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Sample records for longlife ja diesel

  1. Diesel oil

    MedlinePlus

    Various hydrocarbons ... Empyema Many of the most dangerous effects of hydrocarbon (such as diesel oil) poisoning are due to ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 75. Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et ...

  2. Miniature Long-life Space Cryocoolers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tward, E.

    1993-01-01

    TRW has designed, built, and tested a miniature integral Stirling cooler and a miniature pulse tube cooler intended for long-life space application. Both efficient, low-vibration coolers were developed for cooling IR sensors to temperatures as low as 50 K on lightsats. The vibrationally balanced nonwearing design Stirling cooler incorporates clearance seals maintained by flexure springs for both the compressor and the drive displacer. The design achieved its performance goal of 0.25 W at 65 K for an input power to the compressor of 12 W. The cooler recently passed launch vibration tests prior to its entry into an extended life test and its first scheduled flight in 1995. The vibrationally balanced, miniature pulse tube cooler intended for a 10-year long-life space application incorporates a flexure bearing compressor vibrationally balanced by a motor-controlled balancer and a completely passive pulse tube cold head.

  3. Systems design of long-life systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, R. F., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    A long-life system is defined as a system which cannot be life-tested in its operational environment. Another restriction is that preventive maintenance and repair shall be either impossible or economically disadvantageous. Examples of such systems include planetary spacecraft, communication satellites, undersea telephone cables, and nuclear power plants. The questions discussed are related to the implementation of system functions, approaches to determine the required level of system reliability, and aspects of tradeoffs between requirements and reliability.

  4. Longlife insurance: A prototype for funding long-term Care

    PubMed Central

    Getzen, Thomas E.

    1988-01-01

    Longlife insurance” combines nursing home, home health, and deferred annuity benefits. It costs less than life care, allows the elderly to remain in their own homes, and protects assets. Adverse selection is limited because the plan is attractive to both frail and healthy elders. An analysis of 18,600 respondents in the Social Security Administration's New Beneficiary Survey indicates that 67 percent of all retirees could afford a typical longlife insurance plan. However, less than one-half of all females living alone, 24 percent of minorities, and 8 percent of the disabled could pay privately. PMID:10313086

  5. Diesel oil

    MedlinePlus

    Oil ... Diesel oil ... Diesel oil poisoning can cause symptoms in many parts of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Loss of ... most dangerous effects of hydrocarbon (such as diesel oil) poisoning are due to inhaling the fumes. NERVOUS ...

  6. Design study of long-life PWR using thorium cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subkhi, Moh. Nurul; Su'ud, Zaki; Waris, Abdul

    2012-06-01

    Design study of long-life Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) using thorium cycle has been performed. Thorium cycle in general has higher conversion ratio in the thermal spectrum domain than uranium cycle. Cell calculation, Burn-up and multigroup diffusion calculation was performed by PIJ-CITATION-SRAC code using libraries based on JENDL 3.2. The neutronic analysis result of infinite cell calculation shows that 231Pa better than 237Np as burnable poisons in thorium fuel system. Thorium oxide system with 8% 233U enrichment and 7.6˜ 8% 231Pa is the most suitable fuel for small-long life PWR core because it gives reactivity swing less than 1% Δk/k and longer burn up period (more than 20 year). By using this result, small long-life PWR core can be designed for long time operation with reduced excess reactivity as low as 0.53% Δk/k and reduced power peaking during its operation.

  7. Design study of long-life PWR using thorium cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Subkhi, Moh. Nurul; Su'ud, Zaki; Waris, Abdul

    2012-06-06

    Design study of long-life Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) using thorium cycle has been performed. Thorium cycle in general has higher conversion ratio in the thermal spectrum domain than uranium cycle. Cell calculation, Burn-up and multigroup diffusion calculation was performed by PIJ-CITATION-SRAC code using libraries based on JENDL 3.2. The neutronic analysis result of infinite cell calculation shows that {sup 231}Pa better than {sup 237}Np as burnable poisons in thorium fuel system. Thorium oxide system with 8%{sup 233}U enrichment and 7.6{approx} 8%{sup 231}Pa is the most suitable fuel for small-long life PWR core because it gives reactivity swing less than 1%{Delta}k/k and longer burn up period (more than 20 year). By using this result, small long-life PWR core can be designed for long time operation with reduced excess reactivity as low as 0.53%{Delta}k/k and reduced power peaking during its operation.

  8. Software reconfigurable processor technologies: the key to long-life infrastructure for future space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, J.; Farrington, A.; Gray, A.

    2001-01-01

    They present an overview of long-life reconfigurable processor technologies and of a specific architecture for implementing a software reconfigurable (software-defined) network processor for space applications.

  9. Safety Characteristics of LBE Cooled Long-Life Small Reactor, 'LSPR'

    SciTech Connect

    Hiroshi Sekimoto; Shinichi Makino

    2002-07-01

    Lead bismuth eutectic (LBE) shows a good performance on neutron economy, and LBE cooled fast reactor can be designed as an excellent long-life small reactor. LBE is good not only for neutron economy but for chemical inertness and high boiling point, which may realize a much safer reactor than conventional sodium-cooled reactor. We have designed such a long-life small reactor and name it LSPR. This paper presents safety characteristics of LSPR. (authors)

  10. Long-Life Self-Renewing Solar Reflector Stack

    DOEpatents

    Butler, Barry Lynn

    1997-07-08

    A long-life solar reflector includes a solar collector substrate and a base layer bonded to a solar collector substrate. The first layer includes a first reflective layer and a first acrylic or transparent polymer layer covering the first reflective layer to prevent exposure of the first reflective layer. The reflector also includes at least one upper layer removably bonded to the first acrylic or transparent polymer layer of the base layer. The upper layer includes a second reflective layer and a second acrylic or transparent polymer layer covering the second reflective layer to prevent exposure of the second reflective layer. The upper layer may be removed from the base reflective layer to expose the base layer, thereby lengthening the useful life of the solar reflector. A method of manufacturing a solar reflector includes the steps of bonding a base layer to a solar collector substrate, wherein the base reflective layer includes a first reflective layer and a first transparent polymer or acrylic layer covering the first reflective layer; and removably bonding a first upper layer to the first transparent polymer or acrylic layer of the base layer. The first upper layer includes a second reflective layer and a second transparent polymer or acrylic layer covering the second reflective layer to prevent exposure of the second reflective layer.

  11. Reformulated diesel fuel

    DOEpatents

    McAdams, Hiramie T [Carrollton, IL; Crawford, Robert W [Tucson, AZ; Hadder, Gerald R [Oak Ridge, TN; McNutt, Barry D [Arlington, VA

    2006-03-28

    Reformulated diesel fuels for automotive diesel engines which meet the requirements of ASTM 975-02 and provide significantly reduced emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO.sub.x) and particulate matter (PM) relative to commercially available diesel fuels.

  12. Characterization of vacuum-multifoil insulation for long-life thermal batteries

    SciTech Connect

    GUIDOTTI,RONALD A.; REINHARDT,FREDERICK W.; KAUN,THOMAS

    2000-04-17

    The use of vacuum multifoil (VMF) container for thermal insulation in long-life thermal batteries was investigated in a proof-of-concept demonstration. An InvenTek-designed VMF container 4.9 inches in diameter by 10 inches long was used with an internally heated aluminum block, to simulate a thermal-battery stack. The block was heated to 525 C or 600 C and allowed to cool while monitoring the temperature of the block and the external case at three locations with time. The data indicate that it should be possible to build an equivalent-sized thermal battery that should last up to six hours, which would meet the requirements for a long-life sonobuoy application.

  13. Diesel engine combustion processes

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    Diesel Engine Combustion Processes guides the engineer and research technician toward engine designs which will give the ``best payoff`` in terms of emissions and fuel economy. Contents include: Three-dimensional modeling of soot and NO in a direct-injection diesel engine; Prechamber for lean burn for low NOx; Modeling and identification of a diesel combustion process with the downhill gradient search method; The droplet group micro-explosions in W/O diesel fuel emulsion sprays; Combustion process of diesel spray in high temperature air; Combustion process of diesel engines at regions with different altitude; and more.

  14. Diesel Vehicle Maintenance Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braswell, Robert; And Others

    Designed to provide a model set of competencies, this manual presents tasks which were identified by employers, employees, and teachers as important in a postsecondary diesel vehicle maintenance curriculum. The tasks are divided into seven major component areas of instruction: chassis and suspension, diesel engines, diesel fuel, electrical,…

  15. Diesel emissions in Vienna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, H.; Kreiner, I.; Norek, C.; Preining, O.; Georgi, B.

    The aerosol in a non-industrial town normally is dominated by emissions from vehicles. Whereas gasoline-powered cars normally only emit a small amount of particulates, the emission by diesel-powered cars is considerable. The aerosol particles produced by diesel engines consist of graphitic carbon (GC) with attached hydrocarbons (HCs) including also polyaromatic HCs. Therefore the diesel particles can be carcinogenic. Besides diesel vehicles, all other combustion processes are also a source for GC; thus source apportionment of diesel emissions to the GC in the town is difficult. A direct apportionment of diesel emissions has been made possible by marking all the diesel fuel used by the vehicles in Vienna by a normally not occurring and easily detectable substance. All emitted diesel particles thus were marked with the tracer and by analyzing the atmospheric samples for the marking substance we found that the mass concentrations of diesel particles in the atmosphere varied between 5 and 23 μg m -3. Busy streets and calm residential areas show less difference in mass concentration than expected. The deposition of diesel particles on the ground has been determined by collecting samples from the road surface. The concentration of the marking substance was below the detection limit before the marking period and a year after the period. During the period when marked diesel fuel was used, the concentrations of the diesel particles settling to the ground was 0.012-0.07 g g -1 of collected dust. A positive correlation between the diesel vehicle density and the sampled mass of diesel vehicles exists. In Vienna we have a background diesel particle concentration of 11 μg m -3. This value increases by 5.5 μg m -3 per 500 diesel vehicles h -1 passing near the sampling location. The mass fraction of diesel particles of the total aerosol mass varied between 12.2 and 33%; the higher values were found in more remote areas, since diesel particles apparently diffuse easily

  16. Burnup concept for a long-life fast reactor core using MCNPX.

    SciTech Connect

    Holschuh, Thomas Vernon,; Lewis, Tom Goslee,; Parma, Edward J.,

    2013-02-01

    This report describes a reactor design with a burnup concept for a long-life fast reactor core that was evaluated using Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX). The current trend in advanced reactor design is the concept of a small modular reactor (SMR). However, very few of the SMR designs attempt to substantially increase the lifetime of a reactor core, especially without zone loading, fuel reshuffling, or other artificial mechanisms in the core that %E2%80%9Cflatten%E2%80%9D the power profile, including non-uniform cooling, non-uniform moderation, or strategic poison placement. Historically, the limitations of computing capabilities have prevented acceptable margins in the temporal component of the spatial excess reactivity in a reactor design, due primarily to the error in burnup calculations. This research was performed as an initial scoping analysis into the concept of a long-life fast reactor. It can be shown that a long-life fast reactor concept can be modeled using MCNPX to predict burnup and neutronics behavior. The inherent characteristic of this conceptual design is to minimize the change in reactivity over the lifetime of the reactor. This allows the reactor to operate substantially longer at full power than traditional Light Water Reactors (LWRs) or other SMR designs. For the purpose of this study, a single core design was investigated: a relatively small reactor core, yielding a medium amount of power (~200 to 400 MWth). The results of this scoping analysis were successful in providing a preliminary reactor design involving metal U-235/U-238 fuel with HT-9 fuel cladding and sodium coolant at a 20% volume fraction.

  17. Design and realization of the miniature long-life integrative coded sun sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Yanan; Cui, Jian; Zhao, Yuan; Chen, Ran; Liu, Xin

    2013-10-01

    This paper describes the research activity at the Beijing institute of control engineering about the miniature long-life integrative coded sun sensor. The light system of the miniature coded sun sensor is composed with a semi-column silex glass, a cube silex with coded shape on the bottom and an integrative silicon battery with 14 cells. The sun line forms a light spot through the slit on light system on the coded plate. The sensor determines the orientation of sun through the position of light spot. With the limitation of the diameter of sun plate the accuracy of only 0.5° can be realized with 8-bit coarse code in FOV of 124°. To achieve high accuracy of 0.05° the subdivision technique must be adopted. The main scheme of the miniature long-life integrative coded sun sensor is integrating the light system and the signal processing circuits in one mechanical house, using FPGA to calculate the angle, generate the control signal of Multiplexer and AD and realize the function of UART, using flexibility board to connect analog board and digital board, using second power of the satellite, using RS422 interface to communicate with central computer. The performance of the miniature long-life integrative coded sun sensor is listed as below : FOV 124°x124°,accuracy 0.05°(3σ), resolution 14″, power consumption 0.5W,update rate 40Hz,mass 475g, designed life-time 15 years. It has been adopted in the new platform of Remote Sensing Satellite of CAST. The first flight will be at 2015.

  18. ``Long-life`` aluminium brazing alloys for automotive radiators -- a ten-year retrospective

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, A.C.; Woods, R.A.

    1998-12-31

    A class of corrosion-resistant brazing sheet materials, generally referred to as ``long-life alloys,`` has been in widespread use in brazed aluminum automobile radiators for over ten years. K319 tube material was initially introduced in 1986 to address the problem of road-salt-induced, outside-in corrosion of tubes in vacuum-brazed aluminum radiators, The development history, metallurgy, and field performance of long-life radiator brazing sheet are reviewed. This material utilizes the familiar sacrificial layer concept to improve corrosion resistance; however, it is unusual in that the layer is not introduced by conventional cladding means during sheet manufacture, but rather develops in situ by metallurgical transformations which occur during the brazing cycle. The sacrificial layer, about 25 mV anodic to the core alloy, increases by an order of magnitude the time-to-perforation of radiator tube sheet tested in cyclic acidified salt spray (SWAAT), which mimics the corrosion morphology observed in the field. Radiators examined after ten years of field service show excellent corrosion resistance, as predicted by SWAAT.

  19. Tips for a Healthy Long-Life Learned from Space Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohshima, Hiroshi; Yamada, Shin; Matsuo, Tomoaki; Yamamoto, Masafumi; Mukai, Chiaki

    2013-02-01

    The field of space medicine is responsible for maintaining astronauts’ health and optimizing their performance. A prolonged stay in space with little gravity results in weakening of the bones and muscles that otherwise support body weight, which is precisely the problem faced by elderly people on Earth. Space medicine provides the means of alleviating such problems. Bone loss, muscle atrophy, and disturbed circadian rhythms are common issues for both astronauts and the elderly alike and can be prevented, if the risks are addressed correctly. To have a healthy long-life, it is important to practice effective health improvement techniques and take preventive measures. The space medicine technologies a for astronauts will provide helpful information to people living in a super aging society. and Japanese medical societies for health promotion. With the aids of the Japanese Society of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine, the Japanese Orthopaedic Association, and the Japanese Association of Rehabilitation Medicine, JAXA has made a leaflet titled for general citizen to show the tips for a healthy long-life learned from space medicine from the viewpoints of their respective expertise.

  20. Ultra Long-Life Spacecraft for Long Duration Space Exploration Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, Savio

    2002-01-01

    After decades of Solar System exploration, NASA has almost completed the initial reconnaissance, and has been planning for landing and sample return missions on many planets, satellites, comets, and asteroids. The next logical step of space exploration is to expand the frontier into other missions within and outside the solar system. These missions can easily last for more than 30 to 50 years. Most of the current technologies and spacecraft design techniques are not adequate to support such long life missions. Many breakthrough technologies and non-conventional system architecture have to develop in order to sustain such long life missions.Some of these technologies are being developed by the NASA Exploration Team (neXt). Based on the projected requirements for ultra long life missions, the costs and benefits of the required technologies can be quantified. The ultra long-life space system should have four attributes: long-term survivability, administration of consumable resources, evolvability and adaptability, and low-cost long-term operations of the spacecraft. The discussion of survivability is the focus of this paper. Conventional fault tolerant system design has to tolerate only random failures, which can be handled effectively by dual or triple redundancy for a relatively short time. In contrast, the predominant failure mode in an ultra long-life system is the wear-out of components. All active components in the system are destined to fail before the end of the mission. Therefore, an ultra long-life system would require a large number of redundant components. This would be impractical in conventional fault tolerant systems because their fault tolerance techniques are very inefficient. For instance, a conventional dual-string avionics system duplicates the all the components including the processor, memory, and I/O controllers on a spacecraft. However, when the same component in both strings fail (e.g., the processor), the system will fail although all other

  1. Low emissions diesel fuel

    DOEpatents

    Compere, Alicia L.; Griffith, William L.; Dorsey, George F.; West, Brian H.

    1998-01-01

    A method and matter of composition for controlling NO.sub.x emissions from existing diesel engines. The method is achieved by adding a small amount of material to the diesel fuel to decrease the amount of NO.sub.x produced during combustion. Specifically, small amounts, less than about 1%, of urea or a triazine compound (methylol melamines) are added to diesel fuel. Because urea and triazine compounds are generally insoluble in diesel fuel, microemulsion technology is used to suspend or dissolve the urea or triazine compound in the diesel fuel. A typical fuel formulation includes 5% t-butyl alcohol, 4.5% water, 0.5% urea or triazine compound, 9% oleic acid, and 1% ethanolamine. The subject invention provides improved emissions in heavy diesel engines without the need for major modifications.

  2. Low emissions diesel fuel

    DOEpatents

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Dorsey, G.F.; West, B.H.

    1998-05-05

    A method and matter of composition for controlling NO{sub x} emissions from existing diesel engines. The method is achieved by adding a small amount of material to the diesel fuel to decrease the amount of NO{sub x} produced during combustion. Specifically, small amounts, less than about 1%, of urea or a triazine compound (methylol melamines) are added to diesel fuel. Because urea and triazine compounds are generally insoluble in diesel fuel, microemulsion technology is used to suspend or dissolve the urea or triazine compound in the diesel fuel. A typical fuel formulation includes 5% t-butyl alcohol, 4.5% water, 0.5% urea or triazine compound, 9% oleic acid, and 1% ethanolamine. The subject invention provides improved emissions in heavy diesel engines without the need for major modifications.

  3. Why make premium diesel?

    SciTech Connect

    Pipenger, G.G.

    1997-01-01

    In the last issue of Hart`s Fuel Technology & Management (Vol. 6, No. 6, pp. 62-64), a discussion of the evolution of premium diesel fuels in the US and Europe was begun. Cetane and ignition improvers were discussed. In this concluding article, different additive components such as fuel stabilizers, corrosion inhibitors and lubricity additives are reviewed--all of which are key components of any top-quality diesel fuel today. An excerpt from {open_quotes}The Making of Premium Diesel,{close_quotes} which categorizes (costs, benefits, dosage rates) the additives necessary to improve diesel quality is presented.

  4. Diesel Mechanics: Electrical Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foutes, William; And Others

    This publication is the second in a series of three texts for a diesel mechanics curriculum. Its purpose is to teach the concepts related to electricity and circuitry in a diesel trade. The text contains nine units. Each instructional unit includes some or all of these basic components: unit and specific (performance) objectives, suggested…

  5. Diesel Mechanics: Fundamentals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foutes, William; And Others

    This publication is the first in a series of three texts for a diesel mechanics curriculum. Its purpose is to teach the basic concepts related to employment in a diesel trade. Six sections contain 29 units. Each instructional unit includes some or all of these basic components: unit and specific (performance) objectives, suggested activities for…

  6. Diesel Mechanics: Fuel Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foutes, William

    This publication is the third in a series of three texts for a diesel mechanics curriculum. Its purpose is to teach the concepts related to fuel injection systems in a diesel trade. The text contains eight units. Each instructional unit includes some or all of these basic components: unit and specific (performance) objectives, suggested activities…

  7. Fundamentals of Diesel Engines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the fundamentals of diesel engine mechanics. Addressed in the three individual units of the course are the following topics: basic principles of diesel mechanics; principles, mechanics, and…

  8. Diesel particulate control

    SciTech Connect

    Bertelsen, F.I. )

    1988-01-01

    Diesel particulates, because of their chemical composition and extremely small size, have raised health and welfare issues. Health experts have expressed concern that they contribute to or aggravate chronic lung diseases such as asthma, bronchitis and emphysema, and there is the lingering issue about the potential cancer risk from exposure to diesel particulate. Diesel particulates impair visibility, soil buildings, contribute to structural damage through corrosion and give off a pungent odor. Diesel trucks, buses and cars together are such a significant and growing source of particulate emissions. Such vehicles emit 30 to 70 times more particulate matter than gasoline vehicles equipped with catalytic converters. Diesel engines currently power the majority of larger trucks and buses. EPA predicted that, if left uncontrolled, diesel particulate from motor vehicles would increase significantly. Diesel particulate emissions from motor vehicles are particularly troublesome because they frequently are emitted directly into the breathing zone where we work and recreate. The U.S. Congress recognized the risks posed by diesel particulate and as part of the 1977 Clean Air Act Amendments established specific, technology-forcing requirements for controlling these emissions. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1980 established particulate standards for automobiles and light trucks and in 1985, heavy trucks and buses. California, concerned that EPA standards would not adequately protect its citizens, adopted its own set of standards for passenger cars and light trucks. This paper discusses emerging technologies proposed to address the problem.

