggression and victimization. The use of an ethnographic research paradigm is discussed as an important supplement to positivistic studies of school bullying. PMID:24452451
Gumpel, Thomas P; Zioni-Koren, Vered; Bekerman, Zvi
The Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health (LSAH) Participant Summary software captures data based on a custom information model designed to gather all relevant, discrete medical events for its study participants. This software provides a summarized view of the study participant s entire medical record. The manual collapsing of all the data in a participant s medical record into a summarized form eliminates redundancy, and allows for the capture of entire medical events. The coding tool could be incorporated into commercial electronic medical record software for use in areas like public health surveillance, hospital systems, clinics, and medical research programs.
Johnson, Kathy; Krog, Ralph; Rodriguez, Seth; Wear, Mary; Volpe, Robert; Trevino, Gina; Eudy, Deborah; Parisian, Diane
Purpose Most researchers who are conducting physical activity trials face difficulties in recruiting participants who are representative of the population or from specific population groups. Participants who are often the hardest to recruit are often those who stand to benefit most (the least active, from ethnic and other minority groups, from neighbourhoods with high levels of deprivation, or have poor health). The aim of our study was to conduct a systematic review of published literature of walking interventions, in order to identify the impact, characteristics, and differential effects of recruitment strategies among particular population groups. Methods We conducted standard searches for studies from four sources, (i) electronic literature databases and websites, (ii) grey literature from internet sources, (iii) contact with experts to identify additional "grey" and other literature, and (iv) snowballing from reference lists of retrieved articles. Included studies were randomised controlled trials, controlled before-and-after experimental or observational qualitative studies, examining the effects of an intervention to encourage people to walk independently or in a group setting, and detailing methods of recruitment. Results Forty seven studies met the inclusion criteria. The overall quality of the descriptions of recruitment in the studies was poor with little detail reported on who undertook recruitment, or how long was spent planning/preparing and implementing the recruitment phase. Recruitment was conducted at locations that either matched where the intervention was delivered, or where the potential participants were asked to attend for the screening and signing up process. We identified a lack of conceptual clarity about the recruitment process and no standard metric to evaluate the effectiveness of recruitment. Conclusion Recruitment concepts, methods, and reporting in walking intervention trials are poorly developed, adding to other limitations in the literature, such as limited generalisability. The lack of understanding of optimal and equitable recruitment strategies evident from this review limits the impact of interventions to promote walking to particular social groups. To improve the delivery of walking interventions to groups which can benefit most, specific attention to developing and evaluating targeted recruitment approaches is recommended. PMID:22171531
We describe the data being collected from the Brisbane Longitudinal Twin Study (BLTS) in Australia as part of the US National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) funded project Pathways to Cannabis Use, Abuse and Dependence. The history, recruitment, assessment and retention of twin families in this project are described in detail along with preliminary findings and plans for future research. The goal of this NIDA project is to make a significant contribution to the discovery of quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing cannabis use disorders. Although the focus is cannabis use, abuse and dependence in young adults, measures of comorbid illicit drug use disorders are also being collected. In addition, a variety of internalizing and externalizing disorders are being assessed, funded by support from the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council. Because these same twins have participated in numerous twin studies since 1992, future plans will include linking different phenotypes to investigate relationships between drug use, psychiatric disorders and psychological phenotypes within cross-sectional and longitudinal or developmental frameworks. PMID:23187020
Gillespie, NA; Henders, AK; Davenport, TA; Hermens, DF; Wright, MJ; Martin, NG; Hickie, IB
Excessively elevated resting metabolic rate (RMR) for persons of a certain age, sex, and body composition is a mortality risk factor. Whether elevated RMR constitutes an early marker of health deterioration in older adult has not been fully investigated. Using data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, we hypothesized that higher RMR (i) was cross-sectionally associated with higher multimorbidity and (ii) predicted higher multimorbidity in subsequent follow-ups. The analysis included 695 Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging participants, aged 60 or older at baseline, of whom 248 had follow-up data available 2 years later and 109 four years later. Multimorbidity was assessed as number of chronic diseases. RMR was measured by indirect calorimetry and was tested in regression analyses adjusted for covariates age, sex, and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry-measured total body fat mass and lean mass. Baseline RMR and multimorbidity were positively associated, independent of covariates (p = .002). Moreover, in a three-wave bivariate autoregressive cross-lagged model adjusted for covariates, higher prior RMR predicted greater future multimorbidity above and beyond the cross-sectional and autoregressive associations (p = .034). RMR higher than expected, given age, sex, and body composition, predicts future higher multimorbidity in older adults and may be used as early biomarker of impending health deterioration. Replication and the development of normative data are required for clinical translation. PMID:25409892
Fabbri, Elisa; An, Yang; Schrack, Jennifer A; Gonzalez-Freire, Marta; Zoli, Marco; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Guralnik, Jack M; Boyd, Cynthia M; Studenski, Stephanie A; Ferrucci, Luigi
