Science.gov

Sample records for los estadios larvales

  1. Efectos tardíos y el linfoma de Hodgkin en estadio inicial

    Cancer.gov

    Los pacientes con linfoma de Hodgkin en estadio inicial que recibieron varios fármacos de quimioterapia como único tratamiento, tenían más probabilidad de sobrevivir 12 años después que los pacientes que recibieron tratamiento que incluía radioterapia.

  2. Los NIH anuncian el lanzamiento de los estudios ALCHEMIST

    Cancer.gov

    Los Estudios sobre la Secuenciación e Identificación de Marcadores para el Mejoramiento de la Terapia Adjuvante para el Cáncer de Pulmón, ALCHEMIST, identificarán a pacientes con cáncer de pulmón en estadio inicial cuyos tumores tienen cambios genéticos.

  3. Estudios ALCHEMIST para el cáncer de pulmón en estadio inicial

    Cancer.gov

    ALCHEMIST comprende tres estudios clínicos integrados de medicina de precisión diseñados para identificar a personas con cáncer de pulmón en estadio inicial cuyos tumores tienen ciertos cambios genéticos poco comunes.

  4. Drosophila adult and larval pheromones modulate larval food choice

    PubMed Central

    Farine, Jean-Pierre; Cortot, Jérôme; Ferveur, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Insects use chemosensory cues to feed and mate. In Drosophila, the effect of pheromones has been extensively investigated in adults, but rarely in larvae. The colonization of natural food sources by Drosophila buzzatii and Drosophila simulans species may depend on species-specific chemical cues left in the food by larvae and adults. We identified such chemicals in both species and measured their influence on larval food preference and puparation behaviour. We also tested compounds that varied between these species: (i) two larval volatile compounds: hydroxy-3-butanone-2 and phenol (predominant in D. simulans and D. buzzatii, respectively), and (ii) adult cuticular hydrocarbons (CHs). Drosophila buzzatii larvae were rapidly attracted to non-CH adult conspecific cues, whereas D. simulans larvae were strongly repulsed by CHs of the two species and also by phenol. Larval cues from both species generally reduced larval attraction and pupariation on food, which was generally—but not always—low, and rarely reflected larval response. As these larval and adult pheromones specifically influence larval food search and the choice of a pupariation site, they may greatly affect the dispersion and survival of Drosophila species in nature. PMID:24741012

  5. A larval Devonian lungfish.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Keith S; Sutton, Mark; Thomas, Bethia

    2003-12-18

    Perhaps the most enduring of puzzles in palaeontology has been the identity of Palaeospondylus gunni Traquair, a tiny (5-60-mm) vertebrate fossil from the Middle Devonian period (approximately 385 Myr ago) of Scotland, first discovered in 1890 (refs 1-3). It is known principally from a single site (Achanarras Quarry, Caithness) where, paradoxically, it is extremely abundant, preserved in varved lacustrine deposits along with 13 other genera of fishes. Here we show that Palaeospondylus is the larval stage of a lungfish, most probably Dipterus valenciennesi Sedgwick and Murchison 1828 (ref. 5), and that development of the adult form requires a distinct metamorphosis. Palaeospondylus is the oldest known true larva of a vertebrate. PMID:14685237

  6. 'Peer pressure' in larval Drosophila?

    PubMed

    Niewalda, Thomas; Jeske, Ines; Michels, Birgit; Gerber, Bertram

    2014-01-01

    Understanding social behaviour requires a study case that is simple enough to be tractable, yet complex enough to remain interesting. Do larval Drosophila meet these requirements? In a broad sense, this question can refer to effects of the mere presence of other larvae on the behaviour of a target individual. Here we focused in a more strict sense on 'peer pressure', that is on the question of whether the behaviour of a target individual larva is affected by what a surrounding group of larvae is doing. We found that innate olfactory preference of a target individual was neither affected (i) by the level of innate olfactory preference in the surrounding group nor (ii) by the expression of learned olfactory preference in the group. Likewise, learned olfactory preference of a target individual was neither affected (iii) by the level of innate olfactory preference of the surrounding group nor (iv) by the learned olfactory preference the group was expressing. We conclude that larval Drosophila thus do not take note of specifically what surrounding larvae are doing. This implies that in a strict sense, and to the extent tested, there is no social interaction between larvae. These results validate widely used en mass approaches to the behaviour of larval Drosophila. PMID:24907371

  7. Measuring thigmotaxis in larval zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Schnörr, S J; Steenbergen, P J; Richardson, M K; Champagne, D L

    2012-03-17

    One of the most commonly used behavioral endpoints measured in preclinical studies using rodent models is thigmotaxis (or "wall-hugging"). Thigmotaxis is a well-validated index of anxiety in animals and humans. While assays measuring thigmotaxis in adult zebrafish have been developed, a thigmotaxis assay has not yet been validated in larval zebrafish. Here we present a novel assay for measurement of thigmotaxis in zebrafish larvae that is triggered by a sudden change in illumination (i.e. sudden light-to-darkness transition) and performed in a standard 24-well plate. We show that zebrafish larvae as young as 5 days post fertilization respond to this challenge by engaging in thigmotaxis. Thigmotaxis was significantly attenuated by anxiolytic (diazepam) and significantly enhanced by anxiogenic (caffeine) drugs, thus representing the first validated thigmotaxis assay for larval zebrafish. We also show that exposure to sudden darkness per se may represent an anxiogenic situation for larval zebrafish since less contrasting light-to-darkness transitions (achieved by lowering darkness degrees) significantly decreased thigmotaxis levels in a manner similar to what was achieved with diazepam. These findings suggest that stimuli such as exposure to sudden darkness could be used proficiently to trigger the expression of anxiety-like behaviors in laboratory settings. In sum, this is a versatile protocol allowing testing of both anxiolytic and anxiogenic drugs in a cost-effective manner (only 10 min). This assay is also amenable to medium to high-throughput capacity while constituting a valuable tool for stress and central nervous system research as well as for preclinical drug screening and discovery. PMID:22197677

  8. The interplay of adult and larval time constraints shapes species differences in larval life history.

    PubMed

    Mikolajewski, Dirk J; De Block, Marjan; Stoks, Robby

    2015-04-01

    In animals with a complex life cycle, larval life-history plasticity is likely shaped by the interplay of selective factors in both larval and adult stages. A wide interspecific variation in responses to larval time constraints imposed by seasonality has been documented. Few studies have addressed differences among closely related species in the evolutionary trajectories of age and size at metamorphosis and their link with larval growth rate under time constraints. None have considered how species-specific length of the reproductive season affects larval developmental responses to time constraints. We tested in four Coenagrion damselfly species whether species with a longer reproductive season, facing a smaller threat of missing out on reproduction, react less to larval time constraints and pre-winter food shortage by accelerating development rate and growth rate, and therefore pay less physiological costs. All species increased development and growth rates under larval time constraints. The magnitude of this increase negatively correlated across species with the length of the reproductive season. Under larval time constraints, only the species exhibiting the longest reproductive season suffered a delayed emergence and a reduced investment in energy storage, yet also showed an increased immune function. Under a longer reproductive season, evolution may favor compensation for larval constraints after metamorphosis. Growth rate was accelerated after pre-winter food shortage to the same extent across species; effects on age and mass at emergence also did not differ among species. Time constraints associated with the length of the reproductive season may predictably contribute to species differences in their response to time constraints imposed in the larval stage. Our study adds empirical proof that the interplay of selective factors in the larval and adult stages may determine life-history plasticity with regard to larval time constraints. PMID:26230032

  9. Foraging characteristics of larval bluegill sunfish and larval longear sunfish in the Kanawha River, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rider, S.J.; Margraf, F.J.

