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Sample records for loote reesusstaatuse mitteinvasiivne

  1. Space -based monitoring of archaeological looting using multitemporal satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasaponara, R.; Masini, N.

    2012-04-01

    Illegal excavations represent one of the main risk factors which affect the archaeological heritage all over the world, in particular in those countries, from Southern America to Middle East, where the surveillance on site is little effective and time consuming and the aerial surveillance is non practicable due to military or political restrictions. In such contexts satellite remote sensing offers a suitable chance to monitor this phenomenon.. Looting phenomenon is much more dramatic during wars or armed conflicts, as occurred in Iraq during the two Gulf Wars, where "total area looted was many times greater than all the archaeological investigations ever conducted in southern Iraq" (Stone E. 2008). Media reports described the massive looting in broad daylight and destruction of the Iraqi museums and other cultural institutions. Between 2003 and 2004, several buried ancient cities have been completely eaten away by crater-like holes (http://www.savingantiquities.org/feature_page.php?featureID=7), and many other archaeological sites would be pillaged without the valuable activity of the Italian Carabinieri, responsible for guarding archaeological sites in the region of Nassyriah. To contrast and limit this phenomenon a systematic monitoring is required. Up to now, the protection of archaeological heritage from illegal diggings is generally based on a direct or aerial surveillance, which are time consuming, expensive and not suitable for extensive areas. VHR satellite images offer a suitable chance thanks to their global coverage and frequent re-visitation times. In this paper, automatic data processing approaches, based on filtering, geospatial analysis and wavelet, have been applied to enhance spatial and spectral anomaly linked to illegal excavations to make their semiautomatic identification easier. Study areas from Middle east and Southern America have been processed and discussed.

  2. On the use of Multisensor and multitemporal data for monitoring risk degradation and looting in archaeological site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masini, Nicola; Lasaponara, Rosa

    2015-04-01

    Illegal excavations represent one of the main risks which affect the archaeological heritage all over the world. They cause a massive loss of artefacts but also, and above all, a loss of the cultural context, which makes the subsequent interpretation of archaeological remains very difficult. Remote sensing offers a suitable chance to quantify and analyse this phenomenon, especially in those countries, from Southern America to Middle East, where the surveillance on site is not much effective and time consuming or non practicable due to military or political restrictions. In this paper we focus on the use of GeoEye and Google Earth imagery to quantitatively assess looting in Ventarron (Lambayeque, Peru) that is one of most important archaeological sites in Southern America. Multitemporal satellite images acquired for the study area have been processed by using both autocorrelation statistics and unsupervised classification to highlight and extract looting patterns. The mapping of areas affected by looting offered the opportunity to investigate such areas not previously systematically documented. Reference Lasaponara R.; Giovanni Leucci; Nicola Masini; Raffaele Persico 2014 ": Investigating archaeological looting using very high resolution satellite images and georadar: the experience in Lambayeque in North Peru JASC13-61R1 Cigna Francesca, Deodato Tapete, Rosa Lasaponara and Nicola Masini, 2013 Amplitude Change Detection with ENVISAT ASAR to Image the Cultural Landscape of the Nasca Region, Peru (pages 117-131). Archeological Prospection Article first published online: 21 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/arp.1451 Tapete Deodato, Francesca Cigna, Nicola Masini and Rosa Lasaponara 2013. Prospection and Monitoring of the Archaeological Heritage of Nasca, Peru, with ENVISAT ASAR Archeological Prospection (pages 133-147) Article first published online: 21 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/arp.1449 Lasaponara Rosa 2013: Geospatial analysis from space: Advanced approaches for data processing

  3. A new genus and species of Laelapidae from Iran with notes on Gymnolaelaps Berlese and Laelaspisella Marais & Loots (Acari, Mesostigmata)

    PubMed Central

    Nemati, Alireza; Gwiazdowicz, Dariusz J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pogonolaelaps gen. n. a new genus of Laelapidae Berlese is erected and described based on Pogonolaelaps canestrinii (Berlese), comb. n. as well as on specimens which were collected from soil and ant nests in different parts of Iran. Also, a new species Pogonolaelaps beaulieui sp. n. is described based on specimens collected from soil, litter and ant nests in various parts of Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari province, Iran. The genus Gymnolaelaps is revised considering species with some morphological deviations. Gymnolaelaps reniculus (Karg, 1981) and Gymnolaelaps triquetrus (Karg, 2003) are removed from this genus and placed in their original genus Pseudoparasitus. The characters of Laelaspisella Marais & Loots, 1969 are discussed in a detail along with a proposal of a new definition. PMID:26843830

  4. Who Gets the Research Loot? The Challenges of Being a Postdoctoral Fellow in a Neoliberal University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    What does it all mean for universities as research institutions when the external funding acquired by their academics, already stretched intellectually and time poor, is going to those who simply do not have the time to carry out the proposed research, i.e. to the academics themselves? That is, how can a full-time teaching and research academic…

  5. The Looting of the American Dream: The Post-Katrina Rubble of Public Education in Louisiana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischetti, John C.; Kirylo, James D.

    2014-01-01

    The mishandling of pre- and post-Hurricane Katrina rescue and recovery is stunningly similar to the mishandling by those who have been in charge of Louisiana public education over the past seven years. This includes the devaluing of the teaching profession, the rise of the marketization of education, and the minimizing of the common good. In this…

  6. Review of the genus Laelaspisella Marais & Loots, with the description of a new species from Iran (Acari, Laelapidae)

    PubMed Central

    Joharchi, Omid; Babaeian, Esmaeil; Jalalizand, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of mite is described from Iran, Laelaspisella elsae sp. n. (Acari: Laelapidae). The new species was collected from bark of elm trees in Isfahan province. A revised diagnosis for Laelaspisella, as well as a key to the world species of the genus, are presented. Two species groups of Laelaspisella are proposed: those with seta pd3 on genu I and those without pd3 on genu I. Pseudoparasitus (Gymnolaelaps) tonsilis Karg, 1989a is transferred to Laelaspisella, based on its hypertrichous holodorsal shield, metasternal setae st4 absent and genu IV with ten setae. The problems with Laelaspisella canestrinii are explained and Laelaspisella canestrinii sensu Berlese (1903), (1904) and Costa (1962) is provided with a new name, Laelaspisella berlesei Joharchi, nom. n. PMID:26843829

  7. Birka: A Trading Game for Economics Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alden, Lori

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author introduces Birka, a strategic trading game for high school economics students in either regular or advanced placement classes. For the game, students assume the role of Vikings who have returned to the medieval outpost of Birka to trade the loot from villages they have plundered. Playing cards represent the loot:…

  8. Course in Art and the Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merryman, John Henry

    1974-01-01

    Justifies and describes a course offered at Stanford Law School in 1972 listing course objectives and outlining content which included focus on art looting, government and the arts, artist's rights in the work of art, consumer protection, and taxation. (JT)

  9. Archeology and the Federal Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, George S., Comp.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The U.S. Government's concern for preservation of important archeological properties began during the 19th century in response to the destruction and looting of Indian ruins in the U.S. Southwest. Since that time, the breadth of this concern has grown to include the consideration of impact to archeological properties, as well as to other kinds of…

  10. Antiquity Belongs to the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuno, James

    2008-01-01

    Increasingly over the 20th century, nations, many of them newly formed as the result of the dissolution of empires, instituted those kinds of cultural-property laws and signed bilateral treaties and international conventions as means of strengthening them. Still the looting of archaeological sites continues. Iraq is but one example. Wherever…

  11. Release of Archives Helps Fill Gap in Files on Wartime Atrocities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Whether it is the hunt for the last surviving perpetrators of the Holocaust, the restitution of looted artworks, or new evidence of the complicity of governments in that immense crime against humanity by Germany and its allies, U.S. public interest in European war crimes has not flagged since the end of World War II. But the war crimes committed…

  12. Exposure to rapid succession disasters: a study of residents at the epicenter of the Chilean Bío Bío earthquake.

    PubMed

    Garfin, Dana Rose; Silver, Roxane Cohen; Ugalde, Francisco Javier; Linn, Heiko; Inostroza, Manuel

    2014-08-01

    We examined cumulative and specific types of trauma exposure as predictors of distress and impairment following a multifaceted community disaster. Approximately 3 months after the 8.8 magnitude earthquake, tsunami, and subsequent looting in Bío Bío, Chile, face-to-face interviews were conducted in 5 provinces closest to the epicenter. Participants (N = 1,000) were randomly selected using military topographic records and census data. Demographics, exposure to discrete components of the disaster (earthquake, tsunami, looting), and exposure to secondary stressors (property loss, injury, death) were evaluated as predictors of posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms, global distress, and functional impairment. Prevalence of probable posttraumatic stress disorder was 18.95%. In adjusted models examining specificity of exposure to discrete disaster components and secondary stressors, PTS symptoms and global distress were associated with earthquake intensity, tsunami exposure, and injury to self/close other. Increased functional impairment correlated with earthquake intensity and injury to self/close other. In adjusted models, cumulative exposure to secondary stressors correlated with PTS symptoms, global distress, and functional impairment; cumulative count of exposure to discrete disaster components did not. Exploratory analyses indicated that, beyond direct exposure, appraising the tsunami and looting as the worst components of the disaster correlated with greater media exposure and higher socioeconomic status, respectively. Overall, threat to life indicators correlated with worse outcomes. As failure of government tsunami warnings resulted in many deaths, findings suggest disasters compounded by human errors may be particularly distressing. We advance theory regarding cumulative and specific trauma exposure as predictors of postdisaster distress and provide information for enhancing targeted postdisaster interventions. PMID:25089656

  13. Intersubjective Interaction Between Deaf Parents/Deaf Infants During the Infant's First 18 Months.

    PubMed

    Roos, Carin; Cramér-Wolrath, Emelie; Falkman, Kerstin W

    2016-01-01

    This study is part of a larger longitudinal project with the aim of focusing early social interaction and development of mentalizing ability in 12 deaf infants, including the interaction between the infants and their deaf parents. The aim of the present paper is to describe early social interaction and moments of intersubjectivity between the deaf infants and their deaf parents during the first 18 months of the infant's life. The study is focused on the dyadic interaction rather than on the behaviors of the infant and the caregiver separately. In the analysis, the Intersubjective Developmental Theory Model (Loots, Devisé, & Sermijn, 2003) and the definitions of moments of intersubjectivity (Loots, Devisé, & Jacquet, 2005) were used. The findings show that the participating infants follow a typical developmental trajectory of intersubjectivity, both with regard to developmental stages and age. This development is supported by a visual, simultaneous way of communicating by gaze rather than having constant eye contact. Parents use complex visual communication skills in maintaining joint attention and also expect the infant to grasp the meaning of the interaction by use of gaze contact. PMID:26310457

  14. Priming media stereotypes reduces support for social welfare policies: the mediating role of empathy.

    PubMed

    Johnson, James D; Olivo, Nelgy; Gibson, Nathan; Reed, William; Ashburn-Nardo, Leslie

