Science.gov

Sample records for longue distance relatif

  1. Transport aérien longue distance des brûlés graves: revue de la littérature et application pratique

    PubMed Central

    Leclerc, T.; Hoffmann, C.; Forsans, E.; Cirodde, A.; Boutonnet, M.; Jault, P.; Tourtier, J.-P.; Bargues, L.; Donat, N.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Les brûlés graves nécessitent une prise en charge multidisciplinaire dans des centres hautement spécialisés. La rareté de ces centres impose souvent le transport aérien médicalisé longue distance. Cependant, il y a peu de données publiées sur ces transferts. Dans cette mise au point, pour optimiser la prise en charge des brûlés dès qu’un transport aérien est décidé ou même seulement envisagé, nous proposons d’extraire de cette littérature limitée des principes simples s’appuyant aussi sur l’expérience pratique du Service de Santé des Armées françaises. Nous décrivons d’abord comment les contraintes aéronautiques peuvent affecter le transport de brûlés graves à bord d’aéronefs. Nous abordons ensuite la régulation de ces missions, en analysant les risques associés au transport aérien des brûlés graves et leurs implications sur les indications, la chronologie et les modalités du transport. Enfin, nous développons la conduite de la mission, comprenant la préparation du matériel et des consommables avant le vol, l’évaluation et la mise en condition du patient avant l’embarquement, et la poursuite de la prise en charge en vol. PMID:26668564

  2. Medical miracles and the longue durée.

    PubMed

    Duffin, Jacalyn

    2005-01-01

    The hematologist-historian author became interested in the nature 'medical miracles', following a request to write a report on a set of bone marrows that was sent to the Vatican as a possible miracle cure in a cause for canonization. She questioned the prevalence of medical miracles, their structure, and relationship to other 'official' miracles that are recognized by the Church. Evidence was drawn from a variety of sources: oral testimony of pilgrims at feast day celebrations, ex voto paintings, and 160 miracle files in 67 canonization records of the Vatican Archives. Some changes can be detected through time, but the results also testify to remarkable longue durée in the healing experience: the patterns of suffering and despair, the gestures of pleading, the presence of beds and dreams, the astonishment of the caregivers, and above all the simultaneous recourse to medicine and religion both. PMID:16894813

  3. The longue durée of contraceptive methods.

    PubMed

    Jütte, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Medical history has so far paid hardly any attention to the longue durée, a history in which, according to Braudel, 'all change is slow'. It is therefore one of the challenges of the emerging field of the social history of medicine to work audaciously across time as well as across space. An interesting subject, for example, is the history of contraception. Throughout history, there has been almost nothing people have worried about more than having sex without fear of consequence. At first sight, the story of contraception seems to be one of progress, from the Ancient Egyptian crocodile-dung pessary to the modern-day condom and contraceptive pill. A closer look, however, shows a pattern of remarkable continuities in the reproductive behaviour of men and women over the last two thousand years. In this paper, I shall attempt to show why traditional male-dominated contraceptive methods still linger on despite the sexual revolution brought about by the invention of the 'pill' in the late 1950s. PMID:16894812

  4. Cognitive distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Hong; Edwards, Geoffrey; Qi, Cuihong

    2001-09-01

    In geographic space, it is well known that spatial behaviors of humans are directly driven by their spatial cognition, rather than by the physical or geometrical reality. The cognitive distance in spatial cognition is fundamental in intelligent pattern recognition. More precisely, the cognitive distance can be used to measure the similarities (or relevance) of cognized geographic objects. In the past work, the physical or Euclidean distances are used very often. In practice, many inconsistencies are found between the cognitive distance and the physical distance. Usually the physical distance is overestimated or underestimated in the process of human spatial behaviors and pattern recognition. These inconsistencies are termed distance distortions. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the conceptions of cognitive distance and distance distortion. And if the cognitive distance is argued to be two-dimensional, it exists in heterogeneous space and the property of quasi-metric is shown. If the cognitive distance is multi-dimensional, it exists in homogeneous space and the property of metric is shown. We argue that distance distortions arise from the transformation of homogeneous to heterogeneous space and from the transformation of the two-dimensional cognitive distance to the multi-dimensional cognitive distance. In some sense, the physical distance is an instance of cognitive distance.

  5. Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ASPBAE Courier, 1984

    1984-01-01

    This publication is devoted to distance education. "The Future of Distance Teaching Universities in a Worldwide Perspectives" (John S. Daniel) examines challenges likely to face the various countries and regions of the world in the next decade. "An Australian University's Approach to Distance Education--Formal and Non-Formal" (Peter M. Grayson)…

  6. Distance Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academe, 1998

    1998-01-01

    The American Association of University Professors' government relations committee report on distance learning addresses issues and makes recommendations concerning the political context of the growth of distance learning; definitions, descriptions, and claims of distance learning; academic freedom; intellectual property rights; faculty workload…

  7. Distance Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orey, Michael; Koenecke, Lynne; Snider, Richard C.; Perkins, Ross A.; Holmes, Glen A.; Lockee, Barbara B.; Moller, Leslie A.; Harvey, Douglas; Downs, Margaret; Godshalk, Veronica M.

    2003-01-01

    Contains four articles covering trends and issues on distance learning including: the experience of two learners learning via the Internet; a systematic approach to determining the scalability of a distance education program; identifying factors that affect learning community development and performance in asynchronous distance education; and…

  8. Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feasley, Charles E.

    The magnitude, diversity, and impact of distance education are discussed in this international review of its implementation in economically diverse countries. Uses of the following media are described: (1) print--correspondence study, programmed instruction, modularized instruction, newspaper; (2) audio media--telephone, radio, subsidiary…

  9. Defining Distance Learning and Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Frederick B.; Young, Michael F.; Drivere-Richmond, Kelly; Schrader, P. G.

    2001-01-01

    This paper offers precise definitions of distance learning and distance education, and their interrelationship. First, a single definition of learning is proposed, and then the concept of learning is broken down into three subcategories: instruction, exploration, and serendipity. Each is defined and the concepts of distance learning and distance…

  10. On Defining Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keegan, Desmond J.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis of four definitions of distance education from which are chosen six main components for a comprehensive definition. The article delineates the field of distance education and recommends some unanimity regarding terminology. (EAO)

  11. Long Distance Caregiving

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature: Senior Living Long Distance Caregiving Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table of ... distance to help him? Caregiving is often a long-term task. What begins with an occasional phone ...

  12. Theme: Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittington, M. Susie, Ed.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Includes "Next Best Thing to Being There" (Whittington); "Taking the Distance out of Distance Education" (Miller, King); "Preparing a Course for Distance Delivery" (Newcomb); "Team Teaching via Two-Way Interactive Video" (Nichols, Trout); "Using the Ag Ed Network" (Peal); "Student's Perspective" (Schoellhorn); "Need for Instruction in Agriculture…

  13. Going the Distance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, John K.

    2012-01-01

    Whoever said "Distance education begins in the 10th row" was taking a jab at the comatose kids at the back of his classroom, but the comment also taps into the old image of distance learners as disengaged themselves. That was then. Today, distance-learning programs are booming, in part due to demographic realities but also because recent advances…

  14. Making Distance Education Borderless.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srisa-An, Wichit

    1997-01-01

    Begins with a tribute to Professor G. Ram Reddy (founder of Indira Gandhi National Open University), then focuses on enhancing the role of open universities in providing borderless distance education. Highlights include the need for open distance-education; philosophy and vision; the distance teaching system; the role of information technology;…

  15. Phonological Distance Measures

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Nathan C; Chin, Steven B

    2010-01-01

    Phonological distance can be measured computationally using formally specified algorithms. This work investigates two such measures, one developed by Nerbonne and Heeringa (1997) based on Levenshtein distance (Levenshtein, 1965) and the other an adaptation of Dunning’s (1994) language classifier that uses maximum likelihood distance. These two measures are compared against naïve transcriptions of the speech of pediatric cochlear implant users. The new measure, maximum likelihood distance, correlates highly with Levenshtein distance and naïve transcriptions; results from this corpus are easier to obtain since cochlear implant speech has a lower intelligibility than the usually high intelligibility of the speech of a different dialect. PMID:20407614

  16. The extragalactic distance scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowan-Robinson, Michael

    1988-03-01

    Recent advances in the determination of the extragalactic distance scale are discussed, reviewing the results of observational and theoretical investigations from the period 1983-1987. Consideration is given to the galactic calibration of the Cepheids, the extension of the nova method to the Virgo cluster, improvements in the supernova distance method, the reasons why the Tully-Fisher method gives distances shorter than those of other techniques, and a modified Faber-Jackson distance method for elliptical galaxies. Numerical results are compiled in extensive tables and graphs, and it is concluded that only minor corrections to the cosmological distance ladder of Rowan-Robinson (1985) are required.

  17. Traversing psychological distance.

    PubMed

    Liberman, Nira; Trope, Yaacov

    2014-07-01

    Traversing psychological distance involves going beyond direct experience, and includes planning, perspective taking, and contemplating counterfactuals. Consistent with this view, temporal, spatial, and social distances as well as hypotheticality are associated, affect each other, and are inferred from one another. Moreover, traversing all distances involves the use of abstraction, which we define as forming a belief about the substitutability for a specific purpose of subjectively distinct objects. Indeed, across many instances of both abstraction and psychological distancing, more abstract constructs are used for more distal objects. Here, we describe the implications of this relation for prediction, choice, communication, negotiation, and self-control. We ask whether traversing distance is a general mental ability and whether distance should replace expectancy in expected-utility theories. PMID:24726527

  18. The Extragalactic Distance Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livio, Mario; Donahue, Megan; Panagia, Nino

    1997-07-01

    Participants; Preface; Foreword; Early history of the distance scale problem, S. van den Bergh; Cosmology: From Hubble to HST, M. S. Turner; Age constraints nucleocosmochronology, J. Truran; The ages of globular clusters, P. Demarque; The linearity of the Hubble flow M. Postman; Gravitational lensing and the extragalactic distance scale, R. D. Blandford andT . Kundic; Using the cosmic microwave background to constrain the Hubble constant A. Lasenby and T M. Jones; Cepheids as distance indicators, N. R. Tanvir; The I-band Tully-Fisher relation and the Hubble constant, R. Giovanell; The calibration of type 1a supernovae as standard candles, A. Saha; Focusing in on the Hubble constant, G. A. Tammann & M. Federspiel; Interim report on the calibration of the Tully-Fisher relation in the HST Key Project to measure the Hubble constant, J. Mould et al.; Hubble Space Telescope Key Project on the extragalactic distance scale, W. L. Freedman, B. F. Madore and T R. C. Kennicutt; Novae as distance indicators, M. Livio; Verifying the planetary nebula luminosity function method, G. H. Jacoby; On the possible use of radio supernovae for distance determinations, K. W. Weiler et al.; Post-AGB stars as standard candles, H. Bond; Helium core flash at the tip of the red giant branch: a population II distance indicator, B. F. Madore, W. L. Freedman and T S. Sakai; Globular clusters as distance indicators, B. C. Whitmore; Detached eclipsing binaries as primary distance and age indicators, B. Paczynski; Light echoes: geometric measurement of galaxy distances, W. B. Sparks; The SBF survey of galaxy distances J. L. Tonry; Extragalactic distance scales: The long and short of it, V. Trimble.

  19. Education at a Distance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maffett, Sheryl Price

    2007-01-01

    Distance learning has been around since the old "course in a box" correspondence classes, but with the advent of sophisticated online course management systems, learning at a distance is contributing to a major paradigm shift in higher education. That shift includes applying corporate concepts to education--students, for example, are "consumers,"…

  20. Gender and Distance Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunner, Cornelia

    This article examines distance learning from a gender perspective. In any new area of enterprise, expectations have an important effect on planning, implementation, and evaluation. When it comes to distance learning, a variety of images of what this exciting new technology will look like and what it can empower us to achieve will determine how we…

  1. Biomechanics of Distance Running.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Peter R., Ed.

    Contributions from researchers in the field of running mechanics are included in the 13 chapters of this book. The following topics are covered: (1) "The Mechanics of Distance Running: A Historical Perspective" (Peter Cavanagh); (2) "Stride Length in Distance Running: Velocity, Body Dimensions, and Added Mass Effects" (Peter Cavanagh, Rodger…

  2. Distance Education in Entwicklungslandern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    German Foundation for International Development, Bonn (West Germany).

    Seminar and conference reports and working papers on distance education of adults, which reflect the experiences of many countries, are presented. Contents include the draft report of the 1979 International Seminar on Distance Education held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, which was jointly sponsored by the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa…

  3. Estimating Distances from Parallaxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailer-Jones, Coryn A. L.

    2015-10-01

    Astrometric surveys such as Gaia and LSST will measure parallaxes for hundreds of millions of stars. Yet they will not measure a single distance. Rather, a distance must be estimated from a parallax. In this didactic article, I show that doing this is not trivial once the fractional parallax error is larger than about 20%, which will be the case for about 80% of stars in the Gaia catalog. Estimating distances is an inference problem in which the use of prior assumptions is unavoidable. I investigate the properties and performance of various priors and examine their implications. A supposed uninformative uniform prior in distance is shown to give very poor distance estimates (large bias and variance). Any prior with a sharp cut-off at some distance has similar problems. The choice of prior depends on the information one has available—and is willing to use—concerning, e.g., the survey and the Galaxy. I demonstrate that a simple prior which decreases asymptotically to zero at infinite distance has good performance, accommodates nonpositive parallaxes, and does not require a bias correction.

  4. Long Distance Caregiving

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature: Senior Living Long Distance Caregiving Past Issues / Summer 2009 ... when a crisis occurs. Get a directory of senior resources and services from the local library or ...

  5. Automobile Stopping Distances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logue, L. J.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the effect of vehicle mass on stopping distances. Analyzes an example of a sample vehicle and tire, and calculates the braking acceleration showing the effect of different factors on the stopping performance of the tires. (GA)

  6. Distance learning perspectives.

    PubMed

    Pandza, Haris; Masic, Izet

    2013-01-01

    The development of modern technology and the Internet has enabled the explosive growth of distance learning. distance learning is a process that is increasingly present in the world. This is the field of education focused on educating students who are not physically present in the traditional classrooms or student's campus. described as a process where the source of information is separated from the students in space and time. If there are situations that require the physical presence of students, such as when a student is required to physically attend the exam, this is called a hybrid form of distance learning. This technology is increasingly used worldwide. The Internet has become the main communication channel for the development of distance learning. PMID:24222934

  7. Presence at a distance.

    PubMed

    Haddouk, Lise

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays in the context of the cyberculture, computer-mediated inter-subjective relationships are part of our everyday lives, in both the professional and personal spheres, and for all age groups. In the clinical field, many applications have been developed to facilitate the exchange of informations and mediate the relationship between patient and therapist. In psychology, more or less immersive technologies are used, to encourage the feeling of presence among the users, and to trigger certain psychological processes. In our research, we have explored the remote clinical interview through videoconferencing, with the development and utilisation of the iPSY platform, totally focused on this objective. In this context, we have considered the notion of intersubjectivity, despite the physical absence. This research is leading us today to envision the notions of distance and presence, and possibly to redefine them. Thus, can we still oppose physical distance to psychological distance? Can we still affirm that the physical absence does not permit a psychological co-presence in certain interactions, like this observed in video interviews? The results show that the psychological processes, activated in this context, are similar to those observed in "traditional" clinical consults between the patient and the therapist. However, certain specifics have led us to consider the concept of distance, here influenced by the framework, and to observe its effects. This distance could possibly constitute a therapeutic lever for some patients, notably for those who have difficulties establishing the right psychological distance in their relationships with others. According to these results, can "distance" still be opposed to "presence", or could it be re-defined? This also opens up questions on the more general concept of digital relationships, and the definition of their specificities. PMID:26799909

  8. Stereoscopic distance perception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foley, John M.

    1989-01-01

    Limited cue, open-loop tasks in which a human observer indicates distances or relations among distances are discussed. By open-loop tasks, it is meant tasks in which the observer gets no feedback as to the accuracy of the responses. What happens when cues are added and when the loop is closed are considered. The implications of this research for the effectiveness of visual displays is discussed. Errors in visual distance tasks do not necessarily mean that the percept is in error. The error could arise in transformations that intervene between the percept and the response. It is argued that the percept is in error. It is also argued that there exist post-perceptual transformations that may contribute to the error or be modified by feedback to correct for the error.

  9. Equity and Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridge, Elaine; Waghid, Yusef

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how distance education can solve South Africa's problems of access to quality higher education, noting the need for radical shifts in perspective and sophisticated understanding of academic literacy. Explores key features of proposals by the Council on Higher Education (developing human capital and reducing high levels of structural…

  10. Going the Distance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barack, Lauren

    2005-01-01

    Sixty years ago, distance education probably involved a pen, paper, and secretarial classes conducted via snail mail. Today, students in ever-increasing numbers are more likely to link to the Internet to learn how to conjugate French verbs or dissect frogs in Advanced Placement courses, according to a new landmark study from the U. S. Department…

  11. Training Distance Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingesman, Lars

    1993-01-01

    Outlines a course designed to enable distance teachers to develop and teach courses using computer-mediated communication and emphasizing basic pedagogy. The teaching strategies and learning points of each module, as well as the organizational and technical set-up, are described. (Contains seven references.) (EAM)

  12. Distance education in nursing.

    PubMed

    Billings, D M

    1996-01-01

    Although not for everyone, distance education is a "connecting point" for faculty and students who are separated by time and space. As technology becomes increasingly available to nurse educators, the instructional and public relations advantages become significant benefits to nurse educators. PMID:8718839

  13. Distance Learning's Growing Reach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, John; Reese, Bob

    1995-01-01

    Examines the use of videoconferencing and video broadcasts for distance learning and presents examples: the Georgia Statewide Academic and Medical System, California State University System, Kansas City Education Network, Impact North Carolina, the School of Visual Arts in Manhattan, National Technological University, GALAXY Classroom, and…

  14. Misconceptions of Astronomical Distances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Brian W.; Brewer, William F.