    1998-01-01

    We determined spatial and temporal foraging characteristics of larval bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) and longear sunfish (Lepomis megalotis) in the upper Kanawha River, West Virginia during the summer of 1989. Stomach contents were examined among habitat types (i.e., main channel, main-channel border, and shoreline habitats) and depth (surface, middle, and bottom). Diet of larval bluegill sunfish was dominated by Chironomidae, temporally and spatially. Chironomidae dominated larval longear sunfish diet in main channel and main-channel border collections from all three depths. However, along the shoreline, larval longear sunfish diet was dominated by Cladocera.

  10. Soundscapes and Larval Settlement: Larval Bivalve Responses to Habitat-Associated Underwater Sounds.

    PubMed

    Eggleston, David B; Lillis, Ashlee; Bohnenstiehl, DelWayne R

    2016-01-01

    We quantified the effects of habitat-associated sounds on the settlement response of two species of bivalves with contrasting habitat preferences: (1) Crassostrea virginicia (oyster), which prefers to settle on other oysters, and (2) Mercenaria mercenaria (clam), which settles on unstructured habitats. Oyster larval settlement in the laboratory was significantly higher when exposed to oyster reef sound compared with either off-reef or no-sound treatments. Clam larval settlement did not vary according to sound treatments. Similar to laboratory results, field experiments showed that oyster larval settlement in "larval housings" suspended above oyster reefs was significantly higher compared with off-reef sites. PMID:26610967

  11. Detecting larval export from marine reserves

    PubMed Central

    Pelc, R. A.; Warner, R. R.; Gaines, S. D.; Paris, C. B.

    2010-01-01

    Marine reserve theory suggests that where large, productive populations are protected within no-take marine reserves, fished areas outside reserves will benefit through the spillover of larvae produced in the reserves. However, empirical evidence for larval export has been sparse. Here we use a simple idealized coastline model to estimate the expected magnitude and spatial scale of larval export from no-take marine reserves across a range of reserve sizes and larval dispersal scales. Results suggest that, given the magnitude of increased production typically found in marine reserves, benefits from larval export are nearly always large enough to offset increased mortality outside marine reserves due to displaced fishing effort. However, the proportional increase in recruitment at sites outside reserves is typically small, particularly for species with long-distance (on the order of hundreds of kilometers) larval dispersal distances, making it very difficult to detect in field studies. Enhanced recruitment due to export may be detected by sampling several sites at an appropriate range of distances from reserves or at sites downcurrent of reserves in systems with directional dispersal. A review of existing empirical evidence confirms the model's suggestion that detecting export may be difficult without an exceptionally large differential in production, short-distance larval dispersal relative to reserve size, directional dispersal, or a sampling scheme that encompasses a broad range of distances from the reserves. PMID:20181570

  12. Anopheline Larval Habitats Seasonality and Species Distribution: A Prerequisite for Effective Targeted Larval Habitats Control Programmes

    PubMed Central

    Kweka, Eliningaya J.; Zhou, Guofa; Munga, Stephen; Lee, Ming-Chieh; Atieli, Harrysone E.; Nyindo, Mramba; Githeko, Andrew K.; Yan, Guiyun

    2012-01-01

    Background Larval control is of paramount importance in the reduction of malaria vector abundance and subsequent disease transmission reduction. Understanding larval habitat succession and its ecology in different land use managements and cropping systems can give an insight for effective larval source management practices. This study investigated larval habitat succession and ecological parameters which influence larval abundance in malaria epidemic prone areas of western Kenya. Methods and Findings A total of 51 aquatic habitats positive for anopheline larvae were surveyed and visited once a week for a period of 85 weeks in succession. Habitats were selected and identified. Mosquito larval species, physico-chemical parameters, habitat size, grass cover, crop cycle and distance to nearest house were recorded. Polymerase chain reaction revealed that An. gambiae s.l was the most dominant vector species comprised of An.gambiae s.s (77.60%) and An.arabiensis (18.34%), the remaining 4.06% had no amplification by polymerase chain reaction. Physico-chemical parameters and habitat size significantly influenced abundance of An. gambiae s.s (P = 0.024) and An. arabiensis (P = 0.002) larvae. Further, larval species abundance was influenced by crop cycle (P≤0.001), grass cover (P≤0.001), while distance to nearest houses significantly influenced the abundance of mosquito species larvae (r = 0.920;P≤0.001). The number of predator species influenced mosquito larval abundance in different habitat types. Crop weeding significantly influenced with the abundance of An.gambiae s.l (P≤0.001) when preceded with fertilizer application. Significantly higher anopheline larval abundance was recorded in habitats in pasture compared to farmland (P = 0.002). When habitat stability and habitat types were considered, hoof print were the most productive followed by disused goldmines. Conclusion These findings suggest that implementation of effective larval control

  13. Soundscapes and Larval Settlement: Characterizing the Stimulus from a Larval Perspective.

    PubMed

    Lillis, Ashlee; Eggleston, David B; Bohnenstiehl, DelWayne R

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence that underwater sounds serve as a cue for the larvae of marine organisms to locate suitable settlement habitats; however, the relevant spatiotemporal scales of variability in habitat-related sounds and how this variation scales with larval settlement processes remain largely uncharacterized, particularly in estuarine habitats. Here, we provide an overview of the approaches we have developed to characterize an estuarine soundscape as it relates to larval processes, and a conceptual framework is provided for how habitat-related sounds may influence larval settlement, using oyster reef soundscapes as an example. PMID:26611014

  14. Adaptation to larval crowding in Drosophila ananassae and Drosophila nasuta nasuta: increased larval competitive ability without increased larval feeding rate.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Archana; Natarajan, Sharmila Bharathi; Jayaram, Mohan; Thammanna, Ananda; Chari, Sudarshan; Bose, Joy; Jois, Shreyas V; Joshi, Amitabh

    2016-06-01

    The standard view of adaptation to larval crowding in fruitflies, built on results from 25 years of multiple experimental evolution studies on Drosophila melanogaster, was that enhanced competitive ability evolves primarily through increased larval feeding and foraging rate, and increased larval tolerance to nitrogenous wastes, at the cost of efficiency of food conversion to biomass. These results were at odds from the predictions of classical K-selection theory, notably the expectation that selection at high density should result in the increase of efficiency of conversion of food to biomass, and were better interpreted through the lens of α-selection. We show here that populations of D. ananassae and D. n. nasuta subjected to extreme larval crowding evolve greater competitive ability and pre-adult survivorship at high density, primarily through a combination of reduced larval duration, faster attainment of minimum critical size for pupation, greater time efficiency of food conversion to biomass and increased pupation height, with a relatively small role of increased urea/ammonia tolerance, if at all. This is a very different suite of traits than that seen to evolve under similar selection in D. melanogaster, and seems to be closer to the expectations from the canonical theory of K-selection. We also discuss possible reasons for these differences in results across the three species. Overall, the results reinforce the view that our understanding of the evolution of competitive ability in fruitflies needs to be more nuanced than before, with an appreciation that there may be multiple evolutionary routes through which higher competitive ability can be attained. PMID:27350686

  15. Behavorial assessments of larval zebrafish neurotoxicology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fishes have long been a popular organism in ecotoxicology research, and are increasingly used in human health research as an alternative animal model for chemical screening. Our laboratory incorporates a zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo/larval assay to screen chemicals for developm...

  16. The development of the Drosophila larval brain.

    PubMed

    Hartenstein, Volker; Spindler, Shana; Pereanu, Wayne; Fung, Siaumin

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter we will start out by describing in more detail the progenitors of the nervous system, the neuroblasts and ganglion mother cells. Subsequently we will survey the generic cell types that make up the developing Drosophila brain, namely neurons, glial cells and tracheal cells. Finally, we will attempt a synopsis of the neuronal connectivity of the larval brain that can be deduced from the analysis of neural lineages and their relationship to neuropile compartments. PMID:18683635

  17. ‘Peer pressure’ in larval Drosophila?