    2009-04-01

    Two experiments involving White participants tested the influence of media-based priming of Black stereotypes on support for government policy that assisted Black versus White persons-in-need. Experiment 1 showed that priming the "Black criminal" stereotype through exposure to photographs of Blacks looting after Hurricane Katrina reduced policy support for Black evacuees-in-need but did not influence support responses toward White evacuees-in-need. Experiment 2 showed that priming the "promiscuous Black female" stereotype through exposure to sexual rap music reduced policy support for a Black pregnant woman-in-need but did not influence support responses toward a White pregnant woman-in-need. Further tests of mediated moderation demonstrated that in both experiments, the interactive influence of priming Black stereotypes and race of persons-in-need on policy support was mediated by empathic responding. PMID:19171774

  15. Ethnicity and conflict: theory and facts.

    PubMed

    Esteban, Joan; Mayoral, Laura; Ray, Debraj

    2012-05-18

    Over the second half of the 20th century, conflicts within national boundaries became increasingly dominant. One-third of all countries experienced civil conflict. Many (if not most) such conflicts involved violence along ethnic lines. On the basis of recent theoretical and empirical research, we provide evidence that preexisting ethnic divisions do influence social conflict. Our analysis also points to particular channels of influence. Specifically, we show that two different measures of ethnic division--polarization and fractionalization--jointly influence conflict, the former more so when the winners enjoy a "public" prize (such as political power or religious hegemony), the latter more so when the prize is "private" (such as looted resources, government subsidies, or infrastructures). The available data appear to strongly support existing theories of intergroup conflict. Our argument also provides indirect evidence that ethnic conflicts are likely to be instrumental, rather than driven by primordial hatreds. PMID:22605763

  16. Disaster myths after the Great East Japan Disaster and the effects of information sources on belief in such myths.

    PubMed

    Nogami, Tatsuya; Yoshida, Fujio

    2014-07-01

    This study examines how well disaster myths were rooted in Japanese people after the Great East Japan Disaster, as well as the effects of information sources on these misconceptions. Five common disaster myths are covered (panic, psychological shock, looting, increases in the crime rate, and material convergence), and information sources were divided into two types: public and private. Three hundred participants were asked how much credit they would give the five myths and which information sources they would rely on in post-disaster situations. The results found that, as in Western societies, these disaster myths do exist among Japanese people. Also, only public sources of disaster information, such as television and Internet news websites, had some effect on the degree of belief in disaster myths, while private sources, such as one's family, friends, and social networking sites, did not. Factors affecting the degree to which people believe in disaster myths are also discussed. PMID:24905815

  17. A mathematical model of the London riots and their policing

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Toby P.; Fry, Hannah M.; Wilson, Alan G.; Bishop, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    In August 2011, several areas of London experienced episodes of large-scale disorder, comprising looting, rioting and violence. Much subsequent discourse has questioned the adequacy of the police response, in terms of the resources available and strategies used. In this article, we present a mathematical model of the spatial development of the disorder, which can be used to examine the effect of varying policing arrangements. The model is capable of simulating the general emergent patterns of the events and focusses on three fundamental aspects: the apparently-contagious nature of participation; the distances travelled to riot locations; and the deterrent effect of policing. We demonstrate that the spatial configuration of London places some areas at naturally higher risk than others, highlighting the importance of spatial considerations when planning for such events. We also investigate the consequences of varying police numbers and reaction time, which has the potential to guide policy in this area. PMID:23425781

  18. A doublet C0 IR solution using existing magnets

    SciTech Connect

    John A Johnstone

    2002-08-19

    This note explores, in a very limited way, some of the possibilities and difficulties encountered in creating collisions at C0 solely using magnets looted from the existing IR's at B0 and D0. In the strawman model considered her a standard Collins straight section is installed at D0, while all the useful D0 IR magnets are moved to C0. There is no obvious reason from either an optics or beam-separation viewpoint to prefer the demise of D0 over CDF, or vice-versa, so the model choice is fairly arbitrary. Apart from modifications to the final-focus optics, the magnets appear at C0 locations just as they are currently installed at D0.

  19. Trust via disasters: the case of Chile's 2010 earthquake.

    PubMed

    Dussaillant, Francisca; Guzmán, Eugenio

    2014-10-01

    Chile has a long-standing history of natural disasters and, in particular, earthquakes. The latest big earthquake hit Chile on 27 February 2010 with a magnitude of 8.8 on the Richter scale. As an event that had a profound impact on significant portions of the population, the earthquake could theoretically have served to build trust by promoting new trust networks through the enhancement of distant family ties and the interaction between affected neighbours. This study offers an empirical analysis of this theory in the Chilean case. It finds that if initial social capital is very low (thus allowing for post-disaster looting and violence), then the impact of the trust-increasing effect is smaller. It also shows that the effect of the disaster was not transitory, but that it persisted and actually increased over time. PMID:25196338

  20. Investigation on the Ancient Site Location in the Mesopotamian Region Based on ALOS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Ken; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Ushiki, Hisao; Goto, Tomoya

    2008-11-01

    This project aims to investigate the location of ancient Mesopotamian sites in Iraq and to create a distribution map using ALOS data. Iraq is a centre of the ancient Mesopotamian civilization. A distribution map is essential to conduct a prompt investigation and preservation of ancient sites and cultural heritage in Iraq which are at risk of looting and robbery due to the recent Iraqi condition. Firstly this project enables to create Satellite Image Map of Iraq, where the acquisition of detailed map is not possible, based on ALOS Data. The ancient site of Mesopotamia is called "Tell" which is swelled up from the alluvial plain and forms like a hill with the bare land on the surface. Secondly, the estimation of locating ancient site has been undertaken by using the Satellite Image Interpretation method. Finally the locations of the ancient sites and the Satellite Image map are layered to produce the Distribution Map.

  1. Torture in a democratic country, 1989. Medical aspects.

    PubMed

    Petersen, H D

    1990-12-01

    After a period of unrest in Caracas, Venezuela, in February/March 1989, Amnesty International (AI) received information about torture applied by security forces to people thought to have participated in or organised riots and lootings. In May 1989 a delegation from AI went to Caracas to collect and appraise testimonies of human rights abuses. The delegation consisted of two staff members from the AI International Secretariat, one lawyer and one physician. The primary task of the latter was to assess the validity of the testimonies about torture. A full report (1) including a legal analysis has been published by AI. This paper describes some of the medical aspects of the mission. PMID:2073858

  2. Public Health Concerns Associated with the New York City Blackout of 1977.

    PubMed

    Imperato, Pascal James

    2016-08-01

    The 1977 New York City blackout began at 9:36 p.m. on 13 July and lasted some 25 h until 10:39 p.m. on 14 July. The New York City Department of Health rapidly set up a Blackout Contingency Plan, established priorities, and mobilized its staff to address remedial interventions. Top priorities included water supplies, sewage disposal, perishable food supplies, hospital and emergency room services, solid waste disposal, beach contamination with untreated sewage , and assisting those on electrically powered home life support systems. The 1977 blackout occurred during an extended heat wave. An analysis of total deaths and deaths due to pulmonary and cardiovascular/renal diseases by day correlated with temperatures. However, there was no direct correlation with the blackout itself, in part perhaps because of the confounding influence of high temperatures. The increase of deaths on very hot days outside of the blackout period lends strong support to the relationship between increased deaths and high ambient temperatures. The 1977 New York City blackout was distinguished from those of 1965 and 2003 by violence, arson, and looting that occurred in several areas. These acts resulted in 204 civilian injuries, 436 police injuries, 80 firefighter injuries, and 1037 fires. The violence, arson, and looting caused extensive long-term physical and functional damage to certain areas of two boroughs of the city, Brooklyn and the Bronx. Although the New York City Department of Health had not previously established a disaster preparedness plan, its professionals quickly rose to the occasion because they were able to draw upon vast public health practice experience and ingenuity. PMID:27220853

  3. GIS and archaeology: a spatial predictive model for neolithic sites of the Tavoliere (Apulia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danese, Maria; Masini, Nicola; Biscione, Marilisa; Lasaponara, Rosa

    2013-08-01

    Two are the risks associated to archaeological heritage. The first one is economic and it is related to the costs needed to perform field survey in all the territory. The second one is scientific, that is the risk to lose artifacts and, consequently, witnesses of the human past [1], in particular in case of large-scale infrastructure works and looting linked to the illicit trade of antiquities. Predictive models are useful to archaeological research to look for the right compromise between the reduction of costs and effectiveness of results. It enables to identify the site locational behavior [2], more in particular environmental site location preferences [3]. From the eighties the development of more user friendly GIS softwares and the increased easiness of relative tools allowed the diffusion of predictive models, that were improved thanks to the greater availability of remotely sensed data and the image processing routines, which are effective for the detection of archaeological features. The proposal of this paper is to make a brief review of existing predictive models and to propose a new model that takes in count spatial properties of archaeological datasets to predict neolithic settlements in Tavoliere in the Apulian region (Southern Italy), already investigated by preventive archaeological methods including geophysics and remote sensing [4].

  4. Food shortages and gender relations in Ikafe settlement, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Payne, L

    1998-03-01

    In 1996, an 18-month-old settlement created for 55,000 Sudanese refugees in northern Uganda came under attack by Ugandan rebels. By March 1997, the entire population of the settlement had migrated in search of safety. Because the refugees lost their livelihoods and cultivated fields, they had to adopt short-term coping strategies to acquire food. Two Oxfam researchers gathering information during this period for use in program planning and monitoring found that coping strategies included 1) hazarding dangerous journeys (women risked rape or abduction; men risked beating, looting, killing, or abduction) to harvest crops; 2) seeking piece-work employment; 3) exchanging sex for food; and 4) depleting assets. The crisis was particularly severe for single people (especially those with children). In families where the women but not the men could find employment, some men took on household responsibilities. As malnutrition increased, health declined. Observed changes to household gender relations included new sexual divisions of labor, assumption by females of decision-making power, increased domestic quarreling, and marital break-down (especially in cases where women had been raped). On the community level, women assumed more responsibility as men withdrew socially or left the settlement. These findings point to the importance of providing refugees with seeds, with small loans to stimulate business, and with the means to rebuild their sense of community. PMID:12321534

  5. The Cipa Database for Saving the Heritage of Syria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, Minna; Rinaudo, Fulvio; Morezzi, Emanuele; Quenda, Francesca; Moretti, Maria Laura

    2016-06-01

    CIPA is contributing with its technical knowledge in saving the heritage of Syria by constructing an open access database based on the data that the CIPA members have collected during various projects in Syria over the years before the civil war in the country broke out in 2011. In this way we wish to support the protection and preservation of the environment, sites, monuments, and artefacts and the memory of the cultural region that has been crucial for the human past and the emergence of civilizations. Apart from the countless human atrocities and loss, damage, destruction and looting of the cultural heritage have taken place in a large scale. The CIPA's initiative is one of the various international projects that have been set up after the conflict started. The Directorate-General of the Antiquities and Museums (DGAM) of Syria as well as UNESCO with its various sub-organizations have been central in facing the challenges during the war. Digital data capture, storage, use and dissemination are in the heart of CIPA's strategies in recording and documenting cultural heritage, also in Syria. It goes without saying that for the conservation and restoration work the high quality data providing metric information is of utmost importance.