    2010-01-01

    Previous empirical studies using multiple-choice procedures have suggested that there are misconceptions about the scale of astronomical distances. The present study provides a quantitative estimate of the nature of this misconception among US university students by asking them, in an open-ended response format, to make estimates of the distances…

  15. Copyright and Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKnight, Carol B.

    2000-01-01

    Reports on three workshops offering copyright education for library and computer services staff and administrators. Topics covered included: copyright (e.g., the Copyright Act of 1976 and classroom teaching); digital distance education issues (application of fair use to on-line teaching); and compliance (under the Digital Millennium Copyright…

  16. Distance Learning Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucero, Jesus Ricardo; And Others

    This resource guide for distance learning information, courses, and programming covers: (1) audiographics programming by the Pennsylvania Teleteaching Project; (2) cable programming, including the Cable Alliance for Education's Cable in the Classroom projects, Consumer News and Business Channel, Nostalgia Television, PENNARAMA Channel, Silent…

  17. Prospect of Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Monsurur; Karim, Reza; Byramjee, Framarz

    2015-01-01

    Many educational institutions in the United States are currently offering programs through distance learning, and that trend is rising. In almost all spheres of education a developing country like Bangladesh needs to make available the expertise of the most qualified faculty to her distant people. But the fundamental question remains as to whether…

  18. Personalizing Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombs-Richardson, Rita

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how a personal approach to online learning can yield a successful experience for adults earning advanced degrees or certification in teaching. Distance learning has become increasingly popular among learners with family and work obligations. Degree-seeking adult learners appreciate the flexibility and convenience of learning…

  19. Focus on Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grenzky, Janet; Maitland, Christine

    2001-01-01

    As a followup to a survey of distance education faculty, the National Education Association conducted two 3-hour focus groups with 12 higher education faculty members in June 2000. The purpose of the groups was to gain more understanding of the complexity of feelings and opinions expressed in a telephone survey conducted in March 2000. The…

  20. Rapport in Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Elizabeth; Rodriguez-Manzanares, Maria A.

    2012-01-01

    Rapport has been recognized as important in learning in general but little is known about its importance in distance education (DE). The study we report on in this paper provides insights into the importance of rapport in DE as well as challenges to and indicators of rapport-building in DE. The study relied on interviews with 42 Canadian…

  1. Celebrating Distance Teaching Innovations: The Certificate in Distance Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boylan, Colin; Tuovinen, Juhani

    Charles Sturt University (Riverina, Australia) has initiated the Certificate in Distance Teaching course for rural teachers working in a distance education setting to extend their understandings about rural and distance education topics. Two semester-long subjects constitute the course: pedagogy of distance teaching and organization of distance…

  2. Distance Training as Part of a Distance Consulting Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulantelli, Giovanni; Chiazzese, Giuseppe; Allegra, Mario

    "Distance Training" models, when integrated in a more complex framework, such as a "Distance Consulting" model, present specific features and impose a revision of the strategies commonly adopted in distance training experiences. This paper reports on the distance training strategies adopted in a European funded project aimed at defining and…

  3. Effect of Geographic Distance on Distance Education: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Heng; Robinson, Anthony C.; Detwiler, Jim

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of geographic distance on students' distance learning experience with the aim to provide tentative answers to a fundamental question--does geographic distance matter in distance education? Using educational outcome data collected from an online master's program in Geographic Information Systems, this…

  4. The sound of distance.

    PubMed

    Rabaglia, Cristina D; Maglio, Sam J; Krehm, Madelaine; Seok, Jin H; Trope, Yaacov

    2016-07-01

    Human languages may be more than completely arbitrary symbolic systems. A growing literature supports sound symbolism, or the existence of consistent, intuitive relationships between speech sounds and specific concepts. Prior work establishes that these sound-to-meaning mappings can shape language-related judgments and decisions, but do their effects generalize beyond merely the linguistic and truly color how we navigate our environment? We examine this possibility, relating a predominant sound symbolic distinction (vowel frontness) to a novel associate (spatial proximity) in five studies. We show that changing one vowel in a label can influence estimations of distance, impacting judgment, perception, and action. The results (1) provide the first experimental support for a relationship between vowels and spatial distance and (2) demonstrate that sound-to-meaning mappings have outcomes that extend beyond just language and can - through a single sound - influence how we perceive and behave toward objects in the world. PMID:27062226

  5. Geodetic distance measuring apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, J. B. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A mode locked laser system including a laser device and its peripheral components is utilized for deriving two mutually phase locked optical wavelength signals and one phase locked microwave CW signal which respectively traverse the same distance measurement path. Preferably the optical signals are comprised of pulse type signals. Phase comparison of the two optical wavelength pulse signals is used to provide a measure of the dry air density while phase comparison of one of the optical wavelength pulse signals and the microwave CW signal is used to provide a measure of the wet or water vapor density of the air. From these measurements is computed in means of the distance to be measured corrected for the atmospheric dry and water vapor densities in the measurement path.

  6. Theoretical Principles of Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keegan, Desmond, Ed.

    This book contains the following papers examining the didactic, academic, analytic, philosophical, and technological underpinnings of distance education: "Introduction"; "Quality and Access in Distance Education: Theoretical Considerations" (D. Randy Garrison); "Theory of Transactional Distance" (Michael G. Moore); "Distance Education in a…

  7. Novae as distance indicators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, Holland C.; Ciardullo, Robin

    1988-01-01

    Nova shells are characteristically prolate with equatorial bands and polar caps. Failure to account for the geometry can lead to large errors in expansion parallaxes for individual novae. When simple prescriptions are used for deriving expansion parallaxes from an ensemble of randomly oriented prolate spheroids, the average distance will be too small by factors of 10 to 15 percent. The absolute magnitudes of the novae will be underestimated and the resulting distance scale will be too small by the same factors. If observations of partially resolved nova shells select for large inclinations, the systematic error in the resulting distance scale could easily be 20 to 30 percent. Extinction by dust in the bulge of M31 may broaden and shift the intrinsic distribution of maximum nova magnitudes versus decay rates. We investigated this possibility by projecting Arp's and Rosino's novae onto a composite B - 6200A color map of M31's bulge. Thirty two of the 86 novae projected onto a smooth background with no underlying structure due to the presence of a dust cloud along the line of sight. The distribution of maximum magnitudes versus fade rates for these unreddened novae is indistinguishable from the distribution for the entire set of novae. It is concluded that novae suffer very little extinction from the filamentary and patchy distribution of dust seen in the bulge of M31. Time average B and H alpha nova luminosity functions are potentially powerful new ways to use novae as standard candles. Modern CCD observations and the photographic light curves of M31 novae found during the last 60 years were analyzed to show that these functions are power laws. Consequently, unless the eruption times for novae are known, the data cannot be used to obtain distances.

  8. Nutrition for distance events.

    PubMed

    Burke, Louise M; Millet, Gregoire; Tarnopolsky, Mark A

    2007-01-01

    The goal of training is to prepare the distance athlete to perform at his or her best during major competitions. Whatever the event, nutrition plays a major role in the achievement of various factors that will see a runner or walker take the starting line in the best possible form. Everyday eating patterns must supply fuel and nutrients needed to optimize their performance during training sessions and to recover quickly afterwards. Carbohydrate and fluid intake before, during, and after a workout may help to reduce fatigue and enhance performance. Recovery eating should also consider issues for adaptation and the immune system that may involve intakes of protein and some micronutrients. Race preparation strategies should include preparation of adequate fuel stores, including carbohydrate loading for prolonged events such as the marathon or 50-km walk. Fluid and carbohydrate intake during races lasting an hour or more should also be considered. Sports foods and supplements of value to distance athletes include sports drinks and liquid meal supplements to allow nutrition goals to be achieved when normal foods are not practical. While caffeine is an ergogenic aid of possible value to distance athletes, most other supplements are of minimal benefit. PMID:18049981

  9. Distance to Dark Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Using the unique orbit of NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope and a depth-perceiving trick called parallax, astronomers have determined the distance to an invisible Milky Way object called OGLE-2005-SMC-001. This artist's concept illustrates how this trick works: different views from both Spitzer and telescopes on Earth are combined to give depth perception.

    Our Milky Way galaxy is heavier than it looks, and scientists use the term 'dark matter' to describe all the 'heavy stuff' in the universe that seems to be present but invisible to our telescopes. While much of this dark matter is likely made up of exotic materials, different from the ordinary particles that make up the world around us, some may consist of dark celestial bodies -- like planets, black holes, or failed stars -- that do not produce light or are too faint to detect from Earth. OGLE-2005-SMC-001 is one of these dark celestial bodies.

    Although astronomers cannot see a dark body, they can sense its presence from the way light acts around it. When a dark body like OGLE-2005-SMC-001 passes in front of a bright star, its gravity causes the background starlight to bend and brighten, a process called gravitational microlensing. When the observing telescope, dark body, and star system are closely aligned, the microlensing event reaches maximum, or peak, brightness.

    A team of astronomers first sensed OGLE-2005-SMC-001's presence when it passed in front of a star in a neighboring satellite galaxy called the Small Magellanic Cloud. In this artist's rendering, the satellite galaxy is depicted as the fuzzy structure sitting to the left of Earth. Once they detected this microlensing event, the scientists used Spitzer and the principle of parallax to figure out its distance. Humans naturally use parallax to determine distance. Each eye sees the distance of an object differently. The brain takes each eye's perspective and instantaneously calculates how far away the object is.

    To determine OGLE

  10. Advanced hierarchical distance sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Royle, Andy

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we cover a number of important extensions of the basic hierarchical distance-sampling (HDS) framework from Chapter 8. First, we discuss the inclusion of “individual covariates,” such as group size, in the HDS model. This is important in many surveys where animals form natural groups that are the primary observation unit, with the size of the group expected to have some influence on detectability. We also discuss HDS integrated with time-removal and double-observer or capture-recapture sampling. These “combined protocols” can be formulated as HDS models with individual covariates, and thus they have a commonality with HDS models involving group structure (group size being just another individual covariate). We cover several varieties of open-population HDS models that accommodate population dynamics. On one end of the spectrum, we cover models that allow replicate distance sampling surveys within a year, which estimate abundance relative to availability and temporary emigration through time. We consider a robust design version of that model. We then consider models with explicit dynamics based on the Dail and Madsen (2011) model and the work of Sollmann et al. (2015). The final major theme of this chapter is relatively newly developed spatial distance sampling models that accommodate explicit models describing the spatial distribution of individuals known as Point Process models. We provide novel formulations of spatial DS and HDS models in this chapter, including implementations of those models in the unmarked package using a hack of the pcount function for N-mixture models.

  11. Distance collaborations with industry

    SciTech Connect

    Peskin, A.; Swyler, K.

    1998-06-01

    The college industry relationship has been identified as a key policy issue in Engineering Education. Collaborations between academic institutions and the industrial sector have a long history and a bright future. For Engineering and Engineering Technology programs in particular, industry has played a crucial role in many areas including advisement, financial support, and practical training of both faculty and students. Among the most important and intimate interactions are collaborative projects and formal cooperative education arrangements. Most recently, such collaborations have taken on a new dimension, as advances in technology have made possible meaningful technical collaboration at a distance. There are several obvious technology areas that have contributed significantly to this trend. Foremost is the ubiquitous presence of the Internet. Perhaps almost as important are advances in computer based imaging. Because visual images offer a compelling user experience, it affords greater knowledge transfer efficiency than other modes of delivery. Furthermore, the quality of the image appears to have a strongly correlated effect on insight. A good visualization facility offers both a means for communication and a shared information space for the subjects, which are among the essential features of both peer collaboration and distance learning.

  12. Time-Distance Helioseismology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duvall, Thomas L., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Time-distance helioseismology is a method of ambient noise imaging using the solar oscillations. The basic realization that led to time-distance helioseismology was that the temporal cross correlation of the signals at two 'surface' (or photospheric) locations should show a feature at the time lag corresponding to the subsurface travel time between the locations. The temporal cross correlation, as a function of the location separation, is the Fourier transform of the spatio-temporal power spectrum of the solar oscillations, a commonly used function in helioseismology. It is therefore likely the characteristic ridge structure of the correlation function had been seen before without appreciation of its significance. Travel times are measured from the cross correlations. The times are sensitive to a number of important subsurface solar phenomena. These include sound speed variations, flows, and magnetic fields. There has been much interesting progress in the 17 years since the first paper on this subject (Duvall et al., Nature, 1993, 362, 430-432). This progress will be reviewed in this paper.

  13. Minimal distances between SCFTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buican, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    We study lower bounds on the minimal distance in theory space between four-dimensional superconformal field theories (SCFTs) connected via broad classes of renormalization group (RG) flows preserving various amounts of supersymmetry (SUSY). For = 1 RG flows, the ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) endpoints of the flow can be parametrically close. On the other hand, for RG flows emanating from a maximally supersymmetric SCFT, the distance to the IR theory cannot be arbitrarily small regardless of the amount of (non-trivial) SUSY preserved along the flow. The case of RG flows from =2 UV SCFTs is more subtle. We argue that for RG flows preserving the full =2 SUSY, there are various obstructions to finding examples with parametrically close UV and IR endpoints. Under reasonable assumptions, these obstructions include: unitarity, known bounds on the c central charge derived from associativity of the operator product expansion, and the central charge bounds of Hofman and Maldacena. On the other hand, for RG flows that break = 2 → = 1, it is possible to find IR fixed points that are parametrically close to the UV ones. In this case, we argue that if the UV SCFT possesses a single stress tensor, then such RG flows excite of order all the degrees of freedom of the UV theory. Furthermore, if the UV theory has some flavor symmetry, we argue that the UV central charges should not be too large relative to certain parameters in the theory.

  14. The history of soil erosion: Interpreting historical sources, buried soils and colluvial sediments as archives of past soil erosion and human-environment interactions in the Longue Durée

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotterweich, Markus

    2015-04-01

    of human-environment interactions in the Longue Durée.

  15. Binaries and distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourbaix, D.; Arenou, F.; Halbwachs, J.-L.; Siopis, C.

    2013-02-01

    Gaia's five-year observation baseline might naively lead to the expectation that it will be possible to fit the parallax of any sufficiently nearby object with the default five-parameter model (position at a reference epoch, parallax and proper motion). However, simulated Gaia observations of a `model Universe' composed of nearly 107 objects, 50% of which turn out to be multiple stars, show that the single-star hypothesis can severely affect parallax estimation and that more sophisticated models must be adopted. In principle, screening these spurious single-star solutions is rather straightforward, for example by evaluating the quality of the fits. However, the simulated Gaia observations also reveal that some seemingly acceptable single-star solutions can nonetheless lead to erroneous distances. These solutions turn out to be binaries with an orbital period close to one year. Without auxiliary (e.g., spectroscopic) data, they will remain unnoticed.

  16. Algebraic distance on graphs.

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.; Safro, I.

    2011-01-01

    Measuring the connection strength between a pair of vertices in a graph is one of the most important concerns in many graph applications. Simple measures such as edge weights may not be sufficient for capturing the effects associated with short paths of lengths greater than one. In this paper, we consider an iterative process that smooths an associated value for nearby vertices, and we present a measure of the local connection strength (called the algebraic distance; see [D. Ron, I. Safro, and A. Brandt, Multiscale Model. Simul., 9 (2011), pp. 407-423]) based on this process. The proposed measure is attractive in that the process is simple, linear, and easily parallelized. An analysis of the convergence property of the process reveals that the local neighborhoods play an important role in determining the connectivity between vertices. We demonstrate the practical effectiveness of the proposed measure through several combinatorial optimization problems on graphs and hypergraphs.

  17. Distance Education at the Crossroads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Jocelyn

    2005-01-01

    A number of issues in contemporary distance education are reviewed from the perspectives of distance education as practice and as a field of study. In the practice of distance education, government agendas are supplanted by institutional agendas, the clientele shifts from undergraduate second-chance learners to fee-paying postgraduates, and the…

  18. Verifying Success in Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, William D.; Clark, Heather M.; McIntyre, M. Elaine

    Appalachian State University (ASU) is a participating institution in the North Carolina Consortium for Distance Education in Communication Sciences and Disorders (CSD). This Consortium initiated a successful distance education masters program in 1997. The distance education program at ASU is actually a hybrid program, providing the opportunity for…

  19. Distance Teacher Education in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jumani, Nabi Bux; Zai, Zafar Iqbal Yousuf

    2009-01-01

    Distance education means instruction in which the instructor and student are separated by distance and interact through the assistance of communication technology. Distance education changes the learning relationship from the common, centralized school model to a more decentralized, flexible model. It also reverses social dynamics by bringing…

  20. Continuing Education for Distance Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassner, Mary; Adams, Kate E.

    2012-01-01

    Distance librarians as engaged professionals work in a complex environment of changes in technologies, user expectations, and institutional goals. They strive to keep current with skills and competencies to support distance learners. This article provides a selection of continuing education opportunities for distance librarians, and is relevant…

  1. Interactive Distance Learning in Connecticut.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietras, Jesse John; Murphy, Robert J.