  9. DIESEL EMISSIONS SYMPOSIUM PROCEEDINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The high fuel efficiency of diesel engines is expected to result in a significant increase in the production of diesel-powered passenger cars. Major research programs were initiated in the late 1970s by governments, industry, and the academic community in order to understand the ...

  10. Diesel engine exhaust oxidizer

    SciTech Connect

    Kammel, R.A.

    1992-06-16

    This patent describes a diesel engine exhaust oxidizing device. It comprises: an enclosure having an inlet for receiving diesel engine exhaust, a main flow path through the enclosure to an outlet of the enclosure, a by-ass through the enclosure, and a microprocessor control means.

  11. Biodiesel and renewable diesel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is an alternative diesel fuel produced from vegetable oil, animal fats or waste oils. The process used in its production is known as transesterification. If vegetable oils or animal fats are subjected to a process similar for making diesel fuel derived from petroleum, a fuel called renew...

  12. Optimization of small long-life PWR based on thorium fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Subkhi, Moh Nurul; Suud, Zaki Waris, Abdul; Permana, Sidik

    2015-09-30

    A conceptual design of small long-life Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) using thorium fuel has been investigated in neutronic aspect. The cell-burn up calculations were performed by PIJ SRAC code using nuclear data library based on JENDL 3.2, while the multi-energy-group diffusion calculations were optimized in three-dimension X-Y-Z geometry of core by COREBN. The excess reactivity of thorium nitride with ZIRLO cladding is considered during 5 years of burnup without refueling. Optimization of 350 MWe long life PWR based on 5% {sup 233}U & 2.8% {sup 231}Pa, 6% {sup 233}U & 2.8% {sup 231}Pa and 7% {sup 233}U & 6% {sup 231}Pa give low excess reactivity.

  13. Conceptual design study of small long-life PWR based on thorium cycle fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subkhi, M. Nurul; Su'ud, Zaki; Waris, Abdul; Permana, Sidik

    2014-09-01

    A neutronic performance of small long-life Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) using thorium cycle based fuel has been investigated. Thorium cycle which has higer conversion ratio in thermal region compared to uranium cycle produce some significant of 233U during burn up time. The cell-burn up calculations were performed by PIJ SRAC code using nuclear data library based on JENDL 3.3, while the multi-energy-group diffusion calculations were optimized in whole core cylindrical two-dimension R-Z geometry by SRAC-CITATION. this study would be introduced thorium nitride fuel system which ZIRLO is the cladding material. The optimization of 350 MWt small long life PWR result small excess reactivity and reduced power peaking during its operation.

  14. Optimization of small long-life PWR based on thorium fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subkhi, Moh Nurul; Suud, Zaki; Waris, Abdul; Permana, Sidik

    2015-09-01

    A conceptual design of small long-life Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) using thorium fuel has been investigated in neutronic aspect. The cell-burn up calculations were performed by PIJ SRAC code using nuclear data library based on JENDL 3.2, while the multi-energy-group diffusion calculations were optimized in three-dimension X-Y-Z geometry of core by COREBN. The excess reactivity of thorium nitride with ZIRLO cladding is considered during 5 years of burnup without refueling. Optimization of 350 MWe long life PWR based on 5% 233U & 2.8% 231Pa, 6% 233U & 2.8% 231Pa and 7% 233U & 6% 231Pa give low excess reactivity.

  15. Conceptual design study of small long-life PWR based on thorium cycle fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Subkhi, M. Nurul; Su'ud, Zaki; Waris, Abdul; Permana, Sidik

    2014-09-30

    A neutronic performance of small long-life Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) using thorium cycle based fuel has been investigated. Thorium cycle which has higher conversion ratio in thermal region compared to uranium cycle produce some significant of {sup 233}U during burn up time. The cell-burn up calculations were performed by PIJ SRAC code using nuclear data library based on JENDL 3.3, while the multi-energy-group diffusion calculations were optimized in whole core cylindrical two-dimension R-Z geometry by SRAC-CITATION. this study would be introduced thorium nitride fuel system which ZIRLO is the cladding material. The optimization of 350 MWt small long life PWR result small excess reactivity and reduced power peaking during its operation.

  16. Evaluation available encapsulation materials for low-cost long-life silicon photovoltaic arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carmichael, D. C.; Gaines, G. B.; Noel, G. T.; Sliemers, F. A.; Nance, G. P.; Bunk, A. R.; Brockway, M. C.

    1978-01-01

    Experimental evaluation of selected encapsulation designs and materials based on an earlier study which have potential for use in low cost, long-life photovoltaic arrays are reported. The performance of candidate materials and encapsulated cells were evaluated principally for three types of encapsulation designs based on their potentially low materials and processing costs: (1) polymeric coatings, transparent conformal coatings over the cell with a structural-support substrate; (2) polymeric film lamination, cells laminated between two films or sheets of polymeric materials; and (3) glass-covered systems, cells adhesively bonded to a glass cover (superstrate) with a polymeric pottant and a glass or other substrate material. Several other design types, including those utilizing polymer sheet and pottant materials, were also included in the investigation.

  17. Conceptual Design study of Small Long-life Gas Cooled Fast Reactor With Modified CANDLE Burn-up Scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Nur Asiah, A.; Su'ud, Zaki; Ferhat, A.; Sekimoto, H.

    2010-06-22

    In this paper, conceptual design study of Small Long-life Gas Cooled Fast Reactors with Natural Uranium as Fuel Cycle Input has been performed. In this study Gas Cooled Fast Reactor is slightly modified by employing modified CANDLE burn-up scheme so that it can use Natural Uranium as fuel cycle input. Due to their hard spectrum, GCFR in this study showed very good performance in converting U-238 to plutonium in order to maintain the operation condition requirement of long-life reactors. Due to the limitation of thermal hydraulic aspects, the average power density of the proposed design is selected about 70 W/cc. With such condition we got an optimal design of 325 MWt reactors which can be operated 10 years without refueling and fuel shuffling and just need natural uranium as fuel cycle input. The average discharge burn-up is about 290 GWd/ton HM.

  18. Conceptual Design study of Small Long-life Gas Cooled Fast Reactor With Modified CANDLE Burn-up Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nur Asiah, A.; Su'ud, Zaki; Ferhat, A.; Sekimoto, H.

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, conceptual design study of Small Long-life Gas Cooled Fast Reactors with Natural Uranium as Fuel Cycle Input has been performed. In this study Gas Cooled Fast Reactor is slightly modified by employing modified CANDLE burn-up scheme so that it can use Natural Uranium as fuel cycle input. Due to their hard spectrum, GCFR in this study showed very good performance in converting U-238 to plutonium in order to maintain the operation condition requirement of long-life reactors. Due to the limitation of thermal hydraulic aspects, the average power density of the proposed design is selected about 70 W/cc. With such condition we got an optimal design of 325 MWt reactors which can be operated 10 years without refueling and fuel shuffling and just need natural uranium as fuel cycle input. The average discharge burn-up is about 290 GWd/ton HM.

  19. Management and design of long-life systems; Proceedings of the Symposium, Denver, Colo., April 24-26, 1973

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schurmeier, H. M.

    1974-01-01

    The long life of Pioneer interplanetary spacecraft is considered along with a general accelerated methodology for long-life mechanical components, dependable long-lived household appliances, and the design and development philosophy to achieve reliability and long life in large turbine generators. Other topics discussed include an integrated management approach to long life in space, artificial heart reliability factors, and architectural concepts and redundancy techniques in fault-tolerant computers. Individual items are announced in this issue.

  20. Making premium diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Pipenger, G.

    1997-02-01

    For refiners, extra processing and blending is a practical, though not always easy, option for improving diesel fuel properties; however, it entails compromises. For example, ignition quality can be improved by including more paraffins, but this negatively impacts the required low-temperature operability properties. Another example is adding aromatics to increase the diesel`s Btu value, but aromatics burn poorly and tend to cause smoking. Due to these and other types of diametrical trade-offs, the scope of distillate processing and fuels blending at the refinery is often very limited. Therefore, fuel additives are rapidly becoming the only alternative for obtaining the superior quality necessary in a premium diesel fuel. If stabilizers, dispersants and other fuel additive components are used in the additive package, the product can be marketed as a premium diesel fuel additive. Engines using this additive-treated fuel will consistently have less emissions, produce optimum power from the fuel energy conversion process and perform to design specifications. And the user will truly have a premium diesel fuel. The paper discusses detergent additives, cetane or ignition improvers, fuel stabilizers, cold weather additives, and lubricity additives.

  1. A reversible long-life lithium-air battery in ambient air.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Zhou, Haoshen

    2013-01-01

    Electrolyte degradation, Li dendrite formation and parasitic reactions with H₂O and CO₂ are all directly correlated to reversibility and cycleability of Li-air batteries when operated in ambient air. Here we replace easily decomposable liquid electrolytes with a solid Li-ion conductor, which acts as both a catholyte and a Li protector. Meanwhile, the conventional solid air cathodes are replaced with a gel cathode, which contacts directly with the solid catholyte to form a closed and sustainable gel/solid interface. The proposed Li-air cell has sustained repeated cycling in ambient air for 100 cycles (~78 days), with discharge capacity of 2,000 mAh g(-1). The recharging is based largely on the reversible reactions of Li₂CO₃ product, originating from the initial discharge product of Li₂O₂ instead of electrolyte degradation. Our results demonstrate that a reversible long-life Li-air battery is attainable by coordinated approaches towards the focal issues of electrolytes and Li metal. PMID:23652005

  2. Evaluation of selected thermal control coatings for long-life space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teichman, Louis A.; Slemp, Wayne S.; Witte, William G., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Graphite-reinforced resin matrix composites are being considered for spacecraft structural applications because of their light weight, high stiffness, and lower thermal expansion. Thin protective coatings with stable optical properties and the proper ratio of solar absorption (alpha sub s) to thermal emittance (epsilon) minimize orbital thermal extremes and protect these materials against space environment degradation. Sputtered coatings applied directly to graphite/epoxy composite surfaces and anodized coatings applied to thin aluminum foil were studied for use both as an atomic oxygen barrier and as thermal control coatings. Additional effort was made to develop nickel-based coatings which could be applied directly to composites. These coating systems were selected because their inherent tenacity made them potentially more reliable than commercial white paints for long-life space missions. Results indicate that anodized aluminum foil coatings are suitable for tubular and flat composite structures on large platforms in low Earth orbit. Anodized foil provides protection against some elements of the natural space environment (atomic oxygen, ultraviolet, and particulate radiation) and offers a broad range of tailored alpha sub s/epsilon. The foil is readily available and can be produced in large quantities, while the anodizing process is a routine commercial technique.

  3. New class of nonaqueous electrolytes for long-life and safe lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zonghai; Ren, Yang; Jansen, Andrew N; Lin, Chi-Kai; Weng, Wei; Amine, Khalil

    2013-01-01

    Long-life and safe lithium-ion batteries have been long pursued to enable electrification of the transportation system and for grid applications. However, the poor safety characteristics of lithium-ion batteries have been the major bottleneck for the widespread deployment of this promising technology. Here, we report a novel nonaqueous Li(2)B(12)F(12-x)H(x) electrolyte, using lithium difluoro(oxalato)borate as an electrolyte additive, that has superior performance to the conventional LiPF(6)-based electrolyte with regard to cycle life and safety, including tolerance to both overcharge and thermal abuse. Cells tested with the Li(2)B(12)F(9)H(3)-based electrolyte maintained about 70% initial capacity when cycled at 55 °C for 1,200 cycles, and the intrinsic overcharge protection mechanism was active up to 450 overcharge abuse cycles. Results from in situ high-energy X-ray diffraction showed that the thermal decomposition of the delithiated Li(1-x)[Ni(1/3)Mn(1/3)Co(1/3)](0.9)O(2) cathode was delayed by about 20 °C when using the Li(2)B(12)F(12)-based electrolyte. PMID:23443541

  4. Proven, long-life hydrogen/oxygen thrust chambers for space station propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, G. P.; Price, H. G.

    1986-01-01

    The development of the manned space station has necessitated the development of technology related to an onboard auxiliary propulsion system (APS) required to provide for various space station attitude control, orbit positioning, and docking maneuvers. A key component of this onboard APS is the thrust chamber design. To develop the required thrust chamber technology to support the Space Station Program, the NASA Lewis Research Center has sponsored development programs under contracts with Aerojet TechSystems Company and with Bell Aerospace Textron Division of Textron, Inc. During the NASA Lewis sponsored program with Aerojet TechSystems, a 25 lb sub f hydrogen/oxygen thruster has been developed and proven as a viable candidate to meet the needs of the Space Station Program. Likewise, during the development program with Bell Aerospace, a 50 lb sub f hydrogen/oxygen Thrust Chamber has been developed and has demonstrated reliable, long-life expectancy at anticipated space station operating conditions. Both these thrust chambers were based on design criteria developed in previous thruster programs and successfully verified in experimental test programs. Extensive thermal analyses and models were used to design the thrusters to achieve total impulse goals of 2 x 10 to the 6th power lb sub f-sec. Test data for each thruster will be compared to the analytical predictions for the performance and heat transfer characteristics. Also, the results of thrust chamber life verification tests will be presented.

  5. Catalysts for long-life closed-cycle CO2 lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schryer, David R.; Sidney, Barry D.; Miller, Irvin M.; Hess, Robert V.; Wood, George M.; Batten, Carmen E.; Burney, Lewis G.; Hoyt, Ronald F.; Paulin, Patricia A.; Brown, Kenneth G.

    1987-01-01

    Long-life, closed-cycle operation of pulsed CO2 lasers requires catalytic CO-O2 recombination both to remove O2, which is formed by discharge-induced CO2 decomposition, and to regenerate CO2. Platinum metal on a tin (IV) oxide substrate (Pt/SnO2) has been found to be an effective catalyst for such recombination in the desired temperature range of 25 to 100 C. This paper presents a description of ongoing research at NASA-LaRC on Pt/SnO2 catalyzed CO-O2 recombination. Included are studies with rare-isotope gases since rare-isotope CO2 is desirable as a laser gas for enhanced atmospheric transmission. Results presented include: (1) achievement of 98% to 100% conversion of a stoichiometric mixture of CO and O2 to CO2 for 318 hours (greater than 1 x 10 to the 6th power seconds), continuous, at a catalyst temperature of 60 C, and (2) development of a technique verified in a 30-hour test, to prevent isotopic scrambling when CO-18 and O-18(2) are reacted in the presence of a common-isotope Pt/Sn O-16(2) catalyst.

  6. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE. PROGRAM OUTLINE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    INFORMATIONAL TOPICS COVERED IN THE TEXT MATERIALS AND SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILMS FOR A 2-YEAR, 55 MODULE PROGRAM IN AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE ARE GIVEN. THE 30 MODULES FOR "AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1" ARE AVAILABLE AS VT 005 655 - VT 005 684, AND THE 25 MODULES FOR "AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2" ARE AVAILABLE…

  7. Diagnosing diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, L.

    1992-03-01

    This paper reports that problems with diesel engines that have reciprocating parts have long defied a systematic approach to analysis. Engine phenomena such as combustion pressures, valve seating impacts, and piston vibrations reflect directly on how an engine is performing and would be useful to measure. However, these occur inside an engine block and for the most part are not possible to measure directly with sensors. Diesel engine manufacturers are finding new ways to troubleshoot machinery by using sophisticated signal-processing techniques that detect combustion anomalies and high-speed data-acquisition units that sample multiple measurement parameters.

  8. Diesel Engine Idling Test

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Zirker; James Francfort; Jordon Fielding

    2006-02-01

    In support of the Department of Energy’s FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technology Program Office goal to minimize diesel engine idling and reduce the consumption of millions of gallons of diesel fuel consumed during heavy vehicle idling periods, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) conducted tests to characterize diesel engine wear rates caused by extended periods of idling. INL idled two fleet buses equipped with Detroit Diesel Series 50 engines, each for 1,000 hours. Engine wear metals were characterized from weekly oil analysis samples and destructive filter analyses. Full-flow and the bypass filter cartridges were removed at four stages of the testing and sent to an oil analysis laboratory for destructive analysis to ascertain the metals captured in the filters and to establish wear rate trends. Weekly samples were sent to two independent oil analysis laboratories. Concurrent with the filter analysis, a comprehensive array of other laboratory tests ascertained the condition of the oil, wear particle types, and ferrous particles. Extensive ferrogram testing physically showed the concentration of iron particles and associated debris in the oil. The tests results did not show the dramatic results anticipated but did show wear trends. New West Technologies, LLC, a DOE support company, supplied technical support and data analysis throughout the idle test.

  9. Diesel engine exhaust

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Diesel engine exhaust ; CASRN N.A . Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  10. Fuel for diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, M.

    1983-09-20

    A fuel is disclosed for a diesel engine which comprises a mixture of (A) an alcohol, (B) gas oil and (C) castor oil, wherein the contents of the respective components satisfy requirements represented by the following formulae: 0% by volume < A 80% by volume, 10% by volume B < 50% by volume, and 10% by volume C < 50% by volume.

  11. Diesel Engine Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Diesel engine technicians maintain and repair the engines that power transportation equipment such as heavy trucks, trains, buses, and locomotives. Some technicians work mainly on farm machines, ships, compressors, and pumps. Others work mostly on construction equipment such as cranes, power shovels, bulldozers, and paving machines. This article…

  12. Diesel Engine Alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, T

    2003-08-24

    There are basically three different modes of combustion possible for use in reciprocating engines. These include, diffusion burning, as occurs in current diesel engines, flame propagation combustion such as used in conventional SI engines, and homogeneous combustion such as is used in the SwRI HCCI engine. Diesel engines currently offer significant fuel consumption benefits relative to other powerplants for on and off road applications; however, costs and efficiency may become problems as the emissions standards become even more stringent. This presentation presents a discussion of the potentials of HCCI and flame propagation engines as alternatives to the diesel engines. It is suggested that as the emissions standards become more and more stringent, the advantages of the diesel may disappear. The potential for HCCI is limited by the availability of the appropriate fuel. The potential of flame propagation engines is limited by several factors including knock, EGR tolerance, high BMEP operation, and throttling. These limitations are discussed in the context of potential for improvement of the efficiency of the flame propagation engine.

  13. DIESEL NOX CONTROL APPLICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a project to design, develop, and demonstrate a diesel engine nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) control package that will meet the U.S. Navy's emission control requirements. (NOTE: In 1994, EPA issued a Notice for Proposed Rule Making (NP...

  14. Diesel Engine Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foutes, William A.

    Written in student performance terms, this curriculum guide on diesel engine repair is divided into the following eight sections: an orientation to the occupational field and instructional program; instruction in operating principles; instruction in engine components; instruction in auxiliary systems; instruction in fuel systems; instruction in…

  15. DIESEL FUEL LUBRICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Jun

    2012-01-01

    The diesel fuel injector and pump systems contain many sliding interfaces that rely for lubrication upon the fuels. The combination of the poor fuel lubricity and extremely tight geometric clearance between the plunger and bore makes the diesel fuel injector vulnerable to scuffing damage that severely limits the engine life. In order to meet the upcoming stricter diesel emission regulations and higher engine efficiency requirements, further fuel refinements that will result in even lower fuel lubricity due to the removal of essential lubricating compounds, more stringent operation conditions, and tighter geometric clearances are needed. These are expected to increase the scuffing and wear vulnerability of the diesel fuel injection and pump systems. In this chapter, two approaches are discussed to address this issue: (1) increasing fuel lubricity by introducing effective lubricity additives or alternative fuels, such as biodiesel, and (2) improving the fuel injector scuffing-resistance by using advanced materials and/or surface engineering processes. The developing status of the fuel modification approach is reviewed to cover topics including fuel lubricity origins, lubricity improvers, alternative fuels, and standard fuel lubricity tests. The discussion of the materials approach is focused on the methodology development for detection of the onset of scuffing and evaluation of the material scuffing characteristics.

  16. Diesel engine fuel systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The film shows the basic structure of diesel systems, including the parts and operation of injectors and fuel pumps. It discusses Bosch, General Motors, and Excello Equipment. This title has been declared obsolete for use within the sponsoring agency, but may have content value for educational use.

  17. Diesel engine fuel systems

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The film shows the basic structure of diesel systems, including the parts and operation of injectors and fuel pumps. It discusses Bosch, General Motors, and Excello Equipment. This title has been declared obsolete for use within the sponsoring agency, but may have content value for educational use.