  6. Maritime and Underwater Cultural Heritage in South Africa: The Development of Relevant Management Strategies in the Historical Maritime Context of the Southern Tip of Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharfman, Jonathan; Boshoff, Jaco; Parthesius, Robert

    2012-10-01

    South Africans have a long association with water. It has provided a source of food, a medium for trade and a catalyst for migration and development. The country's geographical position as a crossroads of maritime trade between Europe and the East means that its history is inextricably linked to the history of the rest of the world. The result is a multi-faceted representation of sites, objects and mythologies related to water and maritime heritage that reflect not only local historical and social development, but global cultural change as well. Given the importance of South Africa's underwater cultural heritage (UCH), managers have grappled with management principles, ethics and theoretical models in an effort to produce and enforce heritage legislation that is relevant and effective. This paper outlines South Africa's maritime context from 1.5 million years ago until the present, summarises legislative and mitigation developments over the past half century and provides details of current trends in maritime archaeology and UCH management at the southern tip of Africa. Training programmes and public awareness are keys to this strategy to bring UCH and maritime archaeology into the mainstream and counter treasure hunting and looting of this rich, friable resource.

  7. Refugees and oral health: lessons learned from stories of Hazara refugees.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Cathryn E Finney; Whelan, Anna Klinken; Michaels, Cecily

    2009-11-01

    Australia is one of a few countries with a resettlement program for refugees. The organisation and provision of health services for refugees pose challenges to health service managers and service providers. Some groups have experienced severe trauma and, in the case of Hazara refugees, years of persecution and displacement. This qualitative study gained access to Hazara refugees in order to gain an understanding of their oral health experiences and to seek participant views on factors that impacted on their oral health status. All participants had poor oral health status, multiple tooth extractions, and had placed a low priority on their oral health. They had experienced violence and traumatic events associated with war and looting. Participants reported that they had limited access to dental practitioners and oral education; lived for extended periods with oral pain and untreated oral problems; and treated oral pain with traditional pain remedies and tooth extractions. Service providers need to consider that elements of the refugee experience may affect health-seeking behavior and adherence to treatment. PMID:20166911

  8. Memorialization, Graffiti and Artifact Movement: A Case Study of Cultural Impacts on WWII Underwater Cultural Heritage in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinnon, Jennifer F.

    2015-04-01

    Cultural tourism in the Pacific has always offered an underwater option for those who snorkel or are certified to dive. In addition to the coral reefs and marine life, World War II (WWII) shipwrecks, aircraft wrecks and other submerged vehicles draw hundreds of tourists to the Pacific each year. While it is encouraging that so many are interested in the cultural heritage of battlefields, these same visitors can cause considerable amounts of damage. This paper presents a case study of cultural impacts on submerged WWII sites in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) where diving heritage tourism is a growing industry. Cultural impacts in the CNMI include a diverse range of direct and indirect impacts including vandalism, the act of memorialization, looting and collecting souvenirs, anchor and mooring damage, and moving artifacts. What is often viewed as detrimental cultural impacts by archaeologists and managers can also be examined as behavior that reflects various stakeholders' values and attitudes towards heritage sites. As such, these behaviors can and should be examined and considered concurrently during research and management discussions.

  9. A Case Study in Balancing Protection, Interpretation, and Public Access in the Treasure Hunting Capital of the World: The Management of the HMS Fowey Shipwreck in Biscayne National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marano, Joshua

    2015-08-01

    The management of the HMS Fowey shipwreck site in Biscayne National Park is a unique case study in the development of an interpretation and outreach program for the sensitive and now inaccessible site. Decades of restricted access and recent stabilization activities completed at the site have effectively closed archaeological access to it for the foreseeable future. The National Park Service did not come lightly to the decision to physically remove access the site. However, after several decades of monitoring significant loss, due to both erosion and looting, few options remained. This article utilizes the management of HMS Fowey as a case study in the development and modification of an interpretation and outreach program that can be applied to resources in similar peril and specifically to those located within the Florida Keys. Following a discussion of the archaeological history of the wreck site and the difficulties of regulating public access to HMS Fowey, this article addresses some of the difficulties associated with interpreting a closed and inaccessible archaeological site while detailing the Park's attempts to balance the protection, interpretation, and public access to sensitive archaeological sites in what could be described as the treasure hunting capital of the world.

  10. Iraq nuclear facility dismantlement and disposal project

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, J.R.; Danneels, J.; Kenagy, W.D.; Phillips, C.J.; Chesser, R.K.

    2007-07-01

    The Al Tuwaitha nuclear complex near Baghdad contains a significant number of nuclear facilities from Saddam Hussein's dictatorship. Because of past military operations, lack of upkeep and looting there is now an enormous radioactive waste problem at Al Tuwaitha. Al Tuwaitha contains uncharacterised radioactive wastes, yellow cake, sealed radioactive sources, and contaminated metals. The current security situation in Iraq hampers all aspects of radioactive waste management. Further, Iraq has never had a radioactive waste disposal facility, which means that ever increasing quantities of radioactive waste and material must be held in guarded storage. The Iraq Nuclear Facility Dismantlement and Disposal Program (the NDs Program) has been initiated by the U.S. Department of State (DOS) to assist the Government of Iraq (GOI) in eliminating the threats from poorly controlled radioactive materials, while building human capacities so that the GOI can manage other environmental cleanups in their country. The DOS has funded the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to provide technical assistance to the GOI via a Technical Cooperation Project. Program coordination will be provided by the DOS, consistent with U.S. and GOI policies, and Sandia National Laboratories will be responsible for coordination of participants and for providing waste management support. Texas Tech University will continue to provide in-country assistance, including radioactive waste characterization and the stand-up of the Iraq Nuclear Services Company. The GOI owns the problems in Iraq and will be responsible for the vast majority of the implementation of the NDs Program. (authors)

  11. Iraq nuclear facility dismantlement and disposal project (NDs Project).

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, John Russell

    2010-06-01

    The Al Tuwaitha nuclear complex near Baghdad contains a number of facilities from Saddam Hussan's nuclear weapons program. Past military operations, lack of upkeep and looting have created an enormous radioactive waste problem at the Al Tuwaitha complex, which contains various, uncharacterized radioactive wastes, yellow cake, sealed radioactive sources, and contaminated metals that must be constantly guarded. Iraq has never had a radioactive waste disposal facility and the lack of a disposal facility means that ever increasing quantities of radioactive material must be held in guarded storage. The Iraq Nuclear Facility Dismantlement and Disposal Program (the NDs Program) has been initiated by the U.S. Department of State (DOS) to assist the Government of Iraq (GOI) in eliminating the threats from poorly controlled radioactive materials, while building human capacities so that the GOI can manage other environmental cleanups in their country. The DOS is funding the IAEA to provide technical assistance via Technical Cooperation projects. Program coordination will be provided by the DOS, consistent with GOI policies, and Sandia National Laboratories will be responsible for coordination of participants and waste management support. Texas Tech University will continue to provide in-country assistance, including radioactive waste characterization and the stand-up of the Iraq Nuclear Services Company. The GOI owns the problems in Iraq and will be responsible for implementation of the NDs Program.

  12. The population dynamics of an endemic collectible cactus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandujano, María C.; Bravo, Yolotzin; Verhulst, Johannes; Carrillo-Angeles, Israel; Golubov, Jordan

    2015-02-01

    Astrophytum is one of most collected genera in the cactus family. Around the world several species are maintained in collections and yearly, several plants are taken from their natural habitats. Populations of Astorphytum capricorne are found in the northern Chihuahuan desert, Mexico, and as many endemic cactus species, it has a highly restricted habitat. We conducted a demographic study from 2008 to 2010 of the northern populations found at Cuatro Ciénegas, Mexico. We applied matrix population models, included simulations, life table response experiments and descriptions of the population dynamics to evaluate the current status of the species, and detect key life table stages and demographic processes. Population growth rate decreased in both years and only 4% individual mortality can be attributed to looting, and a massive effort is needed to increase seedling recruitment and reduce adult mortality. The fate of individuals differed between years even having the same annual rainfall mainly in accentuated stasis, retrogression and high mortality in all size classes, which coupled with low seed production, no recruitment and collection of plants are the causes contributing to population decline, and hence, increase the risk in which A. capricorne populations are found. Reintroduction of seedlings and lowering adult mortality are urgently needed to revert the alarming demographic condition of A. capricorne populations.

  13. Utilization of the Space food in Space Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Space Agriculture Task Force

    2012-07-01

    It is important that we think about the utilization of the Space food in the space agriculture. In addition, these studies may lead the food problem on the earth on the solution. This study thought about the utilization of the food and thought about doing a stem and the root of vegetables performed water culture of with food. I order Japan Food Research Laboratories to do the nutritional analysis of the root of a lettuce cultivated by water culture. The analysis items were lipid, carbohydrates, energy, protein, water, ash, Na, P, Fe, Ca, K, Mg, Cu, Zn, Mn, vitamin B12, vitamin C, vitamin D, dietary fiber(water soluble or insoluble). Most were water, but, as for the root of the lettuce, it was revealed that it was rich in a mineral (calcium, iron and magnesium).To eat the root of the lettuce will be good nutritional supply of minerals (calcium, iron) in the space life. In the result, water and mineral supply could make good use of in low calorie at loots of the lettuce. We want to think about the utilization of each food more in future.

  14. Discovering the Ancient Maya From Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sever, T. L.

    2007-01-01

    The Peten region of northern Guatemala contains some of the most significant Mayan archeological sites in Latin America. It was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared. Remote sensing technology is helping to locate and map ancient Maya sites that are threatened today by accelerating deforestation and looting. Thematic Mapper, IKONOS, and QuickBird satellite, and airborne STAR-3i and AIRSAR radar data, combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, are successfully detecting ancient Maya features such as sites, roadways, canals, and water reservoirs. Satellite imagery is also being used to map the bajos, which are seasonally flooded swamps that cover over 40% of the land surface. Through the use of various airborne and satellite sensor systems we have been able to detect and map ancient causeways, temples, reservoirs, and land forms, and locate these features on the ground through GPS technology. Recently, we have discovered that there is a strong relationship between a tropical forest vegetation signature in satellite imagery and the location of archeological sites. We believe that the use o f limestone and lime plasters in ancient Maya construction affects the moisture, nutrition, and plant species of the surface vegetation. We have mapped these vegetation signatures in the imagery and verified through field survey that they are indicative of archeological sites. Through the use of remote sensing and GIS technology it is possible to identify unrecorded archeological features in a dense tropical forest environment and monitor these cultural features for their protection.