    This paper provides an overview of distance learning activities in Connecticut and addresses the feasibility of such activities. Distance education programs have evolved from the one dimensional electronic mail systems to the use of sophisticated digital fiber networks. The Middlesex Distance Learning Consortium has developed a long-range plan to…

  2. DISTANCES TO DARK CLOUDS: COMPARING EXTINCTION DISTANCES TO MASER PARALLAX DISTANCES

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, Jonathan B.; Jackson, James M.; Stead, Joseph J.; Hoare, Melvin G.; Benjamin, Robert A. E-mail: jackson@bu.edu E-mail: mgh@ast.leeds.ac.uk

    2012-06-01

    We test two different methods of using near-infrared extinction to estimate distances to dark clouds in the first quadrant of the Galaxy using large near-infrared (Two Micron All Sky Survey and UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey) surveys. Very long baseline interferometry parallax measurements of masers around massive young stars provide the most direct and bias-free measurement of the distance to these dark clouds. We compare the extinction distance estimates to these maser parallax distances. We also compare these distances to kinematic distances, including recent re-calibrations of the Galactic rotation curve. The extinction distance methods agree with the maser parallax distances (within the errors) between 66% and 100% of the time (depending on method and input survey) and between 85% and 100% of the time outside of the crowded Galactic center. Although the sample size is small, extinction distance methods reproduce maser parallax distances better than kinematic distances; furthermore, extinction distance methods do not suffer from the kinematic distance ambiguity. This validation gives us confidence that these extinction methods may be extended to additional dark clouds where maser parallaxes are not available.

  3. Etude de phenomenes cinetiques a longue portee lors de la croissance epitaxiale a l'aide de la methode Monte Carlo cinetique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beausoleil, Alexandre

    approximation compared to the KMC method. This strategy results in the elaboration of a new method, the LAUKMC (for low adatom update KMC) method. The LAUKMC simulations are approximatively four times faster than equivalent KMC simulation in a step flow regime, and six times faster when the reattachment procedure is applied. The speed-up is especially important when the number of atoms out of interaction range from other atoms is large and when the aggregation regime is strongly reversible. For limited diffusion and irreversible aggregation regime conditions, the LAUKMC method behaves as KMC simulations and little speed-up is observed. Nucleation lengths of first ( Ln ) and second ( Ln2 ) layers allow to elaborate a phase diagram that describes the transition from a step flow to a three-dimensional layer-by-layer island growth regime which occurs through two-dimensional island growth. By comparing the terrace width (W) with the nucleation lengths on the phase diagram, we can predict that when W < Ln , the Bales-Zangwill and kink-Ehrlich-Schwoebel-effect meandering instabilities will manifest since the growth regime is one of step flow. From LAUKMC simulations, we predict a new mechanism leading to the apparition of meanders of step edges of vicinal surfaces. This instability appears when W ≃ Lndistance between mounds. Indeed, as a long term behavior, the vicinal surface becomes similar to a singular surface on which mounds have grown. (Abstract shortened by

  4. Transactional Distance and Autonomy in a Distance Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasiloudis, G.; Koutsouba, M.; Giossos, Y.; Mavroidis, I.

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the transactional distance between the students and the tutor as well as the autonomy of students in a postgraduate course of the Hellenic Open University (HOU). The aim of the paper is to examine how the relation between autonomy and transactional distance evolves during an academic year and how this relation is affected by…

  5. Policy Deficit in Distance Education: A Transactional Distance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gokool-Ramdoo, Sushita

    2009-01-01

    This paper innovatively extends the application of transactional distance theory (TDT) to evidence-based policy development in Mauritius. In-depth interview data on student persistence from a range of stakeholders is used to understand the implications of distance education (DE) policy deficit. Policy deficit has surfaced as another dimension of…

  6. Lifelong Learning & Distance Higher Education. Perspectives on Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Christopher, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    Reflecting a common objective of ensuring quality Education for All, this book is a joint initiative of UNESCO and COL and jointly published. Lifelong Learning in Distance Higher Education brings together a diverse group of experts from many countries. The book provides a clear picture of the challenges, problems and potential of distance higher…

  7. Multimedia Equipment for Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiller, Scott S.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the use of multimedia equipment for distance education. Topics addressed include use of the Internet; distance learning for educators; and cable television and/or fiber optics, including interactive television and satellite technology. A sidebar lists online and telecommunications providers. (LRW)

  8. The Distance to M51

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McQuinn, Kristen. B. W.; Skillman, Evan D.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Berg, Danielle; Kennicutt, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Great investments of observing time have been dedicated to the study of nearby spiral galaxies with diverse goals ranging from understanding the star formation process to characterizing their dark matter distributions. Accurate distances are fundamental to interpreting observations of these galaxies, yet many of the best studied nearby galaxies have distances based on methods with relatively large uncertainties. We have started a program to derive accurate distances to these galaxies. Here we measure the distance to M51—the Whirlpool galaxy—from newly obtained Hubble Space Telescope optical imaging using the tip of the red giant branch method. We measure the distance modulus to be 8.58 ± 0.10 Mpc (statistical), corresponding to a distance modulus of 29.67 ± 0.02 mag. Our distance is an improvement over previous results as we use a well-calibrated, stable distance indicator, precision photometry in a optimally selected field of view, and a Bayesian Maximum Likelihood technique that reduces measurement uncertainties. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the Data Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  9. Blogging for the Distance Librarian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pival, Paul R.

    2005-01-01

    Based on user lookups, "Merriam-Webster Online "proclaimed "Blog" the word of the year for 2004. Distance librarianship, until mid-way through 2004, was a subject that was underrepresented in the blogosphere. The inception of a blog called "The Distant Librarian: Comments on the World of Distance Librarianship" is chronicled in this article, along…

  10. Administrative Structures for Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perraton, Hilary

    This book is designed to help people who want to know whether distance education is useful for them. It suggests what questions to ask in considering whether distance education makes sense in a particular context and examines the different ways in which it can be organized. Chapter 1 considers who it can teach, what it can be used for, and how…

  11. Virtual Bioinformatics Distance Learning Suite

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolvanen, Martti; Vihinen, Mauno

    2004-01-01

    Distance learning as a computer-aided concept allows students to take courses from anywhere at any time. In bioinformatics, computers are needed to collect, store, process, and analyze massive amounts of biological and biomedical data. We have applied the concept of distance learning in virtual bioinformatics to provide university course material…

  12. Distance Learning: Practice and Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatkovic, Nevenka; Sehanovic, Jusuf; Ruzic, Maja

    2006-01-01

    In accordance with the European processes of integrated and homogeneous education, the paper presents the essential viewpoints and questions covering the establishment and development of "distance learning" (DL) in Republic of Croatia. It starts from the advantages of distance learning versus traditional education taking into account some…

  13. Faculty Strategies for Distance Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landis, Melodee

    2000-01-01

    Discusses categories of common approaches K-12 and higher education faculty members take to adapt their courses for distance delivery. Describes the "dive-in technique," the "chunking approach," and the "start-from-scratch" approach. These different approaches to the problem of distance education illustrate that there are a variety of ways to be…

  14. Distance Education: Educational Trajectory Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaev, Andrey; Kravets, Alla; Isaeva, Ludmila; Fomenkov, Sergey

    2013-01-01

    Distance education has become a rather popular form of education recently. The advantages of this form are obvious and well-known. They include asynchronous learning, individualized learning trajectories and convenient case technologies. However, the distance form of education is not able to form the trainee's hands-on experience, especially…

  15. USAF Initiatives in Distance Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Thomas E.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the expansive growth of distance learning in the United States Air Force (USAF). Highlights include interactive television and the Air Technology Network that uses satellites; computer-based instruction; online electronic campus; multimedia interactive courseware; CD-ROM; distance learning benefits; data collection; administration; and…

  16. Directory of Distance Education Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhushan, Bharat, Ed.; Rausaria, R. R., Ed.

    This directory of distance education professionals in India covers personnel working in open universities, correspondence course institutes, and directorates of distance education of conventional universities and other national level research institutes. The information was derived from a set of structured questionnaires sent to all involved…

  17. Distance Education in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucker, Henry

    This discussion of social and political aspects, advantages and disadvantages of distance education programs includes descriptions and examples of delivery technologies and programs in developing and developed countries. Among the social aspects considered are distance education's potential to provide a second chance to people who are trapped by…

  18. Current Trends in Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaspar, Richard F.; Thompson, Theron D.

    1995-01-01

    Defines distance education; provides a historical background; discusses emerging modes of instruction, including interactive television, computer-mediated communication, electronic mail, and national and international networks; and considers the future of distance education, including the use of the Internet, multimedia, and a new paradigm for…

  19. "Distance Education", 2000-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oviatt, Darin; Burdis, Jacob; West, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the articles published in the journal "Distance Education" from 2000-2010. The researchers analyzed these articles to determine the primary topics, research methods, key phrases in article titles, authorship, and most highly cited pieces. The development of new approaches to engage in distance education is a recurring theme…

  20. Faculty Attitudes about Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smidt, Esther; McDyre, Brian; Bunk, Jennifer; Li, Rui; Gatenby, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a dramatic increase in distance learning in higher education. Given this, it is extremely important to understand faculty attitudes about distance education, not only because they can vary widely, but also because it is the faculty, through their design and implementation of online courses, that will shape the…

  1. Hierarchical traits distances explain grassland Fabaceae species' ecological niches distances

    PubMed Central

    Fort, Florian; Jouany, Claire; Cruz, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Fabaceae species play a key role in ecosystem functioning through their capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen via their symbiosis with Rhizobium bacteria. To increase benefits of using Fabaceae in agricultural systems, it is necessary to find ways to evaluate species or genotypes having potential adaptations to sub-optimal growth conditions. We evaluated the relevance of phylogenetic distance, absolute trait distance and hierarchical trait distance for comparing the adaptation of 13 grassland Fabaceae species to different habitats, i.e., ecological niches. We measured a wide range of functional traits (root traits, leaf traits, and whole plant traits) in these species. Species phylogenetic and ecological distances were assessed from a species-level phylogenetic tree and species' ecological indicator values, respectively. We demonstrated that differences in ecological niches between grassland Fabaceae species were related more to their hierarchical trait distances than to their phylogenetic distances. We showed that grassland Fabaceae functional traits tend to converge among species with the same ecological requirements. Species with acquisitive root strategies (thin roots, shallow root systems) are competitive species adapted to non-stressful meadows, while conservative ones (coarse roots, deep root systems) are able to tolerate stressful continental climates. In contrast, acquisitive species appeared to be able to tolerate low soil-P availability, while conservative ones need high P availability. Finally we highlight that traits converge along the ecological gradient, providing the assumption that species with similar root-trait values are better able to coexist, regardless of their phylogenetic distance. PMID:25741353

  2. Genealogical trees from genetic distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prignano, L.; Serva, M.

    2009-06-01

    In a population with haploid reproduction any individual has a single parent in the previous generation. If all genealogical distances among pairs of individuals (generations from the closest common ancestor) are known it is possible to exactly reconstruct their genealogical tree. Unfortunately, in most cases, genealogical distances are unknown and only genetic distances are available. The genetic distance between two individuals is measurable from differences in mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA) since in the case of humans or other complex organisms mtDNA is transmitted in a haploid manner. An analogous distance can be also computed for languages where it may be measured from lexical differences, in this case, nevertheless, haploid reproduction is only a raw approximation. Assuming a constant rate of mutation, these genetic distances are random and proportional only on average to genealogical ones. The reconstruction of the genealogical tree from the available genetic distances is forceful imprecise. In this paper we try to quantify the error one may commit in the reconstruction of the tree for different degrees of randomness. The errors may concern both topology of the tree (the branching hierarchy) and, in case of correct topology, the proportions of the tree (length of various branches).

  3. Language distance and tree reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petroni, Filippo; Serva, Maurizio

    2008-08-01

    Languages evolve over time according to a process in which reproduction, mutation and extinction are all possible. This is very similar to haploid evolution for asexual organisms and for the mitochondrial DNA of complex ones. Exploiting this similarity, it is possible, in principle, to verify hypotheses concerning the relationship among languages and to reconstruct their family tree. The key point is the definition of the distances among pairs of languages in analogy with the genetic distances among pairs of organisms. Distances can be evaluated by comparing grammar and/or vocabulary, but while it is difficult, if not impossible, to quantify grammar distance, it is possible to measure a distance from vocabulary differences. The method used by glottochronology computes distances from the percentage of shared 'cognates', which are words with a common historical origin. The weak point of this method is that subjective judgment plays a significant role. Here we define the distance of two languages by considering a renormalized edit distance among words with the same meaning and averaging over the two hundred words contained in a Swadesh list. In our approach the vocabulary of a language is the analogue of DNA for organisms. The advantage is that we avoid subjectivity and, furthermore, reproducibility of results is guaranteed. We apply our method to the Indo-European and the Austronesian groups, considering, in both cases, fifty different languages. The two trees obtained are, in many respects, similar to those found by glottochronologists, with some important differences as regards the positions of a few languages. In order to support these different results we separately analyze the structure of the distances of these languages with respect to all the others.

  4. Distance Learning - A Personal History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Inabeth

    2001-01-01

    Provides an overview of distance learning programs, including the British Open University; Sunrise Semester; Nova University; University of Maine (Orono); Public Facilities Telecommunications Program; A*DEC; National Technological University; Star Schools; Massachusetts Corporation for Educational Telecommunications; museums; Jones International…

  5. Equivalency Theory and Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonson, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Discusses distance education and the need for an accepted theory. Highlights include theories of independent study; theory of industrialization of teaching; theory of interaction and communication; and equivalency theory that is based on local control, personalized instruction, and telecommunications. (LRW)

  6. Distance Learning for Special Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Rodger A.

    2012-01-01

    Distance education strategies for remotely deployed, highly mobile, or institutionalized populations are reviewed and critiqued. Specifically, asynchronous, offline responses for special military units, Native Americans on remote reservations, prison populations and other geographically, temporally or technologically isolated niche populations are…

  7. Opportunity Cost of Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkoglu, Recep

    2004-01-01

    In this study, opportunity cost (OC) of distance education (DE) has been examined. In addition, factors which affect OC of DE have been investigated. (Contains 1 table.) [Abstract modified to meet ERIC guidelines.

  8. Keeping One’s Distance

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Lawrence E.; Bargh, John A.

    2008-01-01

    Current conceptualizations of psychological distance (e.g., construal-level theory) refer to the degree of overlap between the self and some other person, place, or point in time. We propose a complementary view in which perceptual and motor representations of physical distance influence people’s thoughts and feelings without reference to the self, extending research and theory on the effects of distance into domains where construal-level theory is silent. Across four experiments, participants were primed with either spatial closeness or spatial distance by plotting an assigned set of points on a Cartesian coordinate plane. Compared with the closeness prime, the distance prime produced greater enjoyment of media depicting embarrassment (Study 1), less emotional distress from violent media (Study 2), lower estimates of the number of calories in unhealthy food (Study 3), and weaker reports of emotional attachments to family members and hometowns (Study 4). These results support a broader conceptualization of distance-mediated effects on judgment and affect. PMID:18315805

  9. THE DISTANCE TO NGC 2264

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, Eric J.; Covey, Kevin R.; Muench, August A.; Furesz, Gabor; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew H.; Rebull, Luisa

    2009-09-15

    We determine the distance to the open cluster NGC 2264 using a statistical analysis of cluster member inclinations. We derive distance-dependent values of sin i (where i is the inclination angle) for 97 stars in NGC 2264 from the rotation periods, luminosities, effective temperatures, and projected equatorial rotation velocities, vsin i, measured for these stars. We have measured 96 of the vsin i values in our sample by analyzing high-resolution spectra with a cross-correlation technique. We model the observed distribution of sin i for the cluster by assuming that member stars have random axial orientations and by adopting prescriptions for the measurement errors in our sample. By adjusting the distance assumed in the observed sin i distribution until it matches the modeled distribution, we obtain a best-fit distance for the cluster. We find the data to be consistent with a distance to NGC 2264 of 913 pc. Quantitative tests of our analysis reveal uncertainties of 40 and 110 pc due to sampling and systematic effects, respectively. This distance estimate suggests a revised age for the cluster of {approx}1.5 Myr, although more detailed investigations of the full cluster membership are required to draw strong conclusions.

  10. The interstellar distance toolbox: deriving distances to star forming regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, D. J.; Montier, L. A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Juvela, M.; Grenier, I. A.; McGehee, P.; Montillaud, J.; Paladini, R.; Pelkonen, V.-M.; Remy, Q.; Planck Collaboration

    Fully characterising interstellar clouds requires reliable distance estimates. The study of a large number of clouds is therefore quite challenging, as the different methods do not always agree and furthermore are only able to provide an inhomogeneous sampling of the cloud population. Distances to cold dark clouds are particularly interesting as these constitute the population of pre-stellar cores. The Planck Catalogue of Galactic Cold Clumps (PGCC) is an all-sky catalogue of Galactic cold clump candidates detected by Planck . The PGCC catalogue is an observational catalogue consisting exclusively of Galactic cold sources, thus potentially sites of future star formation. The three highest Planck bands (857, 545, 353 GHz) have been combined with IRAS data at 3 THz to perform a multi-frequency detection of sources colder than their local environment. It contains 13188 Galactic sources spread across the entire sky. Using seven independent methods, reliable distance estimates have been obtained for 5574 sources, which allows us to derive their physical properties such as their mass, physical size, mean density and luminosity. The PGCC sources are located mainly in the solar neighbourhood, up to a distance of 10.5 kpc towards the Galactic centre, and range from low-mass cores to large molecular clouds. Modifications to existing methods along with entirely new ones open up the possibility to re-analyse the catalogue with more robust distance information.

  11. Measuring distances between complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Roberto F. S.; Miranda, José G. V.; Pinho, Suani T. R.; Lobão, Thierry Petit

    2008-08-01

    A previously introduced concept of higher order neighborhoods in complex networks, [R.F.S. Andrade, J.G.V. Miranda, T.P. Lobão, Phys. Rev. E 73 (2006) 046101] is used to define a distance between networks with the same number of nodes. With such measure, expressed in terms of the matrix elements of the neighborhood matrices of each network, it is possible to compare, in a quantitative way, how far apart in the space of neighborhood matrices two networks are. The distance between these matrices depends on both the network topologies and the adopted node numberings. While the numbering of one network is fixed, a Monte Carlo algorithm is used to find the best numbering of the other network, in the sense that it minimizes the distance between the matrices. The minimal value found for the distance reflects differences in the neighborhood structures of the two networks that arise only from distinct topologies. This procedure ends up by providing a projection of the first network on the pattern of the second one. Examples are worked out allowing for a quantitative comparison for distances among distinct networks, as well as among distinct realizations of random networks.

