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Sample records for lorraine iron-bearing basin

  1. Coal preparation in France's Lorraine Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Houlle, E.

    1982-07-01

    The Freyming preparation plant is one of the most modern in the Lorraine Basin. It is also the one with the highest capacity - 28,500 raw metric tons or 20,000 clean tons per day, washing coal 20 hours per day. At the top of the mine shaft, the skips are emptied onto metal apron feeders, which provide a regular flow of coal onto two 1200-millimeter (47-1/4-inch) wide rubber belt conveyors. The conveyors lead to the pre-treatment plant for run-of-mine coal and then to the washing plant. At the pre-treatment plant, the conveyors deliver the coal to two scalping screens, which make the separation at 1020 millimeters (40-inch) at a rate of 750 tons per hour per screen. The undersize is removed by a belt equipped with an overband magnetic separator to remove tramp iron. Timber that comes along with the plus-120-millimeter (plus-4-3/4-inch) material is eliminated by immersion in a water drew-boy, after which the coal and the waste rock are crushed in a jaw crusher set at 150 millimeters (6 inches). The coal preparation plant proper consists of two identical, parallel but independent lines with a total capacity of 1600 tons per hour. The plant uses screens, dense media separation and jigs to produce three washed products. The materials handling equipment, including train loading, is emphasized in the description. A detailed flowsheet of the plant is given. (LTN)

  2. Coalbed methane exploration in the Lorraine Basin, France

    SciTech Connect

    Michaud, B.; Briens, F.; Girdler, D.

    1995-08-01

    DuPont Conoco Hydrocarbures has been involved in a Coalbed Methane (CBM) project in France since 1991. Coalbed methane exploration differs noticeably in several aspects from conventional oil and gas exploration. This paper is divided in three parts and discusses some geological, reservoir and drilling considerations relevant to the exploration and appraisal of a coalbed methane prospect. The first part presents geological issues such as data collection and evaluation of its associated value, building expertise to create a geological and geophysical model integrating the work of a multidisciplinary team, and assessing uncertainties of the data interpretation. A short review of the basin activity, geological and tectonic setting, and environment aspects is presented in order to illustrate some CBM exploration issues. The second part describes a comprehensive coalbed methane reservoir data acquisition program incorporating coal sample optical and chemical analyses, gas sample chromatography, canister desorption, fracture density of coal cores, and measurement of in-situ coal permeability and bounding-strata stress. Field practical concerns are then discussed such as on-site and off-site canister desorption, gas sample collection, rapid estimation of gas content, ash content, total bed moisture, and finally well testing alternatives for permeability and rock stress determination. The third part reviews drilling issues such as drilling and coring options for core hole size and casing size, rig site equipment requirements for continuous coring operations, including mud treatment equipment, core handling material and core work stations, alliance of national and foreign drilling contractors to optimize equipment and experience, and finally overview of coring procedures to identify best practices for pending operations. The paper is derived from Conoco`s experience in CBM exploration in the Lorraine Basin, North East of France.

  3. Chronology of the Early Toarcian environmental crisis in the Lorraine Sub-Basin (NE Paris Basin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruebsam, Wolfgang; Münzberger, Petra; Schwark, Lorenz

    2014-10-01

    Early Toarcian (Jurassic; ∼183 Ma) sediments recorded profound environmental changes, including mass extinction, global warming, marine transgression as well as widespread bottom water anoxia and organic matter accumulation on the Western Tethyan shelf. Enhanced organic matter accumulation was accompanied by a positive carbon isotope excursion (CIE) in pelagic carbonate, which marks the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event. These environmental changes were accompanied by a major perturbation of the global carbon cycle, expressed by negative CIE, interrupting the positive trend. The duration of the carbon cycle perturbation is still debated, with estimates for the negative CIE range from ∼200 to ∼600 kyr. Here we present ultra high-resolution (<1 kyr) measurements of magnetic susceptibility and sediment color from a marine section located in the Lorraine Sub-Basin (NE Paris Basin) documenting Milankovitch-controlled fluctuations in depositional conditions that occurred superimposed onto the overall sea level evolution. Differences in the wavelength of the sedimentary cycles indicate variable sediment accumulation rates that mainly resulted from rapid sea level fluctuations. The most pronounced sea level rise that took place within the uppermost tenuicostatum zone resulted in a strong condensation of the basal Schistes Carton formation. Strong condensation can explain the discrepancy between durations previously calculated for the CIE placed at this stratigraphic interval. Our data support durations of ∼900 kyr and ∼600 kyr for the positive and negative CIE, respectively. The cyclostratigraphy-based timescale further proposes a duration of >555 kyr for the tenuicostatum zone and 1310 kyr for the serpentinum zone. The durations of the elegantulum and falciferum subzones can be estimated to ∼790 kyr and ∼520 kyr, respectively. A change in the orbital response from eccentricity- to obliquity-forcing, evident from other locations, is well-expressed in the Lorraine

  4. Comment on "Chronology of the Early Toarcian environmental crisis in the Lorraine Sub-Basin (NE Paris Basin)" by W. Ruebsam, P. Münzberger, and L. Schwark [Earth and Planetary Science Letters 404 (2014) 273-282

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulila, Slah; Hinnov, Linda A.

    2015-04-01

    Ruebsam et al. (2014), henceforth "Ruebsam et al.", recently conducted a cyclostratigraphic study of an Early Toarcian interval from the FR-210-078 drill-core, located in the Lorraine Sub-Basin (NE Paris Basin). The goal was to assess the durations of ammonite zones and the carbon isotope excursion (CIE) of the T-OAE. They used magnetic susceptibility and sediment color as paleoclimatic proxies to seek evidence for Milankovitch cycles. Although the mean sedimentation rate of the Early Toarcian in the Lorraine FR-210-078 drill-core is reported as low (0.8 cm/kyr, see Section 2 below) compared to other equivalent sections used for cyclostratigraphy (1.4 cm/kyr at Sancerre, 2.5 cm/kyr at Yorkshire, 3.5 cm/kyr at Peniche, see Boulila et al., 2014, henceforth "Boulila et al."), Milankovitch-like cyclicities are well recorded in the color reflectance a* data (Figs. 1, 2). Ruebsam et al. compared their results and the inferred duration estimates with those of Boulila et al., suggesting significant differences in the durations of the CIE and in the occurrence of obliquity-dominant cycles. Here we comment on Ruebsam et al.'s interpretation and propose an alternative one, and discuss the implications of both interpretations on the duration of the CIE. Finally, we discuss the discrepancy in the hypothesis of obliquity forcing during the CIE as suggested by Boulila et al. versus after the CIE as postulated by Ruebsam et al.

  5. [First chemists in Lorraine].

    PubMed

    Labrude, Pierre

    2009-04-01

    Some alchemists and chemists are known in Lorraine at the beginning of the 17th century. But "real" chemists appear only in the middle of the 18th century. In Nancy, the primary official chemists are the professors of the Royal Collège of medicine, then those of the Faculty of medicine in 1776 and after: Henry Michel du Tennetar and Pierre-François Nicolas. In Metz, the first successful attempt of a chemical course is obtained by the apothecary Jean-Baptiste Thyrion from 1765 to 1769. Michel is his successor in 1778. His teaching is immediately and widely successful. Around Michel, the members of the Royal Society of science and art and the practitioners of the military hospital are also very actice. After the Revolution, many years will be necessary to Nancy and Metz to obtain the creating of a new universitary chemical teaching. PMID:19824344

  6. Reply to the comment by Boulila and Hinnov towards "Chronology of the Early Toarcian environmental crisis in the Lorraine Sub-Basin (NE Paris Basin)" by W. Ruebsam, P. Münzberger, and L. Schwark [Earth and Planetary Science Letters 404 (2014) 273-282

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruebsam, Wolfgang; Münzberger, Petra; Schwark, Lorenz

    2015-04-01

    Recently Boulila and Hinnov provided an alternative interpretation for the cyclostratigraphy of the Early Toarcian in the Lorraine Basin proposed by Ruebsam et al. (2014). Floating chronologies based on cyclostratigraphy, in particular when discrete time lines (e.g. tephra layers, intrusions, etc.) are missing, are subject to contrasting interpretation and discussion as exemplified for the Early Toarcian by previous contributions (e.g. Kemp et al., 2011; Boulila et al., 2014; Huang and Hesselbo, 2014). In the following we address the discussion raised by Boulila and Hinnov with specific focus on differential sedimentation rates in sub-basins on the NW-Tethyan Shelf during the Early Toarcian and how this may have affected i) the duration of individual ammonite (sub)zones and the Toarcian carbon isotopic excursion, ii) the expression of a 405 ka cycle and iii) the obliquity-forcing on paleoclimate.

  7. Radium Adsorption to Iron Bearing Minerals in Variable Salinity Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, M.; Kocar, B. D.

    2014-12-01

    Radium is a common, naturally occurring radioactive metal found in many subsurface environments. Radium isotopes are a product of natural uranium and thorium decay, and are particularly abundant within groundwaters where minimal flux leads to accumulation within porewaters. Radium has been used as a natural tracer to estimate submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) [1], where the ratios of various radium isotopes are used to estimate total groundwater flux to and from the ocean [2]. Further, it represents a substantial hazard in waste water produced after hydraulic fracturing for natural gas extraction [3], resulting in a significant risk of environmental release and increased cost for water treatment or disposal. Adsorption to mineral surfaces represents a primary pathway of radium retention within subsurface environments. For SGD studies, it is important to understand adsorption processes to correctly estimate GW fluxes, while in hydraulic fracturing, radium adsorption to aquifer solids will mediate the activities of radium within produced water. While some studies of radium adsorption to various minerals have been performed [4], there is a limited understanding of the surface chemistry of radium adsorption, particularly to iron-bearing minerals such as pyrite, goethite and ferrihydrite. Accordingly, we present the results of sorption experiments of radium to a suite of iron-bearing minerals representative of those found within deep saline and near-surface (freshwater) aquifers, and evaluate impacts of varying salinity solutions through the use of artificial groundwater, seawater, and shale formation brine. Further, we explore the impacts of pyrite oxidation and ferrihydrite transformation to other iron-bearing secondary minerals on the retention of radium. This work lays the groundwork for further study of radium use as a tracer for SGD, as well as understanding mechanisms of radium retention and release from deep aquifer materials following hydraulic fracturing

  8. Exploring the structure of high temperature, iron-bearing liquids

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wilding, Martin; Benmore, Chris; Weber, Rick; Parise, John; Lazareva, Lena; Skinner, Lawrie; Alderman, Oliver; Tamalonis, Antony

    2015-06-25

    This paper describes the direct measurements of the structure of iron-bearing liquids using a combination of containerless techniques and in–situ high energy x-ray diffraction. These capabilities provide data that is important to help model and optimize processes such as smelting, steel making, and controlling slag chemistry. A successful programme of liquid studies has been undertaken and the Advanced Photon Source using these combined techniques which include the provision of gas mixing and the control of pO₂ and the changing influence of mixed valance elements. It is possible to combine rapid image acquisition with quenching of liquids to obtain the fullmore » diffraction patterns of deeply supercooled liquids and the metastable supercooled liquid regime, where the liquid structures and viscosity change most dramatically, can also be explored.« less

  9. Exploring the structure of high temperature, iron-bearing liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Wilding, Martin; Benmore, Chris; Weber, Rick; Parise, John; Lazareva, Lena; Skinner, Lawrie; Alderman, Oliver; Tamalonis, Antony

    2015-06-25

    This paper describes the direct measurements of the structure of iron-bearing liquids using a combination of containerless techniques and in–situ high energy x-ray diffraction. These capabilities provide data that is important to help model and optimize processes such as smelting, steel making, and controlling slag chemistry. A successful programme of liquid studies has been undertaken and the Advanced Photon Source using these combined techniques which include the provision of gas mixing and the control of pO₂ and the changing influence of mixed valance elements. It is possible to combine rapid image acquisition with quenching of liquids to obtain the full diffraction patterns of deeply supercooled liquids and the metastable supercooled liquid regime, where the liquid structures and viscosity change most dramatically, can also be explored.

  10. UPTAKE OF HEAVY METALS IN BATCH SYSTEMS BY A RECYCLED IRON-BEARING MATERIAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    An iron-bearing material deriving from surface finishing operations in the manufacturing of cast-iron components demonstrates potential for removal of heavy metals from aqueous waste streams. Batch isotherm and rate experiments were conducted for uptake of cadmium, zinc, and lead...

  11. Separation of Zinc from High Iron-Bearing Zinc Calcines by Reductive Roasting and Leaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Bing; Peng, Ning; Min, Xiao-Bo; Liu, Hui; Li, Yanchun; Chen, Dong; Xue, Ke

    2015-09-01

    This paper focuses on the selective leaching of zinc from high iron-bearing zinc calcines. The FactSage 6.2 program was used for the thermodynamic analysis of the selective reduction and leaching, and the samples reduced by carbon and carbon monoxide were subjected to acid leaching for the separation of zinc from iron. It is shown that the generation of ferrous oxide should be avoided by modifying V CO ( P CO/( P CO + )) in the roasting process prior to the selective leaching of zinc. Gaseous roasting-leaching has a higher efficiency in the separation of zinc from iron than carbothermic reduction-leaching. The conversion of the zinc ferrite in high iron-bearing zinc calcines to zinc oxide and magnetite has been demonstrated by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and magnetic hysteresis loop characterization. This gaseous roast-leach process is technically feasible to separate zinc from iron without an iron precipitation process.

  12. Abiotic reductive dechlorination of chlorinated ethylenes by iron-bearing phyllosilicates.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woojin; Batchelor, Bill

    2004-09-01

    Abiotic reductive dechlorination of chlorinated ethylenes (tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), cis-dichloroethylene (c-DCE), and vinylchloride (VC)) by iron-bearing phyllosilicates (biotite, vermiculite, and montmorillonite) was characterized to obtain better understanding of the behavior of these contaminants in systems undergoing remediation by natural attenuation and redox manipulation. Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate dechlorination kinetics and some experiments were conducted with addition of Fe(II) to simulate impact of microbial iron reduction. A modified Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model adequately described reductive dechlorination kinetics of target organics by the iron-bearing phyllosilicates. The rate constants stayed between 0.08 (+/-10.4%) and 0.401 (+/-8.1%) day(-1) and the specific initial reductive capacity of iron-bearing phyllosilicates for chlorinated ethylenes stayed between 0.177 (+/-6.1%) and 1.06 (+/-7.1%) microM g(-1). The rate constants for the reductive dechlorination of TCE at reactive biotite surface increased as pH (5.5-8.5) and concentration of sorbed Fe(II) (0-0.15 mM g(-1)) increased. The appropriateness of the model is supported by the fact that the rate constants were independent of solid concentration (0.0085-0.17 g g(-1)) and initial TCE concentration (0.15-0.60 mM). Biotite had the greatest rate constant among the phyllosilicates both with and without Fe(II) addition. The rate constants were increased by a factor of 1.4-2.5 by Fe(II) addition. Between 1.8% and 36% of chlorinated ethylenes removed were partitioned to the phyllosilicates. Chloride was produced as a product of degradation and no chlorinated intermediates were observed throughout the experiment. PMID:15268967

  13. Reduction of iron-bearing lunar minerals for the production of oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massieon, Charles; Cutler, Andrew; Shadman, Farhang

    1992-01-01

    The kinetics and mechanism of the reduction of simulants of the iron-bearing lunar minerals olivine ((Fe,Mg)2SiO4), pyroxene ((Fe,Mg,Ca)SiO3), and ilmenite (FeTiO3) are investigated, extending previous work with ilmenite. Fayalite is reduced by H2 at 1070 K to 1480 K. A layer of mixed silica glass and iron forms around an unreacted core. Reaction kinetics are influenced by permeation of hydrogen through this layer and a reaction step involving dissociated hydrogen. Reaction mechanisms are independent of Mg content. Augite, hypersthene, and hedenbergite are reduced in H2 at the same temperatures. The products are iron metal and lower iron silicates mixed throughout the mineral. Activation energy rises with calcium content. Ilmenite and fayalite are reduced with carbon deposited on partially reduced minerals via the CO disproportionation reaction. Reduction with carbon is rapid, showing the carbothermal reduction of lunar minerals is possible.

  14. Modeling methane production by iron-bearing carbonate minerals in hydrothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.; Norman, D.

    2005-12-01

    We measured methane and other major volatiles in fluid inclusions from gold deposits such as Lone Tree, Getchell, Twin Creeks, and Pipeline Carlin-type gold deposits in Nevada by bulk analysis using quadrupole mass spectrometry. Ore-stage fluids are characterized by CO2/CH4 ratios that typically are < 10. Fluid inclusion methane concentrations generally are between 0.1 and 0.5 mol.%; other gaseous species show much wider ranges in composition. Also we commonly measure CO2/CH4 ratios of 10 or less in geothermal fluid inclusions. Similar ratios are reported in some black smokers. Few geothermal systems in production have CH4 in other than trace amounts. Giggenbach (1997) demonstrates that CO2/CH4 ratio in geothermal fluids in equilibrium with granite should vary positively with temperature, but we see no such variation and some fluid inclusion CO2/CH4 in granite-hosted inclusions ratios are an order of magnitude higher than calculated by Giggenbach (1997). This raises the question about the fluid inclusion gas measurements. We have looked at explanations for measurement of fluid inclusion methane that include preferential trapping of hydrocarbon compounds, concentration of methane by boiling, and contamination, but none can explain in all cases the methane concentrations measured. Hence we have modeled geothermal fluid rock reactions using Geochemists Workbench to demonstrate that methane can be a result of fluid-rock reactions. For gold ore wall rocks, we assume that wall rock includes iron-bearing carbonate minerals, epidote, and biotite. For geothermal systems, we assumed fluids with 1 mol.% CO2 and salinity of 1 %. We modeled the reaction of iron-bearing carbonate minerals, epidote, and biotite with the fluid between 100 and 300 °C. The reaction released ferrous iron, and the released ferrous iron is oxidized and precipitated as hematite or magnetite. The precipitation of hematite or magnetite produced acid and the acid dissolved calcite increasing CO2

  15. Reactivity of iron-bearing minerals and CO2 sequestration: A multi-disciplinary experimental approach

    SciTech Connect

    Schoonen, Martin A.

    2014-12-22

    The reactivity of sandstones was studied under conditions relevant to the injection of supercritical carbon dioxide in the context of carbon geosequestration. The emphasis of the study was on the reactivity of iron-bearing minerals when exposed to supercritical CO2 (scCO2) and scCO2 with commingled aqueous solutions containing H2S and/or SO2. Flow through and batch experiments were conducted. Results indicate that sandstones, irrespective of their mineralogy, are not reactive when exposed to pure scCO2 or scCO2 with commingled aqueous solutions containing H2S and/or SO2 under conditions simulating the environment near the injection point (flow through experiments). However, sandstones are reactive under conditions simulating the edge of the injected CO2 plume or ahead of the plume (batch experiments). Sandstones containing hematite (red sandstone) are particularly reactive. The composition of the reaction products is strongly dependent on the composition of the aqueous phase. The presence of dissolved sulfide leads to the conversion of hematite into pyrite and siderite. The relative amount of the pyrite and siderite is influenced by the ionic strength of the solution. Little reactivity is observed when sulfite is present in the aqueous phase. Sandstones without hematite (grey sandstones) show little reactivity regardless of the solution composition.

  16. Optimization Study on the Leaching of High Iron-Bearing Zinc Calcine After Reduction Roasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Junwei; Liu, Wei; Qin, Wenqing; Zheng, Yongxing; Luo, Honglin

    2016-02-01

    The selective leaching of zinc from high iron-bearing zinc calcine after reduction roasting was optimized by Taguchi experimental design method. The experimental parameters and their ranges were 303 to 343 K (30 to 70 °C) for leaching temperature ( T), 7 to 15 mL/g for liquid/solid ratio ( L/ S), 70 to 150 g/L for H2SO4 concentration ( C), 5 to 25 minutes for time ( t), and 100 to 500 rpm for stirring speed ( R). The results show that the optimum conditions were 303 K (30 °C), 9 mL/g, 110 g/L, 20 minutes, and 400 rpm, respectively. Under these conditions, about 92.81 pct Zn was extracted and more than 86 pct Fe was reported into the leach residue. L/ S and C had significant effects on the extractions of zinc and iron, while t and R had no significant effects, and T had significant effect on iron extraction but negligible effect on zinc extraction. This indicates that diffusion was not a major control step of the leaching process, and the dissolution of iron was controlled by chemical reaction. The interactive effects of parameters were negligible. The leach residue was mainly composed of Fe3O4 and ZnS, and its particle size was very fine.

  17. Low- and high-temperature magnetic properties of iron-bearing particles of combustion origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W.; Doh, S. J.; Yu, Y.; Moon, J. W.

    2012-04-01

    Magnetic particulates in the urban atmosphere are often observed in the forms of spherules and aggregates derived from iron impurities in fossil fuels upon combustion. Recently, magnetic properties of various atmospheric samples gather a scientific interest as economic and rapid proxies in the pollution studies based on their strong linkage to heavy metals and/or volatile organic carbons. Here we present low- and high-temperature magnetic properties of iron-bearing spherules and aggregates separated from the dry-deposit of aerosols and vehicle exhaust emission, respectively. Spherical particles behave like magnetite with the domain state of pseudo-single-domain even for larger than 10 μm in diameter. This probably involves the growth of magnetite branching small particles with a dendritic texture. For the aggregates containing abundant sulfur, only a magnetite signal can be found in low-temperature but both pyrrhotite and magnetite signals occur in high-temperature. Such discrepancy indicates that aggregates of magnetite-like particles with non-monoclinic pyrrhotite due to the absence of low-temperature transition in remanence at around 30 - 35 K.

  18. Hyperspectral Mapping of Iron-bearing Minerals Associated with Dry and Ephemeral Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrand, W. H.; Bowen, B. B.

    2014-12-01

    This research project is utilizing data from the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO) on the International Space Station (ISS) to examine a set of playas and ephemeral lakes in Australia and in the southwestern United States. HICO collects hyperspectral data from 0.35 to 1.08 μm thus excluding the SWIR vibrational overtone region of clays and carbonates. We are assessing the utility of HICO for detecting iron-bearing minerals and materials associated with playas and mapping their fractional abundance outside of the playa boundaries. Sites being investigated include the clastics-dominated Railroad Valley and Lunar Lake playas of Nevada, the evaporite-dominated Bonneville Salt Flats, and the acid-saline Lake Tyrrell of northwest Victoria, Australia. HICO, and supporting airborne hyperspectral datasets (AVIRIS and HyMap), are being converted from at-sensor radiance to surface reflectance using the FLAASH radiance transfer-based atmospheric correction software. Fe-bearing minerals and materials are determined through a standardized endmember detection approach using the commercial ENVI software and mapped using a variety of approaches including linear spectral mixture analysis, constrained energy minimization, and spectral feature fitting. Interpretations of remote data are guided by field-based observations and mapping. We are using the remote sensing data to assess the surface state of the playa (wet vs. dry, soft vs. hard). These factors have bearing in that dusts stripped from playa surfaces can affect nearby human communities and agricultural fields. Playas are also used for recreation and sometimes as transportation corridors and their physical state has important bearing for those functions. Assessing the types of minerals present has relevance for their impact as wind-entrained particulates that could have adverse effects on the health of humans, crops, or livestock.

  19. Single-Crystal Elasticity of Iron-Bearing Bridgemanite in the Lower Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Lin, J. F.; Okuchi, T.; Tomioka, N.

    2014-12-01

    Bridgemanite is believed to be the most abundant mineral in the Earth's lower mantle. Knowing its elasticity is thus critical to our understanding of the lower-mantle seismology, geochemistry, and geophysics. Although single-crystal elasticity and elastic anisotropy of bridgemanite under high P-T have been reported theoretically, experimental results on the single-crystal elasticity of bridgemanite remain very limited[1, 2]. Published experimental results have been limited to ambient conditions due to technical challenges in high-pressure measurements to permit derivations of all nine elastic constants (C11, C22, C33, C44, C55, C66, C12, C23 and C13) of the crystal. A thorough understanding of the elastic properties of bridgemanite at relevant lower mantle conditions, as well as the effects of iron, is essentially needed to interpret seismic observations and to construct a reliable mineralogical and geochemical model. In order to solve all individual elastic constants of bridgemanite at high pressures via Christoffel's equations, we employed both Brillouin Light Scattering (BLS) which is sensitive to shear wave velocities (Vs) up to megabars, and Impulsive Stimulated Light Scattering (ISS) which is sensitive to compressional wave velocities (VP) at lower mantle pressures. The BLS and ISS allowed us to measure VP and VS sound velocities as a function of the azimuthal angle from two orientated single-crystal iron bearing bridgemanite platelets under lower mantle pressures. These experimental results permit the derivations of full elastic constants of single-crystal bridgemanite that are consistent with previous theoretical studies [3, 4]. We will discuss how pressure-temperature, as well as the iron spin/valence states and minor element aluminum, affect the single-crystal elasticity and seismic parameters (e.g. VP and VS anisotropy AVP, AVS) at lower mantle conditions. Within a pyrolite mineralogical model, these results are extrapolated using a thermoelastic model

  20. Carbon Solubility in Silicon-Iron-Bearing Metals during Core Formation on Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vander Kaaden, Kathleen E.; McCubbin, Francis M.; Ross, D. Kent; Rapp, Jennifer F.; Danielson, Lisa R.; Keller, Lindsay P.; Righter, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    potential light element that could be incorporated into Mercury's core. The goal of this study is to determine the carbon concentration at graphite saturation in various silicon-iron bearing metals relevant to possible mercurian core compositions. Future experiments will include the addition of sulfur into these metals.

  1. Elastic properties of iron-bearing wadsleyite to 17.7 GPa: Implications for mantle mineral models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingyun; Bass, Jay D.; Kastura, Tomoo

    2014-03-01

    The sound velocities and single-crystal elastic moduli of iron-bearing wadsleyite with [Fe]/[Fe + Mg] molar ratio of 0.075 have been measured by Brillouin scattering experiments at high pressures up to 17.7 GPa. Pressure derivatives for the adiabatic bulk modulus (KS0) and shear modulus (μ0) are 4.1(1) and 1.45(4), respectively. A comparison of our results with previous Brillouin scattering results on the Mg end-member wadsleyite shows that incorporating 7.5 mol% iron in wadsleyite at high-pressure conditions decreases the shear moduli by ∼4-5%, but does not have a discernable effect on the bulk modulus. The effects of iron on the elastic moduli of wadsleyite at ambient pressure persist to high-pressure conditions at a relatively constant level. Using our results on iron-bearing wadsleyite at high pressure, we conclude that less olivine than in the pyrolite model of mantle composition provides a satisfactory explanation for 410 km seismic discontinuity at the top of the transition zone.

  2. Si and O self-diffusion in hydrous forsterite and iron-bearing olivine from the perspective of defect chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Hongzhan; Katsura, Tomoo

    2016-02-01

    We discuss the experimental results of silicon and oxygen self-diffusion coefficients in forsterite and iron-bearing olivine from the perspective of defect chemistry. Silicon diffusion is dominated by VO ··-associated VSi″″, whereas oxygen diffusion is dominated by hopping of VO ·· under anhydrous conditions, and by (OH)O · under hydrous conditions. By considering the charge neutrality condition of [(OH)O ·] = 2[VMe″] in hydrous forsterite and iron-bearing olivine, we get D Si ∝ (C_{{{{H}}2 {{O}}}})1/3 and D O ∝ (C_{{{{H}}2 {{O}}}})0, which explains the experimental results of water effects on oxygen and silicon self-diffusion rates (Fei et al. in Nature 498:213-215, 2013; J Geophys Res 119:7598-7606, 2014). The C_{{{{H}}2 {{O}}}} dependence of creep rate in the Earth's mantle should be close to that given by Si and O self-diffusion coefficients obtained under water unsaturated conditions.

  3. Calorimetry on a Chip: Toward Heat Capacities of Microgram Quantities of Iron-bearing Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navrotsky, A.; Hellman, F.; Dorogova, M.; Cooke, D.; Queen, D.

    2005-12-01

    Heat capacities, standard entropies, and magnetic phase transitions in iron-bearing mantle minerals are poorly known because conventional adiabatic calorimetry requires samples too large to be synthesized at very high pressure. Specific heat measurements on microgram sized samples are based on a Si-micromachined calorimetry device. These devices have been in use for a decade in the physics and materials science community for measurements on metals and on selected oxides such as CoO. These calorimeters on a chip have been used for both thin films and small bulk samples. Different designs have been optimized for different uses, but the heart of the device is a thin (1800 ?) 0.5 x 0.5 cm2 amorphous Si3N4 membrane supported by a 1 x 1 cm2 Si frame. On one side of this membrane, we deposit and pattern thin film heater, thermometers, and electrical leads of appropriate resistance and temperature coefficient. On the other side, in a 0.25 x 0.25 cm2 area at the center, we deposit the sample and a thermally conducting material such as gold or copper. This thin membrane provides the necessary thermal isolation of sample from environment, while still providing a sample/thermometer platform. On the frame are matching thermometers to those on the membrane to permit a high sensitivity differential temperature measurement. We have made thousands of these devices and have measured hundreds. The devices are metallurgically stable and physically robust under cycling between 4.2 K and 1000 K, and can withstand photolithographic processing. Because of the nature of the fabrication process, reproducibility of specific heat addenda and of thermal link between sample and environment is very good, varying from device to device by less than 5%. Samples are measured using the relaxation method, requiring a separate determination of the thermal link between sample and environment (the steady state increase of the sample temperature with the sample heater turned on) and the time constant of

  4. Electrodynamics of Moving Conductors in Magnetic Fields: Off the Beaten Track with Paul Lorrain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bringuier, E.

    2012-01-01

    The paper is about the appearance of space charge in an ohmic conductor moving in a magnetic field, as pointed out in this journal by Lorrain (1990 "Eur. J. Phys." 11 94-8) and earlier by van Bladel (1973 "Proc. IEEE" 61 260-8). The phenomenon is reinvestigated here in the light of energy balance considerations, in the particular case of a…

  5. Interactions Between Microbial Iron Reduction and Metal Geochemistry: Effect of Redox Cycling on Transition Metal Speciation in Iron Bearing Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    D. Craig Cooper; Flynn W. Picardal; Aaron J. Coby

    2006-02-01

    Microbial iron reduction is an important biogeochemical process that can affect metal geochemistry in sediments through direct and indirect mechanisms. With respect to Fe(III) (hydr)oxides bearing sorbed divalent metals, recent reports have indicated that (1) microbial reduction of goethite/ferrihydrite mixtures preferentially removes ferrihydrite, (2) this process can incorporate previously sorbed Zn(II) into an authigenic crystalline phase that is insoluble in 0.5 M HCl, (3) this new phase is probably goethite, and (4) the presence of nonreducible minerals can inhibit this transformation. This study demonstrates that a range of sorbed transition metals can be selectively sequestered into a 0.5 M HCl insoluble phase and that the process can be stimulated through sequential steps of microbial iron reduction and air oxidation. Microbial reduction experiments with divalent Cd, Co, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn indicate that all metals save Mn experienced some sequestration, with the degree of metal incorporation into the 0.5 M HCl insoluble phase correlating positively with crystalline ionic radius at coordination number = 6. Redox cycling experiments with Zn adsorbed to synthetic goethite/ferrihydrite or iron-bearing natural sediments indicate that redox cycling from iron reducing to iron oxidizing conditions sequesters more Zn within authigenic minerals than microbial iron reduction alone. In addition, the process is more effective in goethite/ferrihydrite mixtures than in iron-bearing natural sediments. Microbial reduction alone resulted in a ~3× increase in 0.5 M HCl insoluble Zn and increased aqueous Zn (Zn-aq) in goethite/ferrihydrite, but did not significantly affect Zn speciation in natural sediments. Redox cycling enhanced the Zn sequestration by ~12% in both goethite/ferrihydrite and natural sediments and reduced Zn-aq to levels equal to the uninoculated control in goethite/ferrihydrite and less than the uninoculated control in natural sediments. These data suggest

  6. [Severe complications of pregnancy and delivery: the situation in Lorraine based on the European investigation].

    PubMed

    Girard, F; Burlet, G; Bayoumeu, F; Fresson, J; Bouvier-Colle, M H; Boutroy, J L

    2001-10-01

    The level of maternal mortality appears to be higher in France than in other European countries according to the data collected in the 1995 European survey. We performed a retrospective analysis of severe hemorrhage, pregnancy induced hypertension, and maternal sepsis in 1995 in the Lorraine region and reviewed the management scheme used in each case. There was one maternal death and 223 cases of severe maternal morbidity (110 cases of hemorrhage, 105 cases of pregnancy induced hypertension, 8 cases of maternal sepsis). The frequency of these maternal diseases was an estimated 8 per 1000 births. Ninety percent of the children (90.7%) were living 7 days after birth. Pregnancy after the age of 35 years, obesity, and an intermediate level of vocational training were well-documented high risk factors in the Lorraine area. All of the women who developed complications had been followed regularly during their pregnancy. High parity and a scarred uterus were high risk factors for post partum hemorrhage. About 45% (45.5%) of the patients were transferred to an emergency unit for intensive care. Pregnancy-induced hypertension was treated within the normal hospital network, most of the mothers being transferred to a reference center prior to delivery. This retrospective study demonstrates the need for reporting more information on medical records. The data observed improved our knowledge of the prevalence and management of the main causes of direct maternal death in the Lorraine area. It improved our knowledge on the prevalence and management of the main causes of direct maternal death in Lorraine area. PMID:11883010

  7. Cr(VI) removal in acidic aqueous solution using iron-bearing industrial solid wastes and their stabilisation with cement.

    PubMed

    Singh, I B; Singh, D R

    2002-01-01

    In this study, iron-bearing industrial solid wastes iron filings, ETP sludge of steel and red mud of aluminium industries; were used for Cr(VI) removal at pH 3. A complete removal of Cr(VI) was found for initial 10 mg 1(-1) of 100 ml solutions in the presence of 2.5 g iron filings, 8 g ETP sludge and 10 g red mud for up to one hour of shaking at room temperature. After Cr(VI) removal, inclusion of chromium on the reacted iron filing surface was demonstrated by EDAX analysis. Leachability of chromium and iron from the reacted wastes was determined by using Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP). This test showed a very low level of leachability of chromium as Cr(III) and iron from the reacted wastes. To minimise their leachability further, Cr(VI)-reacted solid wastes were stabilised with Portland cement in their 3:1 ratio. Leachability tests of stabilised wastes by TCLP indicated a considerable decrease in leachability of chromium and iron compared with the that of reacted wastes alone. To explore the possibility of utilisation in building materials, bricks of cement-mixed Cr(VI)-reacted wastes were made and their comprehensive strength, durability and leachability under immersion conditions were measured. PMID:11918404

  8. Fe behavior in iron-bearing phonolitic and pantelleritic melts and its significance for magma dynamics in the volcanic conduits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borovkov, Nikita; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Fehr, Karl-Thomas; Cimarelli, Corrado; Dingwell, Donald Bruce

    2014-05-01

    The style of volcanic eruptions is determined entirely by dynamics of magma ascent in conduits. Physical properties of a silicate melt, particulary viscosity, are responsible for fragmentation processes, bubble growth and their ascent, which are in their turn related to explosivity of eruptions. Therefore, comprehension of the macroscopic properties of silicate melts is required for adequate conduit modelling. Considering eruptions of Mt. Vesuvius, Italy, we observe that eruption style varies from strombolian to plinean and sub-plinean which is related to the changes of melts viscosity in conduits. At Vesuvius the composition of volcanic deposits (III phase) is mainly phonolitic with 5 - 8 wt. % FeO. Fe changes the valence and coordination depending on oxidation state. The changing of iron coordination causes increasing or decreasing viscosity because of the presence of higher or lower amounts of Fe species coordinated with stronger covalence bonds. Mossbauer spectra of iron-bearing natural pantelleritic and phonolitic glasses were studied to get data on speciation and coordination state of iron. Mössbauer spectroscopy measures hyperfine interactions (isomer shift (IS)) and quadrupole splitting (QS)) at Fe atoms embedded in glass structure, which provide the amount of ferric and ferrous iron and their coordination state depending on Redox conditions. Based on these data, we have considered redox-viscosity relationships and also iron coordination effects on viscosity of both mentioned natural melt compositions. For glasses, due to short range order, the Mössbauer spectra were fitted using mathematical procedures based on functional analysis (extended Voight lineshape included in "Recoil" and "Mosslab" software). Mössbauer spectra are deconvoluted in two sites: ferrous iron (IS=0,79-1,00 mm/s; QS= 1,78-2,25 mm/s) and ferric iron (IS=0,26-0,50 mm/s; QS= 0,75-0,95 mm/s). For both sites we observe that IS and QS gradually decrease towards more oxidized conditions

  9. Thermodynamic and mass balance constraints on iron-bearing phyllosilicate formation and alteration pathways on early Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalano, Jeffrey G.

    2013-10-01

    Widespread occurrences of phyllosilicates, predominantly nontronite and Mg saponite, in the Noachian-aged crust of Mars place constraints on water availability and surface conditions. However, the Noachian atmosphere likely lacked oxidants capable of forming nontronite from the basaltic crust and its origins are thus uncertain. In this study, scenarios for the formation of iron-bearing phyllosilicates from the weathering and hydrothermal alteration of Martian basalt were investigated using geochemical modeling to establish plausible pathways of nontronite generation and the effect of redox conditions on associated secondary phases. Hydrothermal alteration produced FeII and Mg saponite, serpentine, and zeolites at 100°C and chlorite, prehnite, and talc at 250°C, consistent with phases observed in crater deposits on Mars. Anoxic weathering produced primarily FeII and Mg saponite. High water-rock ratios produced Al-clays and amorphous silica and high pCO2 conditions inhibited smectite formation because of carbonate precipitation. Oxic weathering produced primarily nontronite and Mg saponite. Later oxidation of anoxic weathering products also formed nontronite-Mg saponite assemblages; oxidation products of hydrothermal assemblages included nontronite, Mg saponite, and either Al smectites or residual zeolites or prehnite. These calculations demonstrate that there are multiple plausible routes to form Fe/Mg smectites on early Mars and that an oxidizing atmosphere need not have existed in the Noachian. Decoupling iron oxidation from initial clay formation raises the possibilities that Mars transitioned to conditions favoring widespread iron oxidation after phyllosilicate formation ceased and that residual, unoxidized ferrous iron phyllosilicates still exist today in the Martian subsurface.

  10. Theoretical Modeling for the X-ray Spectroscopy of Iron-bearing MgSiO3 under High Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Tsuchiya, T.

    2012-12-01

    The behaviors of iron (Fe) in MgSiO3 perovskite, including valence state, spin state, and chemical environments, at high pressures are of fundamental importance for more detailed understanding the properties of the Earth's lower mantle. The pressure induced spin transition of Fe-bearing MgO and MgSiO3 are detected often by using high-resolution K-edge X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) [1,2,3] and confirmed by theoretical simulations. [4,5] Since the Fe K-edge XES is associated to the 3p orbital, which is far from the valence orbitals (3d and 4s), it provides no information about its coordination environments. However, the Fe L-edge XES and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) can directly present the distribution and intensity of Fe-3d character. To identify both the spin states and the coordination environments of iron-bearing MgSiO3, we systematically investigate the L-edge XAS, XES and X-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopy of Fe2+- and Fe3+-bearing MgSiO3 under high pressure by using the first-principles density functional method combined with the slater-transition method. Our results show that Fe2+ and Fe3+ can be distinguished easily by taking the XPS spectra. The spin transition of Fe2+ and Fe3+ can also be clearly certified by XAS and XES. Interestingly, the broadness of L-edge XES of Fe changes depending on the iron position, meaning that its coordination environment might also be distinguishable by using high-resolution XES measurements. Research supported by the Ehime University G-COE program and KAKENHI. [1] James Badro, Guillaume Fiquet, FranÇois Guyot, Jean-Pascal Rueff, Viktor V. Struzhkin, György VankÓ, and Giulio Monaco. Science 300, 789 (2003), [2] James Badro, Jean-Pascal Rueff, György VankÓ, Giulio Monaco, Guillaume Fiquet, and FranÇois Guyot, Science 305, 383 (2004), [3] Jung-Fu Lin, Viktor V. Struzhkin, Steven D. Jacobsen, Michael Y. Hu, Paul Chow, Jennifer Kung, Haozhe Liu, Ho-kwang Mao, and Gussell J. Hemley, Nature 436, 377 (2005). [4

  11. "Fearful of the Written Word": White Fear, Black Writing, and Lorraine Hansberry's "A Raisin in the Sun" Screenplay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipari, Lisbeth

    2004-01-01

    In 1959, Lorraine Hansberry was hired by Columbia Pictures to write a screenplay for her award-winning Broadway play, "A Raisin in the Sun". By the time the film was released in 1961, over one-third of the original screenplay had been cut. In this paper I undertake a rhetorical analysis of a particular historically contextualized instance of the…

  12. Mortality due to respiratory cancers in the coke oven plants of the Lorraine coalmining industry (Houillères du Bassin de Lorraine).

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, J P; Chau, N; Patris, A; Mur, J M; Pham, Q T; Moulin, J J; Morviller, P; Auburtin, G; Figueredo, A; Martin, J

    1987-01-01

    The main activity of the Houillères du Bassin de Lorraine (Lorraine Collieries), employing 23,000 operatives and executives, is coalmining. The coke production is carried out by two coke oven plants with a workforce of respectively 747 and 552 workers. The coal coking process entails the emission of noxious products such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from the ovens. The influence of occupational exposure on mortality due to respiratory cancers, and particularly to lung and upper respiratory and alimentary tracts cancer, was investigated among a cohort of 534 male workers from the two coke oven plants who had retired from work between 1963 and 1982. The job history of each subject has been precisely reconstructed by indicating the duration of exposure on the ovens, close to the ovens, and in maintenance occupations. The cohort mortality has been analysed according to the method of indirect standardisation with reference to the French male population and by a case-control study concerning the consumption of tobacco per cohort. The mortality due to lung cancer is 2.51 times higher than expected. This excess of mortality differs, but not significantly, between the two coke oven plants (standardised mortality ratio equals 3.05 and 1.75 respectively). It is not significantly higher among subjects exposed for more than five years, directly exposed on the ovens or working near the ovens or at maintenance occupations on the ovens (SMR = 2.78), than among those exposed for less than five years (SMR = 2.35) or those not exposed at all. Even taking into account the excess of mortality due to lung cancers in the Moselle district (1.6 time that of France), the excess of lung cancers does not seem to be explained by the regional factor, or by tobacco and alcohol consumption. Although no significant relation was offered between lung cancer and the duration of exposure to PAH, even when taking smoking habits into account, the carcinogenic role of occupational nuisances

  13. Ennoyage des mines de fer lorraines : impact sur la qualité de l'eau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collon, Pauline; Fabriol, Robert; Buès, Michel

    2004-07-01

    The flooding of the abandoned iron mines of Lorraine leads to a degradation of the groundwater quality. Laboratory experiments allowed us to build a kinetic chemical model based on simple chemical mechanisms. During mining operations, pyrite oxidation and carbonate dissolution lead to the precipitation of gypsum. The local decrease of pH favours local dissolutions of minerals and releases ions that are fixed on cationic exchange sites. During the flooding of the mine workings, the dissolution of the newly precipitated gypsum, the precipitation of carbonates and cationic exchange reactions are responsible for the increase of the concentrations of sulphate, magnesium, sodium, potassium and strontium in water. Thereafter, these concentrations would decrease with the natural leaching of the mining reservoir. To cite this article: P. Collon et al., C. R. Geoscience 336 (2004).

  14. Electrodynamics of moving conductors in magnetic fields: off the beaten track with Paul Lorrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bringuier, E.

    2012-01-01

    The paper is about the appearance of space charge in an ohmic conductor moving in a magnetic field, as pointed out in this journal by Lorrain (1990 Eur. J. Phys. 11 94-8) and earlier by van Bladel (1973 Proc. IEEE 61 260-8). The phenomenon is reinvestigated here in the light of energy balance considerations, in the particular case of a cylinder rotating in a parallel uniform magnetic field. Part of the kinetic energy of the rotating body is lost in the Joule effect of the currents building up the space charge, but the greater part is converted to the electrostatic energy of the space-charge distribution. The findings of the paper are consistent with the usual account of the electrodynamics of moving media where the existence of space charge in good conductors is not recognized. The material of the paper can be taught at the end of second-year university lectures on electrodynamics.

  15. [Robert Francois Laugier (1722-1793): a Lorraine physician in Europe of the lights].

    PubMed

    Labrude, Pierre

    2005-12-01

    Robert François Laugier was born in Nancy in 1722. He was the son of an apothecary who began an apprenticeship in this field, but then became a medical student. His thesis, in 1748, was on a subject in chemistry. Interested in botany, he went to Vienna, at the request of the last Duke of Lorraine, to direct the botanical garden. He had an important place in the Imperial court and was professor at the University until 1769. On his return to Nancy in 1769, he was elected to the local academy and may then have gone to Strasbourg. He became a professor at the University of Modena and died in Reggio in 1793. Robert (de) Laugier is remembered by his book, well known in pharmaceutical bibliography, Institutiones pharmaceuticae sive philosophia pharmaceutica, which appeared in 1788 and 1793, and by his work to improve the design of the alembic. PMID:17153285

  16. Longitudinal study of pulmonary function in coal miners in Lorraine, France

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, D.V.; Pham, Q.T.; Chau, N.; Pivoteau, C.; Dechoux, J.; Sadoul, P.

    1985-01-01

    A longitudinal study of pulmonary function and radiological change has been conducted on 141 nonsmoking coal miners and 256 smoking coal miners from Lorraine, France. At the time of the first examination occasioned by radiological change or shortness of breath, the men averaged between 46.6 years and 50.9 years of age, and they retired approximately 8 years after entering the study. They have been followed for average periods of about 18 years and a mean of five FEV1 observations per man were made over that period. Changes in radiological category have been documented. Average rates of decline of FVC and FEV1 were similar, and varied between -47 ml/yr in nonsmoking miners still alive, to -78 ml/yr in deceased smoking miners. These accelerated rates were similar before and after retirement from the mine.

  17. First-principles study of spin transition and seismic properties of ferric iron-bearing post-perovskite with oxygen vacancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Benzhou; He, Kaihua; Chen, Qili; Wang, Xicheng; Wang, Qingbo; Wan, Miao; Ji, Guangfu

    2014-09-01

    The spin states, elastic properties and seismic velocities of ferric iron-bearing post-perovskite MgSiO3 (pPv) with single oxygen vacancy [Mg8(Si6,Fe2)O23 and Mg16(Si14,Fe2)O47] were calculated by first principles based on density functional theory. The effects of ferric iron and oxygen vacancy on seismic waves were studied for the host pPv subjected to a hydrostatic pressure. Calculations revealed a new spin transition from intermediate-spin to low-spin states with increasing pressure. As a result, the volume was reduced and the elastic constants were modified, producing a clear decrease in the seismic velocities of both compressive wave and shear wave due to the reduction of bulk modulus and shear modulus. The ferric iron and oxygen vacancy also had a minor effect on wave anisotropy.

  18. First-principles study of spin transition and seismic properties of ferric iron-bearing post-perovskite with oxygen vacancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Benzhou; He, Kaihua; Chen, Qili; Wang, Xicheng; Wang, Qingbo; Wan, Miao; Ji, Guangfu

    2015-02-01

    The spin states, elastic properties and seismic velocities of ferric iron-bearing post-perovskite MgSiO3 (pPv) with single oxygen vacancy [Mg8(Si6,Fe2)O23 and Mg16(Si14,Fe2)O47] were calculated by first principles based on density functional theory. The effects of ferric iron and oxygen vacancy on seismic waves were studied for the host pPv subjected to a hydrostatic pressure. Calculations revealed a new spin transition from intermediate-spin to low-spin states with increasing pressure. As a result, the volume was reduced and the elastic constants were modified, producing a clear decrease in the seismic velocities of both compressive wave and shear wave due to the reduction of bulk modulus and shear modulus. The ferric iron and oxygen vacancy also had a minor effect on wave anisotropy.

  19. Geology of the Caloris basin, Mercury: a view from MESSENGER.

    PubMed

    Murchie, Scott L; Watters, Thomas R; Robinson, Mark S; Head, James W; Strom, Robert G; Chapman, Clark R; Solomon, Sean C; McClintock, William E; Prockter, Louise M; Domingue, Deborah L; Blewett, David T

    2008-07-01

    The Caloris basin, the youngest known large impact basin on Mercury, is revealed in MESSENGER images to be modified by volcanism and deformation in a manner distinct from that of lunar impact basins. The morphology and spatial distribution of basin materials themselves closely match lunar counterparts. Evidence for a volcanic origin of the basin's interior plains includes embayed craters on the basin floor and diffuse deposits surrounding rimless depressions interpreted to be of pyroclastic origin. Unlike lunar maria, the volcanic plains in Caloris are higher in albedo than surrounding basin materials and lack spectral evidence for ferrous iron-bearing silicates. Tectonic landforms, contractional wrinkle ridges and extensional troughs, have distributions and age relations different from their counterparts in and around lunar basins, indicating a different stress history. PMID:18599772

  20. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3364, Pasaband (417) and Markaz-e Kajiran (418) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  1. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3266, Uruzgan (519) and Moqur (520) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  2. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3770, Faizabad (217) and Parkhaw (218) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  3. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3362, Shindand (415) and Tulak (416) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  4. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3562, Khawja-Jir (403) and Murghab (404) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  5. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3568, Pul-e Khumri (503) and Charikar (504) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  6. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3366, Gizab (513) and Nawer (514) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  7. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3564, Jowand (405) and Gurziwan (406) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  8. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3570, Tagab-e-Munjan (505) and Asmar-Kamdesh (506) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  9. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3264, Naw Zad-Musa Qala (423) and Dihrawud (424) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  10. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3368, Ghazni (515) and Gardez (516) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  11. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3162, Chakhansur (603) and Kotalak (604) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  12. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3566, Sangcharak (501) and Sayghan-o-Kamard (502) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other material

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  13. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3260, Dasht-e-Chah-e-Mazar (419) and Anar Darah (420) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  14. Hyperspectral Surface Materials Map of Quadrangle 3268, Khayr Kot (521) and Urgun (522) Quadrangles, Afghanistan, Showing Iron-bearing Minerals and Other Materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  15. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3262, Farah (421) and Hokumat-e-pur-Chaman (422) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  16. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3166, Jaldak (701) and Maruf-Nawa (702) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  17. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3164, Lashkar Gah (605) and Kandahar (606) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  18. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3462, Herat (409) and Chishti Sharif (410) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  19. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3464, Shahrak (411) and Kasi (412) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  20. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3466, La`l wa Sar Jangal (507) and Bamyan (508) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  1. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3468, Chak-e Wardak-Siyahgird (509) and Kabul (510) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  2. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3670, Jurm-Kishim (223) and Zebak (224) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  3. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3470, Jalalabad (511) and Chaghasaray (512) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  4. The 57Fe hyperfine interactions in the iron bearing phases in different fragments of Chelyabinsk LL5 meteorite: a comparative study using Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksimova, A. A.; Oshtrakh, M. I.; Petrova, E. V.; Grokhovsky, V. I.; Semionkin, V. A.

    2015-04-01

    A comparative study of the 57Fe hyperfine interactions in iron bearing phases of Chelyabinsk LL5 ordinary chondrite fragments with different lithology was carried out using Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution. The obtained values of hyperfine parameters for the same iron bearing phases in different fragments demonstrated small variations. These differences were related to small variations in the Fe local microenvironments in both M1 and M2 sites in olivine and pyroxene, to deviation from stoichiometry in troilite with increase in Fe vacancies and to differences in Ni concentrations in α-Fe(Ni, Co) and γ-Fe(Ni, Co) phases in the metal grains. The obtained differences may indicate a breccia structure of Chelyabinsk LL5 ordinary chondrite.

  5. [Evolution of the hospital pharmacies in public and private hospitals in the cancer network in Lorraine: Oncolor].

    PubMed

    May, I; Paulus, C; Vigneron, J; Watelet, M; Veyrier, B; Bichet, F; Bideaux, S; Bey, P

    2001-04-01

    With the objective of improvement of quality in oncology, an assessment of chemotherapy practice in hospital pharmacies in public and private hospitals was carried out by the regional committee of oncology in Lorraine. The 36 hospitals reporting using chemotherapy, had varied practices. The results of this survey lead to the elaboration of guideline for hospital pharmacies in the oncology regional network Oncolor. This paper describes the different aspects of the hospital pharmacies in public and private hospitals included in the network Oncolor from 1996 to 2000. In 1996, 9 hospital pharmacies had centralized preparation for chemotherapy, whereas at the end of 2000, 26 pharmacies on 28 will fulfill the guidelines. PMID:11371380

  6. CO2-Brine-Iron-bearing Clay Mineral Interactions: Surface Area Changes and Fracture-Filling Potentials in Geologic CO2 Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Y.; Hu, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Geologic carbon dioxide sequestration (GCS) is a promising option to reduce anthropogenic CO2 emission from coal-fired power plants. The injected CO2 in GCS sites can induce dissolution of rocks and secondary mineral formation, potentially change the physical properties of the geological formations, and thus influence the transport and injectivity of CO2. However, most of the relevant studies are based on hydrological transport, using simulation models rather than studying actual interfacial chemical reactions. The mechanisms and kinetics of interfacial reactions among supercritical CO2 (scCO2)-saline water-rock surfaces at the molecular scale and their impacts on CO2 leakage have not been well understood. This research investigated the effects of various environmental factors (such as temperature, pressure, salinity, and different metal ion and organic-containing brine) on the dissolution and surface morphological changes of clay minerals. In this work, iron-bearing clay mineral, biotite [K(Mg,Fe)3AlSi3O10(OH,F)2], was used for model clay minerals in potential GCS sites. Both fluid/solid chemistry analysis and interfacial topographic studies were conducted to investigate the dissolution/precipitation on clay mineral surfaces under GCS conditions in high salinity systems. Using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the interfacial surface morphology changes were observed. Shortly after a CO2 pressure of 102 atm is applied at 95oC, in situ pH of solutions was 3.15 ± 0.10. The early intrinsic dissolution rates of biotite were 8.4 ± 2.8 × 10-13 and 11.2 ± 3.0 × 10-13 mol Si m-2s-1 in water and NaCl solution, respectively. At the early stage of reaction, fast growth of fibrous illite on biotite basal planes was observed. After 22-70 h reaction, the biotite basal surface cracked, resulting in illite detaching from the surfaced. Later, the cracked surface layer was released into solution, thus the inner layer was exposed as a renewed

  7. Caractérisation minéralogique et microtexturale du vieillissement anthropique du minerai de fer lorrainMineralogical and microtextural characterisation of the anthropic-origin ageing of iron ore in Lorraine (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagallier, Guy; Grgic, Dragan; Homand, Françoise

    The abandoned pillars in iron mines in Lorraine show that the oolitic ore underwent several chemical-mineralogical transformations. The first one is a rapid alteration of the diagenetic siderite and berthierine cement promoted by a bacterial flora. The oolites of goethite pack down and get loaded by deviatory-type stresses; they desquamate, get deformed and become powdery; the ore looses its cohesion. A second step, featuring recrystallisation-neoformation of berthierine in the previously formed micro-cavities, then the formation of a cavernous goethite-hematite crust, leads to a low cohesion to the crumbled ore; this anthropic-origin ageing may be one cause of mine collapsing. To cite this article: G. Dagallier et al., C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 455-462.

  8. Ferric Iron-Bearing Sediments as a Mineral Trap for Geologic CO2 Sequestration: Iron Reduction Using SO2 or H2S Waste Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palandri, J. L.; Kharaka, Y. K.

    2002-12-01

    Disposal of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) into deep aquifers is a potential means of reducing the amount of greenhouse gases released to the atmosphere. In geologic sequestration, CO2 may be stored in: 1) structural traps such as depleted petroleum or gas reservoirs, primarily as supercritical fluid (hydrodynamic trapping); 2) formation water as a dissolved constituent (solution trapping); or 3) carbonate minerals (mineral trapping). Most studies of in situ mineral trapping discuss the use of glauconitic or plagioclase-bearing sediments, to trap CO2 in siderite or calcite. Glauconitic beds, which contain the desired ferrous iron, are generally of limited thickness and geographical occurrence. However, ferric iron-bearing sediments, including redbeds, have the advantages of widespread geographic distribution, and generally greater thickness, and higher porosity and permeability. Iron must be in its ferrous oxidation state in order for it to precipitate in carbonate minerals. Ferric iron in sediments requires a reductant to be reduced to ferrous, and the reductant may be organic matter, sulfur dioxide (SO2), or hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Equilibrium and kinetically controlled geochemical simulations at 105°C, with SO2 or H2S, which may be a component of the injected, CO2-dominated waste gas, show that iron in minerals can be made to reside almost entirely in siderite, and simultaneously, that sulfur can be made to exist predominantly as dissolved sulfate. For quartz arenite containing 1.0 wt. % Fe2O3, approximately 5.0 g. of CO2 is sequestered per kg. of rock. The appropriate CO2-dominated gas compositions contain approximately 20.0 wt. % SO2, or 5.0 wt. % H2S. If there is an insufficient amount of sulfur-bearing gas relative to CO2, then some of the iron is not reduced, and some of the CO2 is not sequestered. If there is a slight excess of sulfur-bearing gas, then complete iron reduction is ensured, and a small amount of the iron precipitates as pyrite or other

  9. Final Technical Report. Reactivity of Iron-Bearing Minerals and CO2 Sequestration and Surface Chemistry of Pyrite. An Interdisciplinary Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Strongin, Daniel

    2014-12-31

    Over the course of the scientific program, two areas of research were pursued: reactions of iron oxides with supercritical CO2 and sulfide and surface reactivity of pyrite. The latter area of interest was to understand the chemistry that results when supercritical CO2 (scCO2 ) with H2 S and/or SO2 in deep saline formations (DFS) contacts iron bearing minerals. Understanding the complexities the sulfur co-injectants introduce is a critical step in developing CO2 sequestration as a climate-mitigating strategy. The research strategy was to understand macroscopic observations of this chemistry with an atomic/molecular level view using surface analytical techniques. Research showed that the exposure of iron (oxyhdr)oxides (which included ferrihydrite, goethite, and hematite) to scCO2 in the presence of sulfide led to reactions that formed siderite (FeCO3). The results have important implications for the sequestration of CO2 via carbonation reactions in the Earth’s subsurface. An earlier area of focus in the project was to understand pyrite oxidation in microscopic detail. This understanding was used to understand macroscopic observations of pyrite reactivity. Results obtained from this research led to a better understanding how pyrite reacts in a range of chemical environments. Geochemical and modern surface science techniques were used to understand the chemistry of pyrite in important environmental conditions. The program relied on a strong integration the results of these techniques to provide a fundamental understanding to the macroscopic chemistry exhibited by pyrite in the environment. Major achievements during these studies included developing an understanding of the surface sites on pyrite that controlled its reactivity under oxidizing conditions. In particular sulfur anion vacancies and/or ferric sites were sites of reactivity. Studies also showed that the

  10. Effect of iron content on the structure and disorder of iron-bearing sodium silicate glasses: A high-resolution 29Si and 17O solid-state NMR study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyo-Im; Sur, Jung Chul; Lee, Sung Keun

    2016-01-01

    Despite its geochemical importance and implications for the properties of natural magmatic melts, understanding the detailed structure of iron-bearing silicate glasses remains among the outstanding problems in geochemistry. This is mainly because solid-state NMR techniques, one of the most versatile experimental methods to probe the structure of oxide glasses, cannot be fully utilized for exploring the structural details of iron-bearing glasses as the unpaired electrons in Fe induce strong local magnetic fields that mask the original spectroscopic features (i.e., paramagnetic effect). Here, we report high-resolution 29Si and 17O solid-state NMR spectra of iron-bearing sodium silicate glasses (Na2O-Fe2O3-SiO2, Fe3+/ΣFe = 0.89 ± 0.04, thus containing both ferric and ferrous iron) with varying XFe2O3 [=Fe2O3/(Na2O + Fe2O3)], containing up to 22.9 wt% Fe2O3. This compositional series involves Fe-Na substitution at constant SiO2 contents of 66.7 mol% in the glasses. For both nuclides, the NMR spectra exhibit a decrease in the signal intensities and an increase in the peak widths with increasing iron concentration partly because of the paramagnetic effect. Despite the intrinsic difficulties that result from the pronounced paramagnetic effect, the 29Si and 17O NMR results yield structural details regarding the effect of iron content on Q speciation, spatial distribution of iron, and the extent of polymerization in the iron-bearing silicate glasses. The 29Si NMR spectra show an apparent increase in highly polymerized Q species with increasing XFe2O3 , suggesting an increase in the degree of melt polymerization. The 17O 3QMAS NMR spectra exhibit well-resolved non-bridging oxygen (NBO, Na-O-Si) and bridging oxygen (BO, Si-O-Si) peaks with varying iron concentration. By replacing Na2O with Fe2O3 (and thus with increasing iron content), the fraction of Na-O-Si decreases. Quantitative consideration of this effect confirms that the degree of polymerization is likely to

  11. 3D geomodelling combining implicit surfaces and Voronoi-based remeshing: A case study in the Lorraine Coal Basin (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collon, Pauline; Steckiewicz-Laurent, Wendy; Pellerin, Jeanne; Laurent, Gautier; Caumon, Guillaume; Reichart, Guillaume; Vaute, Laurent

    2015-04-01

    In this paper we demonstrate how recent geomodelling techniques can be combined and used to build a 3D geological model on a real case study: the former coal mine of Merlebach (France), that is targeted to be exploited for low-temperature geothermal energy production. From geological maps, cross-sections, borehole and mine exploitation data, we build a 3D model in which are identified the rocks and infrastructures having significantly different permeabilities. First, a structural model of the main geological interfaces in our area of interest (2 horizons and 13 faults) is built with classical geomodelling techniques. Then, we propose to model by surfaces the 71 irregularly stacked, very close and very thin, sub-vertical coal beds. To ease their construction, we use an implicit method which represents 3D surfaces as isovalues of a scalar field defined in a 3D tetrahedral grid of the area. The corresponding triangulated surfaces are remeshed with a recently proposed method based on Voronoi diagrams so that the exploited parts of the coal beds, now filled by sand, can be computed. The 3D surface-based geological model, in which infrastructures can be inserted as piecewise lines, can be volumetrically meshed. It is available for download as supplemental material, as well as a volumetric grid.

  12. Primary Ferric Iron-Bearing Rhönite in Plutonic Igneous Angrite NWA 4590: Implications for Redox Conditions on the Angrite Parent Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehner, S. M.; Irving, A. J.

    2007-12-01

    Northwest Africa 4590 is a heterogeneous olivine gabbro with cumulate texture composed of Al-Ti-rich clinopyroxene, pure anorthite, Ca-rich olivine, kirschsteinite and ulvöspinel, with accessory troilite, merrillite, Ca silicophosphate, kamacite and glasses [1]. Rhönite now has been identified in this specimen (for the first time in any angrite) as (1) a large (0.65 mm long), blocky, anhedral grain adjacent to anorthite, kirschsteinite and troilite, (2) ca. 15 micron grains along grain boundaries of the major phases (in one case in contact with clinopyroxene and metal), and (3) ca. 30 micron grains within melt inclusions and veins composed of kirschsteinite, olivine, anorthite, troilite, hercynite and glass. The rhönite is nearly opaque in transmitted light, with a deep cinnamon-red color on thin grain edges. The average composition of the largest grain is (in wt.%): SiO2 23.6, TiO2 9.9, Al2O3 16.3, Cr2O3 0.1, FeOt 33.6, MnO 0.14, MgO 3.5, CaO 13.1. Stoichiometry (14 cations, 20 oxygen atoms) requires about 12% of the total iron to be in the ferric state, resulting in the nominal formula: (Ca2.01Mn0.02)(Fe2+3.55Fe3+0.45Mg0.75Al0.12Cr0.15)Ti0.9 5(Si3.37Al2.63)O20 In the co-existing ulvöspinel about 18% of the iron must be ferric to achieve charge balance; likewise, Fe-Ti spinel coexisting with metal in Angra dos Reis contains ferric iron [2]. In contrast, the spinel (Cr-pleonaste) in metal-rich angrite NWA 2999 is stoichiometric without any apparent ferric iron. The coexistence of ferric iron- bearing silicate and oxide phases with Fe metal implies that the oxygen fugacity during crystallization of NWA 4590 was somewhat more oxidizing than that of the IW buffer. Compositions of primary (pre-exsolution) olivine and kirschsteinite in NWA 4590 record a minimum magmatic temperature of 910-950°C, based on the solvus of [3]. Previous experimental studies [4] also imply that other metal-bearing plutonic (AdoR, LEW 86010) and quench-textured (LEW 87051) angrites

  13. Mortality of iron miners in Lorraine (France): relations between lung function and respiratory symptoms and subsequent mortality.