    PubMed Central

    Niewalda, Thomas; Jeske, Ines; Michels, Birgit; Gerber, Bertram

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Understanding social behaviour requires a study case that is simple enough to be tractable, yet complex enough to remain interesting. Do larval Drosophila meet these requirements? In a broad sense, this question can refer to effects of the mere presence of other larvae on the behaviour of a target individual. Here we focused in a more strict sense on ‘peer pressure’, that is on the question of whether the behaviour of a target individual larva is affected by what a surrounding group of larvae is doing. We found that innate olfactory preference of a target individual was neither affected (i) by the level of innate olfactory preference in the surrounding group nor (ii) by the expression of learned olfactory preference in the group. Likewise, learned olfactory preference of a target individual was neither affected (iii) by the level of innate olfactory preference of the surrounding group nor (iv) by the learned olfactory preference the group was expressing. We conclude that larval Drosophila thus do not take note of specifically what surrounding larvae are doing. This implies that in a strict sense, and to the extent tested, there is no social interaction between larvae. These results validate widely used en mass approaches to the behaviour of larval Drosophila. PMID:24907371

  18. Detecting critical periods in larval flatfish populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, R. Christopher; Witting, David A.; Lewis, Stephen J.

    2001-06-01

    We evaluate the time-course of deaths and evidence of periods of increased mortality (i.e., critical periods) in laboratory populations of larval flatfish. First, we make the distinction between age-at-death and abundance-at-time data for fish larvae, the latter being typical in studies of natural populations. Next, we describe an experimental investigation of age- and temperature-dependent mortality in larval winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus. The survivorship curves of these populations differed significantly in both the magnitude and time-course of mortality among the four water temperatures evaluated (7, 10, 13, and 16°C). Mortality was highest in the cooler temperatures and concentrated in the third quarter of larval life, largely concurrent with settlement of surviving members of the cohort. Among the statistical methods for analysing survival data, the proportional-hazards model with time-varying covariates proved best at capturing the patterns of age-specific mortalities. We conclude that fair appraisals of recruitment hypotheses which are predicated on periods of high, age-specific mortality that vary with environmental conditions (e.g., Hjort's critical period hypothesis) will require: (1) data that are based on age, not time; (2) data that are of higher temporal resolution than commonly available at present and (3) analytical methods that are sensitive to irregularities in survivorship curves. We suggest four research approaches for evaluating critical periods in nature.

  19. Larval Connectivity and the International Management of Fisheries

    PubMed Central

    Kough, Andrew S.; Paris, Claire B.; Butler, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    Predicting the oceanic dispersal of planktonic larvae that connect scattered marine animal populations is difficult, yet crucial for management of species whose movements transcend international boundaries. Using multi-scale biophysical modeling techniques coupled with empirical estimates of larval behavior and gamete production, we predict and empirically verify spatio-temporal patterns of larval supply and describe the Caribbean-wide pattern of larval connectivity for the Caribbean spiny lobster (Panulirus argus), an iconic coral reef species whose commercial value approaches $1 billion USD annually. Our results provide long sought information needed for international cooperation in the management of marine resources by identifying lobster larval connectivity and dispersal pathways throughout the Caribbean. Moreover, we outline how large-scale fishery management could explicitly recognize metapopulation structure by considering larval transport dynamics and pelagic larval sanctuaries. PMID:23762273

  20. Larval connectivity and the international management of fisheries.

    PubMed

    Kough, Andrew S; Paris, Claire B; Butler, Mark J

    2013-01-01

    Predicting the oceanic dispersal of planktonic larvae that connect scattered marine animal populations is difficult, yet crucial for management of species whose movements transcend international boundaries. Using multi-scale biophysical modeling techniques coupled with empirical estimates of larval behavior and gamete production, we predict and empirically verify spatio-temporal patterns of larval supply and describe the Caribbean-wide pattern of larval connectivity for the Caribbean spiny lobster (Panulirus argus), an iconic coral reef species whose commercial value approaches $1 billion USD annually. Our results provide long sought information needed for international cooperation in the management of marine resources by identifying lobster larval connectivity and dispersal pathways throughout the Caribbean. Moreover, we outline how large-scale fishery management could explicitly recognize metapopulation structure by considering larval transport dynamics and pelagic larval sanctuaries. PMID:23762273

  1. Evaluating sampling strategies for larval cisco (Coregonus artedi)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, J.T.; Stockwell, J.D.; Yule, D.L.; Black, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    To improve our ability to assess larval cisco (Coregonus artedi) populations in Lake Superior, we conducted a study to compare several sampling strategies. First, we compared density estimates of larval cisco concurrently captured in surface waters with a 2 x 1-m paired neuston net and a 0.5-m (diameter) conical net. Density estimates obtained from the two gear types were not significantly different, suggesting that the conical net is a reasonable alternative to the more cumbersome and costly neuston net. Next, we assessed the effect of tow pattern (sinusoidal versus straight tows) to examine if propeller wash affected larval density. We found no effect of propeller wash on the catchability of larval cisco. Given the availability of global positioning systems, we recommend sampling larval cisco using straight tows to simplify protocols and facilitate straightforward measurements of volume filtered. Finally, we investigated potential trends in larval cisco density estimates by sampling four time periods during the light period of a day at individual sites. Our results indicate no significant trends in larval density estimates during the day. We conclude estimates of larval cisco density across space are not confounded by time at a daily timescale. Well-designed, cost effective surveys of larval cisco abundance will help to further our understanding of this important Great Lakes forage species.

  2. Maternal diet and larval diet influence survival skills of larval red drum Sciaenops ocellatus.

    PubMed

    Perez, K O; Fuiman, L A

    2015-04-01

    Larval red drum Sciaenops ocellatus survival, turning rate, routine swimming speed, escape response latency and escape response distance were significantly correlated with essential fatty-acid (EFA) concentrations in eggs. Of the five traits that varied with egg EFA content, two (escape response latency and routine swimming speed) were significantly different when larvae were fed enriched diets compared with the low fatty-acid diet, indicating that the larval diet can compensate for some imbalances in egg composition. Turning rate during routine swimming and escape response distance, however, did not change when larvae predicted to have low performance (based on egg composition) were fed an enriched diet, indicating that these effects of egg composition may be irreversible. Escape response distances and survival rates of larvae predicted to perform well (based on egg composition) and fed highly enriched diets were lower than expected, suggesting that high levels of EFA intake can be detrimental. Altogether, these results suggest that both maternal diet, which is responsible for egg EFA composition, and larval diet may play a role in larval survivorship and recruitment. PMID:25740661

  3. Burrowing activities of the larval lamprey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sawyer, Philip J.

    1959-01-01

    Since the appearance in 1950 of Applegate's work on the sea lamprey in Michigan (U. S. Fish and Wildl. Serv., Spec. Sci. Rept.; Fish, No. 55) and the subsequent development of means to control lampreys in the Great Lakes, biologists have accumulated much additional information on adult lampreys. Larval lampreys, however, are difficult animals to observe in the field, and many facets of their behavior are still unknown. While working with the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, I kept ammocetes in captivity, and was able to observe their burrowing activities.