  12. Perceived distance during golf putting.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Yumiko; Koyama, Satoshi; Inomata, Kimihiro

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the effect of anxiety states on the relationship between golf-putting distance and performance in an environment requiring high movement accuracy. Twenty-three amateur golfers attempted 15 putts at each of three putting distances, 1.25, 1.50, and 1.75m, under conditions characterized by both control demands and pressure. All attempts were recorded, and kinematic features were analyzed. Under conditions involving an audience and a monetary reward, the mean score on the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Y-1 and the mean heart rate increased by 14 points and 11bpm, respectively. We grouped participants on an a posteriori basis using the median split. The backswing of high-anxiety performers shortened, the downswing speed declined, and the relative time to peak club-head velocity changed when putting under pressure from 1.25m. In contrast, no change in backswing or relative time to peak velocity was observed in low-anxiety performers, although impact velocity increased under this condition. These results indicate that the degree to which both low- and high-anxiety golfers were anxious about failure affected motor control at the 1.25-m distance, suggesting that a distortion in perceived distance may result from the interaction between putting distance and anxiety related to failure during golf putting. PMID:24050839

  13. The zero exemplar distance problem.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Minghui

    2011-09-01

    Given two genomes with duplicate genes, Zero Exemplar Distance is the problem of deciding whether the two genomes can be reduced to the same genome without duplicate genes by deleting all but one copy of each gene in each genome. Blin, Fertin, Sikora, and Vialette recently proved that Zero Exemplar Distance for monochromosomal genomes is NP-hard even if each gene appears at most two times in each genome, thereby settling an important open question on genome rearrangement in the exemplar model. In this article, we give a very simple alternative proof of this result. We also study the problem Zero Exemplar Distance for multichromosomal genomes without gene order, and prove the analogous result that it is also NP-hard even if each gene appears at most two times in each genome. For the positive direction, we show that both variants of Zero Exemplar Distance admit polynomial-time algorithms if each gene appears exactly once in one genome and at least once in the other genome. In addition, we present a polynomial-time algorithm for the related problem Exemplar Longest Common Subsequence in the special case that each mandatory symbol appears exactly once in one input sequence and at least once in the other input sequence. This answers an open question of Bonizzoni et al. We also show that Zero Exemplar Distance for multichromosomal genomes without gene order is fixed-parameter tractable in the general case if the parameter is the maximum number of chromosomes in each genome. PMID:21899417

  14. Assessing Open and Distance Learners. Open and Distance Learning Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Chris; O'Reilly, Meg

    This book is designed to help readers reflect upon their personal approaches to open and distance learning (ODL) assessment and to adapt their techniques to benefit learners. Part A explores issues and themes in ODL assessment. It examines key terms in assessment; the important relationship between assessment and learning; unique issues of…

  15. Using Web-Based Distance Learning to Reduce Cultural Distance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, L. Fai; Trinidad, S. G.

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, Web-based distance learning (WBDL) systems have become a popular learning environment for many western learners. While it has been established as an effective learning alternative, WBDL is not flourishing in Hong Kong as expected. This paper proposes that this is because Hong Kong students are not trained to learn independently…

  16. Statistical Efficiency in Distance Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Robert Graham

    2016-01-01

    Distance sampling is a technique for estimating the abundance of animals or other objects in a region, allowing for imperfect detection. This paper evaluates the statistical efficiency of the method when its assumptions are met, both theoretically and by simulation. The theoretical component of the paper is a derivation of the asymptotic variance penalty for the distance sampling estimator arising from uncertainty about the unknown detection parameters. This asymptotic penalty factor is tabulated for several detection functions. It is typically at least 2 but can be much higher, particularly for steeply declining detection rates. The asymptotic result relies on a model which makes the strong assumption that objects are uniformly distributed across the region. The simulation study relaxes this assumption by incorporating over-dispersion when generating object locations. Distance sampling and strip transect estimators are calculated for simulated data, for a variety of overdispersion factors, detection functions, sample sizes and strip widths. The simulation results confirm the theoretical asymptotic penalty in the non-overdispersed case. For a more realistic overdispersion factor of 2, distance sampling estimation outperforms strip transect estimation when a half-normal distance function is correctly assumed, confirming previous literature. When the hazard rate model is correctly assumed, strip transect estimators have lower mean squared error than the usual distance sampling estimator when the strip width is close enough to its optimal value (± 75% when there are 100 detections; ± 50% when there are 200 detections). Whether the ecologist can set the strip width sufficiently accurately will depend on the circumstances of each particular study. PMID:26950934

  17. Statistical Efficiency in Distance Sampling.

    PubMed

    Clark, Robert Graham

    2016-01-01

    Distance sampling is a technique for estimating the abundance of animals or other objects in a region, allowing for imperfect detection. This paper evaluates the statistical efficiency of the method when its assumptions are met, both theoretically and by simulation. The theoretical component of the paper is a derivation of the asymptotic variance penalty for the distance sampling estimator arising from uncertainty about the unknown detection parameters. This asymptotic penalty factor is tabulated for several detection functions. It is typically at least 2 but can be much higher, particularly for steeply declining detection rates. The asymptotic result relies on a model which makes the strong assumption that objects are uniformly distributed across the region. The simulation study relaxes this assumption by incorporating over-dispersion when generating object locations. Distance sampling and strip transect estimators are calculated for simulated data, for a variety of overdispersion factors, detection functions, sample sizes and strip widths. The simulation results confirm the theoretical asymptotic penalty in the non-overdispersed case. For a more realistic overdispersion factor of 2, distance sampling estimation outperforms strip transect estimation when a half-normal distance function is correctly assumed, confirming previous literature. When the hazard rate model is correctly assumed, strip transect estimators have lower mean squared error than the usual distance sampling estimator when the strip width is close enough to its optimal value (± 75% when there are 100 detections; ± 50% when there are 200 detections). Whether the ecologist can set the strip width sufficiently accurately will depend on the circumstances of each particular study. PMID:26950934

  18. Long working distance interference microscope

    DOEpatents

    Sinclair, Michael B.; DeBoer, Maarten P.; Smith, Norman F.

    2004-04-13

    Disclosed is a long working distance interference microscope suitable for three-dimensional imaging and metrology of MEMS devices and test structures on a standard microelectronics probe station. The long working distance of 10-30 mm allows standard probes or probe cards to be used. This enables nanometer-scale 3-D height profiles of MEMS test structures to be acquired across an entire wafer. A well-matched pair of reference/sample objectives is not required, significantly reducing the cost of this microscope, as compared to a Linnik microinterferometer.

  19. Entropy distance: New quantum phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Weis, Stephan; Knauf, Andreas

    2012-10-15

    We study a curve of Gibbsian families of complex 3 Multiplication-Sign 3-matrices and point out new features, absent in commutative finite-dimensional algebras: a discontinuous maximum-entropy inference, a discontinuous entropy distance, and non-exposed faces of the mean value set. We analyze these problems from various aspects including convex geometry, topology, and information geometry. This research is motivated by a theory of infomax principles, where we contribute by computing first order optimality conditions of the entropy distance.

  20. Ethics in Distance Education: Developing Ethical Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gearhart, Deb

    2001-01-01

    Examines the changing world of education through distance education and discusses the need for ethics in distance education. Explains how to ethically develop policy for distance education, including Internet ethics, good practices guidelines, and involving faculty. (LRW)

  1. The Future of Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saba, Farhad

    2000-01-01

    Examines factors that will influence how distance education is practiced in the first few decades of this new century. Discusses developments in digital technology; the exponential growth of knowledge about the brain, as well as physiology, chemistry, and psychology of learning; the system relationship between individual learners and instructors;…

  2. Validated Competencies for Distance Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darabi, A. Aubteen; Sikorski, Eric G.; Harvey, Robert B.

    2006-01-01

    The International Board of Standards for Training, Performance and Instruction (IBSTPI) provides a methodology for drafting and validating teaching competencies. This study applied the IBSTPI methodology to identify and validate distance education (DE) instructor competencies. The research team's review of DE literature in the past 10 years…

  3. Integrated Multimedia in Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenburg, J. M.

    The British Open University delivers distance education to over 200,000 students per year. The University has been a multimedia institution since its inception and in addition to printed materials, currently ships to students in a single year: over 34,000 special equipment kits, around one million audiocassettes, over 100,000 videocassettes, and…

  4. Vocational Education at a Distance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodds, Tony

    1973-01-01

    As a case study of the potential of teaching from a distance for technical and vocational training, the author has described the new, experimental Mauritius College of the Air, located on an island in the Indian Ocean, which promotes education through radio and television broadcasts, correspondence, and occasional face-to-face tuition. (EA)

  5. Distance Education Instructional Model Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackman, Diane H.; Swan, Michael K.

    1995-01-01

    A survey of graduate students involved in distance education on North Dakota State University's Interactive Video Network included 80 on campus and 13 off. The instructional models rated most effective were role playing, simulation, jurisprudential (Socratic method), memorization, synectics, and inquiry. Direct instruction was rated least…

  6. Measuring Distances Using Digital Cameras

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendal, Dave

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a generic method of calculating accurate horizontal and vertical object distances from digital images taken with any digital camera and lens combination, where the object plane is parallel to the image plane or tilted in the vertical plane. This method was developed for a project investigating the size, density and spatial…

  7. Going the Distance: Active Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notar, Charles E.; Restauri, Sherri; Wilson, Janell D.; Friery, Kathleen A.

    The growth and development of distance learning (DL) programs is on the rise. This review examines the literature looking for instructional techniques and methods for the teacher desiring to use DL technology to maximize student achievement and cognitive development and to increase student interaction. The three major relationships within the…

  8. Cooperative Distance Learning in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guimaraes, Luiz Carlos; Moraes, Thiago Guimaraes; Mattos, Francisco Roberto Pinto

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we report on two complementary research results. In the first we describe a tool that allows different modes of synchronous distance teaching of mathematics. In the second we report the preliminary results of a pilot study conducted using this tool to teach geometry, both with school students aged 14-15 and with undergraduate…

  9. Quality Connection: Going the Distance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenney, Timothy R.; Roupas, Eva K.

    2003-01-01

    In 1999, Virginia Beach City Public Schools launched a completely new distance learning (DL) initiative, Quality Connection. Since that time, through perseverance and creative thinking, the program has become a model of technology as well as a highly successful method of delivering services to a wide variety of stakeholders. Not only do students…

  10. Distance Learning: Untried and Untrue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halfond, Jay A.

    2010-01-01

    G. K. Chesterton famously once said: "Christianity has not been tried and found wanting; it has been found difficult and not tried." This, the author believes, applies to distance learning as well. There is far too much self-congratulatory hyperbole about the growth and pervasiveness of online learning--which exaggerates reality and overlooks the…

  11. Interaction in Distance Nursing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boz Yuksekdag, Belgin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine psychiatry nurses' attitudes toward the interactions in distance nursing education, and also scrunize their attitudes based on demographics and computer/Internet usage. The comparative relational scanning model is the method of this study. The research data were collected through "The Scale of Attitudes of…

  12. Distance Education and Organizational Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, Jean F.; LaMendola, Walter; Alter, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    As distance education models in social work education continue to grow, this study addresses prevalence and type of models in graduate social work programs and the perceptions of deans about the future of e-learning models of curriculum delivery. The study was an exploratory sequential mixed-methods design including a national survey of 121…

  13. Describing Trails: Distance or Time?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Beverly R.; Bixler, Robert D.

    1998-01-01

    To determine whether trails on visitor maps should indicate distance only or include "time to complete," Cleveland Metroparks interviewed 287 adult visitors to a large regional zoo. The mean perceived "average time to walk a mile" was 17 minutes, but responses ranged from 1.5 to 60 minutes. Half of respondents underestimated the time needed. (SV)

  14. Distance Learners: Welcome to Campus!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwitzer, Alan M.; Duggan, Mary H.

    2005-01-01

    Old Dominion University's distance learning program, called TELETECHNET, brings the main-campus college experience to geographically distant learners at sites across Virginia and as far away as the state of Washington, as well as to military personnel on Navy bases, carriers, and submarines. In an interesting turnabout, the Summer Institute for…

  15. A Distance Learning Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boord, Patricia M.

    1998-01-01

    To address diminishing resources and increased training demands, the Operational Training Unit (OTU) of the Federal Bureau of Investigation has saved almost $2 million by developing a distance education course to replace one full week of training at the FBI Academy. Discussion focuses on major issues faced by OTU in designing/delivering this…

  16. International Cooperation in Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Magnus

    This paper addresses some of the general issues of international cooperation within the context of distance education. Examples of the types of international cooperation are introduced in order to explain some of the pitfalls that can occur when coordinating organizations on an international level. Extensive discussion is undertaken concerning…

  17. Distance Effects in Number Agreement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweppe, Judith

    2013-01-01

    One pronoun production experiment and one pronoun comprehension experiment were performed to investigate the role of grammatical number information in long-distance anaphora, with referent and pronoun either in adjacent sentences or separated by an intervening sentence. The experiments tested the assumption that the influence of grammatical number…

  18. Lessons in Developing Distance Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gant, Lenora Peters

    1996-01-01

    Describes the use of video teletraining (VTT) for distance learning in the Department of Defense. Topics include planning and organizing the VTT facility, staff development, site facilitators, the necessity of protocol, instructional design and development strategies, student involvement and interactivity, and evaluation and assessment. (LRW)

  19. Religious Distance Education Goes Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frye, Steven B.

    2012-01-01

    Looking back on the use of distance education tools by religious groups, one word that stands out is change. The old adage "We've never done it that way before" will become less valid as religious bodies find themselves in the midst of a world inundated with online possibilities that call them to question how they interact with members and…

  20. Distance Learning and Technology Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Maxwell C.

    Brevard Community College (BCC), in Florida, undertook a review of enrollment, social and workplace trends, and institutional capabilities to determine opportunities, barriers, and implications for the institution in implementing distance education (DE) and instructional technology. Trends analyzed included enrollment shifts toward older students,…

  1. Distance learning for hospital managers.

    PubMed

    Whitener, L; Stevens, C; Cochran, K; Thompson, B G; Williams, M E

    1999-01-01

    Telemedicine technology enabled this class to meet. The Chapel Hill instructor could not have traveled to Scotland Neck for the classes, and the class members could not have taken time away from their jobs to travel to Chapel Hill. The technology allowed the participants to fit the classes into their schedules. For the group of managers at this small, isolated hospital, the experience of participating in a management class with an expert was a positive one. They were introduced to standard management practices, learned new skills, and formed a support group/team onsite. The students felt close to the leader, yet the physical distance made her an outsider in a way that encouraged frankness. The technology seemed to foster the best of both worlds--intimacy, yet physical distance and, thus, safety. These new managers were able to take part in a course that taught tangible skills for improving their job performance and, more important, afforded access to resources outside of Halifax County. They were able to step away from their daily routine and interact with outsiders and each other in new ways, without the stress and expense of travel. The results of this pilot study indicate that distance learning is feasible for courses of this kind. Staff burnout and turnover are chronic problems in rural facilities, with isolation contributing to job dissatisfaction. Distance learning offers exciting possibilities for addressing these problems in healthcare settings across the country. PMID:10847928

  2. Dentinal crazing and interpin distance.

    PubMed

    Khera, S C; Chan, K C; Rittman, B R

    1978-11-01

    All three types of self-threading plus cause dentinal crazing. The frequency and degree of damage done to the dentin varies significantly between the three types of pins and depends upon the differences in the diameters of the drill and the pin. When two or more pins are placed in dentin, the potential for dentinal damage increases. Minikin pins (0.019-inch diameter) caused the least damage, in terms of both degree and frequency. The optimum and safe interpin distance using Minikin pins suggested by this study is 3 mm. Minim and Regular pins (0.023- and 0.031-inch diameters, respectively) caused more injury than Minikin pins. The Regular pins showed more damaging effects on dentin than Minim pins, both in terms of degree and frequency. On the basis of this study, the minimum interpin distance using Minim or Regular pins should be 5 mm. These minimum interpin distances are applicable only in situations where the dentin is not dehydrated or embrittled due to endodontic treatment. In teeth that have been endodontically treated, it would be advisable to use only the smallest self-threading pins and possibly increase the interpin distance if two or more pins are to be used. PMID:281504

  3. Long distance tracking of birds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cochran, W. W.

    1972-01-01

    The application of radio telemetry techniques to the long distance tracking of birds is discussed. The types of equipment developed and methods for attachment to a bird are described. The operating range of the radio transmitter receiver system is examined, and methods for acquiring and analyzing the data are explained.

  4. Distance Teaching Is Dead! Long Live Distance Learning! or "Autonomy in Distance Learning."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inglis, Paul

    A 135-item survey was administered to 279 students enrolled in tertiary distance education programs in Queensland, Australia. The study was intended to identify (1) factors that are highly predictive of positive and independent learning growth and (2) strategies that students and educators can adopt to help students achieve a high level of…

  5. Determining distances using asteroseismic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva Aguirre, V.; Casagrande, L.; Basu, S.; Campante, T. L.; Chaplin, W. J.; Huber, D.; Miglio, A.; Serenelli, A. M.

    2013-02-01

    Asteroseismology has been extremely successful in determining the properties of stars in different evolutionary stages with a remarkable level of precision. However, to fully exploit its potential, robust methods for estimating stellar parameters are required and independent verification of the results is needed. In this talk, I present a new technique developed to obtain stellar properties by coupling asteroseismic analysis with the infrared flux method. Using two global seismic observables and multi-band photometry, the technique determines masses, radii, effective temperatures, bolometric fluxes, and thus distances for field stars in a self-consistent manner. Applying our method to a sample of solar-like oscillators in the Kepler field that have accurate Hipparcos parallaxes, we find agreement in our distance determinations to better than 5 %. Comparison with measurements of spectroscopic effective temperatures and interferometric radii also validate our results, and show that our technique can be applied to stars evolved beyond the main-sequence phase.