    PubMed Central

    Chau, N; Benamghar, L; Pham, Q T; Teculescu, D; Rebstock, E; Mur, J M

    1993-01-01

    An increased mortality from lung and stomach cancer was found in previous studies on Lorraine iron miners. A detailed analysis, however, was not possible due to the lack of data for survivors. In this study the cohort included 1178 workers selected at random from all the 5300 working miners aged between 35 and 55 at the start of the follow up period, which ranged from 1975 to 1985. Occupational exposures and tobacco consumption, lung function tests, and respiratory symptoms were assessed for each subject in 1975, 1980, and 1985. This study confirmed the excess of lung cancer (standardised mortality ratio (SMR) = 389, p < 0.001) and of stomach cancer (SMR = 273, p < 0.05). There was no excess of lung cancer in non-smokers and moderate smokers (< 20 pack-years) or the miners who worked only at the surface or underground for less than 20 years. A significant excess (SMR = 349, p < 0.001) was found in moderate smokers when they worked underground for between 20 and 29 years. Heavy smokers (over 30 pack-years) or subjects who worked underground for more than 30 years experienced a high risk: SMR = 478 (p < 0.001) for moderate smokers who worked underground for over 30 years; 588 (p < 0.001) for heavy smokers who worked underground for between 20 and 29 years; and 877 (p < 0.001) for heavy smokers who worked underground for over 30 years. This showed an interaction between smoking and occupational exposure. The excess mortality from lung cancer was because there were some subjects who died young (from 45 years old). Comparison with the results of a previous study showed that additional hazards produced by diesel engines and explosives increased the mortality from lung cancer. The SMR was higher than 400 (p < 0.001) from 45 years old instead of from 56 years. A relation was found between a decrease in vital capacity (VC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and of FEV1/VC and mortality from all causes and from lung cancer in heavy smokers or men who had worked

  14. Predictive factors of brain death in severe stroke patients identified by organ procurement and transplant coordination in Lorrain, France.

    PubMed

    Humbertjean, Lisa; Mione, Gioia; Fay, Renaud; Durin, Laurent; Planel, Sophie; Lacour, Jean-Christophe; Enea, Ana-Maria; Richard, Sébastien

    2016-03-01

    There are no established predictive factors to identify patients at the acute phase of severe stroke with a high probability of presenting brain death (BD). We retrospectively collected clinical and paraclinical data of consecutive patients at the acute phase of severe stroke with a potential progression to BD through the hospital organ procurement and transplant coordination system in five centres in Lorrain (France) between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2013. Final endpoint was adjudicated BD. Of 400 included patients, 91 (23%) presented adjudicated BD. Initial Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤6 (P = 0.008), herniation (P = 0.009), hydrocephalus (P = 0.019), initial systolic blood pressure >150 mmHg (P = 0.002), past history of alcohol abuse (P = 0.019) and stroke volume >65 ml (P = 0.040) were significantly associated with BD progression. Two prognostic scores for stroke with unquantifiable or quantifiable volume were built according to the number of risk factors presented. Following internal validation, the respective bias-corrected predictive performance (c-index) of the two scores was 72% (95% confidence interval: 67-78%) and 77% (95% confidence interval: 72-82%). These scores could form the basis of a simple tool of six criteria to help physicians make the difficult decision of intensive care unit management to preserve organs in potential donors. PMID:26402792

  15. Two millennia of forest history deduced from closed depressions in the Lorrain plain (North-eastern, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etienne, David; Ruffaldi, Pascale; Ritz, Frederic; Dupouey, Jean Luc; Dambrine, Etienne

    2010-05-01

    Recent archaeological surveys and ecological investigations in large "ancient" forests have shown that these areas had been often cultivated during the Roman or Medieval periods, and that this former land use is still deeply influencing present soil properties and plant biodiversity. This new perspective has boosted the research for sediment archives describing the state of forests across the archaeological and historical periods, especially in low altitude forest. Closed depressions (CD) or small hollows (over 30 000 CDs) are found in many silty plains of North-Western Europe (north-eastern France, Luxemburg and Belgium). They are defined as small (100 to 400 m²) closed wetlands, mostly supplied by rainwater. Their origin is debated. Recent coring campaigns in CDs of Lorraine (north-eastern France), 3 to 5 meters thick sediment cores were retrieved. It opened the way for palynological and pedological reconstruction of former landscapes. Here we present a sediment analysis of four peaty CDs (Assenoncourt, Römersberg, Sarrebourg and St Jean), located in different low altitude beech (Fagus) and oak (Quercus) forests, on silty clay soils, 50km from Nancy. As the oldest available map (Naudins, dated from 1728 to 1739) indicated forest boundaries similar to the present ones, these forests were considered as ancient forests. The sedimentation begins during the second Iron Age or Roman period. By this time, pollen analyses show an open landscape (70% of Non Arboreal Pollen), composed mostly by grassland (Plantago major/media, Poaceae and Asteraceae) and cropland (Cerealia-type, Centaurea cyanus). Around the 5th century AD, coinciding with the collapse of the Roman Empire, the pollen sequences describe rapid afforestation by Betula and Corylus, and later Carpinus forest. From the 8th century AD, Carpinus decreases in favour of Quercus which may reflect an anthropogenic clearing. From the 10th to the 14th century AD, croplands expand again with cultivation of hemp

  16. Combined Treatment Fkt-Botulinum Toxin Type A (Btx-A) in Patients with Strumpell-Lorrain Disease.

    PubMed

    Riccardo, Marvulli; Angela, Lopopolo; Angela, Dantone; Vita, Palmisano; Giulio, Lancioni; Pietroq, Fiore; Giancarlo, Ianieri; Marisa, Megna

    2016-01-01

    The Hereditary Spastic Paraparesis (HSP) or Strumpell-Lorrain disease is a heterogeneous neurodegenerative disease of the spinal cord. It is genetically transmitted and characterized by a progressive muscle weakness, spasticity of the lower limbs and awkward gain. There is no specific pharmacological treatment. The pharmacological therapy decreases the muscle tone and prevents stiffening). Physiotherapy restrains the progression of muscle atrophy, delays contraction of the tendons and gives greater mobility to people affected by the disease. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the efficacy of the combined treatment Fkt and Btx-A in patients with HSP. Retrospective study was conducted recruiting ten patients with spasticity according to Asworth modified scale of at least 2 and with gait deficit. They received treatment for 5 years with incobotulinumtoxinA and physiokinesiotherapy for addressing spasticity in the lower limbs. We evaluated muscle tone with miometric measurement both at the first visit (T0), and at subsequent ones (T1 after 30 days, T2 after 3 months from the first infiltration, T3 after 4 months up to the date of the following infiltration, T4 after 5 months). Baropodometric examination has proven essential for the study of the distribution of loads in statics and dynamics. The data analysis regarding tone assessment through measurements with Myoton highlighted hypertonus reduction in all the three muscle groups examined at T1 and the maintenance of constant values up to 5 months after the first infiltration. It also showed an increase in the percentage of back foot loading in both feet up to T4 (new inoculation, p<0, 05%). Baropodometric examination in dynamics (in particular the speed of the step) showed a gradual increase in this parameter which reaches a peak at 5 months (p<0, 05%) and then declines again in conjunction with the next infiltration treatment. This study showed the benefit of combined treatment with Btx and Fkt. The use of a

  17. Regional Development and Vocational Training. Development of Human Resources in Regions of Economic Reconversion Benefiting from Community Financial Support. Regional Monographs (Lorraine, Northern England, Province of Limburg, South-West of Ireland, Liguria, Andalusia). First Edition. CEDEFOP Document.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Berlin (West Germany).

    This publication contains monographs on vocational training and regional development for six regions of the European Communities. The monograph on Lorraine (France) by Gerard Calais describes basic training structures, redeployment policies, requalification of job seekers, and coordination of training efforts. Profiles of development technicians…

  18. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangles 2962 and 3062, Gawdezereh (615), Galachah (616), Chahar Burjak (609), and Khan Neshin (610) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoefen, Todd M.; King, Trude V.V.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  19. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangles 3668 and 3768, Baghlan (221), Taluqan (222), Imam Sahib (215), and Rustaq (216) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  20. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangles 3666 and 3766, Balkh (219), Mazar-e Sharif (220), Qarqin (213), and Hazara Toghai (214) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  1. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangles 3664 and 3764, Char Shengo (123), Shibirghan (124), Jalajin (117), and Kham-Ab (118) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  2. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangles 3360 and 3460, Kawir-e Naizar (413), Kohe-Mahmudo-Esmailjan (414), Kol-e Namaksar (407), and Ghoriyan (408) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  3. Linking carbon and iron cycles by investigating transport, fate and mineralogy of iron-bearing colloids from peat-draining rivers - Scotland as model for high-latitude rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Deborah; Crocket, Kirsty; Brand, Tim; Stutter, Marc; Wilson, Clare; Schröder, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Linking carbon and iron cycles by investigating transport, fate and mineralogy of iron-bearing colloids from peat-draining rivers - Scotland as model for high-latitude rivers Wood, D.A¹, Crocket, K², Brand, T², Stutter, M³, Wilson, C¹ & Schröder, C¹ ¹Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA ²Scottish Association for Marine Science, University of the Highlands and Islands, Dunbeg, Oban, PA37 1QA ³James Hutton Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen, AB15 8QH The biogeochemical iron cycle exerts significant control on the carbon cycle¹. Iron is a limiting nutrient in large areas of the world's oceans and its bioavailability controls CO2 uptake by marine photosynthesizing microorganisms. While atmospheric iron inputs to the open ocean have been extensively measured, global river inputs have likely been underestimated because most major world rivers exhibit extensive iron removal by flocculation and sedimentation during seawater mixing. Iron minerals and organic matter mutually stabilise each other², which results in a 'rusty carbon sink' in sediments³ on the one hand but may also enhance transport beyond the salinity gradient on the other. Humic-rich, high latitude rivers have a higher iron-carrying capacity⁴‑⁶ but are underrepresented in iron flux calculations. The West Coast sea lochs in Scotland are fed by predominantly peatland drainage catchments, and the rivers entering the sea lochs carry a high load of organic matter. The short distance between many of these catchments and the coastal ocean facilitates source-to-sea research investigating transport, fate and mineralogy of iron-bearing colloids providing a good analogue for similar high latitude fjordic systems. We use SeaFAST+ICP-MS and Mössbauer spectroscopy to survey trace metal concentrations, with emphasis on iron concentrations, speciation and mineralogy, across salinity gradients. In combination with ultra-filtration techniques, this allows

  4. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangles 2964, 2966, 3064, and 3066, Shah-Esmail (617), Reg-Alaqadari (618), Samandkhan-Karez (713), Laki-Bander (611), Jahangir-Naweran (612), and Sreh-Chena (707) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoefen, Todd M.; King, Trude V.V.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  5. Studying Iron Mineralogy to Understand Redox Conditions in the Mesoproterozoic Belt Basin, USA Using Complementary Microscopic, Spectroscopic, and Magnetic Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slotznick, S. P.; Webb, S.; Kirschvink, J. L.; Fischer, W. W.

    2015-12-01

    Observations of iron chemistry and mineralogy over time provide a valuable tool for studying paleoenvironments, but questions still remain as to the redox character of Proterozoic basins after the rise of oxygen. To evaluate the mechanisms of iron mineralization in Proterozoic samples, we developed an approach that pairs the microscale textural techniques of light microscopy, magnetic scanning microscopy, and (synchrotron-based) microprobe x-ray spectroscopy with sensitive bulk rock magnetic experiments. Samples were collected from stratigraphic sections across the ~1.4 Ga lower Belt Group, Belt Supergroup, MT and ID, USA with a focus on excellently preserved sedimentary rocks, but also including those altered by a variety of diagenetic, metamorphic, and metasomatic events. Results show that even in the best-preserved parts of the Belt Basin, late diagenetic and/or metasomatic fluids affected (in some cases very mildly) the primary iron phases as evidenced by prevalent post-depositional alterations such as rare base metal sulfides. In more heavily altered rocks, the appearance of pyrrhotite and other minerals signaled transformations in iron mineralogy through metamorphism and metasomatism. Despite these secondary phases crystallizing in an open fluid-rich system, primary records of redox chemistry were preserved in the recrystallized early diagenetic framboidal pyrite and (sub)micron-sized detrital magnetite grains. Detrital magnetite is not the most abundant iron-bearing phase in any of the samples (typically <0.01 wt%), but is widely observed in both proximal and deeper basin facies, illustrating an important detrital flux of iron to the basin and a highly reactive iron source for early diagenetic pyrite. Based on our analyses, we interpret the shallow waters of the Belt Basin to be oxic with sulfidic pore fluids and deeper waters in parts of the basin as likely euxinic, consistent with the results of some bulk geochemical proxies. This redox reconstruction also

  6. Diagenesis of basalts from the Pasco Basin, Washington. I. Distribution and composition of secondary mineral phases

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, L.V.; Teague, L.S.

    1982-01-01

    The principal components of secondary mineral assemblages found in Pasco Basin basalts are iron-rich smectite (nontronite), clinoptilolite, and silica. Silica occurs as quartz, cristobalite, tridymite, and opal-CT. Extractable iron within the nontronite suggests the presence of an iron-bearing oxyhydroxide phase intercalated with the nontronite. Other components present in minor or trace amounts are mordenite, celadonite, apatite, pyrite, phillipsite, gypsum, crionite, and chabazite. The generalized precipitation sequence with time and/or depth was found to be clay (usually nontronite) ..-->.. clinoptilolite ..-->.. silica and/or clay. Nontronite, the first phase to form, is present at nearly all sampled depths. Clinoptilolite is apparently restricted to depths below about 350 m. Quartz is ubiquitous whereas opal and cristobalite appear to be abundant only below 600 m. Mordenite occurs only at depths below about 900 m, which correlates roughly with the first occurrence of dissolution-etched clinoptilolite. These observations as well as comparisons with data on secondary minearl assemblages from other basaltic and felsic systems suggest that the geochemical evolution of Pasco Basin basalts probably occurred under conditions similar to those existing today.

  7. Parana basin

    SciTech Connect

    Zalan, P.V.; Wolff, S.; Conceicao, J.C.J.; Vieira, I.S.; Astolfi, M.A.; Appi, V.T.; Zanotto, O.; Neto, E.V.S.; Cerqueira, J.R.

    1987-05-01

    The Parana basin is a large intracratonic basin in South America, developed entirely on continental crust and filled with sedimentary and volcanic rocks ranging in age from Silurian to Cretaceous. It occupies the southern portion of Brazil (1,100,000 km/sup 2/ or 425,000 mi/sup 2/) and the eastern half of Paraguay (100,000 km/sup 2/ or 39,000 mi/sup 2/); its extension into Argentina and Uruguay is known as the Chaco-Parana basin. Five major depositional sequences (Silurian, Devonian, Permo-Carboniferous, Triassic, Juro-Cretaceous) constitute the stratigraphic framework of the basin. The first four are predominantly siliciclastic in nature, and the fifth contains the most voluminous basaltic lava flows of the planet. Maximum thicknesses are in the order of 6000 m (19,646 ft). The sequences are separated by basin wide unconformities related in the Paleozoic to Andean orogenic events and in the Mesozoic to the continental breakup and sea floor spreading between South America and Africa. The structural framework of the Parana basin consists of a remarkable pattern of criss-crossing linear features (faults, fault zones, arches) clustered into three major groups (N45/sup 0/-65/sup 0/W, N50/sup 0/-70/sup 0/E, E-W). The northwest- and northeast-trending faults are long-lived tectonic elements inherited from the Precambrian basement whose recurrent activity throughout the Phanerozoic strongly influenced sedimentation, facies distribution, and development of structures in the basin. Thermomechanical analyses indicate three main phases of subsidence (Silurian-Devonian, late Carboniferous-Permian, Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous) and low geothermal gradients until the beginning of the Late Jurassic Permian oil-prone source rocks attained maturation due to extra heat originated from Juro-Cretaceous igneous intrusions. The third phase of subsidence also coincided with strong tectonic reactivation and creation of a third structural trend (east-west).

  8. Sequence stratigraphy of the Jurassic: New data from the Paris-London basin compiled on well logs

    SciTech Connect

    Ponsot, C.M.; Vail, P.R. )

    1991-03-01

    A sequence stratigraphic analysis of the Jurassic sedimentary succession in Paris basin is derived from an integration of subsurface log correlations, field observations, and reinterpretations of field descriptions. The analysis is presented on two log sections, one crossing the basin from northeast to southwest and the other from northwest to southeast (approximately 80 logs). A vast quantity of field data, collected all around the Parsi basin (English Dorset, French Normandy, Manche, Ardennes, Lorraine, Bourgogne) allowed the sequences and system tracts boundaries to be traced and dated at the same time or prior to being recognized on well log data. In comparison with the Haq et al. 1987 cycle chart, 16 new sequences have been added: three for the Lias, seven for the Dogger, and six for the Malm. Occasionally, ages of some of the already recognized sequences boundaries have been slightly modified to fit new biostratal data. These biostratal data were usually at the scale of the ammonite sub-zone and the actual give ages all tie with the 1987 Haq et al. chart time scale.

  9. Microbial acquisition of iron from ferric iron bearing minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Hersman, L.E.; Sposito, G.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Iron is a universal requirement for all life forms. Although the fourth most abundant element in the geosphere, iron is virtually insoluble at physiological pH in oxidizing environments, existing mainly as very insoluble oxides and hydroxides. Currently it is not understood how iron is solubilized and made available for biological use. This research project addressed this topic by conducting a series of experiments that utilized techniques from both soil microbiology and mineral surface geochemistry. Microbiological analysis consisted of the examination of metabolic and physiological responses to mineral iron supplements. At the same time mineral surfaces were examined for structural changes brought about by microbially mediated dissolution. The results of these experiments demonstrated that (1) bacterial siderophores were able to promote the dissolution of iron oxides, (2) that strict aerobic microorganisms may use anaerobic processes to promote iron oxide dissolution, and (3) that it is possible to image the surface of iron oxides undergoing microbial dissolution.

  10. The hydraulic potential of high iron bearing steel slags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionescu, Denisa Virginia

    The incorporation of additives to the clinker or to the raw materials stream is a common practice in cement manufacture. However, steel slag, unlike its ironmaking parent the blast furnace slag, it is not a conventional admixture for cement. Currently most steel slags are slow cooled rendering stable crystalline compounds with minor hydraulic value. Nevertheless, if steel slags would be quenched and granulated, the resulting glassy product might display increased hydration and strength development potential. The use of steel slag in cement could contribute to important savings for both cement and steelmaking industries and provide a solution for the environmental problems linked to CO2 emissions and costs of transport and disposal. The purpose of this research is to explore the thermodynamics and kinetics of steel slag hydration in an effort to produce a cement additive, or a more promising material of near Portland cement composition. An important criteria used in the assessment of slags as potential cements is the presence of a glassy phase. At present, it is not very clear why glass enhances the hydration process. However, it is known that the free energy of formation for glasses is less than for crystals so that glasses are easier to hydrate compared to crystalline materials. In the particular case of steel slag, the glassy phase would have to contain high amounts of iron. Steel slags are known to display iron levels approximately 10 times higher than Portland cement and commonly used blast furnace slags. However, the effect of high Fe2O3 levels on the setting and strengthening of cement paste is not clearly understood due to the fact that most cement additives do not present this characteristic. The present work looks at the progress made in recycling steel slag as cement additive, the complexity of the hydration process in slags, the possibilities of improving the hydration potential of slags at laboratory and industrial level, and the problems that still need to be addressed. However, the focus is on the glassy phase present in quenched steel slag and its influence on the hydration rate. B-SEM, linage Analysis, XRD techniques and a series of isothermal calorimetric experiments on synthetic as well as oxidized industrial steel slags vis-a-vis Portland cement assist in this endeavor. Temperature is a thermodynamic and kinetic factor modifying the enthalpy of hydrate formation (heat of hydration) and accelerating the hydration reaction. Hydration tests were carried out at temperatures ranging from 25 to 70°C to determine the heat release, the rate of reaction and the apparent activation energy for steel slag and Portland cement hydration. The kinetics of hydration were explored in synthetic steel slags in both amorphous and fully crystalline form. The mechanism of hydration for both amorphous and crystalline steel slag was found to be a combination of nucleation and growth and diffusion, with higher reaction rates for the glassy slags. The higher reactivity in the glassy slags was explained by a lower activation energy when compared to the crystalline parent. Also, it was confirmed that slags have higher activation energies than Portland cement. As expected, and comparably to granulated blast furnace slags, quenched steels slags exhibited a significant hydraulic potential and hydrated at longer times, thus being expected to contribute to the late (>5--180 days) strength development in slag-cements with compression strength superior to pure Portland cement.

  11. Pyrite-illite veins in basin-margin facies: evidence for detrital mineral control on pore-fluid evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Bloch, J.D.; Bhattacharyya, D.P.

    1986-05-01

    Diagenesis of the Upper Cambrian Lamotte Sandstone includes the formation of euhedral, predominantly cubic pyrite, and 1M and 2M illite as veins in association with extensive quartz dissolution. The illite in these veins is well crystallized and distinct from pore-filling illite found in the same deposit. The veins occur only in shallow marine-deposited quartzarenites that overlie or are adjacent to basin-margin alluvial fan deposits composed primarily of lithic arenite. Detrital K-feldspar (in volcanic rock fragments) and iron-bearing minerals, particularly biotite, are abundant in the lithic arenites. No apparent source for the sulfur can be identified within the Lamotte Sandstone. Therefore, the authors propose that sulfur-bearing compactional or thermobaric fluids from adjacent basinal facies provided the necessary sulfur for pyrite formation. The migration of these fluids through the lithic arenite, from which iron, potassium, aluminum, and silica were derived, resulted in pyrite and illite deposition in the adjacent quartzarenites. The increased alkalinity and elevated temperature of these fluids resulted in the extensive quartz dissolution. The absence of these pyrite-illite veins in similar quartzarenites basinward of the fan deposits suggests a detrital mineral control on the evolution of these fluids as they migrated through the Lamotte Sandstone. Further, the formation of illite as opposed to kaolinite indicates that these fluids were finally alkaline.

  12. Tracing Precambrian lithologies and structures beneath northeastern part of Michigan basin

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, J.D.; Harder, A.S.; Roberts, D.V.

    1986-08-01

    Aeromagnetic data and geologic maps covering Manitoulin Island and the southern province of the Precambrian shield to the north in Ontario, Canada, were studied to determine whether Precambrian rock lithologies and structures could be traced beneath the Paleozoic units on the island. In addition, wells drilled to Precambrian units within small Trenton-Black River oil and gas fields and Precambrian rock exposures on the island were studied to determine the possible relationship between the structures and lithologies of the Precambrian and overlying Paleozoic rocks. These data showed that erosion-resistant ridges and knobs of the Precambrian Lorrain and Bar River quartzites are expressed as linear magnetic lows, whereas valleys in easily erodable, iron-oxide-rich meta-siltstones and argillites of the Precambrian Gordon Lake formation are expressed as linear magnetic highs. The well-log and outcrop data indicate that the Precambrian paleotopography influenced the structure of the overlying Paleozoic units. For example, the Paleozoic units are draped and thinned over Precambrian paleohills or ridges of quartzite, which can be traced with aeromagnetic data across the island. The small oil fields on the island have features in common with larger Albion-Scipio- and Deerfield-type fields in the southern part of the Michigan basin. Therefore, these smaller oil fields and associated magnetic basement signatures may be useful as exploration analogs for the larger fields within the deeper part of the Michigan basin, especially at the northern rim of the basin where the Precambrian basement is likely to be similar to the Precambrian southern province of Ontario.

  13. Numerical simulation of the basin scale hydrogeological impacts of carbon sequestration in deep saline aquifers of the St. Lawrence Lowlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girou, O.; Lemieux, J. M.; Malo, M.

    2015-12-01

    Full-scale carbon capture and storage in deep saline aquifers implies injecting important quantities of carbon in order to significantly reduce greenhouse gases emissions. At the basin scale, impacts related to CO2 injection are pressure perturbation as well as brine migration into freshwater aquifers. In this study, potential impacts of an industrial-scale carbon capture and storage project in Bécancour (Quebec, Canada), in the St. Lawrence Lowlands basin, are discussed, as well as the role played by regional normal faults that divide the basin into multiple compartments. The basin is 300 km long and 90 km wide, formed by sub-horizontal Paleozoic formations on top of which the Utica and Lorraine shale formations represent the caprock of the potential CO2reservoir. These formations cover most of the basin, except in its eroded northwestern part, located between 10 to 40 km away from the potential injection sites. Three injection scenarios were considered, corresponding to greenhouse gases emissions from large emitters located; in Bécancour industrial park, in a larger area that allow affordable transport and in the entire basin without considering transport costs (1, 5, 10 Mt/yr). The numerical model FEFLOW was used to simulate CO2 injection into different compartments to evaluate pressure build up propagation and brine migration in order to define which compartments are best suited for long-term storage. The simulations considered an injection period of 100 years and post-injections period of 1000 years. Numerical simulations indicate that normal faults, which exhibit a low hydraulic conductivity, play a major role orienting pressure build-up and brine migration. Due to the presence of normal faults, no pressure build up occurred close to the surface. Similarly, preliminary mass transport simulations show very limited brine migration. These first results indicate that basin-scale impacts of carbon injection are low for the 3 injection scenarios, however, the

  14. Reserves in western basins

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, R.H.; Cotton, B.W.

    1992-06-01

    This project requires generation of producible tight gas sand reserve estimates for three western basins. The requirement is to perform such reserve estimates using industry accepted practices so that results will have high credibility and acceptance by the oil and gas industry. The ultimate goal of the project is to encourage development of the tight gas formation by industry through reduction of the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial gas wells. The three geological basins selected for study are the Greater Green River Basin, Uinta Basin and Piceance Basin, located in the Colorado, Utah and Wyoming Rocky Mountain region.

  15. Reserves in western basins

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, R.H.; Cotton, B.W.

    1992-01-01

    This project requires generation of producible tight gas sand reserve estimates for three western basins. The requirement is to perform such reserve estimates using industry accepted practices so that results will have high credibility and acceptance by the oil and gas industry. The ultimate goal of the project is to encourage development of the tight gas formation by industry through reduction of the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial gas wells. The three geological basins selected for study are the Greater Green River Basin, Uinta Basin and Piceance Basin, located in the Colorado, Utah and Wyoming Rocky Mountain region.

  16. Depositional facies, petrofacies, and diagenesis of siliciclastics of Morrow and Springer rocks, Anadarko Basin, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keighin, C. William; Flores, Romeo M.

    1989-01-01

    Investigations of 6,500 ft of core and -100 thin-sectioned core samples from 30 drill holes from the Oklahoma Panhandle to the southeast part of the Anadarko basin, Oklahoma, have led to the recognition of three depositional facies of the Springer and Morrow Formations of Mississippian and Pennsylvanian age, as recognized by geologists working in the subsurface of the Midcontinent region. Lithofacies include (1) fluvial-influenced coastal (FIC), (2) tidal-influenced nearshore (TINS), and (3) mixed, which shows mixed tidal and non-tidal marine influence (MT/NTM). The FIC facies is restricted to down-hole depths of 4,400-8,000 ft; the TINS facies is recognized only between down-hole depths of 4,000 and 18,000 ft. Thin-section study of sandstone indicates that quartz arenite is the most common rock type in both the FIC and TINS facies. Subarkose is present, but not common, in the FIC facies. Sublitharenite is moderately common in the TINS facies. Calcite skeletal fragments, mainly of brachiopods and crinoids, are more abundant in the FJC facies than in the TINS facies. The mixed facies includes quartz arenite, subarkose, and sublitharenite. Iron-bearing carbonate cements are observed in rocks of all three depositional facies. Porosity is typically 12,000 ft. Thin films of bitumen have inhibited the effects of diagenesis in some samples. Fractures are identified in core samples, but are rare in thin sections. Porosity is due primarily to dissolution of glauconite, clays or clayey matrix, and some framework grains, but many dissolution pores are partly or completely filled with various clays, and only microporosity remains.

  17. Divergent/passive margin basins

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, J.D. ); Santogrossi, P.A. )

    1989-01-01

    This book discusses the detailed geology of the four divergent margin basins and establishes a set of analog scenarios which can be used for future petroleum exploration. The divergent margin basins are the Campos basin of Brazil, the Gabon basin, the Niger delta, and the basins of the northwest shelf of Australia. These four petroleum basins present a wide range of stratigraphic sequences and structural styles that represent the diverse evolution of this large and important class of world petroleum basins.

  18. Origin of cratonic basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dev. Klein, George; Hsui, Albert T.

    1987-12-01

    Tectonic subsidence curves show that the Illinois, Michigan, and Williston basins formed by initial fault-controlled mechanical subsidence during rifting and by subsequent thermal subsidence. Thermal subsidence began around 525 Ma in the Illinois Basin, 520 460 Ma in the Michigan Basin, and 530 500 Ma in the Williston Basin. In the Illinois Basin, a second subsidence episode (middle Mississippian through Early Permian) was caused by flexural foreland subsidence in response to the Alleghanian-Hercynian orogeny. Resurgent Permian rifting in the Illinois Basin is inferred because of intrusion of well-dated Permian alnoites; such intrusive rocks are normally associated with rifting processes. The process of formation of these cratonic basins remains controversial. Past workers have suggested mantle phase changes at the base of the crust, mechanical subsidence in response to isostatically uncompensated excess mass following igneous intrusions, intrusion of mantle plumes into the crust, or regional thermal metamorphic events as causes of basin initiation. Cratonic basins of North America, Europe, Africa, and South America share common ages of formation (around 550 to 500 Ma), histories of sediment accumulation, temporal volume changes of sediment fills, and common dates of interregional unconformities. Their common date of formation suggests initiation of cratonic basins in response to breakup of a late Precambrian super-continent. This supercontinent acted as a heat lens that caused partial melting of the lower crust and upper mantle followed by emplacement of anorogenic granites during extensional tectonics in response to supercontinent breakup. Intrusion of anorogenic granites and other partially melted intrusive rocks weakened continental lithosphere, thus providing a zone of localized regional stretching and permitting formation of cratonic basins almost simultaneously over sites of intrusion of these anorogenic granites and other partially melted intrusive rocks.

  19. The Oquirrh basin revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Erskine, M.C.

    1997-04-01

    The upper Paleozoic succession in the Oquirrh basin in unusually thick, up to 9300 m, and consists mainly of a Pennsylvanian-middle Permian miogeocline of northwestern Utah. Previous workers have suggested a tectonic origin for the Oquirrh basin that is incompatible with the basin location in both time and space. There is no evidence for Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian tectonism in the middle of the miogeocline. Thermal evidence from the Mississippian Mission Canyon shale does no support the implied deep burial of the crustal sag models of basin formation. Stratigraphic and facies evidence indicates a growth fault origin for the basin. Regional isopach maps and facies maps are powerful tools in interpreting depositional environments and in reconstructing fold-and-thrust belts. However, the location of measured sections relative to the location of the growth fault basin. The Charleston-Nebo thrust may have essentially reversed the movement on a growth fault. Thick Oquirrh basin sedimentary rocks may not be required to balance structural sections across this thrust fault. A thin-skinned, extensional growth fault origin for the Oquirrh basin implies that the Cordilleran miogeocline did not participate in the Pennsylvanian north-vergent uplifts of the Ancestral Rocky Mountains.

  20. K Basin safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Porten, D.R.; Crowe, R.D.

    1994-12-16

    The purpose of this accident safety analysis is to document in detail, analyses whose results were reported in summary form in the K Basins Safety Analysis Report WHC-SD-SNF-SAR-001. The safety analysis addressed the potential for release of radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous material located in the K Basins and their supporting facilities. The safety analysis covers the hazards associated with normal K Basin fuel storage and handling operations, fuel encapsulation, sludge encapsulation, and canister clean-up and disposal. After a review of the Criticality Safety Evaluation of the K Basin activities, the following postulated events were evaluated: Crane failure and casks dropped into loadout pit; Design basis earthquake; Hypothetical loss of basin water accident analysis; Combustion of uranium fuel following dryout; Crane failure and cask dropped onto floor of transfer area; Spent ion exchange shipment for burial; Hydrogen deflagration in ion exchange modules and filters; Release of Chlorine; Power availability and reliability; and Ashfall.

  1. Reserves in western basins

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, R.H.; Cotton, B.W.

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this project is to investigate the reserves potential of tight gas reservoirs in three Rocky Mountain basins: the Greater Green River (GGRB), Uinta and Piceance basins. The basins contain vast gas resources that have been estimated in the thousands of Tcf hosted in low permeability clastic reservoirs. This study documents the productive characteristics of these tight reservoirs, requantifies gas in place resources, and characterizes the reserves potential of each basin. The purpose of this work is to promote understanding of the resource and to encourage its exploitation by private industry. At this point in time, the GGRB work has been completed and a final report published. Work is well underway in the Uinta and Piceance basins which are being handled concurrently, with reports on these basins being scheduled for the middle of this year. Since the GGRB portion of the project has been completed, this presentation win focus upon that basin. A key conclusion of this study was the subdivision of the resource, based upon economic and technological considerations, into groupings that have distinct properties with regard to potential for future producibility, economics and risk profile.

  2. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    PECH, S.H.

    2000-08-23

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  3. K Basins Hazard Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    WEBB, R.H.

    1999-12-29

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Safety Analysis Report (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062, Rev.4). This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  4. Nam Con Son Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Tin, N.T.; Ty, N.D.; Hung, L.T.

    1994-07-01

    The Nam Con Son basin is the largest oil and gas bearing basin in Vietnam, and has a number of producing fields. The history of studies in the basin can be divided into four periods: Pre-1975, 1976-1980, 1981-1989, and 1990-present. A number of oil companies have carried out geological and geophysical studies and conducted drilling activities in the basin. These include ONGC, Enterprise Oil, BP, Shell, Petro-Canada, IPL, Lasmo, etc. Pre-Tertiary formations comprise quartz diorites, granodiorites, and metamorphic rocks of Mesozoic age. Cenozoic rocks include those of the Cau Formation (Oligocene and older), Dua Formation (lower Miocene), Thong-Mang Cau Formation (middle Miocene), Nam Con Son Formation (upper Miocene) and Bien Dong Formation (Pliocene-Quaternary). The basement is composed of pre-Cenozoic formations. Three fault systems are evident in the basin: north-south fault system, northeast-southwest fault system, and east-west fault system. Four tectonic zones can also be distinguished: western differentiated zone, northern differentiated zone, Dua-Natuna high zone, and eastern trough zone.

  5. SURVEY OF CROSS-BASIN BOAT TRAFFIC, ATCHAFALAYA BASIN, LOUISIANA

    EPA Science Inventory

    For flood control and for the preservation and enhancement of environmental quality of overflow swamp habitats, introduction of sediment from the Atchafalaya Basin Main Channel into backwater areas of the Atchafalaya Basin Floodway should be minimized. This introduction occurs ma...

  6. River basin management

    SciTech Connect

    Newsome, D.H.; Edwards, A.M.C.

    1984-01-01

    The quality of water is of paramount importance in the management of water resources - including marine waters. A quantitative knowledge of water quality and the factors governing it is required to formulate and implement strategies requiring an inter-disciplinary approach. The overall purpose of this conference was to bring together the latest work on water quality aspects of river basin management. These proceedings are structured on the basis of five themes: problems in international river basins; the contribution of river systems to estuarial and marine pollution; the setting of standards; monitoring; and practical water quality management including use of mathematical models. They are followed by papers from the workshop on advances in the application of mathematical modelling to water quality management, which represent some of the current thinking on the problems and concepts of river basin management.

  7. Geology, exploration status of Uruguay's sedimentary basins

    SciTech Connect

    Goso, C.; Santa Ana, H. de )

    1994-02-07

    This article attempts to present the geological characteristics and tectonic and sedimentary evolution of Uruguayan basins and the extent to which they have been explored. Uruguay is on the Atlantic coast of South America. The country covers about 318,000 sq km, including offshore and onshore territories corresponding to more than 65% of the various sedimentary basins. Four basins underlie the country: the Norte basin, the Santa Lucia basin, the offshore Punta del Este basin, and the offshore-onshore Pelotas-Merin basin. The Norte basin is a Paleozoic basin while the others are Mesozoic basins. Each basin has been explored to a different extent, as this paper explains.

  8. Trinity river basin, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ulery, Randy L.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Crossfield, Allison S.

    1993-01-01

    In 1991 the Trinity River Basin National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) will include assessments of surface-water and ground-water quality. Initial efforts have focused on identifying water-quality issues in the basin and on the environmental factors underlying those issues. Physical characteristics described include climate, geology, soils, vegetation, physiography, and hydrology. Cultural characteristics discussed include population distribution, land use and land cover, agricultural practices, water use, an reservoir operations. Major water-quality categories are identified and some of the implications of the environmental factors for water quality are presented.

  9. 'East Basin' Panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for 'East Basin' Panorama (QTVR)

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its panoramic camera to obtain this view of the impact feature called 'East Basin' to the northeast of 'Husband Hill.' The images combined into this mosaic were taken during Spirit's 653rd Martian day, or sol (Nov. 3, 2005), just before Spirit descended eastward onto 'Haskin Ridge.' The view is about 150 degrees wide. It is an approximately true-color rendering generated using the camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer, and 480-nanometer filters.

    Dark features on the far side of the basin, just left of center in this view, are basaltic sand deposits that were emplaced on the lee sides of hills by northwesterly winds. Haskin Ridge is visible along the right margin of the image, capped by a light-toned layer of rock. Spirit investigated the light-toned rock unit after taking this image. The basaltic plains located east of the 'Columbia Hills' can be seen in the distance beyond 'East Basin.' The rim of Thira crater is just visible on the distant horizon some 15 kilometers (9.3 miles) away.

  10. Bransfield Basin and Cordilleran Orogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalziel, I. W.; Austin, J. A.; Barker, D. H.; Christensen, G. L.

    2003-12-01

    Tectonic uplift of the Andean Cordillera was initiated in the mid-Cretaceous with inversion of a composite marginal basin along 7500 km of the continental margin of South America, from Peru to Tierra del Fuego and the North Scotia Ridge. In the southernmost Andes, from 50-56 degrees S, the quasi-oceanic floor of this basin is preserved in the obducted ophiolitic rocks of the Rocas Verdes (Green Rocks) basin. We suggest that the basin beneath Bransfield Strait, 61-64 degrees S, separating the South Shetland Islands from the Antarctic Peninsula, constitutes a modern analog for the Rocas Verdes basin. Marine geophysical studies of Bransfield basin have been undertaken over the past 12 years by the Institute for Geophysics, University of Texas at Austin, under the auspices of the Ocean Sciences Division and United States Antarctic Program, National Science Foundation. These studies have elucidated the structure and evolution of Bransfield basin for comparison with the Rocas Verdes basin, with a view to eventual forward modeling of the evolution of a hypothetical cordilleran orogen by compression and inversion of the basin. These are the processes that can be observed in the tectonic transformation of the Rocas Verdes basin into the southernmost Andean cordillera, as South America moved rapidly westward in an Atlantic-Indian ocean hot-spot reference frame during the mid-Cretaceous. Multi-channel reflection seismic data from the Bransfield basin reveal an asymmetric structural architecture characterized by steeply-dipping normal faults flanking the South Shetlands island arc and gently dipping listric normal faults along the Antarctic Peninsula margin. Normal fault polarity reversals appear to be related to distributed loci of magmatic activity within the basin. This architecture is remarkably similar to that deduced from field structural studies of the Rocas Verdes basin. Notably, the oceanward-dipping, low angle normal faults along the Antarctic Peninsula margin

  11. Newly Discovered Martian Impact Basins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stam, M.

    1985-01-01

    Three previously unrecognized Martian impact basins were discovered through detailed mapping of landforms, structures and terrains near Cassini and Al Qahira basins. Al Qahira A lies on the Martian dichotomy boundary and intersects the older basin, Al Qahira. It has four rings that are expressed by a variety of landforms. Southwestward Al Qahira A is out by a younger Basin, Al Qahira B. Al Qahira B is a highly degraded basin with one identifiable ring. Its ring is expressed by a few massifs, knobs and inward-facing scarps, but is recognized by the distributions of wrinkle ridges and plains units. Cassini A lies southward of the younger Cassini Basin and is intersected by it. It probably has four rings. The importance of detailed mapping of various types of landforms and terrains to the discovery of basins on Mars are demonstrated.

  12. Natural frequency of regular basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjandra, Sugih S.; Pudjaprasetya, S. R.

    2014-03-01

    Similar to the vibration of a guitar string or an elastic membrane, water waves in an enclosed basin undergo standing oscillatory waves, also known as seiches. The resonant (eigen) periods of seiches are determined by water depth and geometry of the basin. For regular basins, explicit formulas are available. Resonance occurs when the dominant frequency of external force matches the eigen frequency of the basin. In this paper, we implement the conservative finite volume scheme to 2D shallow water equation to simulate resonance in closed basins. Further, we would like to use this scheme and utilizing energy spectra of the recorded signal to extract resonant periods of arbitrary basins. But here we first test the procedure for getting resonant periods of a square closed basin. The numerical resonant periods that we obtain are comparable with those from analytical formulas.

  13. Global analysis of intraplate basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heine, C.; Mueller, D. R.; Dyksterhuis, S.

    2005-12-01

    Broad intraplate sedimentary basins often show a mismatch of lithospheric extension factors compared to those inferred from sediment thickness and subsidence modelling, not conforming to the current understanding of rift basin evolution. Mostly, these basins are underlain by a very heterogeneous and structurally complex basement which has been formed as a product of Phanerozoic continent-continent or terrane/arc-continent collision and is usually referred to as being accretionary. Most likely, the basin-underlying substrate is one of the key factors controlling the style of extension. In order to investigate and model the geodynamic framework and mechanics controlling formation and evolution of these long-term depositional regions, we have been analysing a global set of more than 200 basins using various remotely sensed geophysical data sets and relational geospatial databases. We have compared elevation, crustal and sediment thickness, heatflow, crustal structure, basin ages and -geometries with computed differential beta, anomalous tectonic subsidence, and differential extension factor grids for these basins. The crust/mantle interactions in the basin regions are investigated using plate tectonic reconstructions in a mantle convection framework for the last 160 Ma. Characteristic parameters and patterns derived from this global analysis are then used to generate a classification scheme, to estimate the misfit between models derived from either crustal thinning or sediment thickness, and as input for extension models using particle-in-cell finite element codes. Basins with high differential extension values include the ``classical'' intraplate-basins, like the Michigan Basin in North America, the Zaire Basin in Africa, basins of the Arabian Penisula, and the West Siberian Basin. According to our global analysis so far, these basins show, that with increasing basin age, the amount of crustal extension vs. the extension values estimated from sediment thickness

  14. Buried-euxenic-basin model sets Tarim basin potential

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, K.J. )

    1994-11-28

    The Tarim basin is the largest of the three large sedimentary basins of Northwest China. The North and Southwest depressions of Tarim are underlain by thick sediments and very thin crust. The maximum sediment thickness is more than 15 km. Of the several oil fields of Tarim, the three major fields were discovered during the last decade, on the north flank of the North depression and on the Central Tarim Uplift. The major targets of Tarim, according to the buried-euxenic-basin model, should be upper Paleozoic and lower Mesozoic reservoirs trapping oil and gas condensates from lower Paleozoic source beds. The paper describes the basin and gives a historical perspective of exploration activities and discoveries. It then explains how this basin can be interpreted by the buried-euxenic-basin model. The buried-euxenic-basin model postulates four stages of geologic evolution: (1) Sinian and early Paleozoic platform sedimentation on relic arcs and deep-marine sedimentation in back-arc basins in Xinjiang; (2) Late Paleozoic foreland-basin sedimentation in north Tarim; (3) Mesozoic and Paleogene continental deposition, subsidence under sedimentary load; and (4) Neogene pull-apart basin, wrench faulting and extension.

  15. Canada Basin revealed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosher, David C.; Shimeld, John; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Chian, D; Lebedeva-Ivanova, Nina; Jackson, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    More than 15,000 line-km of new regional seismic reflection and refraction data in the western Arctic Ocean provide insights into the tectonic and sedimentologic history of Canada Basin, permitting development of new geologic understanding in one of Earth's last frontiers. These new data support a rotational opening model for southern Canada Basin. There is a central basement ridge possibly representing an extinct spreading center with oceanic crustal velocities and blocky basement morphology characteristic of spreading centre crust surrounding this ridge. Basement elevation is lower in the south, mostly due to sediment loading subsidence. The sedimentary succession is thickest in the southern Beaufort Sea region, reaching more than 15 km, and generally thins to the north and west. In the north, grabens and half-grabens are indicative of extension. Alpha-Mendeleev Ridge is a large igneous province in northern Amerasia Basin, presumably emplaced synchronously with basin formation. It overprints most of northern Canada Basin structure. The seafloor and sedimentary succession of Canada Basin is remarkably flat-lying in its central region, with little bathymetric change over most of its extent. Reflections that correlate over 100s of kms comprise most of the succession and on-lap bathymetric and basement highs. They are interpreted as representing deposits from unconfined turbidity current flows. Sediment distribution patterns reflect changing source directions during the basin’s history. Initially, probably late Cretaceous to Paleocene synrift sediments sourced from the Alaska and Mackenzie-Beaufort margins. This unit shows a progressive series of onlap unconformities with a younging trend towards Alpha and Northwind ridges, likely a response to contemporaneous subsidence. Sediment source direction appeared to shift to the Canadian Arctic Archipelago margin for the Eocene and Oligocene, likely due to uplift of Arctic islands during the Eurekan Orogeny. The final

  16. Mercury's Caloris Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Mercury: Computer Photomosaic of the Caloris Basin

    The largest basin on Mercury (1300 km or 800 miles across) was named Caloris (Greek for 'hot') because it is one of the two areas on the planet that face the Sun at perihelion.

    The Image Processing Lab at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory produced this photomosaic using computer software and techniques developed for use in processing planetary data. The Mariner 10 spacecraft imaged the region during its initial flyby of the planet.

    The Mariner 10 spacecraft was launched in 1974. The spacecraft took images of Venus in February 1974 on the way to three encounters with Mercury in March and September 1974 and March 1975. The spacecraft took more than 7,000 images of Mercury, Venus, the Earth and the Moon during its mission.

    The Mariner 10 Mission was managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science in Washington, D.C.

  17. ADVANCED CHEMISTRY BASINS MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    William Goddard III; Lawrence Cathles III; Mario Blanco; Paul Manhardt; Peter Meulbroek; Yongchun Tang

    2004-05-01

    The advanced Chemistry Basin Model project has been operative for 48 months. During this period, about half the project tasks are on projected schedule. On average the project is somewhat behind schedule (90%). Unanticipated issues are causing model integration to take longer then scheduled, delaying final debugging and manual development. It is anticipated that a short extension will be required to fulfill all contract obligations.

  18. Petroleum basin studies

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon, P.M. ); Naylor, D. )

    1989-01-01

    This book reviews the tectonic setting, basin development and history of exploration of a number of selected petroleum provinces located in a variety of settings in the Middle East, North Sea, Nigeria, the Rocky Mountains, Gabon and China. This book illustrates how ideas and models developed in one area may be applied to other regions. Regional reviews and the reassessment of petroleum provinces are presented.

  19. Albuquerque Basin seismic network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaksha, Lawrence H.; Locke, Jerry; Thompson, J.B.; Garcia, Alvin

    1977-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has recently completed the installation of a seismic network around the Albuquerque Basin in New Mexico. The network consists of two seismometer arrays, a thirteen-station array monitoring an area of approximately 28,000 km 2 and an eight-element array monitoring the area immediately adjacent to the Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory. This report describes the instrumentation deployed in the network.

  20. Dimension of fractal basin boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Park, B.S.

    1988-01-01

    In many dynamical systems, multiple attractors coexist for certain parameter ranges. The set of initial conditions that asymptotically approach each attractor is its basin of attraction. These basins can be intertwined on arbitrary small scales. Basin boundary can be either smooth or fractal. Dynamical systems that have fractal basin boundary show final state sensitivity of the initial conditions. A measure of this sensitivity (uncertainty exponent {alpha}) is related to the dimension of the basin boundary d = D - {alpha}, where D is the dimension of the phase space and d is the dimension of the basin boundary. At metamorphosis values of the parameter, there might happen a conversion from smooth to fractal basin boundary (smooth-fractal metamorphosis) or a conversion from fractal to another fractal basin boundary characteristically different from the previous fractal one (fractal-fractal metamorphosis). The dimension changes continuously with the parameter except at the metamorphosis values where the dimension of the basin boundary jumps discontinuously. We chose the Henon map and the forced damped pendulum to investigate this. Scaling of the basin volumes near the metamorphosis values of the parameter is also being studied for the Henon map. Observations are explained analytically by using low dimensional model map.

  1. Advanced Chemistry Basins Model

    SciTech Connect

    William Goddard; Mario Blanco; Lawrence Cathles; Paul Manhardt; Peter Meulbroek; Yongchun Tang

    2002-11-10

    The DOE-funded Advanced Chemistry Basin model project is intended to develop a public domain, user-friendly basin modeling software under PC or low end workstation environment that predicts hydrocarbon generation, expulsion, migration and chemistry. The main features of the software are that it will: (1) afford users the most flexible way to choose or enter kinetic parameters for different maturity indicators; (2) afford users the most flexible way to choose or enter compositional kinetic parameters to predict hydrocarbon composition (e.g., gas/oil ratio (GOR), wax content, API gravity, etc.) at different kerogen maturities; (3) calculate the chemistry, fluxes and physical properties of all hydrocarbon phases (gas, liquid and solid) along the primary and secondary migration pathways of the basin and predict the location and intensity of phase fractionation, mixing, gas washing, etc.; and (4) predict the location and intensity of de-asphaltene processes. The project has be operative for 36 months, and is on schedule for a successful completion at the end of FY 2003.

  2. Great Basin Paleontological Bibliography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blodgett, Robert B.; Zhang, Ning; Hofstra, Albert H.; Morrow, Jared R.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction This work was conceived as a derivative product for 'The Metallogeny of the Great Basin' project of the Mineral Resources Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. In the course of preparing a fossil database for the Great Basin that could be accessed from the Internet, it was determined that a comprehensive paleontological bibliography must first be compiled, something that had not previously been done. This bibliography includes published papers and abstracts as well as unpublished theses and dissertations on fossils and stratigraphy in Nevada and adjoining portions of California and Utah. This bibliography is broken into first-order headings by geologic age, secondary headings by taxonomic group, followed by ancillary topics of interest to both paleontologists and stratigraphers; paleoecology, stratigraphy, sedimentary petrology, paleogeography, tectonics, and petroleum potential. References were derived from usage of Georef, consultation with numerous paleontologists and geologists working in the Great Basin, and literature currently on hand with the authors. As this is a Web-accessible bibliography, we hope to periodically update it with new citations or older references that we have missed during this compilation. Hence, the authors would be grateful to receive notice of any new or old papers that the readers think should be added. As a final note, we gratefully acknowledge the helpful reviews provided by A. Elizabeth J. Crafford (Anchorage, Alaska) and William R. Page (USGS, Denver, Colorado).

  3. Caribbean basin framework, 3: Southern Central America and Colombian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Kolarsky, R.A.; Mann, P. )

    1991-03-01

    The authors recognize three basin-forming periods in southern Central America (Panama, Costa Rica, southern Nicaragua) that they attempt to correlate with events in the Colombian basin (Bowland, 1984): (1) Early-Late Cretaceous island arc formation and growth of the Central American island arc and Late Cretaceous formation of the Colombian basin oceanic plateau. During latest Cretaceous time, pelagic carbonate sediments blanketed the Central American island arc in Panama and Costa Rica and elevated blocks on the Colombian basin oceanic plateau; (2) middle Eocene-middle Miocene island arc uplift and erosion. During this interval, influx of distal terrigenous turbidites in most areas of Panama, Costa Rica, and the Colombian basin marks the uplift and erosion of the Central American island arc. In the Colombian basin, turbidites fill in basement relief and accumulate to thicknesses up to 2 km in the deepest part of the basin. In Costa Rica, sedimentation was concentrated in fore-arc (Terraba) and back-arc (El Limon) basins; (3) late Miocene-Recent accelerated uplift and erosion of segments of the Central American arc. Influx of proximal terrigenous turbidites and alluvial fans in most areas of Panama, Costa Rica, and the Colombian basin marks collision of the Panama arc with the South American continent (late Miocene early Pliocene) and collision of the Cocos Ridge with the Costa Rican arc (late Pleistocene). The Cocos Ridge collision inverted the Terraba and El Limon basins. The Panama arc collision produced northeast-striking left-lateral strike-slip faults and fault-related basins throughout Panama as Panama moved northwest over the Colombian basin.

  4. Geochemical and palynological records for the end-Triassic Mass-Extinction Event in the NE Paris Basin (Luxemburg)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhlmann, Natascha; van de Schootbrugge, Bas; Thein, Jean; Fiebig, Jens; Franz, Sven-Oliver; Hanzo, Micheline; Colbach, Robert; Faber, Alain

    2016-04-01

    The End-Triassic mass-extinction event is one of the "big five" mass extinctions in Earth's history. Large scale flood basalt volcanism associated with the break-up of Pangaea, which resulted in the opening of the central Atlantic Ocean, is considered as the leading cause. In addition, an asteroid impact in Rochechouart (France; 201 ± 2 Ma) may have had a local influence on ecosystems and sedimentary settings. The Luxembourg Embayment, in the NE Paris Basin, offers a rare chance to study both effects in a range of settings from deltaic to lagoonal. A multidisciplinary study (sedimentology, geochemistry, palynology) has been carried out on a number of outcrops and cores that span from the Norian to lower Hettangian. Combined geochemical and palynological records from the Boust core drilled in the NE Paris Basin, provide evidence for paleoenvironmental changes associated with the end-Triassic mass-extinction event. The Triassic-Jurassic stratigraphy of the Boust core is well constrained by palynomorphs showing the disappaerance of typical Triassic pollen taxa (e.g. Ricciisporites tuberculates) and the occurrence of the marker species Polypodiisporites polymicroforatus within the uppermost Rhaetian, prior to the Hettangian dominance of Classopollis pollen. The organic carbon stable isotope record (δ13Corg) spanning the Norian to Hettangian, shows a series of prominent negative excursions within the middle Rhaetian, followed by a trend towards more positive values (approx -24 per mille) within the uppermost Rhaetian Argiles de Levallois Member. The lowermost Hettangian is characterized by a major negative excursion, reaching - 30 per mille that occurs in organic-rich sediments. This so-called "main negative excursion" is well-known from other locations, for example from Mariental in Northern Germany and from St Audrie's Bay in England, and Stenlille in Denmark. Based on redox-sensitive trace element records (V, Cr, Ni, Co, Th, U) the lowermost Hettangian in most of

  5. Glass corrosion in the presence of iron-bearing materials and potential corrosion suppressors

    SciTech Connect

    Reiser, Joelle T.; Neill, Lindsay; Weaver, Jamie L.; Parruzot, Benjamin; Musa, Christopher; Neeway, James J.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Gin, Stephane; Wall, Nathalie

    2015-07-16

    A complete understanding of radioactive waste glass interactions with near-field materials is essential for appropriate nuclear waste repository performance assessment. In many geologic repository designs, Fe is present in both the natural environment and in the containers that will hold the waste glasses. In this paper we discuss investigations into the alteration of International Simple Glass (ISG) in the presence of Fe0 foil and hematite (Fe2O3). ISG alteration is more pronounced in the presence of Fe0 than with hematite. Additionally, minimal glass corrosion is observed for distances equal to 5 mm between Fe materials and ISG, but substantial glass corrosion is observed for systems exhibiting full contact between Fe0 material and ISG. Diatomaceous earth appears to be a better corrosion suppressant than silica when present with iron and ISG.

  6. Complementary Vibrational Spectroscopy Investigations of Iron and Iron-Bearing Minerals (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, C. A.; Antonangeli, D.; Fiquet, G.; Fei, Y.; Alatas, A.; Dera, P. K.

    2013-12-01

    The high-pressure elastic and thermodynamic properties of iron have been extensively studied because iron is thought to be the main constituent in Earth's core, along with ~5 to 10 wt% nickel and some light elements. In particular, nuclear resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (NRIXS) is an isotope-selective technique that has been used to investigate the vibrational properties of 57Fe at high-pressure via its measured phonon density of states (DOS) [e.g., 1]. For example, the low-energy region of a material's phonon DOS is proportional to its Debye sound velocity (vD), which reflects an average of its compressional (vP) and shear (vS) sound velocities, weighted more heavily towards vS [2]. In order to separate the compressional and shear components of vD, one often relies on established equations of state (EOS) which, in the case of iron, diverge above 100 GPa [e.g., 3; 4]. In turn, such uncertainties are propagated into iron's sound velocities--particularly vP--at pressures approaching those of Earth's core. Here we demonstrate how the combination of NRIXS and high-energy resolution inelastic x-ray scattering (HERIX) data allows for the determination of both vP and vS, independent of an EOS. In particular, we used NRIXS and HERIX to probe the total phonon DOS and points along the longitudinal acoustic phonon branch, respectively, of pure iron loaded into similarly prepared diamond anvil cells, up to a pressure of 171 GPa at 300 K [1; 5]. Experiments were performed at the Advanced Photon Source and European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, where sample volumes (densities) were also measured with in-situ x-ray diffraction. Using established NRIXS and HERIX fitting procedures, we determined iron's density-dependent vD and vP, respectively, accounting for mass effects in the former parameter using a harmonic oscillator model. The combination of these datasets [1; 5] provides a new tight constraint on the density-dependent compressional and shear sound velocities of iron, independent of an EOS. In light of these new findings, we will discuss specific implications for Earth's core, and give examples of additional systems to which such a combination of techniques can be applied. Finally, in the case of pure 57Fe, the total phonon DOS is measured by NRIXS, thus providing a wealth of information about its thermodynamic properties [2]. For example, iron's mean force constant can be obtained from its integrated phonon DOS, and is related to iron's equilibrium isotopic partition function ratios (β-factors). Therefore, we will present how high-pressure NRIXS experiments can provide information about the predicted distribution of iron isotopes during equilibrium processes involving solid iron in the deep Earth [1]. References: 1. Murphy, CA, Jackson, JM, and Sturhahn, W (2013), J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, 118, 1999-2016, doi:10.1002/jgrb.50166. 2. Sturhahn, W, and Jackson, JM (2007), GSA Special Paper 421, 157-174, doi:10.1130/2007.2421(09). 3. Mao, HK et al. (1990), J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, 95, 21737-21742, doi:10.1029/JB095iB13p21737. 4. Dewaele, A et al. (2006), Phys. Rev. Lett., 97, 215504, doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.97.215504. 5. Antonangeli, D et al. (2012), Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 331-332, 210-214, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2012.03.024.

  7. Complementary Vibrational Spectroscopy Investigations of Iron and Iron-Bearing Minerals (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, C. A.; Antonangeli, D.; Fiquet, G.; Fei, Y.; Alatas, A.; Dera, P. K.

    2011-12-01

    The high-pressure elastic and thermodynamic properties of iron have been extensively studied because iron is thought to be the main constituent in Earth's core, along with ~5 to 10 wt% nickel and some light elements. In particular, nuclear resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (NRIXS) is an isotope-selective technique that has been used to investigate the vibrational properties of 57Fe at high-pressure via its measured phonon density of states (DOS) [e.g., 1]. For example, the low-energy region of a material's phonon DOS is proportional to its Debye sound velocity (vD), which reflects an average of its compressional (vP) and shear (vS) sound velocities, weighted more heavily towards vS [2]. In order to separate the compressional and shear components of vD, one often relies on established equations of state (EOS) which, in the case of iron, diverge above 100 GPa [e.g., 3; 4]. In turn, such uncertainties are propagated into iron's sound velocities--particularly vP--at pressures approaching those of Earth's core. Here we demonstrate how the combination of NRIXS and high-energy resolution inelastic x-ray scattering (HERIX) data allows for the determination of both vP and vS, independent of an EOS. In particular, we used NRIXS and HERIX to probe the total phonon DOS and points along the longitudinal acoustic phonon branch, respectively, of pure iron loaded into similarly prepared diamond anvil cells, up to a pressure of 171 GPa at 300 K [1; 5]. Experiments were performed at the Advanced Photon Source and European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, where sample volumes (densities) were also measured with in-situ x-ray diffraction. Using established NRIXS and HERIX fitting procedures, we determined iron's density-dependent vD and vP, respectively, accounting for mass effects in the former parameter using a harmonic oscillator model. The combination of these datasets [1; 5] provides a new tight constraint on the density-dependent compressional and shear sound velocities of iron, independent of an EOS. In light of these new findings, we will discuss specific implications for Earth's core, and give examples of additional systems to which such a combination of techniques can be applied. Finally, in the case of pure 57Fe, the total phonon DOS is measured by NRIXS, thus providing a wealth of information about its thermodynamic properties [2]. For example, iron's mean force constant can be obtained from its integrated phonon DOS, and is related to iron's equilibrium isotopic partition function ratios (β-factors). Therefore, we will present how high-pressure NRIXS experiments can provide information about the predicted distribution of iron isotopes during equilibrium processes involving solid iron in the deep Earth [1]. References: 1. Murphy, CA, Jackson, JM, and Sturhahn, W (2013), J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, 118, 1999-2016, doi:10.1002/jgrb.50166. 2. Sturhahn, W, and Jackson, JM (2007), GSA Special Paper 421, 157-174, doi:10.1130/2007.2421(09). 3. Mao, HK et al. (1990), J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, 95, 21737-21742, doi:10.1029/JB095iB13p21737. 4. Dewaele, A et al. (2006), Phys. Rev. Lett., 97, 215504, doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.97.215504. 5. Antonangeli, D et al. (2012), Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 331-332, 210-214, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2012.03.024.

  8. Reactivity of Iron-bearing Minerals in Deep Saline Formations subjected to Carbon Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoonen, M. A.; Sklute, E. C.; Strongin, D. R.; Dyar, M. D.

    2013-12-01

    Deep saline aquifers are being considered as repositories for captured CO2. Here the influence of co-injected hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide on the reactivity of hematite-bearing sandstones was evaluated as a function of salt content and water/rock ratio. The reactivity of the Triassic Moenkopi red sandstone under scCO2-dominated conditions (supercritical fluid around the point of injection) and water-dominated conditions (aqueous phase influenced by the injection of scCO2) was studied. Flow-through experiments were used to simulate scCO2-dominated conditions. Crushed sandstone packed in a column was exposed to a co-mingled stream of supercritical CO2 and an aqueous H2S or SO2 solution (75°C). Batch experiments to simulate water-dominated conditions were conducted in small autoclaves that were loaded with crushed sandstone, a small amount of water, and dry ice before to 75°C. The role of water/rock ratio was explored by conducting experiments at a water/rock ratio of 4.3/1 and 1.4/1. The reacted sandstones were recovered at the conclusion of each type of experiment and analyzed for changes in mineralogical composition using X-ray Diffraction. Selected reaction products were also studied using Mössbauer spectroscopy, FTIR, and Visible Near Infrared (VNIR) spectroscopy. The results of the flow through experiments, simulating scCO2-dominated conditions, showed no changes in the iron mineralogy of the sand, regardless of whether pure scCO2 or scCO2 co-mingled with SO2 or H2S was used. By contrast, batch experiments, simulating water-dominated conditions, showed significant changes in iron mineralogy. The presence of sulfide led to the conversion of the hematite component in the sandstone to pyrite at all salt concentrations (0-6M NaCl). In experiments with sulfide and sulfite, siderite and pyrite formed, but siderite was favored at higher salinity and lower water/rock ratio. Availability of water at the mineral surface might be a critical factor in the reactivity of co-injected sulfur gasses. In the regime dominated by scCO2, co-mingled sulfur gasses do not react with the hematite component in the sandstone. In water-dominated conditions, exposure to SO2 and scCO2 has no effect on the iron mineralogy, but the addition of H2S leads to conversion of hematite to pyrite and siderite, and this conversion increases with higher water content. The implication of this study is that within the scCO2 plume there will be little or no change in permeability as a result of reactions with iron minerals. However, just beyond the plume, co-mingled H2S with or without SO2 will react with hematite and lead to new minerals that may affect permeability.

  9. Poorly Crystalline, Iron-Bearing Aluminosilicates and Their Importance on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, L. L.; Strawn, D. G.; McDaniel, P. A.; Nickerosn, R. N.; Bishop, J. L.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, Richard V.

    2011-01-01

    Martian rocks and sediments contain weathering products including evaporite salts and clay minerals that only form as a result of interaction between rocks and water [1-6]. These weathering products are key to studying the history of water on Mars because their type, abundance and location provide clues to past conditions on the surface of the planet, as well as to the possible location of present-day reservoirs of water. Weathering of terrestrial volcanic rocks similar to those on Mars produces nano-sized, variably hydrated aluminosilicate and iron oxide minerals [7-10] including allophane, imogolite, halloysite, hisingerite, and ferrihydrite. The nanoaluminosilicates can contain isomorphically substituted Fe, which affects their spectral and physical properties. Detection and quantification of such minerals in natural environments on earth is difficult due to their variable chemical composition and lack of long-range crystalline order [9, 11, 12]. Despite the difficulty in characterizing these materials, they are common on Earth, and data from orbital remote sensing and rover-based instruments suggest that they are also present on Mars [9, 10, 13-17]. Their accurate detection and quantification require a better understanding of how composition affects their spectral properties. We present here the results of XAFS spectroscopy; these results will be corroborated with planned Mossbauer and reflectance spectroscopy.