  18. Production of engineered long-life and male sterile Pelargonium plants

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pelargonium is one of the most popular garden plants in the world. Moreover, it has a considerable economic importance in the ornamental plant market. Conventional cross-breeding strategies have generated a range of cultivars with excellent traits. However, gene transfer via Agrobacterium tumefaciens could be a helpful tool to further improve Pelargonium by enabling the introduction of new genes/traits. We report a simple and reliable protocol for the genetic transformation of Pelargonium spp. and the production of engineered long-life and male sterile Pelargonium zonale plants, using the pSAG12::ipt and PsEND1::barnase chimaeric genes respectively. Results The pSAG12::ipt transgenic plants showed delayed leaf senescence, increased branching and reduced internodal length, as compared to control plants. Leaves and flowers of the pSAG12::ipt plants were reduced in size and displayed a more intense coloration. In the transgenic lines carrying the PsEND1::barnase construct no pollen grains were observed in the modified anther structures, which developed instead of normal anthers. The locules of sterile anthers collapsed 3–4 days prior to floral anthesis and, in most cases, the undeveloped anther tissues underwent necrosis. Conclusion The chimaeric construct pSAG12::ipt can be useful in Pelargonium spp. to delay the senescence process and to modify plant architecture. In addition, the use of engineered male sterile plants would be especially useful to produce environmentally friendly transgenic plants carrying new traits by preventing gene flow between the genetically modified ornamentals and related plant species. These characteristics could be of interest, from a commercial point of view, both for pelargonium producers and consumers. PMID:22935247

  19. The aging retarding effect of 'Long-Life CiLi'.

    PubMed

    Ma, Y X; Zhu, Y; Wang, C F; Wang, Z S; Chen, S Y; Shen, M H; Gan, J M; Zhang, J G; Gu, Q; He, L

    1997-06-01

    'Long-Life CiLi' ('CiLi') oral liquid, is composed of superoxide dismutase (SOD), polysacchairide, vitamin C, vitamin E and trace elements which were all extracted from a natural plant fruit Cili (Rosa roxburghii Tratt) in Guizhou, China. A set of indices were evaluated after administration of 'CiLi' 10 ml Bid, for two months in 50-75 years old healthy people, the mean value of NK cell activity (22.4 +/- 10.8-->27.5 +/- 12.9%, P < 0.05), SOD (453.0 +/- 24.2-->468.6 +/- 21.3 micrograms/gHb, P < 0.001), Catalase (15.5 +/- 1.7-->17.4 +/- 3.0 U/mgHb, P < 0.001) and GSH content (2.3 +/- 0.3-->2.6 +/- 0.5 mg/gHb, P < 0.001) in erythrocytes and 'delta CO, CI, SV, SI, LVET, LVETI and AC' values increased significantly, while the serum LPO level (4.20 +/- 0.78-->3.78 +/- 0.50 nmol/ml, P < 0.001), total microcirculation weighed value (1.87 +/- 1.0-->0.92 +/- 0.5, P < 0.001), delta PVR (-241.7 +/- 733.2-->187.9 +/- 938.2, P < 0.05) and the light reaction time (Simple RT, red light: 383 +/- 128-->332 +/- 68.9 ms, P < 0.05; selective RT: red light 709 +/- 287-->566 +/- 119 ms, P < 0.05; green light 639 +/- 162-->536 +/- 80 ms, P < 0.01) decreased significantly. There were no significant differences in the control group. The mean life span of fruit flies were significantly elongated for low, medium and high concentrations 'CiLi' treatment groups than in the control group (Female: 57.6 +/- 11.3-->62.1 +/- 12.8; 69.6 +/- 14.7; 62.6 +/- 12 days; P < 0.05 approximately 0.001. Male: 56.3 +/- 9.6-->64.9 +/- 12.4; 64.5 +/- 14.5; 64.8 +/- 14.1 days, P < 0.001). It is suggested that 'CiLi' has an aging retarding and geroprotection effect. PMID:9223119

  20. Diesel particulate emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Abbass, M.K.; Andrews, G.E.; Williams, P.T.; Bartle, K.D.; Davies, I.L.; Tanui, L.K.

    1988-01-01

    The objective was to investigate combustion generated PAH in Diesel engine particulate emissions using a pure single component fuel, hexadecane, in a Perkins 4-236 engine in a single cylinder format. The results were compared with those using a conventional Diesel fuel and with the particulates collected by motoring the engine. To minimise any influence of contamination from the PAH in used lubricating oil, all the tests were carried out with fresh PAH free lubricating oil. The hexadecane particulates were found to contain 6-25% of the PAH and 5-9% of the n-alkanes for Diesel and the motoring tests were found to give 10% of the PAH and 50-200% of the n-alkane for hexadecane. It was concluded that there was an internal source of n-alkane and PAH in the engine and exhaust system, probably absorbed in engine deposits. It was therefore not possible to conclude that the PAH with hexadecane was pyrosynthesised.

  1. Advanced diesel engineering and operation

    SciTech Connect

    Haddad, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    This state-of-the-art text/reference addresses advanced aspects of the design and operation of diesel engines. It is the only book to provide a comprehensive account of the adiabatic (or ceramic) diesel engine, aircraft and locomotive diesels (including both four-stroke and two-stroke configurations), an up-to-date analysis of torsional vibration shafts. Treats diesel engine vehicle noise, couplings and test instrumentation, and includes an excellent survey of fuel injection systems. All chapters are fully illustrated, most with supporting data. Contains an extensive, current bibliography.

  2. BIOMARKERS OF DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project is to examine the detectability of some chemical components of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) in human urine following controlled human diesel exposures (IRB-approved). Ultimately, and upon validation, we propose to apply these components as biomarke...

  3. 'Vegetable' substitutes for diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-22

    Research programs in the US, Brazil, South Africa and the Philippines on efforts to find a vegetable oil substitute for diesel fuel are reported. A narrowing price gap with diesel fuel and a favourable energy balance improve the prospects for such fuels. Much of the current work is centered on blends, rather than the use of the pure oil.

  4. Reformulated diesel fuel and method

    DOEpatents

    McAdams, Hiramie T [Carrollton, IL; Crawford, Robert W [Tucson, AZ; Hadder, Gerald R [Oak Ridge, TN; McNutt, Barry D [Arlington, VA

    2006-08-22

    A method for mathematically identifying at least one diesel fuel suitable for combustion in an automotive diesel engine with significantly reduced emissions and producible from known petroleum blendstocks using known refining processes, including the use of cetane additives (ignition improvers) and oxygenated compounds.

  5. Diesel Fundamentals. Teacher Edition (Revised).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Elton; And Others

    This module is one of a series of teaching guides that cover diesel mechanics. The module contains 4 sections and 19 units. Section A--Orientation includes the following units: introduction to diesel mechanics and shop safety; basic shop tools; test equipment and service tools; fasteners; bearings; and seals. Section B--Engine Principles and…

  6. Diesel particulate emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, P.T.; Abbass, M.K.; Andrews, G.E.; Bartle, K.D.

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between diesel fuel composition and that of the solvent organic fraction of diesel particulates was investigated for an old DI Petter engine and a modern DI Perkins engine. Polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) were identified using high-resolution capillary column chromatography with a parallel triple detector system for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nitrogen-containing PAH, and sulphur-containing PAH. Identification of the PAC using retention indexes was confirmed using an ion trap detector, which was also used to quantify the low-concentration (<1 ppm) benzo(a)pyrene. It was conclusively shown for both engines that the bulk of the particulate solvent organic fraction, including the PAH fraction, was unburned fuel. However, there was some evidence that high molecular weight five-ring PAH may have an in-cylinder formation contribution, and it is postulated that this could be due to pyrolysis of lower molecular weight unburned fuel PAH. The contribution of lubricating oil to the particulate PAC is discussed, and evidence is presented that shows the unburned fuel PAC accumulates in the lubricating oil and thus contributes to the particulate PAC via the large lubricating oil component of the particulate PAC.

  7. Design study of lead- and lead-bismuth-cooled small long-life nuclear power reactors using metallic and nitride fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Sekimoto, Hiroshi; Su`ud, Zaki

    1995-03-01

    A conceptual design study of small long-life nuclear power reactors used for a remote or isolated area has been performed. Lead as well as lead-bismuth is employed as the coolant, and both metallic and nitride fuels are investigated. There are some severe requirements on these reactors for operability, maintainability, safety, and proliferation resistance. Some important characteristics of the proposed designs [150 MW (thermal)] are the following: transportability between reactor factory and operation site; capability of long-life operation (12 yr) without refueling or fuel shuffling while maintaining burnup reactivity swing less than 0.1% {Delta}k; negative total core coolant void coefficient of reactivity over all the burnup period; omission of intermediate heat exchanger; and a relatively large contribution of natural circulation.

  8. Testing Ceramics for Diesel Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, H. W.

    1985-01-01

    Adaptation of diesel engine allows prestressed ceramic materials evaluated under realistic pressure, temperature, and stress without introducing extraneous stress. Ceramic specimen part of prechamber of research engine. Specimen held in place by clamp, introduces required axial compressive stress. Specimen -- cylindrical shell -- surrounded by chamber vented or pressurized to introduce requisite radial stress in ceramic. Pressure chamber also serves as safety shield in case speimen disintegrates. Materials under consideration as cylinder liners for diesel engines.

  9. OXIDATIVE DNA DAMAGE IN DIESEL BUS MECHANICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale:

    Diesel exposure has been associated with adverse health effects, including susceptibility to asthma, allergy and cancer. Previous epidemiological studies demonstrated increased cancer incidence among workers exposed to diesel. This is likely due to oxid...

  10. Nanocatalysts for Diesel Engine Emissions Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    2009-05-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop durable zeolite nanocatalysts with broad temperature operating windows to treat diesel engine emissions, thus enabling diesel engine equipment and vehicles to meet regulatory requirements.

  11. Advanced automotive diesel assessment program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekar, R.; Tozzi, L.

    1983-01-01

    Cummins Engine Company completed an analytical study to identify an advanced automotive (light duty) diesel (AAD) power plant for a 3,000-pound passenger car. The study resulted in the definition of a revolutionary diesel engine with several novel features. A 3,000-pound car with this engine is predicted to give 96.3, 72.2, and 78.8 MPG in highway, city, and combined highway-city driving, respectively. This compares with current diesel powered cars yielding 41.7, 35.0, and 37.7 MPG. The time for 0-60 MPH acceleration is 13.9 sec. compared to the baseline of 15.2 sec. Four technology areas were identified as crucial in bringing this concept to fruition. They are: (1) part-load preheating, (2) positive displacement compounding, (3) spark assisted diesel combustion system, and (4) piston development for adiabatic, oilless diesel engine. Marketing and planning studies indicate that an aggressive program with significant commitment could result in a production car in 10 years from the date of commencement.

  12. A tale of two diesels.

    PubMed

    Arey, Janet

    2004-06-01

    Two different samples of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) have been used by toxicologists interested primarily in cancer/genotoxicity or noncancer--such as pulmonary inflammation and asthma exacerbation--health end points. These are, respectively, a standard reference material, SRM 2975, from a heavy-duty diesel engine, and a sample collected by researchers at the Japanese National Institute for Environmental Studies from an automobile diesel engine. In this issue of Environmental Health Perspectives companion papers appear, by David DeMarini and co-workers and by Pramila Singh and co-workers, characterizing these samples and contrasting their Salmonella mutagenicity and pulmonary toxicity in mice. This commentary is a plea from an atmospheric chemist for more cooperation among toxicologists, analytical chemists, atmospheric chemists, and automotive and combustion engineers to provide a comprehensive assessment of health risks to humans exposed to contemporary diesel emissions and for greater quantities and more diverse types of DEP and ambient samples (i.e., SRMs) that can be shared and exhaustively characterized. This needs to be a continuing process as diesel engines, fuels, and exhaust components evolve in response to control regulations. PMID:15175165

  13. A zero-strain layered metal oxide as the negative electrode for long-life sodium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuesheng; Yu, Xiqian; Xu, Shuyin; Bai, Jianming; Xiao, Ruijuan; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Li, Hong; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Chen, Liquan; Huang, Xuejie

    2013-01-01

    Room-temperature sodium-ion batteries have shown great promise in large-scale energy storage applications for renewable energy and smart grid because of the abundant sodium resources and low cost. Although many interesting positive electrode materials with acceptable performance have been proposed, suitable negative electrode materials have not been identified and their development is quite challenging. Here we introduce a layered material, P2-Na0.66[Li0.22Ti0.78]O2, as the negative electrode, which exhibits only ~0.77% volume change during sodium insertion/extraction. The zero-strain characteristics ensure a potentially long cycle life. The electrode material also exhibits an average storage voltage of 0.75 V, a practical usable capacity of ca. 100 mAh g(-1), and an apparent Na(+) diffusion coefficient of 1 × 10(-10) cm(-2) s(-1) as well as the best cyclability for a negative electrode material in a half-cell reported to date. This contribution demonstrates that P2-Na0.66[Li0.22Ti0.78]O2 is a promising negative electrode material for the development of rechargeable long-life sodium-ion batteries. PMID:23978932

  14. Heart rate, multiple body temperature, long-range and long-life telemetry system for free-ranging animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lund, G. F.; Westbrook, R. M.; Fryer, T. B.

    1980-01-01

    The design details and rationale for a versatile, long-range, long-life telemetry data acquisition system for heart rates and body temperatures at multiple locations from free-ranging animals are presented. The design comprises an implantable transmitter for short to medium range transmission, a receiver retransmitter collar to be worn for long-range transmission, and a signal conditioner interface circuit to assist in signal discrimination and demodulation of receiver or tape-recorded audio outputs. Implanted electrodes are used to obtain an ECG, from which R-wave characteristics are selected to trigger a short RF pulse. Pulses carrying heart rate information are interrupted periodically by a series of pulse interval modulated RF pulses conveying temperature information sensed at desired locations by thermistors. Pulse duration and pulse sequencing are used to discriminate between heart rate and temperature pulses as well as radio frequency interference. The implanted transmitter may be used alone for medium and short-range tracking, or with a receiver-transmitter collar that employs commercial tracking equipment for transmissions of up to 12 km. A system prototype has been tested on a dog.

  15. A Long-Life Lithium Ion Battery with Enhanced Electrode/Electrolyte Interface by Using an Ionic Liquid Solution.

    PubMed

    Elia, Giuseppe Antonio; Ulissi, Ulderico; Mueller, Franziska; Reiter, Jakub; Tsiouvaras, Nikolaos; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno; Passerini, Stefano; Hassoun, Jusef

    2016-05-10

    In this paper, we report an advanced long-life lithium ion battery, employing a Pyr14 TFSI-LiTFSI non-flammable ionic liquid (IL) electrolyte, a nanostructured tin carbon (Sn-C) nanocomposite anode, and a layered LiNi1/3 Co1/3 Mn1/3 O2 (NMC) cathode. The IL-based electrolyte is characterized in terms of conductivity and viscosity at various temperatures, revealing a Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher (VTF) trend. Lithium half-cells employing the Sn-C anode and NMC cathode in the Pyr14 TFSI-LiTFSI electrolyte are investigated by galvanostatic cycling at various temperatures, demonstrating the full compatibility of the electrolyte with the selected electrode materials. The NMC and Sn-C electrodes are combined into a cathode-limited full cell, which is subjected to prolonged cycling at 40 °C, revealing a very stable capacity of about 140 mAh g(-1) and retention above 99 % over 400 cycles. The electrode/electrolyte interface is further characterized through a combination of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigations upon cell cycling. The remarkable performances reported here definitively indicate that IL-based lithium ion cells are suitable batteries for application in electric vehicles. PMID:26990320

  16. Soyoil-ethanol microemulsions as diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Goering, C.E.; Schwab, A.W.; Campion, R.M.; Pryde, E.H.

    1983-01-01

    Hybrid fuels, formed by microemulsifying aqueous ethanol in soybean oil, were evaluated by burning them in a diesel engine. No. 2 diesel fuel was also burned to provide baseline data. The hybrid fuels performed nearly as well as No. 2 diesel despite having lower cetane numbers and less energy content. At present, the hybrid fuels are more expensive than No. 2 diesel fuel and their effect on engine durability is unknown.

  17. Controlled human exposures to diesel exhaust

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diesel exhaust (DE) is a complex mixture of gaseous and particulate compounds resulting from an incomplete combustion of diesel fuel. Controlled human exposures to DE and diesel exhaust particles (DEP) have contributed to understanding health effects. Such exposure studies of h...

  18. Diesel Powered School Buses: An Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresham, Robert

    1984-01-01

    Because diesel engines are more economical and longer-lasting than gasoline engines, school districts are rapidly increasing their use of diesel buses. Dependence on diesel power, however, entails vulnerability to cost increases due to the unreliability of crude oil supplies and contributes to air pollution. (MCG)

  19. Clean Coal Diesel Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Wilson

    2006-10-31

    A Clean Coal Diesel project was undertaken to demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that offers technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology (developed to the prototype stage in an earlier DOE project completed in 1992) enables utilization of pre-processed clean coal fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. The diesel engines are conventional modern engines in many respects, except they are specially fitted with hardened parts to be compatible with the traces of abrasive ash in the coal-slurry fuel. Industrial and Municipal power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. There are hundreds of such reciprocating engine power-plants operating throughout the world today on natural gas and/or heavy fuel oil.

  20. Dependent failures of diesel generators

    SciTech Connect

    Mankamo, T.; Pulkkinen, U.

    1982-01-01

    This survey of dependent failures (common-cause failures) is based on the data of diesel generator failures in U. S. nuclear power plants as reported in Licensee Event Reports. Failures were classified into random and potentially dependent failures. All failures due to design errors, manufacturing or installation errors, maintenance errors, or deviations in the operational environment were classified as potentially dependent failures.The statistical dependence between failures was estimated from the relative portion of multiple failures. Results confirm the earlier view of the significance of statistical dependence, a strong dependence on the age of the diesel generator was found in each failure class excluding random failures and maintenance errors, which had a nearly constant frequency independent of diesel generator age.

  1. Diesel fuels from vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, A.W.; Bagby, M.O.; Freedman, B.

    1986-03-01

    Vegetable oils have heat contents approximately 90% that of diesel fuel and are potential alternate fuel candidates. A major obstacle deterring their use in the direct-injection diesel engine is their inherent high viscosities which are nearly 10 times that of diesel fuel. Solution to the viscosity problem has been approached in three ways: 1) microemulsification, 2) pyrolysis, and 3) transesterification. Microemulsification with short chain alcohols such as methanol and ethanol yields fuels that are clear, thermodynamically stable liquid systems with viscosities near the ASTM specified range for number2 diesel fuel. These micellar systems may be formulated ionically or nonionically. The alcohols are attractive from an economic as well as a renewable resource viewpoint. Methanol has an economic advantage over ethanol, and it can be derived from a large variety of base stocks. These include biomass, municipal waste, natural gas being flared at refineries and from coal. Pyrolysis of vegetable oils is another approach to lowering their viscosity. Soybean and safflower oils were thermally decomposed in both air and nitrogen to obtain fuels for the diesel engine. Using standard ASTM distillation conditions, yields of pyrolysis products were about 75%. GS-MS analysis of the distillates showed the presence of alkanes, alkenes, aromatics, and carboxylic acids with carbon numbers ranging from 4 to more than 20. Fuel properties of the thermal decomposition products were substantially improved as evaluated by lower viscosities and higher cetane numbers compared to the unpyrrolyzed vegetable oils. Simple esters from transesterification of vegetable oils perform well in engine tests, and thus show good promise as an alternative or emergency fuel for diesel engines.

  2. Biodiesel and Other Renewable Diesel Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-11-01

    Present federal tax incentives apply to certain types of biomass-derived diesel fuels, which in energy policy and tax laws are described either as renewable diesel or biodiesel. To understand the distinctions between these diesel types it is necessary to understand the technologies used to produce them and the properties of the resulting products. This fact sheet contains definitions of renewable and biodiesel and discusses the processes used to convert biomass to diesel fuel and the properties of biodiesel and renewable diesel fuels.

  3. DIESEL ENGINE RETROFIT TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation wil be given at the EPA Science Forum 2005 in Washington, DC. According to recent estimates, there are approximately 7.9 million heavy-duty diesel trucks and buses in use in the United States. Emissions from these vehicles account for substantial portions of t...

  4. Diesel Mechanics: Scope and Sequence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

    This scope and sequence guide, developed for a diesel mechanics vocational education program, represents an initial step in the development of a systemwide articulated curriculum sequence for all vocational programs within the Metropolitan Nashville Public School System. It was developed as a result of needs expressed by teachers, parents, and the…

  5. Coal-fired diesel generator

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The objective of the proposed project is to test the technical, environmental, and economic viability of a coal-fired diesel generator for producing electric power in small power generating markets. Coal for the diesel generator would be provided from existing supplies transported for use in the University`s power plant. A cleanup system would be installed for limiting gaseous and particulate emissions. Electricity and steam produced by the diesel generator would be used to supply the needs of the University. The proposed diesel generator and supporting facilities would occupy approximately 2 acres of land adjacent to existing coal- and oil-fired power plant and research laboratory buildings at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks. The environmental analysis identified that the most notable changes to result from the proposed project would occur in the following areas: power plant configuration at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks; air emissions, water use and discharge, and the quantity of solid waste for disposal; noise levels at the power plant site; and transportation of coal to the power plant. No substantive adverse impacts or environmental concerns were identified in analyzing the effects of these changes.