  15. Discovering the Ancient Maya from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sever, T. L.

    2008-01-01

    The Pet6n region of northern Guatemala contains some of the most significant Mayan archeological sites in Latin America. It was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared. Remote sensing technology is helping to locate and map ancient Maya sites that are threatened today by accelerating deforestation and looting. Thematic Mapper, IKONOS, and QuickBird satellite, and airborne STAR-3i and AIRSAR radar data, combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, are successfully detecting ancient Maya features such as sites, roadways, canals, and water reservoirs. Satellite imagery is also being used to map the bajos, which are seasonally flooded swamps that cover over 40% of the land surface. Through the use of various airborne and satellite sensor systems we have been able to detect and map ancient causeways, temples, reservoirs, and land forms, and locate these features on the ground through GPS technology. Recently, we have discovered that there is a strong relationship between a tropical forest vegetation signature in satellite imagery and the location of archeological sites. We believe that the use of limestone and lime plasters in ancient Maya construction affects the moisture, nutrition, and plant species of the surface vegetation. We have mapped these vegetation signatures in the imagery and verified through field survey that they are indicative of archeological sites. Through the use of remote sensing and GIS technology it is possible to identify unrecorded archeological features in a dense tropical forest environment and monitor these cultural features for their protection.

  16. Archaeological and Environmental Research of the Peten, Guatemala, Using Remote Sensing/GIS Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sever, Thomas L.

    2000-01-01

    The Peten, northern Guatemala, was once inhabited by a population of several million Maya before their collapse in the 9th century AD. Although the seventh and eight centuries were a time of crowning glory for millions of Maya; by 930 A.D. only a few scattered houses remained. What is known, is that at the time of their collapse, the Maya had cut down most of their trees. After centuries of regeneration the Peten now represent the largest remaining tropical forest in Central America but is experiencing rapid deforestation in the wake of an invasion of settlers. The successful adaptive techniques of the indigenous population are being abandoned in favor of the destructive techniques of monoculture and cattle raising. These techniques also contribute to the destruction and looting of unrecorded archeological sites. Remote sensing and GIS analysis are being used to address issues in Maya archeology as well as monitor the effects of increasing deforestation in the area today. One thousand years ago the forests of the Peten were nearly destroyed by the ancient Maya, who, after centuries of successful adaptation, finally overused their resources. Current inhabitants are threatening to do the same thing today in a shorter time period with a lesser population. Through the use of remote sensing/GIS analysis we are attempting to answer questions about the past in order to protect the resources of the future.

  17. Molecular Exploration of the First-Century Tomb of the Shroud in Akeldama, Jerusalem

    PubMed Central

    Matheson, Carney D.; Vernon, Kim K.; Lahti, Arlene; Fratpietro, Renee; Spigelman, Mark; Gibson, Shimon; Greenblatt, Charles L.; Donoghue, Helen D.

    2009-01-01

    The Tomb of the Shroud is a first-century C.E. tomb discovered in Akeldama, Jerusalem, Israel that had been illegally entered and looted. The investigation of this tomb by an interdisciplinary team of researchers began in 2000. More than twenty stone ossuaries for collecting human bones were found, along with textiles from a burial shroud, hair and skeletal remains. The research presented here focuses on genetic analysis of the bioarchaeological remains from the tomb using mitochondrial DNA to examine familial relationships of the individuals within the tomb and molecular screening for the presence of disease. There are three mitochondrial haplotypes shared between a number of the remains analyzed suggesting a possible family tomb. There were two pathogens genetically detected within the collection of osteological samples, these were Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae. The Tomb of the Shroud is one of very few examples of a preserved shrouded human burial and the only example of a plaster sealed loculus with remains genetically confirmed to have belonged to a shrouded male individual that suffered from tuberculosis and leprosy dating to the first-century C.E. This is the earliest case of leprosy with a confirmed date in which M. leprae DNA was detected. PMID:20016819

  18. Drug markets during the Katrina disaster

    PubMed Central

    Dunlap, Eloise; Golub, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the experiences of poor drug users and sellers who remained in New Orleans during Hurricane Katrina in 2005 to identify their special needs and the unique challenges they present to disaster management. Design/methodology/approach Semi-structured, open-ended interviews were conducted with 119 poor, predominantly African-American, drug users and sellers. Their stories in their own words provide a mosaic of drug-related experiences from the period immediately preceding the storm through evacuation and reveal the motivations behind their behaviors. Findings Many drug users placed partying, maintaining their habits, and making money ahead of personal safety and evacuation. Drug use and sales led many not to evacuate before the storm, to use drugs in congregate shelters, to avoid shelters, to roam through flooded debris-strewn streets, to loot stores and homes of drug dealers, and to use violence or the threat of violence to achieve their drug-related aims. Originality/value During a disaster, many poor drug users place risks on themselves, their families, their communities and ultimately on rescue workers. The conclusion presents pragmatic and humanitarian guidelines for successfully addressing this additional challenge. The recommendations are consistent with other suggestions concerning the special needs of indigent populations. PMID:21841898

  19. Advanced direct liquefaction concepts for PETC generic units. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1992--December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The reactivity of the THF insoluble fraction of the ashy resid component of Wilsonville recycle oil (WRO) during liquefaction of Black Thunder coal in tetralin was determined at 415{degrees}C and 60 minutes. The liquefaction runs were made by combining this material with Black Thunder coal at the same ratio used in the WRO coal runs. THF conversion and product distribution from liquefaction in tetralin in the presence of the THF insoluble fraction of the ashy resid were similar to results from liquefaction in WRO. THF conversion was greater than loot with an oil yield that was somewhat higher than in WRO. Differences in HC gas yield and H{sub 2} consumption were slight, while conversion and product distribution from liquefaction of Black Thunder coal in tetralin or in the WRO distillate were quite different. In both these solvents the 85--86% THF conversions were less than for runs in which the THF insoluble fraction of the ashy resid was present. This establishes that the THF insoluble fraction of the ashy resid is the reactive fraction of the WRO.

  20. Mobilising the mothers. Millennium trailblazers 5: Wangari Maathai.

    PubMed

    Salmon, K

    1999-01-01

    The article focuses on Wangari Maathai's environmental campaigns in Kenya. Her battle to save Karura Forest from land-grabbing has brought her into a head-on confrontation with the government. In deals that have shocked the nation, this public land has been allocated to private developers, eager to line their own pockets by looting the nation's heritage. Government files listing the names of companies allocated plots in Karura have mysteriously disappeared. Her efforts to save the park, she has been maligned and threatened. But despite all these, she remains unfazed. She founded the Green Belt Movement (GBM) in 1977, which has started over 3000 tree nurseries, produced 20 million trees, and involved 50,000 women. She set about training the women to establish their own tree nurseries to make them independent people and there has been profound transformation since then. Furthermore, she emphasizes the importance of fighting ignorance because people become very vulnerable when they do not receive information. PMID:12295551

  1. Anthropological significance of phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Saugstad, L F

    1975-01-01

    The highest incidence rates of phenylketonuria (PKU) have been observed in Ireland and Scotlant. Parents heterozygous for PKU in Norway differ significantly from the general population in the Rhesus, Kell and PGM systems. The parents investigated showed an excess of Rh negative, Kell plus and PGM type 1 individuals, which makes them similar to the present populations in Ireland and Scotlant. It is postulated that the heterozygotes for PKU in Norway are descended from a completely assimilated sub-population of Celtic origin, who came or were brought here, 1ooo years ago. Bronze objects of Western European (Scottish, Irish) origin, found in Viking graves widely distributed in Norway, have been taken as evidence of Vikings returning with loot (including a number of Celts) from Western Viking settlements. The continuity of residence since the Viking age in most habitable parts of Norway, and what seems to be a nearly complete regional relationship between the sites where Viking graves contain western imported objects and the birthplaces of grandparents of PKUs identified in Norway, lend further support to the hypothesis that the heterozygotes for PKU in Norway are descended from a completely assimilated subpopulation. The remarkable resemblance between Iceland and Ireland, in respect of several genetic markers (including the Rhesus, PGM and Kell systems), is considered to be an expression of a similar proportion of people of Celtic origin in each of the two countries. Their identical, high incidence rates of PKU are regarded as further evidence of this. The significant decline in the incidence of PKU when one passes from Ireland, Scotland and Iceland, to Denmark and on to Norway and Sweden, is therefore explained as being related to a reduction in the proportion of inhabitants of Celtic extraction in the respective populations. PMID:803884

  2. Girls and war: an extra vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Black, M

    1998-01-01

    It is no longer possible to consider the raping of girls as an isolated atrocity of war. In Uganda, guerrilla forces have kidnapped 6000-10,000 children and have forced the "most desirable" girls to become "wives" of warlords. Girls who manage to escape are deeply traumatized and suffer ill health as well as possible social ostracism. In refugee camps, recognition that adolescent girls face special risks of rape and of engaging in the informal prostitution that may expose them to HIV/AIDS has led to the introduction of new measures to increase female security. Families in refugee camps in Burundi and Somalia protect female honor by submitting their daughters to very early marriage, which also abuses the girls' rights. Girls conscripted to military groups are forced to transport materials, cook, or help loot villages. In conditions of war, even girls who remain at home protected by their families must assume extra responsibilities, especially if men go off to fight leaving women with the agricultural and livestock burdens. Girls will be the first children withdrawn from school to help keep the household afloat. Girls and women are also expected to tend those wounded by the very war that destroys the health care services that are vital to meet women's reproductive needs. Efforts are being made to identify rape as a specific war crime, and these efforts should be extended to the kidnapping and forced recruitment of children into combat roles. Moral codes must be reestablished, even if they are only nominal at present. PMID:12321764

  3. Virtual and Physical Recomposition of Fragmented Ecclesiastical Frescoes Using a Photogrammetric Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abate, D.; Hermon, S.; Eliades, I.

    2016-06-01

    The octagonal domed church of the Christ Antiphonitis in the district of Kyrenia (Cyprus) was originally completely decorated with frescoes along its interior walls. Two of these are exceptional for their artistic and historic value: the story of the Tree of Jesse (a pictorial genealogy of the Virgin) located on the southern wall of the octagon, and the Last Judgment, on the northern wall. Following the invasion of Cyprus by Turkish military forces in 1974, looters stripped many of the region churches, removing an estimated 15,000 to 20,000 icons and several dozen major frescoes and mosaics, intending to sell them illegally on the antique market. The Church of Antiphonitis was among them. The walls with the two biblical episodes suffered major damages and big portions of their pictorial decoration were removed. Since the end of the 1990s, due to efforts of Cypriot authorities, more than 70 fragments of its frescoes returned from USA and Europe to the Byzantine Museum of Nicosia, where they are currently under conservation and restoration for future display. These were digitally documented through high-resolution ortophotos. The inner space of the church was documented by similar means, in order to virtually re-position the frescoes in their original locations. The virtual re-composition of the frescoes along the looted walls helped quantifying the missing parts, correctly re-locate virtually each fragment at its original position, obtain accurate colour information and prepare a digital musealisation product, to be included in the permanent exhibition display at the museum which will feature a 1:1 scale reproduction of the church walls.