  10. Preliminary laboratory evaluation of iron-bearing reactive media for pesticide water treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural pesticides are often found in ground and surface waters, and if present in high enough concentrations, create risks to human and ecological health. Filter treatment systems can potentially remove pesticides from water. Therefore, a laboratory investigation was initiated to assess the wa...

  11. The Role of Iron-Bearing Minerals in NO2 to HONO Conversion on Soil Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Kebede, Mulu A; Bish, David L; Losovyj, Yaroslav; Engelhard, Mark H; Raff, Jonathan D

    2016-08-16

    Nitrous acid (HONO) accumulates in the nocturnal boundary layer where it is an important source of daytime hydroxyl radicals. Although there is clear evidence for the involvement of heterogeneous reactions of NO2 on surfaces as a source of HONO, mechanisms remain poorly understood. We used coated-wall flow tube measurements of NO2 reactivity on environmentally relevant surfaces (Fe (hydr)oxides, clay minerals, and soil from Arizona and the Saharan Desert) and detailed mineralogical characterization of substrates to show that reduction of NO2 by Fe-bearing minerals in soil can be a more important source of HONO than the putative NO2 hydrolysis mechanism. The magnitude of NO2-to-HONO conversion depends on the amount of Fe(2+) present in substrates and soil surface acidity. Studies examining the dependence of HONO flux on substrate pH revealed that HONO is formed at soil pH < 5 from the reaction between NO2 and Fe(2+)(aq) present in thin films of water coating the surface, whereas in the range of pH 5-8 HONO stems from reaction of NO2 with structural iron or surface complexed Fe(2+) followed by protonation of nitrite via surface Fe-OH2(+) groups. Reduction of NO2 on ubiquitous Fe-bearing minerals in soil may explain HONO accumulation in the nocturnal boundary layer and the enhanced [HONO]/[NO2] ratios observed during dust storms in urban areas. PMID:27409359

  12. Great Basin paleontological database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, N.; Blodgett, R.B.; Hofstra, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has constructed a paleontological database for the Great Basin physiographic province that can be served over the World Wide Web for data entry, queries, displays, and retrievals. It is similar to the web-database solution that we constructed for Alaskan paleontological data (www.alaskafossil.org). The first phase of this effort was to compile a paleontological bibliography for Nevada and portions of adjacent states in the Great Basin that has recently been completed. In addition, we are also compiling paleontological reports (Known as E&R reports) of the U.S. Geological Survey, which are another extensive source of l,egacy data for this region. Initial population of the database benefited from a recently published conodont data set and is otherwise focused on Devonian and Mississippian localities because strata of this age host important sedimentary exhalative (sedex) Au, Zn, and barite resources and enormons Carlin-type An deposits. In addition, these strata are the most important petroleum source rocks in the region, and record the transition from extension to contraction associated with the Antler orogeny, the Alamo meteorite impact, and biotic crises associated with global oceanic anoxic events. The finished product will provide an invaluable tool for future geologic mapping, paleontological research, and mineral resource investigations in the Great Basin, making paleontological data acquired over nearly the past 150 yr readily available over the World Wide Web. A description of the structure of the database and the web interface developed for this effort are provided herein. This database is being used ws a model for a National Paleontological Database (which we am currently developing for the U.S. Geological Survey) as well as for other paleontological databases now being developed in other parts of the globe. ?? 2008 Geological Society of America.

  13. Apollo Basin, Moon: Estimation of Impact Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echaurren, J. C.

    2015-07-01

    The Apollo Basin is a, pre-Nectarian, multi-ring basin located within the large South Pole-Aitken Basin (SPA). Multispectral data from both Galileo and Clementine showed that the composition of materials in Apollo is distinct…

  14. Advanced Chemistry Basins Model

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco, Mario; Cathles, Lawrence; Manhardt, Paul; Meulbroek, Peter; Tang, Yongchun

    2003-02-13

    The objective of this project is to: (1) Develop a database of additional and better maturity indicators for paleo-heat flow calibration; (2) Develop maturation models capable of predicting the chemical composition of hydrocarbons produced by a specific kerogen as a function of maturity, heating rate, etc.; assemble a compositional kinetic database of representative kerogens; (3) Develop a 4 phase equation of state-flash model that can define the physical properties (viscosity, density, etc.) of the products of kerogen maturation, and phase transitions that occur along secondary migration pathways; (4) Build a conventional basin model and incorporate new maturity indicators and data bases in a user-friendly way; (5) Develop an algorithm which combines the volume change and viscosities of the compositional maturation model to predict the chemistry of the hydrocarbons that will be expelled from the kerogen to the secondary migration pathways; (6) Develop an algorithm that predicts the flow of hydrocarbons along secondary migration pathways, accounts for mixing of miscible hydrocarbon components along the pathway, and calculates the phase fractionation that will occur as the hydrocarbons move upward down the geothermal and fluid pressure gradients in the basin; and (7) Integrate the above components into a functional model implemented on a PC or low cost workstation.

  15. Atlantic marginal basins of Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, G.T.

    1988-02-01

    The over 10,000-km long Atlantic margin of Africa is divisible into thirty basins or segments of the margin that collectively contain over 18.6 x 10/sup 6/ km/sup 3/ of syn-breakup and post-breakup sediments. Twenty of these basins contain a sufficiently thick volume of sediments to be considered prospects. These basins lie, at least partially, within the 200 m isobath. The distribution of source rocks is broad enough to give potential to each of these basins. The sedimentation patterns, tectonics, and timing of events differ from basin to basin and are related directly to the margin's complex history. Two spreading modes exist: rift and transform. Rifting dates from Late Triassic-Early Jurassic in the northwest to Early Cretaceous south of the Niger Delta. A complex transform fault system separated these two margins. Deep-water communication between the two basins became established in the middle Cretaceous. This Mesozoic-Cenozoic cycle of rifting and seafloor spreading has segmented the margin and where observable, basins tend to be bounded by these segments.

  16. MASSACHUSETTS DRAINAGE SUB-BASINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    MassGIS has produced a statewide digital datalayer of the approximately 2300 sub-basins as defined and used by the USGS Water Resources Division and the Mass Water Resources Commission and as modified by Executive Office of Environmental Affairs (EOEA) agencies. These sub-basins...

  17. Estancia Basin dynamic water budget.

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Richard P.

    2004-09-01

    The Estancia Basin lies about 30 miles to the east of Albuquerque, NM. It is a closed basin in terms of surface water and is somewhat isolated in terms of groundwater. Historically, the primary natural outlet for both surface water and groundwater has been evaporation from the salt lakes in the southeastern portion of the basin. There are no significant watercourses that flow into this basin and groundwater recharge is minimal. During the 20th Century, agriculture grew to become the major user of groundwater in the basin. Significant declines in groundwater levels have accompanied this agricultural use. Domestic and municipal use of the basin groundwater is increasing as Albuquerque population continues to spill eastward into the basin, but this use is projected to be less than 1% of agricultural use well into the 21st Century. This Water Budget model keeps track of the water balance within the basin. The model considers the amount of water entering the basin and leaving the basin. Since there is no significant surface water component within this basin, the balance of water in the groundwater aquifer constitutes the primary component of this balance. Inflow is based on assumptions for recharge made by earlier researchers. Outflow from the basin is the summation of the depletion from all basin water uses. The model user can control future water use within the basin via slider bars that set values for population growth, water system per-capita use, agricultural acreage, and the types of agricultural diversion. The user can also adjust recharge and natural discharge within the limits of uncertainty for those parameters. The model runs for 100 years beginning in 1940 and ending in 2040. During the first 55 years model results can be compared to historical data and estimates of groundwater use. The last 45 years are predictive. The model was calibrated to match to New Mexico Office of State Engineer (NMOSE) estimates of aquifer storage during the historical period by

  18. Stratigraphic modeling of sedimentary basins

    SciTech Connect

    Aigner, T. ); Lawrence, D.T. )

    1990-11-01

    A two-dimensional stratigraphic forward model has been successfully applied and calibrated in clastic, carbonate, and mixed clastic/carbonate regimes. Primary input parameters are subsidence, sea level, volume of clastics, and carbonate growth potential. Program output includes sequence geometries, facies distribution lithology distribution, chronostratigraphic plots, burial history plots, thermal and maturity histories, and crossplots. The program may be used to predict reservoir distribution, to constrain interpretations of well and seismic data, to rapidly test exploration scenarios in frontier basins, and to evaluate the fundamental controls on observed basin stratigraphy. Applications to data sets from Main Pass (US Gulf Coast), Offshore Sarawak (Malaysia), Rub'al Khali basin (Oman), Paris basin (France), and Baltimore Canyon (US East Coast) demonstrate that the program can be used to simulate stratigraphy on a basin-wide scale as well as on the scale of individual prospects.

  19. The deep Ionian Basin revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tugend, Julie; Chamot-Rooke, Nicolas; Arsenikos, Stavros; Frizon de Lamotte, Dominique; Blanpied, Christian

    2016-04-01

    The deep Eastern Mediterranean Basins (Ionian and Herodotus) are characterized by thick sedimentary sequences overlying an extremely thinned basement evidenced from different geophysical methods. Yet, the nature of the crust (continental or oceanic) and the timing of the extreme crustal and lithosphere thinning in the different sub-basins remain highly controversial, casting doubts on the tectonic setting related to the formation of this segment of the North Gondwana paleo-margin. We focus on the Ionian Basin located at the western termination of the Eastern Mediterranean with the aim of identifying, characterizing and mapping the deepest sedimentary sequences. We present tentative age correlations relying on calibrations and observations from the surrounding margins and basins (Malta shelf and Escarpment, Cyrenaica margin, Sirte Basin, Apulian Platform). Two-ship deep refraction seismic data (Expanding Spread Profiles from the PASIPHAE cruise) combined with reprocessed reflection data (from the ARCHIMEDE survey) enabled us to present a homogeneous seismic stratigraphy across the basin and to investigate the velocity structure of its basement. Based on our results, and on a review of geological and geophysical observations, we suggest an Upper Triassic-Early Dogger age for the formation of the deep Ionian Basin. The nature of the underlying basement remains uncertain, both highly-thinned continental and slow-spreading type oceanic crust being compatible with the available constraints. The narrow size and relatively short-lived evolution of the Ionian Basin lead us to suggest that it is more likely the remnant of an immature oceanic basin than of a stable oceanic domain. Eventually, upscaling these results at the scale of the Eastern Mediterranean Basins highlights the complex interaction observed between two propagating oceans: The Central Atlantic and Neo-Tethys.

  20. RESERVES IN WESTERN BASINS PART IV: WIND RIVER BASIN

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Caldwell

    1998-04-01

    Vast quantities of natural gas are entrapped within various tight formations in the Rocky Mountain area. This report seeks to quantify what proportion of that resource can be considered recoverable under today's technological and economic conditions and discusses factors controlling recovery. The ultimate goal of this project is to encourage development of tight gas reserves by industry through reducing the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial tight gas wells. This report is the fourth in a series and focuses on the Wind River Basin located in west central Wyoming. The first three reports presented analyses of the tight gas reserves and resources in the Greater Green River Basin (Scotia, 1993), Piceance Basin (Scotia, 1995) and the Uinta Basin (Scotia, 1995). Since each report is a stand-alone document, duplication of language will exist where common aspects are discussed. This study, and the previous three, describe basin-centered gas deposits (Masters, 1979) which contain vast quantities of natural gas entrapped in low permeability (tight), overpressured sandstones occupying a central basin location. Such deposits are generally continuous and are not conventionally trapped by a structural or stratigraphic seal. Rather, the tight character of the reservoirs prevents rapid migration of the gas, and where rates of gas generation exceed rates of escape, an overpressured basin-centered gas deposit results (Spencer, 1987). Since the temperature is a primary controlling factor for the onset and rate of gas generation, these deposits exist in the deeper, central parts of a basin where temperatures generally exceed 200 F and drill depths exceed 8,000 feet. The abbreviation OPT (overpressured tight) is used when referring to sandstone reservoirs that comprise the basin-centered gas deposit. Because the gas resources trapped in this setting are so large, they represent an important source of future gas supply, prompting studies to

  1. Aleutian basin oceanic crust

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christeson, Gail L.; Barth, Ginger A.

    2015-01-01

    We present two-dimensional P-wave velocity structure along two wide-angle ocean bottom seismometer profiles from the Aleutian basin in the Bering Sea. The basement here is commonly considered to be trapped oceanic crust, yet there is a change in orientation of magnetic lineations and gravity features within the basin that might reflect later processes. Line 1 extends ∼225 km from southwest to northeast, while Line 2 extends ∼225 km from northwest to southeast and crosses the observed change in magnetic lineation orientation. Velocities of the sediment layer increase from 2.0 km/s at the seafloor to 3.0–3.4 km/s just above basement, crustal velocities increase from 5.1–5.6 km/s at the top of basement to 7.0–7.1 km/s at the base of the crust, and upper mantle velocities are 8.1–8.2 km/s. Average sediment thickness is 3.8–3.9 km for both profiles. Crustal thickness varies from 6.2 to 9.6 km, with average thickness of 7.2 km on Line 1 and 8.8 km on Line 2. There is no clear change in crustal structure associated with a change in orientation of magnetic lineations and gravity features. The velocity structure is consistent with that of normal or thickened oceanic crust. The observed increase in crustal thickness from west to east is interpreted as reflecting an increase in melt supply during crustal formation.

  2. K-Basins design guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Roe, N.R.; Mills, W.C.

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of the design guidelines is to enable SNF and K Basin personnel to complete fuel and sludge removal, and basin water mitigation by providing engineering guidance for equipment design for the fuel basin, facility modifications (upgrades), remote tools, and new processes. It is not intended to be a purchase order reference for vendors. The document identifies materials, methods, and components that work at K Basins; it also Provides design input and a technical review process to facilitate project interfaces with operations in K Basins. This document is intended to compliment other engineering documentation used at K Basins and throughout the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. Significant provisions, which are incorporated, include portions of the following: General Design Criteria (DOE 1989), Standard Engineering Practices (WHC-CM-6-1), Engineering Practices Guidelines (WHC 1994b), Hanford Plant Standards (DOE-RL 1989), Safety Analysis Manual (WHC-CM-4-46), and Radiological Design Guide (WHC 1994f). Documents (requirements) essential to the engineering design projects at K Basins are referenced in the guidelines.

  3. Leopold's Workbench: The Hapsburg-Lorraine Grand Duke and Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scorrano, Gianfranco; Nicolini, Nicoletta; Masoner, Ida M.

    2002-01-01

    We have examined and identified the 38 samples contained in the glass bottles and glass jars preserved in the Grand Duke Leopold's workbench, located at the Museum of History of Science in Florence, Italy. Many of the samples were coloring materials, some were of medicinal interest, others were connected with the industrial development of Tuscany of that time (1765-1790), such as materials for pencils, boric acid, soil improvement, colored glass manufacture, and metal extractions.

  4. Basin development and petroleum potential of offshore Otway basin, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, P.E.; O'Brien, G.W.; Swift, M.G.; Scherl, A.S.; Marlow, M.S.; Exon, N.F.; Falvey, D.A.; Lock, J.; Lockwood, K.

    1987-05-01

    The Bass Strait region in southeastern Australia contains three sedimentary basins, which are, from east to west, the Gippsland, Bass, and Otway basins. The offshore Gippsland basin is Australia's most prolific petroleum-producing province and supplies over 90% of the country's production. In contrast, exploration has been unsuccessful in the offshore portion of the Otway basin; 17 wells have been drilled, and although shows of oil and gas have been common, no commercial discoveries have been made. Many of these wells, drilled in the 1960s and 1970s, were sited using poor-quality seismic data and, as a consequence, were frequently off structure. Seismic data quality has, however, improved significantly in recent years. The present study by the Australian Bureau of Mineral Resources (BMR) involved the collection, in the offshore Otway basin, of 3700 km of high-quality, 48-channel seismic reflection data by the BMR research vessel R/V Rig Seismic. These data have been integrated with existing industry seismic data, well data, limited dredged material, and geohistory analyses in a framework study of basin development and hydrocarbon potential in this under-explored area. The offshore Otway basin extends 500 km along the southern coastline and is typically 50 km wide in water depths of less than 200 m. It contains up to 10 km of predominantly late Mesozoic to early Cenozoic sediments, which are overlain by a thin sequence of middle to late Tertiary shelf carbonates. It has been divided into three main structural elements: the Mussel Platform in the east, the central Voluta Trough, and the Crayfish Platform in the west. The basin was initiated at the end of the Jurassic as part of the Bassian rift. Up to 6 km of Lower Cretaceous sediments were deposited prior to breakup at the end of the Early Cretaceous and the onset of sea-floor spreading between Australia and Antarctica.

  5. Martian lake basins and lacustrine plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Hon, R. A.

    1992-02-01

    A classification of Martian lake basins based on the location of the basin in respect to water sources is proposed. The classes are type 1: valley-head basins; type 2: intravalley basins; type 3: valley-terminal basins; and type 4: isolated basins. Martian lakes are ephemeral features. Many craters and irregular depressions impounded water only until the basins filled and overflowed. Water escaping by spillover rapidly cut crevasses in the downstream side of basins and drained the ponds. Clastic lacustrine sediments collected in the lakes as flowing water lost velocity and turbulence. Evaporitic deposits may be significant in those basins that were not rapidly drained. Sediments deposited in lake basins form smooth, featureless plains. Lacustrine plains are potentially candidate sites for Mars landings and for the search for evidence of ancient life.

  6. Tectonic framework of Turkish sedimentary basins

    SciTech Connect

    Yilmaz, P.O. )

    1988-08-01

    Turkey's exploration potential primarily exists in seven onshore (Southeast Turkey platform, Tauride platform, Pontide platform, East Anatolian platform, Interior, Trace, and Adana) basins and four offshore (Black Sea, Marmara Sea, Aegean Sea, and Mediterranean Sea) regional basins formed during the Mesozoic and Tertiary. The Mesozoic basins are the onshore basins: Southeast Turkey, Tauride, Pontide, East Anatolian, and Interior basins. Due to their common tectonic heritage, the southeast Turkey and Tauride basins have similar source rocks, structural growth, trap size, and structural styles. In the north, another Mesozoic basin, the Pontide platform, has a much more complex history and very little in common with the southerly basins. The Pontide has two distinct parts; the west has Paleozoic continental basement and the east is underlain by island-arc basement of Jurassic age. The plays are in the upper Mesozoic rocks in the west Pontide. The remaining Mesozoic basins of the onshore Interior and East Anatolian basins are poorly known and very complex. Their source, reservoir, and seal are not clearly defined. The basins formed during several orogenic phases in mesozoic and Tertiary. The Cenozoic basins are the onshore Thrace and Adana basins, and all offshore regional basins formed during Miocene extension. Further complicating the onshore basins evolution is the superposition of Cenozoic basins and Mesozoic basins. The Thrace basin in the northwest and Adana basin in the south both originate from Tertiary extension over Tethyan basement and result in a similar source, reservoir, and seal. Local strike-slip movement along the North Anatolian fault modifies the Thrace basin structures, influencing its hydrocarbon potential.

  7. Provenance and basin evolution, Zhada basin, southwestern Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saylor, J.; Decelles, P.; Gehrels, G.; Kapp, P.

    2007-12-01

    The Zhada basin is a late Miocene - Pliocene intermontane basin situated at high elevations in the Himalayan hinterland. The fluvial and lacustrine sediments of the Zhada formation are undeformed and sit in angular unconformity above the deformed Tethyan Sedimentary Sequence (TSS). The basin sits just south of the Indus suture in a structural position occupied elsewhere in the Himalayan orogen by some of the highest mountains on earth, including Everest. The occurrence of a basin at this location demands explanation. Currently, the Sutlej River flows parallel to the structural grain of the Himalaya, westward through the basin, towards the Leo Pargil (Qusum) range. Near the range front it takes a sharp southward turn, cuts across the structural grain of the Himalaya and out into the Gangetic foreland. Palaeocurrent indicators in the lower part of the Zhada formation show that the basin originated as a northwest flowing axial river. Palaeocurrent indicators are consistently northwest oriented, even to within to within 10 km of the Leo Pargil range front in the north-western end of the basin. This implies that at the onset of sedimentation in Zhada basin the Leo Pargil range was not a barrier as it is today. In the upper part of the Zhada formation, palaeocurrent indicators are generally directed towards the centre of the basin. In the central and southern portions of the basin this indicates a transition from an axial, northwest flowing river to prograding fluvial and alluvial fans. However, in the north-western part of the basin the change between lower and upper Zhada formation involves a complete drainage reversal. This change in palaeocurrent orientation is also reflected in the detrital zircon signal from basin sediments. Low in the Zhada formation the detrital zircon signal is dominated by zircons from the Kailash (Gangdese) batholith (or associated extrusives, see below). However, higher in the sections, a local source, either from the TSS or the core of the

  8. 77 FR 45653 - Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water... on the structure, implementation, and oversight of the Yakima River Basin Water Conservation Program... of the Water Conservation Program, including the applicable water conservation guidelines of...

  9. Flexural analysis of two broken foreland basins; Late Cenozoic Bermejo basin and Early Cenozoic Green River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Flemings, P.B.; Jordan, T.E.; Reynolds, S.

    1986-05-01

    Lithospheric flexure that generates basin in a broke foreland setting (e.g., the Laramide foreland of Wyoming) is a three-dimensional system related to shortening along basin-bounding faults. The authors modeled the elastic flexure in three dimensions for two broken foreland basins: the early Cenozoic Green River basin and the analogous late Cenozoic Bermejo basin of Argentina. Each basin is located between a thrust belt and a reverse-fault-bounded basement uplift. Both basins are asymmetric toward the basement uplifts and have a central basement high: the Rock Springs uplift and the Pie de Palo uplift, respectively. The model applies loads generated by crustal thickening to an elastic lithosphere overlying a fluid mantle. Using the loading conditions of the Bermejo basin based on topography, limited drilling, and reflection and earthquake seismology, the model predicts the current Bermejo basin geometry. Similarly, flexure under the loading conditions in the Green River basin, which are constrained by stratigraphy, well logs, and seismic profiling and summed for Late Cretaceous (Lance Formation) through Eocene (Wasatch Formation), successfully models the observed geometry of the pre-Lance surface. Basin depocenters (> 4 km for the Green River basin; > 7 km for the Bermejo basin) and central uplifts are predicted to result from constructive interference of the nonparallel applied loads. Their Bermejo model implies that instantaneous basin geometry is successfully modeled by crustal loading, whereas the Green River basin analysis suggests that basin evolution can be modeled over large time steps (e.g., 20 Ma). This result links instantaneous basin geometry to overall basin evolution and is a first step in predicting stratigraphic development.

  10. Viscoelastic Relaxation of Lunar Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohit, P. S.; Phillips, R. J.

    2004-12-01

    The large lunar impact basins provide a unique glimpse into early lunar history. Here we investigate the possibility that the relief of the oldest lunar basins (with the exception of South-Pole Aitken) has decayed through viscous relaxation. We identify nine ancient multi-ring basins with very low relief and low-amplitude Bouguer and free-air gravity anomalies. The characteristics of these basins are consistent with either 1) relaxation of topographic relief by ductile flow (e.g. Solomon et al., 1982) or 2) obliteration of basin topography during crater collapse immediately following impact. Both scenarios require that the basins formed early in lunar history, when the Moon was hot. The latter possibility appears to be unlikely due to the great topographic relief of South Pole-Aitken basin (SPA), the largest and oldest impact basin on the Moon (with the possible exception of the putative Procellarum basin; Wilhelms, 1987). On the other hand, the thin crust beneath SPA may not have allowed ductile flow in its lower portions, even for a hot Moon, implying that a thicker crust is required beneath other ancient basins for the hypothesis of viscous relaxation to be tenable. Using a semi-analytic, self-gravitating viscoelastic model, we investigate the conditions necessary to produce viscous relaxation of lunar basins. We model topographic relaxation for a crustal thickness of 30 km, using a dry diabase flow law for the crust and dry olivine for the mantle. We find that the minimum temperature at the base of the crust (Tb) permitting nearly complete relaxation of topography by ductile flow on a timescale < 108 yrs is 1400 K, corresponding to a heat flow of 55mW/m2, into the crust. Ductile flow in the lower crust becomes increasingly difficult as the crustal thickness decreases. The crust beneath SPA, thinned by the impact, is only 15-20 km thick and would require Tb ≥ 1550 K for relaxation to occur. The fact that SPA has maintained high-amplitude relief suggests that

  11. Paleothermometry of the Sydney Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Middleton, M.F.; Schmidt, P.W.

    1982-07-10

    Evidence from overprinting of magnetizations of Late Permian and Mesozoic rocks and from the rank of Permian coals and Mesozoic phytoclasts (coal particles) suggests that surface rocks in the Sydney Basin, eastern Australia, have been raised to temperatures of the order of 200 /sup 0/C or higher. As vitrinite reflectance, an index of coal rank or coalification, is postulated to vary predictably with temperature and time, estimates of the paleotemperatures in the Sydney Basin based on observed vitrinite reflectance measurements can be made in conjunction with reasonable assumptions about the tectonic and thermal histories of the basin. These estimates give maximum paleotemperatures of present day surface rocks in the range 60--249 /sup 0/C, depending on factors such as location in the basin, the thickness of the sediment eroded, and the maximum paleogeothermal gradient. Higher coal rank and, consequently, larger eroded thicknesses and paleogeothermal gradients occur along the eastern edge of the basin and may be related to seafloor spreading in the Tasman Sea on the basin's eastern margin. A theory of thermal activation of magnetization entailing the dependence of magnetic viscosity on the size distribution of the magnetic grains is used to obtain an independent estimate of the maximum paleotemperatures in the Sydney Basin. This estimate places the maximum paleotemperature in the range 250--300 /sup 0/C along the coastal region. Both coalification and thermal activation of magnetization models provide strong evidence of elevated paleotemperatures, which in places exceed 200 /sup 0/C, and the loss of sediment thicknesses in excess of 1 km due to erosion.

  12. Basin Overflow Floods on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwin, R. P.

    2006-12-01

    On Earth, the most intense recognized historical and paleofloods have been ice dambursts or overflows of large basins, often initiated by abundant runoff or meltwater from the contributing watersheds. Many impact craters and other basins also overflowed in the Martian cratered highlands, and some of their incised outlet valleys similarly record evidence of erosive floods. Otherwise, the commonly small, enclosed watersheds on Mars contain poorly developed valley networks and relatively simple depositional landforms, which record little evidence of intense (by terrestrial standards) meteorological floods. For these reasons, basin overflows may have been disproportionately important mechanisms for incision of large valleys on Mars. Many of the Martian outflow channels head in topographic settings that favored ponding, including large canyons, impact or intercrater basins, chaotic terrain basins, and grabens. This topography may have accumulated somewhat slower groundwater discharges from the subsurface to support peak channel discharges of 106-108 m3/s. To yield a discharge of 106, 107, and 108 m3/s from a dam failure with a width/depth ratio of 5, the model predicts that a breach of ~100, 250, and 640 m, respectively, must form rapidly with respect to the decline of lake level. Terrestrial damburst floods have not exceeded ~106 m3/s for earthen dams and ~107 m3/s for ice dams, but brecciation of the Martian surface by impact cratering may have allowed larger damburst failures, whereas solid bedrock was exposed at shallower depths in the terrestrial examples. Moreover, many of the Martian basins were much larger than enclosed continental basins on Earth, so long-lived overflows may have facilitated entrenchment of deeper channels. Some large, mid-latitude basins overflowed to carve Ma'adim Vallis and the Uzboi-Ladon-Margaritifer Valles system, which are similar in scale to the terrestrial Grand Canyon but record much larger formative discharges. Models of damburst

  13. Hydrogeologic framework of sedimentary deposits in six structural basins, Yakima River basin, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, M.A.; Vaccaro, J.J.; Watkins, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The hydrogeologic framework was delineated for the ground-water flow system of the sedimentary deposits in six structural basins in the Yakima River Basin, Washington. The six basins delineated, from north to south are: Roslyn, Kittitas, Selah, Yakima, Toppenish, and Benton. Extent and thicknesses of the hydrogeologic units and total basin sediment thickness were mapped for each basin. Interpretations were based on information from about 4,700 well records using geochemical, geophysical, geologist's or driller's logs, and from the surficial geology and previously constructed maps and well interpretations. The sedimentary deposits were thickest in the Kittitas Basin reaching a depth of greater than 2,000 ft, followed by successively thinner sedimentary deposits in the Selah basin with about 1,900 ft, Yakima Basin with about 1,800 ft, Toppenish Basin with about 1,200 ft, Benton basin with about 870 ft and Roslyn Basin with about 700 ft.

  14. Stormwater detention basin sediment removal

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, W.E.

    1995-12-31

    In the past, stormwater runoff from landfills has been treated mainly by focusing on reducing the peak storm discharge rates so as not to hydraulically impact downstream subsheds. However, with the advent of stricter water quality regulations based on the Federal Clean Water Act, and the related NPDES and SPDES programs, landfill owners and operators are now legally responsible for the water quality of the runoff once it leaves the landfill site. At the Fresh Kills Landfill in New York City, the world`s largest covering over 2000 acres, landfilling activities have been underway since 1945. With the main objective at all older landfill sites having focused on maximizing the available landfill footprint in order to obtain the most possible airspace volume, consideration was not given for the future siting of stormwater basin structures. Therefore, when SCS Engineers began developing the first comprehensive stormwater management plan for the site, the primary task was to locate potential sites for all the stormwater basins in order to comply with state regulations for peak stormwater runoff control. The basins were mostly constructed where space allowed, and were sized to be as large as possible given siting and subshed area constraints. Seventeen stormwater basins have now been designed and are being constructed to control the peak stormwater runoff for the 25-year, 24-hour storm as required by New York State. As an additional factor of safety, the basins were also designed for controlled discharge of the 100-year, 24 hour storm.

  15. Water Accounting from Ungauged Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastiaanssen, W. G.; Savenije, H.

    2014-12-01

    Water scarcity is increasing globally. This requires a more accurate management of the water resources at river basin scale and understanding of withdrawals and return flows; both naturally and man-induced. Many basins and their tributaries are, however, ungauged or poorly gauged. This hampers sound planning and monitoring processes. While certain countries have developed clear guidelines and policies on data observatories and data sharing, other countries and their basin organization still have to start on developing data democracies. Water accounting quantifies flows, fluxes, stocks and consumptive use pertaining to every land use class in a river basin. The objective is to derive a knowledge base with certain minimum information that facilitates decision making. Water Accounting Plus (WA+) is a new method for water resources assessment reporting (www.wateraccounting.org). While the PUB framework has yielded several deterministic models for flow prediction, WA+ utilizes remote sensing data of rainfall, evaporation (including soil, water, vegetation and interception evaporation), soil moisture, water levels, land use and biomass production. Examples will be demonstrated that show how remote sensing and hydrological models can be smartly integrated for generating all the required input data into WA+. A standard water accounting system for all basins in the world - with a special emphasis on data scarce regions - is under development. First results of using remote sensing measurements and hydrological modeling as an alternative to expensive field data sets, will be presented and discussed.

  16. Inversion of Extensional Sedimentary Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buiter, Susanne J. H.; Pfiffner, O. Adrian

    The evolution of extensional sedimentary basins is governed by the surrounding stress field and can, therefore, be expected to be highly sensitive to variations in these stresses. Important changes in basin geometry are to be expected in the case of an even short-lived reversal from extension to compression. We investigate the evolu- tion of fold and thrust structures which form in compression after extension, when basin forming processes have come to a complete stop. To this purpose, we use a two- dimensional, viscoplastic model and start our experiments from a pre-existing exten- sional geometry. We illustrate the sensitivity of the evolving structures to inherited extensional geometry, sedimentary and erosional processes, and material properties. One series of our model experiments involves the upper- to middle crust only in order to achieve a high detail in the basin area. We find that our results agree with examples from nature and analogue studies in, among others, the uplift and rotation of syn-rift sediments, the propagation of shear zones into the post-rift sediments and, in specific cases, the development of back-thrusts or basement short-cut faults. We test the out- come of these models by performing a second series of model simulations in which basins on a continental margin are inverted through their progressive approach of a subduction zone. These latter models are on the scale of the whole upper mantle.

  17. Testing for Basins of Wada

    PubMed Central

    Daza, Alvar; Wagemakers, Alexandre; Sanjuán, Miguel A. F.; Yorke, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear systems often give rise to fractal boundaries in phase space, hindering predictability. When a single boundary separates three or more different basins of attraction, we say that the set of basins has theWada property and initial conditions near that boundary are even more unpredictable. Many physical systems of interest with this topological property appear in the literature. However, so far the only approach to study Wada basins has been restricted to two-dimensional phase spaces. Here we report a simple algorithm whose purpose is to look for the Wada property in a given dynamical system. Another benefit of this procedure is the possibility to classify and study intermediate situations known as partially Wada boundaries. PMID:26553444

  18. Oil in the Malvinas Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Galeazzi, J.S.

    1996-08-01

    The Malvinas Basin is petroliferous. The main source rocks are Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous outer shelf to basinal shales known as the Pampa Rincon and Lower Inoceramus formations. Main reservoirs are fluvial and shallow-marine sandstones of the coeval Springhill Formation. On the western flank of the basin, 17 wells drilled the Cenozoic and Mesozoic column. Three of these wells discovered hydrocarbons within the Springhill Formation, and one discovered oil in Early Paleogene sandstones. Additionally, some wells recorded shows at different levels within the stratigraphic succession. A detailed overview of the drilled portion of the basin permitted the construction of a sequence stratigraphic framework, and yielded clues on a complex history of deformation. Interpretation of facies and stratal stacking and termination patterns determined that the main reservoir and source rocks were deposited in a ramp-style depositional setting. They represent the lower transgressive phase of a Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous megasequence deposited during the early sag stage of the basin. Alternative reservoirs to the Springhill sandstones include early Paleogene glauconitic sandstones and carbonates, and Miocene deep-water turbidites. Structural trap styles include normal fault features of Jurassic to Early Cretaceous age, and compressional and inverted positive structures due to Neogene compression. Possible combination and stratigraphic traps include: little tested onlap pinchout of Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous and Paleogene sandstones and untested erosionally truncated Paleogene sandstones; Early Paleogene carbonate buildups and Miocene deep-water turbidite mounds. The understanding of the geology of the western Malvinas Basin is the key to success of exploration in the huge frontier surrounding areas.

  19. H-Area Seepage Basins

    SciTech Connect

    Stejskal, G.

    1990-12-01

    During the third quarter of 1990 the wells which make up the H-Area Seepage Basins (H-HWMF) monitoring network were sampled. Laboratory analyses were performed to measure levels of hazardous constituents, indicator parameters, tritium, nonvolatile beta, and gross alpha. A Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) scan was performed on all wells sampled to determine any hazardous organic constituents present in the groundwater. The primary contaminants observed at wells monitoring the H-Area Seepage Basins are tritium, nitrate, mercury, gross alpha, nonvolatile beta, trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene, lead, cadmium, arsenic, and total radium.

  20. Origin of the earth's ocean basins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, H.

    1977-01-01

    The earth's original ocean basins are proposed to be mare-type basins produced 4 billion y.a. by the flux of asteroid-sized objects responsible for the lunar mare basins. Scaling upward from the observed number of lunar basins for the greater capture cross-section and impact velocity of the earth indicates that at least 50% of an original global crust would have been converted to basin topography. These basins were flooded by basaltic liquids in times short compared to the isostatic adjustment time for the basin. The modern crustal dichotomy (60% oceanic, 40% continental crust) was established early in the history of the earth, making possible the later onset of plate tectonic processes. These later processes have subsequently reworked, in several cycles, principally the oceanic parts of the earth's crust, changing the configuration of the continents in the process. Ocean basins (and oceans themselves) may be rare occurrences on planets in other star systems.

  1. Origin of the earth's ocean basins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frex, H.

    1977-01-01

    The earth's original ocean basins were mare-type basins produced 4 billion years ago by the flux of asteroid-sized objects responsible for the lunar mare basins. Scaling upwards from the observed number of lunar basins for the greater capture cross-section and impact velocity of the Earth indicates that at least 50 percent of an original global crust would have been converted to basin topography. These basins were flooded by basaltic liquids in times short compared to the isostatic adjustment time for the basin. The modern crustal dichotomy (60 percent oceanic, 40 percent continental crust) was established early in the history of the earth, making possible the later onset of plate tectonic processes. These later processes have subsequently reworked, in several cycles, principally the oceanic parts of the earth's crust, changing the configuration of the continents in the process. Ocean basins (and oceans themselves) may be rare occurrences on planets in other star systems.

  2. Searching for Nectaris Basin Impact Melt Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, B. A.

    2015-07-01

    Because Nectaris Basin is a key stratigraphic marker for lunar bombardment, we are conducting an effort to identify Nectaris basin impact-melt rocks, to model their emplacement, and to examine sites where Nectaris impact melt is abundant.

  3. Caribbean basin framework, 4: Maracaibo basin, northwestern Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Lugo, J. )

    1991-03-01

    The Maracaibo basin is presently located in a topographic depression on the Maracaibo block, a triangular, fault-bounded block within the Caribbean-South America plate boundary of northwestern Venezuela. Intense oil exploration over the last 50 years has produced a large amount of seismic and well data that can be used to constrain four Jurassic to Recent tectonic and depositional events that affected the region: (1). Late Jurassic rift phase and subsidence along normal faults striking north-northeast across the floor of the basin; (2) Cretaceous to early Eocene subsidence recorded by shallow to deep marine carbonate and clastic rocks that thicken from south to north and completely cover Permian rocks of the Merida arch; (3) Eocene folding, thrusting, and initial reactivation of Jurassic normal faults as convergent strike-slip and reverse faults. Eocene clastic sediments are thickest in a narrow northwest-trending foredeep on the northeastern margin of the basin; (4) Late Miocene to Recent northwest-southeast convergence is marked by continued reactivation of Jurassic normal faults as reverse and left-lateral strike-slip faults, uplift of mountain ranges bordering the basin, and deposition of up to 10 km of clastic sediment.

  4. 33 CFR 401.48 - Turning basins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Turning basins. 401.48 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.48 Turning basins. No vessel... the locations set out in the table to this section. Table 1. South Shore Canal: (a) Turning Basin...

  5. 33 CFR 401.48 - Turning basins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Turning basins. 401.48 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.48 Turning basins. No vessel... the locations set out in the table to this section. Table 1. South Shore Canal: (a) Turning Basin...

  6. Supplementary information on K-Basin sludges

    SciTech Connect

    MAKENAS, B.J.

    1999-03-15

    Three previous documents in this series have been published covering the analysis of: K East Basin Floor and Pit Sludge, K East Basin Canister Sludge, and K West Basin Canister Sludge. Since their publication, additional data have been acquired and analyses performed. It is the purpose of this volume to summarize the additional insights gained in the interim time period.

  7. Evolution of the Congo Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasmacher, U. A.; Bauer, F. U.; Kollenz, S.; Delvaux, D.

    2012-04-01

    The Congo Basin is one of the largest basins in the World with very little knowledge on the geological evolution as well as the oil and gas potential. In the past, oil seeps are recorded in the central part of the basin. Four sides in the Congo basin have been drilled so far. The cores of the two drill sides Dekese and Samba are located at the Musée royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Belgium. In a reconnaissance survey, we sampled both drill cores in a nearly even spacing of ~ 150 m covering the whole stratigraphy from Albian to Proterozoic. The red and green to grey sandstone samples were prepared by usual heavy minerals separation technique. Most of the samples revealed enough apatite and zircon grains for the two thermochronometric techniques fission track and (U-Th-Sm)/He. The time-temperature (t-T) evolution for the two drill locations were modelled by using the determined thermochronological data within the software code HeFTy. We tested various geological evolutionary constrains. Both techniques provide us information on the thermal and exhumation of the possible source area and on the drill location by themselves.

  8. Tectonic evolution and oil and gas of Tarim basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuzhu, Kang; Zhihong, Kang

    According to the new results achieved in the past ten years and more, using mobilism and the theory of polycycle by Huang Jiqing (1977, 1984), the formation of the basement of the Tarim basin and its characteristics are summarized. The prototype basins formed since Sinian times are classified into rift basin, continental marginal basin, cratonic basin, foreland basin and others. The Tarim basin is regarded as a huge oil- and gas-bearing basin superposed by prototype basins of different ages. The tectonic characteristics of these basins including tectonic movements, tectonic migrations, faults and trap types are summarized. In addition, structural control over oil and gas and oil-forming features are analysed.

  9. Mississippian facies relationships, eastern Anadarko basin, Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Peace, H.W. ); Forgotson, J.M. )

    1991-08-01

    Mississippian strata in the eastern Anadarko basin record a gradual deepening of the basin. Late and post-Mississippian tectonism (Wichita and Arbuckle orogenies) fragmented the single large basin into the series of paired basins and uplifts recognized in the southern half of Oklahoma today. Lower Mississippian isopach and facies trends (Sycamore and Caney Formations) indicate that basinal strike in the study area (southeastern Anadarko basin) was predominantly east-west. Depositional environment interpretations made for Lower Mississippian strata suggest that the basin was partially sediment starved and exhibited a low shelf-to-basin gradient. Upper Mississippian isopach and facies trends suggest that basinal strike within the study area shifted from dominantly east-west to dominantly northwest-southeast due to Late Mississippian and Early Pennsylvanian uplift along the Nemaha ridge. Within the study area, the Chester Formation, composed of gray to dove-gray shales with interbedded limestones deposited on a carbonate shelf, thins depositionally into the basin and is thinnest at its facies boundary with the Springer Group and the upper portion of the Caney Formation. As basin subsidence rates accelerated, the southern edge of the Chester carbonate shelf was progressively drowned, causing a backstepping of the Chester Formation calcareous shale and carbonate facies. Springer Group sands and black shales transgressed northward over the drowned Chester Formation shelf.

  10. Geodynamics of the Sivas Basin (Turkey): from a forearc basin to a retroarc foreland basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legeay, Etienne; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude; Kergaravat, Charlie; Callot, Jean-Paul; Mohn, Geoffroy; Kavak, Kaan

    2016-04-01

    Anatolia records the consumption of several oceanic basins, from the Northern Neotethys domain, by north-dipping subduction until the end of Mesozoic. The associated obduction event occurred during Campanian, from North to South and from Greece to Oman, leading to the emplacement of ophiolite thrust sheets and associated ophiolitic mélange. In particular, the Sivas Basin in Eastern Anatolia is located at the boundary between the Kırsehir block to the East, Pontide arc to the North and Tauride Platform to the South, sutured by ophiolitic belts. The Sivas Basin formed a Tertiary fold-and-thrust belt, which exhibits mainly north verging thrust in Paleogene deposits, and South verging thrust in oligo-miocene sequence. To understand the northern verging thrust above south verging obduction, it is necessary to zoom out of the basin, and include a set of processes that affect the eastern Anatolia. This study aims to characterize the structural and sedimentary evolution of the Sivas Basin, based on a fieldwork approach, coupled to the interpretation of subsurface data, thermochronology and biostratigraphy. The Sivas Basin was initiated in a forearc setting relatively to the subduction of the Inner-Tauride Ocean while the associated ophiolites are obducted onto the northern passive margin of the Tauride margin. Early Maastrichtian to Paleocene deposits are represented by carbonate platforms located on ophiolitic highs, passing to turbidites and olistostomes toward the North. The early Eocene sediments, mainly composed of ophiolitic clasts, are deposited on a regional unconformity marked along the southern margin of the basin by incisions in response to the emergence of north-verging thrust. The middle Eocene sediments, intensively folded by northward thrusting, are mostly represented by flysch type deposits (olistostromes, mass-flows and turbidites). The onset of the compression is related to the initiation of the Taurus shortening in a retroarc situation, in response to

  11. Hydrocarbon accumulations in the Tarim basin, China

    SciTech Connect

    Li Desheng; Liang Digang; Jia Chengzao; Wang Gang

    1996-10-01

    The Tarim basin is the largest and least explored inland basin in China. The areal extent of the basin reaches 560,000 km{sup 2}. The interior of the basin is mostly covered by the Takla Mekan Desert, which is about 330,000 km{sup 2} in areal extent. The basin has become the object of special attention since China set aside first- and third-round onshore bidding blocks in the Tarim basin for foreign oil firms to explore. The Tarim basin is a polyhistory superimposed basin that has experienced seven evolutionary stages: (1) Sinian-Cambrian-Ordovician aulacogen stage, (2) Silurian-Devonian intracratonic depression stage, (3) Carboniferous marginal sea stage, (4) Permian rift basin stage, (5) Triassic-Jurassic foreland basin stage, (6) Cretaceous-Paleogene NeoTethys bay stage, and (7) Neogene-Pleistocene foreland and inland basin stage. Both the basin`s Paleozoic marine platform sequences and the Mesozoic-Cenozoic terrestrial fills are believed to contain substantial volumes of hydrocarbons. After recent years of exploration, nine oil and gas fields have been proven and 23 discoveries have been made in the Tabei, Tazhong, and Southwest areas. Kekeya, Lunnan, Sangtamu, Jiefangqudong, Donghetang, and Tazhong 4 oil fields have been put into production. Output of crude oil was 2.6 million t (metric tons) (52,000 BOPD) in 1995. The production will increase to 5 million t (100,000 BOPD) in 1997. Giant oil and gas traps probably will be discovered in the Tarim basin. The prospect is promising.

  12. Keuper stratigraphic cycles in the Paris basin and comparison with cycles in other peritethyan basins (German basin and Bresse-Jura basin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourquin, Sylvie; Guillocheau, François

    1996-09-01

    High-resolution sequence stratigraphy of the Keuper, Paris Basin, is used to establish correlations between the basin-centre evaporite series and the basin-margin clastics series. The high-resolution correlations show stratigraphic cycle geometries. The Keuper consists of five minor base-level cycles whth occur in the upper portion of the Scythian-Carnian major base-level cycle and the lower part of the Carnian-Liassic major base-level cycle. The maximum relative rate of subsidence for the base-level fall phase of the Scythian-Carnian major cycle occurs in the eastern part of the Paris Basin. During the base-level rise phase of the Carnian-Liassic major cycle, the area of highest rate of subsidence shifted westwards and northwards. This shift records the first occurrence of an independent Paris Basin which was no longer merely the western margin of the German Basin. Two phases of tectonic movement influenced evaporite sedimentation and sequence geometries by creating areas of subsidence where halite could accumulate. The second, within the 'Marnes irisées supérieures', induced a general westward and northward tilt of the basin. Concurrent migration of depocentres to the west and north produced an intra-'Marnes irisées supérieures' truncation. Comparison of the stratigraphic records of the Paris Basin and of other Triassic Peritethyan basins (German Basin, Bresse-Jura Basin and South-East Basin) reveals numerous similarities. The coastal onlap curve of the German Keuper (Aigner and Bachmann, 1992) exhibits many similarities with the sequence evolution of the Paris Basin. But the Triassic succession is more complete in the German Basin and more cycles are observed. The major difference between these two basins during the Keuper is that the 'Marnes irisées inférieures' minor base-level cycle does not occur in the German Basin. In the Bresse-Jura Basin, the major difference concerns the Lettenkohle. One minor base-level cycle is recorded in the Paris Basin while

  13. THE ADVANCED CHEMISTRY BASINS PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    William Goddard; Peter Meulbroek; Yongchun Tang; Lawrence Cathles III

    2004-04-05

    In the next decades, oil exploration by majors and independents will increasingly be in remote, inaccessible areas, or in areas where there has been extensive shallow exploration but deeper exploration potential may remain; areas where the collection of data is expensive, difficult, or even impossible, and where the most efficient use of existing data can drive the economics of the target. The ability to read hydrocarbon chemistry in terms of subsurface migration processes by relating it to the evolution of the basin and fluid migration is perhaps the single technological capability that could most improve our ability to explore effectively because it would allow us to use a vast store of existing or easily collected chemical data to determine the major migration pathways in a basin and to determine if there is deep exploration potential. To this end a the DOE funded a joint effort between California Institute of Technology, Cornell University, and GeoGroup Inc. to assemble a representative set of maturity and maturation kinetic models and develop an advanced basin model able to predict the chemistry of hydrocarbons in a basin from this input data. The four year project is now completed and has produced set of public domain maturity indicator and maturation kinetic data set, an oil chemistry and flash calculation tool operable under Excel, and a user friendly, graphically intuitive basin model that uses this data and flash tool, operates on a PC, and simulates hydrocarbon generation and migration and the chemical changes that can occur during migration (such as phase separation and gas washing). The DOE Advanced Chemistry Basin Model includes a number of new methods that represent advances over current technology. The model is built around the concept of handling arbitrarily detailed chemical composition of fluids in a robust finite-element 2-D grid. There are three themes on which the model focuses: chemical kinetic and equilibrium reaction parameters, chemical

  14. Formation of lunar basin rings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hodges, C.A.; Wilhelms, D.E.

    1978-01-01

    The origin of the multiple concentric rings that characterize lunar impact basins, and the probable depth and diameter of the transient crater have been widely debated. As an alternative to prevailing "megaterrace" hypotheses, we propose that the outer scarps or mountain rings that delineate the topographic rims of basins-the Cordilleran at Orientale, the Apennine at Imbrium, and the Altai at Nectaris-define the transient cavities, enlarged relatively little by slumping, and thus are analogous to the rim crests of craters like Copernicus; inner rings are uplifted rims of craters nested within the transient cavity. The magnitude of slumping that occurs on all scarps is insufficient to produce major inner rings from the outer. These conclusions are based largely on the observed gradational sequence in lunar central uplifts:. from simple peaks through somewhat annular clusters of peaks, peak and ring combinations and double ring basins, culminating in multiring structures that may also include peaks. In contrast, belts of slump terraces are not gradational with inner rings. Terrestrial analogs suggest two possible mechanisms for producing rings. In some cases, peaks may expand into rings as material is ejected from their cores, as apparently occurred at Gosses Bluff, Australia. A second process, differential excavation of lithologically diverse layers, has produced nested experimental craters and is, we suspect, instrumental in the formation of terrestrial ringed impact craters. Peak expansion could produce double-ring structures in homogeneous materials, but differential excavation is probably required to produce multiring and peak-in-ring configurations in large lunar impact structures. Our interpretation of the representative lunar multiring basin Orientale is consistent with formation of three rings in three layers detected seismically in part of the Moon-the Cordillera (basin-bounding) ring in the upper crust, the composite Montes Rook ring in the underlying

  15. The Central European Permian Basins; Rheological and structural controls on basin history and on inter-basin connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smit, Jeroen; Van Wees, Jan-Diederik; Cloetingh, Sierd

    2014-05-01

    We analyse the relative importance of the major crustal-scale fault zones and crustal architecture in controlling basin formation, deformation and the structural connections between basins. The North and South Permian Basins of Central Europe are usually defined by the extend of Rotliegend sedimentary and volcanic units and not by a common tectonic origin or development. Instead, the sub-basins that together form the Permian Basins are each controlled by different structural and/or rheological controls that are inherited from Early Paleozoïc and older geodynamic processes, they are even located in different crustal/lithospheric domains. The North Permian basin is located on Baltic crust that was thinned during Late Proterozoïc - Early Paleozoïc times. South of the Thor suture, the South Permian basin and its sub-basins are located on Avalonian crust (Southern North Sea and North German Basins) and on the transition of East European cratonic and Avalonian crust (Polish Through). The size of crustal domains and of the faults that govern basin formation requires a regional-scale to assess their impact on basins and sub-basins. In the case of the Permian Basins this encompasses East Avalonia and surroundings, roughly speaking the area north of the Variscan Rheïc suture, east of the Atlantic and southwest of the Teisseyre-Tornquist line. This approach sheds light on the effects of long lived differences in crustal fabric which are responsible for spatial heterogeneity in stress and strain magnitudes and zonations of fracturing, burial history and temperature history. The focus on understanding the geomechanical control of large crustal-scale fault structures will provide the constraints and geometrical and compositional input for local models of stress and strain. Considering their fundamentally different structural and rheological controls, the Permian (sub)basins have a remarkably common history of subsidence and inversion, suggesting a more or less continuous

  16. CLEAR LAKE BASIN 2000 PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    LAKE COUNTY SANITATION DISTRICT

    2003-03-31

    The following is a final report for the Clear Lake Basin 2000 project. All of the major project construction work was complete and this phase generally included final details and testing. Most of the work was electrical. Erosion control activities were underway to prepare for the rainy season. System testing including pump stations, electrical and computer control systems was conducted. Most of the project focus from November onward was completing punch list items.

  17. The sedimentary basins of Tanzania - reviewed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbede, E. I.

    The sedimentary basins of Tanzania have been classified into four morphotectonic groups: the coastal basin, the Karoo rift basins, basins found within the present East African rift valley and the cratonic sag basins. Except for the cratonic sag basins, each of these basin group has been affected by rifting at one time or another. The geology of each basin is discussed, structural evolution is evaluated and the prospectivity is thence looked into. Coal is exploited at Songwe-Kiwira coalfield and is found in potentially economic quantities in other Karoo basins. Prospecting for hydrocarbon resources has been going on since the 50s. Gas has been discovered in Songosongo and Mnazi bay fields, uneconomical quantities of oil have also been reported in Songosongo. Being basically rift basins which have reached different stages of development, source rocks normally associated with Initial-rifting, synrifting as well as post-rifting processes are probably well developed. Reservoir rocks, traps and cap rocks are normally not rare in such tectonic environments. Thermal gradients associated with the rifting stage are normaly high to effect maturation of source rocks even at low sedimentary thicknesses. Studies done so far are still inconclusive, because while testing has mainly been focused on structural traps stratigraphic traps seems to be more promising.

  18. Basin stability in delayed dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Siyang; Lin, Wei; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Basin stability (BS) is a universal concept for complex systems studies, which focuses on the volume of the basin of attraction instead of the traditional linearization-based approach. It has a lot of applications in real-world systems especially in dynamical systems with a phenomenon of multi-stability, which is even more ubiquitous in delayed dynamics such as the firing neurons, the climatological processes, and the power grids. Due to the infinite dimensional property of the space for the initial values, how to properly define the basin’s volume for delayed dynamics remains a fundamental problem. We propose here a technique which projects the infinite dimensional initial state space to a finite-dimensional Euclidean space by expanding the initial function along with different orthogonal or nonorthogonal basis. A generalized concept of basin’s volume in delayed dynamics and a highly practicable calculating algorithm with a cross-validation procedure are provided to numerically estimate the basin of attraction in delayed dynamics. We show potential applicabilities of this approach by applying it to study several representative systems of biological or/and physical significance, including the delayed Hopfield neuronal model with multistability and delayed complex networks with synchronization dynamics. PMID:26907568

  19. Basin stability in delayed dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Siyang; Lin, Wei; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-02-01

    Basin stability (BS) is a universal concept for complex systems studies, which focuses on the volume of the basin of attraction instead of the traditional linearization-based approach. It has a lot of applications in real-world systems especially in dynamical systems with a phenomenon of multi-stability, which is even more ubiquitous in delayed dynamics such as the firing neurons, the climatological processes, and the power grids. Due to the infinite dimensional property of the space for the initial values, how to properly define the basin’s volume for delayed dynamics remains a fundamental problem. We propose here a technique which projects the infinite dimensional initial state space to a finite-dimensional Euclidean space by expanding the initial function along with different orthogonal or nonorthogonal basis. A generalized concept of basin’s volume in delayed dynamics and a highly practicable calculating algorithm with a cross-validation procedure are provided to numerically estimate the basin of attraction in delayed dynamics. We show potential applicabilities of this approach by applying it to study several representative systems of biological or/and physical significance, including the delayed Hopfield neuronal model with multistability and delayed complex networks with synchronization dynamics.

  20. Biogeochemistry of a Suburban Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowell, W. H.; Daley, M. L.; Blumberg, J.

    2002-12-01

    A long-term research effort was recently established in the Lamprey River basin in southeastern New Hampshire. The watershed is largely forested, and has significant amounts of wetlands due to the relatively low topographic relief. Human population growth is rapid, resulting in conversion of forest and agricultural land to housing tracts. The primary focus of the project will be to examine the relationships between land use, land cover and water quality as the watershed continues to increase in population density. A secondary emphasis will be to examine the interactions between hydrologic flow paths, climatic variability, and biogeochemical processes that drive groundwater and surface water quality in the basin. Our initial work has quantified landscape attributes and related them to water quality. Results to date show that small tributary streams are relatively high in nitrogen relative to the main stem of the Lamprey; that human population density drives nitrate concentrations in the basin; and that DOC flux is predicted well by the model of Aitkenhead and McDowell that links DOC flux to watershed C:N ratio.

  1. K West Basin canister survey

    SciTech Connect

    Pitner, A.L.

    1998-08-26

    A survey was conducted of the K West Basin to determine the distribution of canister types that contain the irradiated N Reactor fuel. An underwater camera was used to conduct the survey during June 1998, and the results were recorded on videotape. A full row-by-row survey of the entire basin was performed, with the distinction between aluminum and stainless steel Mark 1 canisters made by the presence or absence of steel rings on the canister trunions (aluminum canisters have the steel rings). The results of the survey are presented in tables and figures. Grid maps of the three bays show the canister lid ID number and the canister type in each location that contained fuel. The following abbreviations are used in the grid maps for canister type designation: IA = Mark 1 aluminum, IS = Mark 1 stainless steel, and 2 = Mark 2 stainless steel. An overall summary of the canister distribution survey is presented in Table 1. The total number of canisters found to contain fuel was 3842, with 20% being Mark 1 Al, 25% being Mark 1 SS, and 55% being Mark 2 SS. The aluminum canisters were predominantly located in the East and West bays of the basin.

  2. Uranium geochemistry of Orca Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, F. F., Jr.; Sackett, W. M.

    1981-08-01

    Orca Basin, an anoxic, brine-filled depression at a depth of 2200 m in the Northwestern Gulf of Mexico continental slope, has been studied with respect to its uranium geochemistry. Uranium concentration profiles for four cores from within the basin were determined by delayed-neutron counting. Uranium concentrations ranged from 2.1 to 4.1 ppm on a salt-free and carbonate-corrected basis. The highest uranium concentrations were associated with the lowest percentage and δ 13C organic carbon values. For comparison, cores frm the brine-filled Suakin and Atlantis II Deeps, both in the Red Sea, were also analyzed. Uranium concentrations ranged from 1.2 to 2.6 ppm in the Suakin Deep and from 8.0 to 11.0 ppm in the Atlantis II Deep. No significant correlation was found between uranium concentrations and organic carbon concentrations and δ 13C values for these cores. Although anoxic conditions are necessary for significant uranium uptake by non-carbonate marine sediments, other factors such as dilution by rapidly depositing materials and uranium supply via mixing and diffusion across density gradients may be as important in determining uranium concentrations in hypersaline basin sediments.

  3. Biological science in the Great Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2005-01-01

    The Great Basin is an expanse of desert and high moun-tains situated between the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada of the western United States. The most explicit description of the Great Basin is that area in the West where surface waters drain inland. In other words, the Great Basin is comprised of many separate drainage areas - each with no outlet. What at first glance may appear as only a barren landscape, the Great Basin upon closer inspection reveals island mountains, sagebrush seas, and intermittent aquatic habitats, all teeming with an incredible number and variety of plants and animals. Biologists at the USGS are studying many different species and ecosystems in the Great Basin in order to provide information about this landscape for policy and land-management decision-making. The following stories represent a few of the many projects the USGS is conducting in the Great Basin.

  4. The geologic history of Margaritifer basin, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvatore, M. R.; Kraft, M. D.; Edwards, C. S.; Christensen, P. R.

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we investigate the fluvial, sedimentary, and volcanic history of Margaritifer basin and the Uzboi-Ladon-Morava outflow channel system. This network of valleys and basins spans more than 8000 km in length, linking the fluvially dissected southern highlands and Argyre basin with the northern lowlands via Ares Vallis. Compositionally, thermophysically, and morphologically distinct geologic units are identified and are used to place critical relative stratigraphic constraints on the timing of geologic processes in Margaritifer basin. Our analyses show that fluvial activity was separated in time by significant episodes of geologic activity, including the widespread volcanic resurfacing of Margaritifer basin and the formation of chaos terrain. The most recent fluvial activity within Margaritifer basin appears to terminate at a region of chaos terrain, suggesting possible communication between surface and subsurface water reservoirs. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of these observations on our current knowledge of Martian hydrologic evolution in this important region.

  5. UPPER SNAKE RIVER PRIORITY BASIN ACCOMPLISHMENT PLAN, APRIL 1973

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Upper Snake Accomplishment Basin (17040104, 170402, 170501) is defined as the Idaho and Oregon portions of 2 STORET Basins, the Upper Snake Basin and the Central Snake Basin. The Basin drains approximately 62,100 square miles in Southern Idaho and Southeastern Oregon. Four ...

  6. Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

  7. Reserve estimates in western basins. Part 2: Piceance Basin

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, sandstone reservoirs of the Mesaverde group in the Piceance Basin, Colorado. Total in place resource is estimated at 307.3 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 5.8 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. About 82.6% of the total evaluated resource is contained within sandstones that have extremely poor reservoir properties with permeabilities considered too low for commerciality using current frac technology. Cost reductions and technology improvements will be required to unlock portions of this enormous resource. Approximately 2.7% of the total resource is contained within sandstone reservoirs which do not respond to massive hydraulic fracture treatments, probably due to their natural lenticular nature. Approximately 6.8% of the total resource is located in deeply buried settings below deepest established production. Approximately 7.9% of the total resource is considered to represent tight reservoirs that may be commercially exploited using today`s hydraulic fracturing technology. Recent technology advances in hydraulic fracturing practices in the Piceance Basin Mesaverde has resulted in a marked improvement in per well gas recovery which, where demonstrated, has been incorporated into the estimates provided in this report. This improvement is so significant in changing the risk-reward relationship that has historically characterized this play, that previously uneconomic areas and resources will graduate to the economically exploitable category. 48 refs., 96 figs., 18 tabs.

  8. Petroleum system of the Gippsland Basin, Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bishop, Michele G.

    2000-01-01

    The Gippsland Basin Province 3930, located on the southeastern coast of Australia, is formed from two successive failed rifts that developed into a passive margin during the Cretaceous. Formation of this basin is related to the break up of Gondwana, which resulted in the separation of Antarctica from Australia, and the separation of the New Zealand and Lord Howe Rise continental crust from Australia. Coals and coaly shales of Late Cretaceous through Eocene age are the source rocks for oil and gas that accumulated predominantly in anticlinal traps. The basin was Australia?s major producing basin until 1996 when daily oil/condensate production from the North West Shelf surpassed it.

  9. Petroleum geology of Norton basin, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, M.A.

    1982-03-01

    Basement rocks beneath the main part of the Norton basin were deformed and heated during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous to the extent that these rocks were not capable of generating hydrocarbons when the basin formed during the latest Cretaceous or early Paleogene. Consequently, source rocks for oil, if they exist, are most likely to be within the basin fill. If the Norton basin began to form 65 m.y. ago, subsided at a nearly constant rate, and had an average geothermal gradient of between 35 and 45/sup 0/C/km, then rocks as young as late Oligocene are in the oil window (vitrinite reflectance between 0.65 and 1.30%). The appearance on seismic sections of reflections from rocks in and below the calculated oil window suggests that these rocks were deposited in a nonmarine environment. Thus, gas and condensate are the most likely hydrocarbons to be present in the basin. Because of their shallow depth of burial, Neogene (possibly marine) rocks are not likely to be thermally mature anywhere in the basin. Deep parts of the basin formed as isolated faultbounded lows; consequently, the volume of mature rocks makes up at most 11% of the total basin fill. Numerous potential traps for hydrocarbons exist in the Norton basin; the traps include fractured or weathered basement rocks in horsts, strata in alluvial fans on the flanks of horsts, and arched strata over horsts.

  10. Late Paleozoic structural evolution of Permian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, T.E.

    1984-04-01

    The southern Permian basin is underlain by the NNW-trending Central Basin disturbed belt of Wolfcamp age (Lower Permian), the deep Delaware basin to its west, and the shallower Midland basin to its eat. The disturbed belt is highly segmented with zones of left-lateral offset. Major segments from south to north are: the Puckett-Grey Ranch zone; the Fort Stockton uplift; the Monahans transverse zone; the Andector ridges and the Eunice ridge; the Hobbs transverse zone; and the Tatum ridges, which abut the broad Roosevelt uplift to the north. The disturbed belt may have originated along rift zones of either Precambrian or Cambrian age. The extent of Lower and Middle Pennsylvanian deformation is unclear; much of the Val Verde basin-Ozona arch structure may have formed then. The main Wolfcamp deformation over thrust the West Texas crustal block against the Delaware block, with local denudation of the uplifted edge and eastward-directed backthrusting into the Midland basin. Latter in the Permian, the area was the center of a subcontinental bowl of subsidence - the Permian basin proper. The disturbed belt formed a pedestal for the carbonate accumulations which created the Central Basin platform. The major pre-Permian reservoirs of the Permian basin lie in large structural and unconformity-bounded traps on uplift ridges and domes. Further work on the regional structural style may help to predict fracture trends, to assess the timing of oil migration, and to evaluate intrareservoir variations in the overlying Permian giant oil fields.