  6. Ti-Sb-Te alloy: a candidate for fast and long-life phase-change memory.

    PubMed

    Xia, Mengjiao; Zhu, Min; Wang, Yuchan; Song, Zhitang; Rao, Feng; Wu, Liangcai; Cheng, Yan; Song, Sannian

    2015-04-15

    Phase-change memory (PCM) has great potential for numerous attractive applications on the premise of its high-device performances, which still need to be improved by employing a material with good overall phase-change properties. In respect to fast speed and high endurance, the Ti-Sb-Te alloy seems to be a promising candidate. Here, Ti-doped Sb2Te3 (TST) materials with different Ti concentrations have been systematically studied with the goal of finding the most suitable composition for PCM applications. The thermal stability of TST is improved dramatically with increasing Ti content. The small density change of T0.32Sb2Te3 (2.24%), further reduced to 1.37% for T0.56Sb2Te3, would greatly avoid the voids generated at phase-change layer/electrode interface in a PCM device. Meanwhile, the exponentially diminished grain size (from ∼200 nm to ∼12 nm), resulting from doping more and more Ti, enhances the adhesion between phase-change film and substrate. Tests of TST-based PCM cells have demonstrated a fast switching rate of ∼10 ns. Furthermore, because of the lower thermal conductivities of TST materials, compared with Sb2Te3-based PCM cells, T0.32Sb2Te3-based ones exhibit lower required pulse voltages for Reset operation, which largely decreases by ∼50% for T0.43Sb2Te3-based ones. Nevertheless, the operation voltages for T0.56Sb2Te3-based cells dramatically increase, which may be due to the phase separation after doping excessive Ti. Finally, considering the decreased resistance ratio, TixSb2Te3 alloy with x around 0.43 is proved to be a highly promising candidate for fast and long-life PCM applications. PMID:25805549

  7. Design and fabrication of a long-life Stirling cycle cooler for space application. Phase 3: Prototype model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keung, C.; Patt, P. J.; Starr, M.; Sweet, R. C.; Bourdillon, L. A.; Figueroa, R.; Hartmann, M.; Mcfarlane, R.

    1990-01-01

    A second-generation, Stirling-cycle cryocooler (cryogenic refrigerator) for space applications, with a cooling capacity of 5 watts at 65 K, was recently completed. The refrigerator, called the Prototype Model, was designed with a goal of 5 year life with no degradation in cooling performance. The free displacer and free piston of the refrigerator are driven directly by moving-magnet linear motors with the moving elements supported by active magnetic bearings. The use of clearance seals and the absence of outgassing material in the working volume of the refrigerator enable long-life operation with no deterioration in performance. Fiber-optic sensors detect the radial position of the shafts and provide a control signal for the magnetic bearings. The frequency, phase, stroke, and offset of the compressor and expander are controlled by signals from precision linear position sensors (LVDTs). The vibration generated by the compressor and expander is cancelled by an active counter balance which also uses a moving-magnet linear motor and magnetic bearings. The driving signal for the counter balance is derived from the compressor and expander position sensors which have wide bandwidth for suppression of harmonic vibrations. The efficiency of the three active members, which operate in a resonant mode, is enhanced by a magnetic spring in the expander and by gas springs in the compressor and counterbalance. The cooling was achieved with a total motor input power of 139 watts. The magnetic-bearing stiffness was significantly increased from the first-generation cooler to accommodate shuttle launch vibrations.

  8. Environmental test report on the CTI-Cryogenics 1-watt integral Stirling cooler (long-life HD-1033d). Final report, 16 June-24 July 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Doggett, G.; Dunmire, H.; Samuels, R.; Shaffer, J.

    1989-04-01

    This final report describes and provides the data on the environmental testing of the CTI-Cryogenics 1-Watt Integral Stirling Cooler (Long-Life HD-1033D). The 1-Watt Integral Cooler (HD-1033B/C) is currently used in the M1 FLIR, M60 FLIR, and the Advanced Attack Helicopter FLIR. The long life cooler (clearance seal) improves life of the cooler by approximately two and one half times. C2NVEO evaluated the cooler performance at environmental extremes per the purchase description, PD-0182-001(CR). The cooler successfully passed all the environmental tests with no failures.

  9. The effect of diesel injection timing on a turbocharged diesel engine fumigated with ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, A.R.; Savage, L.D.; White, R.A.; Sorenson, S.C.

    1988-01-01

    A study has been done to determine the effect of changes in diesel injection timing on engine performance using a multicylinder, turbocharged diesel engine fumigated with ethanol. Tests at half load with engine speeds of 2000 and 2400 rpm indicated that a 4% increase in thermal efficiency could be obtained by advancing the diesel injection timing from 18 to 29/sup 0/BTDC. The effect of changes in diesel timing was much more pronounced at 2400 rpm. Advancing the diesel timing decreased CO and unburned HC levels significantly. The increase in NO levels due to advances in diesel timing was offset by the decrease in NO due to ethanol addition.

  10. 30 CFR 75.1901 - Diesel fuel requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Diesel fuel requirements. 75.1901 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1901 Diesel fuel requirements. (a) Diesel-powered equipment shall be used underground only with a diesel fuel having a...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1901 - Diesel fuel requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel fuel requirements. 75.1901 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1901 Diesel fuel requirements. (a) Diesel-powered equipment shall be used underground only with a diesel fuel having a...

  12. 30 CFR 75.1901 - Diesel fuel requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Diesel fuel requirements. 75.1901 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1901 Diesel fuel requirements. (a) Diesel-powered equipment shall be used underground only with a diesel fuel having a...

  13. 30 CFR 75.1906 - Transport of diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Transport of diesel fuel. 75.1906 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1906 Transport of diesel fuel. (a) Diesel fuel shall be transported only by diesel fuel transportation units or in...

  14. 30 CFR 75.1906 - Transport of diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transport of diesel fuel. 75.1906 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1906 Transport of diesel fuel. (a) Diesel fuel shall be transported only by diesel fuel transportation units or in...

  15. 30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250... Well-Completion Operations § 250.510 Diesel engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines that...

  16. 30 CFR 75.1906 - Transport of diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transport of diesel fuel. 75.1906 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1906 Transport of diesel fuel. (a) Diesel fuel shall be transported only by diesel fuel transportation units or in...

  17. 30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section 250... Operations § 250.610 Diesel engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel...

  18. 30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250... Operations § 250.510 Diesel engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines that are continuously attended...

  19. 30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250... Operations § 250.510 Diesel engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines that are continuously attended...

  20. 30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250... Operations § 250.510 Diesel engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines that are continuously attended...

  1. 30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section 250... Operations § 250.610 Diesel engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel...

  2. 30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section 250... Operations § 250.610 Diesel engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel...

  3. Natural gas fueling of diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The focus of work performed by University of British Columbia researchers was on high-pressure (late cycle) injection of NG ignited by a pilot diesel-liquid injection(diesel/gas combustion). This was compared to the case of 100% liquid diesel (baseline diesel) fueling at the same load and speed. In typical direct-injected and conventionally fueled diesel engines, fuel is injected a few degrees before the end of the compression stroke into 750--900 K air in which it vaporizes, mixed with air, and auto ignites less than 2 ms after injection begins. The objectives of the researchers` work were to investigate the ignition delay and combustion duration of diesel/gas combustion by observing diesel and diesel/gas ignition sites and flame structure; determining ignition delay and combustion duration with pilot-diesel and natural gas injections; determining whether the pilot liquid flame is substantially influenced by the gas injection; and considering whether pilot-diesel/gas combustion is dominated by premixed or diffusion combustion.

  4. OVERVIEW OF EMERGING CLEAN DIESEL ENGINE TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Fairbanks, John

    2001-08-05

    Diesel engines are the most realistic technology to achieve a major improvement in fuel economy in the next decade. In the US light truck market, i.e. Sport Utility Vehicles , pick-up trucks and mini-vans, diesel engines can more than double the fuel economy of similarly rated spark ignition (SI) gasoline engines currently in these vehicles. These new diesel engines are comparable to the SI engines in noise levels and 0 to 60 mph acceleration. They no longer have the traditional ''diesel smell.'' And the new diesel engines will provide roughly twice the service life. This is very significant for resale value which could more than offset the initial premium cost of the diesel engine over that of the SI gasoline engine. So why are we not seeing more diesel engine powered personal vehicles in the U.S.? The European auto fleet is comprised of a little over 30 percent diesel engine powered vehicles while current sales are about 50 percent diesel. In France, over 70 percent of the luxury class cars i.e. Mercedes ''S'' Class, BMW 700 series etc., are sold with the diesel engine option selected. Diesel powered BMW's are winning auto races in Germany. These are a typical of the general North American perspective of diesel powered autos. The big challenge to commercial introduction of diesel engine powered light trucks and autos is compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Tier 2, 2007 emissions standards. Specifically, 0.07gm/mile Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) and 0.01 gm/mile particulates (PM). Although the EPA has set a series of bins of increasing stringency until the 2007 levels are met, vehicle manufacturers appear to want some assurance that Tier 2, 2007 can be met before they commit an engine to a vehicle.

  5. What is new in diesel.

    PubMed

    Bunn, William B; Valberg, P A; Slavin, T J; Lapin, C A

    2002-10-01

    We review information from the past 5 years on changes in diesel exhaust (DE) emissions and developments in the study of DE toxicity. New DE technologies have changed the composition of DE considerably, reducing emissions of many of the components of health concern. The increasing similarity of modern diesel and compressed natural-gas engine emissions needs to be reflected in any regulatory analysis. Even for historical DE emissions, considerable study of DE exposure in animals or humans has not produced data useful for risk assessment. DE inhalation exposure in most species (hamsters, guinea pigs, mice) does not produce lung tumors. Inhalation studies of DE in rats found lung tumors only with lung overload, and tumors also occurred when inert dusts were inhaled at overload concentrations. The animal data are reassuring and show that DE is not a concern at ambient exposure levels. Re-analyses of occupational epidemiology have been shown to have serious shortcomings that do not allow the derivation of a quantitative cancer risk. Studies of railroad workers found no dose response; rather cancer risk appeared to decrease for individuals with greater DE exposure. Studies of truck drivers also suffer from serious flaws because of misconceptions about the year that diesel was introduced, lack of an adequate latency period, and the realization that drivers exhibited increased lung cancer risk even prior to the diesel era. Recent industrial hygiene studies of drivers show that DE was not likely to be a primary source of particles or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Further, there is no dose response across occupations. In fact, the occupation (underground miners) with the highest exposure to DE does not exhibit increased cancer risks. This new information seriously weakens earlier risk characterizations of DE by various regulatory groups. New research and better exposure measurements are needed before a reliable risk assessment of DE can be produced. PMID:12397423

  6. Careers for the 70's in Diesel Mechanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Barbara

    1974-01-01

    Increased employment outlook for diesel mechanics is probably due to the fact that most industries using diesel engines in large numbers are expected to expand their activities. The training and workday of one diesel mechanic is described. (MS)

  7. Staged direct injection diesel engine

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Quentin A.

    1985-01-01

    A diesel engine having staged injection for using lower cetane number fuels than No. 2 diesel fuel. The engine includes a main fuel injector and a pilot fuel injector. Pilot and main fuel may be the same fuel. The pilot injector injects from five to fifteen percent of the total fuel at timings from 20.degree. to 180.degree. BTDC depending upon the quantity of pilot fuel injected, the fuel cetane number and speed and load. The pilot fuel injector is directed toward the centerline of the diesel cylinder and at an angle toward the top of the piston, avoiding the walls of the cylinder. Stratification of the early injected pilot fuel is needed to reduce the fuel-air mixing rate, prevent loss of pilot fuel to quench zones, and keep the fuel-air mixture from becoming too fuel lean to become effective. In one embodiment, the pilot fuel injector includes a single hole for injection of the fuel and is directed at approximately 48.degree. below the head of the cylinder.

  8. Diesel Engine Light Truck Application

    SciTech Connect

    2007-12-31

    The Diesel Engine Light Truck Application (DELTA) program consists of two major contracts with the Department of Energy (DOE). The first one under DE-FC05-97-OR22606, starting from 1997, was completed in 2001, and consequently, a final report was submitted to DOE in 2003. The second part of the contract was under DE-FC05-02OR22909, covering the program progress from 2002 to 2007. This report is the final report of the second part of the program under contract DE-FC05-02OR22909. During the course of this contract, the program work scope and objectives were significantly changed. From 2002 to 2004, the DELTA program continued working on light-duty engine development with the 4.0L V6 DELTA engine, following the accomplishments made from the first part of the program under DE-FC05-97-OR22606. The program work scope in 2005-2007 was changed to the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) soot layer characterization and substrate material assessment. This final report will cover two major technical tasks. (1) Continuation of the DELTA engine development to demonstrate production-viable diesel engine technologies and to demonstrate emissions compliance with significant fuel economy advantages, covering progress made from 2002 to 2004. (2) DPF soot layer characterization and substrate material assessment from 2005-2007.

  9. GEC Alsthom diesel applications in Far East

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, P.

    1996-07-01

    Recent achievements in the Far East for GEC Alsthom Diesels follow a drive to extend its market presence in these fast-growing markets. Ruston has supplied Samsung Engineering Co. with three medium-speed 16RK270 diesel engines for base-load generating sets. Paxman has won a contract to re-engine four locomotives for Sri Lankan Government Railways, as well as supplying six of its latest VPI85 high-speed diesels for new Taiwanese fast petrol vessels. This paper describes briefly the specifications of these diesels.

  10. The organic composition of diesel particulate matter, diesel fuel and engine oil of a non-road diesel generator.

    PubMed

    Liang, Fuyan; Lu, Mingming; Keener, Tim C; Liu, Zifei; Khang, Soon-Jai

    2005-10-01

    Diesel-powered equipment is known to emit significant quantities of fine particulate matter to the atmosphere. Numerous organic compounds can be adsorbed onto the surfaces of these inhalable particles, among which polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are considered potential occupational carcinogens. Guidelines have been established by various agencies regarding diesel emissions and various control technologies are under development. The purpose of this study is to identify, quantify and compare the organic compounds in diesel particulate matter (DPM) with the diesel fuel and engine oil used in a non-road diesel generator. Approximately 90 organic compounds were quantified (with molecular weight ranging from 120 to 350), which include alkanes, PAHs, alkylated PAHs, alkylbenzenes and alkanoic acids. The low sulfur diesel fuel contains 61% alkanes and 7.1% of PAHs. The identifiable portion of the engine oil contains mainly the alkanoic and benzoic acids. The composition of DPM suggests that they may be originated from unburned diesel fuel, engine oil evaporation and combustion generated products. Compared with diesel fuel, DPM contains fewer fractions of alkanes and more PAH compounds, with the shift toward higher molecular weight ones. The enrichment of compounds with higher molecular weight in DPM may be combustion related (pyrogenic). PMID:16193170

  11. Performance of Diesel Engine Using Diesel B3 Mixed with Crude Palm Oil

    PubMed Central

    Namliwan, Nattapong; Wongwuttanasatian, Tanakorn

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the performance of diesel engine using diesel B3 mixed with crude palm oil in ratios of 95 : 5, 90 : 10, and 85 : 15, respectively, and to compare the results with diesel B3. According to the tests, they showed that the physical properties of the mixed fuel in the ratio of 95 : 5 were closest to those of diesel B3. The performance of the diesel engine that used mixed fuels had 5–17% lower torque and power than that of diesel B3. The specific fuel consumption of mixed fuels was 7–33% higher than using diesel B3. The components of gas emissions by using mixed fuel had 1.6–52% fewer amount of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and oxygen (O2) than those of diesel B3. On the other hand, nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions when using mixed fuels were 10–39% higher than diesel B3. By comparing the physical properties, the performance of the engine, and the amount of gas emissions of mixed fuel, we found out that the 95 : 5 ratio by volume was a suitable ratio for agricultural diesel engine (low-speed diesel engine). PMID:24688402

  12. Performance of diesel engine using diesel B3 mixed with crude palm oil.

    PubMed

    Namliwan, Nattapong; Wongwuttanasatian, Tanakorn

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the performance of diesel engine using diesel B3 mixed with crude palm oil in ratios of 95 : 5, 90 : 10, and 85 : 15, respectively, and to compare the results with diesel B3. According to the tests, they showed that the physical properties of the mixed fuel in the ratio of 95 : 5 were closest to those of diesel B3. The performance of the diesel engine that used mixed fuels had 5-17% lower torque and power than that of diesel B3. The specific fuel consumption of mixed fuels was 7-33% higher than using diesel B3. The components of gas emissions by using mixed fuel had 1.6-52% fewer amount of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and oxygen (O2) than those of diesel B3. On the other hand, nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen oxides (NO X ) emissions when using mixed fuels were 10-39% higher than diesel B3. By comparing the physical properties, the performance of the engine, and the amount of gas emissions of mixed fuel, we found out that the 95 : 5 ratio by volume was a suitable ratio for agricultural diesel engine (low-speed diesel engine). PMID:24688402

  13. Combustion Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Using Propanol Diesel Fuel Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthaiyan, Pugazhvadivu; Gomathinayagam, Sankaranarayanan

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the work is to study the use of propanol diesel blends as alternative fuel in a single cylinder diesel engine. In this work, four different propanol diesel blends containing 10, 15, 20 and 25 % propanol in diesel by volume were used as fuels. Load tests were conducted on the diesel engine and the combustion parameters such as cylinder gas pressure, ignition delay, rate of heat release and rate of pressure rise were investigated. The engine performance and emission characteristics were also studied. The propanol diesel blends showed longer ignition delay, higher rates of heat release and pressure rise. The thermal efficiency of the engine decreased marginally with the use of fuel blends. The propanol diesel blends decreased the CO, NOX and smoke emissions of the engine considerably.

  14. Combustion Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Using Propanol Diesel Fuel Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthaiyan, Pugazhvadivu; Gomathinayagam, Sankaranarayanan

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the work is to study the use of propanol diesel blends as alternative fuel in a single cylinder diesel engine. In this work, four different propanol diesel blends containing 10, 15, 20 and 25 % propanol in diesel by volume were used as fuels. Load tests were conducted on the diesel engine and the combustion parameters such as cylinder gas pressure, ignition delay, rate of heat release and rate of pressure rise were investigated. The engine performance and emission characteristics were also studied. The propanol diesel blends showed longer ignition delay, higher rates of heat release and pressure rise. The thermal efficiency of the engine decreased marginally with the use of fuel blends. The propanol diesel blends decreased the CO, NOX and smoke emissions of the engine considerably.

  15. Conventional engine technology. Volume 2: Status of diesel engine technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, H. W.

    1981-01-01

    The engines of diesel cars marketed in the United States were examined. Prominent design features, performance characteristics, fuel economy and emissions data were compared. Specific problems, in particular those of NO and smoke emissions, the effects of increasing dieselization on diesel fuel price and availability, current R&D work and advanced diesel concepts are discussed. Diesel cars currently have a fuel economy advantage over gasoline engine powered cars. Diesel drawbacks (noise and odor) were reduced to a less objectionable level. An equivalent gasoline engine driveability was obtained with turbocharging. Diesel manufacturers see a growth in the diesel market for the next ten years. Uncertainties regarding future emission regulation may inhibit future diesel production investments. With spark ignition engine technology advancing in the direction of high compression ratios, the fuel economy advantages of the diesel car is expected to diminish. To return its fuel economy lead, the diesel's potential for future improvement must be used.

  16. Diesel Mechanics. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tidwell, Joseph

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of six terminal objectives for an intermediate diesel mechanics course (two semesters, 3 hours daily) designed for high school students who upon completion would be ready for an on-the-job training experience in diesel service and repair. Through…

  17. STUDIES OF PARTICULATE REMOVAL FROM DIESEL EXHAUST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a characterization of the collection of particulate emissions from diesel exhaust by several different methods, using 5.7 liter GM diesel engines (as sources) and such controls as fiber and gravel bed filters, trap/cyclones, and ESPs. Overall and fract...

  18. Biodiesel and Renewable Diesel: A Critical Comparison

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several types of fuels can be obtained from lipid feedstocks. These include biodiesel and what is termed renewable diesel. While biodiesel retains the ester moiety occurring in triacylglycerols in converted form as mono-alkyl esters, the composition of renewable diesel, hydrocarbons, emulates that ...

  19. EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM A DIESEL ENGINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies were performed using (1) Diesel particles collected from the undiluted exhaust of a single-cylinder engine, operated at constant speed and load, using a binary pure hydrocarbon fuel with air or gas mixture oxidizers, and (2) Diesel particles collected from the diluted exh...

  20. HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL FINE PM EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fine PM emissions from diesel powered vehicles continues to be a concern for those responsible for implementating the PM-2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Diesel generated PM is nanometer in size, incorporates a number of toxic air pollutants (including carcinog...