Objective This intensive longitudinal study examined how sleep and physical activity relate to university students’ affect and academic performance during a stressful examination period. Methods On 32 consecutive days, 72 first-year students answered online questionnaires on their sleep quality, physical activity, positive and negative affect, learning goal achievement, and examination grades. First-year university students are particularly well-suited to test our hypotheses: They represent a relatively homogeneous population in a natural, but controlled setting, and simultaneously deal with similar stressors, such as examinations. Data were analyzed using multilevel structural equation models. Results Over the examination period, better average sleep quality but not physical activity predicted better learning goal achievement. Better learning goal achievement was associated with increased probability of passing all examinations. Relations of average sleep quality and average physical activity with learning goal achievement were mediated by experienced positive affect. In terms of day-to-day dynamics, on days with better sleep quality, participants reported better learning goal achievement. Day-to-day physical activity was not related to daily learning goal achievement. Daily positive and negative affect both mediated the effect of day-to-day sleep quality and physical activity on daily learning goal achievement. Conclusion Health behaviors such as sleep quality and physical activity seem important for both academic performance and affect experience, an indicator of mental health, during a stressful examination period. These results are a first step toward a better understanding of between- and within-person variations in health behaviors, affect, and academic performance, and could inform prevention and intervention programs for university students. PMID:25353638
Flueckiger, Lavinia; Lieb, Roselind; Meyer, Andrea H.; Mata, Jutta
Objective To analyse the association between cardiovascular and mental comorbidities of obesity and weight loss registered in the electronic primary healthcare records. Design and setting Longitudinal study of a cohort of adult patients assigned to any of the public primary care centres in Aragon, Spain, during 2010 and 2011. Participants Adult obese patients for whom data on their weight were available for 2010 (n=62?901), and for both 2010 and 2011 (n=42?428). Outcomes Weight loss (yes/no) was calculated based on the weight difference between the first value registered in 2010 and the last value registered in 2011. Multivariate logistic regression models were adjusted for individuals’ age, sex, total number of chronic comorbidities, type of obesity and length of time between both weight measurements. Results According to the recorded clinical information, 9 of 10 obese patients showed at least one chronic comorbidity. After adjusting for covariates, weight loss seemed to be more likely among obese patients with a diagnosis of diabetes and/or dementia and less likely among those with hypertension, anxiety and/or substance use problems (p<0.05). The probability of weight loss was also significantly higher in male patients with more severe obesity and older age. Conclusions An increased probability of weight loss over 1?year was observed in older obese male patients, especially among those already manifesting high levels of obesity and severe comorbidities such as diabetes and/or dementia. Yet patients with certain psychological problems showed lower rates of weight reduction. Future research should clarify if these differences persist beyond potential selective weight documentation in primary care, to better understand the trends in weight reduction among obese patients and the underlying role of general practitioners regarding such trends. PMID:25783419
Calderón-Larrañaga, Amaia; Hernández-Olivan, Paola; González-Rubio, Francisca; Gimeno-Feliu, Luis A; Poblador-Plou, Beatriz; Prados-Torres, Alexandra
Character-based video games do more than allow one to practice various kinds of behaviors in a virtual environment; they allow one to practice being a different kind of person. As such, we propose that games can alter self-perceptions of personal characteristics, attitudes, and values with broad consequences for behavior. In a multiwave, longitudinal study of adolescents, we examined the extent to which play of mature-rated, risk-glorifying (MRRG) games was associated with increases in alcohol use, cigarette smoking, aggression, delinquency, and risky sex as a consequence of its effects on personality, attitudes, and affiliations indicative of increased tolerance of deviance. Participants were selected with random-digit-dial procedures and followed for 4 years. Data were analyzed with linear mixed modeling to assess change over time and structural equation modeling with latent variables to test hypothesized mediational processes. Among those who play video games, playing MRRG games was associated with increases in all measures of behavioral deviance. Mediational models support the hypothesis that these effects are in part a consequence of the effects of such gameplay on sensation seeking and rebelliousness, attitudes toward deviant behavior in oneself and others, and affiliation with deviant peers. Effects were similar for males and females and were strongest for those who reported heavy play of mature-rated games and games that involved protagonists who represent nonnormative and antisocial values. In sum, the current research supports the perspective that MRRG gameplay can have consequences for deviant behavior broadly defined by affecting the personality, attitudes, and values of the player. PMID:25090130
Hull, Jay G; Brunelle, Timothy J; Prescott, Anna T; Sargent, James D
This longitudinal study examines the effects of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on the intimate and marital relationships of adult survivors from a sample composed primarily of African American women. In addition, the authors explore the protective role of maternal support. Interview data are collected on 136 women with documented histories of CSA…
Liang, Belle; Williams, Linda M.; Siegel, Jane A.
Leptin may have a role in the initiation of puberty and the regu- lation of subsequent weight gain, but this hypothesis has not been tested by longitudinal study. We report data from 40 normal children (20 boys and 20 girls) followed from 8 -16 yr of age with hormone measurements and auxology every 6 months. Before the onset of puberty,
MARION LYNN AHMED; KEN K. L. ONG; DAVID J. MORRELL; NICK DRAYER; LESLIE PERRY; MICHAEL A. PREECE; DAVID B. DUNGER
School size and problems with neighbors is associated with a greater risk of being a bullying victim while family factors such as maltreatment and domestic violence are associated with involvement in bullying. The findings are based on the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study that involves 2,232 children.
Bowes, Lucy; Arseneault, Louise; Maughan, Barbara; Taylor, Alan; Caspi, Ashalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.
One of the tasks of postgraduate education is to develop students' conceptions and skills necessary for lifelong learning in their profession. Therefore, this study aimed at identifying students' development in self-regulated learning throughout a postgraduate teacher education programme. A longitudinal design with three measurement…
Endedijk, Maaike D.; Vermunt, Jan D.; Meijer, Paulien C.; Brekelmans, Mieke
This article reports on a study involving first-year modern foreign languages students enrolled in German degree courses at two major universities in the United Kingdom. It explores the experience of these students from a motivational angle. A longitudinal mixed-methods approach was employed in order to address the time- and context-sensitive…
Busse, Vera; Walter, Catherine