  11. Basin Management under the Global Climate Change (Take North-East Asia Heilongjiang -Amur Basin and Taihu Basin For Example)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S.; Zhou, Z.; Zhong, G.; Zhang, X.

    2015-12-01

    The impact of global climate change on environment and society causes increasingly concern in different countries around the world. The main climate characteristic values, such as precipitation and temperature, have been changed, which leads to the variation of water resources, especially in large basins. Heilongjiang-Amur Basin and Taihu Basin are two large and important basins in China with large area and population. As global climate change and human activities have siganificant impacts on hydrology and water resources in two basins, the analysis of climate change are of great value. In this study, in Heilongjiang-Amur Basin, precipitation and temperature are investigated and their variation are predicted. And in Taihu Basin, precipitation including plum rain and typhoon, are studied and the variation trend of precipitation is predicted. Hence, the impacts of global climate change are assessed. From the result, it shows that the average temperature will continue to increase, and the precipitation will reduce first and then turn to increase in these two basins. It demonstrates that the water resources have been affected a lot by climate change as well as human activities. And these conclusions are provided as reference for policy makers and basin authorities in water resources management and natural hazards mitigation. Meanwhile, according to basins' particualr characters, the suggestions to future water resources management in two basins are given, and more scientific, comprehensive and sustained managements are required. Especially, in Heilongjiang-Amur River, which is a boundary river between China and Russia, it is very essential to enhance the cooperation between two countries.

  12. Regional geophysics and the basement of cratonic basins: a comparative study with the Michigan basin

    SciTech Connect

    Hinze, W.J.; Lidiak, E.G.

    1986-08-01

    The basement of the Michigan basin consists of four major provinces - the complex metasedimentary, metavolcanic, and igneous rocks of the Penokean orogenic assemblage in the north, the felsic anorogenic igneous rocks to the south, the highly metamorphosed schists, gneisses, and related igneous intrusions of the Grenville province in the east, and a middle Proterozoic rift zone, which transects the basin from the north to the southeast margin. Sparse basement drill holes and characteristic geophysical patterns support this interpretation. The direct geologic information on the basement of other cratonic basins is not as well known. However, regional geophysical surveys and sparse, poorly distributed basement drill holes provide information on the complex character and structural relationships of the basement of other basins. Like the Michigan basin, many cratonic basins (e.g., Illinois, Williston, and Paris basins) are underlain by dense and commonly more magnetic rocks than adjacent areas. As in the Michigan basin, these rocks are interpreted to have a profound effect on the origin and tectonic development of the basins. Geologic and geophysical evidence indicates that many of these dense basement rocks originated in rifts that formed hundreds of millions of years prior to basin development. A comparison of the basement in cratonic basins provides important constraints on the origin and tectonic development of the Michigan basin.

  13. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2001-09-28

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. EPA requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard and must consider inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  14. 75 FR 43915 - Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... Rural Utilities Service Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station AGENCY: Rural Utilities... CFR Part 1794), and the Western Area Power Administration's (Western) NEPA implementing regulations... environmental impacts of and alternatives to Basin Electric Power Cooperative's (Basin Electric) application...

  15. Seismic Characterization of the Jakarta Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cipta, A.; Saygin, E.; Cummins, P. R.; Masturyono, M.; Rudyanto, A.; Irsyam, M.

    2015-12-01

    Jakarta, Indonesia, is home to more than 10 million people. Many of these people live in seismically non-resilient structures in an area that historical records suggest is prone to earthquake shaking. The city lies in a sedimentary basin composed of Quaternary alluvium that experiences rapid subsidence (26 cm/year) due to groundwater extraction. Forecasts of how much subsidence may occur in the future are dependent on the thickness of the basin. However, basin geometry and sediment thickness are poorly known. In term of seismic hazard, thick loose sediment can lead to high amplification of seismic waves, of the kind that led to widespread damage in Mexico city during the Michoacan Earthquake of 1985. In order to characterize basin structure, a temporary seismograph deployment was undertaken in Jakarta in Oct 2013- Jan 2014. A total of 96 seismic instrument were deployed throughout Jakarta were deployed throughout Jakarta at 3-5 km spacing. Ambient noise tomography was applied to obtain models of the subsurface velocity structure. Important key, low velocity anomalies at short period (<8s) correspond to the main sedimentary sub-basins thought to be present based on geological interpretations of shallow stratigraphy in the Jakarta Basin. The result shows that at a depth of 300 m, shear-wave velocity in the northern part (600 m/s) of the basin is lower than that in the southern part. The most prominent low velocity structure appears in the northwest of the basin, down to a depth of 800 m, with velocity as low as 1200 m/s. This very low velocity indicates the thickness of sediment and the variability of basin geometry. Waveform computation using SPECFEM2D shows that amplification due to basin geometry occurs at the basin edge and the thick sediment leads to amplification at the basin center. Computation also shows the longer shaking duration occurrs at the basin edge and center of the basin. The nest step will be validating the basin model using earthquake events

  16. Basin-scale relations via conditioning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Troutman, B.M.; Karlinger, M.R.; Guertin, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    A rainfall-runoff model is used in conjunction with a probabilistic description of the input to this model to obtain simple regression-like relations for basin runoff in terms of basin and storm characteristics. These relations, similar to those sought in regionalization studies, are computed by evaluating the conditional distribution of model output given basin and storm characteristics. This method of conditioning provides a general way of examining model sensitivity to various components of model input. The resulting relations may be expected to resemble corresponding relations obtained by regionalization using actual runoff to the extent that the rainfall-runoff model and the model input specification are physically realistic. The probabilistic description of model input is an extension of so-called "random-model" of channel networks and involves postulating an ensemble of basins and associated probability distributions that mimic the variability of basin characteristics seen in nature. Application is made to small basins in the State of Wyoming. Parameters of the input variable distribution are estimated using data from Wyoming, and basin-scale relations are estimated both, parametrically and nonparametrically using model-generated runoff from simulated basins. Resulting basin-scale relations involving annual flood quantiles are in reasonable agreement with those presented in a previous regionalization study, but error estimates are smaller than those in the previous study, an artifact of the simplicity of the rainfall-runoff model used in this paper. We also obtain relations for peak of the instantaneous unit hydrograph which agree fairly well with theoretical relations given in the literature. Finally, we explore the issues of sensitivity of basin-scale, relations and error estimates to parameterization of the model input probability distribution and of how this sensitivity is related to making inferences about a particular ungaged basin. ?? 1989 Springer-Verlag.

  17. Cenozoic evolution of San Joaquin basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Bartow, J.A.

    1988-03-01

    The Neogene San Joaquin basin in the southern part of the 700-km long Great Valley of California is a successor to a late Mesozoic and earliest Tertiary forearc basin. The transition from forearc basin to the more restricted Neogene marine basin occurred principally during the Paleogene as the plate tectonic setting changed from oblique convergence to normal convergence, and finally to the initiation of tangential (transform) movement near the end of the Oligocene. Regional-scale tectonic events that affected the basin include: (1) clockwise rotation of the southernmost Sierra Nevada, and large-scale en echelon folding in the southern Diablo Range, both perhaps related to Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary right slip on the proto-San-Andreas fault; (2) regional uplift of southern California in the Oligocene that resulted from the subduction of the Pacific-Farallon spreading ridge: (3) extensional tectonism in the Basin and Range province, particularly in the Miocene; (4) wrench tectonism adjacent to the San Andreas fault in the Neogene; (5) northeastward emplacement of a wedge of the Franciscan complex at the west side of the Sierran block, with associated deep-seated thrusting in the late Cenozoic; and (6) the accelerated uplift of the Sierra Nevada beginning in the late Miocene. Neogene basin history was controlled principally by the tectonic effects of the northwestward migration of the Mendocino triple junction along the California continental margin and by the subsequent wrench tectonism associated with the San Andreas fault system. East-west compression in the basin, resulting from extension in the Basin and Range province was an important contributing factor to crustal shortening at the west side of the valley. Analysis of the sedimentary history of the basin, which was controlled to some extent by eustatic sea level change, enables reconstruction of the basin paleogeography through the Cenozoic.

  18. L-Edge Xanes Measurements of the Oxidation State of Tungsten in Iron Bearing and Iron Free Silicate Glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danielson, L. R.; Righter, K.; Sutton, S.; Newville, M.

    2008-01-01

    Tungsten is important in constraining core formation of the Earth because this element is a moderately siderophile element (depleted 10 relative to chondrites) and, as a member of the Hf-W isotopic system, it is useful in constraining the timing of core formation. A number of previous experimental studies have been carried out to determine the silicate solubility and metal-silicate partitioning behavior of W, including its concomitant oxidation state. However, results of previous studies are inconsistent on whether W occurs as W(4+) or W(6+). It is assumed that W(4+) is the cation valence relevant to core formation. Given the sensitivity to silicate composition of high valence cations, knowledge of the oxidation state of W over a wide range of fO2 is critical to understanding the oxidation state of the mantle and core formation processes. This study seeks to measure the W valence and change in valence state over the range of fO2 most relevant to core formation, around IW-2.

  19. Experimental Constraints on the Stability of Clinopyroxene (+) Magnesite in Iron Bearing Planetary Mantles: Implications for Nakhlite Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Audrey M.; Righter, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Carbon is present in various forms in the Earth s upper mantle (carbonate- or diamond-bearing mantle xenoliths, carbonatite magmas, CO2 emissions from volcanoes...). Moreover, there is enough carbon in chondritic material to stabilize carbonates into the mantles of Mars or Venus as well as in the Earth. However, the interactions with iron have to be constrained, because Fe is commonly thought to buffer oxygen fugacity into planetary mantles. [1] and [2] show evidences of the stability of clinopyroxene Ca(Mg,Fe)Si2O6 + magnesite (Mg,Fe)CO3 in the Earth s mantle around 6GPa (about 180km). The stability of oxidized forms of carbon (like magnesite) depends on the oxygen fugacity of the system. In the Earth s mantle, the maximum carbon content is 10000 ppm [3]. The fO2 parameter varies vertically as a function of pressure, but also laterally because of geodynamic processes like subduction. Thus, carbonates, graphite, diamond, C-rich gases and melts are all stable forms of carbon in the Earth s mantle. [4] show that the fO2 variations observed in SNC meteorites can be explained by polybaric graphite-CO-CO2 equilibria in the Martian mantle. [5] inferred from thermodynamic calculations that the stable form of carbon in the source regions of the Martian basalts should be graphite (and/or diamond). After [6], a metasomatizing agent like a CO2-rich melt may infiltrate the mantle source of nakhlites. However, according to [7] and [8], the FeO wt% value in the Martian bulk mantle is more than twice that of the Earth s mantle (KLB-1 composition by [9]). As iron and carbon are two elements with various oxidation states, Fe/C interaction mechanisms must be considered.

  20. PB2+ AND ZN2+ ADSORPTION BY A NATURAL ALUMINUM- AND IRON BEARING SURFACE COATING ON AN AQUIFER SAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pb 2+ and Zn 2+ adsorption was studied in batch experiments with material collected from a shallow, unconfined aquifer of glacial outwash sand and gravel in Falmouth, Massachusetts, USA. he aquifer solids contain primarily quartz (951 w/w), with minor amounts of alkali feldspars ...

  1. Fossilization potential of iron-bearing minerals in acidic environments of Rio Tinto, Spain: Implications for Mars exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Remolar, David C.; Knoll, Andrew H.

    2008-03-01

    Acidic waters of the Rio Tinto, southwestern Spain, evaporate seasonally, precipitating a variety of iron sulfide and oxide minerals. Schwertmannite and nanophase goethite form thin laminae on biological and detrital grain surfaces, replicating, among other things, the morphologies of insect cuticle, plant tissues, fungi, algae, and bacteria. Intergrain cements also incorporate bacterial cells and filaments. Other sulfate minerals precipitated in Rio Tinto environments are transient and contribute little to short-term preservation. Because the Rio Tinto has been cutting its current valley for several million years, terrace deposits provide a window on longer term fossil preservation. Early and later diagenesis are recorded in terrace deposits formed about one thousand and two million years ago, respectively. The sedimentary structures and mineralogies of these deposits suggest that they formed under physical and chemical conditions comparable to those of modern Rio Tinto sediments. The terrace deposits show quantitative loss of sulfate minerals, increasing crystallinity of goethite and, in the older terrace, replacement of goethite by hematite. Fossils formed originally by schwertmannite and nanophase goethite replication persist through diagenesis, preserving a long term record of local biological diversity. Fossil preservation by iron oxides in the acidic environment of Rio Tinto suggests that if life was present when sedimentary rocks formed at Meridiani Planum, Mars, precipitated minerals could record their presence.

  2. Analysis of Moessbauer Data from Mars: A Database and Artificial Neural Network for Identification of Iron-bearing Phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, R. V.; deSouza, P. A.; Morris, R. V.; Klingelhoefer, G.

    2003-01-01

    The exploration of the planet Mars is one of the major goals within the Solar system exploration programs of the US-American space agency NASA and the European Space Agency ESA. In particular the search for water and life and understanding of the history of the surface and atmosphere will be the major tasks of the upcoming space missions to Mars. The miniaturized Moessbauer spectrometer MIMOS II has been selected for the NASA Mars-Exploration-Rover twin-mission to Mars in 2003 and the ESA 2003 Mars-Express Beagle 2 mission. Reduced in size and weight, in comparison to ordinary laboratory setup, the sensor head just weights approximately 400 g, with a volume of (50x50x90) cu mm, and holds two gamma-ray sources: the stronger for experiments and the weaker for calibrations. The collimator (in sample direction) also shields the primary radiation off the detectors. Around the drive four detectors are mounted. The detectors are made of Si-PIN-photodiodes in chip form (100 sq mm, thickness of 0.5 mm). The control unit is located in a separate electronics board. This board is responsible for the power supply, generation of the drive's velocity reference signal, read of the detector pulses to record the spectrum, data storage and communication with the host computer. After more than four decades from the discovery of the Moessbauer effect, more than 400 minerals were studied at different temperatures. Their Moessbauer parameters were reported in the literature, and have been recently collected in a data bank. Previous Mars-missions, namely Viking and Mars Pathfinder, revealed Si, Al, Fe, Mg, Ca, K, Ti, S and Cl to be the major constituents in soil and rock elemental composition of the red planet. More than 200 minerals already studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy contain significant amounts of these elements. A considerable number of Moessbauer studies were also carried out on meteorites and on Moon samples. Looking backward in the studies of the whole Moessbauer community, we have built a specific library containing Moessbauer parameters of those possible Mars minerals. The selected minerals, their Moessbauer parameter values (min. max. s.d and number of available data), main site substitution, behavior as a function of temperature and a ranking as expected to be found on Mars were organized. Mars-analogue Fe-bearing minerals not studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy are being collected and investigated. In addition, it an identification system based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) was implemented which enables fast and precise mineral identification from the experimental Moessbauer parameters at a given temperature.

  3. Pb2+ and Zn2+ adsorption by a natural aluminum- and iron-bearing surface coating on an aquifer sand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coston, J.A.; Fuller, C.C.; Davis, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Pb2+ and Zn2+ adsorption was studied in batch experiments with material collected from a shallow, unconfined aquifer of glacial outwash sand and gravel in Falmouth, Massachusetts, USA. The aquifer solids contain primarily quartz with minor amounts of alkali feldspars and ferromagnetic minerals. Pb2+ and Zn2+ adsorption experiments with various grain size and mineral fractions of the aquifer solids showed that: 1) Zn2+ adsorption was independent of grain size, but Pb2+ was preferentially adsorbed by the <64 ??m size fraction and 2) Pb2+ adsorption decreased after removal of the paramagnetic, Fe-bearing mineral fraction, but Zn2+ adsorption was unaffected. Pb2+ and Zn2+ adsorption on mineral separates from the aquifer material compared with metal adsorption on a purified quartz powder indicated that adsorption of both metal ions was dominated by coatings on the quartz fraction of the sediment. Characterization of the coatings by AES, SEM-EDS, and TOF-SIMS demonstrated that the natural quartz grains were extensively coated with Al- and Fe-bearing minerals of variable composition. -from Authors

  4. Electrical conductivity of iron-bearing silicate glasses and melts. Implications for the mechanisms of iron redox reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malki, M.; Magnien, V.; Pinet, O.; Richet, P.

    2015-09-01

    The electrical conductivity of a series of glasses and melts of the system SiO2-CaO-MgO-M2O-"FeO" (M = Li and Na) and of a borosilicate has been measured from room temperature to about 1820 K. For samples with predominantly reduced iron, the conductivity increases markedly upon addition of Na+ and still more of Li+, which is consistent with the increasing order Mg2+, Na+, Li+ order of cation mobility. For the oxidized samples the conductivity is in contrast almost not affected by the presence of alkali cations, which agrees with the low mobility of alkali cations that are then serving as charge compensators of tetrahedrally coordinated Al3+. The conductivity is higher for oxidized than for reduced samples. As indicated by polarization electrode phenomena and complementary continuous current measurements, this difference is due to an important contribution of electronic conduction caused by electronic charge transfer between iron species that exists in the oxidized samples. The diffusivities of oxygen and divalent cations were then determined from Eyring relationship and the measured conductivities, respectively and compared with the redox diffusivies determined for the same samples. The good agreement found between both kinds of data confirms the controlling role of divalent cations and of oxygen species in the redox kinetics near the glass transition and at high temperatures, respectively. In addition it illustrates that describing melt properties in an integrated manner is becoming possible.

  5. Acoustic velocities of pure and iron-bearing magnesium silicate perovskite measured to 25 GPa and 1200 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chantel, Julien; Frost, Daniel J.; McCammon, Catherine A.; Jing, Zhicheng; Wang, Yanbin

    2012-10-01

    Ultrasonic interferometry measurements in conjunction with in situ X-ray techniques have been used to measure compressional and shear wave velocities and densities of MgSiO3 perovskite (Mg-Pv) and Mg0.95Fe0.042+Fe0.013+SiO3 perovskite ((Mg, Fe)-Pv) in the multianvil at pressures up to 25 GPa and temperatures to 1200 K. Data for Mg-Pv are consistent with previous studies and the (Mg, Fe)-Pv sample has almost identical shear properties to Mg-Pv. The adiabatic bulk modulus, Ks, for (Mg, Fe)-Pv, however, is found to be substantially lower than Mg-Pv, with a refined value of 236 GPa and a pressure derivative of 4.7. It is proposed that this low KS value result from a change in the elasticity of Fe-bearing perovskite at low pressures <30 GPa. High temperature data are consistent with recent models and it is shown that the obtained elastic properties of (Mg, Fe)-Pv are not inconsistent with a lower mantle of bulk silicate Earth composition.

  6. An experimental study of element partitioning between magnetite, clinopyroxene and iron-bearing silicate liquids with particular emphasis on vanadium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toplis, Michael; Corgne, Alexandre

    2002-08-01

    Mineral-melt partition coefficients of vanadium and a series of divalent trace elements (Ni, Co, Mn, Sr) have been determined for ferrobasaltic bulk compositions at one atmosphere. Experiments were performed at constant temperature (1,068 °C) and oxygen fugacity from 0.7 log units below to 2.6 log units above the NNO buffer (NNO-0.7 to NNO+2.6). All experiments were saturated in clinopyroxene and titanomagnetite. Partition coefficients for divalent cations between the liquid and these two minerals are found to be controlled by the ionic radius of the cation and the composition of the coexisting liquid, coefficients being significantly higher in more polymerised melts. Vanadium partitioning is strongly dependent on oxygen fugacity, decreasing by approximately one order of magnitude with increasing $ f{O_2 } from NNO-0.7 to NNO+2.6 for both clinopyroxene and magnetite. Based upon thermodynamic modelling of the relative proportions of V3+, V4+ and V5+ in our liquids, this behaviour is inferred to be dominated by partitioning of V3+, despite the fact that this valence state is predicted to occur in low relative abundance. Derived values of D{ V{ 3 + } } show no systematic dependence on melt polymerisation, but do show a systematic dependence on mineral composition. In particular, our data and those of the literature are combined to show that D{ V{ 3 + } }{ Cpx/Liq} increases significantly as clinopyroxenes become more iron-rich. The partition coefficients for vanadium determined in this study have been used to model the V concentration of liquid and magnetite as a function of differentiation in a ferrobasaltic system at different oxygen fugacities. These results show that extreme enrichments of V2O5 in magnetite will only occur for a relatively small range of f{O_2 } $ , between NNO and NNO-1.5. The results of our modelling are shown to be consistent with observations made on the V-rich magnetite layers of the Bushveld intrusion.

  7. Identification of Iron-Bearing Phases on the Martian Surface and in Martian Meteorites and Analogue Samples by Moessbauer Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klingelhoefer, G.; Agresti, D. G.; Schroeder, C.; Rodionov, D.; Yen, A.; Ming, Doug; Morris, Richard V.

    2007-01-01

    The Moessbauer spectrometers on the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) Spirit (Gusev Crater) and Opportunity (Meridiani Planum) have each analyzed more than 100 targets during their ongoing missions (>1050 sols). Here we summarize the Fe-bearing phases identified to date and compare the results to Moessbauer analyses of martian meteorites and lunar samples. We use lunar samples as martian analogues because some, particularly the low-Ti Apollo 15 mare basalts, have bulk chemical compositions that are comparable to basaltic martian meteorites [1,2]. The lunar samples also provide a way to study pigeonite-rich samples. Pigeonite is a pyroxene that is not common in terrestrial basalts, but does often occur on the Moon and is present in basaltic martian meteorites

  8. BASINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource Purpose:The U.S EPA's water programs and their counterparts in states and pollution control agencies are increasingly emphasizing watershed- and water quality-based assessment and integrated analysis of point and nonpoint sources. Better Assessment Science Integra...

  9. Drought Variability in Mediterranean Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meko, D. M.; Touchan, R.

    2010-12-01

    Projections from general circulation models are consistent in identifying the Mediterranean Basin as a region of expected drying in response to increased greenhouse gases. The Mediterranean and its bordering countries, while giving rise to the classic “Mediterranean” climate-type, are characterized by a complex precipitation climatology, with strong influences from land-sea contrasts, topography, intrusions of polar air from various lowland pathways, and occasional tropical influence from systems originating south of the Atlas Mountains. Identification of an anthropogenic signature of drying with instrumental climate data can benefit from information on the natural spatio-temporal variability of drought on time scales of decades to centuries in this complex precipitation regime. An expanding tree-ring network will eventually yield multi-century drought records for the region (117 chronologies now developed or in progress). Aspects of spatio-temporal variability on shorter time scales in the southern part of the Mediterranan Basin (south of about 40°N) are examined in this presentation with the aid of gridded precipitation, temperature and Z-index - a dimensionless intermediate variable in Palmer Drought Index computation. Cross-spectral analysis is applied to summarize covariance of drought-related variables across the region. Ocean-atmosphere circulation indices are explored for direct causative factors in episodes of exceptional widespread seasonal and multi-season drought in the region.

  10. 33 CFR 401.48 - Turning basins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Turning basins. 401.48 Section 401.48 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.48 Turning basins. No vessel shall be turned about in any canal,...

  11. 33 CFR 401.48 - Turning basins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Turning basins. 401.48 Section 401.48 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF... vessels up to 180 m in overall length. (c) Turning Basin No. 3—Immediately south of Port Robinson (Mile...

  12. BASINS/HSPF WATERSHED MODEL TRAINING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Basins is an interactive Windows based interface to several DOS based water quality computer simulations, of which HSPF is one. The training course helped train 30 water quality modelers from the USEPA, States and Tribes in the use of Basins and HSPF. The training was three da...

  13. Sedimentary basins in Ross Sea, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, A.K.; Davey, F.J.

    1986-07-01

    The Ross Sea lies in the Pacific sector of the Antarctic continental margin. Three major sedimentary basins (from east to west, the Eastern, Central, and Victoria Land basins) lie beneath the broad, deep continental shelf of the Ross Sea. These north-south-trending basins occur in the extensionally deformed region between East and West Antarctica. Multichannel seismic reflection (MCS) surveys have been conducted over these basins since 1980 by West German, French, Japanese, and US expeditions. The MCS and previous geophysical surveys have shown that the three basins contain 5-6 km of sedimentary rock, possibly Late Cretaceous and younger. An additional 6-8 km of sedimentary and volcanic rock lies within the deeper parts of the Victoria Land basin. The basins are separated by uplifted and eroded basement ridges covered by thin sedimentary sections. Each basin has distinct characteristics, commonly related to its extensional origin. Petroleum hydrocarbons are unknown from the Ross Sea region, with the possible exception of ethane gas recovered by the Deep Sea Drilling Project. Previous model studies, based on estimated sediment thickness, assumed temperature gradients, and postulated seismostratigraphy, indicate that hydrocarbons could be generated at depths of 3.5-6km within the sedimentary section. However, this hypothesis cannot be verified without further geologic and geophysical data from the Ross Sea region.

  14. Oil migration pattern in the Sirte Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Roohi, M.; Aburawi, R.M.

    1995-08-01

    Sirte Basin is an asymmetrical cratonic basin, situated in the north-central part of Libya. It covers an area of over 350,000km{sup 2} and is one of the most prolific oil-producing basins in the world. Sirte Basin is divided into large NW-SE trending sub-parallel platforms and troughs bounded by deep seated syndepositional normal faults. A very unique combination of thick sediments with rich source rocks in the troughs vs. thinner sediments with prolific reservoir rocks on the platforms accounts for the productivity of the basin. Analysis of oil migration pattern in the Sirte Basin will certainly help to discover the remaining reserves, and this can only be achieved if the important parameter of structural configuration of the basin at the time of oil migration is known. The present paper is an attempt to analyse the time of oil migration, to define the structural picture of the 4 Basin during the time of migration and to delineate the most probable connecting routes between the hydrocarbon kitchens and the oil fields.

  15. The structure of Nansen and Amundsen Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micksch, U.; Jokat, W.

    2003-04-01

    During the AMORE expedition in August/September 2001, a US-German joint project, the Gakkel Ridge and the adjoining basins were investigated. In this contribution we report on the results of the seismic investigations in the Nansen Basin as well as in the Amundsen Basin. We obtained two almost parallel profiles through the Nansen Basin from the northeastern continental margin of Svalbard (29°E and 32°E) to the Gakkel Ridge at 17°E and 21°E. To investigate the Amundsen Basin, we left Gakkel Ridge at about 70°E towards Lomonossov Ridge for another transect. In total 1360 km of seismic reflection data with very good data quality were recorded. Parallel to the seismic reflection transects up to 30 sonobuoys were deployed. The data from both basins shows striking differences in the basement topography. While in the Nansen Basin the oceanic crust is more or less continuously shallowing, this is not the case in the Amundsen Basin. This points to some asymmetric spreading history of the Gakkel Ridge in northern and southern directions. Some of the Sonobuoys recorded also weak arrivals from the Moho discontinuity. The analysis of the wide angle and gravity data shows, that there are areas with a significant thinning of the oceanic crust. Results of the reflection and refraktion seismic as well as the gravity interpretation will be presented.

  16. Basin wildrye: the forgotten grass revisited

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Basin wildrye was once a very abundant and widely occurring species throughout the landscapes of northern Nevada. When Captain Simpson, of the topographical Engineers, explored the route for a wagon road across the central Great Basin he marveled at the grass in the valley bottoms that reached to h...

  17. Water quality in the eastern Iowa basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkhoff, Stephen J.; Barnes, Kymm K.; Becher, Kent D.; Savoca, Mark E.; Schnoebelen, Douglas J.; Sadorf, Eric M.; Porter, Stephen D.; Sullivan, Daniel J.; Creswell, John

    2001-01-01

    The Eastern Iowa Basins Study Unit includes the Wapsipinicon, Cedar, Iowa, and Skunk River basins and covers approximately 19,500 square miles in eastern Iowa and southern Minnesota. More than 90 percent of the land in the study unit is used for agricultural purposes. Forested areas account for only 4 percent of the land area.

  18. Scientific review of great basin wildfire issues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The University Nevada Reno, College of Agriculture and Resource Concepts Inc., co-sponsored a Great Basin Wildfire Forum in September 2007 to address a “Scientific Review of the Ecological and Management History of Great Basin Natural Resources and Recommendations to Achieve Ecosystem Restoration”. ...

  19. Scientific Review of Great Basin Wildfire Issues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The University Nevada Reno, College of Agriculture and Resource Concepts Inc., co-sponsored a Great Basin Wildfire Forum in September 2007 to address a “Scientific Review of the Ecological and Management History of Great Basin Natural Resources and Recommendations to Achieve Ecosystem Restoration”. ...

  20. Relation between Tethys sea and Tarim basin

    SciTech Connect

    Wei Junchao )

    1988-08-01

    The Tarim basin is the largest continental basin in China. It is known as the heart of central Asia. Still it was related to the Mediterranean Sea in the geological past. Based on the investigations of paleontology, stratigraphy, tectonics, and remote sensing, it is suggested that Tethys and the Tarim basin should be connected from the Late Cretaceous to Miocene. The northern branch of the Tethys sea channel began to pass through the Alay gap and invade the Tarim basin at the beginning of the Late Cretaceous. Up to the Miocene, marine invasion and marine regression must have happened six times in the western Tarim basin. The Paleocene marine invasion encroached upon the widest area and lasted the longest of the six times, which extended to the region of the southern Hotan River. The occurrence of the Paleocene marine fossils in the Kuqa Seg indicates the influence of the marine invasion. At the end of the Miocene, seawater receded fully from the Tarim basin. A Miocene petroleum field has been found in the Yecheng Seg of the western Tarim basin. According to the relationship between Tethys and the Tarim basin, the potentialities of the Late Cretaceous-Miocene hydrocarbon source are considered to be great.

  1. Frontier sedimentary basins of New Zealand region

    SciTech Connect

    Beggs, J.M. )

    1991-03-01

    Petroleum-prospective basins of New Zealand began to form by mid-Cretaceous rifting of crustal elements previously assembled at the Gondwana continental margin. During the latest Cretaceous-early Cenozoic New Zealand separated from Australia and Antarctica by sea-floor spreading. An overall transgression in widely recorded in this post-rift phase, with decreasing clastic sediment supply as land area and relief were reduced. Mid-Cenozoic initiation of the modern plate boundary has resulted in uplift of mountain ranges, subsidence and filling of troughs, progradation of the shelf, and common reactivation or eversion of older structures. Petroleum potential of less explored basins can be compared to the productive Taranki basin. Source rocks are coal-rich deposits of the rift phase, also developed in Great South, Canterbury/Chatham, Western Southland, West Coast, and Northland basins. A different source contributes to oil and gas seeps on the East Coast, a continental margin during Late Cretaceous. The main reservoirs of Taranaki are early Cenozoic coastal and fluvial sands, also present in Great South, Canterbury, and West Coast and possibly other basins. Other Taranaki reservoirs include mid-Cenozoic limestone and Miocene turbidites, which are widespread in most other basins. Pliocene limestones have excellent reservoir potential on the East Coast. Late Cenozoic tectonics, essential to trap development and significant for maturation in Taranaki, have created similar structures in basins near the plate boundary but are less significant in the development of Great South, eastern Canterbury/Chatham, and Northland basins.

  2. Rifting Thick Lithosphere - Canning Basin, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarnota, Karol; White, Nicky

    2016-04-01

    The subsidence histories and architecture of most, but not all, rift basins are elegantly explained by extension of ~120 km thick lithosphere followed by thermal re-thickening of the lithospheric mantle to its pre-rift thickness. Although this well-established model underpins most basin analysis, it is unclear whether the model explains the subsidence of rift basins developed over substantially thick lithosphere (as imaged by seismic tomography beneath substantial portions of the continents). The Canning Basin of Western Australia is an example where a rift basin putatively overlies lithosphere ≥180 km thick, imaged using shear wave tomography. Subsidence modelling in this study shows that the entire subsidence history of the <300 km wide and <6 km thick western Canning Basin is adequately explained by mild Ordovician extension (β≈1.2) of ~120 km thick lithosphere followed by post-rift thermal subsidence. This is consistent with the established model, described above, albeit with perturbations due to transient dynamic topography support which are expressed as basin-wide unconformities. In contrast the <150 km wide and ~15 km thick Fitzroy Trough of the eastern Canning Basin reveals an almost continuous period of normal faulting between the Ordovician and Carboniferous (β<2.0) followed by negligible post-rift thermal subsidence. These features cannot be readily explained by the established model of rift basin development. We attribute the difference in basin architecture between the western and eastern Canning Basin to rifting of thick lithosphere beneath the eastern part, verified by the presence of ~20 Ma diamond-bearing lamproites intruded into the basin depocentre. In order to account for the observed subsidence, at standard crustal densities, the lithospheric mantle is required to be depleted in density by 50-70 kg m-3, which is in line with estimates derived from modelling rare-earth element concentrations of the ~20 Ma lamproites and global isostatic

  3. Basins in ARC-continental collisions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draut, Amy E.; Clift, Peter D.

    2012-01-01

    Arc-continent collisions occur commonly in the plate-tectonic cycle and result in rapidly formed and rapidly collapsing orogens, often spanning just 5-15 My. Growth of continental masses through arc-continent collision is widely thought to be a major process governing the structural and geochemical evolution of the continental crust over geologic time. Collisions of intra-oceanic arcs with passive continental margins (a situation in which the arc, on the upper plate, faces the continent) involve a substantially different geometry than collisions of intra-oceanic arcs with active continental margins (a situation requiring more than one convergence zone and in which the arc, on the lower plate, backs into the continent), with variable preservation potential for basins in each case. Substantial differences also occur between trench and forearc evolution in tectonically erosive versus tectonically accreting margins, both before and after collision. We examine the evolution of trenches, trench-slope basins, forearc basins, intra-arc basins, and backarc basins during arc-continent collision. The preservation potential of trench-slope basins is low; in collision they are rapidly uplifted and eroded, and at erosive margins they are progressively destroyed by subduction erosion. Post-collisional preservation of trench sediment and trench-slope basins is biased toward margins that were tectonically accreting for a substantial length of time before collision. Forearc basins in erosive margins are usually floored by strong lithosphere and may survive collision with a passive margin, sometimes continuing sedimentation throughout collision and orogeny. The low flexural rigidity of intra-arc basins makes them deep and, if preserved, potentially long records of arc and collisional tectonism. Backarc basins, in contrast, are typically subducted and their sediment either lost or preserved only as fragments in melange sequences. A substantial proportion of the sediment derived from

  4. China, JNOC start exploration in Tarim basin

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-15

    This paper reports that a joint venture of China National Oil and Natural Gas Corp and Japan National Oil Corp (JNOC) has begun exploration in Northwest China's remote Tarim basin in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. That marks the first time China has allowed a foreign oil company to participate in exploration of the highly prospective basin. China pins much of its hope for the future on the Tarim basin as production declines from its older, mainstay fields in the east and offshore results have proved largely disappointing. The Chinese-Japanese combine began operations in the southwest part of the 560,000 sq km basin. The 200 member exploration team plans to complete a seismic survey covering 3,500 line km in the Kashi and Yecheng areas during the next 4 1/2 years. The survey follows a feasibility study that began last October covering 30,000 sq km in the basin.

  5. Hydrological research basins and the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alley, V. M.; Warmerdam, P. M. M.

    The role and relative importance of experimental and representative basins in pre-dieting anthropogenic effects on water resources and the environment was the goal of the International Conference on Hydrological Research Basins and the Environment, held in Wageningen, the Netherlands, September 24-28, 1990. About 70 persons, almost exclusively from Europe, attended the meeting, which was organized by the Committee of the European Network of Experimental and Representative Basins and the National Committee of the Netherlands for the International Hydrological Program of Unesco.During the conference, the 3rd General Meeting of the European Network of Experimental and Representative Basins was held. This network of basins, covering nine countries in Europe, organizes periodic meetings and tries to enhance the compatibility of observations and methods of analysis, and to implement research projects of common interest.

  6. An alternative basin characteristic for use in estimating impervious area in urban Missouri basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Southard, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    A previous regression analysis of flood peaks on urban basins in St. Louis County, Missouri, indicated that the basin characteristics of percentage of impervious area and drainage area were statistically significant for estimating the 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-. and 100-yr peak discharges at ungaged urban basins. In this statewide regression analysis of the urban basins for Missouri, an alternative basin characteristic called the percentage of developed area was evaluated. A regression analysis of the percentage of developed area (independent variable), resulted in a simple equation for computing percentage of impervious area. The percentage of developed area also was evaluated using flood-frequency data for 23 streamflow gaging stations, and the use of this variable was determined to be valid. Using nationwide data, an urban basin characteristic known as the basin development factor was determined to be valid for inclusion in urban regression equations for estimating flood flows. The basin development factor and the percentage of developed area were compared for use in regression equations to estimate peak flows of streams in Missouri. The equations with the basin development factor produced peak flow estimates with slightly smaller average standard errors of estimate than the equation with the percentage of developed area; however, this study indicates that there was not enough statistical or numerical difference to warrant using the basin development factor instead of the percentage of developed area in Missouri. The selection of a basin characteristic to describe the physical conditions of a drainage basin will depend not only on its contribution to accuracy of regression equations, but also on the ease of determining the characteristics; the percentage of developed area has this advantage. A correlation analysis was made by correlating drainage area to percentage of impervious area, the percentage of developed area, and the basin development factor. The results of

  7. Determination of the Relationship between Hydrologic Processes and Basin Morphometry - The Lamos Basin (Mersin, Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yıldırım, Ümit; Güler, Cüneyt

    2016-04-01

    This study has been carried out to determine the relationship between hydrologic processes and basin morphometry in the Lamos Basin, which is located at the northern part of the Mersin (SE Turkey). The morphometric parameters of the basin was derived from the 1:25K scale topographic map sheets that were digitized using ArcGIS 9.3.1 geographic information system (GIS) software. Morphometric parameters considered in this study include basin area, basin length, basin perimeter length, stream order, stream number, stream length, mean stream length, basin relief, drainage density, stream frequency, drainage texture, bifurcation ratio, form factor, elongation ratio, overland flow length, relief ratio, and hypsometric integral. The results have shown that there are 1252 individual stream reaches with a total length of 1414.1 km in the Lamos basin, which covers an area of 1358 km2 and has a length of 103 km in the N-S direction. Furthermore, the basin has a medium drainage density of 1.04 1/km with a stream frequency and drainage texture values of 0.92 and 4.33, respectively. The basin can be classified as elongated because of the low values of elongation ratio (0.48) and form factor (0.12). The hypsometric integral of the basin (0.58) indicates that it is in the youth period and thus reasonably sensitive to erosion. The values of drainage texture, drainage density, and stream frequency indicate that the Lamos basin is moderately well drained, therefore overland flow in the basin is not expected to be so quick. Thus, in case of occurrence of sudden peak flows, sensitivity to the land sliding and erosion may increase further. As a result, it is suggested that human activities in the basin should be limited in areas in fairly close proximity to the present day stream network to prevent or reduce the risk to life and property.

  8. Plio-Pleistocene drainage development in an inverted sedimentary basin: Vera basin, Betic Cordillera, SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokes, Martin

    2008-08-01

    The Vera basin is one of a series of interconnected Neogene-Quaternary sedimentary basins located within the Internal Zone of the Betic Cordillera (southeast Spain). Since the Pliocene the Vera basin has been subjected to low uplift rates (11-21 m Ma - 1 ) and inverted via compressive tectonics that are related to the ongoing oblique collision between the African and Iberian plates. Within this paper the sedimentary and geomorphic response to basin inversion is explored. Sedimentary processes and environments are established for key stratigraphic units of the Pliocene/Plio-Pleistocene basin fill and Pleistocene dissectional landscape. These data are subsequently utilised to reconstruct an evolving basin palaeogeography. Fault and uplift data are employed to discuss the role of tectonically driven basin inversion for controlling the resultant palaeogeographic changes and associated patterns of drainage development. During the Early-Mid Pliocene the Vera basin was characterised by shallow marine shelf conditions (Cuevas Formation). A major palaeogeographic reorganisation occurred during the Mid-Late Pliocene. Strike-slip movement along the eastern basin margin, coupled with uplift and basin emergence created a protected, partially enclosed marine embayment that was conducive for Gilbert-type fan-delta sedimentation from fluvial inputs along the northern and eastern basin margins (Espíritu Santo Formation). The Vera basin then became fully continental and internally drained through the development of a consequent drainage network that formed following the withdrawal of marine conditions during the Late Pliocene to Early Pleistocene. Alluvial fans developed along the northern and western basin margins, grading to a bajada and terminating in a playa lake in central basin areas (Salmerón Formation). During the Early-Mid Pleistocene a switch from basin infilling to dissection took place, recorded by alluvial fan incision, a switch to braided river sedimentation and

  9. Preliminary evaluation of nominal drainage basin volume as a potentially useful morphometric parameter for small mountain basins

    SciTech Connect

    Keaton, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    Morphometric basin parameters have been used in quantitative geomorphic assessments since Horton's Hydrophysical Approach in 1945. A relationship between basin form and dominant process in small mountain basins in the western United States would be valuable for use in differentiating basins which produce deep-seated landslides from those which produce debris flows from debris slides. Drainage basin volume seems like it should be a parameter directly related to the dominant process operating in a basin. Consequently, it may be a potentially useful morphometric parameter. Nominal drainage basin volume is herein defined as the volume creates by the basin topography and linear projection of topographic contours across the basin. Incremental volume is computed from area encompassed by topographic contours and projections and the contour interval using the formula for the volume of the frustrum of a cone. Seven basins in the Wasatch Range and five in the Wasatch Plateau of Utah show strong relationship of log Basin Area to log Basin Volume (r/sup 2/ = 0.97). The relationship between average Basin Slope and log Basin Volume was poorer (r/sup 2/ = 0.78) than between Basin Slope and log Basin Area (r/sup 2/ = 0.87). This suggests that basin area may be a more useful parameter than basin volume, especially since area is more easily measured.

  10. Delaware basin/Central basin platform margin: The development of a subthrust deep-gas province in the Permian Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Purves, W.J. ); Ting, S.C. )

    1990-05-01

    A deep-gas-prone province was identified along the Delaware basin/Central Basin platform margin, a margin conventionally interpreted to be bounded by high-angle normal or high-angle reverse structures. Redefinition of the tectonic style between the Delaware basin and the adjacent platform resulted in the identification of this Delaware basin/Central Basin platform subthrust province and a giant prospect within it. Definition of a giant-sized gas prospect in northern Pecos County, Texas, revealed that portions of this margin may be characterized by shingled, low-angle, eastward-dipping, basement involved thrust faults. Interpretations suggest that hidden, subthrust footwall structures may trend discontinuously for greater than 100 mi along this structural margin. Subthrust footwall structures formed as basinal buttress points for the Central Basin platform to climb over the Delaware basin. In this area, structural relief of over 19,000 ft over a 10-mi width is believed due to stacking of low-angle thrust sheets. Seismic resolution of this subthrust margin has been complexed by allochtonous hanging-wall gravity-glide blocks and folds and by velocity changes in overlying syn- and posttectonic sediments associated with basin-to-shelf lithofacies changes. Statistical studies indicate that this deep-gas province has a play potential of greater than 10 tcf of gas, with individual prospect sizes exceeding 1 tcfg. The prospects defined along this trend are deep (approximately 20,000 ft) subthrust structural traps that are indigenously sourced and reservoired by dual-matrix porosity. Vitrinite supported maturation modeling suggests that these subthrust structures formed prior to catagenic conversion of the oldest source rocks to oil and later to gas. Tectonically fractured Ordovician Ellenburger and Devonian sediments are considered the principal reservoirs. Shales overlying reservoir intervals form vertical seals.

  11. Rocky Mountain Tertiary coal-basin models and their applicability to some world basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flores, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    Tertiary intermontane basins in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States contain large amounts of coal resources. The first major type of Tertiary coal basin is closed and lake-dominated, either mud-rich (e.g., North Park Basin, Colorado) or mud plus carbonate (e.g., Medicine Lodge Basin, Montana), which are both infilled by deltas. The second major type of Tertiary coal basin is open and characterized by a preponderance of sediments that were deposited by flow-through fluvial systems (e.g., Raton Basin, Colorado and New Mexico, and Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana). The setting for the formation of these coals varies with the type of basin sedimentation, paleotectonism, and paleoclimate. The mud-rich lake-dominated closed basin (transpressional paleotectonism and warm, humid paleoclimate), where infilled by sandy "Gilbert-type" deltas, contains thick coals (low ash and low sulfur) formed in swamps of the prograding fluvial systems. The mud- and carbonate-rich lake-dominated closed basin is infilled by carbonate precipitates plus coarse-grained fan deltas and fine-grained deltas. Here, thin coals (high ash and high sulfur) formed in swamps of the fine-grained deltas. The coarse-clastic, open basins (compressional paleotectonism and warm, paratropical paleoclimate) associated with flow-through fluvial systems contain moderately to anomalously thick coals (high to low ash and low sulfur) formed in swamps developed in intermittently abandoned portions of the fluvial systems. These coal development patterns from the Tertiary Rocky Mountain basins, although occurring in completely different paleotectonic settings, are similar to that found in the Tertiary, Cretaceous, and Permian intermontane coal basins in China, New Zealand, and India. ?? 1989.

  12. Development of foreland basins around western Sichuan basin, and implications for mountain building in eastern Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S.; Liu, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Sichuan basin is surrounded by the Tibetan Plateau to the west, and the Michang Shan and Daba Shan mountains to the north and northwest. Foreland basins have been developed along the western and northern margins of the Sichuan basin since Triassic, receiving sediments with significant along-strike variations. These sediment records provide useful insights into the history of mountain building around the Sichuan Basin. We have collected exploration well data from western Sichuan Basin. Using backstripping, we reconstructed the basement deformation history, which reflect sedimentary and tectonic loadings related to mountain building. We used a 3-D numerical modeling technique with multi-grid technique to simulate flexural deformation of the Sichuan Basin lithosphere, and to infer tectonic loading and mountain building along western and northern margins of the Sichuan Basin from the late Triassic to the Cenozoic. Our results suggest that the shortening of the Daba Shan and Michuan Shan orogens mainly occurred during the late Jurassic-Cretaceous. During Cenozoic, the tectonic loading mainly occurred along the southwestern margins of the Sichuan Basin, corresponding to the development of the Longmen Shan mountain belt. The tectonic loading of the northern Longmen Shan on the Sichuan Basin has been markedly reduced since the Cenozoic, evidenced by the lack of Cenozoic foreland basin development. This indicates mechanical decoupling between uplift of the Tibetan Plateau and the Sichuan Basin, consistent with the deep down-cutting of the Longmen Shan fault and predominantly strike-slip motion on the fault. The limited Cenozoic foreland basin development in the southwestern margin of the Sichuan Basin is consistent with localized high-angle thrusting of the southern Longmen Shan mountains. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grants 41104046).

  13. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    1999-09-30

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. The EPA environmental standards for the management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste are codified in 40 CFR Part 191 (EPA 1993). Subparts B and C of the standard address the disposal of radioactive waste. The standard requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard. This assessment must include the consideration of inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  14. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2000-09-28

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. The EPA environmental standards for the management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste are codified in 40 CFR Part 191 (EPA 1993). Subparts B and C of the standard address the disposal of radioactive waste. The standard requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard. This assessment must include the consideration of inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  15. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2002-09-21

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. The EPA environmental standards for the management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste are codified in 40 CFR Part 191 (EPA 1993). Subparts B and C of the standard address the disposal of radioactive waste. The standard requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard. This assessment must include the consideration of inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  16. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-09-30

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. The EPA environmental standards for the management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste are codified in 40 CFR Part 191 (EPA 1993). Subparts B and C of the standard address the disposal of radioactive waste. The standard requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard. This assessment must include the consideration of inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  17. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2004-09-30

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. The EPA environmental standards for the management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste are codified in 40 CFR Part 191 (EPA 1993). Subparts B and C of the standard address the disposal of radioactive waste. The standard requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard. This assessment must include the consideration of inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  18. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2003-09-30

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. The EPA environmental standards for the management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste are codified in 40 CFR Part 191 (EPA 1993). Subparts B and C of the standard address the disposal of radioactive waste. The standard requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard. This assessment must include the consideration of inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  19. Metabolic principles of river basin organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.; Caylor, K. K.; Rinaldo, A.

    2011-12-01

    The metabolism of a river basin is defined as the set of processes through which the basin maintains its structure and responds to its environment. Green (or biotic) metabolism is measured via transpiration and blue (or abiotic) metabolism through runoff. A principle of equal metabolic rate per unit area throughout the basin structure is developed and tested in a river basin characterized by large heterogeneities in precipitation, vegetation, soil, and geomorphology. This principle is suggested to have profound implications for the spatial organization of river basin hydrologic dynamics, including the minimization of energy expenditure known to control the scale-invariant characteristics of river networks over several orders of magnitude. Empirically derived, remarkably constant rates of average transpiration per unit area through the basin structure lead to a power law for the probability distribution of transpiration from a randomly chosen subbasin. The average runoff per unit area, evaluated for subbasins of a wide range of topological magnitudes, is also shown to be remarkably constant independently of size. A similar result is found for the rainfall after accounting for canopy interception. Allometric scaling of metabolic rates with size, variously addressed in the biological literature and network theory under the label of Kleiber's law, is similarly derived. The empirical evidence suggests that river basin metabolic activity is linked with the spatial organization that takes place around the drainage network and therefore with the mechanisms responsible for the fractal geometry of the network, suggesting a new coevolutionary framework for biological, geomorphological, and hydrologic dynamics.

  20. Metabolic principles of river basin organization.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Caylor, Kelly K; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2011-07-19

    The metabolism of a river basin is defined as the set of processes through which the basin maintains its structure and responds to its environment. Green (or biotic) metabolism is measured via transpiration and blue (or abiotic) metabolism through runoff. A principle of equal metabolic rate per unit area throughout the basin structure is developed and tested in a river basin characterized by large heterogeneities in precipitation, vegetation, soil, and geomorphology. This principle is suggested to have profound implications for the spatial organization of river basin hydrologic dynamics, including the minimization of energy expenditure known to control the scale-invariant characteristics of river networks over several orders of magnitude. Empirically derived, remarkably constant rates of average transpiration per unit area through the basin structure lead to a power law for the probability distribution of transpiration from a randomly chosen subbasin. The average runoff per unit area, evaluated for subbasins of a wide range of topological magnitudes, is also shown to be remarkably constant independently of size. A similar result is found for the rainfall after accounting for canopy interception. Allometric scaling of metabolic rates with size, variously addressed in the biological literature and network theory under the label of Kleiber's law, is similarly derived. The empirical evidence suggests that river basin metabolic activity is linked with the spatial organization that takes place around the drainage network and therefore with the mechanisms responsible for the fractal geometry of the network, suggesting a new coevolutionary framework for biological, geomorphological, and hydrologic dynamics. PMID:21670259

  1. Petroleum potential of the Reggane Basin, Algeria

    SciTech Connect

    Boudjema, A.; Hamel, M.; Mohamedi, A.; Lounissi, R. )

    1990-05-01

    The intracratonic Reggane basin is located on the Saharan platform, southwest of Algeria. The basin covers an area of approximately 140,000 km{sup 2}, extending between the Eglab shield in the south and the Ougarta ranges in the north. Although exploration started in the early 1950s, only a few wells were drilled in this basin. Gas was discovered with a number of oil shows. The sedimentary fill, mainly Paleozoic shales and sandstones, has a thickness exceeding 5,000 m in the central part of the basin. The reservoirs are Cambrian-Ordovician, Siegenian, Emsian, Tournaisian, and Visean sandstones with prospective petrophysical characteristics. Silurian Upper Devonian and, to a lesser extent Carboniferous shales are the main source rocks. An integrated study was done to assess the hydrocarbon potential of this basin. Tectonic evolution source rocks and reservoirs distribution maturation analyses followed by kinetic modeling, and hydrogeological conditions were studied. Results indicate that gas accumulations could be expected in the central and deeper part of the basin, and oil reservoirs could be discovered on the basin edge.

  2. Evaluation of Ordos Basin in China

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, J.G.

    1996-06-01

    Ordos basin lies in the north-central China, in a compression tectonic regime, with an area of approximately 250,000 km{sup 2}, including several pay zones ranging from Cambrian to Jurassic. It is one of the earliest-formed marine to continental-superimposed basin in China, characterized by Proterozoic basin-marginal rifling and Lower-Paleozoic carbonate platform development followed by western thrusting and foreland depression during Mesozoic. It underwent several tectonic movements and is covered by several structural layers, with many play types developed, primarily thrust and anticlinal plays in the west, and differential compaction (river-channel sand lens) or drape as well as buried hill plays in the basin center and east. Ordos basin is a prolific gas basin with an estimated resource potential of gas 656,091 billion m{sup 3} in the Paleozoic strata and oil 2.0474 billion tons in the Mesozoic strata. In 1986, in the western part of the basin, the well Tian-1 on the Tianchi structure tested gas at a rate of 16 x 10{sup 4} m{sup 3}/d (about 5.6496 MCF per day). By year-end 1991, only 26 wells had been drilled in the Jingbian to Hengshan areas (northeastern part of the basin), but 16 of them flowed commercial gas, ranging from 3.2 x 10{sup 4} m{sup 3}/d to 126 x 10{sup 4} m{sup 3}/d. However, the gas pipe just starts budding. Therefore, there will be a lot of gas yet to find, and the most critical factor for petroleum potential of each local structure or play in this basin is the reservoir development.

  3. Groundwater Mounding Beneath Stormwater Infiltration Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimmer, M.; Thompson, A. M.; Misra, D.

    2007-12-01

    An accurate understanding of groundwater mound formation is important in the proper design of stormwater infiltration basins since these basins are often required to recharge a portion of pre-development infiltration volume. Mound formation due to localized recharge may reduce the infiltration rate of the basin and the ability of the soil to filter pollutants. The goal of this research was to understand groundwater mounding and the potential for contaminant transport resulting from recharge beneath stormwater infiltration basins. A 0.10 ha infiltration basin serving a 9.4 ha residential subdivision in Oconomowoc, Wisconsin was used in this study. Subsurface conditions included sand and gravel material and a groundwater table at 2.3 m below grade. Three storm events, 4.9 cm, 2.8 cm, and 4.3 cm, between August 2006 and April 2007 were modeled using the two-dimensional numerical model HYDRUS. The calibrated model was used to evaluate hypothetical basin operation scenarios for various basin sizes, soil types, ponding depths, and water table depths. The groundwater mound intersected the basin floor in most scenarios with loamy sand and sandy loam soils, an unsaturated thickness of 1.52 m, and a ponding depth of 0.61 m. No groundwater table response was observed with ponding depths less than 0.31 m with an unsaturated zone thickness of 6.09 m. The mound height was most sensitive to hydraulic conductivity and unsaturated zone thickness. A 7.6 cm sediment layer delayed the time to reach maximum mound height, but had a minimal effect on the magnitude of the mound. Mound heights increased as infiltration basin size increased.

  4. Stratigraphy of the Caloris basin, Mercury

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCauley, J.F.; Guest, J.E.; Schaber, G.G.; Trask, N.J.; Greeley, R.

    1981-01-01

    The 1300-km-diameter Caloris impact basin is surrounded by well-defined ejecta units that can be recognized from more than 1000 km, radially outward from the basin edge. A formal rock stratigraphic nomenclature is proposed for the Caloris ejecta units, which are collectively called the Caloris Group. Each of the individual formations within the Group are described and compared to similar rock units associated with the lunar Imbrium and Orientale basins. A crater degradation chronology, linked the the Caloris event, is also proposed to assist in stratigraphic correlation on a Mercury-wide basis. ?? 1981.

  5. Deep seismic expression of a foreland basin: Taranaki basin, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, T. A.; Davey, F. J.

    1990-10-01

    A deep seismic-reflection profile shot across the South Taranaki basin, New Zealand, indicates up to 10 km of crustal thickening beneath the Taranaki boundary fault at the eastern margin of the basin. The seismic data also show a broad flexure of the entire crust, the locus of the flexure-producing load appearing to be in the vicinity of the Taranaki boundary fault. Such crustal thickening and flexure suggest a compressional, foreland-basin style of late Cenozoic development rather than the rift-graben origin previously assumed. This change in interpretation for the South Taranaki basin has implications for evaluating the thermal history of the basin and its possibilities for hydrocarbon prospects. The study therefore demonstrates the value of deep seismic exploration of a hydrocarbon-bearing basin in its early stage of exploration.

  6. Discharge forecasts in mountain basins based on satellite snow cover mapping. [Dinwoody Creek Basin, Wyoming and the Dischma Basin, Switzerland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinec, J.; Rango, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A snow runoff model developed for European mountain basins was used with LANDSAT imagery and air temperature data to simulate runoff in the Rocky Mountains under conditions of large elevation range and moderate cloud cover (cloud cover of 40% or less during LANDSAT passes 70% of the time during a snowmelt season). Favorable results were obtained for basins with area not exceeding serval hundred square kilometers and with a significant component of subsurface runoff.

  7. Water resources inventory of Connecticut Part 3: lower Thames and southeastern coastal river basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Chester E., Jr.; Cervione, Michael A., Jr.; Grossman, I.G.

    1968-01-01

    them are wells yielding ground water that contains enough of these dissolved constituents to be troublesome for most uses. Iron concentrations in naturally occurring stream water exceed 0.3 ppm under low-flow conditions at 33 percent of the sites sampled. Large concentrations of iron in stream water result from discharge of iron-bearing water from aquifers or from swamps where it is released largely from decaying vegetation. Ground water more than 30 feet below the land surface has a relatively constant temperature, usually between 48°F and 52°F. Water temperature in very shallow wells may fluctuate from about 38°F in February or March to about 55°F in late summer. Water temperature in the larger streams fluctuates much more widely, ranging from 32°F at least for brief periods in winter, to about 85°F occasionally during summer. The quality of suspended sediment transported by streams in the area is negligible. Turbidity in streams is generally not a problem although amounts large enough to be troublesome may occur locally at times. The total amount of water used in the report area for all purposes during 1964 was about 118,260 million gallons, of which 105,600 million gallons was estuarine water used for cooling by industry. The average per capita water use, excluding estuarine, temporary summer residence, and institutional water was equivalent to 186 gpd. Public water systems supplied the domestic needs of nearly tw0-thirds the population of the report area. All of the 19 systems, which were sampled, provided water of better quality than the U.S. Public Health Service suggests for drinking water standards.

  8. Geology of the Merit-Pila Coal Basin, Sarawak, Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Johari, D.; Abdullah, M.F. )

    1994-07-01

    This poster presentation focuses on the Tertiary Merit-Pila coal basin located in central Sarawak, Malaysia, with emphasis on the geology of the basin. The presentation includes (1) a map of the Tertiary coal basins of Malaysia, and (2) explanations on the geology of Merit-Pila coal basin by means of (a) a geological map, (b) geological sections, (c) a lithostratigraphic section of a typical area of the coal basin, (d) rock and coal samples from the basin, and (e) a figure describing the geological concept of the development of the coal basin. The poster session is designed to give a general picture of a typical Tertiary coal basin of Malaysia. The Merit-Pila coal basin is the best known coal basin and hosts more than 300 million MT of coal, the largest known coal resource in the country.

  9. BASIN STRUCTURE FROM TWO-DIMENSIONAL SEISMIC REFLECTION DATA, CRAZY MOUNTAINS BASIN, MONTANA

    SciTech Connect

    David J. Taylor

    2003-08-01

    Some 140 miles of multichannel seismic reflection data, acquired commercially in the 1970's, were reprocessed by the U.S. Geological Survey in late 2000 and early 2001 to interpret the subsurface geology of the Crazy Mountains Basin, an asymmetric Laramide foreland basin located in south-central Montana. The seismic data indicate that the northwestern basin margin is controlled by a thrust fault that places basement rocks over a thick (22,000 feet) sequence of Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks to the south. From the deep basin trough, Paleozoic through Tertiary rocks slope gently upward to the south and southeast. The northern boundary of the basin, which is not imaged well by the seismic data, appears to be folded over a basement ridge rather than being truncated against a fault plane. Seismic data along the basin margin to the south indicate that several fault controlled basement highs may have been created by thin-skinned tectonics where a series of shallow thrust faults cut Precambrian, Paleozoic, and early Mesozoic rocks, whereas, in contrast, Cretaceous and Tertiary strata are folded. The data are further interpreted to indicate that this fault-bounded asymmetric basin contains several structures that possibly could trap hydrocarbons, provided source rocks, reservoirs, and seals are present. In addition, faults in the deep basin trough may have created enough fracturing to enhance porosity, thus developing ''sweet spots'' for hydrocarbons in basin-centered continuous gas accumulations.

  10. K-Basins S/RIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, D.J.

    1997-08-01

    The Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is a list of the Environmental, Safety, and Health (ES{ampersand}H) and Safeguards and Security (SAS) standards/requirements applicable to the K Basins facility.

  11. K-Basins S/RIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, D.J.

    1995-09-22

    The Standards/Requirements Identification Document(S/RID) is a list of the Environmental, Safety, and Health (ES&H) and Safeguards and Security (SAS) standards/requirements applicable to the K Basins facility

  12. Peak Ring Craters and Multiring Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melosh, H. J.

    2015-09-01

    Understanding of the mechanics of peak-ring crater and basin formation has expanded greatly due to the high precision data on lunar gravity from GRAIL. Peak rings coincide with the edges of underlying mantle uplifts on the Moon.

  13. Seismic refraction profile in coral sea basin.

    PubMed

    Shor, G G

    1967-11-17

    A refraction profile near the south edge of Coral Sea Basin shows sediments, "second layer," and oceanic crust all thicker than normal for an oceanic station; normal mantle lies at a depth of 19 kilometers. PMID:17753600

  14. Hydro Impact Basin Ribbon-Cutting Ceremony

    NASA Video Gallery

    August 9, 2011 -- Ribbon-cutting ceremony for the Hydro Impact Basin at NASA's Langley Research Center in Hampton, Va. The HIB expands NASA's capability to test and certify future spacecraft for wa...

  15. Tidal frequency estimation for closed basins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eades, J. B., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A method was developed for determining the fundamental tidal frequencies for closed basins of water, by means of an eigenvalue analysis. The mathematical model employed, was the Laplace tidal equations.

  16. Pacific Basin Communication Study, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, E. L.; Hurd, J. N.

    1981-01-01

    Users' meeting summary report, chronology of visits, economic data for forum countries, techniques used in the study, communication choices, existing resources in the Pacific Basin, and warc 79 region 3 rules and regulations were presented in volume 2.

  17. KE Basin water dispositioning engineering study

    SciTech Connect

    Hunacek, G.S.; Gahir, S.S.

    1994-09-23

    This engineering study is a feasibility study of KE Basin water treatment to an acceptable level and dispositioning the treated water to Columbia River, ground through ETF or to air through evaporation.

  18. BOULDER AREA SUSTAINABILITY INFORMATION NETWORK (BASIN)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of the Boulder Area Sustainability Information Network (BASIN) is to help citizens make meaningful connections between environmental data and their day-to-day activities and facilitate involvement in public policy development. Objectives include:

      ...

    • Petroleum potential of the Libyan sedimentary basins

      SciTech Connect

      Hammuda, O.S.; Sbeta, A.M.

      1988-08-01

      Contrary to prevailing opinion, all Libyan sedimentary basins and the Al-Jabal Al-Akhdar platform contain prolific petroleum accumulations with very high prospectivity. A systematic review of the types of traps and pays in this central part of the southern Mediterranean province reveals great variability in reservoir and source rock characteristics. The reservoir rocks are of almost all geologic ages. The thick source rock sequences also vary in nature and organic content. The organic-rich facies have accumulated in intracratonic and passive margin basins or in marginal seas. Most of the oil discovered thus far in these basins is found in large structural traps. Future discoveries of stratigraphic traps or small structural traps will require intensified efforts and detailed studies using up-to-date multidisciplinary techniques in sedimentary tectonics, biostratigraphic facies analysis, and geochemical prospecting in order to develop a better understanding of these basins, thus improving their prospectivity.

    • Tectonic evolution of Abu Gharadig basin

      SciTech Connect

      Meshref, W.M.; Beleity, A.E.H.; Hammouda, H.; Kamel, M.

      1988-08-01

      The Abu Gharadig basin, northwestern desert of Egypt, is considered the most petroliferous basin in the Western Desert as far as hydrocarbon production and potential. The basin is believed to be growing and developing throughout geologic time. Aeromagnteic data and subsurface information, derived from a set of isopach maps from wells including complete sections only, revealed that the Abu Gharadig basin was subjected to different tectonic events that resulted in different tectonic trends. These trends include (1) north-south to north-northwest-south-southeast of Precambrian age, (2) east-west (Y-trends) of Paleozoic to Jurassic age, (3) west-northwest (R-trends) of Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous, and (4) east-northeast (P-trends) of Late Cretaceous to Eocene age. The previously mentioned tectonic trends can be explained by a convergent wrench model that affected northern Egypt.