  6. Effective Teaching in Distance Education. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mielke, Dan

    Distance education is an alternative method for delivering academic course work to students unable to attend traditional campus-based classes. This Digest presents information on the many forms of distance education and keys to successful teaching with distance education. Distance education is a method of education in which the learner is…

  7. Distance Education Use in Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannum, Wallace H.; Irvin, Matthew J.; Banks, Jonathan B.; Farmer, Thomas W.

    2009-01-01

    A national survey of rural school systems in the United States was conducted to determine the extent to which distance education is being utilized by rural schools, the technologies used, the curriculum areas impacted, the perceived needs for distance education, their satisfaction with distance education, and the barriers to distance education…

  8. History and Heritage in Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Bill; Simpson, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Distance education's history is a tremendous resource for all involved in distance education. Some aspects of that history provide enduring touchstones for present distance educators, creating a heritage that should not be overlooked as distance education continues to develop and expand. In this article we draw on the concept of generational…

  9. 47 CFR 73.808 - Distance computations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.808 Distance computations. For the purposes of determining compliance with any LPFM distance requirements, distances shall be calculated in accordance with § 73.208(c... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Distance computations. 73.808 Section...

  10. Distance Probes of Dark Energy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kim, A. G.; Padmanabhan, N.; Aldering, G.; Allen, S. W.; Baltay, C.; Cahn, R. N.; D' Andrea, C. B.; Dalal, N.; Dawson, K. S.; Denney, K. D.; et al

    2015-03-15

    We present the results from the Distances subgroup of the Cosmic Frontier Community Planning Study (Snowmass 2013). This document summarizes the current state of the field as well as future prospects and challenges. In addition to the established probes using Type Ia supernovae and baryon acoustic oscillations, we also consider prospective methods based on clusters, active galactic nuclei, gravitational wave sirens and strong lensing time delays.

  11. Pulsar distance measurements with VLBI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deller, Adam

    A reliable estimate of the distance to a pulsar underpins the interpretation of observational results across all wavebands. While there are many model-dependent methods available, most prominently the combination of the pulsar dispersion measure and a Galactic electron density distribution model, the underlying models must be anchored by a collection of accurate, model-independent measurements. By far the largest number of reliable and model-independent pulsar distance measurements have been obtained via a determination of annual geometric parallax with Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations. With high sensitivity and a good control of systematic effects via careful calibration, the milli-arcsecond level native resolution means that relative positional accuracies of a few 10s of micro-arcseconds are achievable. This precision means that in principle a parallax distance is feasible for the majority of the known radio pulsar population; however, actually observing every feasible pulsar would cost a prohibitive amount of telescope time. Here, I will first describe several recent VLBI astrometry results where the provided distance has been crucial in furthering the understanding of the system. Second, I will describe the recently completed "PSRPI" program, which measured over 50 pulsar parallaxes using the Very Long Baseline Array - by far the largest pulsar parallax program to date. Third, I will describe the recently commenced "MSPSRPI" extension to the PSRPI program, which targets exclusively millisecond pulsars and aims to greatly improve the tie between the solar system barycentric frame and the International Celestial Reference Frame. Finally, I will briefly discuss the impact of developments in VLBI instrumentation, including the forthcoming Square Kilometre Array.

  12. Cosmological parallax-distance formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singal, Ashok K.

    2015-09-01

    The standard cosmological parallax-distance formula, as found in the literature, including text-books and reference books on cosmology, requires a correction. This correction stems from the fact that in the standard text-book derivation it has been ignored that any chosen baseline in a gravitationally bound system does not partake in the cosmological expansion. Though the correction is available in the literature for some time, the text-books still continue to use the older, incorrect formula, and its full implications are not yet fully realized. Apart from providing an alternate correct, closed-form expression that is more suitable and convenient for computations for certain limiting cases of FRW () world models, we also demonstrate how one can compute parallax distance for the currently favored flat-space accelerating-universe (, ) cosmologies. Further, we show that the correction in parallax distance at large redshifts could amount to a factor of three or even more. Moreover, even in an infinite universe the parallax distance does not increase indefinitely with redshift and that even the farthest possible observable point may have a finite parallax angle, a factor that needs to be carefully taken into account when using distant objects as the background field against which the parallax of a foreground object is to be measured. Some other complications that could arise in parallax measurements of a distant source, like that due to the deflection of incoming light by the gravitation field of the Sun and other planetary bodies in the solar system, are pointed out.

  13. Simplified Generation Of Distance Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wesolowicz, Karl; Lewis, Charles; Strodtman, Scott; Dilworth, David

    1994-01-01

    Optoelectronic apparatus undergoing development intended to produce digitized images that contain three-dimensional information: brightness of each picture element in digitized image depends on distance from apparatus to corresponding location in scene. Does not contain mechanical scanners. Signal-processing circuitry in this apparatus simpler. Smaller, weighs less, and consumes less power. Potential applications include automated inspection, remote exploration, robotic manipulators, robotic vehicles, and maneuvering and docking systems.

  14. The Magnetotail at Lunar Distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibeck, D. G.

    2015-12-01

    This presentation reviews some of the single-point observations of the magnetotail at lunar distances made by ALSEP, Explorer 33, 35, ISEE-3, and Geotail that form the framework for interpreting more recent dual-spacecraft ARTEMIS observations. Earth's distant magnetotail flaps, twists, and flattens in response to variations in the solar wind flow direction and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) orientation. It may even disappear leaving nothing more than a wake during strongly northward IMF orientations. Standing slow mode expansion fans provide for a gradual transition between magnetotail lobe and magnetosheath plasma and magnetic field parameters. The distant neutral line may at times reside at lunar distances, creating jets of sunward-streaming plasma within the cislunar plasma sheet and layers of streaming energetic particles on its boundaries. Reconnection at near-Earth neutral lines releases antisunward-moving plasmoids that transit lunar distances, briefly expanding the diameter of the plasma sheet and magnetotail. Taken as a whole, the distant magnetotail is a fascinating plasma laboratory and a region of great important to the magnetosphere.

  15. Ghost imaging with broad distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, De-Yang; Zhang, Lu; Du, Shao-Jiang; Xia, Yun-Jie

    2015-10-01

    We present a scheme that is able to achieve the ghost imaging with broad distance. The physical nature of our scheme is that the different wavelength beams are separated in free space by an optical media according to the slow light or dispersion principle. Meanwhile, the equality of the optical distance of the two light arms is not violated. The photon correlation is achieved by the rotating ground glass plate (RGGP) and spatial light modulator (SLM), respectively. Our work shows that a monochromic ghost image can be obtained in the case of RGGP. More importantly, the position (or distance) of the object can be ascertained by the color of the image. Thus, the imaging and ranging processes are combined as one process for the first time to the best of our knowledge. In the case of SLM, we can obtain a colored image regardless of where the object is. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61178012, 11204156, 11304179, and 11247240), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant Nos. 20133705110001 and 20123705120002), the Scientific Research Foundation for Outstanding Young Scientists of Shandong Province, China (Grant No. BS2013DX034), and the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province, China (Grant No. ZR2012FQ024).

  16. Mattig's relation and dynamical distance indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teerikorpi, P.; Baryshev, Yu. V.

    2016-03-01

    We discuss how the redshift (Mattig) method in the Friedmann cosmology relates to dynamical distance indicators based on Newton's gravity (Teerikorpi 2011). It belongs to the class of indicators where the relevant length inside the system is the distance itself (in this case the proper metric distance). As the Friedmann model has a Newtonian analogy, its use to infer distances has instructive similarities to classical dynamical distance indicators. In view of the theoretical exact linear distance-velocity law, we emphasize that it is conceptually correct to derive the cosmological distance via the route: redshift (primarily observed) -> space expansion velocity (not directly observed) -> metric distance (physical length in ``cm''). Important properties of the proper metric distance are summarized.

  17. Variable Distance Angular Symbology Reader

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, Harry F., Jr. (Inventor); Corder, Eric L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A variable distance angular symbology, reader utilizes at least one light source to direct light through a beam splitter and onto a target. A target may be angled relative to the impinging light beam up to and maybe even greater than 45deg. A reflected beam from the target passes through the beam splitter and is preferably directed 90deg relative to the light source through a telecentric lens to a scanner which records an image of the target such as a direct part marking code.

  18. Distances to WISE Y dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beichman; A., C.; Gelino; R., C.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy

    The WISE satellite has detected some of the coldest, lowest mass objects in the solar neighborhood. These late T and early Y dwarfs have effective temperatures in the range 250-800 K and inferred masses in the range 5-25 MJup. A critical piece of information for determining the physical properties of a brown dwarf is its distance, which greatly improves the comparison with evolutionary models. We discuss the importance of Y dwarfs in the context of star and planet formation. We also update our recent paper on Y dwarf parallaxes with improved values for four objects based on recent observations.

  19. Distance geometry and geometric algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dress, Andreas W. M.; Havel, Timothy F.

    1993-10-01

    As part of his program to unify linear algebra and geometry using the language of Clifford algebra, David Hestenes has constructed a (well-known) isomorphism between the conformal group and the orthogonal group of a space two dimensions higher, thus obtaining homogeneous coordinates for conformal geometry.(1) In this paper we show that this construction is the Clifford algebra analogue of a hyperbolic model of Euclidean geometry that has actually been known since Bolyai, Lobachevsky, and Gauss, and we explore its wider invariant theoretic implications. In particular, we show that the Euclidean distance function has a very simple representation in this model, as demonstrated by J. J. Seidel.(18)

  20. Distance Measurement Solves Astrophysical Mysteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-08-01

    Location, location, and location. The old real-estate adage about what's really important proved applicable to astrophysics as astronomers used the sharp radio "vision" of the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) to pinpoint the distance to a pulsar. Their accurate distance measurement then resolved a dispute over the pulsar's birthplace, allowed the astronomers to determine the size of its neutron star and possibly solve a mystery about cosmic rays. "Getting an accurate distance to this pulsar gave us a real bonanza," said Walter Brisken, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM. Monogem Ring The Monogem Ring, in X-Ray Image by ROSAT satellite CREDIT: Max-Planck Institute, American Astronomical Society (Click on Image for Larger Version) The pulsar, called PSR B0656+14, is in the constellation Gemini, and appears to be near the center of a circular supernova remnant that straddles Gemini and its neighboring constellation, Monoceros, and is thus called the Monogem Ring. Since pulsars are superdense, spinning neutron stars left over when a massive star explodes as a supernova, it was logical to assume that the Monogem Ring, the shell of debris from a supernova explosion, was the remnant of the blast that created the pulsar. However, astronomers using indirect methods of determining the distance to the pulsar had concluded that it was nearly 2500 light-years from Earth. On the other hand, the supernova remnant was determined to be only about 1000 light-years from Earth. It seemed unlikely that the two were related, but instead appeared nearby in the sky purely by a chance juxtaposition. Brisken and his colleagues used the VLBA to make precise measurements of the sky position of PSR B0656+14 from 2000 to 2002. They were able to detect the slight offset in the object's apparent position when viewed from opposite sides of Earth's orbit around the Sun. This effect, called parallax, provides a direct measurement of

  1. A note on the path interval distance.

    PubMed

    Coons, Jane Ivy; Rusinko, Joseph

    2016-06-01

    The path interval distance accounts for global congruence between locally incongruent trees. We show that the path interval distance provides a lower bound for the nearest neighbor interchange distance. In contrast to the Robinson-Foulds distance, random pairs of trees are unlikely to be maximally distant from one another under the path interval distance. These features indicate that the path interval distance should play a role in phylogenomics where the comparison of trees on a fixed set of taxa is becoming increasingly important. PMID:27040521

  2. Minimum distance classification in remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wacker, A. G.; Landgrebe, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    The utilization of minimum distance classification methods in remote sensing problems, such as crop species identification, is considered. Literature concerning both minimum distance classification problems and distance measures is reviewed. Experimental results are presented for several examples. The objective of these examples is to: (a) compare the sample classification accuracy of a minimum distance classifier, with the vector classification accuracy of a maximum likelihood classifier, and (b) compare the accuracy of a parametric minimum distance classifier with that of a nonparametric one. Results show the minimum distance classifier performance is 5% to 10% better than that of the maximum likelihood classifier. The nonparametric classifier is only slightly better than the parametric version.

  3. Lightweight Distance Bounding Protocol against Relay Attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin Seok; Cho, Kookrae; Yum, Dae Hyun; Hong, Sung Je; Lee, Pil Joong

    Traditional authentication protocols are based on cryptographic techniques to achieve identity verification. Distance bounding protocols are an enhanced type of authentication protocol built upon both signal traversal time measurement and cryptographic techniques to accomplish distance verification as well as identity verification. A distance bounding protocol is usually designed to defend against the relay attack and the distance fraud attack. As there are applications to which the distance fraud attack is not a serious threat, we propose a streamlined distance bounding protocol that focuses on the relay attack. The proposed protocol is more efficient than previous protocols and has a low false acceptance rate under the relay attack.

  4. Support for Long-Distance Caregivers

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Long-Distance Caregiving Heath and Aging So Far Away: Twenty Questions and Answers About Long-Distance ... be so stressful. You might think that being far away gives you some immunity from feeling overwhelmed ...

  5. Learning Styles: Implications for Distance Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Waynne Blue; Gardner, Daniel L.

    1995-01-01

    Reviews types of learning styles and criteria for choosing an appropriate assessment instrument. Describes four generations of distance learning and suggests ways to enhance distance education instructional design for different learning styles. (SK)

  6. Sleeping distance in wild wolf packs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knick, S.T.; Mech, L.D.

    1980-01-01

    Sleeping distances were observed among members of 13 wild wolf (Canis lupus) packs and 11 pairs in northeastern Minnesota to determine if the distances correlated with pack size and composition. The study utilized aerial radio-tracking and observation during winter. Pack size and number of adults per pack were inversely related to pack average sleeping distance and variability. No correlation between sleeping distance and microclimate was observed. Possible relationships between social bonding and our results are discussed.

  7. Distance effects in electrochemical micromachining

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lizhong; Pan, Yue; Zhao, Chuanjun

    2016-01-01

    Considering exponential dependence of currents on double-layer voltage and the feedback effect of the electrolyte resistance, a distance effect in electrochemical micromachining is found, namely that both time constant and double-layer voltage depend on the separation of electrodes. The double-layer voltage is the real voltage used in processing. Under DC voltage, the apparent voltages between two electrodes are constant for different separations, but the real voltages change with the separations. Small separations exert substantial effects on the real voltages. Accordingly, a DC-voltage small-separation electrochemical micromachining technique was proposed. The double-layer voltage drops sharply as the small separation increases. Thus, the electrochemical reactions are confined to electrode regions in very close proximity even under DC voltage. The machining precision can be significantly enhanced by reducing the voltage and separation between electrodes. With this technique, the machining of conducting materials with submicrometre precision was achieved. PMID:27581708

  8. Adaptive synthesis of distance fields.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Ho; Park, Taejung; Kim, Jong-Hyeon; Kim, Chang-Hun

    2012-07-01

    We address the computational resource requirements of 3D example-based synthesis with an adaptive synthesis technique that uses a tree-based synthesis map. A signed-distance field (SDF) is determined for the 3D exemplars, and then new models can be synthesized as SDFs by neighborhood matching. Unlike voxel synthesis approach, our input is posed in the real domain to preserve maximum detail. In comparison to straightforward extensions to the existing volume texture synthesis approach, we made several improvements in terms of memory requirements, computation times, and synthesis quality. The inherent parallelism in this method makes it suitable for a multicore CPU. Results show that computation times and memory requirements are very much reduced, and large synthesized scenes exhibit fine details which mimic the exemplars. PMID:21808095

  9. Distance majorization and its applications.

    PubMed

    Chi, Eric C; Zhou, Hua; Lange, Kenneth

    2014-08-01

    The problem of minimizing a continuously differentiable convex function over an intersection of closed convex sets is ubiquitous in applied mathematics. It is particularly interesting when it is easy to project onto each separate set, but nontrivial to project onto their intersection. Algorithms based on Newton's method such as the interior point method are viable for small to medium-scale problems. However, modern applications in statistics, engineering, and machine learning are posing problems with potentially tens of thousands of parameters or more. We revisit this convex programming problem and propose an algorithm that scales well with dimensionality. Our proposal is an instance of a sequential unconstrained minimization technique and revolves around three ideas: the majorization-minimization principle, the classical penalty method for constrained optimization, and quasi-Newton acceleration of fixed-point algorithms. The performance of our distance majorization algorithms is illustrated in several applications. PMID:25392563

  10. Time delay and distance measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, James B. (Inventor); Sun, Xiaoli (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method for measuring time delay and distance may include providing an electromagnetic radiation carrier frequency and modulating one or more of amplitude, phase, frequency, polarization, and pointing angle of the carrier frequency with a return to zero (RZ) pseudo random noise (PN) code. The RZ PN code may have a constant bit period and a pulse duration that is less than the bit period. A receiver may detect the electromagnetic radiation and calculate the scattering profile versus time (or range) by computing a cross correlation function between the recorded received signal and a three-state RZ PN code kernel in the receiver. The method also may be used for pulse delay time (i.e., PPM) communications.