  1. Diesel Mechanics: Meeting Tomorrow's Training Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Erich J.

    1978-01-01

    As the use of diesel engines in motor vehicles and heavy equipment increases, the need for skilled diesel mechanics will increase. The author describes education and training needs in schools and industry, gives guidelines for trade and technical curricula, and outlines the kinds of training materials to be developed. (MF)

  2. Standardized Curriculum for Diesel Engine Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program in Mississippi: diesel engine mechanics I and II. The eight units in diesel engine mechanics I are as follows: orientation; shop safety; basic shop tools; fasteners; measurement; engine operating principles; engine components; and basic auxiliary…

  3. The Diesel as a Vehicle Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, Kurt

    1928-01-01

    The thorough investigation of a Dorner four-cylinder, four-stroke-cycle Diesel engine with mechanical injection led me to investigate more thoroughly the operation of the Diesel as a vehicle engine. Aside from the obvious need of reliability of functioning, a high rotative speed, light weight and economy in heat consumption per horsepower are also indispensable requirements.

  4. Diesel Mechanics. Performance Objectives. Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tidwell, Joseph

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 12 terminal objectives for a basic diesel mechanics course. The course is designed as a two-semester (2 hour daily) course for 10th graders interested in being diesel service and repair mechanics; it would serve as the first year of a 3-year…

  5. Diesel Technology: Engines. [Teacher and Student Editions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbieri, Dave; Miller, Roger; Kellum, Mary

    Competency-based teacher and student materials on diesel engines are provided for a diesel technology curriculum. Seventeen units of instruction cover the following topics: introduction to engine principles and procedures; engine systems and components; fuel systems; engine diagnosis and maintenance. The materials are based on the…

  6. Diesel exhaust filter-incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Martyniuk, E.T.

    1981-08-11

    A diesel engine exhaust particulate filter-incinerator comprising an enclosed filter panel having particulate deposition surfaces bordered by electrodes of a high voltage power supply. Periodic incineration is accomplished by the collection on the surfaces of particulates in amounts sufficient to conduct sufficient electric current along paths through the particulates to heat them to incineration temperature. Ignition and burn off of particulates may be automatically accomplished by maintaining a suitable voltage across the electrodes at the edges of the collection surfaces to initiate arc-like current flow before the collected particulates reach a level that would plug the filter. Specific embodiments of exemplary filter constructions are disclosed.

  7. Long-Life Catalyst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    STC Catalysts, Inc. (SCi) manufactures a noble metal reducible oxide catalyst consisting primarily of platinum and tin dioxide deposited on a ceramic substrate. It is an ambient temperature oxidation catalyst that was developed primarily for Carbon Dioxide Lasers.The catalyst was developed by the NASA Langley Research Center for the Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder Program (LAWS) which was intended to measure wind velocity on a global basis. There are a number of NASA owned patents covering various aspects of the catalyst.

  8. 30 CFR 75.1906 - Transport of diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transport of diesel fuel. 75.1906 Section 75... diesel fuel. (a) Diesel fuel shall be transported only by diesel fuel transportation units or in safety... fuel storage facilities. (c) Safety cans that leak must be promptly removed from the mine. (d)...

  9. 30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section 250... Well-Workover Operations § 250.610 Diesel engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of...

  10. 30 CFR 72.520 - Diesel equipment inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Diesel equipment inventory. 72.520 Section 72... HEALTH HEALTH STANDARDS FOR COAL MINES Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Areas of Underground Coal Mines § 72.520 Diesel equipment inventory. (a) The operator of each mine that utilizes diesel...

  11. 30 CFR 72.520 - Diesel equipment inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel equipment inventory. 72.520 Section 72... Mines § 72.520 Diesel equipment inventory. (a) The operator of each mine that utilizes diesel equipment underground, shall prepare and submit in writing to the District Manager, an inventory of diesel...

  12. 30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section 250... engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines which are...

  13. 30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250... engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines that are continuously attended must be equipped...

  14. 30 CFR 72.520 - Diesel equipment inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Diesel equipment inventory. 72.520 Section 72... HEALTH HEALTH STANDARDS FOR COAL MINES Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Areas of Underground Coal Mines § 72.520 Diesel equipment inventory. (a) The operator of each mine that utilizes diesel...

  15. 30 CFR 72.520 - Diesel equipment inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Diesel equipment inventory. 72.520 Section 72... HEALTH HEALTH STANDARDS FOR COAL MINES Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Areas of Underground Coal Mines § 72.520 Diesel equipment inventory. (a) The operator of each mine that utilizes diesel...

  16. 30 CFR 72.520 - Diesel equipment inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Diesel equipment inventory. 72.520 Section 72... HEALTH HEALTH STANDARDS FOR COAL MINES Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Areas of Underground Coal Mines § 72.520 Diesel equipment inventory. (a) The operator of each mine that utilizes diesel...

  17. Use of Dieselized Farm Equipment and Incident Lung Cancer: Findings from the Agricultural Health Study Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Tual, Séverine; Silverman, Debra T.; Koutros, Stella; Blair, Aaron; Sandler, Dale P.; Lebailly, Pierre; Andreotti, Gabriella; Hoppin, Jane A.; Freeman, Laura E. Beane

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diesel exhaust is a known lung carcinogen. Farmers use a variety of dieselized equipment and thus may be at increased risk of lung cancer, but farm exposures such as endotoxins may also be protective for lung cancer. Objectives: We evaluated the relative risk of incident lung cancer, including histological subtype, from enrollment (1993–1997) to 2010–2011 in relation to farm equipment use in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a prospective cohort study of pesticide applicators and spouses in Iowa and North Carolina, USA. Methods: Farm equipment use was reported by 21,273 farmers and 29,840 spouses. Rate ratios (RRs) were estimated separately for farmers and spouses with Poisson regression models adjusted for smoking and other confounders. We conducted stratified analyses by exposure to animals or stored grain, a surrogate for endotoxin exposure. Results: Daily diesel tractor use (vs. no use) was positively associated with lung cancer in farmers (RR = 1.48; 95% CI: 0.87, 2.50; 35 exposed, 32 unexposed cases), particularly adenocarcinoma (RR = 3.39; 95% CI: 1.23, 9.33; 12 exposed, 7 unexposed cases). The association of adenocarcinoma with daily (vs. low/no) use of diesel tractors was stronger for farmers with no animal or stored grain exposures (RR = 6.23; 95% CI: 2.25, 17.25; 5 exposed, 18 unexposed cases) than among farmers with these exposures (RR = 1.19; 95% CI: 0.51, 2.79; 7 exposed, 27 unexposed cases) (p-interaction = 0.05). Conclusions: This study provides preliminary evidence of an increased risk of lung adenocarcinoma among daily drivers of diesel tractors and suggests that exposure to endotoxins may modify the impact of diesel exposure on lung cancer risk. Confirmation of these findings with more exposed cases and more detailed exposure information is warranted. Citation: Tual S, Silverman DT, Koutros S, Blair A, Sandler DP, Lebailly P, Andreotti G, Hoppin JA, Beane Freeman LE. 2016. Use of dieselized farm equipment and incident lung

  18. 40 CFR 80.522 - May used motor oil be dispensed into diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Conformity under 40 CFR part 86, 40 CFR part 89, or 40 CFR part 1039 and the certification of the vehicle or... diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? 80.522 Section 80.522 Protection of Environment... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel...

  19. 40 CFR 80.590 - What are the product transfer document requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... C3 vessels. Note that 40 CFR part 1043 specifies requirements for documenting fuel transfers to... requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel, heating oil, ECA marine fuel, and other... the product transfer document requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel,...

  20. 40 CFR 80.522 - May used motor oil be dispensed into diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Conformity under 40 CFR part 86, 40 CFR part 89, or 40 CFR part 1039 and the certification of the vehicle or... diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? 80.522 Section 80.522 Protection of Environment... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel...

  1. 40 CFR 80.522 - May used motor oil be dispensed into diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Conformity under 40 CFR part 86, 40 CFR part 89, or 40 CFR part 1039 and the certification of the vehicle or... diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? 80.522 Section 80.522 Protection of Environment... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel...

  2. 40 CFR 80.522 - May used motor oil be dispensed into diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Conformity under 40 CFR part 86, 40 CFR part 89, or 40 CFR part 1039 and the certification of the vehicle or... diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? 80.522 Section 80.522 Protection of Environment... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel...

  3. 40 CFR 80.522 - May used motor oil be dispensed into diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Conformity under 40 CFR part 86, 40 CFR part 89, or 40 CFR part 1039 and the certification of the vehicle or... diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? 80.522 Section 80.522 Protection of Environment... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel...

  4. Short-term performance of diesel oil and sunflower oil mixtures in diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, K.R.; Ziejewski, M.; Marohl, M.; Kucera, H.L.

    1982-05-01

    A series of short tests were run on two different makes of diesel tractor. The fuel used in addition to the No. 2 diesel fuel were refined sunflower oil, crude sunflower oil and five blends of each of these fuels with No. 2 diesel fuel. Engine performance parameters measured include: engine power, volumetric fuel efficiency, thermal efficiency, exhaust temperature, Bosch smoke number and fuel flow. (Refs. 3).

  5. [Emission characteristics of a diesel car fueled with coal based Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) diesel and fossil diesel blends].

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhi-Yuan; Cheng, Liang; Tan, Pi-Qiang; Lou, Di-Ming

    2012-11-01

    According to the first type test cycle of China national standard GB 18352.3-2005, the CO, NO(x), HC, PM and CO2 emission characteristics of a PASSAT diesel car fueled with Shanghai local IV diesel, coal based Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) diesel, and the blends of coal based F-T diesel and Shanghai local IV diesel up to 10% and 50% by volume were analyzed respectively. And the environmental impacts such as decreased air quality, health impact, photochemical ozone, global warming, and acidification that could be caused by CO, NO(x), HC, PM and CO2 emission of the diesel car were also assessed. The results showed that under GB 18352.3-2005 No. 1 test driving cycle, which consisted of four urban driving cycles and one extra urban driving cycle, the CO, HC, PM and CO2 emissions were released mainly in the urban driving cycles whereas the NO(x) emissions occurred mainly in the extra urban driving cycle. Compared with Shanghai local IV diesel, all of the CO, NO(x), HC, PM and CO2 emissions of the diesel car decreased to different extents when fueled with coal based F-T diesel blends. Moreover, the aerosol generation potential, global warming potential and acidification potential of F-T diesel fueled diesel car were also reduced. To sum up, coal based F-T diesel would be one of the alternative fuels to diesel in China. PMID:23323400

  6. Evaluation of carcinogenic hazard of diesel engine exhaust needs to consider revolutionary changes in diesel technology.

    PubMed

    McClellan, Roger O; Hesterberg, Thomas W; Wall, John C

    2012-07-01

    Diesel engines, a special type of internal combustion engine, use heat of compression, rather than electric spark, to ignite hydrocarbon fuels injected into the combustion chamber. Diesel engines have high thermal efficiency and thus, high fuel efficiency. They are widely used in commerce prompting continuous improvement in diesel engines and fuels. Concern for health effects from exposure to diesel exhaust arose in the mid-1900s and stimulated development of emissions regulations and research to improve the technology and characterize potential health hazards. This included epidemiological, controlled human exposure, laboratory animal and mechanistic studies to evaluate potential hazards of whole diesel exhaust. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (1989) classified whole diesel exhaust as - "probably carcinogenic to humans". This classification stimulated even more stringent regulations for particulate matter that required further technological developments. These included improved engine control, improved fuel injection system, enhanced exhaust cooling, use of ultra low sulfur fuel, wall-flow high-efficiency exhaust particulate filters, exhaust catalysts, and crankcase ventilation filtration. The composition of New Technology Diesel Exhaust (NTDE) is qualitatively different and the concentrations of particulate constituents are more than 90% lower than for Traditional Diesel Exhaust (TDE). We recommend that future reviews of carcinogenic hazards of diesel exhaust evaluate NTDE separately from TDE. PMID:22561182

  7. FILTER MEDIA FOR COLLECTING DIESEL PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Certification of particulate emissions from diesel motor vehicles involves filtration of measured aliquots of the total air diluted exhaust. Seven commercially available filter media were examined for this purpose. The media included a variety of PTFE membrane filters, glass fibe...

  8. Desulfurization of oxidized diesel using ionic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilfred, Cecilia D.; Salleh, M. Zulhaziman M.; Mutalib, M. I. Abdul

    2014-10-01

    The extraction of oxidized sulfur compounds from diesel were carried out using ten types of ionic liquids consisting of different cation and anion i.e. 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazoium thiocyanate, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazoium dicyanamide, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazoliumhexafluorophosphate, 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate, trioctylmethylammonium chloride, 1-propionitrile-3-butylimidazolium thiocyanate, 1-propionitrile-3-butylimidazolium dicyanamide and 1-butyl-6-methylquinolinium dicyanamide. The oxidation of diesel was successfully done using phosphotungstic acid as the catalyst, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as the oxidant and trioctylmethylammonium chloride as the phase transfer agent. The oxidation of diesel changes the sulfur compounds into sulfone which increases its polarity and enhances the ionic liquid's extraction performance. Result showed that ionic liquid [C4mquin][N(CN)2] performed the highest sulfur removal (91% at 1:5 diesel:IL ratio) compared to the others.

  9. Cermet Filters for Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Peter Chuen Sun

    2001-08-01

    Pollution from diesel engines is a significant part of our nation's air-quality problem. Even under the more stringent standards for heavy-duty engines set to take effect in 2004, these engines will continue to emit large amounts of nitrogen oxides and particulate matter, both of which affect public health. To address this problem, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) invented a self-cleaning, high temperature, cermet filter that reduces heavy-duty diesel engine emissions. The main advantage of the INEEL cermet filter, compared to current technology, is its ability to destroy carbon particles and NOx in diesel engine exhaust. As a result, this technology is expected to improve our nation's environmental quality by meeting the need for heavy-duty diesel engine emissions control. This paper describes the cermet filter technology and the initial research and development effort.

  10. Diesel engines: environmental impact and control.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, A C; Cackette, T A

    2001-06-01

    The diesel engine is the most efficient prime mover commonly available today. Diesel engines move a large portion of the world's goods, power much of the world's equipment, and generate electricity more economically than any other device in their size range. But the diesel is one of the largest contributors to environmental pollution problems worldwide, and will remain so, with large increases expected in vehicle population and vehicle miles traveled (VMT) causing ever-increasing global emissions. Diesel emissions contribute to the development of cancer; cardiovascular and respiratory health effects; pollution of air, water, and soil; soiling; reductions in visibility; and global climate change. Where instituted, control programs have been effective in reducing diesel fleet emissions. Fuel changes, such as reduced sulfur and aromatics content, have resulted in immediate improvements across the entire diesel on- and off-road fleet, and promise more improvements with future control. In the United States, for example, 49-state (non-California) off-road diesel fuel sulfur content is 10 times higher than that of national on-road diesel fuel. Significantly reducing this sulfur content would reduce secondary particulate matter (PM) formation and allow the use of control technologies that have proven effective in the on-road arena. The use of essentially zero-sulfur fuels, such as natural gas, in heavy-duty applications is also expected to continue. Technology changes, such as engine modifications, exhaust gas recirculation, and catalytic aftertreatment, take longer to fully implement, due to slow fleet turnover. However, they eventually result in significant emission reductions and will be continued on an ever-widening basis in the United States and worldwide. New technologies, such as hybrids and fuel cells, show significant promise in reducing emissions from sources currently dominated by diesel use. Lastly, the turnover of trucks and especially off-road equipment is

  11. Experimental study on particulate and NOx emissions of a diesel engine fueled with ultra low sulfur diesel, RME-diesel blends and PME-diesel blends.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lei; Zhang, Wugao; Liu, Wei; Huang, Zhen

    2010-02-01

    Ultra low sulfur diesel and two different kinds of biodiesel fuels blended with baseline diesel fuel in 5% and 20% v/v were tested in a Cummins 4BTA direct injection diesel engine, with a turbocharger and an intercooler. Experiments were conducted under five engine loads at two steady speeds (1500 rpm and 2500 rpm). The study aims at investigating the engine performance, NO(x) emission, smoke opacity, PM composition, PM size distribution and comparing the impacts of low sulfur content of biodiesel with ULSD on the particulate emission. The results indicate that, compared to base diesel fuel, the increase of biodiesel in blends could cause certain increase in both brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency. Compared with baseline diesel fuel, the biodiesel blends bring about more NO(x) emissions. With the proportion of biodiesel increase in blends, the smoke opacity decreases, while total particle number concentration increases. Meanwhile the ULSD gives lower NO(x) emissions, smoke opacity and total number concentration than those of baseline diesel fuel. In addition, the percentages of SOF and sulfate in particulates increase with biodiesel in blends, while the dry soot friction decreases obviously. Compared with baseline diesel fuel, the biodiesel blends increase the total nucleation number concentration, while ULSD reduces the total nucleation number concentration effectively, although they all have lower sulfur content. It means that, for ULSD, the lower sulfur content is the dominant factor for suppressing nucleation particles formation, while for biodiesel blends, lower volatile, lower aromatic content and higher oxygen content of biodiesel are key factors for improving the nucleation particles formation. The results demonstrate that the higher NO(x) emission and total nucleation number concentration are considered as the big obstacles of the application of biodiesel in diesel engine. PMID:19913283

  12. Diesel particulate filter with zoned resistive heater

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-03-08

    A diesel particulate filter assembly comprises a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a heater assembly. The DPF filters a particulate from exhaust produced by an engine. The heater assembly has a first metallic layer that is applied to the DPF, a resistive layer that is applied to the first metallic layer, and a second metallic layer that is applied to the resistive layer. The second metallic layer is etched to form a plurality of zones.

  13. Analysis of noise emitted from diesel engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayan, S.

    2015-12-01

    In this work combustion noise produced in diesel engines has been investigated. In order to reduce the exhaust emissions various injection parameters need to be studied and optimized. The noise has been investigated by mean of data obtained from cylinder pressure measurements using piezo electric transducers and microphones on a dual cylinder diesel engine test rig. The engine was run under various operating conditions varying various injection parameters to investigate the effects of noise emissions under various testing conditions.

  14. Biodegradability of commercial and weathered diesel oils

    PubMed Central

    Mariano, Adriano Pinto; Bonotto, Daniel Marcos; de Franceschi de Angelis, Dejanira; Pirôllo, Maria Paula Santos; Contiero, Jonas

    2008-01-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the capability of different microorganisms to degrade commercial diesel oil in comparison to a weathered diesel oil collected from the groundwater at a petrol station. Two microbiological methods were used for the biodegradability assessment: the technique based on the redox indicator 2,6 -dichlorophenol indophenol (DCPIP) and soil respirometric experiments using biometer flasks. In the former we tested the bacterial cultures Staphylococcus hominis, Kocuria palustris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa LBI, Ochrobactrum anthropi and Bacillus cereus, a commercial inoculum, consortia obtained from soil and groundwater contaminated with hydrocarbons and a consortium from an uncontaminated area. In the respirometric experiments it was evaluated the capability of the native microorganisms present in the soil from a petrol station to biodegrade the diesel oils. The redox indicator experiments showed that only the consortia, even that from an uncontaminated area, were able to biodegrade the weathered diesel. In 48 days, the removal of the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in the respirometric experiments was approximately 2.5 times greater when the commercial diesel oil was used. This difference was caused by the consumption of labile hydrocarbons, present in greater quantities in the commercial diesel oil, as demonstrated by gas chromatographic analyses. Thus, results indicate that biodegradability studies that do not consider the weathering effect of the pollutants may over estimate biodegradation rates and when the bioaugmentation is necessary, the best strategy would be that one based on injection of consortia, because even cultures with recognised capability of biodegrading hydrocarbons may fail when applied isolated. PMID:24031193

  15. Clean Diesel Engine Component Improvement Program Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Elsner, N. B.; Bass, J. C.; Ghamaty, S.; Krommenhoek, D.; Kushch, A.; Snowden, D.; Marchetti, S.