  1. Appalachian basin bibliography. Topical report, March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Picciano, L.; Armstrong, T.S.

    1994-03-01

    More than 120 Gas Research Institute reports on gas exploration and production in the Appalachian Basin are listed. They cover geology and reservoir engineering in three gas producing formations: shales, tight gas sands, and coal seams.

  2. River Basin Standards Interoperability Pilot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesquer, Lluís; Masó, Joan; Stasch, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    There is a lot of water information and tools in Europe to be applied in the river basin management but fragmentation and a lack of coordination between countries still exists. The European Commission and the member states have financed several research and innovation projects in support of the Water Framework Directive. Only a few of them are using the recently emerging hydrological standards, such as the OGC WaterML 2.0. WaterInnEU is a Horizon 2020 project focused on creating a marketplace to enhance the exploitation of EU funded ICT models, tools, protocols and policy briefs related to water and to establish suitable conditions for new market opportunities based on these offerings. One of WaterInnEU's main goals is to assess the level of standardization and interoperability of these outcomes as a mechanism to integrate ICT-based tools, incorporate open data platforms and generate a palette of interchangeable components that are able to use the water data emerging from the recently proposed open data sharing processes and data models stimulated by initiatives such as the INSPIRE directive. As part of the standardization and interoperability activities in the project, the authors are designing an experiment (RIBASE, the present work) to demonstrate how current ICT-based tools and water data can work in combination with geospatial web services in the Scheldt river basin. The main structure of this experiment, that is the core of the present work, is composed by the following steps: - Extraction of information from river gauges data in OGC WaterML 2.0 format using SOS services (preferably compliant to the OGC SOS 2.0 Hydrology Profile Best Practice). - Model floods using a WPS 2.0, WaterML 2.0 data and weather forecast models as input. - Evaluation of the applicability of Sensor Notification Services in water emergencies. - Open distribution of the input and output data as OGC web services WaterML, / WCS / WFS and with visualization utilities: WMS. The architecture

  3. VIEW TO EAST OF THE NORTH END OF BASIN NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW TO EAST OF THE NORTH END OF BASIN NO. 1 (THE WESTERN-MOST BASIN) SHOWING THE CRANEWAY AND GALLERY BETWEEN BASINS NO. 1 AND 2. BASSWOOD BUOY TENDER AND THREE SMALL VESSELS ARE BERTHED IN BASIN NO. 1. LARGER VESSELS ARE BERTHED IN BASINS TO THE EAST, SEEN IN BACKGROUND - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Graving Docks, Shipyard No. 3, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  4. Ordovician chitinozoan zones of Great Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Hutter, T.J.

    1987-08-01

    Within the Basin and Range province of the Great Basin of the western US, Ordovician chitinozoans have been recovered in two major lithic facies; the western eugeosynclinal facies and the eastern miogeosynclinal facies. Chitinozoans recovered from these facies range in age from Arenig to Ashgill. Extensive collections from this area make possible the establishment of chitinozoan faunal interval zones from the Ordovician of this area. Selected species of biostratigraphic value include, in chronostratigraphic order, Lagenochitina ovoidea Benoit and Taugourdeau, 1961, Conochitina langei Combaz and Peniguel, 1972, Conochitinia poumoti Combaz and Penique, Desmochitina cf. nodosa Eisenack, 1931, Conochitina maclartii Combaz and Peniguel, 1972, Conochitina robusta Eisenack, 1959, Angochitina capitallata Eisenack, 1937, Sphaerochitina lepta Jenkins. 1970, and Ancyrochitina merga Jenkins, 1970. In many cases, these zones can be divided into additional sub-zones using chitinozoans and acritarchs. In all cases, these chitinozoan faunal zones are contrasted with established American graptolite zones of the area, as well as correlated with British standard graptolite zones. The composition of these faunas of the western US Great Basin is similar to that of the Marathon region of west Texas and the Basin Ranges of Arizona and New Mexico, to which direct comparisons have been made. There also appears to be a great similarity with the microfaunas and microfloras of the Ordovician of the Canning basin of western Australia. The Ordovician chitinozoan faunal interval zones established for the Basin and Range province of the Great Basin of the western US also appear to be applicable to the Marathon region of west Texas and the Basin Ranges of Arizona and New Mexico.

  5. Critically safety evaluation for K Basins sandfilters

    SciTech Connect

    Wittekind, W.D.

    1994-10-01

    Criticality safety for K Basins sandfilters was considered. No credible normal or off-normal scenarios were determined which could compromise criticality safety and result in a K{sub eff} {>=} 0.98. The conclusion is that, due to the physical form and isotopic distribution of the fissionable material, there is no possibility of a nuclear criticality in the sandfilter. For this reason, there is no need for a criticality alarm system for the K Basins sandfilters.

  6. Microbiology of spent nuclear fuel storage basins.

    PubMed

    Santo Domingo, J W; Berry, C J; Summer, M; Fliermans, C B

    1998-12-01

    Microbiological studies of spent nuclear fuel storage basins at Savannah River Site (SRS) were performed as a preliminary step to elucidate the potential for microbial-influenced corrosion (MIC) in these facilities. Total direct counts and culturable counts performed during a 2-year period indicated microbial densities of 10(4) to 10(7) cells/ml in water samples and on submerged metal coupons collected from these basins. Bacterial communities present in the basin transformed between 15% and 89% of the compounds present in Biologtrade mark plates. Additionally, the presence of several biocorrosion-relevant microbial groups (i.e., sulfate-reducing bacteria and acid-producing bacteria) was detected with commercially available test kits. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray spectra analysis of osmium tetroxide-stained coupons demonstrated the development of microbial biofilm communities on some metal coupons submerged for 3 weeks in storage basins. After 12 months, coupons were fully covered by biofilms, with some deterioration of the coupon surface evident at the microscopical level. These results suggest that, despite the oligotrophic and radiological environment of the SRS storage basins and the active water deionization treatments commonly applied to prevent electrochemical corrosion in these facilities, these conditions do not prevent microbial colonization and survival. Such microbial densities and wide diversity of carbon source utilization reflect the ability of the microbial populations to adapt to these environments. The presumptive presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria and acid-producing bacteria and the development of biofilms on submerged coupons indicated that an environment for MIC of metal components in the storage basins may occur. However, to date, there has been no indication or evidence of MIC in the basins. Basin chemistry control and corrosion surveillance programs instituted several years ago have substantially abated all corrosion mechanisms

  7. Paraguay river basin response to seasonal rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krepper, Carlos M.; García, Norberto O.; Jones, Phil D.

    2006-07-01

    The use of river flow as a surrogate to study climatic variability implies the assumption that changes in rainfall are mirrored and likely amplified in streamflow. This is probably not completely true in large basins, particularly those that encompass different climatic regions, like the Paraguay river basin. Not all the signals present in precipitation are reflected in river flow and vice versa. The complex relationship between precipitation and streamflow could filter some signals and introduce new oscillatory modes in the discharge series. In this study the whole basin (1 095 000 km2) was divided into two sub-basins. The upper basin is upstream of the confluence with the River Apa and the lower basin is between the Apa river confluence and the Puerto Bermejo measuring station. The rainfall contribution shows a clear wet season from October to March and a dry season from April to September. A singular spectrum analysis (SSA) shows that there are trends in rainfall contributions over the upper and lower basins. Meanwhile, the lower basin only presents a near-decadal cycle (T 10 years). To determine the flow response to seasonal rainfall contributions, an SSA was applied to seasonal flow discharges at Puerto Bermejo. The seasonal flows, Q(t)O-M and Q(t)A-S, present high significant modes in the low-frequency band, like positive trends. In addition, Q(t)O-M presents a near-decadal mode, but only significant at the 77% level for short window lengths (M ≤ 15 years). Really, the Paraguay river flow is not a good surrogate to study precipitation variation. The low-frequency signals play an important role in the flow behaviour, especially during extreme events from the second half of the last century onwards.

  8. Assessment of undiscovered carboniferous coal-bed gas resources of the Appalachian Basin and Black Warrior Basin Provinces, 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Milici, R.C.; Hatch, J.R.

    2004-09-15

    Coalbed methane (CBM) occurs in coal beds of Mississippian and Pennsylvanian (Carboniferous) age in the Appalachian basin, which extends almost continuously from New York to Alabama. In general, the basin includes three structural subbasins: the Dunkard basin in Pennsylvania, Ohio, and northern West Virginia; the Pocahontas basin in southern West Virginia, eastern Kentucky, and southwestern Virginia; and the Black Warrior basin in Alabama and Mississippi. For assessment purposes, the Appalachian basin was divided into two assessment provinces: the Appalachian Basin Province from New York to Alabama, and the Black Warrior Basin Province in Alabama and Mississippi. By far, most of the coalbed methane produced in the entire Appalachian basin has come from the Black Warrior Basin Province. 8 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  9. Interpretation of magnetic anomalies over the Grenada Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, Dale E.; Hall, Stuart A.; Casey, John F.; Millegan, Patrick S.

    1993-10-01

    The Grenada Basin is a back arc basin located near the eastern border of the Caribbean Plate. The basin is bounded on the west by the north-south trending Aves Ridge (a remnant island arc) and on the east by the active Lesser Antilles island arc. Although this physiography suggests that east-west extension formed the basin, magnetic anomalies over the basin exhibit predominantly east-west trends. If the observed magnetic anomalies over the basin are produced by seafloor spreading, then the orientation of extension is complex. Extension in back arc basins is roughly normal to the trench, although some basins exhibit oblique extension. Present models for the formation of the Grenada Basin vary from north-south extension through northeast-southwest extension to east-west extension. An interpretation of magnetic anomalies over the Grenada Basin supports basin development by nearly east-west extension. Low amplitude magnetic anomaly trends subparallel to the island arc magnetic anomaly trends over the southern part of the basin and the results of forward three-dimensional (3-D) magnetic modeling are consistent with this conclusion. Late Cenozoic tectonic movements may have been responsible for disrupting the magnetic signature over the northern part of the basin. On the basis of our 3-D analysis, we attribute the prominent east-west trending anomalies of the Grenada Basin to fracture zones formed during seafloor spreading at low latitude. This east-west trend is not interpreted as indicating north-south extension of the basin.

  10. The basins on the Argentine continental margin

    SciTech Connect

    Urien, C.M.

    1996-08-01

    After the stabilization of the central Gondwana Craton, orogenic belts were accreted, as a result of convergence events and an extensive passive margin developed in southwestern Gondwana. Thermal subsidence in Parana, Karoo-Ventania basins and the Late Paleozoic-Early Mesozoic rifts, were modified by the Gondwana breakup and the South Atlantic opening. Early Paleozoic marine transgressions deposited the Table Mountain Group in Ventania. In southwestern Patagonia foreland clastics were deposited. Magmatic arcs and marine units indicate a tectonic trough was formed, alternating with continental sequences, over Late Paleozoic metamorphics and intrusives, resulting from plastered terrains along the Gondwana margin. In Patagonia, Permo-Carboniferous continental and glacio marine clastics infill the basins, while in Ventania, paralic sequences, grade from neritic to continental to the northeast, extending beneath the continental margin. The Triassic-Jurassic rift basins progressed onto regional widespread acid lavas and were infilled by lagoonal organic-rich sequences. Early drift phase built basins transverse to the margin, with fluvio-lacustrine sequences: Salado, Colorado, Valdes-Rawson, San Julian and North Malvinas intracratonic basins, which underwent transtensional faulting. Post-Oxfordian to Neocomian brackish sequences, onlapped the conjugate basins during the margin`s drift, with petroleum systems, as in Austral and Malvinas. In the Valanginian, basic extrusions commenced to form on the continental border, heralding the oceanic phase. Due to thermal subsidence, offlaping sediments prograded onto the remaining half-grabens. Several petroleum systems, proven and hypothetical, are identified in this region.

  11. The thermal environment of Cascadia Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, H. Paul; Hautala, Susan L.; Bjorklund, Tor A.

    2012-07-01

    Located adjacent to the NE Pacific convergent boundary, Cascadia Basin has a global impact well beyond its small geographic size. Composed of young oceanic crust formed at the Juan de Fuca Ridge, igneous rocks underlying the basin are partially insulated from cooling of their initial heat of formation by a thick layer of pelagic and turbidite sediments derived from the adjacent North American margin. The igneous seafloor is eventually consumed at the Cascadia subduction zone, where interactions between the approaching oceanic crust and the North American continental margin are partially controlled by the thermal environment. Within Cascadia Basin, basement topographic relief varies dramatically, and sediments have a wide range of thickness and physical properties. This variation produces regional differences in heat flow and basement temperatures for seafloor even of similar age. Previous studies proposed a north-south thermal gradient within Cascadia Basin, with high geothermal flux and crustal temperatures measured in the heavily sedimented northern portion near Vancouver Island and lower than average heat flux and basement temperatures predicted for the central and southern portions of the basin. If confirmed, this prediction has implications for processes associated with the Cascadia subduction zone, including the location of the "locked zone" of the megathrust fault. Although existing archival geophysical data in the central and southern basin are sparse, nonuniformly distributed, and derived from a wide range of historical sources, a substantial N-S geothermal gradient appears to be confirmed by our present compilation of combined water column and heat flow measurements.

  12. K basins sludge removal sludge pretreatment system

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, H.L.

    1997-06-12

    The Spent Nuclear Fuels Program is in the process of planning activities to remove spent nuclear fuel and other materials from the 100-K Basins as a remediation effort for clean closure. The 105 K- East and K-West Basins store spent fuel, sludge, and debris. Sludge has accumulated in the 1 00 K Basins as a result of fuel oxidation and a slight amount of general debris being deposited, by settling, in the basin water. The ultimate intent in removing the sludge and fuel is to eliminate the environmental risk posed by storing fuel at the K Basins. The task for this project is to disposition specific constituents of sludge (metallic fuel) to produce a product stream through a pretreatment process that will meet the requirements, including a final particle size acceptable to the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). The purpose of this task is to develop a preconceptual design package for the K Basin sludge pretreatment system. The process equipment/system is at a preconceptual stage, as shown in sketch ES-SNF-01 , while a more refined process system and material/energy balances are ongoing (all sketches are shown in Appendix C). Thus, the overall process and 0535 associated equipment have been conservatively selected and sized, respectively, to establish the cost basis and equipment layout as shown in sketches ES- SNF-02 through 08.

  13. Bison basin, central Wyoming - geologic overview

    SciTech Connect

    Pinnell, M.L.

    1984-07-01

    The northeastern part of the Great Divide basin is a separate, unique, and until recently, little-explored subbasin sometimes called the Bison basin. It is bounded by the Wind River Mountains, Sweetwater-Granite Mountain foreland uplift, Lost Soldier-Wertz structure, and a little-studied very positive east-west structural arch approximately coincident with the Sweetwater-Fremont county line. A comprehensive seismic, Landsat, and subsurface geologic examination or, better, dissection of the Bison basin was initiated in 1978. Numerous oil and gas prospects were delineated by this study. Since this small, 12 by 40 mi (19 by 64 km) basin is bordered by known reserves of 260 million bbl of oil and 90 million bcf of gas, these prospects proved to be a popular target of the drill bit. At least one of these prospects appears to be productive; others are currently being drilled. The presence of major east-west wrench faults, a well-documented foreland uplift, until recently undrilled surface and subsurface structures, faults with throw measured in tens of thousands of feet, and an oil seep indicate possible additional hydrocarbon potential in the Bison basin that could exceed presently known reserves. Currently drilling wells and abundant already acquired reflection seismic data are the beginning step in an ongoing exploration program of an interesting, complex, and rewarding small basin with a lot of promise.

  14. Deep basin gas - fact or fiction

    SciTech Connect

    Sandmeyer, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    The geology of the Deep basin is complex. Prior to 1976 the region had been explored sporadically primarily to investigate the potential in the deeper rocks with little expectation that the shallower zones would be productive. These shallower zones of relatively low quality reservoir rocks are the source of the current interest in the Deep basin. Today, estimates of natural gas resource potential of the Deep basin range up to 440 TCF. Prior to the discovery of gas in the Deep basin, proved accumulations of gas in place in Alberta and6 British Columbia were 145 tcf and 18 tcf, respectively. The potential of the Deep basin must be viewed as significant in Canada's future energy planning. However, estimating resource potential and proving the existence of recoverable gas which can be marketed, are distinctly different problems. It is a fact that a large gas resource potential has been discovered in the Deep basin, but there is some risk that any currently discussed estimate of recoverable gas volumes will be viewed as fiction in the future.

  15. Hydrological Modelling of Ganga River basin.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, J.; Gosain, A. K.; Khosa, R.

    2015-12-01

    Application of a hydrological model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to the Ganga basin having a total drainage area of around 1.08 M sq. km extending over Tibet, Nepal, India and Bangladesh has been made. The model is calibrated to determine the spatial deviations in runoff at sub-basin level, and to capture the water balance of the river basin. Manual calibration approach was used for calibrating the SWAT model by following multi-step procedure to get to the realistic present situation as close as possible. Simulations were then further made with and without proposed future projects to obtain various scenarios. The various statistical parameters used for the evaluation of the monthly runoff simulation showed that SWAT performed well in mimicking the monthly stream flow for Ganga River basin. The model under predicted the flows in the non-perennial region during non-monsoon season, due to low rainfall and regulated flows and seepage taking place from the reservoirs. The impacts of the interventions, both existing as well as proposed, on the water balance of the basin were evaluated and quantified. The derived results suggest that there is a substantial reduction in overall water resources availability in the study basin on account of the current level of development and further, future developments, as are being proposed, may require a careful study of their potential impact on currently sanctioned water use. The present study showcases that efficacy of the model for simulating the stream flow is admirable.

  16. Lunar basin formation and highland stratigraphy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, K. A.; Wilhelms, D. E.; Scott, D. H.

    1974-01-01

    Multiring impact basins, formed after solidification of the lunar crust, account for most or all premare regional deposits and structures expressed in the lunar landscape and for major topographic and gravity variations. A fresh basin has two or more concentric mountain rings, a lineated ejecta blanket, and secondary impact craters. Crackled material on the floor may be impact melt. The ejecta blanket was emplaced at least partly as a ground-hugging flow and was probably hot. A suggested model of basin formation is that the center lifts up and the rings form by inward collapse during evisceration. The resulting basin is shallow and has a central uplift of the mantle. This results in a central gravity high and a ring low. Later flooding by mare basalt has since modified most near side basins. Highland deposits of plains, furrowed and pitted terrain, and various hills, domes, and craters that were interpreted before the Apollo missions as being volcanic can now be interpreted as being basin related.

  17. Thermal evolution of the Newark basin

    SciTech Connect

    Huntoon, J.E. ); Furlong, K.P. )

    1992-09-01

    A one-dimensional conductive thermal model is used to calculate the transient thermal history of the Newark basin, a Triassic-Jurassic continental rift basin in the eastern United States that formed during the separation of North America and Africa. The model accounts for deposition, erosion, igneous activity, lithology-dependent variations in thermal conductivity, depth-dependent radiogenic heat production, and changes in heat flow through time. A burial and erosion history for the Newark basin is constructed for the modeling, including changes in heat flow through time, emplacement of Jurassic lava flows at the surface, and emplacement of the Palisades still at depth. Vitrinite-reflectance values and apatite and zircon fission-track ages, for units of both Triassic and Jurassic age, are used to constrain the models. Use of two different data sets greatly limits the number and types of models that can reproduce the observed data. Modeling results indicate that initial formation of the Newark basin is not coincident in time with a thermal event. Elevated heat flow (on the order of 130 mW/m[sup 2] in the models) did affect the basin during its evolution, however, and was associated with igneous activity (at approximately 201-199.5 Ma in the models). Results of the modeling also indicate that the original sedimentary package in the Newark basin was approximately 2.5 km thicker than today.

  18. The East Falcon Basin: Its Caribbean roots

    SciTech Connect

    Bartok, P.; Boesi, T.

    1996-08-01

    The East Falcon Basin has been described persistently in the context of the Maracaibo Basin tectonic framework. It is the objective of the present study to demonstrate that the Falcon Basin is, in effect, a Caribbean basin juxtaposed on South America and affected by Caribbean tectonics. The oldest rocks outcropping in the region are Late Paleozoic metamorphic and igneous rocks rafted from northcentral Colombia, Middle Jurassic ophiolite complexes, sediments and metasediments and Cretaceous ophiolites transported by a melange of late Cretaceous to early Tertiary sediments. The south vergence of the Caribbean Nappe province has been documented and extends to the present limit of the Andean uplift and to the southern limit of the Coastal Range. The migrating foredeep that developed during the Paleocene-Eocene deposited dominantly basinal shales and thin sandstones. During the Oligocene the Caribbean faults of the Oca system and conjugates began with a dominantly transtensional regime becoming progressively transpressional by Miocene time. The facies development of the Oligocene-Miocene documents the tectonic history. Unique blocks remained as resistant blocks creating ramparts and modifying the basin configuration. During transpression northward-verging thrusting progressively migrated towards the present coastline. The most evident structures of the region are Caribbean in affinity and combined with the sedimentary history of the region can serve to unravel the complex Caribbean-South American plate interaction.

  19. Seismic stratigraphy or Cape Sorell Basin, Tasmania

    SciTech Connect

    Bellow, T.L.

    1990-05-01

    Because large new exploration areas have become scarce, the Cape Sorell basin has become an increasingly attractive frontier area. Cape Sorell basin, located along the western passive continental margin of Tasmania formed as a result of the breakup of eastern Gondwanaland 95{plus minus}5 Ma. An extensional fault system trending west-northwest with dip-slip movement down to the south-southwest forms the northern boundary and a second fault system trending north-northwest with oblique slip down to the south-southwest creates the basin. Second order extensional faults within the basin have created wrench-type flower structures, which are potential migration pathways for hydrocarbons. Nine distinct depositional sequences identified within the Cape Sorell basin record the evolution of this passive continental margin. Late Cretaceous-early Paleocene sequences were deposited as the rifting ceased and clastic progradation over the rift terrain began. Relative lowering of sea level occurred during the Paleocene, resulting in extensive channeling of the Late Cretaceous-early Paleocene sequences. A subsequent rise in relative sea level resulted in canyon-fill deposition during the early Paleocene to early Eocene. During the Eocene, sedimentation sufficiently increased to produce a downlapping sediment progradation characterized by deltaic depositional environment. Although interrupted several times by changes in relative sea level and shifting sediment sources, deltaic deposition continued until the late Oligocene. As the rate of clastic sedimentation slowed, carbonate shelf deposition began and has typified the basin since late the Oligocene.

  20. Mesozoic evolution of the Amu Darya basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunet, Marie-Françoise; Ershov, Andrey; Korotaev, Maxim; Mordvintsev, Dmitriy; Barrier, Eric; Sidorova, Irina

    2014-05-01

    This study, granted by the Darius Programme, aims at proposing a model of tectono-stratigraphic evolution of the Amu Darya basin since the Late Palaeozoic and to understand the relationship with the nearby basins. The Amu Darya basin, as its close eastern neighbour, the Afghan-Tajik basin, lies on the Turan platform, after the closure of the Turkestan Ocean during the Late Paleozoic. These two basins, spread on mainly lowlands of Turkmenistan, southwest Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and northern Afghanistan, are separated from one another by the South-Western Gissar meganticline, where series of the northern Amu Darya margin are outcropping. The evolution is closely controlled by several periods of crustal thinning (post-collision rifting and back-arc extension), with some marine incursions, coming in between accretions of continental blocks and collisions that succeeded from the Late Triassic-Early Jurassic (Eo-Cimmerian orogeny) to the Cenozoic times. These orogenies controlled the deposition of thick clastics sequences, and the collision of the Indian Plate with Eurasia strongly deformed the sedimentary cover of the Afghan-Tajik basin. The more than 7 km thick Meso-Cenozoic sedimentary succession of the Amu Darya basin, lies on a complex system of rifts and blocks. Their orientation and age (late Permian, Triassic?) are not well known because of deep burial. The north-eastern margin, with the Bukhara (upper margin) and Chardzhou steps, is NW oriented, parallel to the Paleozoic Turkestan suture. The orientation bends to W-E, in the part of the Gissar situated to the North of the Afghan-Tajik basin. This EW trending orientation prevails also in the south(-eastern) margin of the basin (series of North Afghanistan highs) and in the Murgab depression, the south-eastern deepest portion of the Amu Darya basin. It is in this area and in the eastern part of the Amu Darya basin that the Jurassic as well as the lower Cretaceous sediments are the thickest. The south-western part

  1. Estimating tectonic history through basin simulation-enhanced seismic inversion: Geoinformatics for sedimentary basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tandon, K.; Tuncay, K.; Hubbard, K.; Comer, J.; Ortoleva, P.

    2004-01-01

    A data assimilation approach is demonstrated whereby seismic inversion is both automated and enhanced using a comprehensive numerical sedimentary basin simulator to study the physics and chemistry of sedimentary basin processes in response to geothermal gradient in much greater detail than previously attempted. The approach not only reduces costs by integrating the basin analysis and seismic inversion activities to understand the sedimentary basin evolution with respect to geodynamic parameters-but the technique also has the potential for serving as a geoinfomatics platform for understanding various physical and chemical processes operating at different scales within a sedimentary basin. Tectonic history has a first-order effect on the physical and chemical processes that govern the evolution of sedimentary basins. We demonstrate how such tectonic parameters may be estimated by minimizing the difference between observed seismic reflection data and synthetic ones constructed from the output of a reaction, transport, mechanical (RTM) basin model. We demonstrate the method by reconstructing the geothermal gradient. As thermal history strongly affects the rate of RTM processes operating in a sedimentary basin, variations in geothermal gradient history alter the present-day fluid pressure, effective stress, porosity, fracture statistics and hydrocarbon distribution. All these properties, in turn, affect the mechanical wave velocity and sediment density profiles for a sedimentary basin. The present-day state of the sedimentary basin is imaged by reflection seismology data to a high degree of resolution, but it does not give any indication of the processes that contributed to the evolution of the basin or causes for heterogeneities within the basin that are being imaged. Using texture and fluid properties predicted by our Basin RTM simulator, we generate synthetic seismograms. Linear correlation using power spectra as an error measure and an efficient quadratic

  2. Marcelina formation study - Maracaibo basin

    SciTech Connect

    D`Arlach, C.; Peralta, J.; Murillo, R.

    1996-08-01

    Recent development activity onshore, west of the Maracaibo Lake, has led to a better understanding of the Paleocene Marcelina formation in the basin. The Marcelina formation is divided into two sections, an upper coal dominated interval and a lower sand/claystone interval. The sandstone reservoir section consists of a number of fining upward sequences deposited in a fluvial environment. Laterally the section evolves to a shallow marine shaly and carbonatic section, or is truncated by a regional unconformity, being missing over much of the Lake area. The Marcelina sands are only commercially productive in the Alturitas Field, where oil is found in a combined stratigraphic/structural trap. This paper focuses on two aspects of the Marcelina. First, the study incorporates the field data into a regional framework to investigate the possibility of similar plays in the studied area. Second, the study integrates geology and engineering data to examine the Marcelina as a reservoir unit to optimize field development and increase the oil recovery efficiency. Information from seismic, logs, cores, reservoir pressures, and fluids is used to understand the depositional model and the field complexity. The study provides a model, supported by extensive data, which may help to develop other potential discoveries in the west coast area.

  3. On Restoring Sedimentary Basins for Post-Depositional Deformation - Paleozoic Basins of the Central Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahlburg, H.

    2015-12-01

    The reconstruction and interpretation of sedimentary basins incorporated into folded and thrusted mountain belts is strongly limited by the style and intensity of shortening. This problem is exacerbated if deformation is polyphasic as is the case for the Paleozoic basins in the central Andes. Some of these have been deformed by folding and thrusting during at least 3 events in the Late Ordovician, the Late Paleozoic and Cenozoic. A realistic reconstruction of the original basin dimensions and geometries from outcrops and maps appears to be almost impossible. We present results of a stepwise reconstruction of the Paleozoic basins of the central Andes by restoring basin areas and fills accounting for crustal shortening. The structurally most prominent feature of the central Andes is the Bolivian Orocline which accomodated shortening in the last 45 Ma on the order of between 300 and 500 km. In a first step basins were restored by accounting for Cenozoic rotation and shortening by deconvolving the basins using an enhanced version of the oroclinal bending model of Ariagada et al. (2008). Results were then restored stepwise for older deformation. Constraints on these subsequent steps are significantly poorer as values of shortening can be derived only from folds and thusts apparent in outcrops. The amount of shortening accomodated on unexposed and therefore unknown thrusts can not be quantified and is a significant source of error very likely leading to an underestimation of the amount of shortening. Accepting these limitations, basin restoration results in an increase in basin area by ≥100%. The volumes of stratigraphically controlled basin fills can now be redistributed over the wider, restored area, translating into smaller rates of accumulation and hence required subsidence. The restored rates conform to those of equivalent modern basin settings and permit a more realistic and actualistic analysis of subsidence drivers and the respective tectonic framework.

  4. Active transtensional intracontinental basins: Walker Lane in the western Great Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jayko, Angela S.; Bursik, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    The geometry and dimensions of sedimentary basins within the Walker Lane are a result of Plio-Pleistocene transtensive deformation and partial detachment of the Sierra Nevada crustal block from the North American plate. Distinct morpho-tectonic domains lie within this active transtensive zone. The northeast end of the Walker Lane is partly buried by active volcanism of the southern Cascades, and adjacent basins are filled or poorly developed. To the south, the basin sizes are moderate, 25–45km × 15–10 km, with narrow 8-12km wide mountain ranges mainly oriented N-S to NNE. These basins form subparallel arrays in discrete zones trending about 300° and have documented clockwise rotation. This is succeeded to the south by a releasing stepover domain ∼85-100km wide, where the basins are elongated E-W to ENE, small (∼15-30km long, 5-15km wide), and locally occupied by active volcanic centers. The southernmost part of the Walker Lane is structurally integrated, with high to extreme relief. Adjacent basins are elongate, 50-200km long and ∼5 -20km wide. Variations in transtensive basin orientations in the Walker Lane are largely attributable to variations in strain partitioning. Large basins in the Walker Lane have 2-6km displacement across basin bounding faults with up to 3 km of clastic accumulation based on gravity and drill hole data. The sedimentary deposits of the basins may include interbedded volcanic deposits with bimodal basaltic and rhyolitic associations. The basins may include lacustrine deposits that record a wide range of water chemistry from cold fresh water conditions to saline-evaporative

  5. Simulation of streamflow in small drainage basins in the southern Yampa River basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, R.S.; Norris, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Coal mining operations in northwestern Colorado commonly are located in areas that have minimal available water-resource information. Drainage-basin models can be a method for extending water-resource information to include periods for which there are no records or to transfer the information to areas that have no streamflow-gaging stations. To evaluate the magnitude and variability of the components of the water balance in the small drainage basins monitored, and to provide some method for transfer of hydrologic data, the U.S. Geological Survey 's Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System was used for small drainage basins in the southern Yampa River basin to simulate daily mean streamflow using daily precipitation and air-temperature data. The study area was divided into three hydrologic regions, and in each of these regions, three drainage basins were monitored. Two of the drainage basins in each region were used to calibrate the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System. The model was not calibrated for the third drainage basin in each region; instead, parameter values were transferred from the model that was calibrated for the two drainage basins. For all of the drainage basins except one, period of record used for calibration and verification included water years 1976-81. Simulated annual volumes of streamflow for drainage basins used in calibration compared well with observed values; individual hydrographs indicated timing differences between the observed and simulated daily mean streamflow. Observed and simulated annual average streamflows compared well for the periods of record, but values of simulated high and low streamflows were different than observed values. Similar results were obtained when calibrated model parameter values were transferred to drainage basins that were uncalibrated. (USGS)

  6. Thrace basin: An extensional Tertiary sedimentary basin in an area of major plate convergences, northwest Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Turgut, S.; Atalik, E.

    1988-08-01

    The Thrace basin forms one of the largest Tertiary basins in Turkey. Paleontological and sedimentological evidence suggests sedimentation and basin formation commenced by a major transgression from the southwest in the middle to late middle Eocene. The basin formed over an extremely deformed crustal block. It straddles an Upper Cretaceous suture zone which later became a major mobile belt in Turkey. Syndepositional fault patterns and sedimentary thickness indicate the basin was evolved tectonically by north-south extension. Large listric normal faults and east-west depositional axis are evidence of this extension. Early marine sedimentation in the basin was accompanied by an intense volcanism which poured large quantities of ash into the depositional environment. Normal basement faults were active and great thicknesses of clastic sediments accumulated along faults. Reefal to shallow marine carbonates were deposited on shelves and over intrabasinal paleohighs. Sedimentation became regressive in the early Oligocene. Alternation of marine and nonmarine clastic deposition continued without interruption until the end of the Oligocene. By the late Oligocene to early Miocene, the whole basin was subjected to intense tectonism that caused uplift and faulting. Seismic reflection profiles reveal a very complex tectonic style in the basin. Fault-related inversion and flowage structures involving shale diapirism are quite common. Eocene and Oligocene shales are mature enough to generate economical quantities of hydrocarbons. Their source quality is fair to poor. Sand bodies in the Eocene-Oligocene series and reefal carbonates form the reservoir facies, and they are targets for exploration.

  7. The Deep Structure of Lunar Basins: Clues to the Understanding of Basin Formation and Modification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bratt, S. R.; Solomon, S. C.; Head, J. W.; Thurber, C. H.

    1985-01-01

    Basin excavation has played a major role in shaping the surface and subsurface of the Moon. Though photogeologic observations provide estimates for the present volumes of lunar impact basins and their ejecta deposits, there is not sufficient information to describe completely either the geometry of the basins at the time of impact or their modification with time. Determination of the structure of the crust and upper mantle beneath large basins can provide important insight into the thermal and mechanical processes associated with basin formation and modification as well as the differences in these processes as functions of basin age and size. Using observed gravity and topography together with the seismically determined crustal thickness of the central nearside, a model for the structure of the crust and upper mantle of the nearside of the Moon is presented. With this model the deep structure of the largest lunar basins are compared. The implications for the processes of basin formation and modification at different stages in lunar history are explored.

  8. Implication of drainage basin parameters of a tropical river basin of South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, K. J.; Sreekumar, S.; Aslam, Arish

    2016-03-01

    Drainage morphometry provides quantitative description of the drainage system which is an important aspect of the characterisation of watersheds. Chalakudi River is one of the important rivers of the South India which has attracted attention of many environmental scientists recently because of the proposed Athirapally Hydel Project across the river. SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission) data were used for preparing DEM (Digital Elevation Model), Aspect Map and Slope Map. Geographical Information System (GIS) was used for the evaluation of linear, areal and relief aspects of morphometric parameters. The study reveals that the terrain exhibits dentritic and trellis pattern of drainage. The Chalakudi River Basin has a total area of 1,448.73 km2 and is designated as seventh-order basin. The drainage density of the basin is estimated as 2.54 and the lower-order streams mostly dominate the basin. The high basin relief indicates high runoff and sediment transport. The elongation ratio of the Chalakudi Basin is estimated as 0.48 and indicates that the shape of the basin is elongated. The development of stream segments in the basin area is more or less effected by rainfall. Relief ratio indicates that the discharge capability of watershed is very high and the groundwater potential is meagre. The low value of drainage density in spite of mountainous relief indicates that the area is covered by dense vegetation and resistant rocks permeated by fractures and joints. These studies are helpful in watershed development planning and wise utilization of natural resources.

  9. Tularosa Basin Play Fairway Analysis: Partial Basin and Range Heat and Zones of Critical Stress Maps

    SciTech Connect

    Adam Brandt

    2015-11-15

    Interpolated maps of heat flow, temperature gradient, and quartz geothermometers are included as TIF files. Zones of critical stress map is also included as a TIF file. The zones are given a 5km diameter buffer. The study area is only a part of the Basin and Range, but it does includes the Tularosa Basin.

  10. Hydrocarbon systems in the East Texas basin: A basin modeling approach

    SciTech Connect

    Wescott, W.A.; Hood, W.C. )

    1993-09-01

    The East Texas basin is a prolific mature hydrocarbon province, producing oil and gas from several reservoirs and a variety of trap types. Much of the liquid hydrocarbons discovered in the basin are trapped in structures related to movement of the underlying Louann Salt. By determining the structural evolution of the basin, a framework was constructed to model the generation of hydrocarbons in the basin. Geochemical data indicate three major source horizons: the Smackover formation (Jurassic oil), shales in the Pearsal Group (Lower Cretaceous oil), and the Eagleford shale (Upper Cretaceous oil). The Jurassic source is mature throughout the basin and began to expel oil approximately 88 Ma. The distribution of Jurassic oil in Cretaceous reservoirs shows that vertical migration routes predominated. Lower Cretaceous source rocks are mature only in the deep, central part of the basin where expulsion began around 47 Ma Distribution of this oil type suggests that Lower Cretaceous source rocks occur only in localized areas of the East Texas basin. The Eagleford shale is immature in the main part of the basin, but it is mature south of the Angelina-Caldwell flexure, where is reached peak generation approximately 20 Ma. Lateral migration explains the distribution of this oil. Migration routes to the giant East Texas field may be 60 mi or more.

  11. Lunar Pyroclastic Eruptions: Basin Volcanism's Dying Gasps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, G. Y.; Nahm, A.; McGovern, P. J.; Kring, D. A.

    2011-12-01

    The relationship between mare volcanism and impact basins has long been recognized, although the degree of influence basin formation has on volcanism remains a point of contention. For example, did melting of magma sources result from thermal energy imparted by a basin-forming event? Did basin impacts initiate mantle overturn of the unstable LMO cumulate pile, causing dense ilmenite to sink and drag radioactive KREEPy material to provide the thermal energy to initiate melting of the mare sources? Did the dramatically altered stress states provide pathways ideally suited for magma ascent? The chemistry of sampled lunar volcanic glasses indicates that they experienced very little fractional crystallization during their ascent to the surface - they have pristine melt compositions. Volatile abundances, including recent measurements of OH [1,2] suggest that the mantle source of at least the OH-analyzed glasses have a water abundance of ~700 ppm - comparable to that of Earth's upper mantle. More recently, [3] showed that the abundance of OH and other volatiles measured in these glasses is positively correlated with trace element abundances, which is expected since water is incompatible in a magma. Volatile enrichment in a deep mantle source would lower the melting temperature and provide the thrust for magma ascent through 500 km of mantle and crust [4]. We are exploring the idea that such basin-related lunar pyroclastic volcanism may represent the last phase of basaltic volcanism in a given region. Remote sensing studies have shown volcanic glasses are fairly common, and often found along the perimeter of mare-filled basins [5]. Recent modeling of the stresses related to the basin-forming process [6,7] show that basin margins provide the ideal conduit for low-volume lunar pyroclastic volcanism (compared with the high output of mare volcanism). Schrödinger's basin floor is largely composed of a compositionally uniform impact breccia. The exceptions are two distinct and

  12. A chrono-tectonostratigraphic framework for the Sydney Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, O. A.; Jones, B. G.; Fergusson, C. L.

    2013-12-01

    The Sydney Basin is a foreland basin forming the southern part of the Bowen-Gunnedah-Sydney Basin system in Eastern Australia. Tectonically the Sydney Basin is regarded as a retro-arc foreland basin that developed through Late Carboniferous to Middle Triassic. Constructing a tectonstratigraphic framework for the basin is difficult due to the complex stratigraphy and poor age control, along with its complex tectonic history. A chrono-tectonostratigraphic framework for the Sydney Basin is presented based on literature synthesis combined with new data analysis. The chrono-tectonostratigraphic framework will provide an up-to-date and easy to follow detailed basin history which can be utilize in the exploration for conventional and unconventional resources in the Sydney Basin.

  13. Precambrian shield and basement tectonics in sedimentary basin analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Touborg, J.F.

    1984-04-01

    This study focused on the use of (1) regional structural analysis of basement and Precambrian rocks surrounding a sedimentary basin, and (2) tracing basement structures into the sedimentary basin. The structural analysis of the Precambrian shield has a fundamental bearing on interpretation of overlying sedimentary cover rocks. This is expressed in the southern part of the Hudson's Bay basin and its southeastern arm, the Moose River basin. For instance, the rims of both basins are controlled by faults or graben structures. Approximately 13 major fault systems with strike lengths of 200-300 km (125-186 mi) or more can be traced from the exposed Precambrian shield into the basin in terms of lineament arrays and/or aeromagnetic and/or gravity signature. The data suggest reactivation of faults during basin sedimentation. This type of basement structural analysis in areas adjacent to sedimentary basins can provide a valuable interpretation base for subsequent seismic surveys and basin evaluation.

  14. Perspective of gas exploration in Ying-Qiong Basin

    SciTech Connect

    He, Hanyi; Zhongtiang Hu )

    1996-01-01

    The Yinggehai and Qiongdongnan Basin (Ying-Qiong Basin) in the northwest part of the South China Sea is a Cenozoic sedimentary basin, which has fast-subsiding and thick sediments. The maximum Cenozoic sediments in the center part of the basin is 20,000 m. Six sets of source rocks with prevailing Type III kerogen were developed in the basin, which has a great potential for gas generation. Different types of reservoirs and traps, leading to different assemblages of source rocks, reservoirs, and cap rocks, form good gas pools. Abnormal high temperature and high pressure in the basin resulted in many mud diapirs and made the generation, migration, and accumulation of gas more colorful. Up to now, four gas fields have been discovered in the basin. A large number of anticlines and stratigraphic-lithologic traps in the basin provide an extensive area for gas exploration. The perspective of gas exploration in the basin is vast and bright.

  15. Perspective of gas exploration in Ying-Qiong Basin

    SciTech Connect

    He, Hanyi; Zhongtiang Hu

    1996-12-31

    The Yinggehai and Qiongdongnan Basin (Ying-Qiong Basin) in the northwest part of the South China Sea is a Cenozoic sedimentary basin, which has fast-subsiding and thick sediments. The maximum Cenozoic sediments in the center part of the basin is 20,000 m. Six sets of source rocks with prevailing Type III kerogen were developed in the basin, which has a great potential for gas generation. Different types of reservoirs and traps, leading to different assemblages of source rocks, reservoirs, and cap rocks, form good gas pools. Abnormal high temperature and high pressure in the basin resulted in many mud diapirs and made the generation, migration, and accumulation of gas more colorful. Up to now, four gas fields have been discovered in the basin. A large number of anticlines and stratigraphic-lithologic traps in the basin provide an extensive area for gas exploration. The perspective of gas exploration in the basin is vast and bright.

  16. Petroleum geology of principal sedimentary basins in eastern China

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.Y.

    1986-05-01

    The principal petroliferous basins in eastern China are the Songliao, Ordos, and Sichuan basins of Mesozoic age, and the North China, Jianghan, Nanxiang, and Subei basins of Cenozoic age. These basins contain mostly continental fluvial and lacustrine detrital sediments. Four different geologic ages are responsible for the oil and gas in this region: (1) Mesozoic in the Songliao, Ordos, and Sichuan basins; (2) Tertiary in the North China, Jianghan, Nanxiang, and Subei basins; (3) Permian-Carboniferous in the southern North China basin and the northwestern Ordos basin; and (4) Sinian in the southern Sichuan basin. The most prolific oil and gas sources are the Mesozoic of the Songliao basin and the Tertiary of the North China basin. Although the major source rocks in these basins are lacustrine mudstone and shale, their tectonic settings and the resultant temperature gradients differ. For example, in the Songliao, North China, and associated basins, trapping conditions commonly are associated with block faulting of an extensional tectonic regime; the extensional tectonics in turn contribute to a high geothermal gradient (40/sup 0/-60/sup 0/C/km), which results in early maturation and migration for relatively shallow deposits. However, the Ordos and Sichuan basins formed under compressional conditions and are cooler. Hence, maturation and migration occurred late, relative to reservoir deposition and burial, the result being a poorer quality reservoir.

  17. Paleogene Rift Basins along East China Sea: Tectonic Evolution of Penghu Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Tzu-Ruei; Yang, Kenn-Ming; Kuo, Yong-Chein; Lee, Chang-Ji

    2013-04-01

    Prior to the orogeny, Taiwan is located at the passive continental margin. Two extensional events in Tertiary resulted in Paleogene and Neogene basins. The Paleogene rift basins along East China Sea and Taiwan Straight - Tungyintao, Nanjihtao, Penghu basins, from north to south, respectively, comprise a left-lateral and en echelon array rift system. Previous wellbore data revealed that these basins are filled with Paleocene and Eocence sediments, which were controlled by the NE-SW trending growth normal faults. Moreover, Penghu basin is composed of two sub-basins separated by lateral fault which induced a regional volcanic uplift. The seismic profiles indicate that it represents a typical half-graben basin with wedge-shaped synrift deposits thickening toward the main boundary fault. Five wells in the Penghu basin show that Penghu basin began to form during the Late Pliocene with shallow marine deposition. The mid-Eocene shale sequences in northwestern side are interbedded with some layers of basic lava flow, which indicate that the normal faults induced the volcanism. Data used in this study consist of: (1) multi-channel seismic data, (2) seven wellbore data acquired by CPC, Taiwan (Chinese Petroleum Corporation, Taiwan). Seismic profiles were interpreted by Kingdom Suite. Afterwards, integrate synthetic seismogram to generate depth-converted profiles, and import them to 2Dmove for cross-section restoration. Three regional unconformities and four sequence units are delineated in this area. Seismic profile interpretations also infer that the main faults dominantly oriented NE-SW, and the formation of Penghu basin is mostly due to the normal fault in the southeastern side, which is NE-SW trending in the north, and gradually changes to nearly E-W trending. These normal faults are separated by some lateral faults. Restoration of representive cross sections suggest three phases of basin development in the Penghu basin. Regarding to the stratigraphy framework according

  18. Kandik basin stratigraphy, sedimentology, and structure

    SciTech Connect

    Wiley, T.J.; Howell, D.G.; Kauffman-Linam, L.; Boundy-Sanders, S.; Murray, R.W.; Jones, D.L.

    1987-05-01

    East-central Alaska's Kandik basin is a structural remnant of a larger Permian to Cretaceous basin. Permian shallow-water Tahkandit Limestone and Step Conglomerate at the base of the sequence rest unconformably on Paleozoic chert-pebble conglomerate, siliceous shale, and limestone. These Permian rocks are overlain by Triassic to Lower Cretaceous open-ocean Glenn Shale, which grades upward into Lower Cretaceous (Valanginian) hummocky cross-bedded (outer shelf to upper slope) Keenan Quartzite. The quartzite grades upward into fine-grained north-northeast-flowing turbidites of the Biederman Argillite (undated). East-northeast-flowing pebbly turbidites of the Kathul Graywacke (undated) overlie Biederman strata. Locally, Cretaceous (Albian and younger) through Paleogene nonmarine rocks unconformably overlie the Kandik basin sequence. The Mesozoic part of the sequence is similar to that of Manley basin, northwest Yukon Territory, and much of the North Slope. East-directed flow for Kandik basin strata may require paleogeographic reconstructions involving local to large-scale palinspastic rotations or a western source of chert detritus. Deformation of the Mesozoic sequence in Kandik basin west of the US-Canada border shows northwest-southeast shortening. Shaly units are tightly folded with well-developed cleavage striking northeast. Strikes of beds swing from northeast to east in the extreme southwestern part of the basin, suggesting clockwise rotation. Thrust faults, reverse faults, and fold axes trend east to northeast; normal faults trend northwest. These relations are all consistent with, and probably are closely related to, right slip on the west-northwest-trending Tintina fault.

  19. Hydrogeology of the West Siberian Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, M.G.; Bradley, D.J.; Cole, C.R.

    1996-08-01

    Nuclear fuel cycle activities of the former Soviet Union (FSU) have resulted in extensive radioactive contaminant releases to the environment in western Siberia. We are developing three-dimensional numerical models of the hydrogeology and potential contaminant migration in the West Siberian Basin. We have assumed that ground-water flow in the West Siberian Basin is topographically driven, with recharge to the basin occurring in the highlands on the west, east, and south, and internal discharge localized in numerous river valleys and lakes that ultimately discharge north to the ocean. We are modeling the regional hydrogeology as three-dimensional, steady-state, saturated flow that is recharged from above. We acquired topographic, geologic, hydrostratigraphic, hydrogeologic, and water-balance data for the West Siberian Basin and constructed a regional water table. We correlated and combined 70 different rock types derived from published descriptions of West Siberian Basin rocks into 17 rock types appropriate for assignment of hydrogeologic properties on the basis of spatial heterogeneity and constituent (i.e., sand, silt, and clay) diversity. Examination of resulting three-dimensional assemblages of rock types showed that they were consistent with published and inferred paleogeography and depositional processes. Calibrating the basin`s moisture balance (i.e., recharge and discharge) to the derived water table determined plausible input parameter values for unknowns such as hydraulic conductivities. The general directions of calculated ground-water flow suggest that major rivers act as discharge areas, with upwelling below the rivers extending down into the basement rocks, and that ground-water divides that penetrate the entire thickness of the model are evident between major rivers.

  20. Basin modeling of the Parang (Socotra) Basin, northern East China Sea shelf: Implications for hydrocarbon potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Moon, S.; Lee, G.; Yoon, Y.; Kim, H.

    2013-12-01

    The hydrocarbon potential of the Parang (Socotra) Basin in the northern East China Sea shelf has remained poorly understood. We performed one-dimensional basin modeling for a dummy well located in the depocenter of the northern part of the Parang Basin to investigate the timings of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion. First, a depth-converted seismic profile crossing the dummy well was restored by backstripping and decompaction for eight regional and subregional unconformities, including the top of the acoustic basement, to reconstruct the subsidence history and to determine the timing of trap formation. The basin modeling, assuming rifting heat-flow model and source rocks with type III kerogen, suggests that the main phase of hydrocarbon (mostly gas) expulsion peaked in the Late Eocene, predating the inversion that created traps in the early Middle to latest Middle Eocene. Thus, the potential for large hydrocarbon accumulations in the northern Parang Basin is probably limited.

  1. Chicxulub impact basin: Gravity characteristics and implications for basin morphology and deep structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharpton, Virgil L.; Burke, Kevin; Hall, Stuart A.; Lee, Scott; Marin, Luis E.; Suarez, Gerardo; Quezada-Muneton, Juan Manuel; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Jaime

    1993-01-01

    The K-T-aged Chicxulub Impact Structure is buried beneath the Tertiary carbonate rocks of the Northern Yucatan Platform. Consequently its morphology and structure are poorly understood. Reprocessed Bouguer (onshore) and Free Air (offshore) gravity data over Northern Yucatan reveal that Chicxulub may be a 200-km-diameter multi-ring impact basin with at least three concentric basin rings. The positions of these rings follow the square root of 2 spacing rule derived empirically from analysis of multi-ring basins on other planets indicating that these rings probably correspond to now-buried topographic basin rings. A forward model of the gravity data along a radial transect from the southwest margin of the structure indicates that the Chicxulub gravity signature is compatible with this interpretation. We estimate the basin rim diameter to be 204 +/- 16 km and the central peak ring diameter (D) is 104 +/- 6 km.

  2. Basin-centered gas evaluated in Dnieper-Donets basin, Donbas foldbelt, Ukraine

    SciTech Connect

    Law, B.E.; Ulmishek, G.F.; Clayton, J.L.; Kabyshev, B.P.; Pashova, N.T.; Krivosheya, V.A.

    1998-11-23

    An evaluation of thermal maturity, pore pressures, source rocks, reservoir quality, present-day temperatures, and fluid recovery data indicates the presence of a large basin-centered gas accumulation in the Dnieper-Donets basin (DDB) and Donbas foldbelt (DF) of eastern Ukraine. This unconventional accumulation covers an area of at least 35,000 sq km and extends vertically through as much as 7,000 m of Carboniferous rocks. The gas accumulation is similar, in many respects, to some North American accumulations such as Elmworth in the Alberta basin of western Canada, the Greater Green River basin of southwestern Wyoming, and the Anadarko basin of Oklahoma. Even though rigorous assessments of the recoverable gas have not been conducted in the region, a comparison of the dimensions of the accumulation to similar accumulations in the US indicates gas resources in excess of 100 tcf in place. The paper describes the geology, the reservoirs, source rocks, seals, and recommendations for further study.

  3. Basin analysis of tertiary strata in the Pattani Basin, Gulf of Thailand

    SciTech Connect

    Chonchawalit, A. ); Bustin, R.M. )

    1994-07-01

    The stratigraphic and structural evolution of the Pattani basin, the most prolific petroleum basin in Thailand, reflects the extensional tectonics of continental southeast Asia. East-west extension, a product of the northward collision of India with Eurasia since the early Tertiary resulted in the formation of a series of north-south-trending sedimentary basins including the Pattani basin. Subsidence and thermal histories of the basin can generally be accounted for by nonuniform lithospheric stretching. The validity of nonuniform lithospheric stretching as a mechanic for the formation of the Pattani basin is confirmed by a reasonably good agreement between modeled and observed vitrinite reflectance at various depths and locations. The amount of stretching and surface heat flow generally increases from the basin margin to the basin center. Crustal stretching factor ([beta]) ranges from 1.3 at the basin margin to 2.8 in the center. Subcrustal stretching factor ([sigma]) ranges from 1.3 at the margin to more than 3.0 in the center. The stretching of the lithosphere may have extended basement rocks as much as 45 to 90 km and may have caused the upwelling of asthenosphere, resulting in high heat flow. The sedimentary succession in the Pattani basin is divisible into synrift and postrift sequences. The synrift sequences comprise (1) late Eocene ( ) to early Oligocene alluvial fan, braided river, and flood-plain deposits; (2) late Oligocene to early Miocene floodplain and channel deposits; and (3) an early Miocene regressive package of marine to nonmarine sediments. Deposition of synrift sequences corresponded to rifting and extension, which included episodic block faulting and rapid subsidence. Postrift succession comprises (1) an early to middle Miocene regressive package of shallow marine to nonmarine sediments, (2) a late early Miocene transgressive package; and (3) a late Miocene to Pleistocene transgression succession.

  4. Australia`s southeastern Bonaparte basin has plenty of potential

    SciTech Connect

    Miyazaki, S.

    1997-04-21

    Situated in the Timor Sea and Joseph Bonaparte Gulf regions, the Bonaparte basin is one of the Phanerozoic basins of what is now called the North West Shelf of Australia. This basin consists of a number of Paleozoic and Mesozoic synclines and horsts. Drilling success rate for this basin is one of the highest in Australia in the last 5 years. New opportunities are available in the southeastern Bonaparte basin, where seven vacant tracts have just been released for application for exploration permits. The paper discusses the regional geology, previous exploration activities, and potentials of the southern Petrel sub-basin and Darwin shelf.

  5. Quaternary Faults and Basin-fill Sediments of the Las Vegas Basin, Southern Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, W. J.; Fossett, E.; Luke, B.; Snelson, C.; Rasmussen, T.; McCallen, D.; Rodgers, A.; Louie, J.

    2003-12-01

    The N-S elongated extensional Las Vegas basin, southern Nevada, contains 100's of meters of Cenozoic basin-fill sediments that are cut by several Quaternary (Q) faults. These faults define or influence the basin geometry. The basin is generally an asymmetrical half graben defined by the W-dipping, Q Frenchman Mountain fault (FMF) along its E side and a series of smaller offset E-dipping faults to the W. The N terminus of the basin is controlled by the Las Vegas Valley shear zone, along which the majority of the offset occurred prior to the Q. Here, we asses the influence of the Q faults on the distribution of the sedimentary units. Well, exposure, seismic reflection and seismic refraction data show that sedimentary units of different grain sizes or seismic velocity dominate different parts of the basin. Sections dominated by coarse clastic deposits occupy a narrow area along the E side of the basin. Coarse clastic sediments are mixed with finer grained sediments in a broader area along the W side of the basin. Based on provenance and alluvial fan distribution, the coarse deposits along the E side of the basin appear to be trapped in close proximity to the W-dipping FMF. The coarse-grained deposits along the opposite, W side of the basin, are sourced from the nearby Spring Mountains. Because of the structural asymmetry of the basin, these sediments traveled farther from their source area than those on the E side. Some of these E-dipping faults influence the depth to Paleozoic bedrock and some faults form small sub-basins filled with finer grained sediments. Along a WNW trend near the center of the basin and near the present-day Las Vegas Wash, a change in the grain size distribution occurs up stratgraphic section: continuous clay layers are less common and coarse-grained deposits are more common. This difference may reflect a change from internal drainage early in the basin history to external drainage through the Las Vegas Wash in the latter history of the basin

  6. A geological history of the Turkana Basin.

    PubMed

    Feibel, Craig S

    2011-01-01

    The Turkana Basin preserves a long and detailed record of biotic evolution, cultural development, and rift valley geology in its sedimentary strata. Before the formation of the modern basin, Cretaceous fluvial systems, Paleogene lakes, and Oligo-Miocene volcano-sedimentary sequences left fossil-bearing strata in the region. These deposits were in part related to an early system of rift basins that stretched from Sudan to the Indian Ocean. The present-day basin has its origins in Pliocene tectonic developments of the modern rift, with subsidence making room for more than one kilometer of Plio-Pleistocene strata. Much of this sequence belongs to the Omo Group, richly fossiliferous sediments associated with the ancestral Omo River and its tributaries. Modern Lake Turkana has a record stretching back more than 200 thousand years, with earlier lake phases throughout the Plio-Pleistocene. The geologic history of the basin is one of dynamic landscapes responding to environmental influences, including tectonics, volcanic activity and climate. PMID:22170690

  7. Hydrocarbon potential of lower Magdalena basin

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, E.; Valderrama, R. )

    1989-03-01

    The Lower Magdalena basin complex of Colombia has an areal extent of more than 87,000 km{sup 2}. The geologic setting of the different subbasins of the Lower Magdalena presents attractive play concepts for the generation, entrapment, and production of hydrocarbons. The sedimentary sequence within the basin attains a thickness in excess of 12,200 m, with the preponderance of this section being of Tertiary age. This major thickness of section contains good source and reservoir rocks and seals and an abundance of structural and stratigraphic traps, which make the basin attractive for new interpretation and evaluation. The Plato, San Jorge, and Sinu subbasins lie within the Lower Magdalena complex. Each of these presents different geological conditions, thereby offering a variety of play concepts for hydrocarbon exploration. Previous exploration in the Lower Magdalena has resulted in the discovery of 10 small to moderate-size fields, which have produced nearly 200 million bbl of oil. The density of exploration drilling within the basin is one well/435 km{sup 2}, thereby allowing the opportunity for more discoveries to be realized. The existence of a thick Tertiary section with excellent source beds and a tectonic history that allows for both structural and stratigraphic traps presents an excellent opportunity for the application of modern exploration techniques to reevaluate the potential of a basin that has not been thoroughly evaluated due to complex exploration problems.

  8. Offshore Essaouira basin: Geology and hydrocarbon potential

    SciTech Connect

    Jabour, H.; Ait Salem, A. )

    1991-03-01

    The study area lies in the offshore extension of the onshore Essaouria basin. The Mesozoic development of the Essaouira margin was largely controlled by Late Triassic to Mid-Jurassic rifting and subsequent opening of the Central Atlantic, with the evolution of a typical passive, opening of the Central Atlantic, with the evolution of a typical passive, continental margin. Diapiric salt structure recognized on seismic defines a Late Triassic-Early Jurassic salt basin in the offshore area initiated during early rifting. Subsidence and sea-level rise during Jurassic resulted in carbonate platform development. This was followed during Cretaceous and Tertiary time by the deposition of a prograding siliciclastic system. Only three wells have been drilled in this basin. Although drilled on poorly defined prospects, these wells encountered gas and oil shows. Fairly extensive seismic coverage of good quality data is now available. A study based on an integrated approach involving seismic facies definition and mapping, correlation with well data, identification of the principal control on sedimentation, and basin modeling in conjunction with source rock prediction and maturity modeling has been carried out. Results have shown that hydrocarbon potential in the offshore Essaouira basin has not yet been substantiated by drilling. Attractive structural and stratigraphic prospects exist in the shelf, shelf edge, and the slope, and await confirmation by drilling.

  9. Petroleum geochemistry of the Zala basin, Hungary

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, J.L. ); Koncz, I. )

    1994-01-01

    The Zala basin is a subbasin within the Pannonian basis on Hungary. Oil and smaller amounts of gas are produced from Upper Triassic through Miocene reservoirs. Our geochemical study of oils and rocks in the basin indicate that two, and possibly three, genetic oil types are present in the basin. Miocene source rocks, previously believed by explorationists to be the predominant source rock, have expelled minor amounts of hydrocarbons. The main source rock is the Upper Triassic (Rhaetian) Koessen Marl Formation or its stratigraphic equivalent. Oils derived from the Triassic source rock are recognizable by their isotopic and biological marker composition, and high content of metals. In other areas of Europe, Upper Triassic source rocks have been correlated with large oil accumulations (e.g., Molassa and Villafortuna fields, Po basin, and other fields in Italy) or are postulated to be good potential source rocks (e.g., Bristol channel Trough). Knowledge of the geochemical characteristics of oils derived from these Upper Triassic source rocks and understanding of the source rock distribution and maturation history are important for recognizing Triassic oil-source bed relationships and for further exploration in other basins in Hungary and other parts of Europe where Triassic source rocks are present.

  10. Hydrothermal Activity in the Northern Guaymas Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berndt, C.; Hensen, C.; Mortera-Gutierrez, C. A.; Sarkar, S.; Geilert, S.; Schmidt, M.; Liebetrau, V.; Kipfer, R.; Scholz, F.; Doll, M.; Muff, S.; Karstens, J.; Böttner, C.; Chi, W. C.; Moser, M.; Behrendt, R.; Fiskal, A.; Evans, T.; Planke, S.; Lizarralde, D.; Lever, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Rift-related magmatism in the Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California induces hydrothermal activity within the basin sediments. Mobilized fluids migrate to the seafloor where they are emitted into the water column changing ocean chemistry and fuelling chemosynthetic ecosystems. New seismic and geochemical data from the northern rift arm of the Guaymas Basin document the variety of fluid expulsion phenomena from large-scale subsurface sediment mobilization related to contact metamorphosis to focused small-scale structures. The geochemical composition of emitted fluids depends largely on the age of the fluid escape structures with respect to the underlying intrusions. Whereas, old structures are dominated by methane emission, young vent sites are characterized by hot fluids that carry a wide range of minerals in solution. The overall high geothermal gradient within the basin (mainly between 160 and 260 °C/km) leads to a thin gas hydrate stability zone. Thus, deep hydrothermal fluid advection affects the gas hydrate system and makes it more dynamic than in colder sedimentary basins.

  11. Surficial deposits in the Bear Lake Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reheis, Marith C.; Laabs, Benjamin J.C.; Forester, Richard M.; McGeehin, John P.; Kaufman, Darrell S.; Bright, Jordon

    2005-01-01

    Mapping and dating of surficial deposits in the Bear Lake drainage basin were undertaken to provide a geologic context for interpretation of cores taken from deposits beneath Bear Lake, which sometimes receives water and sediment from the glaciated Bear River and sometimes only from the small drainage basin of Bear Lake itself. Analyses of core sediments by others are directed at (1) constructing a high-resolution climate record for the Bear Lake area during the late Pleistocene and Holocene, and (2) investigating the sources and weathering history of sediments in the drainage basin. Surficial deposits in the upper Bear River and Bear Lake drainage basins are different in their overall compositions, although they do overlap. In the upper Bear River drainage, Quaternary deposits derived from glaciation of the Uinta Range contain abundant detritus weathered from Precambrian quartzite, whereas unglaciated tributaries downstream mainly contribute finer sediment weathered from much younger, more friable sedimentary rocks. In contrast, carbonate rocks capped by a carapace of Tertiary sediments dominate the Bear Lake drainage basin.

  12. Tectonisation of basin edges on Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothery, David; Massironi, Matteo

    2013-04-01

    Lobate scarps on Mercury are generally accepted to be surface expressions of thrust faulting. This is taken as evidence of lithospheric contraction on a global scale, reflecting either global cooling, leading to thermal contraction and internal phase changes; or tidal despinning, leading to collapse of an equatorial bulge; or a combination of both. It has been further suggested that the orientations of lobate scarps could reflect a pattern of mantle convection. Here we review compressional tectonics localized along the interface between basin-fill and the inner walls of >200 km diameter mercurian impact basins. This occurs as outward-directed thrust faults following the inside of basin rims, and sometimes completely over-thrusting the rim location. Thrusting at the edges of low-latitude basins tends to be most strongly developed at eastern and western rims, suggesting tidal despinning as a driving force. Cross-cutting relationships show examples of thrusting that must considerably post-date the volcanic infilling of the associated basin, suggesting despinning occurring (or continuing) well after the end of the late heavy bombardment, contrary to previous expectations.

  13. Satellite altimetry over large hydrological basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calmant, Stephane

    2015-04-01

    The use of satellite altimetry for hydrological applications, either it is basin management or hydrological modeling really started with the 21st century. Before, during two decades, the efforts were concentrated on the data processing until a precision of a few decimeters could be achieved. Today, several web sites distribute hundreds of series spread over hundeds of rivers runing in the major basins of the world. Among these, the Amazon basin has been the most widely studied. Satellite altimetry is now routinely used in this transboundary basin to predict discharges ranging over 4 orders of magnitude. In a few years, satellite altimetry should evolve dramatically. This year, we should see the launchs of Jason-3 and that of Sentinel-3A operating in SAR mode. With SAR, the accuracy and resolution of a growing number of measurements should be improved. In 2020, SWOT will provide a full coverage that will join in a unique framework all the previous and forthcoming missions. These technical and thematical evolutions will be illustrated by examples taken in the Amazon and Congo basin.