  4. Protective immune responses of the jird to larval Dipetalonema viteae.

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, D; Weiner, D J; Farrell, J P

    1986-01-01

    In vivo and in vitro experiments were performed to study immune protective mechanisms against larval Dipetalonema viteae. Jirds infected with 30 third-stage larvae (L3) of D. viteae for 1, 3 or 5 weeks showed significant killing of challenge larvae implanted for 2 weeks in diffusion chambers. A retardation of larval growth was seen 7 days after larval implantation, and larval death was observed beginning at 10 days. When L3 were placed in vitro with peritoneal exudate cells (PEC) from normal jirds, cellular adherence was seen starting on Day 4, and larval death was seen on Day 10. It was concluded that larvae had to undergo some development in vitro, that would allow cellular adherence to larval surface. Larvae, recovered after 7 days in vivo or in vitro, were placed in culture with normal PEC; cell adherence and worm death occurred at equal rates for both groups of worms. Larvae which had been in culture for 7 days were implanted in immunized jirds for 7 days. Significant killing of these worms was observed, whereas larvae recovered from ticks prior to implantation were not killed. In vivo and in vitro results therefore show that larval development is required for generating susceptibility to specific and/or non-specific immune reactions. A hypothesis is suggested for the function of larval retardation. PMID:3943876

  5. NON-INVASIVE NEUROTOXICITY ASSAY USING LARVAL MEDAKA

    EPA Science Inventory

    We present a method for non-invasive electrophysiological analysis of rapid escape responses in intact, freely behaving larval medaka (Oryzias latipes) before and after short-term exposure to environmental toxicants. ecordings are obtained as a larval medaka swims in a small cham...

  6. EFFECTS OF DIET ON GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF LARVAL WALLYES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of diet quality on larval walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) growth and survival are described. The cyclopoid copepod Diacyclops thomasi consumed larval walleyes within 10 min at dense copepod concentrations and within 1 day at lower densities (500 organisms/L). A...

  7. Larval fish distribution in the St. Louis River estuary

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our objective was to determine what study design, environmental, and habitat variables contribute to the distribution and abundance of larval fish in the St. Louis River estuary. Larval fish habitat associations are poorly understood in Great Lakes coastal wetlands, yet critical ...

  8. Similarities and Differences for Swimming in Larval and Adult Lampreys.

    PubMed

    McClellan, Andrew D; Pale, Timothée; Messina, J Alex; Buso, Scott; Shebib, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    The spinal locomotor networks controlling swimming behavior in larval and adult lampreys may have some important differences. As an initial step in comparing the locomotor systems in lampreys, in larval animals the relative timing of locomotor movements and muscle burst activity were determined and compared to those previously published for adults. In addition, the kinematics for free swimming in larval and adult lampreys was compared in detail for the first time. First, for swimming in larval animals, the neuromechanical phase lag between the onsets or terminations of muscle burst activity and maximum concave curvature of the body increased with increasing distance along the body, similar to that previously shown in adults. Second, in larval lampreys, but not adults, absolute swimming speed (U; mm s(-1)) increased with animal length (L). In contrast, normalized swimming speed (U'; body lengths [bl] s(-1)) did not increase with L in larval or adult animals. In both larval and adult lampreys, U' and normalized wave speed (V') increased with increasing tail-beat frequency. Wavelength and mechanical phase lag did not vary significantly with tail-beat frequency but were significantly different in larval and adult animals. Swimming in larval animals was characterized by a smaller U/V ratio, Froude efficiency, and Strouhal number than in adults, suggesting less efficient swimming for larval animals. In addition, during swimming in larval lampreys, normalized lateral head movements were larger and normalized lateral tail movements were smaller than for adults. Finally, larval animals had proportionally smaller lateral surface areas of the caudal body and fin areas than adults. These differences are well suited for larval sea lampreys that spend most of the time buried in mud/sand, in which swimming efficiency is not critical, compared to adults that would experience significant selection pressure to evolve higher-efficiency swimming to catch up to and attach to fish for

  9. Exploration of the "larval pool": development and ground-truthing of a larval transport model off leeward Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Wren, Johanna L K; Kobayashi, Donald R

    2016-01-01

    Most adult reef fish show site fidelity thus dispersal is limited to the mobile larval stage of the fish, and effective management of such species requires an understanding of the patterns of larval dispersal. In this study, we assess larval reef fish distributions in the waters west of the Big Island of Hawai'i using both in situ and model data. Catches from Cobb midwater trawls off west Hawai'i show that reef fish larvae are most numerous in offshore waters deeper than 3,000 m and consist largely of pre-settlement Pomacanthids, Acanthurids and Chaetodontids. Utilizing a Lagrangian larval dispersal model, we were able to replicate the observed shore fish distributions from the trawl data and we identified the 100 m depth strata as the most likely depth of occupancy. Additionally, our model showed that for larval shore fish with a pelagic larval duration longer than 40 days there was no significant change in settlement success in our model. By creating a general additive model (GAM) incorporating lunar phase and angle we were able to explain 67.5% of the variance between modeled and in situ Acanthurid abundances. We took steps towards creating a predictive larval distribution model that will greatly aid in understanding the spatiotemporal nature of the larval pool in west Hawai'i, and the dispersal of larvae throughout the Hawaiian archipelago. PMID:26855873

  10. Larval development of Evermannia zosterura (Perciformes: Gobiidae).

    PubMed

    González-Navarro, Enrique; Saldierna-Martínez, Ricardo Javier; Aceves-Medina, Gerardo

    2014-06-01

    Gobiidae is the most specious fish family in the world with almost 2 000 species, however only 11% of them have been described for their larval stages. The entire life cycle information is essential to understand the biology and ecology of this important fish group. Previous studies on zooplankton samples from Ensenada de La Paz, México, have shown the presence of several Gobiidae larvae and juveniles which were identified as Evermania zosterura. The main objective of this work was to describe the larval stages of this species, widely distributed in the Eastern tropical Pacific. The development of E. zosterura larvae was described based on 66 specimens. A total of 53 specimens were used to describe morphometrics and pigmentation patterns, while 13 specimens were cleared and stained, to obtain meristic characteristics. Cleared specimens had 30 to 31 total vertebrae; dorsal-fin elements: IV; 1, 13-14, anal-fin elements: 1, 13-14, and most had pterygiophore formula 4-111100. The combination of these characteristics confirmed these specimens as E. zosterura. The pigment pattern is similar throughout ontogeny. Larvae are characterized by having three to five dendritic melanophores along the post-anal ventral margin, four to nine smaller melanophores along the ventral margin between the isthmus and anus, and one on the midpoint of the dorsal margin of the tail. There is one small pigment spot on the angle of the jaw, and other on the tip of lower lip. There is an elongated internal pigment under the notochord, between the head and gas bladder. Notochord flexion starts near 3.5mm BL and ends at 4.6mm BL; transformalion to the juvenile stage is at about 13.6mm BL. Our conclusion is that the most useful characters to distinguish this species early-larval stages from those of similar species in the area, are the number of myomeres, the large melanophores (approximately uniformly in size) on the post anal ventral margin, and the elongate internal pigment under the notochord

  11. Modelling larval movement data from individual bioassays.

    PubMed

    McLellan, Chris R; Worton, Bruce J; Deasy, William; Birch, A Nicholas E

    2015-05-01

    We consider modelling the movements of larvae using individual bioassays in which data are collected at a high-frequency rate of five observations per second. The aim is to characterize the behaviour of the larvae when exposed to attractant and repellent compounds. Mixtures of diffusion processes, as well as Hidden Markov models, are proposed as models of larval movement. These models account for directed and localized movements, and successfully distinguish between the behaviour of larvae exposed to attractant and repellent compounds. A simulation study illustrates the advantage of using a Hidden Markov model rather than a simpler mixture model. Practical aspects of model estimation and inference are considered on extensive data collected in a study of novel approaches for the management of cabbage root fly. PMID:25764283

  12. Bean Type Modifies Larval Competition in Zabrotes subfasciatus (Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, S O D; Rodrigues, A S; Vieira, J L; Rosi-Denadai, C A; Guedes, N M P; Guedes, R N C