    2005-03-16

    Hi-Z Technology, Inc. (Hi-Z) is currently developing four different auxiliary generator designs that are used to convert a portion (5 to 20%) of the waste heat from vehicle engines exhaust directly to electricity. The four designs range from 200 Watts to 10 kW. The furthest along is the 1 kW Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator (DTTEG) for heavy duty Class 8 Diesel trucks, which, under this program, has been subjected to 543,000 equivalent miles of bouncing and jarring on PACCAR's test track. Test experience on an earlier version of the DTTEG on the same track showed the need for design modifications incorporated in DTTEG Mod 2, such as a heavy duty shock mounting system and reinforcement of the electrical leads mounting system, the thermocouple mounting system and the thermoelectric module restraints. The conclusion of the 543,000 mile test also pointed the way for an upgrading to heavy duty hose or flex connections for the internal coolant connections for the TEG, and consideration of a separate lower temperature cooling loop with its own radiator. Fuel savings of up to $750 per year and a three to five year payback are believed to be possible with the 5 % efficiency modules. The economics are expected to improve considerably to approach a two year payback when the 5 kW to 10 kW generators make it to the market in a few years with a higher efficiency (20%) thermoelectric module system called Quantum Wells, which are currently under development by Hi-Z. Ultimately, as automation takes over to reduce material and labor costs in the high volume production of QW modules, a one year payback for the 5 kW to10 kW generator appears possible. This was one of the stated goals at the beginning of the project. At some future point in time, with the DTTEG becoming standard equipment on all trucks and automobiles, fuel savings from the 25% conversion of exhaust heat to useable electricity nationwide equates to a 10% reduction in the 12 to 15 million barrels per day of

  16. Recent Developments in BMW's Diesel Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Steinparzer, F

    2003-08-24

    The image of BMW is very strongly associated to high power, sports biased, luxury cars in the premium car segment, however, particularly in the United States and some parts of Asia, the combination of a car in this segment with a diesel engine was up until now almost unthinkable. I feel sure that many people in the USA are not even aware that BMW produces diesel-powered cars. In Europe there is a completely contrary situation which, driven by the relative high fuel price, and the noticeable difference between gasoline and diesel prices, there has been a continuous growth in the diesel market since the early eighties. During this time BMW has accumulated more then 20 years experience in developing and producing powerful diesel engines for sports and luxury cars. BMW started the production of its 1st generation diesel engine in 1983 with a 2,4 l, turbocharged IDI engine in the 5 series model range. With a specific power of 35 kW/l, this was the most powerful diesel engine on the market at this time. In 1991 BMW introduced the 2nd generation diesel engine, beginning with a 2,5 l inline six, followed in 1994 by a 1,7 l inline four. All engines of this 2nd BMW diesel engine family were turbocharged and utilized an indirect injection combustion system. With the availability of high-pressure injection systems such as the common rail system, BMW developed its 3rd diesel engine family which consists of four different engines. The first was the 4-cylinder for the 3 series car in the spring of 1998, followed by the 6-cylinder in the fall of 1998 and then in mid 1999 by the worlds first V8 passenger car diesel with direct injection. Beginning in the fall of 2001 with the 4-cylinder, BMW reworked this DI engine family fundamentally. Key elements are an improved core engine design, the use of the common rail system of the 2nd generation and a new engine control unit with even better performance. Step by step, these technological improvements were introduce d to production for

  17. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT VII, ENGINE TUNE-UP--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF TUNE-UP PROCEDURES FOR DIESEL ENGINES. TOPICS ARE SCHEDULING TUNE-UPS, AND TUNE-UP PROCEDURES. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM "ENGINE TUNE-UP--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINE" AND OTHER MATERIALS. SEE VT 005 655 FOR FURTHER INFORMATION.…

  18. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XX, CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINE, MAINTENANCE SUMMARY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO PROVIDE A SUMMARY OF THE REASONS AND PROCEDURES FOR DIESEL ENGINE MAINTENANCE. TOPICS ARE WHAT ENGINE BREAK-IN MEANS, ENGINE BREAK-IN, TORQUING BEARINGS (TEMPLATE METHOD), AND THE NEED FOR MAINTENANCE. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM "CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINE…

  19. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT I, GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO DIESEL ENGINES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    ONE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE DESIGNED TO UPGRADE THE JOB SKILLS AND TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE OF DIESEL MAINTENANCE MECHANICS, THIS MATERIAL WAS DEVELOPED BY INDUSTRIAL TRAINING AND SUBJECT-MATTER SPECIALISTS AND TESTED IN INDUSTRIAL TRAINING SITUATIONS. THE PURPOSE OF THIS FIRST UNIT IS TO PROVIDE AN INTRODUCTION TO DIESEL ENGINES BY DEVELOPING AN…

  20. [Particle emission characteristics of diesel bus fueled with bio-diesel].

    PubMed

    Lou, Di-Ming; Chen, Feng; Hu, Zhi-Yuan; Tan, Pi-Qiang; Hu, Wei

    2013-10-01

    With the use of the Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer (EEPS), a study on the characteristics of particle emissions was carried out on a China-IV diesel bus fueled with blends of 5% , 10% , 20% , 50% bio-diesel transformed from restaurant waste oil and China-IV diesel (marked separately by BD5, BD10, BD20, BD50), pure bio-diesel (BD100) and pure diesel (BD0). The results indicated that particulate number (PN) and mass (PM) emissions of bio-diesel blends increased with the increase in bus speed and acceleration; with increasing bio-diesel content, particulate emissions displayed a relevant declining trend. In different speed ranges, the size distribution of particulate number emissions (PNSD) was bimodal; in different acceleration ranges, PNSD showed a gradual transition from bimodal shape to unimodal when bus operation was switched from decelerating to accelerating status. Bio-diesel blends with higher mixture ratios showed significant reduction in PN emissions for accumulated modes, and the particulate number emission peaks moved towards smaller sizes; but little change was obtained in PN emissions for nuclei modes; reduction also occurred in particle geometric diameter (Dg). PMID:24364288

  1. THE DIESEL ENGINE'S CHALLENGE IN THE NEW MILLENIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Fairbanks, John W.

    2000-08-20

    Diesel engines are the dominant propulsion engine of choice for most of the commercial surface transportation applications in the world. Consider agricultural uses: Diesel engine power is used to prepare the soil, transport the bulk seed or seedlings, pump irrigation water, and spray fertilizers, mechanically harvest some crops and distribute the produce to market. Diesel engines power virtually all of the off-highway construction equipment. Deep water commercial freighters or containerships are almost all diesel engine powered. The passenger ships are primarily either diesel or a combination of diesel and gas turbine, referred to as CODAG or CODOG.

  2. Diesel exhaust exposures in port workers.

    PubMed

    Debia, Maximilien; Neesham-Grenon, Eve; Mudaheranwa, Oliver C; Ragettli, Martina S

    2016-07-01

    Exposure to diesel engine exhaust has been linked to increased cancer risk and cardiopulmonary diseases. Diesel exhaust is a complex mixture of chemical substances, including a particulate fraction mainly composed of ultrafine particles, resulting from the incomplete combustion of fuel. Diesel trucks are known to be an important source of diesel-related air pollution, and areas with heavy truck traffic are associated with higher air pollution levels and increased public health problems. Several indicators have been proposed as surrogates for estimating exposures to diesel exhaust but very few studies have focused specifically on monitoring the ultrafine fraction through the measurement of particle number concentrations. The aim of this study is to assess occupational exposures of gate controllers at the port of Montreal, Canada, to diesel engine emissions from container trucks by measuring several surrogates through a multimetric approach which includes the assessment of both mass and number concentrations and the use of direct reading devices. A 10-day measurement campaign was carried out at two terminal checkpoints at the port of Montreal. Respirable elemental and organic carbon, PM1, PM2.5, PMresp (PM4), PM10, PMtot (inhalable fraction), particle number concentrations, particle size distributions, and gas concentrations (NO2, NO, CO) were monitored. Gate controllers were exposed to concentrations of contaminants associated with diesel engine exhaust (elemental carbon GM = 1.6 µg/m(3); GSD = 1.6) well below recommended occupational exposure limits. Average daily particle number concentrations ranged from 16,544-67,314 particles/cm³ (GM = 32,710 particles/cm³; GSD = 1.6). Significant Pearson correlation coefficients were found between daily elemental carbon, PM fractions and particle number concentrations, as well as between total carbon, PM fractions and particle number concentrations. Significant correlation coefficients were found between particle number

  3. Emissions Removal Efficiency from Diesel Gensets Using Aftermarket PM Controls

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diesel particulate matter (PM) has been associated with adverse health effects in humans and is classified as a human carcinogen. Additionally, diesel PM, particularly the strongly light absorbing fraction, black carbon (BC), is an important climate forcer. The adverse impacts ...

  4. DIESEL PARTICLE GENERATION, CHARACTERIZATION, AND DIRECT ANIMAL EXPOSURE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inhalation of diesel exhaust is associated with the development of asthma as well as other adverse health effects. Studies have also demonstrated that diesel exhaust induces pulmonary changes that worsen asthmatic responses to respiratory allergens. This paper describes the des...

  5. Effect of fuel aromaticity on diesel emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Barbella, R.; Ciajolo, A.; D'Anna, A. ); Bertoli, C. )

    1989-09-01

    The effect of the fuel aromatic content on soot and heavy hydrocarbon emissions from a single-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine has been investigated burning a pure paraffinic fuel (n-tetradecane), a tetradecane-toluene mixture (70-30 vol%) and two diesel oils with different aromatic content. All experiments were at various air-fuel ratios with constant engine speed and injection timing advance. The detailed chemical analysis of exhaust heavy hydrocarbons in terms of mass percentage of paraffins, monoaromatics, polyaromatics and polar compounds, and the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of each hydrocarbon class have been compared with the original fuel analyses in order to discriminate the unburned fuel compounds from the combustion-formed products. The soot emission rate has been found to be independent of the fuel aromatic content, but the fuel affects the quality and quantity of heavy hydrocarbon emission. Low amounts of heavy hydrocarbons, mainly partially oxidized compounds, are emitted from tetradecane combustion, whereas diesel fuel oils produced high emissions of heavy hydrocarbons, mainly unburned fuel compounds. The emission of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from tetradecane and tetradecane-toluene diesel combustion indicates that these compounds are combustion-formed products, but unburned fuel PAH are the main components of PAH emitted by the diesel fuel oils.

  6. Thermal barrier coatings application in diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairbanks, J. W.

    1995-01-01

    Commercial use of thermal barrier coatings in diesel engines began in the mid 70's by Dr,. Ingard Kvernes at the Central Institute for Industrial Research in Oslo, Norway. Dr. Kvernes attributed attack on diesel engine valves and piston crowns encountered in marine diesel engines in Norwegian ships as hot-corrosion attributed to a reduced quality of residual fuel. His solution was to coat these components to reduce metal temperature below the threshold of aggressive hot-corrosion and also to provide protection. The Department of Energy has supported thermal barrier coating development for diesel engine applications. In the Clean Diesel - 50 Percent Efficient (CD-50) engine for the year 2000, thermal barrier coatings will be used on piston crowns and possibly other components. The primary purpose of the thermal barrier coatings will be to reduce thermal fatigue as the engine peak cylinder pressure will nearly be doubled. As the coatings result in higher available energy in the exhaust gas, efficiency gains are achieved through use of this energy by turbochargers, turbocompounding or thermoelectric generators.

  7. Minimizing diesel engine emissions by catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Doane, E.P.; Lee, F.H.; Haskew, J.W.; Campbell, J.A.L.

    1995-12-31

    Emissions of particulates, unburned hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and carbon monoxide (CO) from diesel engines are of concern in mines, particularly underground mines. All these undesirable products except NO{sub x} are the result of incomplete combustion in the cylinders. Various approaches to achieving more complete combustion in diesel engines have included different fuel compositions, use of catalysts, fuel additives, engine modifications, and oxygen-enriched intake air. The present study shows that injecting minute quantities of primarily platinum group metal catalysts into the intake air of a Deutz/MWM D916-6 mine diesel engine substantially reduces emissions in the exhaust. The catalyst injection system, which was developed by National Fuelsaver Corporation, transfers catalyst compounds in solution to a stream of air bubbles by a process called Bubble Fractionation. The amounts are so minute that concentrations in the engine exhaust should be well below OSHA/NIOSH Time Weighted Average (TWA) exposure limits at steady state, a fact that was confirmed by analysis of collected particulates in the exhaust. When the catalyst injection was used along with a pleated paper filter to remove exhaust particulates, the filter operating life was shortened greatly. Therefore, this system is not recommended for use on diesel engines equipped with a water scrubber and a filter. It does offer a practical and relatively economical way of reducing exhaust emissions from other diesel engines, such as those in outby mine service.

  8. Peanut, soybean and cottonseed oil as diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Mazed, M.A.; Summers, J.D.; Batchelder, D.G.

    1985-09-01

    Two single cylinder diesel engines burning three vegetable oils, and their blends with diesel fuel, were evaluated and compared to engines burning a reference diesel fuel (Phillips No. 2). Tests were conducted determining power output, fuel consumption, thermal efficiency and exhaust smoke. Using the three vegetable oils and their blends with No. 2 diesel fuel, maximum changes of 5%, 14%, 10%, and 40% were observed in power, fuel consumption by mass, thermal efficiency, and exhaust smoke, respectively. 41 references.

  9. Lithium Sulfide (Li2S)/Graphene Oxide Nanospheres with Conformal Carbon Coating as a High-Rate, Long-Life Cathode for Li/S Cells.

    PubMed

    Hwa, Yoon; Zhao, Juan; Cairns, Elton J

    2015-05-13

    In recent years, lithium/sulfur (Li/S) cells have attracted great attention as a candidate for the next generation of rechargeable batteries due to their high theoretical specific energy of 2600 W·h kg(-1), which is much higher than that of Li ion cells (400-600 W·h kg(-1)). However, problems of the S cathode such as highly soluble intermediate species (polysulfides Li2Sn, n = 4-8) and the insulating nature of S cause poor cycle life and low utilization of S, which prevents the practical use of Li/S cells. Here, a high-rate and long-life Li/S cell is proposed, which has a cathode material with a core-shell nanostructure comprising Li2S nanospheres with an embedded graphene oxide (GO) sheet as a core material and a conformal carbon layer as a shell. The conformal carbon coating is easily obtained by a unique CVD coating process using a lab-designed rotating furnace without any repetitive steps. The Li2S/GO@C cathode exhibits a high initial discharge capacity of 650 mA·h g(-1) of Li2S (corresponding to the 942 mA·h g(-1) of S) and very low capacity decay rate of only 0.046% per cycle with a high Coulombic efficiency of up to 99.7% for 1500 cycles when cycled at the 2 C discharge rate. PMID:25915431

  10. Hierarchical Carbon with High Nitrogen Doping Level: A Versatile Anode and Cathode Host Material for Long-Life Lithium-Ion and Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    PubMed

    Reitz, Christian; Breitung, Ben; Schneider, Artur; Wang, Di; von der Lehr, Martin; Leichtweiss, Thomas; Janek, Jürgen; Hahn, Horst; Brezesinski, Torsten

    2016-04-27

    Nitrogen-rich carbon with both a turbostratic microstructure and meso/macroporosity was prepared by hard templating through pyrolysis of a tricyanomethanide-based ionic liquid in the voids of a silica monolith template. This multifunctional carbon not only is a promising anode candidate for long-life lithium-ion batteries but also shows favorable properties as anode and cathode host material owing to a high nitrogen content (>8% after carbonization at 900 °C). To demonstrate the latter, the hierarchical carbon was melt-infiltrated with sulfur as well as coated by atomic layer deposition (ALD) of anatase TiO2, both of which led to high-quality nanocomposites. TiO2 ALD increased the specific capacity of the carbon while maintaining high Coulombic efficiency and cycle life: the composite exhibited stable performance in lithium half-cells, with excellent recovery of low rate capacities after thousands of cycles at 5C. Lithium-sulfur batteries using the sulfur/carbon composite also showed good cyclability, with reversible capacities of ∼700 mA·h·g(-1) at C/5 and without obvious decay over several hundred cycles. The present results demonstrate that nitrogen-rich carbon with an interconnected multimodal pore structure is very versatile and can be used as both active and inactive electrode material in high-performance lithium-based batteries. PMID:26867115

  11. Life test results of OLED-XL long-life devices for use in active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) displays for head mounted applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellowes, David A.; Wood, Michael V.; Hastings, Arthur R., Jr.; Ghosh, Amalkumar P.; Prache, Olivier

    2007-04-01

    eMagin Corporation has recently developed long-life OLED-XL devices for use in their AMOLED microdisplays for head-worn applications. AMOLED displays have been known to exhibit high levels of performance with regards to contrast, response time, uniformity, and viewing angle, but a lifetime improvement has been perceived to be essential for broadening the applications of OLED's in the military and in the commercial market. The new OLED-XL devices gave the promise of improvements in usable lifetime over 6X what the standard full color, white, and green devices could provide. The US Army's RDECOM CERDEC NVESD performed life tests on several standard and OLED-XL panels from eMagin under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA). Displays were tested at room temperature, utilizing eMagin's Design Reference Kit driver, allowing computer controlled optimization, brightness adjustment, and manual temperature compensation. The OLED Usable Lifetime Model, developed under a previous NVESD/eMagin SPIE paper presented at DSS 2005, has been adjusted based on the findings of these tests. The result is a better understanding of the applicability of AMOLEDs in military and commercial head mounted systems: where good fits are made, and where further development might be needed.

  12. Particulate morphology of waste cooking oil biodiesel and diesel in a heavy duty diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Joonsik; Jung, Yongjin; Bae, Choongsik

    2014-08-01

    The effect of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil (WCO) on the particulate matters (PM) of a direct injection (DI) diesel engine was experimentally investigated and compared with commercial diesel fuel. Soot agglomerates were collected with a thermophoretic sampling device installed in the exhaust pipe of the engine. The morphology of soot particles was analyzed using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The elemental and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were also conducted to study chemical composition of soot particles. Based on the TEM images, it was revealed that the soot derived from WCO biodiesel has a highly graphitic shell-core arrangement compared to diesel soot. The mean size was measured from averaging 400 primary particles for WCO biodiesel and diesel respectively. The values for WCO biodiesel indicated 19.9 nm which was smaller than diesel's 23.7 nm. From the TGA results, WCO biodiesel showed faster oxidation process. While the oxidation of soot particles from diesel continued until 660°C, WCO biodiesel soot oxidation terminated at 560°C. Elemental analysis results showed that the diesel soot was mainly composed of carbon and hydrogen. On the other hand, WCO biodiesel soot contained high amount of oxygen species.

  13. Diesel biodegradation capacities of indigenous bacterial species isolated from diesel contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Palanisamy, Nandhini; Ramya, Jayaprakash; Kumar, Srilakshman; Vasanthi, Ns; Chandran, Preethy; Khan, Sudheer

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum based products are the major source of energy for industries and daily life. Leaks and accidental spills occur regularly during the exploration, production, refining, transport, and storage of petroleum and petroleum products. In the present study we isolated the bacteria from diesel contaminated soil and screened them for diesel biodegradation capacity. One monoculture isolate identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis to be Acinetobacter baumannii was further studied for diesel oil biodegradation. The effects of various culture parameters (pH, temperature, NaCl concentrations, initial hydrocarbon concentration, initial inoculum size, role of chemical surfactant, and role of carbon and nitrogen sources) on biodegradation of diesel oil were evaluated. Optimal diesel oil biodegradation by A. baumanii occurred at initial pH 7, 35°C and initial hydrocarbon concentration at 4%. The biodegradation products under optimal cultural conditions were analyzed by GC-MS. The present study suggests that A. baumannii can be used for effective degradation of diesel oil from industrial effluents contaminated with diesel oil. PMID:25530870

  14. Review of light-duty diesel and heavy-duty diesel gasoline inspection programs.

    PubMed

    St Denis, Michael; Lindner, Jim

    2005-12-01

    Emissions from diesel vehicles and gas-powered heavy-duty vehicles are becoming a new focus of many inspection and maintenance (I/M) programs. Diesel particulate matter (PM) is increasingly becoming more recognized as an important health concern, while at the same time, the public awareness of diesel PM emissions because of their visibility have combined to increase the focus on diesel emissions in the United States. This has resulted in an increased interest by some states in including heavy-duty vehicle testing in their I/M program. This paper provides an overview of existing I/M programs focused on testing light-duty diesel vehicles, heavy-duty diesel vehicles, and heavy-duty gasoline vehicles (HDGVs). Information on 39 I/M programs in 27 different states in the United States plus 9 international inspection programs is included. Information on the status of diesel emissions technology and current test procedures is also presented. The goal is to provide useful information for air quality managers as they work to decide whether such I/M programs would be worth pursuing in their respective areas and in evaluating the emissions measurement technology to be used in the program. Testing of HDGVs is generally limited to idle testing, because dynamometer testing of these vehicles is not practical, and most were not certified on a chassis basis. Testing of diesel vehicles has mostly been limited to SAE J1667 "snap-idle" opacity testing. Cost-effective technology for measuring diesel emissions currently does not exist, and, therefore, opacity-type measurements, although not effective at reducing the pollutants of most significant health concern, will continue to be used. PMID:16408692

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: ENVIROFUELS DIESEL FUEL CATALYZER FUEL ADDITIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Program has tested EnviroFuels diesel fuel additive, called the Diesel Fuel Catalyzer. EnviroFuels has stated that heavy-duty on and off road diesel engines are the intended market for the catalyzer. Preliminary tests conducted indicate...

  16. 30 CFR 75.1905 - Dispensing of diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... must not be dispensed to the fuel tank of diesel-powered equipment while the equipment engine is... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dispensing of diesel fuel. 75.1905 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1905 Dispensing...