  4. A tale of one city.

    PubMed

    De Wind, C M

    1992-07-25

    A report from Kampala, Uganda, compares the situation in 1991 to the state of chaos 10 years earlier when the regime of Idi Amin had been overthrown by Milton Obote's soldiers with the help of Tanzanian troops. Soldiers went on looting sprees, and 1 victim of their marauding became a 12-year old boy who got shot for refusing to part with his bike. In contrast, in 1991 things were much more peaceful; however, the AIDS epidemic was the new threat. The government radio transmits hourly warnings on HIV. Since President Museveni came to power, economy and security have improved radically. Shops and markets are open until late at night; public transport is reliable, and small scale industry flourished. There would be optimism about the future, if AIDS was not here. There is no doubt that the economy will soon be affected. According to the Kampala blood bank, 40% of the healthy population is already seropositive. In the hospitals the majority of admissions suffer from AIDS with diarrhea and an itching dermatitis; there is more cancer of the cervix and lymphoma; appendicitis is on the increase; and tuberculous lymph nodes are now quite common. Many of these patients have clinical AIDS. The government is frank about the situation and is active in preventive measures and education. Private charities and foreign aid organizations contribute. But the epidemic is so overwhelming, that some Western organizations might soon lose interest owning to meager returns on their efforts. A 6-year-old boy has grossly swollen lymph nodes around his neck, both parotids are painfully swollen, pus pours from the ears. A nonspecific cough and mild diarrhea are also present with an itching and sore herpes zoster on his left chest. the mother is frightened of losing him, and demurs at the hint of AIDS, since for her, AIDS means sexual promiscuity. PMID:1392851

  5. The fate of the bodies of executed persons in the Anatomical Institute of Halle between 1933 and 1945.

    PubMed

    Schultka, Rüdiger; Viebig, Michael

    2012-06-01

    In the period from 1933 to 1945 the Anatomical Institute in Halle (Saale) received bodies of persons, among them politically persecuted women and men, who had been sentenced to death and executed. In this article, we attempt to answer two important questions: (1) What happened to the bodies of those executed; i.e. which anatomical “purposes” did they serve? (2) Were anatomical specimens from these bodies added to the institute’s anatomical collection and are they still present today? If so, can they be traced back to the bodies of politically persecuted people? So far we have discovered that between 1933 and 1936 the institute received 30 bodies, among them the bodies of two politically motivated death sentences. From 1937 until the end of 1942, only a few bodies arrived at the institute, and from November 1942 until the end of the war in 1945 the institute documented the transfer of 64 bodies of executed people. The death sentences pronounced during those early years were usually based on severe criminal acts (e.g. murder). During the war, special courts sentenced people to death mostly because of theft, looting, etc. The bodies of those executed were used in anatomical education, anatomical research, and in preparations of anatomical specimens to be added to the anatomical collection. There are eight macroscopic preparations which can definitely be associated with the bodies of people executed during the Nazi regime. Trial by jury sentenced those people to the maximum penalty because of the severity of their criminal acts. Up to now we have found no evidence that specimens of the anatomical collection were removed from bodies of victims whose execution was politically motivated. PMID:21978794

  6. Recent Advances in Maya Studies Using Remotely Sensed Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sever, Tom; Irwin, Daniel; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Peten region of northern Guatemala is one of the last places on earth where major archeological sites remain to be discovered. It was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared. Remote sensing technology is helping to locate and map ancient Maya sites that are threatened today by accelerating deforestation and looting. Thematic Mapper and IKONOS satellite and airborne Star3i radar data, combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, are successfully detecting ancient Maya features such as cities, roadways, canals, and water reservoirs. Satellite imagery is also being used to map the baJos, which are seasonally flooded swamps that cover over 40% of the land surface. The use of bajos for farming has been a source of debate within the professional community for many years. But the recent detection and verification of cultural features within the bajo system by our research team are providing conclusive evidence that the ancient Maya had adapted well to wetland environments from the earliest times and utilized them until the time of the Maya collapse. The combination of water management and bajo farming is an important resource for the future of the current inhabitants who are experiencing rapid population growth. Remote sensing imagery is also demonstrating that in the Preclassic period (600 BC- AD 250), the Maya had already achieved a high organizational level as evidenced by the construction of massive temples and an elaborate inter-connecting roadway system. Although they experienced several setbacks such as droughts and hurricanes, the Maya nevertheless managed the delicate forest ecosystem successfully for several centuries. However, around AD 800, something happened to the Maya to cause their rapid decline and eventual disappearance from the region. The evidence indicates that at this time there was increased climatic dryness, extensive deforestation, overpopulation, and widespread warfare. This raises a

  7. The Colorado Plateau II: biophysical, socioeconomic, and cultural research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattson, David J.

    2005-01-01

    The publication of The Colorado Plateau: Cultural, Biological, and Physical Research in 2004 marked a timely summation of current research in the Four Corners states. This new volume, derived from the seventh Biennial Conference on the Colorado Plateau in 2003, complements the previous book by focusing on the integration of science into resource management issues. The 32 chapters range in content from measuring human impacts on cultural resources, through grazing and the wildland-urban interface issues, to parameters of climate change on the Plateau. The book also introduces economic perspectives by considering shifting patterns and regional disparities in the Colorado Plateau economy. A series of chapters on mountain lions explores the human-wildland interface. These chapters deal with the entire spectrum of challenges associated with managing this large mammal species in Arizona and on the Colorado Plateau, conveying a wealth of timely information of interest to wildlife managers and enthusiasts. Another provocative set of chapters on biophysical resources explores the management of forest restoration, from the micro scale all the way up to large-scale GIS analyses of ponderosa pine ecosystems on the Colorado Plateau. Given recent concerns for forest health in the wake of fires, severe drought, and bark-beetle infestation, these chapters will prove enlightening for forest service, park service, and land management professionals at both the federal and state level, as well as general readers interested in how forest management practices will ultimately affect their recreation activities. With broad coverage that touches on topics as diverse as movement patterns of rattlesnakes, calculating watersheds, and rescuing looted rockshelters, this volume stands as a compendium of cutting-edge research on the Colorado Plateau that offers a wealth of insights for many scholars.

  8. Dispersion modeling of particulate matter containing hexavalent chromium during high winds in southern Iraq.

    PubMed

    Zannetti, Paolo; Daly, Aaron D; Freedman, Frank R

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe a scientific methodology (i.e., the combination of different well-established modeling techniques) and its application to a real case scenario of contaminated dust emissions in high winds. This scenario addresses potential air pollution problems at the water treatment plant (WTP) at Qarmat-Ali, Basra, Iraq, during 2003. Workplace practices at the WTP before 2003 resulted in sodium dichromate contamination in the area. Looting at the site in early 2003 also contributed to this contamination. Individuals who were assigned to provide security at the site in 2003 have claimed adverse health effects caused by exposure to dust containing hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)]. This report presents our modeling study with respect to these claims in relation to (1) amount of Cr(VI) present in the soil, (2) wind erosion episodes, and (3) possible long-term (e.g., annual average) Cr(VI) concentrations inhaled by different people while at the site. Our modeling approach included (1) the analysis of Cr(VI) soil measurements to assess the degree of contamination in different areas of the plant at different times; (2) the use of DUSTRAN model equations to calculate the emission rate of particulate matter (PM) less than 10 µm in diameter (PM10) during high-wind episodes; (3) the use of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) AERMOD modeling system to estimate Cr(VI) concentrations at the site; and (4) the calculation of modeling results in the form of both contour lines of average Cr(VI) concentrations at the site, and specific concentration values for selected individuals, based upon their recollection of their visits to the site. PMID:25947053

  9. Advancing and retreating in the AIDS battle in Zaire.

    PubMed

    Shiner, C

    1992-07-01

    Unemployment and inflation stand at 70% and 5000%/year, respectively, in Zaire. Thus many women turn to prostitution to survive. About 50% are HIV positive. Yet HIV seroprevalence rates in prostitutes in other sub=Saharan African countries can be as high as 90%. 5-10% of women of reproductive age in Kinshasa are HIV positive, but the HIV infection rate as stabilized. Health workers may not learn why this has occurred, however, since the US Centers for Disease Control (CDC) stopped providing personnel and funds to Zaire's AIDS Program (Project SIDA). It is the continent's largest and most reputable and significant effort to fight AIDS. Its Zairian researchers are international level scientists. Project SIDA had 8 sites which tracked HIV infection in prostitutes and treated tuberculosis in AIDS patients and sexually transmitted diseases since they foster the spread of HIV. It also carried on a successful education and condom distribution campaign. Other countries use Project SIDA as a model to control AIDS. The most obvious effect of CDC withdrawal will be the reduced services to prostitutes according to a US pathologist. The project can no longer follow about 2000 mothers and children infected with HIV. CDC's withdrawal also negates any planned clinical trials of an AIDS vaccine. CDC claims it is no longer supporting Project SIDA because the government of Zaire can no longer guarantee the safety of CDC employees after the looting spree of unpaid soldiers in September-October 1991. Tensions have grown since December 1991 when the President, who gained power in a US Central Intelligence Agency backed coup in 1960, did not relinquish power at the end of his 46th term. Some US State Department officials are happy the disorder occurred since it allows the US to cut back on diplomats in Africa and to strengthen US representation in Eastern Europe. PMID:12286486

  10. Prevention of disease the answer.

    PubMed

    1994-10-01

    The director general of the World Health Organization (WHO), Hiroshi Nakajima, in an interview following a two-day visit to Rwanda stressed the need to restore safe blood transfusion services to prevent the spread of AIDS as well as distribution of essential drugs and vaccines. According to WHO, health facilities were looted, while 75% of the more than 5000 health workers fled or were killed since ethnic violence broke out April 6, 1994. Fighting between the majority Hutu-led government and Tutsi-dominated Rwandan Patriotic Front claimed more than 500,000 lives and forced more than two million people to seek refuge in neighboring countries. The WHO will provide training, equipment, and laboratory supplies in order to strengthen epidemiological monitoring of preventable epidemic diseases like cholera, dysentery, acute respiratory infections, meningitis, tuberculosis, and malaria. Of particular concern, was the need to monitor systematically forms of cholera and bacillary dysentery which has the ability to change its resistance to different antibiotics A dysentery epidemic has already claimed thousands of lives in refugee camps in Tanzania, Zaire and Rwanda. War and massive population displacements have dramatically increased transmission of HIV, as HIV prevalence was about 30% in Kigali among women and up to 50% among soldiers. Before the war, HIV infection rates ranged from 20 to 30% among the urban population and less than 10% in rural areas. More than 200,000 persons were already infected with HIV in Rwanda in 1992. The WHO will provide blood transfusion kits to ensure collection, testing and transfusion of blood. It will also train 60 blood transfusion technicians. The WHO will help to supply the management system of the Central Rwandan Pharmaceutical Office and provide essential drugs and vaccines to supplement stocks supplied by international donors. Nakajima appealed to both the international community and Africa to help Rwanda. PMID:12288413