    2015-08-01

    Larval competition is particularly prevalent among grain beetles that remain within their mother-selected grain throughout development, and the behavioral process of competition is usually inferred by the competition outcome. The Mexican bean weevil Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) is subjected to resource availability variation because of the diversity of common bean types and sizes, from small (e.g., kidney beans) to large (e.g., cranberry beans). The competition process was identified in the Mexican bean weevil reared on kidney and cranberry beans by inference from the competition outcome and by direct observation through digital X-ray imaging. Increased larval density negatively affected adult emergence in kidney beans and reduced adult body mass in both kidney and cranberry beans. Developmental time was faster in cranberry beans. The results allowed for increased larval fitness (i.e., higher larval biomass produced per grain), with larval density reaching a maximum plateau >5 hatched larvae per kidney bean, whereas in cranberry beans, larval fitness linearly increased with density to 13 hatched larvae per bean. These results, together with X-ray imaging without evidence of direct aggressive interaction among larvae, indicate scramble competition, with multiple larvae emerging per grain. However, higher reproductive output was detected for adults from lower density competition with better performance on cranberry beans. Larger populations and fitter adults are expected in intermediate larval densities primarily in cranberry beans where grain losses should be greater. PMID:26470357

  13. Nectar sugar limits larval growth of solitary bees (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

    PubMed

    Burkle, Laura; Irwin, Rebecca

    2009-08-01

    The bottom-up effects of plant food quality and quantity can affect the growth, survival, and reproduction of herbivores. The larvae of solitary bee pollinators, consumers of nectar and pollen, are also herbivores. Although pollen quantity and quality are known to be important for larval growth, little is known about how nectar quality limits solitary bee performance. By adding different levels of nectar sugar directly to solitary bee provisions in the subalpine of Colorado, we tested the degree to which larval performance (development time, mass, and survival) was limited by nectar sugar. We found that larval growth increased with nectar sugar addition, with the highest larval mass in the high nectar-sugar addition treatment (50% honey solution). The shortest larval development time was observed in the low nectar-sugar addition treatment (25% honey solution). Neither low nor high nectar-sugar addition affected larval survival. This study suggests that, in addition to pollen, nectar-sugar concentration can limit solitary bee larval growth and development, and nectar should be considered more explicitly as a currency governing foraging decisions related to producing optimally sized offspring. The availability and sugar content of nectar may scale up to affect bee fitness, population dynamics, and plant-pollinator mutualisms. PMID:19689912

  14. Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) Increases Survival of Larval Sablefish, Anoplopoma fimbria.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jonathan S F; Poretsky, Rachel S; Cook, Matthew A; Reyes-Tomassini, Jose J; Berejikian, Barry A; Goetz, Frederick W

    2016-06-01

    High concentrations of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), a chemical compound released by lysed phytoplankton, may indicate high rates of grazing by zooplankton and may thus be a foraging cue for planktivorous fishes. Previous studies have shown that some planktivorous fishes and birds aggregate or alter locomotory behavior in response to this chemical cue, which is likely adaptive because it helps them locate prey. These behavioral responses have been demonstrated in juveniles and adults, but no studies have tested for effects on larval fish. Larvae suffer from high mortality rates and are vulnerable to starvation. While larvae are generally thought to be visual predators, they actually have poor vision and cryptic prey. Thus, larval fish should benefit from a chemical cue that provides information on prey abundance. We reared larval sablefish, Anoplopoma fimbria, for one week and supplemented feedings with varying concentrations of DMSP to test the hypothesis that DMSP affects larval survival. Ecologically relevant DMSP concentrations increased larval survival by up to 70 %, which has implications for production in aquaculture and recruitment in nature. These results provide a new tool for increasing larval production in aquaculture and also suggest that larvae may use DMSP as an olfactory cue. The release of DMSP may be a previously unappreciated mechanism through which phytoplankton affect larval survival and recruitment. PMID:27306913

  15. Mosquito larval source management for controlling malaria

    PubMed Central

    Tusting, Lucy S; Thwing, Julie; Sinclair, David; Fillinger, Ulrike; Gimnig, John; Bonner, Kimberly E; Bottomley, Christian; Lindsay, Steven W

    2015-01-01

    Background Malaria is an important cause of illness and death in people living in many parts of the world, especially sub-Saharan Africa. Long-lasting insecticide treated bed nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) reduce malaria transmission by targeting the adult mosquito vector and are key components of malaria control programmes. However, mosquito numbers may also be reduced by larval source management (LSM), which targets mosquito larvae as they mature in aquatic habitats. This is conducted by permanently or temporarily reducing the availability of larval habitats (habitat modification and habitat manipulation), or by adding substances to standing water that either kill or inhibit the development of larvae (larviciding). Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of mosquito LSM for preventing malaria. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; EMBASE; CABS Abstracts; and LILACS up to 24 October 2012. We handsearched the Tropical Diseases Bulletin from 1900 to 2010, the archives of the World Health Organization (up to 11 February 2011), and the literature database of the Armed Forces Pest Management Board (up to 2 March 2011). We also contacted colleagues in the field for relevant articles. Selection criteria We included cluster randomized controlled trials (cluster-RCTs), controlled before-and-after trials with at least one year of baseline data, and randomized cross-over trials that compared LSM with no LSM for malaria control. We excluded trials that evaluated biological control of anopheline mosquitoes with larvivorous fish. Data collection and analysis At least two authors assessed each trial for eligibility. We extracted data and at least two authors independently determined the risk of bias in the included studies. We resolved all disagreements through discussion with a third author. We analyzed the data using Review Manager 5 software

  16. Behavioral analysis of the escape response in larval zebrafish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Ruopei; Girdhar, Kiran; Chemla, Yann; Gruebele, Martin

    The behavior of larval zebrafish is of great interest because the limited number of locomotor neurons in larval zebrafish couples with its rich repertoire of movements as a vertebrate animal. Current research uses a priori-selected parameters to describe their swimming behavior while our lab has built a parameter-free model based on singular value decomposition analysis to characterize it. Our previous work has analyzed the free swimming of larval zebrafish and presented a different picture from the current classification of larval zebrafish locomotion. Now we are extending this work to the studies of their escape response to acoustic stimulus. Analysis has shown intrinsic difference in the locomotion between escape response and free swimming.

  17. Reduction of a larval herring population by jellyfish predator.

    PubMed

    Möller, H

    1984-05-11

    The scyphomedusa Aurelia aurita consumes large amounts of yolk-sac herring larvae in Kiel Fjord. The decline of the larval herring population in late spring coincides with a major population growth of the jellyfish. The size of the larval herring population seems to be more significantly affected by the size of the predator stock than by the size of the parental herring stock. PMID:17838355

  18. Contribution of larval nutrition to adult reproduction in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Aguila, Jerell R; Hoshizaki, Deborah K; Gibbs, Allen G

    2013-02-01

    Within the complex life cycle of holometabolous insects, nutritional resources acquired during larval feeding are utilized by the pupa and the adult. The broad features of the transfer of larval resources to the pupae and the allocation of larval resources in the adult have been described by studies measuring and tracking macronutrients at different developmental stages. However, the mechanisms of resource transfer from the larva and the factors regulating the allocation of these resources in the adult between growth, reproduction and somatic maintenance are unknown. Drosophila melanogaster presents a tractable system in which to test cellular and tissue mechanisms of resource acquisition and allocation because of the detailed understanding of D. melanogaster development and the experimental tools to manipulate its tissues across developmental stages. In previous work, we demonstrated that the fat body of D. melanogaster larvae is important for survival of starvation stress in the young adult, and suggested that programmed cell death of the larval fat cells in the adult is important for allocation of resources for female reproduction. Here, we describe the temporal uptake of larval-derived carbon by the ovaries, and demonstrate the importance of larval fat-cell death in the maturation of the ovary and in fecundity. Larvae and adults were fed stable carbon isotopes to follow the acquisition of larval-derived carbon by the adult ovaries. We determined that over half of the nutrients acquired by the ovaries in 2-day-old adult females are dependent upon the death of the fat cells. Furthermore, when programmed cell death is inhibited in the larval fat cells, ovarian development was depressed and fecundity was reduced. PMID:23038728