  14. Maturation modeling in Otway Basin, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Middleton, M.F.; Falvey, D.A.

    1983-02-01

    The Otway basin is a Jurassic to Pliocene sedimentary basin formed on the southern Australian continental margin. Its formation is associated with rifting and breakup of the Australian and Antarctic plates. Lithospheric cooling and contraction have probably produced post-breakup subsidence. Either lithospheric stretching or deep crustal metamorphism may have produced pre-breakup subsidence. These mechanisms have identifiable thermal histories. Organic diagenesis (specifically the reflectance of vitrinite in oil) is empirically determined by the thermal and depositional history of an organic sediment. Thus, the stages of hydrocarbon maturity of Otway basin sediments can be modeled. Depositional history is determined from ''geohistory analysis'' and thermal history depends on the subsidence mechanism applied to the basin. A paleo-heat-flow history derived from the deep crustal metamorphism model of subsidence produces a maturation profile with depth that is consistent with observed vitrinite reflectance data, although organic diagenesis modeling is relatively insensitive to precise details of thermal history. Depositional and maturation history modeling for the present day, 20 Ma ago, 40 Ma ago, and 60 Ma ago is applied to a seismic profile across the southern Australian continental shelf in the Otway basin as a demonstration of the projection backward in time of sedimentation and organic diagenesis.

  15. Exploration in the Ombilin Intermontane Basin, West Sumatra

    SciTech Connect

    Koning, T. Petroleum Co., Lagos )

    1996-01-01

    The Ombilin Basin is a Tertiary intermontane basin located within the Barisan Mountain Range of Sumatra. Oil exploration commenced in the Ombilin Basin in the early 1980s when geological mapping was carried out, a synthetic aperture radar survey was flown, and a basin-wide geophysical survey was completed. This effort led to the drilling of Sinimar No. 1 to a total depth 3020 m. Sinimar No. 1 was a historic well in Indonesia's oil industry since it was the first oil exploration well drilled in the Ombilin Basin and also the first well drilled in an intermontane basin in Indonesia. Oil, gas and condensate was tested in the well. An integrated interpretation of the well, geophysical and outcrop data indicates that despite its small areal size (30 km x 50 km), the Ombilin Basin is a deep pull-apart basin containing up to 4500 m of Tertiary sediments, ranging in age from Middle Eocene to Early Miocene. The basin currently is in an intermontane basin structural setting but it was also an intermontane basin during its Early Tertiary depositional history. During the Eocene, alluvial fans and massive debris flows were deposited on the basin margins and a large lake occupied the basin center. Fluvial deposition occurred in the basin during the Oligocene followed by deposition of marine shales, sandstones, and isolated reefs during the Miocene. Although the Ombilin Basin is located within Sumatra's magmatic arc and is partially covered by volcanics from extinct and active volcanoes, the subsurface temperature gradients of 1.62 deg. F/100 ft. recorded in Sinimar No. I and 1.47 deg F/100 ft. measured in a deep (670 m) coal exploration core hole are significantly cooler than the average subsurface temperature gradients in the Sumatra back-arc basins. Organic-rich Eocene lacustrine shales are the likely source rocks for the hydrocarbons tested in Sinimar No. 1 and the oil seeps located along the basin margins.

  16. Exploration in the Ombilin Intermontane Basin, West Sumatra

    SciTech Connect

    Koning, T.

    1996-12-31

    The Ombilin Basin is a Tertiary intermontane basin located within the Barisan Mountain Range of Sumatra. Oil exploration commenced in the Ombilin Basin in the early 1980s when geological mapping was carried out, a synthetic aperture radar survey was flown, and a basin-wide geophysical survey was completed. This effort led to the drilling of Sinimar No. 1 to a total depth 3020 m. Sinimar No. 1 was a historic well in Indonesia`s oil industry since it was the first oil exploration well drilled in the Ombilin Basin and also the first well drilled in an intermontane basin in Indonesia. Oil, gas and condensate was tested in the well. An integrated interpretation of the well, geophysical and outcrop data indicates that despite its small areal size (30 km x 50 km), the Ombilin Basin is a deep pull-apart basin containing up to 4500 m of Tertiary sediments, ranging in age from Middle Eocene to Early Miocene. The basin currently is in an intermontane basin structural setting but it was also an intermontane basin during its Early Tertiary depositional history. During the Eocene, alluvial fans and massive debris flows were deposited on the basin margins and a large lake occupied the basin center. Fluvial deposition occurred in the basin during the Oligocene followed by deposition of marine shales, sandstones, and isolated reefs during the Miocene. Although the Ombilin Basin is located within Sumatra`s magmatic arc and is partially covered by volcanics from extinct and active volcanoes, the subsurface temperature gradients of 1.62 deg. F/100 ft. recorded in Sinimar No. I and 1.47 deg F/100 ft. measured in a deep (670 m) coal exploration core hole are significantly cooler than the average subsurface temperature gradients in the Sumatra back-arc basins. Organic-rich Eocene lacustrine shales are the likely source rocks for the hydrocarbons tested in Sinimar No. 1 and the oil seeps located along the basin margins.

  17. Miocene tephrochronology in the northern Basin and Range

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, M.E.; Brown, F.H.; Nash, W.P. . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

    1993-04-01

    Silicic air-fall tephra layers with unaltered glass shards preserved in Miocene basins of the northern Basin and Range Province (NBR) were sampled from well-exposed sections in the Goose Creek (GCB) and Ibapah (IB) basins in the northeastern NBR, and the El Pasco basin (EPB) in the southwestern NBR. Each basin may contain up to 50 tephras. Glass shards from individual tephras in any one basin are compositionally distinct, as shown by XRF and electron microprobe analysis. Seventeen tephra correlate between two or more basins; 12 of these are regionally important, providing precise stratigraphic ties across the NbR. Four regionally correlative tephras are white biotitic ashes from southern Nevada sources, whereas eight are gray vitric ashes from Yellowstone hot spot sources. Dates on tephra layers and lava flows in the basins, and on ashflow units correlated with four other tephra provide a preliminary chronology for the tephra in the all basins. In each section [Delta]h/[Delta]t appears constant on time scales [>=]1 Ma, but variation in [Delta]h/[Delta]t is demonstrated from IB, and is likely typical of all basins. Sedimentation in all five basins begins in the time interval of 14.5--12.5 Ma, which may represent the beginning of a phase of regional extension in the NBR. Post-[approximately]9.5 Ma deformation has affected all basins and likely contributed to the termination of sedimentation in the exposed areas of these basins.

  18. Modified Streamflows 1990 Level of Irrigation : Missouri, Colorado, Peace and Slave River Basin, 1928-1989.

    SciTech Connect

    A.G. Crook Company; United States. Bonneville Power Administration

    1993-07-01

    This report presents data for monthly mean streamflows adjusted for storage change, evaporation, and irrigation, for the years 1928-1990, for the Colorado River Basin, the Missouri River Basin, the Peace River Basin, and the Slave River Basin.

  19. Configuration Management Plan for K Basins

    SciTech Connect

    Weir, W.R.; Laney, T.

    1995-01-27

    This plan describes a configuration management program for K Basins that establishes the systems, processes, and responsibilities necessary for implementation. The K Basins configuration management plan provides the methodology to establish, upgrade, reconstitute, and maintain the technical consistency among the requirements, physical configuration, and documentation. The technical consistency afforded by this plan ensures accurate technical information necessary to achieve the mission objectives that provide for the safe, economic, and environmentally sound management of K Basins and the stored material. The configuration management program architecture presented in this plan is based on the functional model established in the DOE Standard, DOE-STD-1073-93, {open_quotes}Guide for Operational Configuration Management Program{close_quotes}.

  20. Southern Colombia's Putumayo basin deserves renewed attention

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, A.J. ); Portilla, O. )

    1994-05-23

    The Putumayo basin lies in southern Colombia between the Eastern Cordillera of the Andes and the Guyana-Brazilian shield. It covers about 50,000 sq km between 0--3[degree]N. Lat. and 74--77[degree]W. Long. and extends southward into Ecuador and Peru as the productive Oriente basin. About 3,500 sq km of acreage in the basin is being offered for licensing in the first licensing round by competitive tender. A recent review of the available data from this area by Intera and Ecopetrol suggests that low risk prospects and leads remain to be tested. The paper describes the tectonic setting, stratigraphy, structure, hydrocarbon geology, reservoirs, and trap types.

  1. Aptian anoxia in the Pacific Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Sliter, W.V. )

    1989-10-01

    Marine strata of Aptian age in the Pacific Basin include two distinct levels that represent episodes during which sediments rich in organic carbon were deposited. Both episodes lasted less than 1 m.y., as revealed in strata deposited atop submerged topographic highs. One unusually widespread episode of early Aptian age ({approximately}117.5 Ma) correlates with coeval units in Europe and thus is analogous to the Cenomanian-Turonian oceanic anoxic event in its short duration and wide geographic extent. The second episode of late Aptian age ({approximately}116.5 Ma) is restricted to allochthonous pelagic deposits in the Franciscan Complex of California. These results support the concept of widespread and narrowly synchronous anoxic events. Further, they show that organic carbon deposition in the Pacific Basin took place in intermediate water oxygen-minimum zones and thus differed in the mode of deposition, and hence paleoceanography, from that in other middle Cretaceous ocean basins.

  2. Evaluating climate change impacts in snowmelt basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleick, Peter H.; Rango, Albert; Cooley, Keith

    The implications of global climate change for hydrology and water resources are likely to be complex, widespread, and significant for both natural ecosystems and society. Yet our understanding of these implications remains rudimentary despite considerable effort and research over the last decade. One of the most difficult hydrologic problems in this area is evaluating the impacts of climate change in hydrologic basins affected by snowfall and snowmelt, especially high-latitude and high-altitude watersheds. Many of these watersheds are the headwaters for major rivers and they often provide substantial amounts of water for human and ecosystem use. Evaluating the impacts of climate change in these basins will help us better understand how to improve the management and protection of our water resources systems. In April 1993, a roundtable workshop was held in Santa Fe, N. Mex., to discuss hydrologic models for evaluating the impacts of climate change in snowmelt basins.

  3. Basin topology in dissipative chaotic scattering.

    PubMed

    Seoane, Jesús M; Aguirre, Jacobo; Sanjuán, Miguel A F; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2006-06-01

    Chaotic scattering in open Hamiltonian systems under weak dissipation is not only of fundamental interest but also important for problems of current concern such as the advection and transport of inertial particles in fluid flows. Previous work using discrete maps demonstrated that nonhyperbolic chaotic scattering is structurally unstable in the sense that the algebraic decay of scattering particles immediately becomes exponential in the presence of weak dissipation. Here we extend the result to continuous-time Hamiltonian systems by using the Henon-Heiles system as a prototype model. More importantly, we go beyond to investigate the basin structure of scattering dynamics. A surprising finding is that, in the common case where multiple destinations exist for scattering trajectories, Wada basin boundaries are common and they appear to be structurally stable under weak dissipation, even when other characteristics of the nonhyperbolic scattering dynamics are not. We provide numerical evidence and a geometric theory for the structural stability of the complex basin topology. PMID:16822004

  4. Independent focuses Philippines exploration on Visayan basin

    SciTech Connect

    Rillera, F.G.

    1995-08-21

    Cophil Exploration Corp., a Filipino public company, spearheaded 1995 Philippine oil and gas exploration activity with the start of its gas delineation drilling operations in Libertad, northern Cebu. Cophil and its Australian partners, Coplex Resources NL and PacRim Energy NL, have set out to complete a seven well onshore drilling program within this block this year. The companies are testing two modest shallow gas plays, Libertad and Dalingding, and a small oil play, Maya, all in northern Cebu about 500 km southeast of Manila. Following a short discussion on the geology and exploration history of the Visayan basin, this article briefly summarizes Cophil`s ongoing Cebu onshore drilling program. Afterwards, discussion focuses on identified exploration opportunities in the basin`s offshore sector.

  5. Hydrocarbon maturation in Laramide basins - constraints from evolution of northern Big Horn basin, Wyoming and Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Hagen, E.S.; Furlong, K.P.; Surdam, R.C.

    1984-04-01

    Thermal and mechanical models were used to quantify the effects of Laramide uplifts and subsequent synorogenic deposition on the hydrocarbon maturation of Cretaceous source rocks in the Big Horn basin. Laramide deformation and resultant sedimentation has clearly affected hydrocarbon maturation of Cretaceous source rocks. (Thermopolis, Mowry, Frontier, Cody). Modified Lopatin-type reconstructions suggest that a significant region containing Cretaceous source rocks has been within the liquid hydrocarbon window. The earliest onset of hydrocarbon maturation in the northern Big Horn basin was latest Eocene, with some regions still containing immature Cretaceous source rocks as a consequence of Cenozoic erosion, uplift of the Pryor Mountains, and lack of burial. Regional geologic features indicate that the basin formed as a result of flexural compensation of an elastic lithosphere during emplacement of the Beartooth and Pryor Mountains, and possibly the Absaroka volcanics. This was determined by 2-dimensional models which predict sediment thickness caused by tectonic loading and subsequent sedimentation. Flexural rigidities of 10/sup 2/2exclamation-10/sup 22/ newton-meters adequately explain flexural subsidence in the northern Big Horn basin. The present basin configuration also was compared with a theoretical profile based on geologic constraints. Subsidence models for the present basin profile suggest the Paleocene thrusting of the Beartooth block contributes a majority of the tectonic loading and that Cenozoic erosion has drastically affected the resultant sedimentary sequence (Fort Union and Wasatch). These models, along with stratigraphic reconstructions, can be combined to pinpoint areas of potential hydrocarbon maturation within Laramide-type basins.

  6. The "normal" elongation of river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelltort, Sebastien

    2013-04-01

    The spacing between major transverse rivers at the front of Earth's linear mountain belts consistently scales with about half of the mountain half-width [1], despite strong differences in climate and rock uplift rates. Like other empirical measures describing drainage network geometry this result seems to indicate that the form of river basins, among other properties of landscapes, is invariant. Paradoxically, in many current landscape evolution models, the patterns of drainage network organization, as seen for example in drainage density and channel spacing, seem to depend on both climate [2-4] and tectonics [5]. Hovius' observation [1] is one of several unexplained "laws" in geomorphology that still sheds mystery on how water, and rivers in particular, shape the Earth's landscapes. This narrow range of drainage network shapes found in the Earth's orogens is classicaly regarded as an optimal catchment geometry that embodies a "most probable state" in the uplift-erosion system of a linear mountain belt. River basins currently having an aspect away from this geometry are usually considered unstable and expected to re-equilibrate over geological time-scales. Here I show that the Length/Width~2 aspect ratio of drainage basins in linear mountain belts is the natural expectation of sampling a uniform or normal distribution of basin shapes, and bears no information on the geomorphic processes responsible for landscape development. This finding also applies to Hack's [6] law of river basins areas and lengths, a close parent of Hovius' law. [1]Hovius, N. Basin Res. 8, 29-44 (1996) [2]Simpson, G. & Schlunegger, F. J. Geophys. Res. 108, 2300 (2003) [3]Tucker, G. & Bras, R. Water Resour. Res. 34, 2751-2764 (1998) [4]Tucker, G. & Slingerland, R. Water Resour. Res. 33, 2031-2047 (1997) [5]Tucker, G. E. & Whipple, K. X. J. Geophys. Res. 107, 1-1 (2002) [6]Hack, J. US Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. 294-B (1957)

  7. Abyssal circulation in the Somali Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dengler, M.; Quadfasel, D.; Schott, F.; Fischer, J.

    The bottom and deep circulation in the Somali Basin are investigated on the basis of hydrographic and direct velocity profiles from three shipboard surveys carried out during the southwest monsoon in 1995 and of velocity time series from the WOCE mooring array ICM7. The inflow of bottom water into the Somali Basin through the Amirante Passage drives a thermohaline circulation, which may be modulated by the monsoon wind forcing. Details of the abyssal circulation have been discussed controversially. Deep velocity records from the mooring array in the northern Somali Basin are dominated by fluctuations with periods of 30-50 days and amplitudes above 5 cm s -1. Despite this strong variability annual record averages indicate the existence of a deep western boundary current (DWBC) below 3000 m at the base of the continental slope south of Socotra Island as part of a cyclonic bottom circulation. The southwestward DWBC transport off Socotra Island is estimated to 2±1.3 Sv. The bottom and deep water exchange between the Somali and Arabian Basin north of 7°N is estimated from two cross-basin geostrophic velocity sections referenced by vertically averaged LADCP currents. For the bottom water, an eastward transport into the Arabian Basin of 1.4±0.5 Sv and 2.1±0.6 Sv was determined in June and August, respectively, while for the deep-water layer above 3500 m eastward transports of 3.6±2.3 Sv in June and 4.0±2.4 Sv in August were obtained.

  8. Avian cholera in Nebraska's Rainwater Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Windingstad, R.M.; Hurt, J.J.; Trout, A.K.; Cary, J.

    1984-01-01

    The first report of avian cholera in North America occurred in northwestern Texas in winter 1944 (Quortrup et al. 1946). In 1975, mortality from avian cholera occurred for the first time in waterfowl in the Rainwater Basin of Nebraska when an estimated 25,000 birds died (Zinkl et al. 1977). Avian cholera has continued to cause mortality in wild birds in specific areas of the Basin each spring since. Losses of waterfowl from avian cholera continue to be much greater in some of the wetlands in the western part of the Basin than in the east. Several wetlands in the west have consistently higher mortality and are most often the wetlands where initial mortality is noticed each spring (Figure 1). The establishment of this disease in Nebraska is of considerable concern because of the importance of the Rainwater Basin as a spring staging area for waterfowl migrating to their breeding grounds. The wetlands in this area are on a major migration route used by an estimated 5 to 9 million ducks and several hundred thousand geese. A large portion of the western mid-continental greater white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons) population stage in the Basin each spring. Occasionally, whooping cranes (Grus americana) use these wetlands during migration, and lesser sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) staging on the nearby Platte River sometimes use wetlands where avian cholera occurs (Anonymous 1981). Our objectives were to determine whether certain water quality variables in the Rainwater Basin differed between areas of high and low avian cholera incidence. These results would then be used for laboratory studies involving the survivability of Pasteurella multocida, the causative bacterium of avian cholera. Those studies will be reported elsewhere.

  9. Sedimentation in Canada Basin, Western Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosher, D. C.; Shimeld, J.; Jackson, R.; Hutchinson, D. R.; Chapman, B.; Chian, D.; Childs, J. R.; Mayer, L. A.; Edwards, B. D.; Verhoef, J.

    2010-12-01

    The Canada Basin of the western Arctic Ocean is the least studied ocean basin on Earth. Marine seismic field programs were conducted during the past 5 years in order to study the geology, sedimentary history and geomorphology of the region. As part of this program, five annual icebreaker expeditions acquired bathymetric, seismic reflection and seismic refraction data on a regional scale. More than 12,000 km of multi-channel seismic reflection data and 120 sonobuoy seismic refraction records over abyssal plain and continental rise regions of Canada Basin, Northwind Ridge and Alpha Ridge were acquired. The success of these programs was achieved through novel technical modifications to equipment to permit towing in heavy ice conditions and through collaboration between multiple Canadian and US agencies and institutions, enabling utilization of two ice breakers during seismic and multibeam data acquisition in heavy ice. The seafloor of the Canada Basin is remarkably flat-lying in its central region, with little bathymetric change over most of its extent. The sedimentary succession is generally flat lying with reflections extending over hundreds of km. These reflections onlap bathymetric highs, such as Alpha and Northwind ridges. The sedimentary succession is thickest in the Beaufort Sea region, reaching more than 6.5 km, and generally thins to the north and west. Reflection characteristics suggest that sediment volume input to the Arctic Ocean has been high and dominated by turbidity current deposition, similar to Amundsen and Nansen Basins of the eastern Arctic. These turbidites originate from the eastern and southern continental margins. There is no evidence of contemporaneous or post-depositional reworking by bottom currents. Additionally, there is little evidence of tectonic deformation after primary basin-forming events except in the NE quadrant, nearer Alpha Ridge. In this area, there is significant normal faulting propagating from basement through much of the

  10. Neotectonic evolution of the algerian seismogenic basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djellit, Hamou

    2013-04-01

    Neotectonic evolution of the algerian seismogenic basins H. Djellit and A.K. Yelles-Chaouche Tertiary evolution of the seismogenic algerian basins is characterized by three main neogene and quaternary episods which led to their structuration and the actual seismicity. Indeed, after the early paroxysmal alpines phases which built the structural edifice of the tellian chain, the three tectonic phases between the Cretaceous and the Oligo-Miocene period are: (1) a collapse of the north-kabylian zones and installation of the neogene basins from the Oligo-Miocene period (2) then a shortenning accommodate by conjugate NE-SW sinistral and NW-SE dextral strike slip faults, indicating a NNW-SSE stress orientation, (3) finally, a late shortening phase from the late quaternary to the actual period marked by thrusting faults with a south to south-east vegency. In the Mitidja basin (Algiers region) , the tectonic structurations in the neogene and plio-quaternary deposits correspond to: 1) a synchroneous collapse of the Oligo-Miocene deposits of the Kabylian deposits marked by the activity of synsedimentary norms faults with a general orientation from N040-050 to NW50 followed by (2) a folding oriented N060 which uplift the pliocene serie, this is visible along the Algiers-Sahel anticline. The strike slip faults which are less visible in the plio-quaternary deposits of the basin are more marked in the magmatic intrusions which cross-cut the neogene deposits Key-words: seismotectonic, basins, Neogene, Mitidja

  11. Evolution of the San Jorge basin, Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, M.G. ); Uliana, M.A. ); Biddle, K.T. ); Mitchum, R.M. Jr.

    1990-06-01

    The San Jorge basin, although small, is the most important hydrocarbon-producing basin in Argentina. Remaining untested potential is high because of the presence of good source rock, favorable structural complexity, and multiple reservoirs. Reservoir quality is commonly low because of the highly tuffaceous sandstones. The sedimentary fill of the basin is closely related to its tectonic history. Northwest-southeast-trending grabens formed and filled during a Triassic and Early Jurassic early rift phase, climaxing with a pervasive Middle Jurassic volcanic episode; continued growth and filling of the basin occurred during a Late Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous late rift phase and Cretaceous early and late sag phases. Late Cretaceous-early Tertiary extension set up many of the present-day structural traps along normal faults. Middle Tertiary Andean compression produced the narrow, north-south San Bernardo structural belt, which exhibits reversed movement on older, normal, graben-bounding faults and on local, low-angle thrust faults. Marked early to middle Tertiary erosion produced a significant unconformity within Cretaceous beds around basin margins. Origin of Upper Jurassic and lowermost Cretaceous sedimentary fill is primarily lacustrine or fluvial in origin. Lacustrine, organic-rich black shales are fringed by oolitic and other limestones and fluvial-deltaic sandstones derived mostly from the north. A significant southern source of sand existed during the Valanginian. Interbedded marine shales occur mostly to the west toward a presumed marine seaway connection to the northern Magallanes basin. Middle to Upper Cretaceous sedimentary rocks, sourced mostly from the north, are mainly fluvial sandstone-shale successions with some minor lacustrine influence. Reservoir quality glauconitic sands were deposited during a Late Cretaceous-early Tertiary marine incursion from the Atlantic.

  12. Tectonic history of the Illinois basin

    SciTech Connect

    Kolata, D.R.; Nelson, J.W. )

    1990-05-01

    The Illinois basin began as a failed rift that developed during breakup of a supercontinent approximately 550 Ma. A rift basin in the southernmost part of the present Illinois basin subsided rapidly and filled with about 3,000 m of probable Early and Middle Cambrian sediments. By the Late Cambrian, the rift-bounding faults became inactive and a broad relatively slowly subsiding embayment, extending well beyond the rift and open to the Iapetus Ocean, persisted through most of the Paleozoic Era. Widespread deformation swept through the proto-Illinois basin beginning in the latest Mississippian, continuing to the end of the Paleozoic Era. Uplift of basement fault blocks resulted in the formation of many major folds and faults. The timing of deformation and location of these structures in the forelands of the Ouachita and Alleghanian orogenic belts suggest that much of the deformation resulted from continental collision between North America and Gondwana. The associated compressional stress reactivated the ancient rift-bounding faults, upthrusting the northern edge of a crustal block approximately 1,000 m within the rift. Concurrently, dikes (radiometrically dated as Early Permian), sills, and explosion breccias formed in or adjacent to the reactivated rift. Subsequent extensional stress, probably associated with breakup of Pangea, caused the crustal block within the rift to sink back to near its original position. High-angle, northeast- to east-west-trending normal faults, with as much as 1,000 m of displacement, formed in the southern part of the basin. These faults displace some of the northwest trending Early Permian dikes. Structural closure of the southern end of the Illinois basin was caused by uplift of the Pascola arch sometime between the Late Pennsylvanian and Late Cretaceous.

  13. Atlantic Mesozoic marginal basins: an Iberian view

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.C.L.

    1987-05-01

    In the light of theoretical models for crustal stretching that precedes ocean opening, it is unlikely that Iberian basins have mirror image counterparts beneath North American or other European continental shelves. However, certain Iberian sedimentary sequences are comparable to those found in other basins. Of particular note are (1) the almost identical pre-rift sequences in all these areas, (2) the development of Upper Jurassic carbonate buildups in Portugal, Morocco, and beneath the Scotian Shelf, and (3) the hydrocarbon-bearing Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous synrift and postrift siliciclastics of North America, Iberia, and Aquitaine. In the prerift sequences, Triassic red beds are capped by evaporites, which subsequently influenced the structural development of basins. Intertidal and supratidal carbonates occur at the base of the Jurassic and are overlain by Lower and Middle Jurassic limestone-shale sequences, which in places contain bituminous shales. In Portugal only, resedimented carbonates of Toarcian-Aalenian age are associated with an uplifted basement horst. In Portugal, Aquitaine, and eastern Canada, Middle Jurassic high-energy carbonate platforms developed. Synrift siliciclastic sequences show spectacular evidence for deposition within fault-bounded basins. In Portugal, lower Kimmeridgian clastics are up to 3 km thick, but Upper-Lower Cretaceous sequences are relatively thin (ca. 1 km), in contrast to those of the Basco-Cantabrian region where they exceed 10 km. In the latter region occurs the fluvially dominated Wealden (Upper Jurassic-Neocomian) and Urgonian carbonate platforms and associated basinal sediments. In the Asturias basin, Kimmeridgian shales and fluvially dominated deltaic sandstones succeed conglomeratic fluvial sandstones of uncertain age.

  14. Petroleum Systems in the Austral Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Robbiano, J.; Arbe, H.

    1996-08-01

    The aggressive exploration activities pursued over the past five years, both onshore and offshore, have contributed to increase our knowledge about how the Petroleum Systems functioned within the basin. Three main Petroleum Systems were identified, and referred to as Jurassic, Lower Cretaceous and Aptian-Tertiary Petroleum Systems. The Jurassic P.S. is restricted to the volcanic, volcaniclastic and clastic sequences (known as Tobifera Series) related to the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean. Lacustrine to marine black shales give good source rock, locally developed; oil and gas, poorly developed, was trapped in fluvial to littoral sandstones, related to the same sedimentary cycle. The Lower Cretaceous P.S. represents the main petroleum system of the Austral Basin, and it is related to the main oil and gas accumulations today known within the basin. The lateral relation between the marine source rocks (Palermo Aike, Inoceramus Inferior, Pampa Rincon Formations) and the continental to littoral Springhill Formation in a transgressive signature indicates the extent of the migration from the oil kitchen, in the present deep location of the basin, to the shallow eastern flank of the Austral Basin. The cumulative production and reserves of this efficient petroleum system are more than 400 MM of petroleum and gas equivalent. The Aptian-Tertiary P.S. is related to the Margas Verdes source rock that has fed younger reservoirs which have developed since the Upper Cretaceous (?)-Palaeocene and could also feed Upper Oligocene sandstones, associated with low-stand system tracts. Commercial accumulations were tested in Campo Boleadoras and Maria Ines fields, towards the deepest zones of the Austral Basin. This petroleum system will figure prominently in exploration activities over the coming years, specifically in those areas where the main petroleum system is not laterally efficient.

  15. Geothermal structure of Australia's east coast basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danis, C. R.; O'Neill, C.

    2010-12-01

    The east coast sedimentary basins of Australia formed on an active margin of eastern Gondwana, and constitute an important hydrocarbon resource. The 1600km long Sydney-Gunnedah-Bowen Basin (SGBB) is largest east coast basin system, with thick Permian to Jurassic sedimentary successions overlying Palaeozoic basement rocks. The SGBB has been the focus of renewed geothermal exploration interest, however, the thermal state and geothermal potential of the system is largely unconstrained. Geothermal exploration programs require an accurate estimate of subsurface temperature information, in addition to favourable geology, to make informed decisions on potential targe developments. Primarily temperature information comes from downhole measurements, generally non-equilibrated, which are traditionally extrapolated to depth, however such extrapolation does not take into account variations in geological structure or thermal conductivity. Here we import deep 3D geological models into finite element conduction simulations, using the code Underworld, to calculate the deep thermal structure of the basin system. Underworld allows us to incorporate complex, detailed geological architecture models, incorporating different material properties for different layers, with variable temperature and depth-dependent properties. We adopt a fixed top boundary temperature on a variable topographic surface, and vary the bottom surface boundary condition, to converge of models which satisfy equilibrated downhole temperature measurement constraints. We find coal plays an important role in insulating sedimentary basins. Heat refracts around the coal interval and produces elevated temperatures beneath thick sediments, especially where thick coal intervals are present. This workflow has been formalized into an Underworld geothermal model library, enabling model centric computational workflows. Using the imported model architecture from the geology, data can be continuously updated and added to the

  16. Paleohydrogeology of the San Joaquin basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, A.M.; Garven, G.; Boles, J.R.

    1999-03-01

    Mass transport can have a significant effect on chemical diagenetic processes in sedimentary basins. This paper presents results from the first part of a study that was designed to explore the role of an evolving hydrodynamic system in driving mass transport and chemical diagenesis, using the San Joaquin basin of California as a field area. The authors use coupled hydrogeologic models to establish the paleohydrogeology, thermal history, and behavior of nonreactive solutes in the basin. These models rely on extensive geological information and account for variable-density fluid flow, heat transport, solute transport, tectonic uplift, sediment compaction, and clay dehydration. In the numerical simulations, tectonic uplift and ocean regression led to large-scale changes in fluid flow and composition by strengthening topography-driven fluid flow and allowing deep influx of fresh ground water in the San Joaquin basin. Sediment compaction due to rapid deposition created moderate overpressures, leading to upward flow from depth. The unusual distribution of salinity in the basin reflects influx of fresh ground water to depths of as much as 2 km and dilution of saline fluids by dehydration reactions at depths greater than {approximately}2.5 km. Simulations projecting the future salinity of the basin show marine salinities persisting for more than 10 m.y. after ocean regression. Results also show a change from topography- to compaction-driven flow in the Stevens Sandstone at ca. 5 Ma that coincides with an observed change in the diagenetic sequence. Results of this investigation provide a framework for future hydrologic research exploring the link between fluid flow and diagenesis.

  17. Drainage basin characteristics from ERTS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollyday, E. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-derived measurements of forests, riparian vegetation, open water, and combined agricultural and urban land use were added to an available matrix of map-derived basin characteristics. The matrix of basin characteristics was correlated with 40 stream flow characteristics by multiple regression techniques. Fifteen out of the 40 equations were improved. If the technique can be transferred to other physiographic regions in the nation, the opportunity exists for a potential annual savings in operations of about $250,000.

  18. Ripple Ring Basins on Ganymede and Callisto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croft, S. K.

    1985-01-01

    The unusual morphology of the Valhalla multiple or ripple-ring basin in Callisto was totally unexpected in light of the morphologies of large impact structures on the terrestrial planets. Two other ripple-ring basins (RRB's), Asgard and a smaller structure near the crater Adlinda are also described. Several additional RRB's were found on Callisto, an example of which is shown. A previously unrecognized RRB on Ganymede was also found. An image and geologic sketch map of this RRB are shown. Morphometric and positional data for all known RRB's are given.

  19. Basins of attraction for chimera states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martens, Erik A.; Panaggio, Mark J.; Abrams, Daniel M.

    2016-02-01

    Chimera states—curious symmetry-broken states in systems of identical coupled oscillators—typically occur only for certain initial conditions. Here we analyze their basins of attraction in a simple system comprised of two populations. Using perturbative analysis and numerical simulation we evaluate asymptotic states and associated destination maps, and demonstrate that basins form a complex twisting structure in phase space. Understanding the basins’ precise nature may help in the development of control methods to switch between chimera patterns, with possible technological and neural system applications.

  20. Emplacement of magma in sedimentary basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malthe-Sorenssen, A.; Planke, S.

    2002-12-01

    Sheet-like intrusive complexes are commonly present in sedimentary basins on rifted volcanic margins. Such sill complexes have important impact on petroleum maturation, migration and trapping. We are currently completing an integrated seismic, field and theoretical study on the petroleum implications of sill intrusions. One aspect of this study has been to get new understanding of the magma emplacement processes based on integrated numerical modeling and geophysical/geological mapping activities. Extensive sill complexes have been identified and mapped in the NE Atlantic and Karoo basins based on seismic, borehole, remote sensing and field data. Early Tertiary intrusive complexes are present in the Voring and More basins offshore mid-Norway. Similar sill complexes are exposed onshore in Cretaceous to Permian age sedimentary sequences on the conjugate central-east Greenland margin. A voluminous Jurassic age intrusive complex is well exposed in the Permian to Jurassic Karoo basin as the erosionally strong dolerites form an impressive mountainous landscape in large parts of South Africa. The sheet intrusions are found at paleodepths of 0-6 km. Deep intrusions are generally long and smooth, whereas shallow intrusions are rough, transgressive and commonly saucer-shaped. Saucer-shaped intrusions are present in unstructured basin segments. The diameter of the saucers increases with depth. Structured basin segments are characterized by a variety of sill complex geometries. The intrusions generally mimic the basin structure. In nature, magma is emplaced in internally pressurized, planar cracks. The emplacement process is controlled by the local stress field and complex interactions of buoyancy forces, host rock resistance to fracture, elastic deformation of country rock, magma hydrostatic pressure and fluctuating magma pressure, magma viscosity and weight of overburden. We have developed a discrete element model to study the emplacement process. Results from the modeling

  1. Drainage basins in Duval County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Roy B.; Largen, Joseph B.

    1983-01-01

    The drainage basins and subbasins in Duval County, Florida, are delineated on this atlas map. The county 's 840 square-mile area is drained by three major river systems; the St. Johns, 668 square miles; Nassau, 113 square miles; and St. Marys, 59 square miles. The remainder of the county is drained by a network of small streams that flow into either the Intracoastal Waterway or directly into the Atlantic Ocean. The sub-basins range in size from less than one square mile to more than 50 square miles. (USGS)

  2. Atlas of major Appalachian basin gas plays

    SciTech Connect

    Aminian, K.; Avary, K.L.; Baranoski, M.T.; Flaherty, K.; Humphreys, M.; Smosna, R.A.

    1995-06-01

    This regional study of gas reservoirs in the Appalachian basin has four main objectives: to organize all of the -as reservoirs in the Appalachian basin into unique plays based on common age, lithology, trap type and other geologic similarities; to write, illustrate and publish an atlas of major gas plays; to prepare and submit a digital data base of geologic, engineering and reservoir parameters for each gas field; and technology transfer to the oil and gas industry during the preparation of the atlas and data base.

  3. Drainage divides, Massachusetts-Hudson River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wandle, S. William, Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Drainage boundaries for selected subbasins in northern Berkshire County, Massachusetts, are delineated on five topographic quadrangle maps at a scale of 1:24,000. Drainage basins are shown for all U.S. Geological Survey data-collection sites and for mouths of major rivers. Drainage basins are shown for the outlets of lakes or ponds and for rivers where the drainage area is greater than 3 square miles. Successive sites are indicated where the intervening area is at least 6 square miles on tributary streams and 10 square miles along the Hoosic or North Branch Noosic Rivers. (USGS)

  4. MONOMIALS AND BASIN CYLINDERS FOR NETWORK DYNAMICS

    PubMed Central

    AUSTIN, DANIEL; DINWOODIE, IAN H

    2014-01-01

    We describe methods to identify cylinder sets inside a basin of attraction for Boolean dynamics of biological networks. Such sets are used for designing regulatory interventions that make the system evolve towards a chosen attractor, for example initiating apoptosis in a cancer cell. We describe two algebraic methods for identifying cylinders inside a basin of attraction, one based on the Groebner fan that finds monomials that define cylinders and the other on primary decomposition. Both methods are applied to current examples of gene networks. PMID:25620893

  5. Sporadically Fractal Basin Boundaries of Chaotic Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, B.R.; Ott, E.; Rosa, E. Jr.

    1999-05-01

    We demonstrate a new type of basin boundary for typical chaotic dynamical systems. For the case of a two dimensional map, this boundary has the character of the graph of a function that is smooth and differentiable except on a set of fractal dimensions less than one. In spite of the basin boundary being smooth {open_quotes}almost everywhere,{close_quotes} its fractal dimension exceeds one (implying degradation of one{close_quote}s ability to predict the attractor an orbit approaches in the presence of small initial condition uncertainty). We call such a boundary {ital sporadically fractal}. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  6. Megafans of the Northern Kalahari Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, M. J.; Miller, R. McG.; Eckardt, F.; Kreslavsky, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    We identify eleven megafans (partial cones of fluvial sediment, >80 km radius) in the northern Kalahari Basin, using several criteria based on VIS and IR remotely sensed data and SRTM-based surface morphology reconstructions. Two other features meet fewer criteria of the form which we class as possible megafans. The northern Kalahari megafans are located in a 1700 km arc around the southern and eastern flanks of the Angola's Bié Plateau, from northern Namibia through northwest Botswana to western Zambia. Three lie in the Owambo subbasin centered on the Etosha Pan, three in the relatively small Okavango rift depression, and five in the Upper Zambezi basin. The population includes the well-known Okavango megafan (150 km), Namibia's Cubango megafan, the largest megafan in the region (350 km long), and the largest nested group (the five major contiguous megafans on the west slopes of the upper Zambezi Valley). We use new, SRTM-based topographic roughness data to discriminate various depositional surfaces within the flat N. Kalahari landscapes. We introduce the concepts of divide megafans, derived megafans, and fan-margin rivers. Conclusions. (i) Eleven megafan cones total an area of 190,000 sq km. (ii) Different controls on megafan size operate in the three component basins: in the Okavango rift structural controls become the prime constraint on megafan length by controlling basin dimensions. Megafans in the other les constricted basins appear to conform to classic relationships fan area, slope, and feeder-basin area. (iii) Active fans occupy the Okavango rift depression with one in the Owambo basin. The rest of the population are relict but recently active fans (surfaces are relict with respect to activity by the feeder river). (iv) Avulsive behavior of the formative river-axiomatic for the evolution of megafans-has resulted in repeated rearrangements of regional drainage, with likely effects in the study area well back into the Neogene. Divide megafans comprise the

  7. Hazard categorization of 105-KE basin debris removal project

    SciTech Connect

    Meichle, R.H.

    1996-01-25

    This supporting document provides the hazard categorization for 105-KE Basin Debris Removal Project activities planned in the K east Basin. All activities are categorized as less than Hazard Category 3.

  8. 2. CATCH BASIN, INFLOW PIPES AT CENTER, COLD FLOW LABORATORY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. CATCH BASIN, INFLOW PIPES AT CENTER, COLD FLOW LABORATORY AT LEFT, VIEW TOWARDS NORTHWEST. - Glenn L. Martin Company, Titan Missile Test Facilities, Catch Basin, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  9. Grande Ronde Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project : 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    McGowan, Vance R.; Powell, Russ M.

    1999-05-01

    The primary goal of ''The Grande Ronde Basin Fish Habitat Improvement Project'' is to access, create, improve, protect, and restore reparian and instream habitat for anadromous salmonids, thereby maximizing opportunities for natural fish production within the basin.

  10. 17. VIEW OF SETTLING BASIN, SHOWING FLUME TRACK SPUR CROSSING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW OF SETTLING BASIN, SHOWING FLUME TRACK SPUR CROSSING OVER SETTLING BASIN, SPARE BENT MATERIAL IN RIGHT-HAND FOREGROUND, BYPASS FLUME, AND SHACK #6 IN BACKGROUND, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Electron Hydroelectric Project, Along Puyallup River, Electron, Pierce County, WA

  11. 14. INSIDE VIEW OF FLUME, LOOKING DOWNSTREAM TOWARD SETTLING BASIN, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. INSIDE VIEW OF FLUME, LOOKING DOWNSTREAM TOWARD SETTLING BASIN, SHOWING RIGHT FORK TO BYPASS, LEFT FORK TO BASIN - Electron Hydroelectric Project, Along Puyallup River, Electron, Pierce County, WA

  12. Basins and Sedimentation Within the Martian Northern Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, K. L.; MacKinnon, D. J.

    1999-03-01

    MOLA data show that six basins and sedimentary plains make up the northern plains of Mars. Four types of plains units are deposited in them, in the following stratigraphic order: marginal, level-top, basin-floor, and downslope units.

  13. View west of reserve basin of submarine trout and frigate ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View west of reserve basin of submarine trout and frigate Edward E. McDonnell - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Reserve Basin & Marine Railway, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. SimBasin: serious gaming for integrated decision-making in the Magdalena-Cauca basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craven, Joanne; Angarita, Hector; Corzo, Gerald

    2016-04-01

    The Magdalena-Cauca macrobasin covers 24% of the land area of Colombia, and provides more than half of the country's economic potential. The basin is also home a large proportion of Colombia's biodiversity. These conflicting demands have led to problems in the basin, including a dramatic fall in fish populations, additional flooding (such as the severe nationwide floods caused by the La Niña phenomenon in 2011), and habitat loss. It is generally believed that the solution to these conflicts is to manage the basin in a more integrated way, and bridge the gaps between decision-makers in different sectors and scientists. To this end, inter-ministerial agreements are being formulated and a decision support system is being developed by The Nature Conservancy Colombia. To engage stakeholders in this process SimBasin, a "serious game", has been developed. It is intended to act as a catalyst for bringing stakeholders together, an illustration of the uncertainties, relationships and feedbacks in the basin, and an accessible introduction to modelling and decision support for non-experts. During the game, groups of participants are led through a 30 year future development of the basin, during which they take decisions about the development of the basin and see the impacts on four different sectors: agriculture, hydropower, flood risk, and environment. These impacts are displayed through seven indicators, which players should try to maintain above critical thresholds. To communicate the effects of uncertainty and climate variability, players see the actual value of the indicator and also a band of possible values, so they can see if their decisions have actually reduced risk or if they just "got lucky". The game works as a layer on top of a WEAP water resources model of the basin, adapted from a basin-wide model already created, so the fictional game basin is conceptually similar to the Magdalena-Cauca basin. The game is freely available online, and new applications are being

  15. Tectonic differences between eastern and western sub-basins of the Qiongdongnan Basin and their dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianbao; Sun, Zhen; Wang, Zhenfeng; Sun, Zhipeng; Zhao, Zhongxian; Wang, Zhangwen; Zhang, Cuimei; Qiu, Ning; Zhang, Jiangyang

    2015-03-01

    The central depression of the Qiongdongnan Basin can be divided into the eastern and western sub-basins by the Lingshui-Songnan paleo-uplift. To the northwest, the orientation of the faults turns from NE, to EW, and later to NW; In the southwest, the orientation of the faults turns from NE, to NNE, and then to NW, making the central depression much wider towards the west. In the eastern sub-basin, the NE-striking faults and the EW-striking faults made up an echelon, making the central depression turn wider towards the east. Fault activity rates indicate that faulting spreads gradually from both the east and west sides to the middle of the basin. Hence, extensional stress in the eastern sub-basin may be related to the South China Sea spreading system, whereas the western sub-basin was more under the effect of the activity of the Red River Fault. The extreme crustal stretching in the eastern sub-basin was probably related to magmatic setting. It seems that there are three periods of magmatic events that occurred in the eastern sub-basin. In the eastern part of the southern depression, the deformed strata indicate that the magma may have intruded into the strata along faults around T60 (23.3 Ma). The second magmatic event occurred earlier than 10.5 Ma, which induced the accelerated subsidence. The final magmatic event commenced later than 10 Ma, which led to today's high heat flow. As for the western sub-basin, the crust thickened southward, and there seemed to be a southeastward lower crustal flow, which happened during continental breakup which was possibly superimposed by a later lower crustal flow induced by the isostatic compensation of massive sedimentation caused by the right lateral slipping of the Red River Fault. Under the huge thick sediment, super pressure developed in the western sub-basin. In summary, the eastern sub-basin was mainly affected by the South China Sea spreading system and a magma setting, whereas the western sub-basin had a closer

  16. 100KE/KW fuel storage basin surface volumetric factors

    SciTech Connect

    Conn, K.R.

    1996-01-01

    This Supporting Document presents calculations of surface Volumetric factors for the 100KE and 100KW Fuel Storage Basins. These factors relate water level changes to basin loss or additions of water, or the equivalent water displacement volumes of objects added to or removed from the basin.

  17. Work plan for 105KE Basin seal conveyor relocation

    SciTech Connect

    Tedeschi, D.J.

    1994-08-25

    This engineering work plan will support the activities of a pilot encapsulation of the spent fuel rods at 105KE Basin for the Hanford Site. The plan is to move and resue any existing encapsulation equipment in the Basin to another part of the Basin. This plan will discuss the activities involved in moving the seal conveyor system.

  18. Georgia Basin-Puget Sound Airshed Characterization Report 2014

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Georgia Basin - Puget Sound Airshed Characterization Report, 2012 was undertaken to characterize the air quality within the Georgia Basin/Puget Sound region,a vibrant, rapidly growing, urbanized area of the Pacific Northwest. The Georgia Basin - Puget Sound Airshed Characteri...

  19. 76 FR 61382 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. ] SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  20. 75 FR 25877 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control ] Act of 1974...

  1. 75 FR 27360 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  2. 77 FR 23508 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  3. 75 FR 66389 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-28

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  4. 76 FR 24515 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of... Committee Act, the Bureau of Reclamation announces that the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory...) 524-3826; e-mail at: kjacobson@usbr.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Colorado River Basin...

  5. 78 FR 23784 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974...

  6. Notice of release of 'Trailhead II' basin wildrye

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Trailhead II' basin wildrye [Leymus cinereus (Scribn. & Merr.) A. Love] is a tetraploid basin wildrye release for use in re-vegetation efforts on rangelands of western North America. Trailhead II is the result of two cycles of recurrent selection within the basin wildrye cultivar 'Trailhead' for r...

  7. 48 CFR 25.405 - Caribbean Basin Trade Initiative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... must be treated as eligible products. In accordance with Section 201 (a)(3) of the Dominican Republic... country for purposes of the Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act, and is therefore no longer included in the definition of “Caribbean Basin country” for purposes of the Caribbean Basin Trade Initiative....

  8. 78 FR 70574 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  9. 77 FR 61784 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  10. 48 CFR 25.405 - Caribbean Basin Trade Initiative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Caribbean Basin Trade... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 25.405 Caribbean Basin Trade Initiative. Under the Caribbean Basin Trade Initiative, the United States Trade Representative has determined that,...

  11. 48 CFR 25.405 - Caribbean Basin Trade Initiative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Caribbean Basin Trade... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 25.405 Caribbean Basin Trade Initiative. Under the Caribbean Basin Trade Initiative, the United States Trade Representative has determined that,...

  12. 48 CFR 25.405 - Caribbean Basin Trade Initiative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Caribbean Basin Trade... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 25.405 Caribbean Basin Trade Initiative. Under the Caribbean Basin Trade Initiative, the United States Trade Representative has determined that,...

  13. 48 CFR 25.405 - Caribbean Basin Trade Initiative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Caribbean Basin Trade... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 25.405 Caribbean Basin Trade Initiative. Under the Caribbean Basin Trade Initiative, the United States Trade Representative has determined that,...

  14. BASIN ANALYSIS AND PETROLEUM SYSTEM CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING, INTERIOR SALT BASINS, CENTRAL AND EASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest A. Mancini; Donald A. Goddard

    2005-08-01

    The principal research effort for Year 3 of the project is basin modeling and petroleum system identification, comparative basin evaluation and resource assessment. In the first six (6) months of Year 3, the research focus is on basin modeling and petroleum system identification and the remainder of the year the emphasis is on the comparative basin evaluation and resource assessment. No major problems have been encountered to date, and the project is on schedule.

  15. Notice of Release of 'Continental' Basin Wildrye

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Continental' basin wildrye (Leymus cinereus [Scribn. & Merr.] A. Love) has been released as a cultivar for use in rangeland seedings. It was developed from a hybrid between an induced octoploid (2n=56), generated from the natural tetraploid 'Trailhead' (2n=28), and the natural octoploid 'Magnar' (...

  16. Exploration in Ordovician of central Michigan Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, J.H.; Barratt, M.W.

    1985-12-01

    Deep wells in the central Michigan basin have provided sufficient data to define two new mappable formations - the Foster Formation and the Bruggers Formation. Recent conodont studies have corrected the age assignments of the strata containing these formations. Previously, the lower section (Foster) was classified as mostly Cambrian, and the upper unit (Bruggers) was identified as Early Ordovician. Conodont identifications indicate an Early and Middle Ordovician age for the Foster Formation and a Middle Ordovician age for the Bruggers Formation. The Michigan basin existed in embryonic form in the Late Cambrian, but the full outline of the present-day basin did not develop until Early Ordovician. Gas and condensate are produced from the Bruggers Formation as deep as 11,252 ft (3429 m). Geothermal investigations suggest that gas production is possible to the base of the Paleozoic section in the central basin (17,000 ft or 5181 m). Paleotemperatures were higher during the Paleozoic owing to 3000-4000 ft (914-1291 m) of additional sedimentary cover. Five wells are producing from the Bruggers Formation. All are deeper tests in anticlines producing from Devonian reservoirs discovered earlier. The structures are the result of vertical movements of basement fault blocks activated by regional stresses. 12 figures, 2 tables.

  17. Thermal maturation of Eagle basin, northwestern Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Nuccio, V.F.; Schenk, C.J.

    1986-05-01

    Mean random vitrinite reflectance (R/sub m/) was measured on 120 surface samples from Lower Pennsylvanian through Upper Cretaceous rocks in the Eagle basin for the purpose of mapping thermal maturity. The Eagle basin is a trough that formed during the Pennsylvanian between the ancestral Front Range to the northeast and the ancestral Uncompahgre uplift to the southwest. For comparative purposes, the stratigraphic section in the basin was divided into four intervals, each with a range of R/sub m/ values; 2.70-3.70% for Lower Pennsylvanian rocks, 0.70-2.30 for Middle Pennsylvanian rocks, 0.80-1.50 for Upper Pennsylvanian-Triassic rocks, and 0.60-1.70 for Cretaceous rocks. R/sub m/ values decrease from Lower Pennsylvanian rocks to Cretaceous rocks throughout the basin. Variability in R/sub m/ values within each stratigraphic interval may be due to structural deformation, variations in source material and depositional environment, and spatial and temporal fluctuations in geothermal gradients. R/sub m/ values indicate that most of the Middle Pennsylvanian and Upper Pennsylvanian-Triassic rocks are in the oil window (0.60-1.35%) and gas window (0.75-3.0%). Although R/sub m/ values indicate that Cretaceous rocks are in the oil and gas windows, geochemical data suggest that mainly gas would be generated.

  18. Hydrocarbon potential of an alkaline lake basin

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Jian Yu; Wang Gijun ); Ma Wanyi )

    1991-03-01

    The Biyan basin is an oil-rich intermountain basin in the central part of China. It is a half graben with a marginal normal fault in the south and a slope in the north. The thickest Eogene reaches 7 km in the center of the depression. This basin became a typical alkaline lake with specific sedimentary sequences composed of oil shale, trona, dolomite, and dark mudstone during Early Tertiary because of dry climate and peripheral source areas rich in Na-containing minerals. The source rock is characterized by abundant organic matter with a mean TOC of 2.5% and kerogen of good quality with H/C 1.4-1.7, and IH up to 800 mg/g. The study of biomarkers reveals a low Pr/Ph ratio and an abundant gammacerane and {minus}carotane, thus indicating an environment of high salinity and reduction. All geochemical data demonstrate multiple provinces of primary organic matter, of which halophilous prokaryotic organisms are likely contributors. Crude oil in the Biyan oil field contains high wax and low sulfur. The low-mature oil is discovered in dolomite beds. The high hydrocarbon potential of this basin is due to particularly favorable conditions for preservation and transformation of organic matter and high subsidence rates.

  19. OHIO RIVER BASIN ENERGY STUDY: HEALTH ASPECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report was prepared as part of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES), a multi-disciplinary program supported by the Environmental Protection Agency. It attempts to establish health damage functions for energy resource extraction, conversion (i.e., burning of coal to prod...

  20. INDICATORS OF GREAT BASIN RANGELAND HEALTH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early-warning indicators of rangeland health can be used to estimate the functional integrity of a site and may allow sustainable management of desert rangelands. The utility of several vegetation canopy-based indicators of rangeland health at 32 Great Basin rangeland locations was investigated. T...

  1. Columbia Basin College Facts & Impacts, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Basin Coll., Pasco, WA.

    This fact book for Columbia Basin College (CBC) (Washington) offers statistics on staff and faculty, students, degrees awarded, hot programs, enrollment; student services, financial aid, economic impact, educational partnerships, and governance. CBC serves more than 13,000 students annually and offers associate degrees in arts, science, and…

  2. Tularosa Basin Play Fairway Analysis: Water Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Adam Brandt

    2015-12-15

    This shapefile contains 409 well data points on Tularosa Basin Water Chemistry, each of which have a location (UTM), temperature, quartz and Potassium/Magnesium geothermometer; as well as concentrations of chemicals like Mn, Fe, Ba, Sr, Cs, Rb, As, NH4, HCO3, SO4, F, Cl, B, SiO2, Mg, Ca, K, Na, and Li.

  3. Hydrological trends in Congo basin (Central Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laraque, A.

    2015-12-01

    The last studies concerning some main Congo basin rivers allowed to subdivide their multi-annual flows into several homogeneous phases. As in West Africa, 1970 was the year of the major hydroclimatic event announcing a weaker flowing period. In the absence of long, reliable and available flow series in the whole Congo basin of 3,8 106km2 area, the present study concerns only the Congo River at Brazzaville/Kinshasa and two of the main tributaries of its right bank, Ubangui at Bangui and Sangha at Ouesso, with hydrologic data available from the first half of the 20th century. For Congo River, in comparison with its secular average, after an excess flow noted during the sixties, a significant drop of 10% occurs in the eighties. However, a return to normal conditions is recorded from 1995. For Ubangui and Sangha, the flows remain weaker since 1970. Within the bi-modal hydrological regimes of Sangha and Congo river, because they are equatorial, we also observe since many years a small decline of the secondary flood of april-june. This phenomenon was emphasized especially these last years and is founded in others rivers of Central Africa, where it reflects the variations of de rainfall patterns and the surfaces features. For the Congo basin, the situation is worrying because that affects the inland waterway transport. Moreover that wakes also the project of junction by a canal of the Congo and Chari basins for fighting against the hydrological decline of Lake Chad.

  4. Summary status of K Basins sludge characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, R.B.

    1995-01-20

    A number of activities are underway as part of the Spent Nuclear Fuels Project (SNFP) related to the processing and disposing of sludge in the 105-K Basins (K Basins). Efforts to rigorously define data requirements for these activities are being made using the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) process. Summaries of current sludge characterization data are required to both help support this DQO process and to allow continued progress with on-going engineering activities (e.g., evaluations of disposal alternatives). This document provides the status of K Basins sludge characterization data currently available to the Nuclear Fuel Evaluations group. This group is tasked by the SNFP to help develop and maintain the characterization baseline for the K Basins. The specific objectives of this document are to: (1) provide a current summary (and set of references) of sludge characterization data for use by SNFP initiatives, to avoid unnecessary duplication of effort and to support on-going initiatives; (2) submit these data to an open forum for review and comment, and identify additional sources of significant data that may be available; (3) provide a summary of current data to use as part of the basis to develop requirements for additional sludge characterization data through the DQO process; (4) provide an overview of the intended activities that will be used to develop and maintain the sludge characterization baseline.

  5. Classifying and quantifying basins of attraction

    SciTech Connect

    Sprott, J. C.; Xiong, Anda

    2015-08-15

    A scheme is proposed to classify the basins for attractors of dynamical systems in arbitrary dimensions. There are four basic classes depending on their size and extent, and each class can be further quantified to facilitate comparisons. The calculation uses a Monte Carlo method and is applied to numerous common dissipative chaotic maps and flows in various dimensions.

  6. Tularosa Basin Play Fairway Analysis: Strain Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Adam Brandt

    2015-11-15

    A DEM of the Tularosa Basin was divided into twelve zones, each of which a ZR ratio was calculated for. This submission has a TIFF image of the zoning designations, along with a table with respective ZR ratio calculations in the metadata.

  7. INTERIOR COLUMBIA BASIN ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT PROJECT (ICBEMP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A geographic information system (GIS) spatial data library is maintained through the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project. Sponsored by the Bureau of Land Management, the library contains more than 200 products which include the following types of data: aquatic, a...

  8. Atmospheric dispersion in mountain valleys and basins

    SciTech Connect

    Allwine, K.J.

    1992-01-01

    The primary goal of the research is to further characterize and understand dispersion in valley and basin atmospheres. A secondary, and related goal, is to identify and understand the dominant physical processes governing this dispersion. This has been accomplished through a review of the current literature, and analyses of recently collected data from two field experiments. This work should contribute to an improved understanding of material transport in the atmospheric boundary layer. It was found that dispersion in a freely draining valley (Brush Creek valley, CO) atmosphere is much greater than in an enclosed basin (Roanoke, VA) atmosphere primarily because of the greater wind speeds moving past the release point and the greater turbulence levels. The development of a cold air pool in the Roanoke basin is the dominant process governing nighttime dispersion in the basin, while the nighttime dispersion in the Brush Creek valley is dominated by turbulent diffusion and plume confinement between the valley sidewalls. The interaction between valley flows and above ridgetops flows is investigated. A ventilation rate'' of material transport between the valley and above ridgetop flows is determined. This is important in regional air pollution modeling and global climate modeling. A simple model of dispersion in valleys, applicable through a diurnal cycle, is proposed.

  9. Atmospheric dispersion in mountain valleys and basins

    SciTech Connect

    Allwine, K.J.

    1992-01-01

    The primary goal of the research is to further characterize and understand dispersion in valley and basin atmospheres. A secondary, and related goal, is to identify and understand the dominant physical processes governing this dispersion. This has been accomplished through a review of the current literature, and analyses of recently collected data from two field experiments. This work should contribute to an improved understanding of material transport in the atmospheric boundary layer. It was found that dispersion in a freely draining valley (Brush Creek valley, CO) atmosphere is much greater than in an enclosed basin (Roanoke, VA) atmosphere primarily because of the greater wind speeds moving past the release point and the greater turbulence levels. The development of a cold air pool in the Roanoke basin is the dominant process governing nighttime dispersion in the basin, while the nighttime dispersion in the Brush Creek valley is dominated by turbulent diffusion and plume confinement between the valley sidewalls. The interaction between valley flows and above ridgetops flows is investigated. A ``ventilation rate`` of material transport between the valley and above ridgetop flows is determined. This is important in regional air pollution modeling and global climate modeling. A simple model of dispersion in valleys, applicable through a diurnal cycle, is proposed.

  10. IAHS Symposium on Large River Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frick, David M.

    The flow regime of large rivers is significantly influenced by man's activities, such as land use or river development. In other cases, there is evidence that climate change is the reason for modified flow regime. When basins are shared by a number of countries, the problems of hydrologic change become even more critical. Therefore, the social and economic consequences of changes in the flow regime of large river basins is far reaching,To improve the understanding of hydrologic processes and to investigate the availability of tools and methods that can be used to analyze the hydrological impacts of changes in flow, the International Association of Hydrologic Sciences (IAHS) and International Commission on Surface Water (ICSW) devoted its symposium, held at the August 1991 XXth General Assembly of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG) in Vienna, Austria, to the theme “Hydrology for Water Management of Large River Basins.” The theme was divided into the four subtopics of water management and cooperation in large and/or international river basin: flow regimes and water management in relation to changes in climate, river development, and land use; water quality and sediment transport management in a large river environment; and operational flow and water quality forecasting. Both the general problem and organizational and operational aspects were investigated.

  11. Plate evolution and petroliferous basins of China

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Shou Cheng; Zhang Wen Zhao

    1989-03-01

    The writers have compiled a group of paleogeographic and paleostructural maps of tectonic plates and sedimentary basins of China based on paleomagnetic, paleoclimatic, and paleoecologic data. The paleoenvironments and regional conditions that instigated the origin of petroleum in the superbasins have been reconstructed.

  12. Petroleum geology of Tembungo Area, Sabah Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Abdul Jalil, M. ); Komoo, I. )

    1994-07-01

    Tembungo area, located in the central part of the Sabah Basin, is a highly prolific hydrocarbon play. This is reflected by the discovery of Tembungo Field in 1971, which has been producing oil for more than 19 yr. Petronas (PRSS) has recently reassessed the remaining potential of the area by undertaking an integrated study to determine structural and stratigraphic evolution, reservoir characteristic, source rock potential, entrapment styles, and hydrocarbon potential. The results indicate that Tembungo oil has been generated from dominantly terrigenous organic matter derived from coastal and inland vegetation. The reservoir sandstones, which were deposited during middle to upper Miocene, were evidently transported from a shallow coastal region into a bathyal environment by turbidity current. These sandy sediments entered the basin from the south and southeast through canyons and channels, and spread into the basin in the form of deep-water fan complexes. Shales that dominated the sedimentary sequences in the basin formed an effective cap rock. Integrated study of Tembungo area reveals the presence of a number of structural and stratigraphic prospects significant for hydrocarbon exploration. Some stratigraphic prospects include wedge-out and pinch-out. Paleochannel distribution pattern is an important factor in controlling the highly potential prospects as it provides clues to the presence or absence of reservoir rocks. Combined with structural and stratigraphic features, several new prospects have been identified and ranked.

  13. Michigan Basin basement implications for future exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, J.D. . Dept. of Earth Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    The Michigan Basin has had a long history of responding to new exploration ideas, technologies, and pursuits. The future still holds opportunity for this Basin. A critical factor in future exploration will be incorporation of the details of basement structure into exploration plays. Facies distributions are strongly influenced by basement structure and diastrophism. In central Michigan successful exploration has focused on structures beneath Devonian oil fields and salts. In southern Michigan Ordovician fracture reservoirs have been the main producers. Between these two areas, outside of the Devonian salt edge, exploration has been minimal to none. This anomaly is unwarranted because structure styles in this middle area are continuous with structure of the central and southern bounding areas. Several potential play concepts can be established for this region. Improved definition of the extensions and continuity of the Silurian reef belt is possible because Silurian shelf margins, and the distributions of pinnacle reefs and basinal evaporite facies coincide with basement structural boundaries. Recognition of sea-level terraces at the top of the Trenton in Indiana and Ohio must be integrated into the depositional models for the Michigan Trenton. Cambro-Ordovician stratigraphy still offers opportunities for alternative correlations which have significant implications for depositional models and hydrocarbon occurrence. Improved seismic resolution, detailed basinal studies, and detailed reservoir characterization analogues will result in definition of new discoveries.

  14. Central Mississippi River Basin LTAR site overview

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Central Mississippi River Basin (CMRB) member of the Long-Term Agro-ecosystem Research (LTAR) network is representative of the southern Corn Belt, where subsoil clay content makes tile drainage challenging and make surface runoff and associated erosion problematic. Substantial research infrastru...

  15. Drilling bits optimized for the Paris basin

    SciTech Connect

    Vennin, H.C. Pouyastruc )

    1989-07-31

    Paris basin wells have been successfully drilled using steel-body bits with stud-type cutters. These bits offer the possibility of optimizing the bit-face based on the strata to be drilled, as well as allowing replacement of worn cutters. This article discusses: bit manufacturing; bit repair; optimizing bits; hydraulics.