  11. AfricaArray seismological studies of the structure and evolution of the African continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrheim, Raymond; Nyblade, Andrew; Brandt, Martin; Tugume, Fred; Mulibo, Gabriel; Kgaswane, Eldridge; Mangongolo, Azangi; Manzi, Musa; El Tahir, Nada; Loots, Letticia

    2014-05-01

    The AfricaArray programme was launched in 2005 to conduct research that promotes development in Africa by building human and infrastructural capacity in support of the mineral exploration, mining, geohazard and environmental sectors. The AfricaArray "backbone" network now consists of 51 geophysical observatories in 20 sub-Saharan countries. Most stations are equipped with broadband seismometers, while 25 stations have continuous GPS sensors and 22 stations have meteorological packs. In addition, several temporary seismic arrays have been deployed to investigate the seismotectonics of the East African Rift System, the extent of the Congo craton, and the rifting of Mozambique and Madagascar. In this paper we will present results pertinent to large-scale crustal and mantle geodynamic processes that have been obtained by AfricaArray researchers. Brandt and Mulibo elucidated the relationship between the African Superplume, Superswell and the East African Rift System by studying the seismic velocity structure of the mantle. Kgaswane jointly inverted P-wave receiver functions (PRFs) and surface waves, and found that the Kalahari Craton lower crust is largely mafic, except for a few terrains such as the Kimberley. Kgaswane also produced evidence that supports a link between the eastern and western lobes of the Bushveld Complex. Mangongolo used surface wave tomography to define the south-western boundary of the Congo Craton. El Tahir used PRFs to investigate the crustal structure of the Khartoum Basin, while Tugume determined the Moho depths and Poisson's ratios of the Precambrian crust in East Africa. Manzi reprocessed 3D reflection seismic data covering part of the Witwatersrand goldfields using seismic attribute analysis methods, and has provided new constraints on the evolution of the Basin during the Neoarchean. Loots interpreted a 105 km 2D seismic reflection profile immediately to the north of the Cape Fold Belt, imaging the Karoo and Cape Supergroup rocks and the

  12. Environmental legal implications of oil and gas exploration in the Niger Delta of Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orubebe, Bibobra Bello

    Nigeria is an African country endowed with a wealth of oil and gas resources, and they are mainly found in the core Niger Delta (home to the Ijaw and Ogoni indigenous, ethnic minorities). Since Great Britain granted Nigeria political independence on October 1, 1960, successive Nigerian governments (military and civilian) have been dominated by the majority ethnic groups (Hausa-Fulani, Yoruba, and Ibo). Significantly, the government adopted a socialist-based model of absolute state ownership over oil and gas resources. The socialist model formed the basis of Nigeria's business collaboration with multinational oil and gas corporations from Europe and the United States (notably Shell, Chevron Texaco, Agip, Exxon Mobil, Total, and Elf). This model is fraught with contradictions and has led to unacceptable consequences, including policies that allow exploitation of natural resources without reference to environmental sustainability. When oil was first struck in 1956 at Oloibori (Ijaw area), people thought it would bring prosperity and an improved quality of life. Sadly, the opposite has occurred. Forty-nine years of hardship, agonizing pain, debilitating anger, extreme poverty, poisoned rivers, destroyed occupations, devastated environment, and stunted growth of the youth are the negative impacts of oil and gas exploitation in the Niger Delta. In other words, oil and gas exploration and production have visited a full range of evils---socio-political, economic, and cultural---upon the indigenous Niger Delta people. Furthermore, the wealth extracted from the area is used by the state and multinational corporations to enhance their own wealth and quality of life. Revenue has been conspicuously looted and misappropriated by political leaders at the expense of the Niger Delta environment and its people. This confluence of exploitation and injury has led to social upheavals and armed rebellions, all capable of precipitating the disintegration of the country. In this

  13. Intumescent Coatings as Fire Retardants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. A.; Fohlen, G. M.; Sawko, P. M.; Fish, R. H.

    1970-01-01

    ordinary coating pigment. The char found on intumescence is better in terms of yield and physical properties than chars obtained from many previously known intumescent materials. Prior to intumescence, the coating has a density of 85 pounds per cubic foot. After intumescence, the density is approximately 0.3 pounds per cubic loot. The linear expansion of the coatings ranges from 70 to 200 times the applied coating thickness.

  14. Satellite SAR imagery for site discovery, change detection and monitoring activities in cultural heritage sites: experiments on the Nasca region, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapete, D.; Cigna, F.; Masini, N.; Lasaponara, R.

    2012-04-01

    data stacks were selected: ERS-2 ascending data acquired in 2001-2011, ENVISAT ASAR ascending and descending data acquired in 2003-2007, and ALOS PALSAR descending and ascending data acquired in 2007 and 2008. The feature extraction was specifically addressed to the recognition of buried structures, archaeological deposits and the study of the buried networks of aqueducts, as well as the morphological study of the Nasca geoglyphs. Change detection analysis also included the multi-temporal reconstruction of the evolution of the Rio Nasca catchment basin, while specific tests were performed to demonstrate the usefulness of SAR imagery for monitoring looting activities. The results of the radar-interpretation compared and integrated with the field investigations will support the archaeological activities and contribute to the monitoring and enhancement of archaeological heritage and cultural landscape of the Nasca region.

  15. [Bernard Schapiro--an orthodox Jew as an early andrologist in the 20th century].

    PubMed

    Borgwardt, Götz

    2002-01-01

    The unusual history and professional background of one of the first andrologists is reported. Bernhard Schapiro, born in 1888 in Dvinsk in Latvia, then a city in the Russian Pale of Settlements for Jews, grew up as an orthodox (hassidic) Jew receiving exclusively talmudic lessons until he was 18 years old. During the final years of this period of life he was educated at the famous Slobodka Talmud Academy Kenesset Israel in Kovno where he absorbed the ideals of Musar-doctrines, thus being influenced for the rest of his life. The Rogachover Gaon J. Rozin supported his desire to study medicine. After a brief stay in Frankfurt/Main he acquired by own efforts the necessary general knowledge to matriculate for access to university. Medical studies at Zurich University (1913-1919) were followed by a one-year-internship at a dermatologic department in Breslau/Silesia. The thesis for his doctorate at Zurich University in 1920 was on, Relations between Nodular Erythema and Tuberculosis'. He spent two years training in dermatology at Breslau University under Jadassohn. Back in Berlin, he married and had four children, while he worked at Magnus Hirschfeld's Institute for Sexual Sciences. After initial clinical studies in venerology he more and more turned to andrological problems, including treatment of underdeveloped male genitals, premature ejaculation and impotence in general. In this context he tested the new drug Praehormon and developed the two remedies Testifortan and Praejaculin. He was the first to describe the effect of anterior pituitary lobe hormone on the descent of cryptorchid testicles, thus initiating a treatment modality still in motion today. When Hitler came to power he and his family were spared as Swiss citizens, but he lost his base for working after the Institute was looted. He established an andrologic practice at Zurich. What he had witnessed in Germany caused him to set up a Swiss branch of Mizrachi, the spiritually based center of Zionism in

  16. An economic perspective on Malawi's medical "brain drain"

    PubMed Central

    Record, Richard; Mohiddin, Abdu

    2006-01-01

    Background The medical "brain drain" has been described as rich countries "looting" doctors and nurses from developing countries undermining their health systems and public health. However this "brain-drain" might also be seen as a success in the training and "export" of health professionals and the benefits this provides. This paper illustrates the arguments and possible policy options by focusing on the situation in one of the poorest countries in the world, Malawi. Discussion Many see this "brain drain" of medical staff as wrong with developed countries exploiting poorer ones. The effects are considerable with Malawi facing high vacancy rates in its public health system, and with migration threatening to outstrip training despite efforts to improve pay and conditions. This shortage of staff has made it more challenging for Malawi to deliver on its Essential Health Package and to absorb new international health funding. Yet, without any policy effort Malawi has been able to demonstrate its global competitiveness in the training ("production") of skilled health professionals. Remittances from migration are a large and growing source of foreign exchange for poor countries and tend to go directly to households. Whilst the data for Malawi is limited, studies from other poor countries demonstrate the power of remittances in significantly reducing poverty. Malawi can benefit from the export of health professionals provided there is a resolution of the situation whereby the state pays for training and the benefits are gained by the individual professional working abroad. Solutions include migrating staff paying back training costs, or rich host governments remitting part of a tax (e.g. income or national insurance) to the Malawi government. These schemes would allow Malawi to scale up training of health professionals for local needs and to work abroad. Summary There is concern about the negative impacts of the medical "brain-drain". However a closer look at the evidence

  17. Sandia National Laboratories support of the Iraq Nuclear Facility Dismantlement and Disposal Program.

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, John Russell; Danneels, Jeffrey John

    2009-03-01

    Because of past military operations, lack of upkeep and looting there are now enormous radioactive waste problems in Iraq. These waste problems include destroyed nuclear facilities, uncharacterized radioactive wastes, liquid radioactive waste in underground tanks, wastes related to the production of yellow cake, sealed radioactive sources, activated metals and contaminated metals that must be constantly guarded. Iraq currently lacks the trained personnel, regulatory and physical infrastructure to safely and securely manage these facilities and wastes. In 2005 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) agreed to organize an international cooperative program to assist Iraq with these issues. Soon after, the Iraq Nuclear Facility Dismantlement and Disposal Program (the NDs Program) was initiated by the U.S. Department of State (DOS) to support the IAEA and assist the Government of Iraq (GOI) in eliminating the threats from poorly controlled radioactive materials. The Iraq NDs Program is providing support for the IAEA plus training, consultation and limited equipment to the GOI. The GOI owns the problems and will be responsible for implementation of the Iraq NDs Program. Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) is a part of the DOS's team implementing the Iraq NDs Program. This report documents Sandia's support of the Iraq NDs Program, which has developed into three principal work streams: (1) training and technical consultation; (2) introducing Iraqis to modern decommissioning and waste management practices; and (3) supporting the IAEA, as they assist the GOI. Examples of each of these work streams include: (1) presentation of a three-day training workshop on 'Practical Concepts for Safe Disposal of Low-Level Radioactive Waste in Arid Settings;' (2) leading GOI representatives on a tour of two operating low level radioactive waste disposal facilities in the U.S.; and (3) supporting the IAEA's Technical Meeting with the GOI from April 21-25, 2008. As noted in the