  17. 40 CFR 86.336-79 - Diesel engine test cycle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Diesel engine test cycle. 86.336-79... New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.336-79 Diesel engine test cycle. (a) The following 13-mode cycle shall be followed in dynamometer...

  18. 30 CFR 57.4561 - Stationary diesel equipment underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Stationary diesel equipment underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4561 Stationary diesel equipment underground. Stationary diesel equipment underground shall be— (a) Supported on a noncombustible base; and...

  19. Emissions from Trucks using Fischer-Tropsch Diesel Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Norton; Keith Vertin; Brent Bailey; Nigel N. Clark; Donald W. Lyons; Stephen Goguen; James Eberhardt

    1998-10-19

    The Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalytic conversion process can be used to synthesize diesel fuels from a variety of feedstocks, including coal, natural gas and biomass. Synthetic diesel fuels can have very low sulfur and aromatic content, and excellent autoignition characteristics. Moreover, Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuels may also be economically competitive with California B- diesel fuel if produced in large volumes. overview of Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel production and engine emissions testing is presented. Previous engine laboratory tests indicate that F-T diesel is a promising alternative fuel because it can be used in unmodified diesel engines, and substantial exhaust emissions reductions can be realized. The authors have performed preliminary tests to assess the real-world performance of F-T diesel fuels in heavy-duty trucks. Seven White-GMC Class 8 trucks equipped with Caterpillar 10.3 liter engines were tested using F-T diesel fuel. Vehicle emissions tests were performed using West Virginia University's unique transportable chassis dynamometer. The trucks were found to perform adequately on neat F-T diesel fuel. Compared to a California diesel fuel baseline, neat F-T diesel fuel emitted about 12% lower oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and 24% lower particulate matter over a five-mile driving cycle.

  20. No Breathing in the Aisles: Diesel Exhaust inside School Buses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Gina M.; Campbell, Todd R.; Feuer, Gail Ruderman; Masters, Julie; Samkian, Artineh; Paul, Kavita Ann

    There is evidence that diesel exhaust causes cancer and premature death, and also exacerbates asthma and other respiratory illness. Noting that the vast majority of the nation's school buses run on diesel fuel, this report details a study examining the level of diesel exhaust to which children are typically exposed as they travel to and from…

  1. 7 CFR 3201.13 - Diesel fuel additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Diesel fuel additives. 3201.13 Section 3201.13... Designated Items § 3201.13 Diesel fuel additives. (a) Definition. (1) Any substance, other than one composed solely of carbon and/or hydrogen, that is intentionally added to diesel fuel (including any added to...

  2. 46 CFR 169.615 - Diesel fuel systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Diesel fuel systems. 169.615 Section 169.615 Shipping... Machinery and Electrical Fuel Systems § 169.615 Diesel fuel systems. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) each diesel fuel system must meet the requirements of § 56.50-75 of this chapter. (b) Each vessel of...

  3. 46 CFR 169.615 - Diesel fuel systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Diesel fuel systems. 169.615 Section 169.615 Shipping... Machinery and Electrical Fuel Systems § 169.615 Diesel fuel systems. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) each diesel fuel system must meet the requirements of § 56.50-75 of this chapter. (b) Each vessel of...

  4. 40 CFR 69.51 - Motor vehicle diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... motor vehicle diesel fuel standards and dye provisions under 40 CFR 80.520 and associated requirements... diesel fuel standards and dye provisions under 40 CFR 80.520 and associated requirements, provided that... under 40 CFR 69.52(c), (d), and (e) for commingled motor vehicle and non-motor vehicle diesel fuel:...

  5. 46 CFR 169.615 - Diesel fuel systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Diesel fuel systems. 169.615 Section 169.615 Shipping... Machinery and Electrical Fuel Systems § 169.615 Diesel fuel systems. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) each diesel fuel system must meet the requirements of § 56.50-75 of this chapter. (b) Each vessel of...

  6. 40 CFR 69.51 - Motor vehicle diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... motor vehicle diesel fuel standards and dye provisions under 40 CFR 80.520 and associated requirements... diesel fuel standards and dye provisions under 40 CFR 80.520 and associated requirements, provided that... under 40 CFR 69.52(c), (d), and (e) for commingled motor vehicle and non-motor vehicle diesel fuel:...

  7. 40 CFR 79.33 - Motor vehicle diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Motor vehicle diesel fuel. 79.33... (CONTINUED) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Designation of Fuels and Additives § 79.33 Motor vehicle diesel fuel. (a) The following fuels commonly or commercially known or sold as motor vehicle diesel...

  8. 46 CFR 169.615 - Diesel fuel systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Diesel fuel systems. 169.615 Section 169.615 Shipping... Machinery and Electrical Fuel Systems § 169.615 Diesel fuel systems. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) each diesel fuel system must meet the requirements of § 56.50-75 of this chapter. (b) Each vessel of...

  9. 7 CFR 3201.13 - Diesel fuel additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Diesel fuel additives. 3201.13 Section 3201.13... Designated Items § 3201.13 Diesel fuel additives. (a) Definition. (1) Any substance, other than one composed solely of carbon and/or hydrogen, that is intentionally added to diesel fuel (including any added to...

  10. 40 CFR 79.33 - Motor vehicle diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Motor vehicle diesel fuel. 79.33... (CONTINUED) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Designation of Fuels and Additives § 79.33 Motor vehicle diesel fuel. (a) The following fuels commonly or commercially known or sold as motor vehicle diesel...

  11. 40 CFR 79.33 - Motor vehicle diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Motor vehicle diesel fuel. 79.33... (CONTINUED) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Designation of Fuels and Additives § 79.33 Motor vehicle diesel fuel. (a) The following fuels commonly or commercially known or sold as motor vehicle diesel...

  12. 40 CFR 79.33 - Motor vehicle diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle diesel fuel. 79.33... (CONTINUED) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Designation of Fuels and Additives § 79.33 Motor vehicle diesel fuel. (a) The following fuels commonly or commercially known or sold as motor vehicle diesel...

  13. 40 CFR 79.33 - Motor vehicle diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Motor vehicle diesel fuel. 79.33... (CONTINUED) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Designation of Fuels and Additives § 79.33 Motor vehicle diesel fuel. (a) The following fuels commonly or commercially known or sold as motor vehicle diesel...

  14. 46 CFR 58.10-10 - Diesel engine installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-10 Diesel engine installations. (a) The requirements of § 58.10-5 (a), (c), and (d) shall apply to diesel engine installations... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Diesel engine installations. 58.10-10 Section...

  15. 46 CFR 58.10-10 - Diesel engine installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-10 Diesel engine installations. (a) The requirements of § 58.10-5 (a), (c), and (d) shall apply to diesel engine installations... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Diesel engine installations. 58.10-10 Section...

  16. 46 CFR 58.10-10 - Diesel engine installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-10 Diesel engine installations. (a) The requirements of § 58.10-5 (a), (c), and (d) shall apply to diesel engine installations... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Diesel engine installations. 58.10-10 Section...

  17. 46 CFR 58.10-10 - Diesel engine installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-10 Diesel engine installations. (a) The requirements of § 58.10-5 (a), (c), and (d) shall apply to diesel engine installations... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Diesel engine installations. 58.10-10 Section...

  18. 46 CFR 58.10-10 - Diesel engine installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-10 Diesel engine installations. (a) The requirements of § 58.10-5 (a), (c), and (d) shall apply to diesel engine installations... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Diesel engine installations. 58.10-10 Section...

  19. 30 CFR 75.1905 - Dispensing of diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... must not be dispensed to the fuel tank of diesel-powered equipment while the equipment engine is... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dispensing of diesel fuel. 75.1905 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1905 Dispensing...

  20. 40 CFR 69.51 - Motor vehicle diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... motor vehicle diesel fuel standards and dye provisions under 40 CFR 80.520 and associated requirements... diesel fuel standards and dye provisions under 40 CFR 80.520 and associated requirements, provided that... under 40 CFR 69.52(c), (d), and (e) for commingled motor vehicle and non-motor vehicle diesel fuel:...

  1. 30 CFR 57.4561 - Stationary diesel equipment underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stationary diesel equipment underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4561 Stationary diesel equipment underground. Stationary diesel equipment underground shall be— (a) Supported on a noncombustible base; and...

  2. 40 CFR 86.336-79 - Diesel engine test cycle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel engine test cycle. 86.336-79... New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.336-79 Diesel engine test cycle. (a) The following 13-mode cycle shall be followed in dynamometer...

  3. 40 CFR 69.51 - Motor vehicle diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... motor vehicle diesel fuel standards and dye provisions under 40 CFR 80.520 and associated requirements... diesel fuel standards and dye provisions under 40 CFR 80.520 and associated requirements, provided that... under 40 CFR 69.52(c), (d), and (e) for commingled motor vehicle and non-motor vehicle diesel fuel:...

  4. 40 CFR 86.336-79 - Diesel engine test cycle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Diesel engine test cycle. 86.336-79... New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.336-79 Diesel engine test cycle. (a) The following 13-mode cycle shall be followed in dynamometer...

  5. 30 CFR 75.1905 - Dispensing of diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... must not be dispensed to the fuel tank of diesel-powered equipment while the equipment engine is... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dispensing of diesel fuel. 75.1905 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1905 Dispensing...

  6. 40 CFR 69.51 - Motor vehicle diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... motor vehicle diesel fuel standards and dye provisions under 40 CFR 80.520 and associated requirements... diesel fuel standards and dye provisions under 40 CFR 80.520 and associated requirements, provided that... under 40 CFR 69.52(c), (d), and (e) for commingled motor vehicle and non-motor vehicle diesel fuel:...

  7. 30 CFR 57.4561 - Stationary diesel equipment underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Stationary diesel equipment underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4561 Stationary diesel equipment underground. Stationary diesel equipment underground shall be— (a) Supported on a noncombustible base; and...

  8. 30 CFR 75.1905 - Dispensing of diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... must not be dispensed to the fuel tank of diesel-powered equipment while the equipment engine is... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dispensing of diesel fuel. 75.1905 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1905 Dispensing...

  9. 30 CFR 57.4561 - Stationary diesel equipment underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Stationary diesel equipment underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4561 Stationary diesel equipment underground. Stationary diesel equipment underground shall be— (a) Supported on a noncombustible base; and...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1905 - Dispensing of diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... must not be dispensed to the fuel tank of diesel-powered equipment while the equipment engine is... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dispensing of diesel fuel. 75.1905 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1905 Dispensing...

  11. 40 CFR 86.336-79 - Diesel engine test cycle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Diesel engine test cycle. 86.336-79... New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.336-79 Diesel engine test cycle. (a) The following 13-mode cycle shall be followed in dynamometer...

  12. 30 CFR 57.4561 - Stationary diesel equipment underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Stationary diesel equipment underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4561 Stationary diesel equipment underground. Stationary diesel equipment underground shall be— (a) Supported on a noncombustible base; and...

  13. Progress towards diesel combustion modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Rutland, C.J.; Ayoub, N.; Han, Z.

    1995-12-31

    Progress on the development and validation of a CFD model for diesel engine combustion and flow is described. A modified version of the KIVA code is used for the computations, with improved submodels for liquid breakup, drop distortion and drag, spray/wall impingement with rebounding, sliding and breaking-up drops, wall heat transfer with unsteadiness and compressibility, multistep kinetics ignition and laminar-turbulent characteristic time combustion models, Zeldovich NOx formation, and soot formation with Nagle Strickland-Constable oxidation. The code also considers piston-cylinder-liner crevice flows and allows computations of the intake flow process in the realistic engine geometry with two moving intake valves. Significant progress has been made using a modified RNG {kappa}-{var_epsilon} turbulence model, and a multicomponent fuel vaporization model and a flamelet combustion model have been implemented. Model validation experiments have been performed using a single-cylinder heavy duty truck engine that features state-of-the-art high pressure electronic fuel injection and emissions instrumentation. In addition to cylinder pressure, heat release, and emissions measurements, new combustion visualization experiments have also been performed using an endoscope system that takes the place of one of the exhaust valves. Modifications to the engine geometry for optical access were minimal, thus ensuring that the results represent the actual engine. The intake flow CFD modeling results show that the details of the intake flow process influence the engine performance. Comparisons with the measured engine cylinder pressure, heat release, soot and NOx emission data, and the combustion visualization flame images show that the CFD model results are generally in good agreement with the experiments. In particular, the model is able to correctly predict the soot-NOx trade-off trend as a function of injection timing. 44 refs., 21 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Diesel injector carbonization by three alternative fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrum, J.W.; Patel, V.C.; McClendon, R.W.

    1996-05-01

    Three alternative diesel fuels were screened by analysis of fuel injector tip deposits. The test engines were operated on the Peterson (torque) test cycle; the average carbon deposit volume on an injector tip was measured by a computer vision method. Relative coke deposit quantity was obtained by area analysis of injector tip images. Repetitive image areas varied less than 1%. Coke deposit areas for repetitive fuel tests also varied less than 1%. Injector coking tendencies of tested fuels decreased in the following order: peanut oil, no. 2 diesel, tricaprylin, and tributyrin/no. 2 diesel blend. The observed dependence of the relative coke quantity on fuel type was consistent with the results from a photographic technique used previously for fuel screening. 10 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Screw expander for light duty diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Preliminary selection and sizing of a positive displacement screw compressor-expander subsystem for a light-duty adiabatic diesel engine; development of a mathematical model to describe overall efficiencies for the screw compressor and expander; simulation of operation to establish overall efficiency for a range of design parameters and at given engine operating points; simulation to establish potential net power output at light-duty diesel operating points; analytical determination of mass moments of inertia for the rotors and inertia of the compressor-expander subsystem; and preparation of engineering layout drawings of the compressor and expander are discussed. As a result of this work, it was concluded that the screw compressor and expander designed for light-duty diesel engine applications are viable alternatives to turbo-compound systems, with acceptable efficiencies for both units, and only a moderate effect on the transient response.

  16. New perspectives for advanced automobile diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tozzi, L.; Sekar, R.; Kamo, R.; Wood, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    Computer simulation results are presented for advanced automobile diesel engine performance. Four critical factors for performance enhancement were identified: (1) part load preheating and exhaust gas energy recovery, (2) fast heat release combustion process, (3) reduction in friction, and (4) air handling system efficiency. Four different technology levels were considered in the analysis. Simulation results are compared in terms of brake specific fuel consumption and vehicle fuel economy in km/liter (miles per gallon). Major critical performance sensitivity areas are: (1) combustion process, (2) expander and compressor efficiency, and (3) part load preheating and compound system. When compared to the state of the art direct injection, cooled, automobile diesel engine, the advanced adiabatic compound engine concept showed the unique potential of doubling the fuel economy. Other important performance criteria such as acceleration, emissions, reliability, durability and multifuel capability are comparable to or better than current passenger car diesel engines.

  17. Utilization of alternative fuels in diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lestz, S. A.

    1984-01-01

    Performance and emission data are collected for various candidate alternate fuels and compare these data to that for a certified petroleum based number two Diesel fuel oil. Results for methanol, ethanol, four vegetable oils, two shale derived oils, and two coal derived oils are reported. Alcohol fumigation does not appear to be a practical method for utilizing low combustion quality fuels in a Diesel engine. Alcohol fumigation enhances the bioactivity of the emitted exhaust particles. While it is possible to inject many synthetic fuels using the engine stock injection system, wholly acceptable performance is only obtained from a fuel whose specifications closely approach those of a finished petroleum based Diesel oil. This is illustrated by the contrast between the poor performance of the unupgraded coal derived fuel blends and the very good performance of the fully refined shale derived fuel.

  18. Lightweight, low compression aircraft diesel engine. [converting a spark ignition engine to the diesel cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaynor, T. L.; Bottrell, M. S.; Eagle, C. D.; Bachle, C. F.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of converting a spark ignition aircraft engine to the diesel cycle was investigated. Procedures necessary for converting a single cylinder GTS10-520 are described as well as a single cylinder diesel engine test program. The modification of the engine for the hot port cooling concept is discussed. A digital computer graphics simulation of a twin engine aircraft incorporating the diesel engine and Hot Fort concept is presented showing some potential gains in aircraft performance. Sample results of the computer program used in the simulation are included.

  19. Neutron Imaging of Diesel Particulate Filters

    SciTech Connect

    Strzelec, Andrea; Bilheux, Hassina Z; FINNEY, Charles E A; Daw, C Stuart; Foster, Prof. Dave; Rutland, Prof. Christopher J.; Schillinger, Burkhard; Schulz, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This article presents nondestructive neutron computed tomography (nCT) measurements of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) as a method to measure ash and soot loading in the filters. Uncatalyzed and unwashcoated 200cpsi cordierite DPFs exposed to 100% biodiesel (B100) exhaust and conventional ultra low sulfur 2007 certification diesel (ULSD) exhaust at one speed-load point (1500rpm, 2.6bar BMEP) are compared to a brand new (never exposed) filter. Precise structural information about the substrate as well as an attempt to quantify soot and ash loading in the channel of the DPF illustrates the potential strength of the neutron imaging technique.

  20. Thermal barrier coatings application in diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairbanks, J. W.

    1995-01-01

    Commercial use of thermal barrier coatings in diesel engines began in the mid 70's by Dr. Ingard Kvernes at the Central Institute for Industrial Research in Oslo, Norway. Dr. Kvernes attributed attack on diesel engine valves and piston crowns encountered in marine diesel engines in Norwegian ships as hot-corrosion attributed to a reduced quality of residual fuel. His solution was to coat these components to reduce metal temperature below the threshold of aggressive hot-corrosion and also provide protection. Roy Kamo introduced thermal barrier coatings in his 'Adiabatic Diesel Engine' in the late 70's. Kamo's concept was to eliminate the engine block water cooling system and reduce heat losses. Roy reported significant performance improvements in his thermally insulated engine at the SAE Congress in 1982. Kamo's work stimulates major programs with insulated engines, particularly in Europe. Most of the major diesel engine manufacturers conducted some level of test with insulated combustion chamber components. They initially ran into increased fuel consumption. The German engine consortium had Prof. Woschni of the Technical Institute in Munich. Woschni conducted testing with pistons with air gaps to provide the insulation effects. Woschni indicated the hot walls of the insulated engine created a major increase in heat transfer he refers to as 'convection vive.' Woschni's work was a major factor in the abrupt curtailment of insulated diesel engine work in continental Europe. Ricardo in the UK suggested that combustion should be reoptimized for the hot-wall effects of the insulated combustion chamber and showed under a narrow range of conditions fuel economy could be improved. The Department of Energy has supported thermal barrier coating development for diesel engine applications. In the Clean Diesel - 50 Percent Efficient (CD-50) engine for the year 2000, thermal barrier coatings will be used on piston crowns and possibly other components. The primary purpose of the

  1. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XXX, I--CATERPILLAR DIESEL ENGINE MAINTENANCE SUMMARY, II--REIEWING FACTS ABOUT ALTERNATORS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO PROVIDE A SUMMARY OF DIESEL ENGINE MAINTENANCE FACTORS AND A REVIEW OF DIESEL ENGINE ALTERNATOR OPERATION. THE SEVEN SECTIONS COVER DIESEL ENGINE TROUBLESHOOTING AND THE OPERATION, TESTING, AND ADJUSTING OF ALTERNATORS. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM…

  2. Observation of diesel spray by pseudo-high-speed photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umezu, Seiji; Oka, Mohachiro

    2001-04-01

    Pseudo high speed photography has been developed to observe intermittent, periodic and high speed phenomena like diesel spray. Main device of this photography consists of Automatic Variable Retarder (AVR) which delays gradually timing between diesel injection and strobe spark with the micrometer. This technique enables us to observe diesel spray development just like images taken by a high speed video camera. This paper describes a principle of pseudo high speed photography, experimental results of adaptation to diesel spray and analysis of the diesel atomization mechanism.

  3. [Particulate distribution characteristics of Chinese phrase V diesel engine based on butanol-diesel blends].