  11. Distance majorization and its applications

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Eric C.; Zhou, Hua; Lange, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    The problem of minimizing a continuously differentiable convex function over an intersection of closed convex sets is ubiquitous in applied mathematics. It is particularly interesting when it is easy to project onto each separate set, but nontrivial to project onto their intersection. Algorithms based on Newton’s method such as the interior point method are viable for small to medium-scale problems. However, modern applications in statistics, engineering, and machine learning are posing problems with potentially tens of thousands of parameters or more. We revisit this convex programming problem and propose an algorithm that scales well with dimensionality. Our proposal is an instance of a sequential unconstrained minimization technique and revolves around three ideas: the majorization-minimization principle, the classical penalty method for constrained optimization, and quasi-Newton acceleration of fixed-point algorithms. The performance of our distance majorization algorithms is illustrated in several applications. PMID:25392563

  12. Distance effects in electrochemical micromachining.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lizhong; Pan, Yue; Zhao, Chuanjun

    2016-01-01

    Considering exponential dependence of currents on double-layer voltage and the feedback effect of the electrolyte resistance, a distance effect in electrochemical micromachining is found, namely that both time constant and double-layer voltage depend on the separation of electrodes. The double-layer voltage is the real voltage used in processing. Under DC voltage, the apparent voltages between two electrodes are constant for different separations, but the real voltages change with the separations. Small separations exert substantial effects on the real voltages. Accordingly, a DC-voltage small-separation electrochemical micromachining technique was proposed. The double-layer voltage drops sharply as the small separation increases. Thus, the electrochemical reactions are confined to electrode regions in very close proximity even under DC voltage. The machining precision can be significantly enhanced by reducing the voltage and separation between electrodes. With this technique, the machining of conducting materials with submicrometre precision was achieved. PMID:27581708

  13. Human recognition at a distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhanu, Bir

    2007-11-01

    Recognizing people at a distance is challenging from various considerations, including sensing, robust processing algorithms, changing environmental conditions and fusing multiple modalities. This paper considers face, side face, gait and ear and their possible fusion for human recognition. It presents an overview of some of the techniques that we have developed for (a) super-resolution-based face recognition in video, (b) gait-based recognition in video, (c) fusion of super-resolved side face and gait in video, (d) ear recognition in color/range images, and (e) fusion performance prediction and validation. It presents various real-world examples to illustrate the ideas and points out the relative merits of the approaches that are discussed.

  14. Dimensions of distance: a comparison of classroom education and distance education.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, David M

    2002-07-01

    Distance is obviously a core issue in distance education. But distance is a factor in classroom-based education as well. Classroom-based teachers and distance educators have a common interest in the dynamics of distance. The focus of much discussion in distance education is on geographical distance and how it may be bridged. However, this focus obscures the more fundamental issue of educational distance. Educational distance includes cognitive distance, role distance and access distance. This form of distance is as potent in the classroom environment as it is in a virtual learning environment. The writer explores this theme by his analysis of the communication patterns between teacher and students in one module in a BSc Health Studies degree programme. The writer has taught this module in both distance education format and in traditional classroom-based format. His finding is that the communication time between the teacher and students in the distance education form of the module is 29% greater than the communication time in the classroom-based form. The most significant feature of the communication pattern is the greater quantity of individual communication between student and teacher in the distance education format. Both the quantity and type of the communication in each of these modes suggest that the more communication-rich distance education format has greater potential for overcoming the problems of educational distance within this module. PMID:12383741

  15. Some Psychological Aspects of Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuemer, Rudolf

    The constituting elements of distance education are the course and the interaction between students and supporting organizations. Compared with students at traditional universities, distance students are generally older, have jobs, and often have families. In distance education, learners are usually isolated and want to broaden their education,…

  16. 2007-08 Distance Education Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada System of Higher Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report focuses on distance education within the Nevada System of Higher Education (NSHE) for the 2007-08 academic year and provides documentation of the substantial growth of distance education within all colleges and universities. Distance education is a field of continuous improvement and change, and NSHE institutions are constantly…

  17. The Distancing Question in Online Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Glenn

    2005-01-01

    Intellectuals in many fields have long argued that, as the distance between people increases, the possibility for genuine empathy between them decreases. In this article, the author argues that distancing has as-yet unexplored pragmatic consequences in online education. As he has argued elsewhere (Russell 2004), distancing can be understood as "a…

  18. Distance Education. Overview. ERIC Digest No. 44.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naylor, Michele

    Technological advancement has both facilitated and necessitated the development of distance education programming. In developing nations, distance education is often used to provide traditional education like that usually available in conventional institutions in the Western world. Whereas distance education in the Soviet Union focuses on…

  19. Student Orientation in the Distance Education Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergmann, Marilyn; Raleigh, Donna

    Institutions offering distance education courses realize the value that well-trained and well-prepared faculty contribute to the success of their distance education programs. However, taking approximately a half-hour in the first session of any course to prepare the students for their distance education experience will add to the success of the…

  20. Distance Learning: Silver Bullet or Educational Apartheid?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer-Pitt, Sue

    This paper discusses why distance education is not the cure all that political leaders hope it will be, and outlines some of the reasons why distance education sometimes results in education that is separate and unequal. It identifies some of the major categories of distance education: correspondence courses, one-way televised courses (broadcast,…

  1. Quality Assurance in Distance Learning Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tripathi, Manorama; Jeevan, V. K. J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to study how the present distance learning libraries can improve upon their existing services and introduce new ones to enhance quality of services to distance learners. Design/methodology/approach: The paper includes a review of literature on quality assurance in open and distance education in general and student support…

  2. Perspectives of Research on Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmberg, Borje

    The history of research on distance education was studied. Major research done on distance education in such diverse areas as the United States, Venezuela, and Europe was analyzed. It was discovered that the earliest attempts to develop theories of distance education were mainly concerned with identifying its very concept. Like most educational…

  3. The History of Distance Education in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacey, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    Australia's large distances and widely distributed population has meant that distance education has been an important part of its history. From the earliest provision of schooling by mail through a series of correspondence schools, both state and federal governments have provided a sound infrastructure to support distance education. Innovative…

  4. Tidewater Community College Distance Learning Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tidewater Community Coll., Norfolk, VA.

    This study of distance learning at Tidewater Community College (TCC) was conducted to determine enrollment patterns, retention, and success in distance learning courses and student perceptions. Distance learning was defined as students enrolled in one of three modes of course delivery: telecourse, online, and compressed video. The time frame for…

  5. Information Work in Distance Education: International Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harry, Keith; Ismail, Nazira

    This paper outlines the range and types of distance education on which information is potentially available. Different types of institutions involved in distance education are identified, and the major concerns of distance teaching institutions worldwide are briefly examined. Information users and their information needs are identified, and types…

  6. Rough Way for Academics: Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gursul, Fatih

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to compare the academics' perceptions about face to face and distance education, beside finding out the contributions of distance education to them, difficulties they experience in synchronous and asynchronous distance education environments and suggestions for possible solutions of the existing problems. The sample consists…

  7. Calibrating Reach Distance to Visual Targets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mon-Williams, Mark; Bingham, Geoffrey P.

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigated the calibration of reach distance by gradually distorting the haptic feedback obtained when participants grasped visible target objects. The authors found that the modified relationship between visually specified distance and reach distance could be captured by a straight-line mapping function. Thus, the relation could be…

  8. ETUDE - European Trade Union Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creanor, Linda; Walker, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Describes transnational distance learning activities among European trade union educators carried out as part of the European Trade Union Distance Education (ETUDE) project, supported by the European Commission. Highlights include the context of international trade union distance education; tutor training course; tutors' experiences; and…

  9. Galaxy Cluster Smashes Distance Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-10-01

    he most distant galaxy cluster yet has been discovered by combining data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and optical and infrared telescopes. The cluster is located about 10.2 billion light years away, and is observed as it was when the Universe was only about a quarter of its present age. The galaxy cluster, known as JKCS041, beats the previous record holder by about a billion light years. Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound objects in the Universe. Finding such a large structure at this very early epoch can reveal important information about how the Universe evolved at this crucial stage. JKCS041 is found at the cusp of when scientists think galaxy clusters can exist in the early Universe based on how long it should take for them to assemble. Therefore, studying its characteristics - such as composition, mass, and temperature - will reveal more about how the Universe took shape. "This object is close to the distance limit expected for a galaxy cluster," said Stefano Andreon of the National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF) in Milan, Italy. "We don't think gravity can work fast enough to make galaxy clusters much earlier." Distant galaxy clusters are often detected first with optical and infrared observations that reveal their component galaxies dominated by old, red stars. JKCS041 was originally detected in 2006 in a survey from the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT). The distance to the cluster was then determined from optical and infrared observations from UKIRT, the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope in Hawaii and NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. Infrared observations are important because the optical light from the galaxies at large distances is shifted into infrared wavelengths because of the expansion of the universe. The Chandra data were the final - but crucial - piece of evidence as they showed that JKCS041 was, indeed, a genuine galaxy cluster. The extended X-ray emission seen by Chandra shows that hot gas has been detected

  10. The minimum distance approach to classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wacker, A. G.; Landgrebe, D. A.

    1971-01-01

    The work to advance the state-of-the-art of miminum distance classification is reportd. This is accomplished through a combination of theoretical and comprehensive experimental investigations based on multispectral scanner data. A survey of the literature for suitable distance measures was conducted and the results of this survey are presented. It is shown that minimum distance classification, using density estimators and Kullback-Leibler numbers as the distance measure, is equivalent to a form of maximum likelihood sample classification. It is also shown that for the parametric case, minimum distance classification is equivalent to nearest neighbor classification in the parameter space.

  11. Continuing engineering education through distance learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baukal, C. E.

    2010-05-01

    The demand for distance continuing engineering education (CEE) is growing. This article describes the following with regard to CEE: the purpose; its importance, trends and unique challenges. Distance education can meet some of these challenges. Benefits and challenges of distance CEE are discussed along with the different types of distance CEE providers including universities, professional and trade organisations, corporate universities, for-profit education providers and government. Some recommendations are given for distance CEE. The specific focus here is on non-degree courses that are generally highly practical and focused.

  12. Learner characteristics involved in distance learning

    SciTech Connect

    Cernicek, A.T.; Hahn, H.A.

    1991-01-01

    Distance learning represents a strategy for leveraging resources to solve educational and training needs. Although many distance learning programs have been developed, lessons learned regarding differences between distance learning and traditional education with respect to learner characteristics have not been well documented. Therefore, we conducted a survey of 20 distance learning professionals. The questionnaire was distributed to experts attending the second Distance Learning Conference sponsored by Los Alamos National Laboratory. This survey not only acquired demographic information from each of the respondents but also identified important distance learning student characteristics. Significant distance learner characteristics, which were revealed statistically and which influence the effectiveness of distance learning, include the following: reading level, student autonomy, and self-motivation. Distance learning cannot become a more useful and effective method of instruction without identifying and recognizing learner characteristics. It will be important to consider these characteristics when designing all distance learning courses. This paper will report specific survey findings and their implications for developing distance learning courses. 9 refs., 6 tabs.

  13. ON PULSAR DISTANCE MEASUREMENTS AND THEIR UNCERTAINTIES

    SciTech Connect

    Verbiest, J. P. W.; Lee, K. J.; Weisberg, J. M.; Chael, A. A.; Lorimer, D. R.

    2012-08-10

    Accurate distances to pulsars can be used for a variety of studies of the Galaxy and its electron content. However, most distance measures to pulsars have been derived from the absorption (or lack thereof) of pulsar emission by Galactic H I gas, which typically implies that only upper or lower limits on the pulsar distance are available. We present a critical analysis of all measured H I distance limits to pulsars and other neutron stars, and translate these limits into actual distance estimates through a likelihood analysis that simultaneously corrects for statistical biases. We also apply this analysis to parallax measurements of pulsars in order to obtain accurate distance estimates and find that the parallax and H I distance measurements are biased in different ways, because of differences in the sampled populations. Parallax measurements typically underestimate a pulsar's distance because of the limited distance to which this technique works and the consequential strong effect of the Galactic pulsar distribution (i.e., the original Lutz-Kelker bias), in H I distance limits, however, the luminosity bias dominates the Lutz-Kelker effect, leading to overestimated distances because the bright pulsars on which this technique is applicable are more likely to be nearby given their brightness.

  14. The Distances of the Galactic Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özdönmez, Aykut; Güver, Tolga; Cabrera-Lavers, Antonio; Ak, Tansel

    2016-06-01

    Utilising the unique location of red clump giants on colour-magnitude diagrams obtained from various near-IR surveys, we derived specific reddening-distance relations towards 119 Galactic novae for which independent reddening measurements are available. Using the derived distance-extinction relation and the independent measurements of reddening we calculated the most likely distances for each system. We present the details of our distance measurement technique and the results of this analysis, which yielded the distances of 73 Galactic novae and allowed us to set lower limits on the distances of 46 systems. We also present the data of reddening-distance relations derived for each nova, which may be useful to analyze the different Galactic components present in the line of sight.

  15. The distances of the Galactic novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özdönmez, Aykut; Güver, Tolga; Cabrera-Lavers, Antonio; Ak, Tansel

    2016-09-01

    Utilizing the unique location of red clump giants on colour-magnitude diagrams obtained from various near-infrared surveys, we derived specific reddening-distance relations towards 119 Galactic novae for which independent reddening measurements are available. Using the derived distance-extinction relation and the independent measurements of reddening we calculated the most likely distances for each system. We present the details of our distance measurement technique and the results of this analysis, which yielded the distances of 73 Galactic novae and allowed us to set lower limits on the distances of 46 systems. We also present the reddening-distance relations derived for each nova, which may be useful to analyse the different Galactic components present in the line of sight.

  16. Joint learning of labels and distance metric.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Wang, Meng; Hong, Richang; Zha, Zhengjun; Hua, Xian-Sheng

    2010-06-01

    Machine learning algorithms frequently suffer from the insufficiency of training data and the usage of inappropriate distance metric. In this paper, we propose a joint learning of labels and distance metric (JLLDM) approach, which is able to simultaneously address the two difficulties. In comparison with the existing semi-supervised learning and distance metric learning methods that focus only on label prediction or distance metric construction, the JLLDM algorithm optimizes the labels of unlabeled samples and a Mahalanobis distance metric in a unified scheme. The advantage of JLLDM is multifold: 1) the problem of training data insufficiency can be tackled; 2) a good distance metric can be constructed with only very few training samples; and 3) no radius parameter is needed since the algorithm automatically determines the scale of the metric. Extensive experiments are conducted to compare the JLLDM approach with different semi-supervised learning and distance metric learning methods, and empirical results demonstrate its effectiveness. PMID:19963702

  17. Optical Communications from Planetary Distances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davarian, F.; Farr, W.; Hemmati, H.; Piazzolla, S.

    2008-01-01

    Future planetary campaigns, including human missions, will require data rates difficult to realize by microwave links. Optical channels not only provide an abundance of bandwidth, they also allow for significant size, weight, and power reduction. Moreover, optical-based tracking may enhance spacecraft navigation with respect to microwave-based tracking. With all its advantages, optical communications from deep space is not without its challenges. Due to the extreme distance between the two ends of the link, specialized technologies are needed to enable communications in the deep space environment. Although some of the relevant technologies have been developed in the last decade, they remain to be validated in an appropriate domain. The required assets include efficient pulsed laser sources, modulators, transmitters, receivers, detectors, channel encoders, precise beam pointing technologies for the flight transceiver and large apertures for the ground receiver. Clearly, space qualification is required for the systems that are installed on a deep space probe. Another challenge is atmospheric effects on the optical beam. Typical candidate locations on the ground have a cloud-free line of sight only on the order of 60-70% of the time. Furthermore, atmospheric losses and background light can be problematic even during cloud-free periods. Lastly, operational methodologies are needed for efficient and cost effective management of optical links. For more than a decade, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has invested in relevant technologies and procedures to enable deep space optical communications capable of providing robust links with rates in the order of 1 Gb/s from Mars distance. A recent publication indicates that potential exists for 30-dB improvement in performance through technology development with respect to the state-of-the-art in the early years of this decade. The goal is to fulfill the deep space community needs from about 2020 to the

  18. Social learning across psychological distance.

    PubMed

    Kalkstein, David A; Kleiman, Tali; Wakslak, Cheryl J; Liberman, Nira; Trope, Yaacov

    2016-01-01

    While those we learn from are often close to us, more and more our learning environments are shifting to include more distant and dissimilar others. The question we examine in 5 studies is how whom we learn from influences what we learn and how what we learn influences from whom we choose to learn it. In Study 1, we show that social learning, in and of itself, promotes higher level (more abstract) learning than does learning based on one's own direct experience. In Studies 2 and 3, we show that when people learn from and emulate others, they tend to do so at a higher level when learning from a distant model than from a near model. Studies 4 and 5 show that thinking about learning at a higher (compared to a lower) level leads individuals to expand the range of others that they will consider learning from. Study 6 shows that when given an actual choice, people prefer to learn low-level information from near sources and high-level information from distant sources. These results demonstrate a basic link between level of learning and psychological distance in social learning processes. PMID:26727663

  19. Quantum gravity at astrophysical distances?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuter, M.; Weyer, H.

    2004-12-01

    Assuming that quantum Einstein gravity (QEG) is the correct theory of gravity on all length scales, we use analytical results from nonperturbative renormalization group (RG) equations as well as experimental input in order to characterize the special RG trajectory of QEG which is realized in Nature and to determine its parameters. On this trajectory, we identify a regime of scales where gravitational physics is well described by classical general relativity. Strong renormalization effects occur at both larger and smaller momentum scales. The latter lead to a growth of Newton's constant at large distances. We argue that this effect becomes visible at the scale of galaxies and could provide a solution to the astrophysical missing mass problem which does not require any dark matter. We show that an extremely weak power law running of Newton's constant leads to flat galaxy rotation curves similar to those observed in Nature. Furthermore, a possible resolution of the cosmological constant problem is proposed by noting that all RG trajectories admitting a long classical regime automatically give rise to a small cosmological constant.