  18. INL Cultural Resource Monitoring Report for FY 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Pace, Brenda Ringe; Olson, Christina Liegh; Gilbert, Hollie Kae; Holmer, Marie Pilkington

    2015-10-01

    This report describes the cultural resource monitoring activities of the Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL) Cultural Resource Management (CRM) Office during fiscal year (FY) 2015. Throughout the year, 67 total monitoring visits were completed, with several especially sensitive resources visited on more than one occasion. Overall, FY 2015 monitoring included surveillance of the following 49 individual cultural resource localities: three locations with human remains, one of which is also a cave; nine additional caves; twenty prehistoric archaeological sites; five historic archaeological sites; two historic trails; Experimental Breeder Reactor I (EBR-I), a National Historic Landmark; Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion (ANP) objects located at EBR-I; and eight Arco Naval Proving Ground (NPG) property types. Several INL work processes and projects were also monitored to confirm compliance with original INL CRM recommendations and assess the effects of ongoing work. On two occasions, ground disturbing activities within the boundaries of the Power Burst Facility/Critical Infrastructure Test Range Complex (PBF/CITRC) were observed by INL CRM staff prepared to respond to any additional finds of Native American human remains. Finally, the current location housing INL Archives and Special Collections was evaluated once. Most of the cultural resources monitored in FY 2015 exhibited no adverse impacts, resulting in Type 1 impact assessments. However, Type 2 impacts were noted 13 times. In one case, a portion of a historic trail was graded without prior review or coordination with the INL CRM Office, resulting in impacts to the surface of the trail and one archaeological site. Evidence of unauthorized artifact collection/ looting was also documented at three archaeological sites located along INL powerlines. Federal agents concluded a FY 2012 investigation by filing civil charges and levying fine under the Archaeological Resource Protection Act against one INL employee for this kind

  19. Recent Advances in Maya Studies Using Remotely Sensed Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sever, Tom; Irwin, Daniel; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Peten region of northern Guatemala is one of the last places on earth where major archeological sites remain to be discovered. It was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared. Remote sensing technology is helping to locate and map ancient Maya sites that are threatened today by accelerating deforestation and looting. Thematic Mapper and IKONOS satellite and airborne Star3i radar data, combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, are successfully detecting ancient Maya features such as cities, roadways, canals, and water reservoirs. Satellite imagery is also being used to map the bajos, which are seasonally flooded swamps that cover over 40% of the land surface. The use of baJos for farming has been a source of debate within the professional community for many years. But the recent detection and verification of cultural features within the baJo system by our research team are providing conclusive evidence that the ancient Maya had adapted well to wetland environments from the earliest times and utilized them until the time of the Maya collapse. The combination of water management and baJo farming is an important resource for the future of the current inhabitants who are experiencing rapid population growth. Remote sensing imagery is also demonstrating that in the Preclassic period (600 BC- AD 250), the Maya had already achieved a high organizational level as evidenced by the construction of massive temples and an elaborate inter-connecting roadway system. Although they experienced several setbacks such as droughts and hurricanes, the Maya nevertheless managed the delicate forest ecosystem successfully for several centuries. However, around AD 800, something happened to the Maya to cause their rapid decline and eventual disappearance from the region. The evidence indicates that at this time there was increased climatic dryness, extensive deforestation, overpopulation, and widespread warfare. This raises a

  20. Mapping The Ancient Maya Landscape From Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sever, Tom; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Peten region of northern Guatemala is one of the last places on earth where major archeological sites remain to be discovered. It was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared. Remote sensing technology is helping to locate and map ancient Maya sites that are threatened today by accelerating deforestation and looting. Thematic Mapper and IKONOS satellite and airborne Star3-I radar data, combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, are successfully detecting ancient Maya features such as cities, roadways, canals, and water reservoirs. Satellite imagery is also being used to map the bajos, which are seasonally flooded swamps that cover over 40% of the land surface. The use of bajos for farming has been a source of debate within the professional community for many years. But the recent detection and verification of cultural features within the bajo system by our research team are providing conclusive evidence that the ancient Maya had adapted well to wetland environments from the earliest times and utilized them until the time of the Maya collapse. The use of the bajos for farming is also an important resource for the future of the current inhabitants who are experiencing rapid population growth. Remote sensing imagery is also demonstrating that in the Preclassic period (600 BC- AD 250), the Maya had already achieved a high organizational level as evidenced by the construction of massive temples and an elaborate inter-connecting roadway system. Although they experienced several setbacks such as droughts and hurricanes, the Maya nevertheless managed the delicate forest ecosystem successfully for several centuries. However, around AD 800, something happened to the Maya to cause their rapid decline and eventual disappearance from the region. The evidence indicates that at this time there was increased climatic dryness, extensive deforestation, overpopulation, and widespread warfare. This raises a question that

  1. As International As They Would Let Us Be

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, Virginia

    2015-08-01

    Astronomers wanting to chart the whole sky or even part of it 24/7 must collaborate across nations, continents, and hemispheres. The Greeks were perhaps the first to try, but the pioneering modern international scientific project, von Zach’s “Himmelspolitzei,” started in 1800 at Schröter’s Lilienthal Observatory, only to have the city burned and the observatory looted by retreating French soldiers in 1813. The first post-Vereinigte Astronomische Gesellschaft asteroid wasn’t found until 1845. A few international efforts were completed in the 19th century (the AGKI and BD); the Paris-centered Carte du Ciel (1887-1964) might have been done faster with American participation (cf. the League of Nations and the international treaty that declared, without the US, the moon to be the “common Heritage of Mankind”). Kapteyn’s Selected Areas (1906) and Hale’s Solar Union (1907) were just getting started. And then there was a war, ending with a treaty (Versailles) that abolished all previously-existing cultural and scientific organizations and called for new ones, to include only the victorious countries. This included the IAU. Neutrals were to come later and the losers maybe never. In fact, partly for financial reasons, Germany did not join until 1948. Nationalistic issues have slowly disappeared from IAU agendas since the “two adhering organizations” solution was adopted for China in 1982. Member countries now come and go, mostly for economic reasons. So where are we in this International Year of Light? Discouraged by ever-brightening night skies, with bright cities signifying vibrant economies and contrails extending across borders and oceans. But also with SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) due to start up in 2015; things run late, so perhaps in the upcoming centenary of the death of Solar Union member Karl Schvarzschild. It is in Jordan, with participation from Israel, the Palestinian Authority

  2. The Collapse of Ancient Societies by Great Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nur, A. M.

    2001-12-01

    probably limited and may have required a few tens of years to rebuild. But when severe ground shaking is widespread, and when it happened during a major military conflict the devastation may have been so great that it took hundreds of years for a society to recover- going through a dark ages period during which many of the technical skills (e.g., writing) are abandoned (e.g., the cessation of linear B), construction and repairs of monumental buildings ceased, and looting of building materials by surviving squatters was common. In contrast we can imagine the pastoral countryside, especially away from the tsunami prone coastal areas, to have been much less affected (and perhaps even flourished a little as their tax burden to the ruling elite is reduced). During a regional seismic crisis an entire region must have been subjected to a series of devastations by earthquakes over a short period of time. The catastrophic collapse of the main eastern Mediterranean civilizations at the end of the Bronze Age may be a case in point, with the `Sea People' being mostly squatters and refugees.

  3. Comparative evaluation of effects of bleaching on color stability and marginal adaptation of discolored direct and indirect composite laminate veneers under in vivo conditions

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Veena; Das, Taposh K.; Pruthi, Gunjan; Shah, Naseem; Rajendiran, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Statement of Problem: Change in color and loss of marginal adaptation of tooth colored restorative materials is not acceptable. Bleaching is commonly used for treating discolored teeth. However, the literature is scanty regarding its effect on color and marginal adaptation of direct and indirect composite laminate veneers (CLVs) under in vivo conditions. Purpose: Purpose of the study was to determine the effect of bleaching on color change and marginal adaptation of direct and indirect CLVs over a period of time when exposed to the oral environment. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, a total of 14 subjects irrespective of age and sex indicated for CLV restorations on maxillary anterior teeth were selected following the inclusion and exclusion criteria. For each subject, indirect CLVs were fabricated and looted in the first quadrant (Group 1) and direct CLV's (Group 2), were given in the second quadrant. Color change was assessed clinically using intra-oral digital spectrophotometer and marginal adaptation was assessed on epoxy resin replica of the tooth-restoration interface under scanning electron microscope. After 6 months, the subjects underwent a home bleaching regimen for 14 days using 10% carbamide peroxide. The assessment of color change and marginal adaptation was done at 6 months after veneering (0–180 days), immediately after the bleaching regimen (0–194 days) and 3 months after the bleaching regimen (0–284 days). Results: The difference in median color change (ΔE) between the groups was tested using Wilcoxon rank sum test while the median color change with time within the groups was tested using Wilcoxon signed rank test. The difference in the rates of marginal adaptation was tested between the groups using Chi-square/Fisher's exact test. Bleaching led to statistically significant color change at cervical (CE), middle and incisal (IE) regions when direct and indirect composites were compared (P < 0.05). During intra-group comparison, direct

  4. Archaeological prospection of cultural heritage in the Nasca region, Peru, by coupling ENVISAT ASAR 2003-2007 and optical-VHR time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapete, Deodato; Cigna, Francesca; Masini, Nicola; Lasaponara, Rosa

    2013-04-01

    . Advantages and shortcomings of the SAR signature-based recognition of archaeological features on the ground are discussed through the test sites of the geoglyphs groups belonging to the Nasca Lines and the puquios along Rio Taruga, with specific reference to the medium spatial resolution offered by ENVISAT ASAR scenes and the supporting comparison with the VHR-optical imagery. Amplitude change detection demonstrates high suitability to highlight temporal differences from which we can infer: (i) modifications due to human activity (e.g., looting in Cahuachi); (ii) surface alteration of the exposed archaeological structures (i.e. site conservation issues); (iii) variations of soil water content and vegetation in agricultural areas where puquios are built; and (iv) land surface processes which can trigger natural hazards potentially damaging cultural and natural heritage, as also demonstrated by past and recent mudslides in Cahuachi and the Andean foot-hills. References Lasaponara R., Masini N. 2012. Investigating satellite Landsat TM and ASTER multitemporal data set to discover ancient canals and acqueduct systems, in Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 7335, Issue 3, 2012, Pages 497-511, 12th International Conference on Computational Science and Its Applications, ICCSA 2012, doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-31137-6_38. Masini N., Lasaponara R., Rizzo E., Orefici G. 2012. Integrated Remote Sensing Approach in Cahuachi (Peru): Studies and Results of the ITACA Mission (2007-2010), In: Lasaponara R., Masini N. (Eds) 2012, Satellite Remote Sensing: a new tool for Archaeology, Springer, Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, ISBN 978-90-481-8800-0, doi: 10.1007/978-90-481-8801-7_14; pp. 307-344.