    PubMed

    Lou, Di-Ming; Xu, Ning; Fan, Wen-Jia; Zhang, Tao

    2014-02-01

    With a common rail diesel engine without any modification and the engine exhaust particle number and particle size analyzer EEPS, this study used the air-fuel ratio to investigate the particulate number concentration, mass concentration and number distribution characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with butanol-diesel blends (Bu10, Bu15, Bu20, Bu30 and Bu40) and petroleum diesel. The results show: for all test fuels, the particle number distributions turn to be unimodal. With the increasing of butanol, numbers of nucleation mode particles and small accumulation mode particle decrease. At low speed and low load conditions, the number of large accumulation mode particle increases slightly, but under higher speed and load conditions, the number does not increase. When the fuels contain butanol, the total particle number concentration and mass concentration in all conditions decrease and that is more obvious at high speed load. PMID:24812943

  4. Mobility of diesel versus non-diesel coal miners: some evidence on the healthy worker effect.

    PubMed Central

    Ames, R G; Trent, B

    1984-01-01

    Workers who are particularly susceptible to the effects of their occupational exposure, from the perspective of the healthy worker effect, soon leave the workplace. The result of this mobility, called survival bias, is that cross sectional studies based on the survivors underestimate the true risk of occupational exposures. Two questions are addressed in this empirical study of the "survival bias" component of the "healthy worker" effect. Do miners with respiratory impairment or symptoms disproportionately leave jobs that have a potentially harmful respiratory exposure? And does the presence of an additional potentially harmful respiratory exposure, in this case diesel emissions, accelerate the rate of mobility for miners with respiratory impairment or symptoms? No confirmation was found for the survival effect in a study of 738 diesel and 420 non-diesel US underground coal miners. No additional increment in mobility was associated with exposure to both coal mine dust and diesel emissions. PMID:6722047

  5. Performance of Diesel Engine Using Blended Crude Jatropha Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamarudin, Kamarul Azhar; Mohd Sazali, Nor Shahida Akma; Mohd Ali, Mas Fauzi; Alimin, Ahmad Jais; Khir, Saffiah Abdullah

    2010-06-01

    Vegetable oil presents a very promising alternative to diesel oil since it is renewable and has similar properties to the diesel. In view of this, crude jatropha oil is selected and its viscosity is reduced by blending it with diesel. Since jatropha oil has properties which are similar to mineral diesel, it can be used in compression ignition engines without any engine modification. This paper presents the results of investigation carried out on a four-cylinder, four strokes and indirect-injection diesel engine. The engine, operated using composition blends of crude jatropha oil and diesel, were compared with mineral diesel. An experimental investigation has been carried out to analyze the performance characteristics of a compression ignition engine from the blended fuel (5%, 10%, 20% and 30%). A naturally aspirated four-stroke indirect injection diesel engine was tested at full load conditions, speeds between 1000 and 3500 rpm with intervals of 500 rpm. Results obtained from the measures of torque, power, specific fuel consumptions, thermal efficiency and brake mean effective pressure are nearly the same between blended and diesel fuel. An overall graph shows that the performance of relevant parameters from blended fuel is most likely similar to the performance produced from diesel. The experimental results proved that the use of crude jatropha oil in compression ignition engines is a viable alternative to diesel.

  6. Diesel Mechanics. Post Secondary Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahler, Edward P.; And Others

    Intended to provide a model for organizing vocational instructional content, this curriculum guide consists of information pertinent to conducting a postsecondary level course in diesel mechanics. While the guide is primarily oriented towards the classroom, whether as a primary resource or as a supplement to other teaching materials, it may also…

  7. Peanut oil as an emergency diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrum, J.W.

    1983-06-01

    Two elements of an emergency fuel system are discussed. A CeCoCo mechanical oil expeller's efficiency is related to temperature, moisture, and pressure conditions. Durability test on 20:80 and 80:20 peanut oil: diesel blends show injector coking and effects on exhaust temperature, specific fuel, and crankcase oil.

  8. Combustion of liquid fuels in diesel engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alt, Otto

    1924-01-01

    Hitherto, definite specifications have always been made for fuel oils and they have been classified as more or less good or non-utilizable. The present aim, however, is to build Diesel engines capable of using even the poorest liquid fuels and especially the waste products of the oil industry, without special chemical or physical preparation.

  9. BEHAVIORAL ALTERATIONS DUE TO DIESEL EXHAUST EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several experiments examining the effects of diesel exhaust on the behavior of rats are reported. Animals were exposed either as adults or neonates. The spontaneous locomotor activity (SLA), measured in standard running wheel cages, of adult rats exposed for 8 h/day, 7 days/week ...

  10. Diesel Fuel Systems. Teacher Edition (Revised).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Elton; Huston, Jane, Ed.

    This module is one of a series of teaching guides that cover diesel mechanics. The module contains six instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) introduction to fuel injection systems and components; (2) injection nozzles; (3) distributor type injection pumps; (4) unit injectors; (5) in-line injection pumps; and (6) pressure timed…

  11. Real Otto and Diesel Engine Cycles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giedd, Ronald

    1983-01-01

    A thermodynamic analysis of the properties of otto/diesel engines during the time they operate with open chambers illustrates applicability of thermodynamics to real systems, demonstrates how delivered power is controlled, and explains the source of air pollution in terms of thermodynamic laws. (Author/JN)

  12. Switch to Diesels Cuts Transportation Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Kay

    1982-01-01

    Since the acquisition of diesel-powered school buses for the Half Hollow Hills (New York) School District, fuel efficiency has doubled. This has helped cover the costs of refurbishing older buses and establishing a more sophisticated shop operation and more efficient recordkeeping. (Author/MLF)

  13. Lightweight diesel aircraft engines for general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berenyi, S. G.

    1983-01-01

    Two different engines were studied. The advantages of a diesel to general aviation were reduced to fuel consumption, reduced operating costs, and reduced fire and explosion hazard. There were no ignition mixture control or inlet icing problems. There are fewer controls and no electrical interference problems.

  14. Diesel Mechanics Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for 11 occupations in the diesel mechanics series. Each occupation is divided into a number of duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide…

  15. Philippine refiner completes diesel desulfurization project

    SciTech Connect

    Candido, S.S.; Crisostomo, E.V.

    1997-01-27

    In anticipation of tightening sulfur specifications on diesel fuel, Petron Corp. built a new 18,000 b/sd gas oil desulfurization unit (GODU) at its refinery in Bataan, Philippines. The GODU gives Petron sufficient diesel oil desulfurization capacity to meet demand for lower-sulfur diesel in the country. The project places the refinery in a pacesetter position to comply with the Philippine government`s moves to reduce air pollution, especially in urban centers, by reducing the sulfur specification for diesel to 0.5 wt% in 1996 from 0.7 wt% at the start of the project. Performance tests and initial operations of the unit have revealed a desulfurization efficiency of 91% vs. a guaranteed efficiency of 90%. A feed sulfur content of 1.33 wt% is reduced to 0.12 wt% at normal operating conditions. Operating difficulties during start-up were minimized through use of a detailed prestartup check conducted during the early stages of construction work.

  16. Diesel Mechanics. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Ohio Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), derived from a modified Developing a Curriculum (DACUM) process, is a current comprehensive and verified employer competency program list for diesel mechanics. Each unit (with or without subunits) contains competencies and competency builders that identify the occupational, academic, and employability…

  17. Diesel Equipment Department. Student Learning Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palm Beach County Board of Public Instruction, West Palm Beach, FL.

    Eleven student learning guides are provided for the duty entitled "completing core curriculum" of the diesel equipment program. Each learning guide concerns one of the tasks that comprise the duty. Introductory materials for each guide include the purpose and performance and enabling objectives. For each enabling objective, these materials are…

  18. Diesel Electrical Systems. Teacher Edition (Revised).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprinkle, Tom; Huston, Jane, Ed.

    This module is one of a series of teaching guides that cover diesel mechanics. The module contains eight instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) introduction to electrical systems; (2) electrical circuits; (3) electrical indicator circuits; (4) storage batteries; (5) starting systems and circuits; (6) ignition circuits; (7)…

  19. Exploring Low Emission Lubricants for Diesel Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, J. M.

    2000-07-06

    A workshop to explore the technological issues involved with the removal of sulfur from lubricants and the development of low emission diesel engine oils was held in Scottsdale, Arizona, January 30 through February 1, 2000. It presented an overview of the current technology by means of panel discussions and technical presentations from industry, government, and academia.

  20. Carbonyl compounds emitted by a diesel engine fuelled with diesel and biodiesel-diesel blends: Sampling optimization and emissions profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarieiro, Lílian Lefol Nani; Pereira, Pedro Afonso de Paula; Torres, Ednildo Andrade; da Rocha, Gisele Olimpio; de Andrade, Jailson B.

    Biodiesel is emerging as a renewable fuel, hence becoming a promising alternative to fossil fuels. Biodiesel can form blends with diesel in any ratio, and thus could replace partially, or even totally, diesel fuel in diesel engines what would bring a number of environmental, economical and social advantages. Although a number of studies are available on regulated substances, there is a gap of studies on unregulated substances, such as carbonyl compounds, emitted during the combustion of biodiesel, biodiesel-diesel and/or ethanol-biodiesel-diesel blends. CC is a class of hazardous pollutants known to be participating in photochemical smog formation. In this work a comparison was carried out between the two most widely used CC collection methods: C18 cartridges coated with an acid solution of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (2,4-DNPH) and impinger bottles filled in 2,4-DNPH solution. Sampling optimization was performed using a 2 2 factorial design tool. Samples were collected from the exhaust emissions of a diesel engine with biodiesel and operated by a steady-state dynamometer. In the central body of factorial design, the average of the sum of CC concentrations collected using impingers was 33.2 ppmV but it was only 6.5 ppmV for C18 cartridges. In addition, the relative standard deviation (RSD) was 4% for impingers and 37% for C18 cartridges. Clearly, the impinger system is able to collect CC more efficiently, with lower error than the C18 cartridge system. Furthermore, propionaldehyde was nearly not sampled by C18 system at all. For these reasons, the impinger system was chosen in our study. The optimized sampling conditions applied throughout this study were: two serially connected impingers each containing 10 mL of 2,4-DNPH solution at a flow rate of 0.2 L min -1 during 5 min. A profile study of the C1-C4 vapor-phase carbonyl compound emissions was obtained from exhaust of pure diesel (B0), pure biodiesel (B100) and biodiesel-diesel mixtures (B2, B5, B10, B20, B50, B

  1. Design and fabrication of a long-life Stirling cycle cooler for space application. Phase 3: Prototype model. Final Report, Sep. 1981 - Sep. 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Keung, C.; Patt, P.J.; Starr, M.; Sweet, R.C.; Bourdillon, L.A.; Figueroa, R.; Hartmann, M.; Mcfarlane, R.

    1990-11-01

    A second-generation, Stirling-cycle cryocooler (cryogenic refrigerator) for space applications, with a cooling capacity of 5 watts at 65 K, was recently completed. The refrigerator, called the Prototype Model, was designed with a goal of 5 year life with no degradation in cooling performance. The free displacer and free piston of the refrigerator are driven directly by moving-magnet linear motors with the moving elements supported by active magnetic bearings. The use of clearance seals and the absence of outgassing material in the working volume of the refrigerator enable long-life operation with no deterioration in performance. Fiber-optic sensors detect the radial position of the shafts and provide a control signal for the magnetic bearings. The frequency, phase, stroke, and offset of the compressor and expander are controlled by signals from precision linear position sensors (LVDTs). The vibration generated by the compressor and expander is cancelled by an active counter balance which also uses a moving-magnet linear motor and magnetic bearings. The driving signal for the counter balance is derived from the compressor and expander position sensors which have wide bandwidth for suppression of harmonic vibrations. The efficiency of the three active members, which operate in a resonant mode, is enhanced by a magnetic spring in the expander and by gas springs in the compressor and counterbalance. The cooling was achieved with a total motor input power of 139 watts. The magnetic-bearing stiffness was significantly increased from the first-generation cooler to accommodate shuttle launch vibrations.

  2. Support vector machine to predict diesel engine performance and emission parameters fueled with nano-particles additive to diesel fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbari, M.; Najafi, G.; Ghobadian, B.; Mamat, R.; Noor, M. M.; Moosavian, A.

    2015-12-01

    This paper studies the use of adaptive Support Vector Machine (SVM) to predict the performance parameters and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine operating on nanodiesel blended fuels. In order to predict the engine parameters, the whole experimental data were randomly divided into training and testing data. For SVM modelling, different values for radial basis function (RBF) kernel width and penalty parameters (C) were considered and the optimum values were then found. The results demonstrate that SVM is capable of predicting the diesel engine performance and emissions. In the experimental step, Carbon nano tubes (CNT) (40, 80 and 120 ppm) and nano silver particles (40, 80 and 120 ppm) with nanostructure were prepared and added as additive to the diesel fuel. Six cylinders, four-stroke diesel engine was fuelled with these new blended fuels and operated at different engine speeds. Experimental test results indicated the fact that adding nano particles to diesel fuel, increased diesel engine power and torque output. For nano-diesel it was found that the brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) was decreased compared to the net diesel fuel. The results proved that with increase of nano particles concentrations (from 40 ppm to 120 ppm) in diesel fuel, CO2 emission increased. CO emission in diesel fuel with nano-particles was lower significantly compared to pure diesel fuel. UHC emission with silver nano-diesel blended fuel decreased while with fuels that contains CNT nano particles increased. The trend of NOx emission was inverse compared to the UHC emission. With adding nano particles to the blended fuels, NOx increased compared to the net diesel fuel. The tests revealed that silver & CNT nano particles can be used as additive in diesel fuel to improve complete combustion of the fuel and reduce the exhaust emissions significantly.

  3. Oxidant generation and toxicity enhancement of aged-diesel exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qianfeng; Wyatt, Anna; Kamens, Richard M.

    Diesel exhaust related airborne Particulate Matter (PM) has been linked to a myriad of adverse health outcomes, ranging from cancer to cardiopulmonary disease. The underlying toxicological mechanisms are of great scientific interest. A hypothesis under investigation is that many of the adverse health effects may derive from oxidative stress, initiated by the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within affected cells. In this study, the main objective was to determine whether aged-diesel exhaust PM has a higher oxidant generation and toxicity than fresh diesel exhaust PM. The diesel exhaust PM was generated from a 1980 Mercedes-Benz model 300SD, and a dual 270 m 3 Teflon film chamber was utilized to generate two test atmospheres. One side of the chamber is used to produce ozone-diesel exhaust PM system, and another side of the chamber was used to produce diesel exhaust PM only system. A newly optimized dithiothreitol (DTT) method was used to assess their oxidant generation and toxicity. The results of this study showed: (1) both fresh and aged-diesel exhaust PM had high oxidant generation and toxicity; (2) ozone-diesel exhaust PM had a higher toxicity response than diesel exhaust PM only; (3) the diesel exhaust PM toxicity increased with time; (4) the optimized DTT method could be used as a good quantitative chemical assay for oxidant generation and toxicity measurement.

  4. Cermet Filters To Reduce Diesel Engine Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Peter

    2001-08-05

    Pollution from diesel engines is a significant part of our nation's air-quality problem. Even under the more stringent standards for heavy-duty engines set to take effect in 2004, these engines will continue to emit large amounts of nitrogen oxides and particulate matter, both of which affect public health. To address this problem, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) invented a self-cleaning, high temperature, cermet filter that reduces heavy-duty diesel engine emissions. The main advantage of the INEEL cermet filter, compared to current technology, is its ability to destroy carbon particles and NOx in diesel engine exhaust. As a result, this technology is expected to improve our nation's environmental quality by meeting the need for heavy-duty diesel engine emissions control. This paper describes the cermet filter technology and the initial research and development effort.Diesel engines currently emit soot and NOx that pollute our air. It is expected that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will begin tightening the regulatory requirements to control these emissions. The INEEL's self-cleaning, high temperature cermet filter provides a technology to clean heavy-duty diesel engine emissions. Under high engine exhaust temperatures, the cermet filter simultaneously removes carbon particles and NOx from the exhaust gas. The cermet filter is made from inexpensive starting materials, via net shape bulk forming and a single-step combustion synthesis process, and can be brazed to existing structures. It is self-cleaning, lightweight, mechanically strong, thermal shock resistant, and has a high melting temperature, high heat capacity, and controllable thermal expansion coefficient. The filter's porosity is controlled to provide high removal efficiency for carbon particulate. It can be made catalytic to oxidize CO, H2, and hydrocarbons, and reduce NOx. When activated by engine exhaust, the filter produces NH3 and light hydrocarbon

  5. Eucalyptus Biodiesel as an Alternative to Diesel Fuel: Preparation and Tests on DI Diesel Engine

    PubMed Central

    Tarabet, Lyes; Loubar, Khaled; Lounici, Mohand Said; Hanchi, Samir; Tazerout, Mohand

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, the increasing oil consumption throughout the world induces crucial economical, security, and environmental problems. As a result, intensive researches are undertaken to find appropriate substitution to fossil fuels. In view of the large amount of eucalyptus trees present in arid areas, we focus in this study on the investigation of using eucalyptus biodiesel as fuel in diesel engine. Eucalyptus oil is converted by transesterification into biodiesel. Eucalyptus biodiesel characterization shows that the physicochemical properties are comparable to those of diesel fuel. In the second phase, a single cylinder air-cooled, DI diesel engine was used to test neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends with diesel fuel in various ratios (75, 50, and 25 by v%) at several engine loads. The engine combustion parameters such as peak pressure, rate of pressure rise, and heat release rate are determined. Performances and exhaust emissions are also evaluated at all operating conditions. Results show that neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends present significant improvements of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbon, and particulates emissions especially at high loads with equivalent performances to those of diesel fuel. However, the NOx emissions are slightly increased when the biodiesel content is increased in the blend. PMID:22675246

  6. Eucalyptus biodiesel as an alternative to diesel fuel: preparation and tests on DI diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Tarabet, Lyes; Loubar, Khaled; Lounici, Mohand Said; Hanchi, Samir; Tazerout, Mohand

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, the increasing oil consumption throughout the world induces crucial economical, security, and environmental problems. As a result, intensive researches are undertaken to find appropriate substitution to fossil fuels. In view of the large amount of eucalyptus trees present in arid areas, we focus in this study on the investigation of using eucalyptus biodiesel as fuel in diesel engine. Eucalyptus oil is converted by transesterification into biodiesel. Eucalyptus biodiesel characterization shows that the physicochemical properties are comparable to those of diesel fuel. In the second phase, a single cylinder air-cooled, DI diesel engine was used to test neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends with diesel fuel in various ratios (75, 50, and 25 by v%) at several engine loads. The engine combustion parameters such as peak pressure, rate of pressure rise, and heat release rate are determined. Performances and exhaust emissions are also evaluated at all operating conditions. Results show that neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends present significant improvements of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbon, and particulates emissions especially at high loads with equivalent performances to those of diesel fuel. However, the NOx emissions are slightly increased when the biodiesel content is increased in the blend. PMID:22675246

  7. Development of microwave-heated diesel particulate filters

    SciTech Connect

    Janney, M.A.; Stinton, D.P.; Yonushonis, T.M.; McDonald, A.C.; Wiczynski, P.D.; Haberkamp, W.C.

    1996-06-01

    Diesel engines are a prime mover of freight in the United States. Because of legislated reductions in diesel engine emissions, considerable research has been focused on the reduction of these emissions while maintaining the durability, reliability, and fuel economy of diesel engines. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has found that particulate exhaust from diesel powered vehicles represents a potential health hazard. As a result, regulations have been promulgated limiting the allowable amounts of particulate from those vehicles. The 0.1 g/bhp/hr (gram per brake horsepower per hour) particulate standard that applies to heavy-duty diesels became effective in 1994. Engine manufacturers have met those requirements with engine modifications and/or oxidation catalysts. EPA has established more stringent standards for diesel-powered urban buses because of health concerns in densely populated urban areas.

  8. The toxicity of diesel exhaust: implications for primary care.

    PubMed

    Krivoshto, Irina N; Richards, John R; Albertson, Timothy E; Derlet, Robert W

    2008-01-01

    Diesel fuel and the products of its combustion represent one of the toxins most commonly encountered by people living in both urban and rural areas of the world. As nations become more heavily populated, there will be increasing reliance on diesel fuel to power mass transportation and commercial vehicles, as well as heavy machinery involved in construction, farming, and mining. The majority of patients who present to urban primary care clinics and emergency departments will have had significant chronic exposure to diesel exhaust because most use and/or live near busy streets and highways. Furthermore, those who operate or work or live near diesel-powered machinery will have even more toxic exposure. Primary care physicians should be aware of the acute and chronic deleterious clinical effects of diesel exhaust. In this article we review the toxicity and myriad health problems associated with diesel exhaust. PMID:18178703

  9. Advanced automotive diesel engine system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A conceptual study of an advanced automotive diesel engine is discussed. The engine concept selected for vehicle installation was a supercharged 1.4 liter, 4 cylinder spark assisted diesel of 14:1 compression ratio. A compounding unit consisting of a Lysholm compressor and expander is connected to the engine crankshaft by a belt drive. The inlet air charge is heated by the expander exhaust gas via a heat exchanger. Four levels of technology achievement on the selected engine concept were evaluated, from state-of-the-art to the ideal case. This resulted in the fuel economy increasing from 53.2 mpg to 81.7 mpg, and the 0-60 mph time decreasing from 17.6 seconds to 10.9 seconds.

  10. Adapting ethanol fuels to diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    During the 2nd International Alcohol Symposium 1977, Daimler-Benz reported on the advantages and disadvantages of the various methods of using ethanol in originally diesel-operated commercial vehicles, and especially about the first results in the field of adapting the ethanol fuel to the requirements of conventional diesel engines. Investigations to this effect were continued by Daimler-Benz AG, Stuttgart, and Mercedes-Benz of Brasil in coordination with competent Brazilian government departments. The development effort is primarily adapted to Brazilian conditions, since ethanol fuel is intended as a long-term project in this country. This report is presented under headings - auto-ignition; durability tests; remedial measures; the injection systems; ethanol quality.