  20. The redshift-distance relation.

    PubMed Central

    Segal, I E

    1993-01-01

    Key predictions of the Hubble law are inconsistent with direct observations on equitable complete samples of extragalactic sources in the optical, infrared, and x-ray wave bands-e.g., the predicted dispersion in apparent magnitude is persistently greatly in excess of its observed value, precluding an explanation via hypothetical perturbations or irregularities. In contrast, the predictions of the Lundmark (homogeneous quadratic) law are consistent with the observations. The Lundmark law moreover predicts the deviations between Hubble law predictions and observation with statistical consistency, while the Hubble law provides no explanation for the close fit of the Lundmark law. The flux-redshift law F [symbol, see text] (1 + z)/z appears consistent with observations on equitable complete samples in the entire observed redshift range, when due account is taken of flux limits by an optimal statistical method. Under the theoretical assumption that space is a fixed sphere, as in the Einstein universe, this law implies the redshift-distance relation z = tan2(r/2R), where R is the radius of the spherical space. This relation coincides with the prediction of chronometric cosmology, which estimates R as 160 +/- 40 Mpc (1 parsec = 3.09 x 10(16) m) from the proper motion to redshift relation of superluminal sources. Tangential aspects, including statistical methodology, fundamental physical theory, bright cluster galaxy samples, and proposed luminosity evolution, are briefly considered. PMID:11607390

  1. Long-Distance Free Fall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallant, Joseph

    1999-04-01

    One of the goals of physics education is to instill a sense of wonder in our students. We hope our natural curiosity will rub off on them and that they will apply the critical thinking skills we teach them to other aspects of their lives outside the classroom. As an example of this, consider the situation described in Milton's epic poem ``Paradise Lost''. Milton wrote that when the devil was cast out of heaven, he fell for nine days before landing in hell. In Milton's universe, hell is a separate place from Earth, but many people place hell at the center of the Earth. Based on these ideas, we can apply Newton's laws of motion to calculate the distance from heaven to Earth. This exercise is an example of the kind of intellectual exercise a physicist (or a physics student) might carry out when confronted with such information. We apply the basic principles of physics to a situation described in work of literature while making no attempt to validate or refute any philosophy, theology or ideology.

  2. Media in Distance Learning: The Nigerian National Teachers Institute Distance Education Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yusuf, Mudasiru Olalere; Falade, Ayotunde Atanda

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the use of media by distance learners enrolled in the NTI distance education programme. Two hundred and fifty five distance learners drawn from Oyo State, Nigeria, completed a questionnaire to determine the use of media, and factors militating against their effective use by distance learners. Research data were analyzed…

  3. Distance Education in Southern Africa Conference, 1987. Papers 2: Issues in Education and Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adey, David, Comp.; And Others

    Eighteen papers from the University of South Africa's Conference on Distance Education are presented on issues in education and distance education. They include: "Distance Education in Africa's Educational Development: The Case of Ghana" (Joe K. Ansere); "Distance Education: A Solution to the Economic Problems of Education in Southern Africa"…

  4. Open and Distance Learning Today. Routledge Studies in Distance Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockwood, Fred, Ed.

    This book contains the following papers on open and distance learning today: "Preface" (Daniel); "Big Bang Theory in Distance Education" (Hawkridge); "Practical Agenda for Theorists of Distance Education" (Perraton); "Trends, Directions and Needs: A View from Developing Countries" (Koul); "American Distance Education" (Moore); "Creating the…

  5. Distance Education in Southern Africa Conference, 1987. Papers 1: The Theory and Practice of Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adey, David, Comp.; And Others

    Fifteen papers from the University of South Africa's Conference on Distance Education are presented on the theory and practice of distance education. Titles and authors include: "Evaluation at a Distance" (Margalit Ganor); "Can the Tables Be Turned? Likelihood That Distance Teaching at University Can Be More Effective Than Attendance Teaching"…

  6. Web-Based Communications, the Internet, and Distance Education. Readings in Distance Education, Number 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Michael G., Ed.; Cozine, Geoffrey T., Ed.

    This book brings together a selection of articles published in "The American Journal of Distance Education" that are related to Web-based delivery of distance education. Articles include: "Performance and Perceptions of Distance Learners in Cyberspace" (Peter Navarro and Judy Shoemaker); "Distance Education for Dentists: Improving the Quality of…

  7. Giant Sparks at Cosmological Distances?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, S. R.; Ofek, E. O.; Neill, J. D.; Zheng, Z.; Juric, M.

    2014-12-01

    Millisecond-duration bright radio pulses at 1.4 GHz with high dispersion measures (DMs) were reported by Lorimer et al., Keane et al., and Thornton et al. Their all-sky rate is ≈104 day-1 above ~1 Jy. Related events are "Perytons"—similar pulsed, dispersed sources, but most certainly local. Suggested models of fast radio bursts (FRBs) can originate in Earth's atmosphere, in stellar coronae, in other galaxies, and even at cosmological distances. Using physically motivated assumptions combined with observed properties, we explore these models. In our analysis, we focus on the Lorimer event: a 30 Jy, 5 ms duration burst with DM = 375 cm-3 pc, exhibiting a steep frequency-dependent pulse width (the Sparker). To be complete, we drop the assumption that high DMs are produced by plasma propagation and assume that the source produces pulses with frequency-dependent arrival time ("chirped signals"). Within this framework, we explore a scenario in which Perytons, the Sparker, and the FRBs are all atmospheric phenomena occurring at different heights. This model is ad hoc in that we cannot explain why Perytons at higher altitudes show greater DMs or exhibit narrower pulses. Nonetheless, we argue that the Sparker may be a Peryton. We end with two remarks. First, the detection of a single FRB by an interferometer with a kilometer (or longer) baseline will prove that FRBs are of extraterrestrial origin. Second, we urge astronomers to pursue observations and understanding of Perytons since they form (at least) a formidable foreground for the FRBs.

  8. Giant sparks at cosmological distances?

    SciTech Connect

    Kulkarni, S. R.; Ofek, E. O.; Neill, J. D.; Zheng, Z.; Juric, M.

    2014-12-10

    Millisecond-duration bright radio pulses at 1.4 GHz with high dispersion measures (DMs) were reported by Lorimer et al., Keane et al., and Thornton et al. Their all-sky rate is ≈10{sup 4} day{sup –1} above ∼1 Jy. Related events are 'Perytons'–similar pulsed, dispersed sources, but most certainly local. Suggested models of fast radio bursts (FRBs) can originate in Earth's atmosphere, in stellar coronae, in other galaxies, and even at cosmological distances. Using physically motivated assumptions combined with observed properties, we explore these models. In our analysis, we focus on the Lorimer event: a 30 Jy, 5 ms duration burst with DM = 375 cm{sup –3} pc, exhibiting a steep frequency-dependent pulse width (the Sparker). To be complete, we drop the assumption that high DMs are produced by plasma propagation and assume that the source produces pulses with frequency-dependent arrival time ('chirped signals'). Within this framework, we explore a scenario in which Perytons, the Sparker, and the FRBs are all atmospheric phenomena occurring at different heights. This model is ad hoc in that we cannot explain why Perytons at higher altitudes show greater DMs or exhibit narrower pulses. Nonetheless, we argue that the Sparker may be a Peryton. We end with two remarks. First, the detection of a single FRB by an interferometer with a kilometer (or longer) baseline will prove that FRBs are of extraterrestrial origin. Second, we urge astronomers to pursue observations and understanding of Perytons since they form (at least) a formidable foreground for the FRBs.

  9. Distance probes of dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, A. G.; Padmanabhan, N.; Aldering, G.; Allen, S. W.; Baltay, C.; Cahn, R. N.; D'Andrea, C. B.; Dalal, N.; Dawson, K. S.; Denney, K. D.; Eisenstein, D. J.; Finley, D. A.; Freedman, W. L.; Ho, S.; Holz, D. E.; Kasen, D.; Kent, S. M.; Kessler, R.; Kuhlmann, S.; Linder, E. V.; Martini, P.; Nugent, P. E.; Perlmutter, S.; Peterson, B. M.; Riess, A. G.; Rubin, D.; Sako, M.; Suntzeff, N. V.; Suzuki, N.; Thomas, R. C.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Woosley, S. E.

    2015-03-01

    This document presents the results from the Distances subgroup of the Cosmic Frontier Community Planning Study (Snowmass 2013). We summarize the current state of the field as well as future prospects and challenges. In addition to the established probes using Type Ia supernovae and baryon acoustic oscillations, we also consider prospective methods based on clusters, active galactic nuclei, gravitational wave sirens and strong lensing time delays. We note that these three elements together make a comprehensive DOE SN program, with a well- sequenced combination of R&D, construction, operations and analysis projects. The DOE SN researchers will be involved in several of these at any given time, since the precision SN cosmology measurement requires an in-depth understanding and use of SN data from all the redshift ranges simultaneously. A future Stage IV space-based SNe project would be the simplest way to match, at high redshift, these precision measurements of Type Ia supernovae at low redshift -measurements needed to provide the same systematics control over the entire redshift range from z ∼ 0.01 to z ∼ 2 . With modest investments in spectroscopic capabilities and a small fraction of mission time, WFIRST-AFTA could be upgraded [Editor's note: and has been upgraded in the current baseline; see Footnote2] to become this project, and would be complementary to the lensing programs of LSST/EUCLID. However, given the timescales and many difficulties of a space mission, there is now a need to explore vigorously a ground-based alternative to fill this important missing element in the DOE program. In particular, an R&D effort to explore the potential of novel ground-based techniques, combining near-IR technology with OH sky-line suppression, could make it possible to accomplish the precision measurements for SNe from SCP, DES, and LSST, complementing and strengthening these currently approved DOE projects.

  10. Distance and Cable Length Measurement System

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Sergio Elias; Acosta, Leopoldo; Toledo, Jonay

    2009-01-01

    A simple, economic and successful design for distance and cable length detection is presented. The measurement system is based on the continuous repetition of a pulse that endlessly travels along the distance to be detected. There is a pulse repeater at both ends of the distance or cable to be measured. The endless repetition of the pulse generates a frequency that varies almost inversely with the distance to be measured. The resolution and distance or cable length range could be adjusted by varying the repetition time delay introduced at both ends and the measurement time. With this design a distance can be measured with centimeter resolution using electronic system with microsecond resolution, simplifying classical time of flight designs which require electronics with picosecond resolution. This design was also applied to position measurement. PMID:22303169

  11. The numerical distance effect is task dependent.

    PubMed

    Goldfarb, Liat; Henik, Avishai; Rubinsten, Orly; Bloch-David, Yafit; Gertner, Limor

    2011-11-01

    Number comparison tasks produce a distance effect e.g., Moyer & Landauer (Nature 215: 1519-1520, 1967). It has been suggested that this effect supports the existence of semantic mental representations of numbers. In a matching task, a distance effect also appears, which suggests that the effect has an automatic semantic component. Recently, Cohen (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 16: 332-336, 2009) suggested that in both automatic and intentional tasks, the distance effect might reflect not a semantic number representation, but a physical similarity between digits. The present article (1) compares the distance effect in the automatic matching task with that in the intentional number comparison task and suggests that, in the latter, the distance effect does include an additional semantic component; and (2) indicates that the distance effect in the standard automatic matching task is questionable and that its appearance in previous matching tasks was based on the specific analysis and design that were applied. PMID:21698497

  12. Distance Delivery of Vocational Education Technologies and Planning Matrixes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norenberg, Curtis D.; Lundblad, Larry

    This document presents a general review of distance education as it currently pertains to secondary, postsecondary, and adult education. Chapter I discusses the general concepts of distance education. It addresses the nature of distance education and distance delivery, the distance learner, the distance instructor, and distance education learning…

  13. Optical distance measurement device and method thereof

    DOEpatents

    Bowers, Mark W.

    2003-05-27

    A system and method of efficiently obtaining distance measurements of a target. A modulated optical beam may be used to determine the distance to the target. A first beam splitter may be used to split the optical beam and a second beam splitter may be used to recombine a reference beam with a return ranging beam. An optical mixing detector may be used in a receiver to efficiently detect distance measurement information.

  14. An independent Cepheid distance scale: Current status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, T. G., III

    1980-01-01

    An independent distance scale for Cepheid variables is discussed. The apparent magnitude and the visual surface brightness, inferred from an appropriate color index, are used to determine the angular diameter variation of the Cepheid. When combined with the linear displacement curve obtained from the integrated radial velocity curve, the distance and linear radius are determined. The attractiveness of the method is its complete independence of all other stellar distance scales, even though a number of practical difficulties currently exist in implementing the technique.

  15. Long distance signaling using axionlike particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stancil, Daniel D.

    2007-12-01

    The possible existence of axionlike particles could lead to a new type of long-distance communication. In this work, basic antenna concepts are defined and a Friis-like equation is derived to facilitate long-distance link calculations. An example calculation is presented showing that communication over distances of 1000 km or more may be possible for ma<3.5meV and gaγγ>5×10-8GeV-1.

  16. TESTING DISTANCE ESTIMATORS WITH THE FUNDAMENTAL MANIFOLD

    SciTech Connect

    Zaritsky, Dennis; Zabludoff, Ann I.; Gonzalez, Anthony H.

    2012-03-20

    We demonstrate how the Fundamental Manifold (FM) can be used to cross-calibrate distance estimators even when those 'standard candles' are not found in the same galaxy. Such an approach greatly increases the number of distance measurements that can be utilized to check for systematic distance errors and the types of estimators that can be compared. Here we compare distances obtained using Type Ia supernova (SN Ia), Cepheids, surface brightness fluctuations, the luminosity of the tip of the red giant branch, circumnuclear masers, eclipsing binaries, RR Lyrae stars, and the planetary nebulae luminosity functions. We find no significant discrepancies (differences are <2{sigma}) between distance methods, although differences at the {approx}10% level cannot yet be ruled out. The potential exists for significant refinement because the data used here are heterogeneous B-band magnitudes that will soon be supplanted by homogeneous, near-infrared magnitudes. We illustrate the use of FM distances to (1) revisit the question of the metallicity sensitivity of various estimators, confirming the dependence of SN Ia distances on host galaxy metallicity, and (2) provide an alternative calibration of H{sub 0} that replaces the classical ladder approach in the use of extragalactic distance estimators with one that utilizes data over a wide range of distances simultaneously.

  17. A Cognitively Grounded Measure of Pronunciation Distance

    PubMed Central

    Wieling, Martijn; Nerbonne, John; Bloem, Jelke; Gooskens, Charlotte; Heeringa, Wilbert; Baayen, R. Harald

    2014-01-01

    In this study we develop pronunciation distances based on naive discriminative learning (NDL). Measures of pronunciation distance are used in several subfields of linguistics, including psycholinguistics, dialectology and typology. In contrast to the commonly used Levenshtein algorithm, NDL is grounded in cognitive theory of competitive reinforcement learning and is able to generate asymmetrical pronunciation distances. In a first study, we validated the NDL-based pronunciation distances by comparing them to a large set of native-likeness ratings given by native American English speakers when presented with accented English speech. In a second study, the NDL-based pronunciation distances were validated on the basis of perceptual dialect distances of Norwegian speakers. Results indicated that the NDL-based pronunciation distances matched perceptual distances reasonably well with correlations ranging between 0.7 and 0.8. While the correlations were comparable to those obtained using the Levenshtein distance, the NDL-based approach is more flexible as it is also able to incorporate acoustic information other than sound segments. PMID:24416119

  18. Testing Distance Estimators with the Fundamental Manifold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaritsky, Dennis; Zabludoff, Ann I.; Gonzalez, Anthony H.

    2012-03-01

    We demonstrate how the Fundamental Manifold (FM) can be used to cross-calibrate distance estimators even when those "standard candles" are not found in the same galaxy. Such an approach greatly increases the number of distance measurements that can be utilized to check for systematic distance errors and the types of estimators that can be compared. Here we compare distances obtained using Type Ia supernova (SN Ia), Cepheids, surface brightness fluctuations, the luminosity of the tip of the red giant branch, circumnuclear masers, eclipsing binaries, RR Lyrae stars, and the planetary nebulae luminosity functions. We find no significant discrepancies (differences are <2σ) between distance methods, although differences at the ~10% level cannot yet be ruled out. The potential exists for significant refinement because the data used here are heterogeneous B-band magnitudes that will soon be supplanted by homogeneous, near-infrared magnitudes. We illustrate the use of FM distances to (1) revisit the question of the metallicity sensitivity of various estimators, confirming the dependence of SN Ia distances on host galaxy metallicity, and (2) provide an alternative calibration of H 0 that replaces the classical ladder approach in the use of extragalactic distance estimators with one that utilizes data over a wide range of distances simultaneously.