  19. Imaging fictive locomotor patterns in larval Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Bayley, Timothy G.; Taylor, Adam L.; Berni, Jimena; Bate, Michael; Hedwig, Berthold

    2015-01-01

    We have established a preparation in larval Drosophila to monitor fictive locomotion simultaneously across abdominal and thoracic segments of the isolated CNS with genetically encoded Ca2+ indicators. The Ca2+ signals closely followed spiking activity measured electrophysiologically in nerve roots. Three motor patterns are analyzed. Two comprise waves of Ca2+ signals that progress along the longitudinal body axis in a posterior-to-anterior or anterior-to-posterior direction. These waves had statistically indistinguishable intersegmental phase delays compared with segmental contractions during forward and backward crawling behavior, despite being ∼10 times slower. During these waves, motor neurons of the dorsal longitudinal and transverse muscles were active in the same order as the muscle groups are recruited during crawling behavior. A third fictive motor pattern exhibits a left-right asymmetry across segments and bears similarities with turning behavior in intact larvae, occurring equally frequently and involving asymmetry in the same segments. Ablation of the segments in which forward and backward waves of Ca2+ signals were normally initiated did not eliminate production of Ca2+ waves. When the brain and subesophageal ganglion (SOG) were removed, the remaining ganglia retained the ability to produce both forward and backward waves of motor activity, although the speed and frequency of waves changed. Bilateral asymmetry of activity was reduced when the brain was removed and abolished when the SOG was removed. This work paves the way to studying the neural and genetic underpinnings of segmentally coordinated motor pattern generation in Drosophila with imaging techniques. PMID:26311188

  20. Basic Gravitational Reflexes in the Larval Frog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cochran, Stephen L.

    1996-01-01

    This investigation was designed to determine how a primitive vertebrate, the bullfrog tadpole, is able to sense and process gravitational stimuli. Because of the phylogenetic similarities of the vestibular systems in all vertebrates, the understanding of the gravitational reflexes in this relatively simple vertebrate should elucidate a skeletal framework on a elementary level, upon which the more elaborate reflexes of higher vertebrates may be constructed. The purpose of this study was to understand how the nervous system of the larval amphibian processes gravitational information. This study involved predominantly electrophysiological investigations of the isolated, alert (forebrain removed) bullfrog tadpole head. The focus of these experiments is threefold: (1) to understand from whole extraocular nerve recordings the signals sent to the eye following static gravitational tilt of the head; (2) to localize neuronal centers responsible for generating these signals through reversible pharmacological ablation of these centers; and (3) to record intracellularly from neurons within these centers in order to determine the single neuron's role in the overall processing of the center. This study has provided information on the mechanisms by which a primitive vertebrate processes gravitational reflexes.

  1. Imaging fictive locomotor patterns in larval Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Pulver, Stefan R; Bayley, Timothy G; Taylor, Adam L; Berni, Jimena; Bate, Michael; Hedwig, Berthold

    2015-11-01

    We have established a preparation in larval Drosophila to monitor fictive locomotion simultaneously across abdominal and thoracic segments of the isolated CNS with genetically encoded Ca(2+) indicators. The Ca(2+) signals closely followed spiking activity measured electrophysiologically in nerve roots. Three motor patterns are analyzed. Two comprise waves of Ca(2+) signals that progress along the longitudinal body axis in a posterior-to-anterior or anterior-to-posterior direction. These waves had statistically indistinguishable intersegmental phase delays compared with segmental contractions during forward and backward crawling behavior, despite being ∼10 times slower. During these waves, motor neurons of the dorsal longitudinal and transverse muscles were active in the same order as the muscle groups are recruited during crawling behavior. A third fictive motor pattern exhibits a left-right asymmetry across segments and bears similarities with turning behavior in intact larvae, occurring equally frequently and involving asymmetry in the same segments. Ablation of the segments in which forward and backward waves of Ca(2+) signals were normally initiated did not eliminate production of Ca(2+) waves. When the brain and subesophageal ganglion (SOG) were removed, the remaining ganglia retained the ability to produce both forward and backward waves of motor activity, although the speed and frequency of waves changed. Bilateral asymmetry of activity was reduced when the brain was removed and abolished when the SOG was removed. This work paves the way to studying the neural and genetic underpinnings of segmentally coordinated motor pattern generation in Drosophila with imaging techniques. PMID:26311188

  2. Dissection of larval CNS in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Hafer, Nathaniel; Schedl, Paul

    2006-12-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) of Drosophila larvae is complex and poorly understood. One way to investigate the CNS is to use immunohistochemistry to examine the expression of various novel and marker proteins. Staining of whole larvae is impractical because the tough cuticle prevents antibodies from penetrating inside the body cavity. In order to stain these tissues it is necessary to dissect the animal prior to fixing and staining. In this article we demonstrate how to dissect Drosophila larvae without damaging the CNS. Begin by tearing the larva in half with a pair of fine forceps, and then turn the cuticle "inside-out" to expose the CNS. If the dissection is performed carefully the CNS will remain attached to the cuticle. We usually keep the CNS attached to the cuticle throughout the fixation and staining steps, and only completely remove the CNS from the cuticle just prior to mounting the samples on glass slides. We also show some representative images of a larval CNS stained with Eve, a transcription factor expressed in a subset of neurons in the CNS. The article concludes with a discussion of some of the practical uses of this technique and the potential difficulties that may arise. PMID:18704179

  3. Immunoregulation in larval Echinococcus multilocularis infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Gottstein, B

    2016-03-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a clinically very severe zoonotic helminthic disease, characterized by a chronic progressive hepatic damage caused by the continuous proliferation of the larval stage (metacestode) of Echinococcus multilocularis. The proliferative potential of the parasite metacestode tissue is dependent on the nature/function of the periparasitic immune-mediated processes of the host. Immune tolerance and/or down-regulation of immunity are a marked characteristic increasingly observed when disease develops towards its chronic (late) stage of infection. In this context, explorative studies have clearly shown that T regulatory (Treg) cells play an important role in modulating and orchestrating inflammatory/immune reactions in AE, yielding a largely Th2-biased response, and finally allowing thus long-term parasite survival, proliferation and maturation. AE is fatal if not treated appropriately, but the current benzimidazole chemotherapy is far from optimal, and novel options for control are needed. Future research should focus on the elucidation of the crucial immunological events that lead to anergy in AE, and focus on providing a scientific basis for the development of novel and more effective immunotherapeutical options to support cure AE by abrogating anergy, anticipating also that a combination of immuno- and chemotherapy could provide a synergistic therapeutical effect. PMID:26536823

  4. Autophagy precedes apoptosis during the remodeling of silkworm larval midgut.

    PubMed

    Franzetti, Eleonora; Huang, Zhi-Jun; Shi, Yan-Xia; Xie, Kun; Deng, Xiao-Juan; Li, Jian-Ping; Li, Qing-Rong; Yang, Wan-Ying; Zeng, Wen-Nian; Casartelli, Morena; Deng, Hui-Min; Cappellozza, Silvia; Grimaldi, Annalisa; Xia, Qingyou; Feng, Qili; Cao, Yang; Tettamanti, Gianluca

    2012-03-01

    Although several features of apoptosis and autophagy have been reported in the larval organs of Lepidoptera during metamorphosis, solid experimental evidence for autophagy is still lacking. Moreover, the role of the two processes and the nature of their relationship are still cryptic. In this study, we perform a cellular, biochemical and molecular analysis of the degeneration process that occurs in the larval midgut of Bombyx mori during larval-adult transformation, with the aim to analyze autophagy and apoptosis in cells that die under physiological conditions. We demonstrate that larval midgut degradation is due to the concerted action of the two mechanisms, which occur at different times and have different functions. Autophagy is activated from the wandering stage and reaches a high level of activity during the spinning and prepupal stages, as demonstrated by specific autophagic markers. Our data show that the process of autophagy can recycle molecules from the degenerating cells and supply nutrients to the animal during the non-feeding period. Apoptosis intervenes later. In fact, although genes encoding caspases are transcribed at the end of the larval period, the activity of these proteases is not appreciable until the second day of spinning and apoptotic features are observable from prepupal phase. The abundance of apoptotic features during the pupal phase, when the majority of the cells die, indicates that apoptosis is actually responsible for cell death and for the disappearance of larval midgut cells. PMID:22127643

  5. Can Georges Bank larval cod survive on a calanoid diet?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Daniel R.; Lewis, Craig V. W.; Werner, Francisco E.