  16. Stochastic basins of attraction for metastable states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serdukova, Larissa; Zheng, Yayun; Duan, Jinqiao; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-07-01

    Basin of attraction of a stable equilibrium point is an effective concept for stability analysis in deterministic systems; however, it does not contain information on the external perturbations that may affect it. Here we introduce the concept of stochastic basin of attraction (SBA) by incorporating a suitable probabilistic notion of basin. We define criteria for the size of the SBA based on the escape probability, which is one of the deterministic quantities that carry dynamical information and can be used to quantify dynamical behavior of the corresponding stochastic basin of attraction. SBA is an efficient tool to describe the metastable phenomena complementing the known exit time, escape probability, or relaxation time. Moreover, the geometric structure of SBA gives additional insight into the system's dynamical behavior, which is important for theoretical and practical reasons. This concept can be used not only in models with small noise intensity but also with noise whose amplitude is proportional or in general is a function of an order parameter. As an application of our main results, we analyze a three potential well system perturbed by two types of noise: Brownian motion and non-Gaussian α-stable Lévy motion. Our main conclusions are that the thermal fluctuations stabilize the metastable system with an asymmetric three-well potential but have the opposite effect for a symmetric one. For Lévy noise with larger jumps and lower jump frequencies ( α = 0.5 ) metastability is enhanced for both symmetric and asymmetric potentials.

  17. Columbia Basin College Assessment Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Basin Coll., Pasco, WA.

    This resource guide was published as part of the college-wide assessment and evaluation activities at Columbia Basin College (Washington) in 1997. The purpose in producing the document was to meet the need for some guidelines and written information about how to develop an assessment plan, the different ways to assess that plan, and how to use the…

  18. Starting a Business in the Permian Basin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Danny

    The business and economic development center of Midland College provides assistance to small businesses. Written for use by future and current small business owners and entrepreneurs living in a 17-county area of the Permian Basin of Texas, this guidebook describes the procedures for developing a business plan and for successfully starting and…

  19. Nutrient levels in the Yazoo River Basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loadings to aquatic ecosystems are linked to environmental problems including harmful algal blooms and hypoxia. Presented is an assessment of accessible data on nutrient sources, sinks and inputs to streams within the Yazoo River Basin of northern Mississippi. Ac...

  20. The Great Basin Research and Management Partnership

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Great Basin is undergoing major sociological and ecological change as a result of urbanization, changing technology and land use, climate change, limited water resources, altered fire regimes, and invasive species, insects, and disease. Sustaining ecosystems, resources, and human populations of...

  1. SE Great Basin Play Fairway Analysis

    DOE Data Explorer

    Adam Brandt

    2015-11-15

    Within this submission are multiple .tif images with accompanying metadata of magnetotelluric conductor occurrence, fault critical stress composite risk segment (CRS), permeability CRS, Quaternary mafic extrusions, Quaternary fault density, and Quaternary rhyolite maps. Each of these contributed to a final play fairway analysis (PFA) for the SE Great Basin study area.

  2. Petroleum geology in Tarim basin, China

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Guojun )

    1994-08-01

    Tarim basin is a superimposed basin with two tectonic regimes and contains multisources, multireservoirs, and multiseals. Almost all major strata within the Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic exist in the basin, and they are grouped by six regional unconformities, which are related to hydrocarbon accumulation. Source rocks are Cambrian marl; Lower Ordovician black carbonaceous shales; Middle Ordovician dark gray limestone; Upper Ordovician brownish black carbonaceous shales and oil shales; grayish black carbonaceous shales, dark gray and grayish brown bituminous marl, and reef limestone in the Carboniferous and Permian; and gray to dark gray shales in the Triassic-Jurassic oil-bearing strata. Reservoir rocks in the Cambrian-Ordovician oil-bearing strata and the Carboniferous-Permian oil-bearing strata are mainly fractured limestones and sandstones. The fracture distribution is related to unconformities. Vugs and casts also exist in most limestones; intergranular porosity exists in sandstones. The reservoirs in the Triassic-Jurassic are fluvial-deltaic sandstones, and above are Cretaceous gypsum and halite seals. Ten types of traps are found in this basin: (1) fold-related anticline traps, (2) anticline-fault traps, (3) fault drag-related anticline traps, (4) traps underneath thrusting faults, (5) fault-block traps (6) traps made from cross or arc-like fault and monocline, (7) salt dome traps, (8) traps created by intrusion, (9) lenticular or pinchout traps, and (10) unconformity and overlap traps.

  3. KE Basin underwater visual fuel survey

    SciTech Connect

    Pitner, A.L.

    1995-02-01

    Results of an underwater video fuel survey in KE Basin using a high resolution camera system are presented. Quantitative and qualitative information on fuel degradation are given, and estimates of the total fraction of ruptured fuel elements are provided. Representative photographic illustrations showing the range of fuel conditions observed in the survey are included.

  4. RED RIVER BASIN BIOLOGICAL MONITORING WORKGROUP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this project is to improve coordination of biological monitoring efforts in the Red River Basin. This is to be accomplished through coordination of a study to develop sampling protocols for macroinvertebrates in the main stream and lower tributaries of the Red River....

  5. Stochastic basins of attraction for metastable states.

    PubMed

    Serdukova, Larissa; Zheng, Yayun; Duan, Jinqiao; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-07-01

    Basin of attraction of a stable equilibrium point is an effective concept for stability analysis in deterministic systems; however, it does not contain information on the external perturbations that may affect it. Here we introduce the concept of stochastic basin of attraction (SBA) by incorporating a suitable probabilistic notion of basin. We define criteria for the size of the SBA based on the escape probability, which is one of the deterministic quantities that carry dynamical information and can be used to quantify dynamical behavior of the corresponding stochastic basin of attraction. SBA is an efficient tool to describe the metastable phenomena complementing the known exit time, escape probability, or relaxation time. Moreover, the geometric structure of SBA gives additional insight into the system's dynamical behavior, which is important for theoretical and practical reasons. This concept can be used not only in models with small noise intensity but also with noise whose amplitude is proportional or in general is a function of an order parameter. As an application of our main results, we analyze a three potential well system perturbed by two types of noise: Brownian motion and non-Gaussian α-stable Lévy motion. Our main conclusions are that the thermal fluctuations stabilize the metastable system with an asymmetric three-well potential but have the opposite effect for a symmetric one. For Lévy noise with larger jumps and lower jump frequencies ( α=0.5) metastability is enhanced for both symmetric and asymmetric potentials. PMID:27475077

  6. Observatories for integrated water basin science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, L. Douglas

    2012-03-01

    For more than 30 years, with the last 20 years at the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF), I have been immersed in community efforts to focus water resources research on growing societal needs. Past strategies have stumbled, but creative thinking on basin function offers a way out. The following ideas are mine and are not necessarily shared by NSF.

  7. Orocline-driven transtensional basins: Insights from the Lower Permian Manning Basin (eastern Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Llyam; Rosenbaum, Gideon; Allen, Charlotte M.; Shaanan, Uri

    2016-03-01

    The New England Orogen in eastern Australia exhibits an oroclinal structure, but its geometry and geodynamic evolution are controversial. Here we present new data from the southernmost part of the oroclinal structure, the Manning Orocline, which supposedly developed in the Early Permian, contemporaneously and/or shortly after the deposition of the Lower Permian Manning Basin. New U-Pb detrital zircon data provide a maximum depositional age of ~288 Ma. Structural evidence from rocks of the Manning Basin indicates that both bedding and preoroclinal fold axial planes are approximately oriented parallel to the trace of the Manning Orocline. Brittle deformation was dominated by sinistral strike-slip faulting, particularly along a major fault zone (Peel-Manning Fault System), which is marked by the occurrence of a serpentinitic mélange, and separates tectonostratigraphic units of the New England Orogen. Our revised geological map shows that the Manning Basin is bounded by faults and serpentinites, thus indicating that basin formation was intimately linked to deformation along the Peel-Manning Fault System. The Manning Basin is thus interpreted to be a transtensional pull-apart basin associated with the Peel-Manning Fault System. Age constraints and structural relationships indicate that basin formation likely occurred during the incipient stage of oroclinal bending, with block rotations and fragmentation of the transtensional pull-apart system occurring subsequently. The intimate link between oroclinal bending and basin formation in the New England oroclines indicates that back-arc extension, accompanied by transtensional deformation, could have played an important role in the early stage of orocline development.

  8. Rejuvenation of the Kuqa foreland basin, northern flank of the Tarim basin, northwest China

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Huafu; Jia Dong; Cai Dongsheng

    1994-12-01

    The Kuqa depression along the northern flank of the Tarim basin is filled with a thick sequence of Neogene and Quaternary coarse elastic continental sediments. This structural depression is part of a large foreland basin that leads south of the Tianshan - an orogenic belt of intracontinental convergence resulting from the northward propagation of stress following the collision of India with the southern margin of Eurasia. 11 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  9. K Basin sludge dissolution engineering study

    SciTech Connect

    Westra, A.G.

    1998-08-28

    The purpose of this engineering study is to investigate the available technology related to dissolution of the K Basin sludge in nitric acid. The conclusion of this study along with laboratory and hot cell tests with actual sludge samples will provide the basis for beginning conceptual design of the sludge dissolver. The K Basin sludge contains uranium oxides, fragments of metallic U, and some U hydride as well as ferric oxyhydroxide, aluminum oxides and hydroxides, windblown sand that infiltrated the basin enclosure, ion exchange resin, and miscellaneous materials. The decision has been made to dispose of this sludge separate from the fuel elements stored in the basins. The sludge will be conditioned so that it meets Tank Waste Remediation System waste acceptance criteria and can be sent to one of the underground storage tanks. Sludge conditioning will be done by dissolving the fuel constituents in nitric acid, separating the insoluble material, adding neutron absorbers for criticality safety, and then reacting the solution with caustic to co-precipitate the uranium and plutonium. There will be five distinct feed streams to the sludge conditioning process two from the K East (KE) Basin and three from the K West (KW) Basin. The composition of the floor and pit sludges which contain more iron oxides and sand than uranium is much different than the canister sludges which are composed of mostly uranium oxides. The sludge conditioning equipment will be designed to process all of the sludge streams, but some of the operating parameters will be adjusted as necessary to handle the different sludge stream compositions. The volume of chemical additions and the amount of undissolved solids will be much different for floor and pit sludge than for canister sludge. Dissolution of uranium metal and uranium dioxide has been studied quite thoroughly and much information is available. Both uranium metal and uranium dioxide have been dissolved on a large scale in nuclear fuel

  10. Tritium hydrology of the Mississippi River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michel, R.L.

    2004-01-01

    In the early 1960s, the US Geological Survey began routinely analysing river water samples for tritium concentrations at locations within the Mississippi River basin. The sites included the main stem of the Mississippi River (at Luling Ferry, Louisiana), and three of its major tributaries, the Ohio River (at Markland Dam, Kentucky), the upper Missouri River (at Nebraska City, Nebraska) and the Arkansas River (near Van Buren, Arkansas). The measurements cover the period during the peak of the bomb-produced tritium transient when tritium concentrations in precipitation rose above natural levels by two to three orders of magnitude. Using measurements of tritium concentrations in precipitation, a tritium input function was established for the river basins above the Ohio River, Missouri River and Arkansas River sampling locations. Owing to the extent of the basin above the Luling Ferry site, no input function was developed for that location. The input functions for the Ohio and Missouri Rivers were then used in a two-component mixing model to estimate residence times of water within these two basins. (The Arkansas River was not modelled because of extremely large yearly variations in flow during the peak of the tritium transient.) The two components used were: (i) recent precipitation (prompt outflow) and (ii) waters derived from the long-term groundwater reservoir of the basin. The tritium concentration of the second component is a function of the atmospheric input and the residence times of the groundwaters within the basin. Using yearly time periods, the parameters of the model were varied until a best fit was obtained between modelled and measured tritium data. The results from the model indicate that about 40% of the flow in the Ohio River was from prompt outflow, as compared with 10% for the Missouri River. Mean residence times of 10 years were calculated for the groundwater component of the Ohio River versus 4 years for the Missouri River. The mass flux of

  11. Modeling Nitrogen Losses under Rapid Infiltration Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhavan, M.; Imhoff, P. T.; Andres, A. S.; Finsterle, S.

    2011-12-01

    Rapid Infiltration Basin System (RIBS) is one of the major land treatment techniques used for wastewater treatment and reuse of recovered treated wastewater. In this system, wastewater that is treated using primary, secondary, or advanced treatment techniques is applied at high rates to shallow basins constructed in permeable deposits of soil or sand, with further treatment occurring in soil and the vadose zone before the water recharges groundwater. Because the influent wastewater is usually enriched in nitrogen (N) compounds, there is particular concern that RIBS may contaminant groundwater or nearby surface waters if not designed and operated properly. In most of the new sequenced batch reactor (SBR) wastewater treatment plants, N is found in the form of nitrate in the discharged wastewater, so denitrification (DNF) is the main reaction in N removal. The absence of molecular oxygen is one of the required conditions for DNF. During RIBS operation, application of wastewater is cyclic and typically consists of a flooding period followed by days or weeks of drying. Key operational parameters include the ratio of wetting to drying time and the hydraulic loading rate, which affect water saturation and air content in the vadose zone and as a result have an impact on DNF. Wastewater is typically distributed at a limited number of discharge points in RIBS and basins are not usually completely flooded which result in non-homogeneous distribution of wastewater and unusual surface water flow patterns. For this reason, we couple overland flow within RIBS with subsurface flow to investigate the influence of non-uniform application of wastewater on DNF. No modeling effort has been done for understanding this aspect of RIBS performance previously. TOUGH2/ iTOUGH2, a general-purpose numerical simulation program for multi-phase fluid flow in porous media, is used for modeling fluid movement. Water saturation is used as a surrogate parameter to evaluate oxygen limitations in the

  12. Messinian Salinity Crisis and basin fluid flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoni, Claudia; Cartwight, Joe

    2014-05-01

    Syn- and post-depositional movement of fluids through sediments is one of the least understood aspects in the evolution of a basin. The conventional hydrostratigraphic view on marine sedimentary basins assumes that compactional and meteoric groundwater fluid circulation drives fluid movement and defines its timing. However, in the past few years, several examples of instantaneous and catastrophic release of fluids have been observed even through low-permeability sediments. A particularly complex case-study involves the presence of giant salt bodies in the depocentres of marine basins. Evaporites dramatically change the hydrostratigraphy and fluid-dynamics of the basin, and influence the P/T regimes, e.g. through changes in the geothermal gradient and in the compaction of underlying sediments. Our paper reviews the impact of the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) and evaporites on fluid flow in the Mediterranean sub-basins. The analysis of geological and geophysical sub-surface data provides examples from this basin, and the comparison with analogues in other well-known evaporitic provinces. During the MSC, massive sea-level changes occurred in a relatively limited time interval, and affected the balance of fluid dynamics, e.g. with sudden release or unusual trapping of fluids. Fluid expulsion events are here analysed and classified in relation to the long and short-term effects of the MSC. Our main aim is to build a framework for the correct identification of the fluid flow-related events, and their genetic mechanisms. On basin margins, where evaporites are thin or absent, the sea-level changes associated with the MSC force a rapid basinward shift of the mixing zone of meteoric/gravity flow and saline/compactional flow, 100s-km away from its pre-MSC position. This phenomenon changes the geometry of converging flows, creates hydraulic traps for fluids, and triggers specific diagenetic reactions in pre-MSC deep marine sediments. In basin-centre settings, unloading and

  13. Rift basins in western margin of India and their hydrocarbon prospects with special reference to Kutch basin

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, S.K.

    1982-10-01

    The western continental margin of India can be classed as a divergent or passive margin. The western continental shelf is an extensive carbonate bank (Bombay offshore basin) passing into clastic sediments on the north and south. Three craton-margin embayed basins-Kutch, Cambay, and Narmada- in the northern part of the shelf, are filled predominantly with clastic sediments. These basins occupy grabens bounded by faults diverging seaward. The grabens were formed by three rift systems along major Precambrian tectonic trends. The rifting developed sequentially from north to south around the Saurashtra horst. Kutch basin was formed in the Early Jurassic, followed by Cambay basin in Early Cretaceous time, and the Narmada in the Late Cretaceous. It appears that these rifting events occurred at successive stages during the northward migration of the Indian plate after its break from Gondwanaland in Late Triassic or Early Jurassic. It is inferred that these rift basins opened up successively as a result of the counterclockwise drift of the Indian craton. Bombay offshore and Cambay are two major oil-producing basins in the western margin. These basins are characterized by high geothermal gradients attributed to the shallowness of the mantle in this region. Oil has not been found in KUtch basin, which is mainly an onshore Mesozoic basin. The basin basin depocenter shifted offshore at the northwestern part of the continental shelf where the shelf is wide.

  14. Gravity-driven structures and rift basin evolution: Rio Muni Basin, offshore equatorial West Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, J.P.

    1995-08-01

    Offshore Equatorial Guinea, west Africa, gravity-driven nappes, more than 1 km thick and 15 km from head to toe, provide key evidence in reconstructing the late synrift: evolution of this part of the South Atlantic margin basin system. Furthermore, Aptian-Cenomanian carbonate and clastic rocks in the nappes` allochthonous hanging walls are attracting interest as a new exploration play in west Africa. The nappes exhibit a range of geometries that suggest they share many of the same deformation processes as thin-skin thrust and linked extensional fault systems. Not only are these structures significant in their own right, representing a rare example of gravity tectonics in the virtual absence of major halokinesis, but their presence may record an other-wise undetectable process active during the transition from a rift basin to a passive continental margin. A review of Equatorial Guinea in its pre-Atlantic configuration, alongside neighboring basins in Brazil (the Sergipe-Alagoas basin) and Gabon, suggests that gravity gliding was sustained by a relatively steep, westward paleoslope promoted by east-ward offset of the locus of thermal uplift from the rift basin (i.e., a simple shear model of basin formation). In contrast to gravity-driven structures in most postrift settings, the Equatorial Guinea nappes developed at the close of the Aptian-Albian synrift episode in response to a growing bathymetric deep caused by rapid subsidence outpacing restricted sedimentation.

  15. Pennsylvanian-Permian tectonism in the Great Basin: The Dry Mountain trough and related basins

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, W.S.; Spinosa, C.; Gallegos, D.M. )

    1991-02-01

    Pennsylvanian-Permian tectonism affected the continental margin of western North America from the Yukon to the Mojave Desert. Specific signatures of this tectonism include local angular unconformities, regional disconformities, renewed outpouring of clastic debris from a reactivated Antler and related highlands, and development of deeper water basins with anoxic sediments deposited below wave base. The basins formed include Ishbel trough (Canada), the Wood River basin (Idaho), Cassia basin, Ferguson trough, Dry Mountain trough (all Nevada), and unnamed basins in Death Valley-Mojave Desert region. The Dry Mountain trough (DMT) was initiated during early Wolfcampian and received up to 1,200 m of sediment by the late Leonardian. The lower contact is a regional unconformity with the Ely Limestone, or locally with the Diamond Peak or Vinini formations. Thus, following a period of localized regional uplift that destroyed the Ely basin, portions of the uplifted and exposed shelf subsided creating the Dry Mountain trough. Evidence suggesting a tectonic origin for the DMT includes (1) high subsidence rates (60-140 m/m.y.); (2) renewed influx of coarse clastic debris from the Antler highlands: (3) possible pre-Early Permian folding, thrusting, and tilting within the highlands; and (4) differential subsidence within the Dry Mountain trough, suggesting the existence of independent fault blocks.

  16. Magmatism in rifting and basin formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thybo, H.

    2008-12-01

    Whether heating and magmatism cause rifting or rifting processes cause magmatic activity is highly debated. The stretching factor in rift zones can be estimated as the relation between the initial and the final crustal thickness provided that the magmatic addition to the crust is insignificant. Recent research demonstrates substantial magmatic intrusion into the crust in the form of sill like structures in the lowest crust in the presently active Kenya and Baikal rift zones and the DonBas palaeo-rift zone in Ukraine. This result may be surprising as the Kenya Rift is associated with large amounts of volcanic products, whereas the Baikal Rift shows very little volcanism. Identification of large amounts of magmatic intrusion into the crust has strong implications for estimation of stretching factor, which in the case of Baikal Rift Zone is around 1.7 but direct estimation gives a value of 1.3-1.4 if the magmatic addition is not taken into account. This may indicate that much more stretching has taken place on rift systems than hitherto believed. Wide sedimentary basins may form around aborted rifts due to loading of the lithosphere by sedimentary and volcanic in-fill of the rift. This type of subsidence will create wide basins without faulting. The Norwegian- Danish basin in the North Sea area also has subsided gradually during the Triassic without faulting, but only few rift structures have been identified below the Triassic sequences. We have identified several mafic intrusions in the form of large batholiths, typically more than 100 km long, 20-40 km wide and 20 km thick. The associated heating would have lifted the surface by about 2 km, which may have been eroded before cooling. The subsequent contraction due to solidification and cooling would create subsidence in a geometry similar to basins that developed by loading. These new aspects of magmatism will be discussed with regard to rifting and basin formation.

  17. Petroleum potential of central Columbia basin

    SciTech Connect

    Lingley, W.S. Jr.; Walsh, T.J.

    1987-08-01

    Ten deep wildcat wells have been drilled in the 75,000 mi/sup 2/ Columbia basin. These wells penetrated Miocene Columbia River Basalt up to 11,000 ft thick and Paleogene nonmarine siltstones, claystones, shales, coals, sandstones, and volcanogenic rocks exceeding 11,000 ft in aggregate thickness. Lithic and arkosic sandstones range from several inches to more than 60 ft in thickness, average 26 ft thick, and are variedly argillaceous. Mean log-derived sandstone porosity ranges from 18% at 6000 ft to 8% at 14,000 ft drilled-depth. Mean vitrinite reflectance ranges from 0.4 to 1.3 within the siliciclastic section. Numerous wet-gas shows were logged in three wells including a 3.1 MMCFGD flow on a 10/64-in. choke with 3,965 psi FTP recorded during a test of Shell's 1-9 Burlington Northern. The Rattlesnake Hills gas field in the south-central Columbia basin produced 1.3 bcf of methane from Columbia River Basalt before depletion in 1941. The east-central basin comprises a plain and the west-central basin includes the hilly Yakima foldbelt where topography mimics structure. The foldbelt includes several northwest and southwest-trending anticlines, most of which are asymmetric, verge to the north, range from 3 to 6 mi across strike, and are longer than 60 mi along trend. These anticlines have numerous faulted surface culminations. Assuming the Paleogene section is conformable with surficial structure, the estimated range of possible in-place gas under these culminations is 40 bcf to 1 tcf. Most of these culminations have not been tested. The potential of the east-central Columbia basin remains unknown.

  18. Analysis of K west basin canister gas

    SciTech Connect

    Trimble, D.J., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-06

    Gas and Liquid samples have been collected from a selection of the approximately 3,820 spent fuel storage canisters in the K West Basin. The samples were taken to characterize the contents of the gas and water in the canisters providing source term information for two subprojects of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP) (Fulton 1994): the K Basins Integrated Water Treatment System Subproject (Ball 1996) and the K Basins Fuel Retrieval System Subproject (Waymire 1996). The barrels of ten canisters were sampled for gas and liquid in 1995, and 50 canisters were sampled in a second campaign in 1996. The analysis results from the first campaign have been reported (Trimble 1995a, 1995b, 1996a, 1996b). The analysis results from the second campaign liquid samples have been documented (Trimble and Welsh 1997; Trimble 1997). This report documents the results for the gas samples from the second campaign and evaluates all gas data in terms of expected releases when opening the canisters for SNFP activities. The fuel storage canisters consist of two closed and sealed barrels, each with a gas trap. The barrels are attached at a trunion to make a canister, but are otherwise independent (Figure 1). Each barrel contains up to seven N Reactor fuel element assemblies. A gas space of nitrogen was established in the top 2.2 to 2.5 inches (5.6 to 6.4 cm) of each barrel. Many of the fuel elements were damaged allowing the metallic uranium fuel to be corroded by the canister water. The corrosion releases fission products and generates hydrogen gas. The released gas mixes with the gas-space gas and excess gas passes through the gas trap into the basin water. The canister design does not allow canister water to be exchanged with basin water.

  19. Basin analysis of South Mozambique graben

    SciTech Connect

    Iliffe, J.; Lerche, I.; De Buyl, M.

    1987-05-01

    Basin analysis of the South Mozambique graben between latitudes 25/sup 0/ and 26/sup 0/ and longitudes 34/sup 0/ and 35/sup 0/ demonstrates how modeling techniques may help to assess the oil potential of a speculative basin with only minimal seismic data. Two-dimensional restoration of the seismic profiles, using a backstripping and decompaction program on pseudowells linked with structural reconstruction, assesses the rift's two-phase extensional history. Since no well or thermal indicator data exist within the basin, the thermal history had to be derived from extensional models. The best fit of observed subsidence curves and those predicted by the models results in values of lithospheric extension (gamma). The disagreement in observed and theoretical basement subsidence curves was minimized by taking a range of gamma for each model for each well. These extension factors were then used in each model's equations for paleoheat flux to derive the heat-flow histories. (It is noted that a systematic basinwide variance of gamma occurs.) The heat-flux histories were then used with a one-dimensional fluid flow/compaction model to calculate TTI values and oil windows. A Tissot generation model was applied to each formation in every well for kerogen Types I, II, and III. The results were contoured across the basin to assess possible oil- and gas-prone formations. The extensional, burial, and thermal histories are integrated into an overall basin development picture and provide an oil and gas provenance model. Thus they estimate the basinwide hydrocarbon potential and also gain insight into the additional data necessary to significantly decrease the uncertainty.

  20. Okanogan Basin Spring Spawner Report for 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Colville Tribes, Department of Fish & Wildlife

    2007-09-01

    The Okanogan Basin Monitoring and Evaluation Program collected data related to spring spawning anadromous salmonid stocks across the entire Okanogan River basin. Data were collected using redd surveys, traps, underwater video, and PIT-tag technology then summarized and analyzed using simple estimate models. From these efforts we estimated that 1,266 summer steelhead spawned in the Okanogan River basin and constructed 552 redds;152 of these fish where of natural origin. Of these, 121 summer steelhead, including 29 of natural origin, created an estimated 70 redds in the Canadian portion of the Okanagan basin. We estimated summer steelhead spawner escapement into each sub-watershed along with the number from natural origin and the number and density of redds. We documented redd desiccation in Loup Loup Creek, habitat utilization in Salmon Creek as a result of a new water lease program, and 10 spring Chinook returning to Omak Creek. High water through most of the redd survey period resulted in development of new modeling techniques and allowed us to survey additional tributaries including the observation of summer steelhead spawning in Wanacut Creek. These 2007 data provide additional support that redd surveys conducted within the United States are well founded and provide essential information for tracking the recovery of listed summer steelhead. Conversely, redd surveys do not appear to be the best approach for enumerating steelhead spawners or there distribution within Canada. We also identified that spawning distributions within the Okanogan River basin vary widely and stocking location may play an over riding roll in this variability.

  1. Evaluation of attractors and basins of asynchronous random Boolean networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Meng; Chu, Tianguang

    2012-05-01

    We present an algebraic approach for determining the attractors and their basins of random Boolean networks under an asynchronous stochastic update based on the recently developed matrix semitensor product theory, which allows for converting the logical dynamics of a Boolean network into a standard iterative dynamics. In this setting, all attractors and basins are specified by the network transition matrices. We then devise procedures that can find all attractors and their basins exactly. We also discuss the issue of overlapping basins in asynchronous random Boolean networks, and we propose methods to compute the weight of each attractor and the basin entropy of the systems.

  2. Basin formation during the post-collisional evolution of the Eastern Alps: the example of the Lavanttal Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reischenbacher, Doris; Sachsenhofer, Reinhard F.

    2013-03-01

    The Miocene Lavanttal Basin formed in the Eastern Alps during extrusion of crustal blocks towards the east. In contrast to basins, which formed contemporaneously along the strike-slip faults of the Noric Depression and on top of the moving blocks (Styrian Basin), little is known about the Lavanttal Basin. In this paper geophysical, sedimentological, and structural data are used to study structure and evolution of the Lavanttal Basin. The eastern margin of the 2-km-deep basin is formed by the WNW trending Koralm Fault. The geometry of the gently dipping western basin flank shows that the present-day basin is only a remnant of a former significantly larger basin. Late Early (Karpatian) and early Middle Miocene (Badenian) pull-apart phases initiated basin formation and deposition of thick fluvial (Granitztal Beds), lacustrine, and marine (Mühldorf Fm.) sediments. The Mühldorf Fm. represents the Lower Badenian cycle TB2.4. Another flooding event caused brackish environments in late Middle Miocene (Early Sarmatian) time, whereas freshwater environments existed in Late Sarmatian time. The coal-bearing Sarmatian succession is subdivided into four fourth-order sequences. The number of sequences suggests that the effect of tectonic subsidence was overruled by sea-level fluctuations during Sarmatian time. Increased relief energy caused by Early Pannonian pull-apart activity initiated deposition of thick fluvial sediments. The present-day shape of the basin is a result of young (Plio-/Pleistocene) basin inversion. In contrast to the multi-stage Lavanttal Basin, basins along the Noric Depression show a single-stage history. Similarities between the Lavanttal and Styrian basins exist in Early Badenian and Early Sarmatian times.

  3. Distribution, Statistics, and Resurfacing of Large Impact Basins on Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fassett, Caleb I.; Head, James W.; Baker, David M. H.; Chapman, Clark R.; Murchie, Scott L.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Oberst, Juergen; Prockter, Louise M.; Smith, David E.; Solomon, Sean C.; Strom, Robert G.; Xiao, Zhiyong; Zuber, Maria T.

    2012-01-01

    The distribution and geological history of large impact basins (diameter D greater than or equal to 300 km) on Mercury is important to understanding the planet's stratigraphy and surface evolution. It is also informative to compare the density of impact basins on Mercury with that of the Moon to understand similarities and differences in their impact crater and basin populations [1, 2]. A variety of impact basins were proposed on the basis of geological mapping with Mariner 10 data [e.g. 3]. This basin population can now be re-assessed and extended to the full planet, using data from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft. Note that small-to- medium-sized peak-ring basins on Mercury are being examined separately [4, 5]; only the three largest peak-ring basins on Mercury overlap with the size range we consider here. In this study, we (1) re-examine the large basins suggested on the basis of Mariner 10 data, (2) suggest additional basins from MESSENGER's global coverage of Mercury, (3) assess the size-frequency distribution of mercurian basins on the basis of these global observations and compare it to the Moon, and (4) analyze the implications of these observations for the modification history of basins on Mercury.

  4. Hydrocarbon discoveries in Paleozoic Solimoes basin, Upper Amazon region, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Apoluceno, N.; Ferreira, A.; Tsubone, K.

    1989-03-01

    The Solimoes basin, previously known as Upper Amazon basin, is located in northern Brazil and has a prospectable area of more than 300,000 km/sup 2/. The Purus arch, a regional positive feature, separates this basin from the Amazonas basin. As far as the basin geology is concerned, the Solimoes basin is strikingly different from its neighboring basin due to certain structural and stratigraphic peculiarities. Between the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous the basin was affected by regional compressional tectonics that generated a series of northeast-southwest-oriented trends. The exploration play in the basin is classic wrench tectonics - elongated dome structures on upthrown blocks of en echelon reverse faults. Despite the problems of working in a tropical forest, Petrobras has made a systematic exploration campaign in the basin since the early 1970s. This effort was compensated by the discovery of two important hydrocarbon-bearing areas: Jurua gas province in 1978 and the Urucu River oil, gas, and condensate province in 1986. The latter, whose commercial oil production was initiated in July 1988, is considered an important marker in the petroleum exploration history of Brazil, particularly with respect to the Paleozoic basins, which total more than 3 million km/sup 2/ of the country's territory.

  5. Vulnerability of supply basins to demand from multiple cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padowski, J. C.; Gorelick, S.

    2013-12-01

    Humans have appropriated more than half of the world's available water resources, and continued population growth and climate change threaten to put increasing pressure on remaining supplies. Many cities have constructed infrastructure to collect, transport from and store water at distant locations. Supply basins can become vulnerable if there are multiple users depending on the same supply system or network. Basin vulnerability assessments often only report the impacts of local demands on system health, but rarely account future stress from multi-urban demands. This study presents a global assessment of urban impacts on supply basins. Specifically, hydrologic and regulatory information are used to quantify the level of supply basin stress created by demand from multiple cities. The aim is to identify at-risk basins. This study focuses on large urban areas (generally over 1 million people) that use surface water (n=412). The stress on supply water basins by urban demand was based on three parameters: 1) the number of cities using a basin for water supply, 2) the number of alternative urban sources (e.g. lakes, reservoirs, rivers) within the supply basin, and 3) the percent of available surface water in each basin that is required to meet the total of urban and environmental demands. The degree of management within each basin is assessed using information on federal water policies and local basin management plans.

  6. Petroleum prospectivity in Precambrian and Early Paleozoic basins, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, B.A. )

    1991-03-01

    Proterozoic to Devonian age strata with some potential for petroleum accumulations are known from sedimentary basins covering {approximately}1,870,000 km{sup 2} onshore Australia. Portions of these very old basins have not sustained the deleterious effects of deep burial. Explorers with vision continue to target these very old rocks in the MacArthur/South Nicholson, Amadeus, Canning, Adavale, and Bonaparte basins. Approximately 429,000 km{sup 2} of these basins remain under license for petroleum exploration. The oldest known oil in Australia is reservoired within and sourced from the mid-Proterozoic in the McArthur basin. The Early Ordovician Pacoota Sandstone of the Amadeus basin is the oldest formation commercially exploited for oil and gas in Australia. Significant discoveries awaiting development include Dingo, Pictor, and Gilmore. The Tern gas field trap in the Bonaparte basin is related to a salt diapir; the salt probably being Silurian-Devonian in age. Salt probably of the same age has formed diapirs in the Canning basin, too. Cambrian and Proterozoic salt-bearing strata are likewise the cause and core of some anticlinal and diapiric structures in the Amadeus basin. Minor oil shows have been reported from the Cambrian of the Officer basin. The Warburton, Pedirka, Arrowie, Ord, Wiso, Georgina, and Ngalia basins contain Proterozoic and early Paleozoic sedimentary rocks but are ascribed only limited petroleum prospectivity at this time.

  7. Archean foreland basin tectonics in the Witwatersrand, South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, K.; Kidd, W.S.F.; Kusky, T.M.

    1986-06-01

    The Witwatersrand Basin of South Africa is the best-known of Archean sedimentary basins and contains some of the largest gold reserves in the world. Sediments in the basin include a lower flysch-type sequence and an upper molassic facies, both of which contain abundant silicic volcanic detritus. The strata are thicker and more proximal on the northwestern side of the basin which is, at least locally, bound by thrust faults. These features indicate that the Witwatersrand strata may have been deposited in a foreland basin and a regional geologic synthesis suggests that this basin developed initially on the cratonward side of an Andean-type arc. Remarkably similar Phanerozoic basins may be found in the southern Andes above zones of shallow subduction. It is suggested that the continental collision between the Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe Cratons at about 2.7 Ga caused further subsidence and deposition in the Witwatersrand Basin. Regional uplift during this later phase of development placed the basin on the cratonward edge of a collision-related plateau, now represented by the Limpopo Province. Similarities are seen between this Phase of Witywatersrand Basin evolution and that of active basins north of the Tibetan Plateau. The geologic evidence does not agree with earlier suggestions that the Witwatersrand strata were deposited in a rift or half-graben. 64 references.

  8. Archean foreland basin tectonics from the Witwatersrand, South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, K.; Kidd, W.S.F.; Kusky, T.M.

    1985-01-01

    The Witwatersrand Basin of South Africa is the best-known of Archean sedimentary basins and contains some of the largest gold reserves in the world. Sediments in the basin include a lower flysch-type sequence and an upper molassic facies, both of which contain abundant silicic volcanic detritus. The strata are thicker and more proximal on the northwestern side of the basin which is, at least locally, bound by thrust faults. These and other features indicate that the Witwatersrand strata were deposited in a foreland basin. A regional geologic synthesis suggests that his basin developed initially on the cratonward side of an Andean-type arc. Remarkably similar Phanerozoic basins may be found in the southern Andes above zones of shallow subduction. We suggest that the continental collision between the Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe Cratons at about 2.7 Ga caused further subsidence and deposition in the Witwatersrand Basin. Regional uplift during this later phase of development placed the basin on the cratonward edge of a collision-related plateau, now represented by the Limpopo Province. Striking similarities are seen between this phase of Witwatersrand Basin evolution and active basins located north of the Tibetan Plateau. The geologic evidence is not so compatible with earlier suggestions that the Witwatersrand strata were deposited in a rift or half-graben.

  9. Archean foreland basin tectonics in the Witwatersrand, South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, K.; Kidd, W. S. F.; Kusky, T. M.

    1986-01-01

    The Witwatersrand Basin of South Africa is the best-known of Archean sedimentary basins and contains some of the largest gold reserves in the world. Sediments in the basin include a lower flysch-type sequence and an upper molassic facies, both of which contain abundant silicic volcanic detritus. The strata are thicker and more proximal on the northwestern side of the basin which is, at least locally, bound by thrust faults. These features indicate that the Witwatersrand strata may have been deposited in a foreland basin and a regional geologic synthesis suggests that this basin developed initially on the cratonward side of an Andean-type arc. Remarkably similar Phanerozoic basins may be found in the southern Andes above zones of shallow subduction. It is suggested that the continental collision between the Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe Cratons at about 2.7 Ga caused further subsidence and deposition in the Witwatersrand Basin. Regional uplift during this later phase of development placed the basin on the cratonward edge of a collision-related plateau, now represented by the Limpopo Province. Similarities are seen between this Phase of Witywatersrand Basin evolution and that of active basins north of the Tibetan Plateau. The geologic evidence does not agree with earlier suggestions that the Witwatersrand strata were deposited in a rift or half-graben.

  10. Hydrocarbon potential of early mesozoic basins of eastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Schlamel, S.

    1988-01-01

    The exposed Triassic-Liassic rift basins in the eastern United States are half-grabens filled with up to 7 km of continental sediments. The location and sense of asymmetry of the half-grabens are closely tied to the structural grain of the Appalachian crystalline terranes on which they have formed. In many instances, the faulted margins of the basins are older thrusts or terrane boundaries reactivated as listric normal faults. The sediment fill of the basins reflects their structural asymmetry. Coarse alluvial fan deposits along the main border faults pass basinward into a complex assemblage of fluvial, paludal, and lacustrine facies. The oldest sediment fill in the rift basins is dated palynologically as late Ladinian to late Carnian. Perhaps reflecting the northward opening of the central Atlantic, the youngest rift-fill sediments are older in the southern basins than in the northern-Carnian in the Righmond basin vs. Toarcian in the Hartford-Deerfield basin. Floral evidence points to a tropical to near-tropical environment, with severe oscillations between xerophytic (dry) and hydrophytic (wet) conditions. The degree of thermal maturation, as estimated from vitrinite reflectance and clay mineralogy, varies widely from basin to basin; however, most of the basins are within the oil to dry gas generative window. The basins with highest thermal maturities are those having large volumes of diabase intrusives and presumed higher paleogeothermal gradients. The peak of thermal maturation/migration may have occurred as early as the Jurassic.

  11. Archean foreland basin tectonics in the Witwatersrand, South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, K.; Kidd, W. S. F.; Kusky, T. M.

    1986-01-01

    The Witwatersrand Basin of South Africa is the best-known of Archean sedimentary basins and contains some of the largest gold reserves in the world. Sediments in the basin include a lower flysch-type sequence and an upper molassic facies, both of which contain abundant silicic volcanic detritus. The strata are thicker and more proximal on the northwestern side of the basin which is, at least locally, bound by thrust faults. These features indicate that the Witwatersrand strata may have been deposited in a foreland basin and a regional geologic synthesis suggests that this basin developed initially on the cratonward side of an Andean-type arc. Remarkably similar Phanerozoic basins may be found in the southern Andes above zones of shallow subduction. It is suggested that the continental collision between the Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe Cratons at about 2.7 Ga caused further subsidence and deposition in the Witwatersrand Basin. Regional uplift during this later phase of development placed the basin on the cratonward edge of a collision-related plateau, now represented by the Limpopo Province. Similarities are seen between this phase of Witwatersrand Basin evolution and that of active basins north of the Tibetan Plateau. The geologic evidence does not agree with earlier suggestions that the Witwatersrand strata were deposited in a rift or half-graben.

  12. Undiscovered petroleum of the Brazilian interior sag basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kingston, J.; Matzko, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper focuses on the four large intracratonic (or interior) sag basins of Brazil: the Solimoes, Amazonas, Parnaiba, and Parana. The smaller Chaco basin also is discussed, although in less detail. The Dolimoes basin has the greatest initial estimated undiscovered reserves of oil (0.04 BBO), and the Parana basin has the greatest initial estimated undiscovered reserves of gas (5.08 TCFG). The most important plays in the Solimoes and structurally similar Amazonas basins are the fold and fault closures associated with the wrench systems found in the basins. The plays in the Parana basin are limited to possible structural traps linked to fault-associated closures, and possibly to some wrench-related features.

  13. Evolution of the Rembrandt impact basin on Mercury.

    PubMed

    Watters, Thomas R; Head, James W; Solomon, Sean C; Robinson, Mark S; Chapman, Clark R; Denevi, Brett W; Fassett, Caleb I; Murchie, Scott L; Strom, Robert G

    2009-05-01

    MESSENGER's second Mercury flyby revealed a ~715-kilometer-diameter impact basin, the second-largest well-preserved basin-scale impact structure known on the planet. The Rembrandt basin is comparable in age to the Caloris basin, is partially flooded by volcanic plains, and displays a unique wheel-and-spoke-like pattern of basin-radial and basin-concentric wrinkle ridges and graben. Stratigraphic relations indicate a multistaged infilling and deformational history involving successive or overlapping phases of contractional and extensional deformation. The youngest deformation of the basin involved the formation of a approximately 1000-kilometer-long lobate scarp, a product of the global cooling and contraction of Mercury. PMID:19407197

  14. Propagation of seismic ground motion in the Kanto Basin, Japan.

    PubMed

    Koketsu, K; Kikuchi, M

    2000-05-19

    The pattern of ground motion for a magnitude 5.7 earthquake near Tokyo was captured by 384 strong ground motion instruments across the Kanto sedimentary basin and its surroundings. The records allow the visualization of the propagation of long-period ground motion in the basin and show the refraction of surface waves at the basin edge. The refracted wave does not travel directly from the earthquake epicenter, but traverses the basin obliquely to the edge. The surface wave inside the basin propagates more slowly than that outside such that the wavefronts separate from each other, and the refracted wave heals the discrepancy in the speed of advance of the wavefronts inside and outside the basin. The refracted arrival is dominant near the edge of the Kanto basin. PMID:10817997

  15. SUBSIDENCE, CRUSTAL STRUCTURE, AND THERMAL EVOLUTION OF GEORGES BANK BASIN.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swift, B. Ann; Sawyer, D.S.; Grow, J.A.; Klitgord, Kim D.

    1987-01-01

    A geographical study of Georges Bank basin defines a deep crustal structure that is interpreted in terms of the basin's tectonic and thermal history. Gravity models along three basin cross sections delineate two zones of crustal thinning at the basement hinge zone and oceanic crustal margins. These two zones bound rift-stage crust (about 25 km thick) which underlies the central portion of the basin. Subsidence analysis of the basin, using data from multichannel seismic reflection lines and two COST wells, suggests a rifting and (uniform) extensional origin. Two-dimensional finite difference modeling of the basin defines a crustal structure that concurs with the gravity and subsidence studies. The resulting isotherms show no major changes in the thermal structure since the Late Jurassic. In some areas of the basin, temperature sufficient for oil generation are determined from maturation studies of Jurassic sediments. Hydrocarbon generation is questionable, however, because of the probable lack of proper and sufficient kerogen in the Jurassic deposits.

  16. Tectonic setting of Cretaceous basins on the NE Tibetan Plateau: Insights from the Jungong basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Craddock, W.H.; Kirby, E.; Dewen, Z.; Jianhui, L.

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying the Cenozoic growth of high topography in the Indo-Asian collision zone remains challenging, due in part to significant shortening that occurred within Eurasia before collision. A growing body of evidence suggests that regions far removed from the suture zone experienced deformation before and during the early phases of Himalayan orogenesis. In the present-day north-eastern Tibetan Plateau, widespread deposits of Cretaceous sediment attest to significant basin formation; however, the tectonic setting of these basins remains enigmatic. We present a study of a regionally extensive network of sedimentary basins that are spatially associated with a system of SE-vergent thrust faults and are now exposed in the high ranges of the north-eastern corner of the Tibetan Plateau. We focus on a particularly well-exposed basin, located ~20km north of the Kunlun fault in the Anyemaqen Shan. The basin is filled by ~900m of alluvial sediments that become finer-grained away from the basin-bounding fault. Additionally, beds in the proximal footwall of the basin-bounding fault exhibit progressive, up-section shallowing and several intraformational unconformities which can be traced into correlative conformities in the distal part of the basin. The observations show sediment accumulated in the basin during fault motion. Regional constraints on the timing of sediment deposition are provided by both fossil assemblages from the Early Cretaceous, and by K-Ar dating of volcanic rocks that floor and cross-cut sedimentary fill. We argue that during the Cretaceous, the interior NE Tibetan Plateau experienced NW-SE contractional deformation similar to that documented throughout the Qinling-Dabie orogen to the east. The Songpan-Ganzi terrane apparently marked the southern limit of this deformation, such that it may have been a relatively rigid block in the Tibetan lithosphere, separating regions experiencing deformation north of the convergent Tethyan margin from regions deforming

  17. Salt tectonics in the Sivas basin, Turkey, mini basin development, halokinetic sequences, and fracturation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kergaravat, Charlie; Ribes, Charlotte; Callot, Jean-Paul; Bonnel, Cedric; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude

    2013-04-01

    Sedimentary rock deposited in mini basin records the interaction between the evolution (growth, collapse, weld) of salt structure (diapir, weld, glacier) and sedimentation, forming halokinetic sequences. They are intensively strained along the diapir. At smaller scale, understanding the relationship between local halokinetic sequence, regional stresses acting on basin boundaries, and fracturation is a key to better predict geometry and quality of reservoir facies within mini basins. The Sivas basin, in the central Anatolian plateau of Turkey, contains an exceptional open-air collection of salt tectonic structures. This elongated E-W Oligo-Miocene basin developed above the Taurus-Pontides suture in an overall orogenic context. After deposition of the thick Hafik gypsum formation during the tectonically quiet mid Oligocene period, the mini basins recorded sedimentary sequences from the mid Oligocene to early Miocene, composed of red silts and fluvial sandstones, marls and lacustrine to marine limestones. Concomitenly to the mini basin formation, compression resumed in mid Miocene time and was responsible for mini basin capsizing and an increase of gypsum emission. The core of our study is focused on several minibasins (10 to 16 km2) separated by vertical allochtonous evaporitic walls and partially covered by remnant of gypsum glacier, in the central part of the basin, near the town of Sivas. The major minibasins have been carefully analyzed through geological field mapping and sampling, fracturation and microtectonic data sorting (stereogram), and aerial and satellite images interpretation. Two of them, Emirhan and Karayün, strongly tilted, present spectacular strongly deformed halokinetic succession along the contact with evaporitic bodies. They exhibit locally completely refolded and overturned sequences associated to several phase of gypsum extrusion. Such geometries have been reproduced in sandbox models and imaged on seismic lines in the Gulf of Mexico

  18. Evolution history of the Heuksan Basin, a continental rift basin in the Yellow Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, S.; Kim, G.; Park, M.

    2011-12-01

    This study focuses on the establishment of evolutionary framework of the Heuksan Basin regions located on the southwestern part of the concession block III of the Korean offshore in the Yellow Sea. Three fault-bounded sub-basins (SB-1, SB-2, and SB-3) are recognized on the basis of topographic map of acoustic basement, which are generally in asymmetric half-graben geometry trending WNW-ESE. The axial lengths of the sub-basins are generally less than 80 km in axial length and 20 km in width. The acoustic basement occurs at around 0.6 to 0.8 s twt bsl in generally, locally much deeper at about 2.4 s twt bsl in the deepest part of the sub-basins, and it is correlated with the Upper Paleozoic to Lower Mesozoic sequence of thick micritic limestones overlying major clastic cycles with thin coals. In the sedimentary succession, two erosional surfaces (ES-1 and ES-2) are identified based on the interpretation of truncated geometries and lap-out patterns, which provide three stratigraphic units (SU-1, SU-2, and SU-3). During the Late Cretaceous to Oligocene the basin had opened by NE-SW extension or transtension. By this tectonic movement, WNW-ESE trending sub-basins with an array of listric normal faults were formed. Until the cessation of the opening, the wedge-shaped syn-rift unit (SU-1) infilled the depressions of the rift basins. In the Late Oligocene to Early Miocene time the extensional or transtensional tectonic movement of the Heuksan Basin region was aborted or partly inverted into compressional or transpressional regime. By this tectonic movement, acoustic basement and syn-rift unit (SU-1) might have uplifted, and have experienced a regional planation process. Topographic irregularities were removed by erosion and infilling process. SU-1 might have formed during this period in the localized topographic lows of the basins. Subaerial to shallow-marine planation process on the slightly folded and uplifted SU-1during subsequent tectonic inversion in the Early Miocene

  19. Elevated Wintertime Ozone in Utah's Uinta Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, R. S.; Moore, K. D.; Hill, S.; Harper, K.

    2011-12-01

    Seemingly anomalous elevated wintertime ozone (O3) levels were first observed in Wyoming's Upper Green River Basin (UGRB) in 2005 and have been recorded most in subsequent winters. While research continues, it has been hypothesized that the unacceptable levels are a unique combination of stagnant meteorology, enhanced insolation due to relatively high elevations and snow increased albedo, and abundant precursor sources owing to the region's recent rapid expansion of oil and gas exploration and production. The UGRB area has over 4,700 recorded gas/oil wells and sits mostly in rural Sublette County which has an estimated population of 7,925, an area of 12,644 km2, and a basin floor elevation around 2200 m asl, surrounded on three sides with mountains up to 4,200 km asl. Similarly, the Uinta Basin in northeastern Utah is a rural area prone to frequent low-level wintertime inversion episodes and persistent snow cover, with an expanding economy significantly based on gas and oil development and production (approximately 11,500 wells, with an estimated 17,000 more planned in the future years). The Basin lies primarily in Duchesne and Uintah Counties which have a combined population of approximately 51,200 and an area of about 19,982 km2. The floor of the Basin has a typical elevation around 1,560 m asl and is surrounded by mountains up to 4,120 m asl. Ambient measurements at four sites in the winter of 2009-2010 found many instances of ozone concentrations well above the current U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS; 75 ppb, 8-hr average, 4th highest value). To more fully characterize the behavior and geographical extent of the Uinta Basin's wintertime O3 issue, the Uintah Impact Mitigation Special Service District (UIMSSD) funded a study which included deploying 10 portable O3 monitors (2B Technologies, Inc., Model 205, Dual Beam) throughout the Basin. Furthermore, cooperative partners including the USEPA, BLM, UDAQ, NPS, and Golder Associates provided

  20. Evolution of a trench-slope basin within the Cascadia subduction margin: the Neogene Humboldt Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCrory, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Neogene Humboldt (Eel River) Basin is located along the north-eastern margin of the Pacific Ocean within the Cascadia subduction zone. This sedimentary basin originated near the base of the accretionary prism in post-Eocene time. Subduction processes since that time have elevated strata in the south-eastern portion of the basin above sea level. High-resolution chronostratigraphic data from the onshore portion of the Humboldt Basin enable correlation of time-equivalent lithofacies across the palaeomargin, reconstruction of slope-basin evolution, and preliminary delineation of climatic and tectonic influence on lithological variation. -from Author

  1. Lithospheric-scale centrifuge models of pull-apart basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corti, Giacomo; Dooley, Tim P.

    2015-11-01

    We present here the results of the first lithospheric-scale centrifuge models of pull-apart basins. The experiments simulate relative displacement of two lithospheric blocks along two offset master faults, with the presence of a weak zone in the offset area localising deformation during strike-slip displacement. Reproducing the entire lithosphere-asthenosphere system provides boundary conditions that are more realistic than the horizontal detachment in traditional 1 g experiments and thus provide a better approximation of the dynamic evolution of natural pull-apart basins. Model results show that local extension in the pull-apart basins is accommodated through development of oblique-slip faulting at the basin margins and cross-basin faults obliquely cutting the rift depression. As observed in previous modelling studies, our centrifuge experiments suggest that the angle of offset between the master fault segments is one of the most important parameters controlling the architecture of pull-apart basins: the basins are lozenge shaped in the case of underlapping master faults, lazy-Z shaped in case of neutral offset and rhomboidal shaped for overlapping master faults. Model cross sections show significant along-strike variations in basin morphology, with transition from narrow V- and U-shaped grabens to a more symmetric, boxlike geometry passing from the basin terminations to the basin centre; a flip in the dominance of the sidewall faults from one end of the basin to the other is observed in all models. These geometries are also typical of 1 g models and characterise several pull-apart basins worldwide. Our models show that the complex faulting in the upper brittle layer corresponds at depth to strong thinning of the ductile layer in the weak zone; a rise of the base of the lithosphere occurs beneath the basin, and maximum lithospheric thinning roughly corresponds to the areas of maximum surface subsidence (i.e., the basin depocentre).

  2. Geofluid Dynamics of Faulted Sedimentary Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garven, G.; Jung, B.; Boles, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Faults are known to affect basin-scale groundwater flow, and exert a profound control on petroleum migration/accumulation, the PVT-history of hydrothermal fluids, and the natural (submarine) seepage from offshore reservoirs. For example, in the Santa Barbara basin, measured gas flow data from a natural submarine seep area in the Santa Barbara Channel helps constrain fault permeability k ~ 30 millidarcys for the large-scale upward migration of methane-bearing formation fluids along one of the major fault zones. At another offshore site near Platform Holly, pressure-transducer time-series data from a 1.5 km deep exploration well in the South Ellwood Field demonstrate a strong ocean tidal component, due to vertical fault connectivity to the seafloor. Analytical solutions to the poroelastic flow equation can be used to extract both fault permeability and compressibility parameters, based on tidal-signal amplitude attenuation and phase shift at depth. These data have proven useful in constraining coupled hydrogeologic 2-D models for reactive flow and geomechanical deformation. In a similar vein, our studies of faults in the Los Angeles basin, suggest an important role for the natural retention of fluids along the Newport-Inglewood fault zone. Based on the estimates of fault permeability derived above, we have also constructed new two-dimensional numerical simulations to characterize large-scale multiphase flow in complex heterogeneous and anisotropic geologic profiles, such as the Los Angeles basin. The numerical model was developed in our lab at Tufts from scratch, and based on an IMPES-type algorithm for a finite element/volume mesh. This numerical approach allowed us model large differentials in fluid saturation and relative permeability, caused by complex geological heterogeneities associated with sedimentation and faulting. Our two-phase flow models also replicated the formation-scale patterns of petroleum accumulation associated with the basin margin, where deep

  3. Hotspots within the Transboundary Selenga River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasimov, Nikolay; Lychagin, Mikhail; Chalov, Sergey

    2013-04-01

    Gathering the efficient information on water pollution of transboundary river systems remains the crucial task in international water management, environmental pollution control and prevention health problems. Countries, located in the low parts of the river basins, depend on the water strategy and water use in the adjacent countries, located upstream. Surface water pollution is considered to be the most serious problem, facing the above-mentioned countries. Large efforts in terms of field measurement campaigns and (numerical) transport modeling are then typically needed for relevant pollution prediction and prevention. Russian rivers take inflow from 8 neighboring countries. Among them there are 2 developing economies - People Republic of China and Mongolia, which are located in water-scarce areas and thus solve their water-related problems through the consumption of international water. Negative change of water runoff and water quality in the foreign part of transboundary river is appeared inside Russian territory with more or less delay. The transboundary river system of Selenga is particularly challenging, being the biggest tributary of Lake Baikal which is the largest freshwater reservoir in the world. Selenga River contributes about 50 % of the total inflow into Baikal. It originates in the mountainous part of Mongolia and then drains into Russia. There are numerous industries and agricultural activities within the Selenga drainage basin that affect the water quality of the river system. Absence of the single monitoring system and predictive tools for pollutants transport in river system requires large efforts in understanding sources of water pollution and implemented data on the relevant numerical systems for the pollution prediction and prevention. Special investigations in the Selenga river basin (Mongolia and Russia) were done to assess hot spots and understand state-of-the art in sediment load, water chemistry and hydrobiology of transboundary systems

  4. Radionuclides in the Great Lakes basin.

    PubMed Central

    Ahier, B A; Tracy, B L

    1995-01-01

    The Great Lakes basin is of radiologic interest due to the large population within its boundaries that may be exposed to various sources of ionizing radiation. Specific radionuclides of interest in the basin arising from natural and artificial sources include 3H, 14C, 90Sr, 129I, 131I, 137Cs, 222Rn, 226Ra, 235U, 238U, 239Pu, and 241Am. The greatest contribution to total radiation exposure is the natural background radiation that provides an average dose of about 2.6 mSv/year to all basin residents. Global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests conducted before 1963 has resulted in the largest input of anthropogenic radioactivity into the lakes. Of increasing importance is the radionuclide input from the various components of the nuclear fuel cycle. Although the dose from these activities is currently very low, it is expected to increase if there is continued growth of the nuclear industry. In spite of strict regulations on design and operation of nuclear power facilities, the potential exists for a serious accident as a result of the large inventories of radionuclides contained in the reactor cores; however, these risks are several orders of magnitude less than the risks from other natural and man-made hazards. An area of major priority over the next few decades will be the management of the substantial amounts of radioactive waste generated by nuclear fuel cycle activities. Based on derived risk coefficients, the theoretical incidence of fatal and weighted nonfatal cancers and hereditary defects in the basin's population, attributable to 50 years of exposure to natural background radiation, is conservatively estimated to be of the order of 3.4 x 10(5) cases. The total number of attributable health effects to the year 2050 from fallout radionuclides in the Great Lakes basin is of the order of 5.0 x 10(3). In contrast, estimates of attributable health effects from 50 years of exposure to current nuclear fuel cycle effluent in the basin are of the order of 2

  5. The Messinian Evaporites in the Levantine Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netzeband, G. L.; Huebscher, C. P.; Gajewski, D.

    2005-12-01

    The Levantine Basin in the Southeastern Mediterranean Sea is a world class site for studying the initial stages of salt tectonics. The deposition of the evaporites took place during the Messinian salinity crisis 5.9 - 5.3 Ma ago. About 2 km of halite, gypsum and anhydrite were deposited in the basin. The evaporite body is not uniformly transparent, but marked by several internal reflections. Between these reflections, the evaporites appear transparent. This leads to the conclusion that they represent different cycles of evaporite deposition, each with a succession of upper and lower evaporites. All of these internal reflections are differently folded and distorted, proving that the deformation was syn-depositional. Thrust angles of up to 14 degrees are observed. The sediment cover on top mainly originates from Nile sediments. Hence, the sediment thickness varies between about 400 m in the northern part of the basin over 1000 m near the shelf off Israel and Lebanon to almost 3000 m near the Nile Delta. A simple 1-D backstripping analysis reveals that this immense difference in sediment load is the driving force for salt migration. Hence, the main direction of salt movement is SSW-NNE, there has been no movement in E-W direction. The superposition of 'thin-skinned' tectonics and 'thick-skinned' tectonics is clearly visible in the Levantine Basin: At the Cyprus Arc, the convergence zone of Africa and Eurasia, deep-rooted compression heavily deformed the base of the salt, whereas at the Eratosthenes Seamount mainly superficial compression affecting the Post-Messinian sediments and the top of the evaporites is observed. Shear zones and fault lines, which have been postulated in the Levantine Basin, follow two trends: SSW-NNE and NW-SE. They add a component of 'thick-skinned' transpression to the generally 'thin-skinned' compressional regime in the basin. These deep-rooted fault lines represent zones of weakness, above which salt-related pop-up structures and thrust

  6. Radionuclides in the Great Lakes basin.

    PubMed

    Ahier, B A; Tracy, B L

    1995-12-01

    The Great Lakes basin is of radiologic interest due to the large population within its boundaries that may be exposed to various sources of ionizing radiation. Specific radionuclides of interest in the basin arising from natural and artificial sources include 3H, 14C, 90Sr, 129I, 131I, 137Cs, 222Rn, 226Ra, 235U, 238U, 239Pu, and 241Am. The greatest contribution to total radiation exposure is the natural background radiation that provides an average dose of about 2.6 mSv/year to all basin residents. Global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests conducted before 1963 has resulted in the largest input of anthropogenic radioactivity into the lakes. Of increasing importance is the radionuclide input from the various components of the nuclear fuel cycle. Although the dose from these activities is currently very low, it is expected to increase if there is continued growth of the nuclear industry. In spite of strict regulations on design and operation of nuclear power facilities, the potential exists for a serious accident as a result of the large inventories of radionuclides contained in the reactor cores; however, these risks are several orders of magnitude less than the risks from other natural and man-made hazards. An area of major priority over the next few decades will be the management of the substantial amounts of radioactive waste generated by nuclear fuel cycle activities. Based on derived risk coefficients, the theoretical incidence of fatal and weighted nonfatal cancers and hereditary defects in the basin's population, attributable to 50 years of exposure to natural background radiation, is conservatively estimated to be of the order of 3.4 x 10(5) cases. The total number of attributable health effects to the year 2050 from fallout radionuclides in the Great Lakes basin is of the order of 5.0 x 10(3). In contrast, estimates of attributable health effects from 50 years of exposure to current nuclear fuel cycle effluent in the basin are of the order of 2

  7. Mesozoic Cenozoic history of the Congo Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giresse, Pierre

    2005-10-01

    Geophysical surveys and drilling of deep wells have recently led to the recognition of underlying Precambrian basement, and to an interpretation of the structural evolution of the Congo Basin. Deformation estimated as Late Cambrian to Early Ordovician corresponds to the late Pan-African event more accurately dated as end-early Cambrian in West Africa. Subsequently, Paleozoic deformation led to widespread erosion and the development of a marked regional unconformity. The 1000-m-thick mostly continental deposition during the Cretaceous and Tertiary did not involve a noticeable subsidence process. There was no volcanism during this deposition, except at the Early Cretaceous, with the advent of kimberlites that are distributed over the border of the Cuvette. As a consequence most of the diamonds were transported northward or southward from upstream sources. The Mesozoic sediments of the Congo Basin were formed in lacustrine or lagoonal basins close to the sea level as demonstrated by some intercalations with marine fossils. In the eastern part of the basin, a limited marine connection during the Kimmeridgian was only possible with a gulf belonging to the young Indian Ocean. In southern Kasai, the same Kimmeridgian transgression is observed. In the northern part of the basin, a probable Cenomanian marine connection was suggested between the Tethys and the South Atlantic, and the marine deposition at Kipala suggests a connection with the Trans-Saharan corridor during the Late Cretaceous. The geometry of the continental Mesozoic and Cenozoic deposits begins with beds overlying a widespread planation level unconformity and/or the presence of gravel or conglomerate in the lower portion. The Sables Ocres Series and the Grès Polymorphes Series rest on the planation levels of Late Cretaceous and mid-Tertiary ages respectively. Mechanical composition and morphoscopic characters argue for a dominant eolian transport for the Grès Polymorphes and for a fluvial deposition for the

  8. New exploration targets in Malaysia: Deep sandstone reservoirs in Malay basin and turbidites in Sabah basin

    SciTech Connect

    Ngah, K.B. )

    1996-01-01

    Much of the production in Malaysia is from middle to upper Miocene sandstones and carbonates in three main basins: Malay, Sarawak (Its three subbasins-Central Luconia, Balingian and Baram), and Sabah. Fifteen fields produce an average of 630,000 bopd and 3.0 bcfgpd. More than 4.0 billion barrels of oil and 20 tcf of gas have been produced, and reserves are 4.2 billion barrels of oil and 90 tcf. Oil production will decline within the next 1 0 years unless new discoveries are made and/or improved oil recovery methods introduced, but gas production of 5 tcf, expected after the turn of the century, can be sustained for several decades. Successful exploratory wells continue to be drilled in the Malaysian Tertiary basins, and others are anticipated with application of new ideas and technology. In the Malay basin, Miocene sandstone reservoirs in Groups L and M have been considered as very [open quote]high risk[close quotes] targets, the quality of the reservoirs has generally been thought to be poor, especially toward the basinal center, where they occur at greater depth. The cause of porosity loss is primarily burial-related. Because of this factor and overpressuring, drilling of many exploration wells has been suspended at or near the top of Group L. In a recent prospect drilled near the basinal axis on the basis of advanced seismic technology, Groups L and M sandstones show fair porosity (8-15%) and contain gas. In the Sabah basin, turbidite play has received little attention, partly because of generally poor seismic resolution in a very complex structural setting. Only one field is known to produce oil from middle Miocene turbidities. However, using recently acquired 3-D seismic data over this field, new oil pools have been discovered, and they are currently being developed. These finds have created new interest, as has Shell's recent major gas discovery from a turbidite play in this basin.

  9. New exploration targets in Malaysia: Deep sandstone reservoirs in Malay basin and turbidites in Sabah basin

    SciTech Connect

    Ngah, K.B.