  19. Trends in distance learning: a new wave.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, J

    1988-01-01

    Distance learning has boomed in the last decade in developed as well as developing countries. Large open universities enrolling over 2 million students have been created in Asia. In the Middle East, distance learning institutions also have expanded. Small institutions and distance learning programs have taken hold in Africa, and Latin America offers an exciting array of distance learning institutions. Great Britain's Open University is fully consolidated and mature. Traditional distance learning programs, such as the University of California's Berkeley Extension Program in the US, continue to expand. A combination of reasons underlie the new interest in and growth of distance education, including, economic, pedagogical, timing and urgency, technological advances, managerial, sociopsychological. Distance education offers a good solution to a pressing problem, i.e., scarcity of resources. At current levels of investment in education, few countries in the developing world would be able to maintain their present levels of enrollments, much less improve access and quality. Distance education can offer flexible responses to different clients, different needs, and different types of students. Thus, in this regard, distance education is a perfect example of technology fit. If countries are to compete in international markets, updated education, training, and information must flow to countries' educational institutions and technological elites. In terms of technological advances, significant progress has been made in the areas of instructional design and student support systems through software design. Systems that manage complex operations now are widely available. As with other social innovation, the burden of proof continues to rest with the proponents of distance education. To improve the credibility of distance education, researchers need to address 4 major areas: student access; instructional design; student support systems; and evaluation and accreditation procedures

  20. National Wind Distance Learning Collaborative

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. James B. Beddow

    2013-03-29

    Executive Summary The energy development assumptions identified in the Department of Energy's position paper, 20% Wind Energy by 2030, projected an exploding demand for wind energy-related workforce development. These primary assumptions drove a secondary set of assumptions that early stage wind industry workforce development and training paradigms would need to undergo significant change if the workforce needs were to be met. The current training practice and culture within the wind industry is driven by a relatively small number of experts with deep field experience and knowledge. The current training methodology is dominated by face-to-face, classroom based, instructor present training. Given these assumptions and learning paradigms, the purpose of the National Wind Distance Learning Collaborative was to determine the feasibility of developing online learning strategies and products focused on training wind technicians. The initial project scope centered on (1) identifying resources that would be needed for development of subject matter and course design/delivery strategies for industry-based (non-academic) training, and (2) development of an appropriate Learning Management System (LMS). As the project unfolded, the initial scope was expanded to include development of learning products and the addition of an academic-based training partner. The core partners included two training entities, industry-based Airstreams Renewables and academic-based Lake Area Technical Institute. A third partner, Vision Video Interactive, Inc. provided technology-based learning platforms (hardware and software). The revised scope yielded an expanded set of results beyond the initial expectation. Eight learning modules were developed for the industry-based Electrical Safety course. These modules were subsequently redesigned and repurposed for test application in an academic setting. Software and hardware developments during the project's timeframe enabled redesign providing for

  1. More than Fiber: Distance Education in Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonson, Michael; Schlosser, Charles

    1995-01-01

    Describes distance education programs in Iowa, including the Iowa Distance Education Alliance developed through the Department of Education's Star Schools Program; the use of fiber optic technology; and the Iowa Communications Network that links colleges, universities, and secondary schools with public television. (LRW)

  2. Writing for Distance Education. Samples Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Extension Coll., Cambridge (England).

    Approaches to the format, design, and layout of printed instructional materials for distance education are illustrated in 36 samples designed to accompany the manual, "Writing for Distance Education." Each sample is presented on a single page with a note pointing out its key features. Features illustrated include use of typescript layout, a comic…

  3. Facilities Planning for Interactive Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Alex

    1997-01-01

    Provides basic information relating to the different aspects of facilities planning for interactive distance education, including site selection, acoustics, lighting, environmental considerations, and electrical power. The importance of facilities planning during the developmental stages of an interactive distance education project is emphasized.…

  4. Build Optional Digital Textbooks for Distance Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruo, Du; Xiaotang, Yang

    2013-01-01

    E-books seem to be a trend and an excellent solution for mobile learning lately, but what kinds of e-books are good fit for distance learners' needs? For the purpose of offering open, more appropriate, better in quality, more convenient and flexible learning materials for distance learners. From 2011, through an experimental study on the basis of…

  5. Teaching Time: Distance Education versus Classroom Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Diane M.; Wood, B. Jeanneane; Vredevoogd, Jon D.

    2004-01-01

    This study presents time-and-task records of faculty and teaching assistants' time for comparable computer-aided design courses at two state universities in the midwestern United States. One course was taught at a distance and the other course was a conventional face-to-face course. Results indicate a distance course takes less time to teach than…

  6. Student and Faculty Issues in Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fender, David L.

    Occupational safety and health faculty and occupational safety and health professionals (i.e., the potential audience for graduate level distance education programs) were surveyed to determine the considerations for a distance education-based graduate occupational safety and health program. Findings are reported related to the demand for distance…

  7. 14 CFR 23.75 - Landing distance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Landing distance. 23.75 Section 23.75 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 23.75 Landing distance. The horizontal...

  8. A History of Distance Education in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castaneda, Manuel Moreno

    2005-01-01

    Research on distance education in Mexico is still in the embryonic stage, in spite of its long history. One indication is that among the lines of research defined by the Mexican Council on Educational Research, the leading organization in the field in Mexico, distance education does not even appear. Only recently, in the last few years, has an…

  9. Distance Education Technologies in Preservice Methods Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Tom; Merkley, Donna; Dannenbring, Gary

    2001-01-01

    Describes a study that investigated the integration of distance education technologies into a preservice teachers' science methodology course. Highlights include a theoretical framework; effects of prior technology courses; effects of participation on student attitudes regarding the use of distance education technology; and correlations between…

  10. Research into Distance Education = Fernlehre und Fernlehrforschung.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmberg, Borje, Ed.; Ortner, Gerhard E., Ed.

    The papers (from a symposium held at the Fern Universitat) included in this collection focus on distance education in theory and practice. Contributions are written in English or in German, with summaries available for each in the language not used for the paper concerned. Contributions are: (1) "Distance Education as Communication: The Impact of…

  11. Language Distance Learning for the Digital Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duran-Cerda, Dolores

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to shed light on the potential of distance learning to overcome challenges in distance, space, time, and human and economic resources that limit access to language learning opportunities in cultural, literary, historical, geographical, and cross-cultural frames. Language and literature educators collectively have…

  12. Challenges Encountered by a Distance Learning Organisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, Sangeeta

    2012-01-01

    Distance learning as the name indicates is a learning, learner gets from distant places. In this learning system, learner and educators are separated by space & time. Lots of distance learning organizations are spreading to meet the increased demand of current & future needs of adult education. The rapid spread of these organizations doesn't mean…

  13. Globalization, Distance Education and Hegemonic Futures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Glenn

    2007-01-01

    Consideration of the place of theory in distance education suggests that existing definitions do not adequately account for economic, cultural and historical factors. The application of the notion of "hegemonic valency" to distance education highlights the ways in which tools, technological systems and online environments operate in predictable…

  14. Pitfalls and Success of Distance Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rendon, Marie Egbert

    This report discusses the pitfalls and success of distance learning programs. The report covers instructional alternatives of telecourse, linked courses, computer-aided learning, correspondence courses, and audio/video instruction. Sixteen concerns for distance learning programs are identified; for example: (1) registration procedures for distance…

  15. Distance Education Alliance Tackles FCS Teacher Shortage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinnis, Gay Nell

    2004-01-01

    To address teacher supply/demand/preparation issues, the Texas Education Agency funded a project that established a statewide inter-institutional system for providing Web-based distance education courses as preparation for FCS teacher certification. The Family and Consumer Sciences Distance Education Alliance (FCS Alliance) involves voluntary…

  16. Perspectives on Distance Education and Social Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Lisa; Alhussain, Ruqaya; Averbeck, Clemens; Warner, Andre

    2012-01-01

    There is a dramatic shift in the tools that are used in today's technology-based distance education. While distance education is not new, there are new types of socially rich, mobile technologies that empower learners to be more in control of what they learn, when they learn it, and how they learn it. Students are taking more responsibility for…

  17. Distance Learning for Mobile Internet Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Necat, Beran

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides an overview on the current state of art in the field of Distance learning for mobile users. It mentions a large range of technologies, services and approaches that may be used to bring distance learning to mobile internet users. These technologies are supposed to considerably increase innovative e-learning solutions for the…

  18. Distance Learners: Connected, Mobile and Resourceful Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Trish; Tynan, Belinda

    2012-01-01

    In recent years the student experience of higher education in general and distance education in particular has been strongly influenced by the wide scale uptake of Internet based learning approaches and an expanding distance education market, amongst many other trends. As competition within the sector increases because of access to the WWW and…

  19. Distance Education: By Design or Default?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ely, Donald P.

    Technology is often the driving force in the distance education movement, rather than the needs or educational problems that exist and need to be addressed. This paper considers the questions that should be asked before deciding that distance education is an appropriate solution to an education or training problem. The most successful distance…

  20. NASA Langley/CNU Distance Learning Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caton, Randall; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    NASA Langley Research Center and Christopher Newport University (CNU) provide, free to the public, distance learning programs that focus on math, science, and/or technology over a spectrum of education levels from K-adult. The effort started in 1997, and currently there are a suite of five distance-learning programs. This paper presents the major…

  1. Managing Intellectual Property for Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Liz

    2006-01-01

    Managing permissions for hundreds of pieces of intellectual property (IP) can be a daunting task for any course, but it is vital in distance learning courses because of legal implications specific to the online environment. In 1998, the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA)severely limited the use of copyrighted materials in distance learning.…

  2. Perspectives on Group Work in Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausstatter, Rune Sarromaa; Nordkvelle, Yngve Troye

    2007-01-01

    Current distance education benefits greatly from educational software that makes group work possible for students who are separated in time and space. However, some students prefer distance education because they can work on their own. This paper explores how students react to expectations on behalf of the course provider to do their assignments…

  3. Effects of Distance Learning on Learning Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Hong-Cheng; Yen, Jih-Rong

    2014-01-01

    The development of computers in the past two decades has resulted in the changes of education in enterprises and schools. The advance of computer hardware and platforms allow colleges generally applying distance courses to instruction that both Ministry of Education and colleges have paid attention to the development of Distance Learning. To…

  4. Exploring Cloud Computing for Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Wu; Cernusca, Dan; Abdous, M'hammed

    2011-01-01

    The use of distance courses in learning is growing exponentially. To better support faculty and students for teaching and learning, distance learning programs need to constantly innovate and optimize their IT infrastructures. The new IT paradigm called "cloud computing" has the potential to transform the way that IT resources are utilized and…

  5. Construal-Level Theory of Psychological Distance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trope, Yaacov; Liberman, Nira

    2010-01-01

    People are capable of thinking about the future, the past, remote locations, another person's perspective, and counterfactual alternatives. Without denying the uniqueness of each process, it is proposed that they constitute different forms of traversing psychological distance. Psychological distance is egocentric: Its reference point is the self…

  6. Adding Interactivity to Web Based Distance Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cafolla, Ralph; Knee, Richard

    Web Based Distance Learning (WBDL) is a form of distance learning based on providing instruction mainly on the World Wide Web. This paradigm has limitations, especially the lack of interactivity inherent in the Web. The purpose of this paper is to discuss some of the technologies the authors have used in their courses at Florida Atlantic…

  7. Measuring Distances to Remote Galaxies and Quasars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Patrick J.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the use of spectroscopy and the redshift to measure how far an object is by measuring how fast it is receding from earth. Lists the most distant quasars yet found. Tables include "Redshift vs. Distance" and "Distances to Celestial Objects for Various Cosmologies." (CW)

  8. Distance Education at Memorial University of Newfoundland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keough, Erin

    This presentation describes the distance education program at Memorial University (Newfoundland), which operates the Telemedicine Centre, including an audiographic, teleconference network that uses a combination of hardware and software to turn an MS DOS computer into an interactive long distance blackboard. Topics covered by the presentation…

  9. Distance Education in Taiwan: A Model Validated.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Mei-Yau; Zvacek, Susan M.

    The Triad Perspective Model of Distance Education (TPMDE) guides researchers in developing research questions, gathering data, and producing a comprehensive description of a distance education program. It was developed around three theoretical perspectives: (1) curriculum development theory (Tyler's four questions, 1949); (2) systems theory…

  10. Distance Learning: Promises, Problems, and Possibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, Doug

    2002-01-01

    Examines some of the current research and thought on the promises, problems, and the future possibilities in modern distance learning, particularly types that are delivered via electronic means. Topics include history of distance learning; quality of instruction; cost effectiveness; misuse of technology; equipment problems; instructor attitudes…

  11. 47 CFR 1.958 - Distance computation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Distance computation. 1.958 Section 1.958 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Wireless Radio Services Applications and Proceedings Application Requirements and Procedures § 1.958 Distance computation. The...

  12. THE EXTRAGALACTIC DISTANCE SCALE WITHOUT CEPHEIDS. IV

    SciTech Connect

    Hislop, Lachlan; Mould, Jeremy; Schmidt, Brian; Bessell, Michael S.; Da Costa, Gary; Francis, Paul; Keller, Stefan; Tisserand, Patrick; Rapoport, Sharon; Casey, Andy E-mail: brian@mso.anu.edu.au

    2011-06-01

    The Cepheid period-luminosity relation is the primary distance indicator used in most determinations of the Hubble constant. The tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) is an alternative basis. Using the new Australian National University (ANU) SkyMapper Telescope, we calibrate the Tully-Fisher relation in the I band. We find that the TRGB and Cepheid distance scales are consistent.

  13. Increasing Access and Relevance in Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendenhall, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Access to higher education is subject to many factors including affordability, time and geography. Distance education can deliver education to those that live far from a campus. Some of that distance education may be synchronous, or live, requiring students to be available at certain times. Flexibility and access are increased when the instruction…

  14. Distance Learning: New Technology and New Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Julie Davis

    1991-01-01

    Some common questions that state legislators have about how distance learning can work in their states are explored. Distance learning, once considered strictly a rural education strategy, is now recognized to have the potential to provide solutions to some of the problems states face in delivering quality education to all students. A distance…

  15. Engineering Undergraduate Distance Learning Programs: An Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunnath, Maria Lorna; Eaglin, Ronald

    Distance education reverses the traditional way of providing education to the learning community. Instead of students coming to the university to get that needed education, the university comes to the student. This research/survey of undergraduate engineering distance learning universities was conducted utilizing traditional and virtual sources of…

  16. Current and Future Demand for Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDiarmid, G. Williamson; Goldsmith, Scott; Hill, Alexandra; Hull, Teresa

    This study assesses current and future demands for distance education at the University of Alaska (UA). It highlights findings from interviews with representatives of 33 rural organizations, and 36 instructors who teach 53 distance education courses. It also lists questions raised and recommendations made by provosts at the Anchorage, Fairbanks,…

  17. Diffusion of Distance Education in North Cyprus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isman, Aytekin; Dabaj, Fahme

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to explore how distance education has diffused in north Cyprus. In this paper, Rogers' diffusion theory (1995) was used to analyze the acceptance and implementation of distance education in institutions of higher learning in north Cyprus. The four main elements of the diffusion paradigm--the innovation,…

  18. An Active Tutorial on Distance Sampling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Alice

    2007-01-01

    The technique of distance sampling is widely used to monitor biological populations. This paper documents an in-class activity to introduce students to the concepts and the mechanics of distance sampling in a simple situation that is relevant to their own experiences. Preparation details are described. Variations and extensions to the activity are…

  19. Distance Education Report, 2011-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Chancellor's Office, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This is a report on distance education in the California Community College. This is the seventh report to the California Community Colleges Board of Governors (BOG) per BOG Standing Order 409 (b) "that evaluates the effectiveness of distance education and education technology system wide and provides analysis of data demographically (by age,…

  20. Three Generations of Distance Education Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Terry; Dron, Jon

    2011-01-01

    This paper defines and examines three generations of distance education pedagogy. Unlike earlier classifications of distance education based on the technology used, this analysis focuses on the pedagogy that defines the learning experiences encapsulated in the learning design. The three generations of cognitive-behaviourist, social constructivist,…

  1. New Strategy of the Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunyatova, Fatma Khanim; Salamov, Gulbala

    2014-01-01

    This article is dedicated to new strategy of distance education. The article deals with the possibilities of ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) in teaching specially distance education. In the article, ICT technological tools and their methods of application in educational process are looked over; discrepancy of intellectual…

  2. Applying Leadership Theories to Distance Education Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nworie, John

    2012-01-01

    The instructional delivery mode in distance education has been transitioning from the context of a physical classroom environment to a virtual learning environment or maintaining a hybrid of the two. However, most distance education programs in dual mode institutions are situated in traditional face-to-face instructional settings. Distance…

  3. Distance Education for People with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liakou, Maria; Manousou, Evaggelia

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the standards of higher Distance Education, focusing on the Hellenic Open University, for people who have visual impairments, so that it becomes fully accessible and thus helps reduce social exclusion. Specifically, it aims to study the operational context of Distance Education, the possibilities that modern technology provides…

  4. Who Graduates from Irish Distance University Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaney, Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    This paper outlines results from an online survey of recent distance graduates. The study, based in Dublin City University (DCU) addresses a gap in the research on this cohort of graduates. Findings indicate that distance graduates are primarily from lower socio economic backgrounds, a group largely under-represented in full-time university…

  5. Audiences and Providers of Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nazarinia Roy, R. Roudi; Schumm, Walter R.

    2011-01-01

    As noted by Moore (2007, xxiii), the fifth section of the second edition of the "Handbook of Distance Education" focused on "some of the main consumers and suppliers of distance education programs," including elementary and secondary education, community colleges, universities, the corporate sector, continuing professional education, the armed…

  6. Research on Distance Education Development in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xin, Ding; Jian, Niu; Yanhui, Han

    2010-01-01

    Distance education is among the significant fields for the application of educational technology. Distance education in China has gone through three phases, namely: correspondence-based education, radio and TV-based education and online education. This paper was based on educational technology application, and the historical, dialectic and…

  7. Distance Education--The Trend Setter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnbull, Amelia Joy

    The quality of distance education is becoming more widely recognized in Canada and a greater number of students are opting for this means of furthering their education. In an effective distance education techno-system which focuses on the student, five essential characteristics can be identified. Such a system will be accessible; flexible;…

  8. Collaboration in Distance Education. International Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Louise, Ed.; Mugridge, Ian, Ed.

    This book contains nine case studies of collaboration in distance education. The case studies focus on such aspects of collaboration in distance education as the following: roles of individual institutional partners; importance of personal relationships; benefits of collaboration to individual partners; conflicts between collaboration and…

  9. Telecommunications and Distance Education. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romiszowski, Alexander

    The print-based model of distance education through correspondence continues to be used, but is being supplemented and, in some cases, replaced, by other media. A second generation of distance education in the 1960s and 1970s was characterized by reliance on open broadcasting, supported by correspondence instruction and print materials. A third…

  10. Funding and Spending: What Price Distance Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Ormond; Hiiri, Allan

    This paper explains methods of handling information about real costs to develop a model that is then used to forecast future costs of specified distance education activities and to obtain funding for these activities. It is addressed to anyone concerned about acquiring and spending money in distance education--managers of systems and institutions,…