    A simple conceptual model is developed for larval fish feeding on stage-structured prey populations, in an Eulerian framework. The model combines simplified contemporary models of larval fish trophodynamics, zooplankton population dynamics, and hydrodynamic turbulence. The Eulerian view allows instructive maps of larval feeding and growth rates for individual prey species, alone or in combination. Decadally averaged MARMAP surveys of Calanus finmarchicus and Pseudocalanus spp. are analyzed for the March-April period. Quasi-static population dynamics are used to infer the abundance of the smallest stages from adult female abundance. Computed growth rates show that Calanus alone is insufficient to support the smallest cod larvae (4 and 6 mm), but provides good growth (⩾10%/day) for large larvae (10, 12 mm). Pseudocalanus alone provides generally good growth for all larvae but is mismatched spatially with observed cod spawning and subsequent larval advection. Both species together provide good growth, matched spatially with larval cod, for 6 mm and larger larvae. A dietary supplement beyond these two species is needed for the smallest larvae. The procedure provides a general method for mapping observations of zooplankton abundance, distribution and reproductive status, and their relevance to larval fish survival, when the smallest stages are not observable.

  6. Modeling larval connectivity of the Atlantic surfclams within the Middle Atlantic Bight: Model development, larval dispersal and metapopulation connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xinzhong; Haidvogel, Dale; Munroe, Daphne; Powell, Eric N.; Klinck, John; Mann, Roger; Castruccio, Frederic S.

    2015-02-01

    To study the primary larval transport pathways and inter-population connectivity patterns of the Atlantic surfclam, Spisula solidissima, a coupled modeling system combining a physical circulation model of the Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB), Georges Bank (GBK) and the Gulf of Maine (GoM), and an individual-based surfclam larval model was implemented, validated and applied. Model validation shows that the model can reproduce the observed physical circulation patterns and surface and bottom water temperature, and recreates the observed distributions of surfclam larvae during upwelling and downwelling events. The model results show a typical along-shore connectivity pattern from the northeast to the southwest among the surfclam populations distributed from Georges Bank west and south along the MAB shelf. Continuous surfclam larval input into regions off Delmarva (DMV) and New Jersey (NJ) suggests that insufficient larval supply is unlikely to be the factor causing the failure of the population to recover after the observed decline of the surfclam populations in DMV and NJ from 1997 to 2005. The GBK surfclam population is relatively more isolated than populations to the west and south in the MAB; model results suggest substantial inter-population connectivity from southern New England to the Delmarva region. Simulated surfclam larvae generally drift for over one hundred kilometers along the shelf, but the distance traveled is highly variable in space and over time. Surfclam larval growth and transport are strongly impacted by the physical environment. This suggests the need to further examine how the interaction between environment, behavior, and physiology affects inter-population connectivity. Larval vertical swimming and sinking behaviors have a significant net effect of increasing larval drifting distances when compared with a purely passive model, confirming the need to include larval behavior.

  7. Transmembrane channel-like (tmc) gene regulates Drosophila larval locomotion.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yanmeng; Wang, Yuping; Zhang, Wei; Meltzer, Shan; Zanini, Damiano; Yu, Yue; Li, Jiefu; Cheng, Tong; Guo, Zhenhao; Wang, Qingxiu; Jacobs, Julie S; Sharma, Yashoda; Eberl, Daniel F; Göpfert, Martin C; Jan, Lily Yeh; Jan, Yuh Nung; Wang, Zuoren

    2016-06-28

    Drosophila larval locomotion, which entails rhythmic body contractions, is controlled by sensory feedback from proprioceptors. The molecular mechanisms mediating this feedback are little understood. By using genetic knock-in and immunostaining, we found that the Drosophila melanogaster transmembrane channel-like (tmc) gene is expressed in the larval class I and class II dendritic arborization (da) neurons and bipolar dendrite (bd) neurons, both of which are known to provide sensory feedback for larval locomotion. Larvae with knockdown or loss of tmc function displayed reduced crawling speeds, increased head cast frequencies, and enhanced backward locomotion. Expressing Drosophila TMC or mammalian TMC1 and/or TMC2 in the tmc-positive neurons rescued these mutant phenotypes. Bending of the larval body activated the tmc-positive neurons, and in tmc mutants this bending response was impaired. This implicates TMC's roles in Drosophila proprioception and the sensory control of larval locomotion. It also provides evidence for a functional conservation between Drosophila and mammalian TMCs. PMID:27298354

  8. Egg hatching, larval movement and larval survival of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae in desiccating habitats

    PubMed Central

    Koenraadt, Constantianus JM; Paaijmans, Krijn P; Githeko, Andrew K; Knols, Bart GJ; Takken, Willem

    2003-01-01

    Background Although the effects of rainfall on the population dynamics of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae have been studied in great detail, the effects of dry periods on its survival remain less clear. Methods The effects of drying conditions were simulated by creating desiccated habitats, which consisted of trays filled with damp soil. Experiments were performed in these trays to (i) test the ability of An. gambiae sensu stricto eggs to hatch on damp soil and for larvae to reach an artificial breeding site at different distances of the site of hatching and (ii) to record survival of the four larval stages of An. gambiae s.s. when placed on damp soil. Results Eggs of An. gambiae s.s. hatched on damp soil and emerging larvae were capable of covering a distance of up to 10 cm to reach surface water enabling further development. However, proportions of larvae reaching the site decreased rapidly with increasing distance. First, second and third-instar larvae survived on damp soil for an estimated period of 64, 65 and 69 hrs, respectively. Fourth-instar larvae survived significantly longer and we estimated that the maximum survival time was 113 hrs. Conclusion Short-term survival of aquatic stages of An. gambiae on wet soil may be important and adaptive when considering the transient nature of breeding sites of this species in sub-Saharan Africa. In addition, the results suggest that, for larval vector control methods to be effective, habitats should remain drained for at least 5 days to kill all larvae (e.g. in rice fields) and habitats that recently dried up should be treated as well, if larvicidal agents are applied. PMID:12919636

  9. Phormidium animalis (Cyanobacteria: Oscillatoriaceae) supports larval development of Anopheles albimanus.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Martínez, M Guadalupe; Rodríguez, Mario H; Arredondo-Jiménez, Juan I; Méndez-Sánchez, José D

    2003-06-01

    The capability of Phormidium animalis, a cyanobacterium commonly found in larval habitats of Anopheles albimanus in southern Mexico, to support larval development of this mosquito was investigated. First-stage larvae were reared under insectary conditions with P. animalis ad libitum and their development was compared with larvae fed with wheat germ. The time of pupation and adult mosquito size, assessed by wing length, were similar in both groups, but fewer adult mosquitoes were obtained from larvae fed with the cyanobacteria. Nevertheless, these observations indicate that P. animalis is ingested and assimilated by larval An. albimanus, making this cyanobacterium a good candidate for genetic engineering for the introduction of mosquitocidal toxins for malaria control in the region. PMID:12825668

  10. Measurement of Larval Activity in the Drosophila Activity Monitor

    PubMed Central

    McParland, Aidan L.; Follansbee, Taylor L.; Ganter, Geoffrey K.