  5. On the use of wavelet for extracting feature patterns from Multitemporal google earth satellite data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasaponara, R.

    2012-04-01

    , Masini N (2006b) Identification of archaeological buried remains based on Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from Quickbird satellite data. IEEE Geosci Remote S 3(3): 325-328. Lasaponara R, Masini N (2007a) Detection of archaeological crop marks by using satellite QuickBird multispectral imagery. J Archaeol Sci 34: 214-21. Lasaponara R, Masini N (2007b) Improving satellite Quickbird - based identification of landscape archaeological features trough tasselled cup transformation and PCA. 21st CIPA Symposium, Atene, 1-6 giugno 2007. Lasaponara R, Masini N (2010) Facing the archaeological looting in Peru by local spatial autocorrelation statistics of Very high resolution satellite imagery. In: Taniar D et al (Eds), Proceedings of ICSSA, The 2010 International Conference on Computational Science and its Application (Fukuoka-Japan, March 23 - 26, 2010), Springer, Berlin, 261-269. Lasaponara R, Masini N (2011) Satellite Remote Sensing in Archaeology : past, present and future. J Archaeol Sc 38: 1995-2002. Lasaponara R, Masini N, Rizzo E, Orefici G (2011) New discoveries in the Piramide Naranjada in Cahuachi (Peru) using satellite, Ground Probing Radar and magnetic investigations. J Archaeol Sci 38: 2031-2039. Lasaponara R, Masini N, Scardozzi G (2008) Satellite based archaeological research in ancient territory of Hierapolis. 1st International EARSeL Workshop. Advances in Remote Sensing for Archaeology and Cultural Heritage Management", CNR, Rome, September 30-October 4, Aracne, Rome, pp.11-16. Lillesand T M, Kiefer R W (2000) Remote Sensing and Image interpretation. John Wiley and Sons, New York. Masini N, Lasaponara R (2006) Satellite-based recognition of landscape archaeological features related to ancient human transformation. J Geophys Eng 3: 230-235, doi:10.1088/1742-2132/3/3/004. Masini N, Lasaponara R (2007) Investigating the spectral capability of QuickBird data to detect archaeological remains buried under vegetated and not vegetated areas. J Cult Heri 8 (1

  6. Multitemporal satellite change detection investigations for documentation and valorization of cultural landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasaponara, R.; Masini, n.

    2012-04-01

    archaeological prospection. Int J Remote Sens 27: 3607-3614. Lasaponara R, Masini N (2006b) Identification of archaeological buried remains based on Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from Quickbird satellite data. IEEE Geosci Remote S 3(3): 325-328. Lasaponara R, Masini N (2007a) Detection of archaeological crop marks by using satellite QuickBird multispectral imagery. J Archaeol Sci 34: 214-21. Lasaponara R, Masini N (2007b) Improving satellite Quickbird - based identification of landscape archaeological features trough tasselled cup transformation and PCA. 21st CIPA Symposium, Atene, 1-6 giugno 2007. Lasaponara R, Masini N (2010) Facing the archaeological looting in Peru by local spatial autocorrelation statistics of Very high resolution satellite imagery. In: Taniar D et al (Eds), Proceedings of ICSSA, The 2010 International Conference on Computational Science and its Application (Fukuoka-Japan, March 23 - 26, 2010), Springer, Berlin, 261-269. Lasaponara R, Masini N (2011) Satellite Remote Sensing in Archaeology : past, present and future. J Archaeol Sc 38: 1995-2002. Lasaponara R, Masini N, Rizzo E, Orefici G (2011) New discoveries in the Piramide Naranjada in Cahuachi (Peru) using satellite, Ground Probing Radar and magnetic investigations. J Archaeol Sci 38: 2031-2039. Lasaponara R, Masini N, Scardozzi G (2008) Satellite based archaeological research in ancient territory of Hierapolis. 1st International EARSeL Workshop. Advances in Remote Sensing for Archaeology and Cultural Heritage Management", CNR, Rome, September 30-October 4, Aracne, Rome, pp.11-16. Lillesand T M, Kiefer R W (2000) Remote Sensing and Image interpretation. John Wiley and Sons, New York. Masini N, Lasaponara R (2006) Satellite-based recognition of landscape archaeological features related to ancient human transformation. J Geophys Eng 3: 230-235, doi:10.1088/1742-2132/3/3/004. Masini N, Lasaponara R (2007) Investigating the spectral capability of QuickBird data to detect archaeological

  7. Archaeology, historical site risk assessment and monitoring by UAV: approaches and case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecci, Antonio; Masini, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    multiple overlapping images. The usefulness of UAV-based investigations has been given by its integrability with other methods of remote sensing including geophysics, optical and SAR satellite remote sensing. The presentation deals with the methodological approaches and the results in three historical sites for different applications such as: 1) archaeological site discovery, 2) the study and observation of archaeological looting and 3) the 3d reconstruction of building and sites. In the case 1) UAV has been used for the creation of orthophotos and digital elevantion models (DEMs) as well as the identification of archaeological marks and microrelief, as proxy indicators of the presence of archaeological buried remains. The obtained information have been compared and integrated with those provided by georadar and geomagnetic prospections. The investigated site is a medieval settlement, including a benedectine monastery, dated to 12-15th century. It is San Pietro a Cellaria, located in the territory of Calvello, in Basilicata (Southern Italy). The multisensor integrated approach allowed to identify several features referable to buried structures of the monastery (Leucci et al. 2015; Roubis et al. 2015). In the case 2) UAVs have been used for the identification and analysis of traces of grave robbers, in the territory of Anzi (Basilicata). Since the end of the 18th century to the first half of the 20th century, hundreds of tombs of the Archaic, Lucan and Roman age have been destroyed and stolen. The case 3) is related to the ceremonial centre of Pachacamac in Peru, which was investigated for several years by the international mission ITACA (Italian scientific mission for heritage Conservation and Archaeogeophysics) of IBAM/IMAA CNR of Potenza (Italy) (Lasaponara et al. 2016b). For more than 2,000 years, Pachacamac was one of the main centers of religious cult keeping this role unchanged in different historical periods and for different cultures such as Chavin, Lima, Huari

  8. Space Archeology Overview at Gordion: 2010 to 2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Compton J.; Slayback, Daniel; Nigro, Joseph D.; Yager, Karina A.

    2014-01-01

    In fiscal years 2010, 2011, and 2012, Compton Tucker was the principal investigator of a NASA Space Archaeology project that worked at Gordion, in Central Turkey. Tucker was assisted by an excellent team of co-workers including Joseph Nigro and Daniel Slayback of Science Systems Applications Incorporated, Jenny Strum of the University of New Mexico, and Karina Yager, a post doctoral fellow at NASA/GSFC. This report summaries their research activities at Gordion for the field seasons of 2010, 2011, and 2012. Because of the possible use of our findings at Gordion for tomb robbing there and/or the encouragement of potential tomb robbers using our geophysical survey methods to locate areas to loot, we have not published any of our survey results in the open literature nor placed any of these results on any web sites. These 2010- 2012 survey results remain in the confidential archives of the University of Pennsylvania's University Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, the group that leads the Gordion Excavation and Research Project. Excavations are planned for 2013 at Gordion, including several that will be based upon the research results in this report. The site of Gordion in central Turkey, famous as the home of King Midas, whose father's intricately tied knot gave the site its name, also served as the center of the Phrygian kingdom that ruled much of Central Anatolia in Asia Minor during the early first millennium B.C. Gordion has been a University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology excavation project since 1950, yet the site is incompletely published despite six decades of research. The primary obstacles related to the site and its preservation were two problems that NASA technology could address: (1) critical survey errors in the hundreds of maps and plans produced by the earlier excavators, most of which used mutually incompatible geospatial referencing systems, that prevented any systematic understanding of the site; and (2) agricultural

  9. Report on the 2010 Chilean earthquake and tsunami response

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    American Red Cross Multi-Disciplinary Team

    2011-01-01

    . These plans need to be flexible, include alternative options, and be completed in conjunction with local officials and other volunteers. The Executive/Red Cross Management Team took a broad look at the impacts of the earthquake and the implications for California. Some of the most important preparation for the disaster came from relationships formed before the event. The communities with strong connections between different government services generally fared well. The initial response and resilience of individuals and communities was another important component. Communication system failures limited the ability of a central government to assist impacted communities, or to issue tsunami warnings. It also delayed the response since the government did not know (in some case for several days) the impact and needs of local governments. In general, plans for congregate care shelters existed but were little used as most people chose to stay at damaged homes or with relatives. Looting was a surprise to response officials as well as social scientists, but both public and private sector organizations, including NGOs (Non-Governmental Organizations), must consider security for damaged businesses as a priority in California’s multihazard planning. Class and ethnic divisions that become heightened during some cases of actual or perceived injustice may also emerge in natural disasters in California. Several factors contributed overall to the low casualty rate and rapid recovery. A major factor is the strong building code in Chile and its comprehensive enforcement. In particular, Chile has a law that holds building owners accountable for losses in a building they build for 10 years. A second factor was the limited number of fires after the earthquake. In the last few California earthquakes, 60% of the fires were started by electrical problems, so the rarity of fires may have been affected by the shut down of the electricity grid early in the earthquake. Third, in many areas, the

  10. Archaeology, historical site risk assessment and monitoring by UAV: approaches and case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecci, Antonio; Masini, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    multiple overlapping images. The usefulness of UAV-based investigations has been given by its integrability with other methods of remote sensing including geophysics, optical and SAR satellite remote sensing. The presentation deals with the methodological approaches and the results in three historical sites for different applications such as: 1) archaeological site discovery, 2) the study and observation of archaeological looting and 3) the 3d reconstruction of building and sites. In the case 1) UAV has been used for the creation of orthophotos and digital elevantion models (DEMs) as well as the identification of archaeological marks and microrelief, as proxy indicators of the presence of archaeological buried remains. The obtained information have been compared and integrated with those provided by georadar and geomagnetic prospections. The investigated site is a medieval settlement, including a benedectine monastery, dated to 12-15th century. It is San Pietro a Cellaria, located in the territory of Calvello, in Basilicata (Southern Italy). The multisensor integrated approach allowed to identify several features referable to buried structures of the monastery (Leucci et al. 2015; Roubis et al. 2015). In the case 2) UAVs have been used for the identification and analysis of traces of grave robbers, in the territory of Anzi (Basilicata). Since the end of the 18th century to the first half of the 20th century, hundreds of tombs of the Archaic, Lucan and Roman age have been destroyed and stolen. The case 3) is related to the ceremonial centre of Pachacamac in Peru, which was investigated for several years by the international mission ITACA (Italian scientific mission for heritage Conservation and Archaeogeophysics) of IBAM/IMAA CNR of Potenza (Italy) (Lasaponara et al. 2016b). For more than 2,000 years, Pachacamac was one of the main centers of religious cult keeping this role unchanged in different historical periods and for different cultures such as Chavin, Lima, Huari