    1996-12-31

    Much of the production in Malaysia is from middle to upper Miocene sandstones and carbonates in three main basins: Malay, Sarawak (Its three subbasins-Central Luconia, Balingian and Baram), and Sabah. Fifteen fields produce an average of 630,000 bopd and 3.0 bcfgpd. More than 4.0 billion barrels of oil and 20 tcf of gas have been produced, and reserves are 4.2 billion barrels of oil and 90 tcf. Oil production will decline within the next 1 0 years unless new discoveries are made and/or improved oil recovery methods introduced, but gas production of 5 tcf, expected after the turn of the century, can be sustained for several decades. Successful exploratory wells continue to be drilled in the Malaysian Tertiary basins, and others are anticipated with application of new ideas and technology. In the Malay basin, Miocene sandstone reservoirs in Groups L and M have been considered as very {open_quote}high risk{close_quotes} targets, the quality of the reservoirs has generally been thought to be poor, especially toward the basinal center, where they occur at greater depth. The cause of porosity loss is primarily burial-related. Because of this factor and overpressuring, drilling of many exploration wells has been suspended at or near the top of Group L. In a recent prospect drilled near the basinal axis on the basis of advanced seismic technology, Groups L and M sandstones show fair porosity (8-15%) and contain gas. In the Sabah basin, turbidite play has received little attention, partly because of generally poor seismic resolution in a very complex structural setting. Only one field is known to produce oil from middle Miocene turbidities. However, using recently acquired 3-D seismic data over this field, new oil pools have been discovered, and they are currently being developed. These finds have created new interest, as has Shell`s recent major gas discovery from a turbidite play in this basin.

  10. Paleogeographic and paleotectonic setting of sedimentary basins in the Sevier thrust belt and hinterland, eastern Great Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, J.G. . Dept. of Earth Sciences); Vandervoort, D.S. . Dept. of Geological Sciences); Suydam, J.D. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    The eastern Great Basin contains a sparse record of broadly distributed Cretaceous sedimentary rocks which record: evolution of intermontane basins during development of the Sevier (Sv)contractional orogen and incipient extensional collapse of the elevated Sv hinterland (east-central NV), and complex tectono-sedimentary interactions between frontal thrust belt structures and the western margin of the adjacent foreland basin. Palinspastic restoration of these strata and associated structures to pre-Tertiary extension positions reveals a clearer pictures of Cretaceous basin paleogeography and allows comparison with the Puna/Altiplano plateau and precordillera thrust belt of the Neogene Andean orogen. Two syntectonic stratal assemblages are present in east-central NV. Lower Cretaceous alluvial strata (Newark Canyon Fm) record basin development coeval with emergence of contractional structures in the Sv hinterland. Localized early Cretaceous basins were possibly piggyback immature; periods of open drainage to the to the east and south suggest connection with the nascent Sv foreland basin to the east (Cedar Mountain/Sanpete Fms) prior to major thrust loading in central Utah. Development of hinterland structures is almost recorded by Aptian-Albian foreland basin alluvial deposits in SW Utah (Dakota Fm) and southern Nevada (Willow Tank Fm). Upper Cretaceous to Eocene strata (Sheep Pass Fm) record inception of regionally abundant alluvial-lacustrine basins which developed in response to onset of latest Cretaceous extension and associated collapse of the Sv hinterland. Evolution of the structurally complex western margin of the Sv foreland basin is recorded in Cretaceous through Eocene strata deposited in: piggyback basins which were at times hydrologically connected to the adjacent foreland basins, and thrust-proximal portions of the foreland basin. These proximal areas are characterized by folding and faulting of basin fill and development of intrabasinal unconformities.

  11. Iron control in the Appalachian Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, W.R.; Fredette, G.

    1983-11-01

    The Appalachian Basin presents one of the most challenging production and stimulation problems because of the iron content of its hydrocarbon producing formations. A variety of iron compounds in the producing formations present problems that have to be considered to effectively stimulate these formations. A research program was initiated in the later part of 1980 to determine methods of more effectively controlling the iron problems in the Appalachian Basin. Results of this study provide data for comparing the effectiveness of various iron control systems that are used in acid stimulation or breakdown techniques that minimize the release of acid insoluble solids and stabilizes them to decrease the detrimental effect caused by fines migration. Also developed in this study was an iron control system that helps the compatibility of the treating fluid with ferrous iron in the formation water. Flow test data and field results indicate the effectiveness of these iron control systems and treating techniques.

  12. Hydrologic data for Soldier Creek Basin, Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Selected hydrologic data collected in the Soldier Creek basin in northeastern Kansas are available on magnetic tape in card-image format. Data on the tape include water discharge in fifteen-minute and daily time intervals; rainfall in fifteen-minute and daily time intervals; concentrations and particle sizes of suspended sediment; particle sizes of bed material; ground-water levels; and chemical quality of water in concentrations of selected constituents. The data-collection system includes: (1) 7 recording streamflow stations; (2) 5 recording rainfall stations; (3) 51 nonrecording rainfall stations located within and adjacent to the basin; (4) 31 ground-water observation wells (two recording); and (5) intermittent chemical quality of water and sediment sampling sites. Examples of the information on magnetic tape for each type of data collected are presented in computer-printout format. (Woodard-USGS)

  13. Insights into Mejerda basin hydrogeology, Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guellala, Rihab; Tagorti, Mohamed Ali; Inoubli, Mohamed Hédi; Amri, Faouzi

    2012-09-01

    The present study concentrates on the interpretation of Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES) and well logs to understand the geometry and the functioning of the Ghardimaou multilayered aquifer, a potential target for water supply in the Mejerda basin (Tunisia). The analysis of isobath and isopach maps established in this study, shows a tectonic influence on the reservoirs structure; the Villafranchian folding and the NE-SW, and E-W normal faulting in the recent Quaternary created an aquifer system compartmentalized by raised and tilted blocks. Geoelectrical cross sections reveal that this structure influences the thickness of permeable formations and the groundwater circulation. These results will be useful for rationalizing the future hydrogeological research that will be undertaken in the Mejerda basin.

  14. Hydrocarbon prospects of southern Indus basin, Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Quadri, V.U.N.; Shuaib, S.M.

    1986-06-01

    The Southern Indus basin extends approximately between lat. 23/sup 0/ and 28/sup 0/31'N, and from long. 66/sup 0/E to the eastern boundary of Pakistan. Of the 55 exploratory wells drilled (1955-1984), 27 were based on results of multifold seismic surveys. Five commercial oil discoveries and one gas discovery in Cretaceous sands, three gas discoveries in Paleocene limestone or sandstone, and one gas-condensate discovery from lower Eocene limestone prove that hydrocarbons are present. The main hydrocarbon fairways are Mesozoic tilted fault blocks. Tertiary reefal banks, and drape and compressional anticlines. Older reservoirs are accessible toward the east and northeast, and younger mature source rocks are to the west, including offshore, of the Badin block oil field area. The Indus offshore basin reflects sedimentation associated with Mesozoic rifting of the Pakistan-Indian margin, superimposed by a terrigenous clastic depositional system comprised of deltas, shelves, and deep-sea fans of the Indus River.

  15. Water utilization in the White River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helland, R.O.

    1946-01-01

    This report presents briefly the results of an investigation of the water and power resources of the White river made in 1943 primarily for the purpose of classification of lands adjacent to the stream that have been withdrawn for power purposes. About three days were spent by the writer in field examination of the river basin during August and September. A survey of the river from its confluence with the Deschutes River to the Mt. Hood Loop Highway is published by the Survey. Nearly all of this map was surveyed in 1932. The entire basin is shown on quadrangle sheets. A record of discharge is available for the period 1917-43 at a station near the mouth of the river, and several short records are available at points upstream and on tributary streams.

  16. Cold Pools in the Columbia Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, Charles D.; Zhong, Shiyuan; Shaw, William J.; Hubbe, John M.; Bian, Xindi; Mittelstadt, J.

    2001-01-01

    Persistent midwinter cold air pools produce multi-day periods of cold, dreary weather in valleys and basins. Persistent stable stratification leads to the buildup of pollutants and moisture in the pool. Because the pool sometimes has temperatures below freezing while the air above is warmer, freezing precipitation often occurs with consequent effects on transportation and safety. Forecasting the buildup and breakdown of these cold pools is difficult because the physical mechanisms leading to their formation, maintenance, and destruction have received little study. This paper provides a succinct meteorological definition of a cold pool, develops a climatology of Columbia Basin cold pools, and analyzes remote and in situ temperature and wind sounding data for two winter cold pool episodes that were accompanied by fog and stratus, illustrating many of the physical mechanisms affecting cold pool evolution.

  17. Scientific Coring in the Lake Tahoe Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verosub, Kenneth L.

    2006-01-01

    Lake Tahoe ranks among the largest, oldest, and deepest lakes in North America. In addition, the lake is located at a major tectonic boundary. These factors make the Lake Tahoe basin an exciting natural laboratory for studying the interaction between tectonics and climate in a high-altitude temperate setting. A recent meeting to explore the potential benefits of a comprehensive program of scientific coring in the Lake Tahoe basin attracted 67 researchers from 28 institutions. The meeting was supported by a grant from the Drilling, Observations, and Sampling of the Earth's Continental Crust (DOSECC) consortium with additional funding provided by the John Muir Institute for the Environment and the Tahoe Environmental Research Center at the University of California, Davis, the Institute for Geophysics and Planetary Physics at the University of California, San Diego, the Desert Research Institute in Reo, Nev., the Academy for the Environment of the University of Nevada, Reno, and the U.S. Geological Survey.

  18. Utility of San Juan basin silcretes

    SciTech Connect

    Gassaway, J.S. )

    1989-09-01

    Silcretes are silicified paleosols that formed as part of deep-weathering profiles during depositional hiatuses under humid climatic regimes. They provide chronostratigraphic support for hypotheses regarding local and regional tectonic and surface events. Silcrete occurs in the San Juan basin (SJB), near the top of the Kirtland Shale (Cretaceous), in the Ojo Alamo Sandstone (Paleocene), and in the Nacimiento Formation (Paleocene). These occurrences mark the southern limit of a 1,000 mi-long, discontinuous outcrop of silcrete discovered during reconnaissance of 16 Western Interior basins. These silcretes, common in Upper Cretaceous to middle Paleocene rocks, are rare in older and younger rocks. Recognition of silcrete occurrences may prove useful to field geologists where other chronostratigraphic information is absent. For example, geologists searching for the K-T boundary could use the lowest silcrete as a starting point.

  19. Pleistocene Suvero slide, Paola basin, southern Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trincardi, F.; Normark, W.R.

    1989-01-01

    The Suvero slide covers an area of about 225 km2 in the Paola slope basin on the Eastern Tyrrhenian margin. The shape and lateral extent of the deposit reflect topographic confinement of the slide between the continental slope and a morphologic barrier formed by a margin-parallel slope ridge. No headwall or slide plane comparable in scale with the slide deposit were found, suggesting that quasi in situ deformation of semi-consolidated sediments took place when the failed materials reached the floor of the slope basin. The failure occurred downslope from a basement high originating from local uplift. Continued uplift, after the Suvero slide occurred, is documented by the presence of steep upper-slope gradients within the study area and by the presence of small-scale creep and failure events that postdate the Suvero slide. ?? 1989.

  20. Tectonic History and Modelling of South Caspian Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotaev, M.; Nikishin, A.; Ershov, A.; Brunet, M.-F.

    South Caspian Basin is situated to the east from Caucasus mountains, to the north from Alborz mountain and to the west from Turkmenia. Basin is underlyed by oceanic crust and has extremely high thickness of sediments - up to 22 km. Generally, sedi- ments of South Caspian are divided in 9 complexes (by seismic data): from Jurassic to Quaternary, mostly terrigenous sediments. Modern stress fields obtained from struc- tural data, earthquakes data and GPS data shows compressional environments in South Caspian Region. We propose that the South Caspian Basin was opened in Callovian- Late Jurassic. Callovian-Late Jurassic rapid subsidence event is well documented for the Pre-Caucasus area. We can conclude that a large back-arc deep water basin with very thinned to local oceanic crust originated during Callovian-Late Jurassic which in- cluded Great Caucasus Trough, South Caspian Basin and Kopet-Dagh Basin. It could be recognised the following main stages of the basin history: Callovian-Late Jurassic - that main rifting and crustal extension epoch; Cretaceous-Eocene - gentle thermal sub- sidence affected by stress events; Oligocene-Miocene - rapid subsidence with domi- nant clay deposition within the basin; Pliocene-Quaternary - unusual rapid subsidence of the South Caspian Basin coincided with mountain uplift of the Great Caucasus, Kopet-Dagh and Alborz. We made a backstripping reconstruction along the seismic profile in the central part of the south Caspian Basin. We obtained main peak of the tectonic subsidence for the South Caspian Basin in the Pliocene time - 2 km of the tectonic subsidence and tectonic subsidence rate up to 1200 m/Ma. Rapid subsidence of the basin was contemporaneous with increase of compression and orogenesis on the borders of the basin. We examine the hypothesis, explaining this rapid syncompres- sional subsidence by flexural response of the basin lithosphere to increase of imposed compressional force Lithosphere of the investigated South Caspian

  1. Stratigraphy of the Caloris Basin, Mercury: Implications for Volcanic History and Basin Impact Melt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ernst, Carolyn M.; Denevi, Brett W.; Barnouin, Olivier S.; Klimczak, Christian; Chabot, Nancy L.; Head, James W.; Murchie, Scott L.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Prockter, Louis M.; Robinson, Mark S.; Solomon, Sean C.; Watters, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    Caloris basin, Mercury's youngest large impact basin, is filled by volcanic plains that are spectrally distinct from surrounding material. Post-plains impact craters of a variety of sizes populate the basin interior, and the spectra of the material they have excavated enable the thickness of the volcanic fill to be estimated and reveal the nature of the subsurface. The thickness of the interior volcanic plains is consistently at least 2.5 km, reaching 3.5 km in places, with thinner fill toward the edge of the basin. No systematic variations in fill thickness are observed with long-wavelength topography or azimuth. The lack of correlation between plains thickness and variations in elevation at large horizontal scales within the basin indicates that plains emplacement must have predated most, if not all, of the changes in long-wavelength topography that affected the basin. There are no embayed or unambiguously buried (ghost) craters with diameters greater than 10 km in the Caloris interior plains. The absence of such ghost craters indicates that one or more of the following scenarios must hold: the plains are sufficiently thick to have buried all evidence of craters that formed between the Caloris impact event and the emplacement of the plains; the plains were emplaced soon after basin formation; or the complex tectonic deformation of the basin interior has disguised wrinkle-ridge rings localized by buried craters. That low-reflectance material (LRM) was exposed by every impact that penetrated through the surface volcanic plains provides a means to explore near-surface stratigraphy. If all occurrences of LRM are derived from a single layer, the subsurface LRM deposit is at least 7.5-8.5 km thick and its top likely once made up the Caloris basin floor. The Caloris-forming impact would have generated a layer of impact melt 3-15 km thick; such a layer could account for the entire thickness of LRM. This material would have been derived from a combination of lower crust

  2. Comparative hydrocarbon geology of two Mesozoic Circum-Pacific foreland basins as function of sediment provenance: Surat basin, eastern Australia and western Canada basin

    SciTech Connect

    Hawlader, H.M. )

    1990-06-01

    The Surat basin in Queensland and New South Wales, Australia, is a foreland basin formed in response to a magmatic arc during Early Jurassic to mid-Cretaceous time. It has a maximum basin-fill of about 2.5 km of Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous sediments. The first commercial production of oil in Australia came from this basin in the early 1960s. The Western Canada basin is a retro-arc foreland basin with up to 3.5 km of sediments deposited during the Middle Jurassic to Late Cretaceous. The basin was developed on the cratonward side of an arc/cordillera by plate convergence. It is a composite basin with sediments ranging in age from Devonian to Tertiary and is one of the prolific petroliferous basins of the world. The famous Athabasca-Peace River-Lloydminister tar sands alone contain a reserve of about 3 {times} 10{sup 12} barrels of oil, which exceeds three times the recoverable reserves of the world's known oil. The main sediment source was, in both basins, a rising arc/cordillera that shed a cratonward tapering clastic wedge into the flanking foreland basins. Sedimentation, in both cases, was episodic and the patterns of sedimentation in each present striking similarities. During the waxing phase of magmatism/orogeny in the arc/cordillera, the foreland subsided in response to flexural loading of the foreland fold-thrust belt and downward drag by the subducting plate. Continental synorogenic sediments were rapidly emplaced in mainly terrestrial environments into the subsiding foreland. These sediments are lithic-labile in nature and because of their physical and chemical reactivity are prone to be tight and thus of little hydrocarbon reservoir potential. During the waning phase of the arc/orogen the foreland gently rose in response partly to the cessation of drag (decoupling) by the subducting plate and to isostatic rebound (tectonic relaxation).

  3. Sedimentation basin performance at highway construction sites.

    PubMed

    Kalainesan, Sujaya; Neufeld, Ronald D; Quimpo, Rafael; Yodnane, Precha

    2009-02-01

    Sedimentation basins (SBs) are commonly used during highway construction for erosion and sedimentation pollution control as well as for attenuation of overland storm waters. In order to evaluate the sediment removal capacity of these SBs, four basins were selected for monitoring from a new highway construction that extends I-99 to I-80, in Pennsylvania. Between September 2004 and August 2005, ten sampling trips were conducted during which basin inlet and outlet water samples were obtained. The SB samples were analyzed for pH, color, turbidity, total suspended solids (TSS), volatile suspended solids (VSS), total and dissolved iron, magnesium, manganese, aluminum, calcium, sulfate and phosphate. The data showed peaks in concentrations of TSS, total aluminum, total manganese, total iron and total phosphate that closely correlated to localized rainfall peaks. For certain samples, the concentration of TSS in the outlet was higher than the TSS concentration at the basin inlet, suggesting sediment re-suspension. In general SBs managed high flows during wet weather events, but were not effective in capturing particulates. This paper discusses the need for Best Management Practices (BMPs) for the design of SBs that reflect contemporary concerns for management of particle removal and to control the release of particulate-bound metals. This paper also evaluates the water quality impacts of naturally occurring acidic drainages into SBs, as several acidic seeps with pH in the range of 5-6 and having high dissolved concentrations of metals (Fe, Mn, Mg and Ca), sulfate and phosphate were observed draining into the SBs. PMID:18362049

  4. K Basin spent nuclear fuel characterization

    SciTech Connect

    LAWRENCE, L.A.

    1999-02-10

    The results of the characterization efforts completed for the N Reactor fuel stored in the Hanford K Basins were Collected and summarized in this single referencable document. This summary provides a ''road map'' for what was done and the results obtained for the fuel characterization program initiated in 1994 and scheduled for completion in 1999 with the fuel oxidation rate measurement under moist inert atmospheres.

  5. Caribbean basin framework, 2: Northern Central America

    SciTech Connect

    Tyburski, S.A.; Gordon, M.B.; Mann, P. )

    1991-03-01

    There are four Jurassic to Recent basin-forming periods in northern Central America (honduras, Honduran Borderlands, Belize, Guatemala, northern Nicaragua): (1) Middle Jurassic-Early Cretaceous rifting and subsidence along normal faults in Honduras and Guatemala; rifts are suggested but are not well defined in Honduras by the distribution of clastic sediments and associated volcanic rocks. Rifting is attributed to the separation of Central America from the southern margin of the North American plate; (2) Cretaceous subsidence recorded by the development of a Cretaceous carbonate platform in Honduras, Guatemala, and Belize; subsidence is attributed to thermal subsidence of the rifted margins of the various blocks; (3) Late Cretaceous-Recent development of a volcanic arc along the western margin of Middle America and the northern margin of Honduras; (4) Late Cretaceous large-scale folding in Honduras, ophiolite obduction, and formation of a foredeep basin in Guatemala (Sepur trough); deformation is attributed to the collision between a north-facing arc in northern Honduras and the Nicaraguan Rise and the passive margin of Guatemala and Belize; and (5) Eocene to Recent strike-slip faulting along the present-day North American-Caribbean plate boundary in Guatemala, northern Honduras, and Belize. Strike-slip faults and basins form a California-type borderlands characterized by elongate basins that appear as half-grabens in profile. Counterclockwise rotation of the central honduras plateau, a thicker and topographically higher-than-average block within the plate boundary zone, is accommodated by rifting or strike-slip faults at its edges.

  6. K Basin sludge treatment process description

    SciTech Connect

    Westra, A.G.

    1998-08-28

    The K East (KE) and K West (KW) fuel storage basins at the 100 K Area of the Hanford Site contain sludge on the floor, in pits, and inside fuel storage canisters. The major sources of the sludge are corrosion of the fuel elements and steel structures in the basin, sand intrusion from outside the buildings, and degradation of the structural concrete that forms the basins. The decision has been made to dispose of this sludge separate from the fuel elements stored in the basins. The sludge will be treated so that it meets Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) acceptance criteria and can be sent to one of the double-shell waste tanks. The US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office accepted a recommendation by Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc., to chemically treat the sludge. Sludge treatment will be done by dissolving the fuel constituents in nitric acid, separating the insoluble material, adding neutron absorbers for criticality safety, and reacting the solution with caustic to co-precipitate the uranium and plutonium. A truck will transport the resulting slurry to an underground storage tank (most likely tank 241-AW-105). The undissolved solids will be treated to reduce the transuranic (TRU) and content, stabilized in grout, and transferred to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) for disposal. This document describes a process for dissolving the sludge to produce waste streams that meet the TWRS acceptance criteria for disposal to an underground waste tank and the ERDF acceptance criteria for disposal of solid waste. The process described is based on a series of engineering studies and laboratory tests outlined in the testing strategy document (Flament 1998).

  7. Underworld and multi-basin heat flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quenette, S. M.; O'Neill, C.; Moresi, L. N.; Danis, C. R.; Mansour, J.

    2011-12-01

    We present an over arching method for non-linear heat flow assessments of large, multi-basin systems. Our example is the Sydney-, Gunnedah-, Bowen basins (Danis et al 2011), which covers an area of 800kms by 1900kms and depth of 5kms, on the east coast of Australia. It is used as a baseline towards further fluid and structural geodynamics oriented analysis. In contrast to reservoir scale geothermal models - basin, multi-basin and towards lithosphere scale models exhibit their own challenges in terms of physical/rheological behaviour and computational tractability. For instance we model a non-linear heat flow by means of temperature dependent conductivity, as indicated by Clauser and Huenges (1995), which allows crystalline basement rocks, such as granites, to show for example a significant decrease in conductivity from ambient temperature up to around 400C, dropping from around 3 mK**(units) to around 2. For this modelling, a specialisation of the geodynamics code 'Underworld' (Moresi et al 2007) called Underworld-GT is used. A toolbox is added to the otherwise un-touched Underworld code adding geothermal workflow and context to Underworld. A particular novel feature is the ability to load stratigraphic layers, and/or GoCAD or GeoModeller voxel sets as the constraining geological geometry, whilst allowing the heat assessment models to scale from 1 process to 1000s. Another is the ability to prescribe synthetic drill holes, and its use in stochastic-oriented assessments of model parameters. Following the Underworld platform's approach and its simple PDE abstraction layer, these model configurations from a baseline for further additions to the governing equations such as fluid flow and structure, enabling a bridge between reservoir and continental scale dynamics, albeit with their own computational challenges.

  8. Prospective Frontier basins off eastern Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Falvey, D.A.; Hinz, K.; Willcox, J.B.; Exon, N.F.; Symonds, P.A.; Williamson, P.E.

    1986-07-01

    Eleven thousand kilometers of high-quality multichannel seismic reflection data have been gathered in four poorly known, but prospective areas off eastern Australia. The Otway basin has an area of 100,000 km/sup 2/, more than half of which is in depths exceeding 500 m. Its Cretaceous and Cenozoic sedimentary sequence is up to 10,000 m thick and is cut by large coast-parallel normal faults. The oldest marine strata are Cenomanian. The basinal area off west Tasmania covers 40,000 km/sup 2/, two-thirds of it in offshelf depths. It contains up to 6000 m of Cretaceous and Cenozoic sequences similar to those of the Otway basin. The Lord Howe Rise is a ribbon of continent off eastern Australia, about 2000 km long and 400 km wide. Much of its crest lies in water depths of 750-1200 m. Up to 4500 m of Mesozoic and Cenozoic sequences has been identified, and extensive faulting, related to the formation of the Tasman Sea, has formed rift basins and horst and graben areas. Simple extension was apparently dominant in the south, and oblique extension in the north. The Queensland Plateau covers 200,000 km/sup 2/, half of which is in water shallower than 1000 m. The plateau behaved as a stable block during and after the Paleogene spreading episode, which formed the Coral Sea to the northeast. About 1000 m of latest Cretaceous and Cenozoic sequences are present above a planated surface on the plateau, and up to 5000 m in the flanking Queensland and Townsville Troughs to the southwest. The sequence beneath the planated surface is believed to contain Cretaceous rift-fill sediments in places.

  9. SE Great Basin Play Fairway Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Adam Brandt

    2015-11-15

    This submission includes a Na/K geothermometer probability greater than 200 deg C map, as well as two play fairway analysis (PFA) models. The probability map acts as a composite risk segment for the PFA models. The PFA models differ in their application of magnetotelluric conductors as composite risk segments. These PFA models map out the geothermal potential in the region of SE Great Basin, Utah.

  10. Crustal structure and basin architecture, De Soto Canyon Salt basin, northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    MacRae, G. . Dept. of Oceanography); Watkins, J.S. . Dept. of Geophysics)

    1992-01-01

    Evolution of sedimentary basins in the Gulf of Mexico can be explained by extensional processes associated with a rifted, passively subsiding continental margin. The De Soto Canyon Salt Basin in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico contains a thick sequence of Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments which have accumulated almost continuously since the Middle Jurassic, in a relatively stable, slowly subsiding tectonic environment. Simplified isostatic principles based on a lithosphere buoyancy model are used to quantify total tectonic subsidence, crust thickness, crustal extension and crust type. Regional gravity anomaly trends reflect the interpreted crustal configuration. Multifold seismic reflection data and well data are integrated with computed isostatic relations to establish the basic architecture of the basin. An average estimated crustal thickness of 25 km and Beta-values between 1.4 and 1.8 suggest the sedimentary succession is underlain by moderately stretched and attenuated continental crust. Linear east-west and NNW-SSE trends in Beta-value contours indicate major crustal discontinuities in the region of the Mississippi-Alabama-Florida (MAFLA) shelf and beneath the west Florida shelf, respectively. The geometry of dipping sub-salt reflectors defines a major graben extending east-west in the central part of the basin. These structural trends are thought to be in response to Late Triassic-Early Jurassic rifting. The present-day configuration of the basin was established by the Middle Jurassic.

  11. Basin-wide architecture of sandstone reservoirs in the Fort Union Formation, Wind River basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Flores, R.M.; Keighin, C.W.; Keefer, W.R. )

    1991-06-01

    Architecture of hydrocarbon-bearing sandstone reservoirs of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation in the Wind River basin, Wyoming, was studied using lithofacies, grain size, bounding surfaces, sedimentary structures, internal organization, and geometry. Two principal groups of reservoirs, both erosionally based and fining upward, consist of either conglomeratic sandstone or sandstone lithofacies. Two types of architecture were recognized in conglomeratic sandstone reservoirs: (1) heterogeneous, multistacked, lenticular and (2) homogeneous, multiscoured, wedge-sheet bodies. Three types of architecture were recognized in sandstone reservoirs: (3) heterogeneous, multistacked, elongate; (4) homogeneous, multilateral, lenticular; and (5) homogeneous, ribbon-lensoid bodies. Conglomeratic sandstone reservoirs in the southern and southwestern parts of the basin suggest deposition in gravel-bedload fluvial systems influenced by provenance uplift of the Granite and southern Wind River mountains. Type 2 reservoirs represent deposits of eastward-flowing braided streams aggrading an alluvial valley in response to base level rise. Thus, to determine basin-wide architecture of reservoirs requires understanding the interplay between base level conditions, basin subsidence, and provenance uplift. These interrelated factors, in turn, control differences in hierarchies of fluvial systems throughout the basin.

  12. Integrated Basin Scale Hydropower and Environmental Opportunity Assessment in the Deschutes River Basin, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voisin, N.; Geerlofs, S. H.; Vail, L. W.; Ham, K. D.; Tagestad, J. D.; Hanrahan, T. P.; Seiple, T. E.; Coleman, A. M.; Stewart, K.

    2012-04-01

    The Deschutes River Basin in Oregon, USA, is home to a number of diverse groups of stakeholders that rely upon the complex snowmelt and groundwater-dominated river system to support their needs, livelihoods, and interests. Basin system operations that vary across various temporal and spatial scales often must balance an array of competing demands including maintaining adequate municipal water supply, recreation, hydropower generation, regulations related to environmental flows, mitigation programs for salmon returns, and in-stream and storage rights for irrigation water supplied by surface water diversions and groundwater pumping. The U.S. Department of Energy's Integrated Basin-scale Opportunity Assessment initiative is taking a system-wide approach to identifying opportunities and actions to increase hydropower and enhance environmental conditions while sustaining reliable supply for other uses. Opportunity scenarios are analyzed in collaboration with stakeholders, through nested integrated modeling and visualization software to assess tradeoffs and system-scale effects. Opportunity assessments are not intended to produce decisional documents or substitute for basin planning processes; assessments are instead intended to provide tools, information, and a forum for catalyzing conversation about scenarios where both environmental and hydropower gains can be realized within a given basin. We present the results of the nested integrated modeling approach and the modeling scenarios in order to identify and explore opportunities for the system.

  13. Miocene temblor formation and related basin evolution, southwestern San Joaquin Basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, B.W.

    1988-01-01

    The southwestern San Joaquin basin is an area of great importance for the energy industry and academic basin analysts. Understanding basin evolution is a key concern for explorationists in this essentially pristine province. Temblor Formatio is exposed in an east-west-trending belt that comprises the north flank of the San Emigdio Mountains. Field and subsurface evidence were used to elucidate the geology, depositional environments, and age of the Temblor Formation. The formation represents sand-rich borderland sedimentation in a predominantly deep-marine setting. Deposition of Temblor clastics reflects deformation due to the impingement of the Farallon Pacific ridge with the California-North American plate margin during the middle Oliocene. As a result, severe uplift along the margins of the southern San Joaquin basin, reinforced by a lowstand of global seal level, caused large volumes of coarse, immature clastics to be shed into the rapidly subsiding deep-marine depocenter. Deposition of the Temblor was thus concurrent with the transformation from a convergent margin tectonic regime to one of dextral strike-slip. This transformation was marked by an episode of transform-extension indicated by volcanism, rapid subsidence, and marine transgression during the early Miocene. The Maricopa trough or oceanic connection from the San Joaquin basin to the Pacific Ocean is inferred to have existed between Recruit Pass and Maricopa. The age of the Temblor Formation is late Oligocene to early Miocene. Petroleum production is limited to the upper member in small oil fields flanking the northern Sam Emigdio Mountains.

  14. Dose reduction improvements in storage basins of spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Fan-Hsiung F.

    1997-08-13

    Spent nuclear fuel in storage basins at the Hanford Site has corroded and contaminated basin water, which has leaked into the soil; the fuel also had deposited a layer of radioactive sludge on basin floors. The SNF is to be removed from the basins to protect the nearby Columbia River. Because the radiation level is high, measures have been taken to reduce the background dose rate to as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) to prevent radiation doses from becoming the limiting factor for removal of the SW in the basins to long-term dry storage. All activities of the SNF Project require application of ALARA principles for the workers. On the basis of these principles dose reduction improvements have been made by first identifying radiological sources. Principal radiological sources in the basin are basin walls, basin water, recirculation piping and equipment. Dose reduction activities focus on cleaning and coating basin walls to permit raising the water level, hydrolasing piping, and placing lead plates. In addition, the transfer bay floor will be refinished to make decontamination easier and reduce worker exposures in the radiation field. The background dose rates in the basin will be estimated before each task commences and after it is completed; these dose reduction data will provide the basis for cost benefit analysis.

  15. Geologic Storage at the Basin Scale: Region-Based Basin Modeling, Powder River Basin (PRB), NE Wyoming and SE Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melick, J. J.; Gardner, M. H.

    2008-12-01

    Carbon capture and storage from the over 2000 power plants is estimated at 3-5 GT/yr, which requires large- scale geologic storage of greenhouse gasses in sedimentary basins. Unfortunately, determination of basin scale storage capacity is currently based on oversimplified geologic models that are difficult to validate. Simplification involves reducing the number of geologic parameters incorporated into the model, modeling with large grid cells, and treatment of subsurface reservoirs as homogeneous media. The latter problem reflects the focus of current models on fluid and/or fluid-rock interactions rather than fluid movement and migration pathways. For example, homogeneous models over emphasize fluid behavior, like the buoyancy of super-critical CO2, and hence overestimate leakage rates. Fluid mixing and fluid-rock interactions cannot be assessed with models that only investigate these reactions at a human time scale. Preliminary and conservative estimates of the total pore volume for the PRB suggest 200 GT of supercritical CO2 can be stored in this typical onshore sedimentary basin. The connected pore volume (CPV) however is not included in this estimate. Geological characterization of the CPV relates subsurface storage units to the most prolific reservoir classes (RCs). The CPV, number of well penetrations, supercritical storage area, and potential leakage pathways characterize each RC. Within each RC, a hierarchy of stratigraphic cycles is populated with stationary sedimentation regions that control rock property distributions by correlating environment of deposition (EOD) to CPV. The degree to which CPV varies between RCs depends on the geology and attendant heterogeneity retained in the fluid flow model. Region-based modeling of the PRB incorporates 28000 wells correlated across a 70,000 Km2 area, 2 km thick on average. Within this basin, five of the most productive RCs were identified from production history and placed in a fourfold stratigraphic framework

  16. Early, middle, and late Miocene basin development, California

    SciTech Connect

    Bachman, S.B.

    1988-03-01

    Contrary to earlier models of progressive basin development related to northward migration of the Mendocino triple junction, it can now be documented that the major basins of coastal California developed at about the same time in the late Oligocene to early Miocene. This basin development is marked by rapid deepening of basin floors, subsequent changes in depositional facies from nonmarine and shallow marine to deep marine, and widespread volcanism dated at 23-20 Ma. The coastal basins likely formed by rifting and subsidence linked to the proximity of the Farallon-pacific spreading ridge and the subduction of hot young oceanic crust, but cannot be correlated to any existing models of triple junction migration. Indeed, strike-slip restored positions of the coastal basins at their inception indicate that the basins were spread out over about 800 km of the southern coast of California. The Miocene basins were likely larger than the present coastal basins, although their configurations are obscured by late Neogene faulting and erosion. It is likely, however, that paleohighs separated at least some of the margin into proximal and distal basins. With local exceptions, structuring in the Miocene basins was primarily extensional, with widespread strike-slip and thrust tectonics restricted mainly to latest Miocene and younger events. Plate reconstructions suggest several hundred kilometers of transform motion occurred along the California margin during the Miocene, but there is only limited evidence of this movement in the known history of either the basins or the major faults of California. Sedimentation during the Miocene was controlled by both oceanic conditions (biogenic component) and the relative abundance of clastic input. The clastic input was controlled by a combination of proximal vs distal basinal positions, eustatic sea level changes, and local tectonics.

  17. Ensemble predictions of runoff using hydrograph transpositions to ungauged basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lavenne, Alban; Cudennec, Christophe

    2014-05-01

    Regionalisation is one common approach for modelling streamflow in ungauged basins. It is sometimes performed on the basis of ensemble modelling and model averaging through the play of parameters of rainfall-runoff models. We propose an original approach for ensemble modelling by transposing physically based time series rather than model's parameters. We applied the approach on 6 sub-basins of the Blavet river in Brittany (France) with area varying from 5 km² to 316 km². Inside this sample of gauged basins, the water provided by hillslopes to the network at a basin scale, called the net rainfall, is assessed by inverting their simple geomorphology based network transfer function. Those net rainfall time series, estimated at an hourly time step on each gauged basin separately, summarise the hydrological behaviour of their hillslopes without the need of any complex modelling. Moreover, it has the advantage of being relatively scale independent which enables its transposition among basins. Once this net rainfall is transposed to an ungauged basin, it is reconvoluted using its own transfer function in order to estimate the hydrograph therein. We propose to combine several gauged basins to perform ensemble modelling prediction. This ensemble modelling provides an indication of uncertainty. Although it is not a robust estimate of the possible flow range, it informs about the variability of basins behaviour inside the studied region and, as a consequence, the relative confidence in those transpositions of hydrograph. By selecting donor basins according to their similarity to the ungauged one, we aim to improve prediction accuracy, reduce uncertainty and check the best way to define hydrological similarity for the choice of the donor basin. It is demonstrated that spatial proximity provides a relatively robust estimate of the best donor basin, and giving more importance to similar basins does not necessarily lead to higher accuracy in simulations compared to a simple net

  18. Hydrocarbon potential of basins along Australia's southern margin

    SciTech Connect

    Willink, R.J. )

    1991-03-01

    Seven discrete sedimentary basins are recognized along the southern margin of the Australian continent; namely, from east to west, the Gippsland, Bass, Sorell, Otway, Duntroon, Bight, and Bremer. All formed since the Late Jurassic in response to the separation of Australia and Antarctica, and to the opening of the Tasman Sea. Only the Gippsland basin, which has proved initial oil reserves exceeding 3.6 billion barrels, is a prolific oil province. The search for oil in the other basins has been virtually fruitless despite many similarities between these basins and the Gippsland in terms of stratigraphy and structural geology. Rift and drift components are discernible in the sedimentary successions of all basins but the precise tectonic controls on respective basin formation remain conjectural. The lack of drilling success in the Bremer, Bight, Duntroon, Otway, and Sorell basins has been attributed mainly to the paucity of mature, oil-prone source rocks. The common occurrence of stranded bitumens along the entire coastline, however, indicates oil generation. The Bass and Gippsland basins are both characterized by excellent oil-prone source rocks developed in Late Cretaceous to Early Tertiary sediments. Limited exploration success in the Bass basin is due to poorer reservoir development. The Gippsland basin is at a mature stage of exploration whereas the other basins are moderately to very sparsely explored. Consequently, there is a comparable potential for undiscovered hydrocarbons in all basins. Success in the under-explored basins will come only to those prepared to challenge the perception of low prospectivity. Many play types remain to be tested by the drill.

  19. Paleozoic basins in West Africa and the Mauritanide thrust belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villeneuve, Michel

    2005-10-01

    The evolution of the Paleozoic basins of West Africa is strongly depending on the structuration of the different belts which are surrounding the West African Craton. We distinguish the "Taoudeni Basin" located in the center of the craton from the basins located on the West African Craton margin (Tindouf, Tamale and several troughs limiting the western side of the Taoudeni Basin). Other basins are located on top of the Pan-African or Hercynian belts (Bové, Kandi, Ouallen in Semmen and Diourbel basins) or on top of the Proterozoic shields (The Ghana basins). Some are evidenced underneath the Mesozoic-Cenozoic coastal basins (Bové and Ghana basins). The sedimentation started with the Marinoan glacial event (620-580 Ma) and ended with the carbonates of the Early Carboniferous. The main tectonic or climatic events that occurred during this period are registered by the sediments. Among them are, the "Série pourprée glaciogenic deposits, the Pan-African II tectonic event (550-500 Ma) which affects the southwestern part of the Taoudeni Basin, the Late Ordovician glaciogenic event, the Early Silurian marine transgression, the Early Devonian marine regression and the Hercynian tectonic event (330-270 Ma) which affects the Paleozoic basins located on the western and northern parts of the West African Craton. The second part of this paper is devoted to a synthetic review of the Mauritanides Belt which is extending from Southern Senegal to the Moroccan High Atlas. This belt includes both old Pan-African belts and Paleozoic sediments (belonging to the western part of the Bové, Taoudeni and Tindouf basins) tectonised and metamorphosed during the Hercynian orogen. The third part points out the close relationships between the Paleozoic basins and the main tectonic event for the main periods of the West African Craton evolution.

  20. Modelling conservation in the Amazon basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares-Filho, Britaldo Silveira; Nepstad, Daniel Curtis; Curran, Lisa M.; Cerqueira, Gustavo Coutinho; Garcia, Ricardo Alexandrino; Ramos, Claudia Azevedo; Voll, Eliane; McDonald, Alice; Lefebvre, Paul; Schlesinger, Peter

    2006-03-01

    Expansion of the cattle and soy industries in the Amazon basin has increased deforestation rates and will soon push all-weather highways into the region's core. In the face of this growing pressure, a comprehensive conservation strategy for the Amazon basin should protect its watersheds, the full range of species and ecosystem diversity, and the stability of regional climates. Here we report that protected areas in the Amazon basin-the central feature of prevailing conservation approaches-are an important but insufficient component of this strategy, based on policy-sensitive simulations of future deforestation. By 2050, current trends in agricultural expansion will eliminate a total of 40% of Amazon forests, including at least two-thirds of the forest cover of six major watersheds and 12 ecoregions, releasing 32 +/- 8Pg of carbon to the atmosphere. One-quarter of the 382 mammalian species examined will lose more than 40% of the forest within their Amazon ranges. Although an expanded and enforced network of protected areas could avoid as much as one-third of this projected forest loss, conservation on private lands is also essential. Expanding market pressures for sound land management and prevention of forest clearing on lands unsuitable for agriculture are critical ingredients of a strategy for comprehensive conservation.

  1. Precipitation recycling in the Amazon basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eltahir, E. A. B.; Bras, R. L.

    1994-01-01

    Precipitation recycling is the contribution of evaporation within a region to precipitation in that same region. The recycling rate is a diagnostic measure of the potential for interactions between land surface hydrology and regional climate. In this paper we present a model for describing the seasonal and spatial variability of the recycling process. The precipitation recycling ratio, rho, is the basic variable in describing the recycling process. Rho is the fraction of precipitation at a certain location and time which is contributed by evaporation within the region under study. The recycling model is applied in studyiing the hydrologic cycle in the Amazon basin. It is estimated that about 25% of all the rain that falls in the Amazon basin is contributed by evaporation within the basin. This estimate is based on analysis of a data set supplied by the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The same analysis is repeated using a different data set from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL). Based on this data set, the recycling ratio is estimated to be 35%. The seasonal variability of the recycling ratio is small compared with the yearly average. The new estimates of the recycling ratio are compared with results of previous studies, and the differences are explained.

  2. Gas potential of the Rharb Basin, Morocco

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed, D.; Costagliola, A.

    1995-08-01

    The Rharb basin in northern Morocco is a Tertiary foreland filled by clastic series during Miocene and Pliocene times These sediments, derived from the Prerif to the North-East and the Meseta to the South, are characterized by two main turbiditic sequences during much of the Upper Tortonian/Messinian and Lower Pliocene. These deep water sand deposits were probably related to both uplifting of the Rif and prerif and relative change of sea level. Although the first oil discovery in the basin was made by the beginning of the 1920`s and that over 25 billions cf of gas have been discovered by exploration drilling, the problem still facing exploration in the area is seismic resolution and reprocessing. Recent studies, based on high seismic resolution techniques and general integrated basin study have permitted to gain a deep insight of stratigraphy and distribution of deep water sand within the Upper Miocene series and their fluid content and provide critical data for evaluating hydrocarbon potential. Such evaluation combined with structural configuration and seals allows assessment of different prospects for gas exploration. Out of more 100 amplitude anomalies identified in the area based on new exploration concepts, 7 are recently drilled with 4 discoveries and 8 are proposed for drilling.

  3. Exploration trends of the Sirte Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Aburawi, R.M.

    1995-08-01

    A wave of intense exploration activity in the Sirte Basin began after the discovery of oil in 1958, and an enormous quantity of hydrocarbon was found in less than ten years. The oil discovery rate has been gradually declining since its peak in the 1960`s, and it is now becoming increasingly difficult and more expensive to find a new reserve. This paper is an attempt to discuss briefly the past exploration cycle, to indicate the present position and to predict the future trend of our activities in the Sirte Basin. The past exploration activities in the Sirte Basin were concentrated along the particular geological trends where the possibilities of finding more reserves are now drastically reduced. Therefore, for the future healthy exploration activities, new ideas are needed to bring about some new favourable areas under further investigation. A new cycle of exploration success will emerge if our exploratory efforts are purposely directed towards the stratigraphic, stratrigraphic/structural traps and subtle type traps, along the migrational pathways and deep plays in the potential oil generative areas.

  4. Petroleum exploration in the Amadeus Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roe, L. E.

    Although the spectacular outcrops in the Amadeus Basin have attracted researcher for many years, commercial exploration for oil started only in 1958. Up until 1973, 16 petroleum exploration wells were drilled and the major Mereenie Oil and Gas Field and the Palm Valley Gas Field were discovered. In both cases, the principal reservoir is the latest Cambrian-Early Ordovician Pacoota Sandstone; the reservoirs were sourced from the Early Ordovician Horn Valley Siltstone. Due to a combination of adverse circumstances, there was no exploration in the basin between 1973 and 1980. Since activity resumed, 14 further exploratory wells have been drilled and both the Mereenie and Palm Valley Fields have commenced production. The Dingo Gas Field, with flows form the basal part of the latest Proterozoic Arumbera Sandstone, was discovered in 1981. The Dingo Field is currently under study because of low flow rates from the reservoir. Exploration during the 1980's has brought out new concepts regarding the prospectiveness of parts of the basin, many of which have yet to be tested.

  5. Modelling conservation in the Amazon basin.

    PubMed

    Soares-Filho, Britaldo Silveira; Nepstad, Daniel Curtis; Curran, Lisa M; Cerqueira, Gustavo Coutinho; Garcia, Ricardo Alexandrino; Ramos, Claudia Azevedo; Voll, Eliane; McDonald, Alice; Lefebvre, Paul; Schlesinger, Peter

    2006-03-23

    Expansion of the cattle and soy industries in the Amazon basin has increased deforestation rates and will soon push all-weather highways into the region's core. In the face of this growing pressure, a comprehensive conservation strategy for the Amazon basin should protect its watersheds, the full range of species and ecosystem diversity, and the stability of regional climates. Here we report that protected areas in the Amazon basin--the central feature of prevailing conservation approaches--are an important but insufficient component of this strategy, based on policy-sensitive simulations of future deforestation. By 2050, current trends in agricultural expansion will eliminate a total of 40% of Amazon forests, including at least two-thirds of the forest cover of six major watersheds and 12 ecoregions, releasing 32 +/- 8 Pg of carbon to the atmosphere. One-quarter of the 382 mammalian species examined will lose more than 40% of the forest within their Amazon ranges. Although an expanded and enforced network of protected areas could avoid as much as one-third of this projected forest loss, conservation on private lands is also essential. Expanding market pressures for sound land management and prevention of forest clearing on lands unsuitable for agriculture are critical ingredients of a strategy for comprehensive conservation. PMID:16554817

  6. Foreland Basin Structures and Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paylor, E. D.

    1985-01-01

    Rocky Mountain foreland basins are somewhat unique in that the basins may exhibit a variety of structural styles. It is generally agreed that shortening has occurred in the foreland basement but the cause is controversial: vertical vs compressional horizontal tectonics. Even when shortening is attributed to compression, the attitude (dip) of the fault plane and whether the horizontal or vertical component of movement is dominant is unconstrained. The controversy is difficult to resolve from surface data alone due to the variety of possible interpretations. Detailed surface mapping and geologic modeling are needed to constrain subsurface interpretations. In many areas of the Wind River and Bighorn basins detailed geologic maps do not exist. State-of-the-art remote sensing data could potentially provide an efficient means of mapping surface geology. State-of-the-art remote sensing systems now provide geometrically correct data at 30 meter pixel size and increased spectral coverage, capable of more detailed geologic analyses. These data can be photographically enlarged to 1:24,000 scale and combined with 7 1/2' uses topographic quads to provide an excellent base map for geologic interpretations.

  7. Structure and dynamics of the Tyrrhenian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Sborshchikov, I.M.; Verjbitsky, E.V.; Schreider, A.A. )

    1988-08-01

    The Tyrrhenian Sea is a recently subsided oceanic basin. Young tholeiitic volcanoes are found in the central part of this sea as well as sea mount fragments of continental blocks formed by Alpine folding complexes. Mesozoic ophiolites are found on Baronie and DeMarchi sea mounts and Site 651 (Leg 107). Soviet investigations show that Baronie serpentinites are covered by thick carbonate rocks of Late Jurassic age, and these deposits are comparable with ophicalcites of the Ligurian Alps. The ophiolites are traced across the basin indicating the connection to north Corsican and Calabrian structures. The fracture zone of 41{degree}N is possibly the fault which controls microplate displacement. Rifting occurred quickly and migrated toward the Eolian arc. There is no direct evidence of regular spreading (linear magnetic anomalies) in the Tyrrhenian Sea now, and opening rate calculations are difficult. Detailed heat-flow data, similar to data of typical spreading centers, allow them to estimate the gradient of the thinning lithosphere outside to axis volcanoes (Vavilov and Marsili). The calculated rifting rate on this basis is about 1-2 cm/year relative to each stretching center. The Tyrrhenian Sea has developed as a back-arc basin within the collision zone of thick continental plates.

  8. Phanerozoic tectonic evolution of Tarim Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Zhaocai; Zhang Yigang

    1995-08-01

    The tectonic evolution of Tarim Basin can be divided into two stages. In the first stage, there developed three Palaeozoic sequences (Pt3-01, O2-3-D and C1-P2), the deposition of which were controlled by Palaeoasian Tectonic Domain. In the second stage, there appeared five Meso-Cenozoic sequences (T1-2, T3, J, K2-E and N1-Q), controlled by Tethys Sea Tectonic Domain. Both of the first sequence of each stage (Pt3-01 and T1-2) are of typical rift-drift facies, overlain by flexural facies. The Palaeozoic tectonic style is characterized by basement-involved, back-thrusted uplifts and the pop-up held inbetween them. The main tectonic style since Late Triassic time has been thin-skin decoupling anticlines developed near the deep troughs in the foreland basins. Corresponding to the two above-mentioned stages, two major petroleum systems were formed. However, the early petroleum system was partly destroyed due to the marked overturn of the basin during Late Palaeozoic time.

  9. Synthetic musk emissions from wastewater aeration basins.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Nabin; Sun, Qinyue; Allen, Jonathan O; Westerhoff, Paul; Herckes, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Wastewater aeration basins at publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) can be emission sources for gaseous or aerosolized sewage material. In the present study, particle and gas phase emissions of synthetic musks from covered and uncovered aeration basins were measured. Galaxolide (HHCB), tonalide (AHTN), and celestolide (ADBI) were the most abundant, ranging from 6704 to 344,306 ng m(-3), 45-3816 ng m(-3), and 2-148 ng m(-3) in the gas phase with particle phase concentrations 3 orders of magnitude lower. The musk species were not significantly removed from the exhaust air by an odor control system, yielding substantial daily emission fluxes (∼ 200 g d(-1) for HHCB) into the atmosphere. However, simple dispersion modeling showed that the treatment plants are unlikely to be a major contributor to ambient air concentrations of these species. Emission of synthetic musk species during wastewater treatment is a substantial fate process; more than 14% of the influent HHCB is emitted to the atmosphere in a POTW as opposed to the <1% predicted by an octanol-water partition coefficient and fugacity-based US EPA fate model. The substantial atmospheric emission of these compounds is most likely due to active stripping that occurs in the aeration basins by bubbling air through the sludge. PMID:21122886

  10. Hydrocarbon habitat of the west Netherlands basin

    SciTech Connect

    De Jager, J. ); Doyle, M. ); Grantham, P. ); Mabillard, J. )

    1993-09-01

    The complex West Netherlands Basin contains oil and gas in Triassic and Upper Jurassic to Cretaceous clastic reservoir sequences. The understanding has always been that the Carboniferous coal measures have generated only gas and the Jurassic marine Posidonia Shale only oil. However, detailed geochemical analyses show that both source rocks have generated oil and gas. Geochemical fingerprinting established a correlation of the hydrocarbons with the main source rocks. The occurrence of these different hydrocarbons is consistent with migration routes. Map-based charge modeling shows that the main phase of hydrocarbon generation occurred prior to the Late Cretaceous inversion of the West Netherlands Basin. However, along the southwest flank of the basin and in lows between the inversion highs, significant charge continued during the Tertiary. Biodegradation of oils in Jurassic and Cretaceous reservoirs occurred during the earliest Tertiary, but only in reservoirs that were at that time at temperatures of less then 70 to 80[degrees]C, where bacteria could survive. This study shows that also in a mature hydrocarbon province an integrated hydrocarbon habitat study with modern analyses and state-of-the-art technology can lead to a much improved understanding of the distribution of oil and gas in the subsurface. The results of this study will allow a better risk assessment for remaining prospects, and an improved prediction of the type of trapped hydrocarbons in terms of gas, oil, and biodegraded oil.

  11. Geothermal fluid genesis in the Great Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, T.; Buchanan, P.K.

    1990-01-01

    Early theories concerning geothermal recharge in the Great Basin implied recharge was by recent precipitation. Physical, chemical, and isotopic differences between thermal and non-thermal fluids and global paleoclimatic indicators suggest that recharge occurred during the late Pleistocene. Polar region isotopic studies demonstrate that a depletion in stable light-isotopes of precipitation existed during the late Pleistocene due to the colder, wetter climate. Isotopic analysis of calcite veins and packrat midden megafossils confirm the depletion event occurred in the Great Basin. Isotopic analysis of non-thermal springs is utilized as a proxy for local recent precipitation. Contoured plots of deuterium concentrations from non-thermal and thermal water show a regional, systematic variation. Subtracting contoured plots of non-thermal water from plots of thermal water reveals that thermal waters on a regional scale are generally isotopically more depleted. Isolated areas where thermal water is more enriched than non-thermal water correspond to locations of pluvial Lakes Lahontan and Bonneville, suggesting isotopically enriched lake water contributed to fluid recharge. These anomalous waters also contain high concentrations of sodium chloride, boron, and other dissolved species suggestive of evaporative enrichment. Carbon-age date and isotopic data from Great Basin thermal waters correlate with the polar paleoclimate studies. Recharge occurred along range bounding faults. 151 refs., 62 figs., 15 tabs.

  12. South Fork Holston River basin 1988 biomonitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Saylor, C.F.; Ahlstedt, S.A.

    1990-06-01

    There is concern over the effects of shifts in land use use practices on the aquatic fauna of streams in the South Fork Holston River basin in northwestern North Carolina and southwestern Virginia. Trout reproduction has noticeably declined in the Watauga River subbasin. The Watauga River and Elk River subbasins have been subjected to commercial and resort development. The Middle fork Holston River and the upper South Fork Holston River subbasins have been affected by agricultural and mining activities, respectively (Cox, 1986). To aid reclamation and management of the South Fork Holston basin, Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) biologists conducted biomonitoring--including index of biotic integrity and macroinvertebrate sampling--on the Middle Fork Holston, South Fork Holston, Watauga, and Elk Rivers to assess cumulative impairment related to changes in habitat and pollutant loading in these subbasins. Biomonitoring can detect environmental degradation, help document problem areas, and assist in development of strategies for managing water quality. This report discusses the methods and materials and results of the biomonitoring of South Fork Holston River Basin. 13 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs.

  13. Miscellaneous chemical basin expedited site characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Riha, B.D.; Pemberton, B.E.; Rossabi, J.

    1996-12-01

    A total of twenty nine cone penetrometer test (CPT) pushes in three weeks were conducted for vadose zone characterization of the Miscellaneous Chemical Basin (MCB) waste unit at the Savannah River Site. The shallow, unlined basin received liquid chemical wastes over an 18 year period beginning in 1956. This characterization was initiated to determine the vertical and lateral extent of contamination in the vadose zone and to install vadose zone wells for remediation by barometric pumping or active vapor extraction to help prevent further contamination of groundwater. The CPT locations within the waste site were selected based on results from previous shallow soil gas surveys, groundwater contamination data, and the suspected basin center. Geophysical data and soil gas samples were collected at twenty five locations and twenty five vadose zone wells were installed. The wells were screened to target the clay zones and areas of higher soil gas concentrations. The well construction diagrams are provided in Appendix B. Baro-Ball{trademark} valves for enhanced barometric pumping were installed on each well upon completion to immediately begin the remediation treatability study at the site.

  14. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of Bonaparte Basin, Browse Basin, Northwest Shelf, and Gippsland Basin Provinces, Australia, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollastro, Richard M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Pitman, Janet K.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 4.7 billion barrels of undiscovered oil and 227 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas in three major offshore petroleum basins of northwest Australia and in the Gippsland Basin of southeast Australia.

  15. Sedimentary basin analysis using airborne gravity data: a case study from the Bohai Bay Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenyong; Liu, Yanxu; Zhou, Jianxin; Zhou, Xihua; Li, Bing

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we discuss the application of an airborne gravity survey to sedimentary basin analysis. Using high-precision airborne gravity data constrained by drilling and seismic data from the Bohai Bay Basin in eastern China, we interpreted faults, structural elements, sedimentary thickness, structural styles and local structures (belts) in the central area of the Basin by the wavelet transform method. Subsequently, these data were subtracted from the Bouguer gravity to calculate the residual gravity anomalies. On this basis, the faults were interpreted mainly by linear zones of high gravity gradients and contour distortion, while the sedimentary thicknesses were computed by the Euler deconvolution. The structural styles were identified by the combination of gravity anomalies and the local structures interpreted by the first vertical derivative of the residual gravity. The results showed evidence for seven faults, one sag and ten new local structure belts.

  16. Scaling issues in sustainable river basin management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmerman, Jos; Froebich, Jochen

    2014-05-01

    Sustainable river basin management implies considering the whole river basin when managing the water resources. Management measures target at dividing the water over different uses (nature, agriculture, industry, households) thereby avoiding calamities like having too much, too little or bad quality water. Water management measures are taken at the local level, usually considering the sub-national and sometimes national effects of such measures. A large part of the world's freshwater resources, however, is contained in river basins and groundwater systems that are shared by two or more countries. Sustainable river basin management consequently has to encompass local, regional, national and international scales. This requires coordination over and cooperation between these levels that is currently compressed into the term 'water governance' . Governance takes into account that a large number of stakeholders in different regimes (the principles, rules and procedures that steer management) contribute to policy and management of a resource. Governance includes the increasing importance of basically non-hierarchical modes of governing, where non-state actors (formal organizations like NGOs, private companies, consumer associations, etc.) participate in the formulation and implementation of public policy. Land use determines the run-off generation and use of irrigation water. Land use is increasingly determined by private sector initiatives at local scale. This is a complicating factor in the governance issue, as in comparison to former developments of large scale irrigation systems, planning institutions at state level have then less insight on actual water consumption. The water management regime of a basin consequently has to account for the different scales of water management and within these different scales with both state and non-state actors. The central elements of regimes include the policy setting (the policies and water management strategies), legal setting

  17. Surface ozone in the Lake Tahoe Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burley, Joel D.; Theiss, Sandra; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Gertler, Alan; Schilling, Susan; Zielinska, Barbara

    2015-05-01

    Surface ozone (O3) concentrations were measured in and around the Lake Tahoe Basin using both active monitors (2010) and passive samplers (2002, 2010). The 2010 data from active monitors indicate average summertime diurnal maxima of approximately 50-55 ppb. Some site-to-site variability is observed within the Basin during the well-mixed hours of 10:00 to 17:00 PST, but large differences between different sites are observed in the late evening and pre-dawn hours. The observed trends correlate most strongly with elevation, topography, and surface vegetation. High elevation sites with steeply sloped topography and drier ground cover experience elevated O3 concentrations throughout the night because they maintain good access to downward mixing of O3-rich air from aloft with smaller losses due to dry deposition. Low elevation sites with flat topography and more dense surface vegetation experience low O3 concentrations in the pre-dawn hours because of greatly reduced downward mixing coupled with enhanced O3 removal via efficient dry deposition. Additionally, very high average O3 concentrations were measured with passive samplers in the middle of the Lake in 2010. This latter result likely reflects diminished dry deposition to the surface of the Lake. High elevation Tahoe Basin sites with exposure to nocturnal O3-rich air from aloft experience daily maxima of 8-h average O3 concentrations that are frequently higher than concurrent maxima from the polluted upwind comparison sites of Sacramento, Folsom, and Placerville. Wind rose analyses of archived NAM 12 km meteorological data for the summer of 2010 suggest that some of the sampling sites situated near the shoreline may have experienced on-shore "lake breezes" during daytime hours and/or off-shore "land breezes" during the night. Back-trajectory analysis with the HYSPLIT model suggests that much of the ozone measured at Lake Tahoe results from the transport of "polluted background" air into the Basin from upwind

  18. The size of the sync basin.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Daniel A; Strogatz, Steven H; Girvan, Michelle

    2006-03-01

    We suggest a new line of research that we hope will appeal to the nonlinear dynamics community, especially the readers of this Focus Issue. Consider a network of identical oscillators. Suppose the synchronous state is locally stable but not globally stable; it competes with other attractors for the available phase space. How likely is the system to synchronize, starting from a random initial condition? And how does the probability of synchronization depend on the way the network is connected? On the one hand, such questions are inherently difficult because they require calculation of a global geometric quantity, the size of the "sync basin" (or, more formally, the measure of the basin of attraction for the synchronous state). On the other hand, these questions are wide open, important in many real-world settings, and approachable by numerical experiments on various combinations of dynamical systems and network topologies. To give a case study in this direction, we report results on the sync basin for a ring of n > 1 identical phase oscillators with sinusoidal coupling. Each oscillator interacts equally with its k nearest neighbors on either side. For k/n greater than a critical value (approximately 0.34, obtained analytically), we show that the sync basin is the whole phase space, except for a set of measure zero. As k/n passes below this critical value, coexisting attractors are born in a well-defined sequence. These take the form of uniformly twisted waves, each characterized by an integer winding number q, the number of complete phase twists in one circuit around the ring. The maximum stable twist is proportional to n/k; the constant of proportionality is also obtained analytically. For large values of n/k, corresponding to large rings or short-range coupling, many different twisted states compete for their share of phase space. Our simulations reveal that their basin sizes obey a tantalizingly simple statistical law: the probability that the final state has q

  19. Impact melts of the Orientale and Imbrium basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spudis, P.

    2014-12-01

    The largest impacts on the Moon - those that form the multi-ring basins - can produce thousands of cubic kilometers of melt. This melt is largely concentrated inside the basin, although some is ejected along with the clastic materials that make up the continuous ejecta blanket that surrounds basins. Impact melt is important because it contains information on the crustal target for basins as well as being the most suitable material to date basin-forming events. New geological mapping of the lunar Orientale and Imbrium impact basins has identified likely deposits of both types of impact melt. The Orientale basin (930 km diameter) is well preserved and only partly flooded by later mare basalts. The basin interior melt sheet is represented by the Maunder Formation, a smooth-to-cracked surface unit that covers the innermost basin ring. Study of the composition of the Maunder Fm. as determined by remote sensing shows that it is remarkably uniform both laterally and vertically, with no evidence of differentiation. Surrounding the basin are vast ejecta deposits, most of which are probably made up of clastic material. However, a few isolated deposits contained within basin secondary craters appear melt-like, with low albedo and a cracked surface texture (e.g., Struve L, 20.7° N, 76° W). The larger (1160 km diameter) and slightly older Imbrium basin is mostly filled with mare basalt lava, concealing most of the basin floor. The Imbrium basin exterior shows isolated deposits of melt-like material in several locales, including on the floors of the craters Parrot C (18.5° S, 1.2° E) and Murchison (5.1° N, 0.1° W). These deposits have low albedo and show cracked surfaces, with evidence of ground flow after deposition. Their composition is remarkably similar to highland basaltic impact melts found in the Apollo collections, such as the Apollo 17 impact melts. These features offer the possibility of examining basin impact melt at distances far removed from basin interiors or

  20. Nuussuaq basin of west Greenland: Subsidence and structural inversion in an Albian - early Tertiary pull-apart basin

    SciTech Connect

    Tankard, A.; Ng, T. Renner, T.

    1996-12-31

    The western margin of Greenland consists of a complex of linked extensional basins which formed during opening of Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay in Albian - early Tertiary time. The Nuussuaq basin, which straddles Nuussuaq peninsula and Disko Island, is onshore. Its sedimentary succession is generally hidden beneath a cover of early Tertiary extrusives. Slim-hole exploration drilling has been based on an integrated basin analysis and magnetotelluric data acquisition. Nuussuaq basin developed at a left-lateral releasing stepover at the end of the Ungava fault, an interplate strike-slip fault zone. SW-directed extension was accommodated by several transfer faults which compartmented the Nuussuaq basin. Although the principal depocenter is only 1500 km{sup 2} in area, interpretation of the magnetotelluric: data shows basin depths greater than 10 km. Persistent overpressuring and the low resistivity lower basin fill are believed to be typical of a young basin which has subsided rapidly. The Cretaceous - lower Tertiary succession is indicative of a restricted, underfilled basin. In contrast, the mid-Paleocene paleogeography was controlled by dextral slip along the basement strike-slip fault zones, broadscale structural inversion of the earlier extensional faults, and widespread volcanism. Catastrophic crestal collapse of inversion anticlines is reflected in sudden incision and rapid filling of a suite of paleovalleys. In Paleocene time, the Nuussuag basin was generally overfilled and dominated by terrestrial depositional systems. Oil seeps are associated with crestal collapse and fracturing of inversion structures. Biomarkers suggest a source rock of Paleocene age.