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila larvae are used in many behavioral studies, yet a simple device for measuring basic parameters of larval activity has not been available. This protocol repurposes an instrument often used to measure adult activity, the TriKinetics Drosophila activity monitor (MB5 Multi-Beam Activity Monitor) to study larval activity. The instrument can monitor the movements of animals in 16 individual 8 cm glass assay tubes, using 17 infrared detection beams per tube. Logging software automatically saves data to a computer, recording parameters such as number of moves, times sensors were triggered, and animals’ positions within the tubes. The data can then be analyzed to represent overall locomotion and/or position preference as well as other measurements. All data are easily accessible and compatible with basic graphing and data manipulation software. This protocol will discuss how to use the apparatus, how to operate the software and how to run a larval activity assay from start to finish. PMID:25993121

  11. Effects of climate change on the survival of larval cod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristiansen, T.; Stock, C. A.; Drinkwater, K. F.; Curchitser, E. N.

    2011-12-01

    Understanding how climate change may impact important commercial fisheries is critical for developing sustainable fisheries management strategies. In this study, we used simulations from an Earth System Model (NOAA GFDL ESM2.1) coupled with an individual-based model (IBM) for larval fish to provide a first assessment of the potential importance of climate-change driven changes in primary productivity and temperature on cod recruitment in the North Atlantic to the year 2100. ESM model output was averaged for 5 regions, each with an area of 5x5 on a latitude-longitude grid, and representing the geographic boundaries of the current cod range. The physical and environmental data were incorporated into a mechanistic IBM used to simulate the critical early phases in the life of larval fish (e.g. cod) in a changing environment. Large phytoplankton production was predicted to decrease in most regions, thereby lowering the number of meso-zooplankton in the water column. Meso-zooplankton is the most important prey item for larval cod and a reduction in their numbers have strong impacts on larval cod survival. The combination of lowered prey abundance with increased energy requirement for growth and metabolism through increased temperature had a negative impact on cod recruitment in all modeled regions of the North Atlantic. The probability of survival past the larval stages was reduced with 20-30% at all five spawning grounds by the year 2100. Together, these results suggest climate change could have significant impacts on the survival of larval cod in the North Atlantic.

  12. Adult beetles compensate for poor larval food conditions.

    PubMed

    Müller, Thorben; Müller, Caroline

    2016-05-01

    Life history traits of herbivores are highly influenced by the quality of their hosts, i.e., the composition of primary and secondary plant metabolites. In holometabolous insects, larvae and adults may face different host plants, which differ in quality. It has been hypothesised that adult fitness is either highest when larval and adult environmental conditions match (environmental matching) or it may be mainly determined by optimal larval conditions (silver spoon effect). Alternatively, the adult stage may be most decisive for the actual fitness, independent of larval food exposure, due to adult compensation ability. To determine the influence of constant versus changing larval and adult host plant experiences on growth performance, fitness and feeding preferences, we carried out a match-mismatch experiment using the mustard leaf beetle, Phaedon cochleariae. Larvae and adults were either constantly reared on watercress (natural host) or cabbage (crop plant) or were switched after metamorphosis to the other host. Growth, reproductive traits and feeding preferences were determined repeatedly over lifetime and host plant quality traits analysed. Differences in the host quality led to differences in the development time and female reproduction. Egg numbers were significantly influenced by the host plant species experienced by the adults. Thus, adults were able to compensate for poor larval conditions. Likewise, the current host experience was most decisive for feeding preferences; in adult beetles a feeding preference was shaped regardless of the larval host plant. Larvae or adults reared on the more nutritious host, cabbage, showed a higher preference for this host. Hence, beetles most likely develop a preference when gaining a direct positive feedback in terms of an improved performance, whereby the current experience matters the most. Highly nutritious crop plants may be, in consequence, all the more exploited by potential pests that may show a high plasticity in

  13. Effects of beach morphology and waves on onshore larval transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimura, A.; Reniers, A.; Paris, C. B.; Shanks, A.; MacMahan, J.; Morgan, S.

    2015-12-01

    Larvae of intertidal species grow offshore, and migrate back to the shore when they are ready to settle on their adult substrates. In order to reach the habitat, they must cross the surf zone, which is characterized as a semi-permeable barrier. This is accomplished through physical forcing (i.e., waves and current) as well as their own behavior. Two possible scenarios of onshore larval transport are proposed: Negatively buoyant larvae stay in the bottom boundary layer because of turbulence-dependent sinking behavior, and are carried toward the shore by streaming of the bottom boundary layer; positively buoyant larvae move to the shore during onshore wind events, and sink to the bottom once they encounter high turbulence (i.e., surf zone edge), where they are carried by the bottom current toward the shore (Fujimura et al. 2014). Our biophysical Lagrangian particle tracking model helps to explain how beach morphology and wave conditions affect larval distribution patterns and abundance. Model results and field observations show that larval abundance in the surf zone is higher at mildly sloped, rip-channeled beaches than at steep pocket beaches. Beach attributes are broken up to examine which and how beach configuration factors affect larval abundance. Modeling with alongshore uniform beaches with variable slopes reveal that larval populations in the surf zone are negatively correlated with beach steepness. Alongshore variability enhances onshore larval transport because of increased cross-shore water exchange by rip currents. Wave groups produce transient rip currents and enhance cross-shore exchange. Effects of other wave components, such as wave height and breaking wave rollers are also considered.

  14. Effects of coastal transport on larval patches: Models and observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilburg, Charles E.; Houser, Letise T.; Steppe, Cecily N.; Garvine, Richard W.; Epifanio, Charles E.

    2006-03-01

    We used a combination of field observations and numerical modeling to examine the physical mechanisms responsible for the evolution and transport of patches of blue crab larvae in the mouth of Delaware Bay. The observations consisted of larval collections and surface salinity measurements taken along a moving spatial grid whose origin was determined by a satellite-tracked drifter. Examination of field observations revealed a slender larval patch that was aligned with salinity contours. Measurement of the salting rate of the larval patch indicated that the patch moved through the offshore edge of a buoyant plume due to wind-driven upwelling circulation. A numerical model that provided realistic simulations of the flow field at the mouth of Delaware Bay and the adjoining coastal ocean was used to examine the physical mechanisms responsible for the movement and evolution of the patch. We conducted a series of simulations in which we separately examined the effects of tides, buoyancy-driven flow, and wind-driven transport. Results showed that both tides and buoyancy-driven flow tend to elongate an initially square fluid element. Although winds alone have little effect on the shape of a patch, wind-driven flow can effectively move a patch through a complex flow field in which the deformation by tides and buoyancy-driven circulation can have significant effects. This study represents the first observation and analysis of a larval patch that remains intact while moving through the edge of a buoyant plume. It provides new insight into the shape of larval patches in Delaware Bay and any region with strong buoyancy- and tidally-driven flow, suggesting that typical larval patches may not be characterized by equal across- and alongshelf dimensions but instead tend to be slender shapes that are aligned with the flow field.

  15. Larval nematodes found in amphibians from northeastern Argentina.

    PubMed

    González, C E; Hamann, M I

    2010-11-01

    Five species of amphibians, Leptodactylus podicipinus, Scinax acuminatus, S. nasicus, Rhinella fernandezae and Pseudis paradoxa, were collected in Corrientes province, Argentina and searched for larval nematodes. All larval nematodes were found as cysts in the serous of the stomach of hosts. Were identified one superfamily, Seuratoidea; one genus, Spiroxys (Superfamily Gnathostomatoidea) and one family, Rhabdochonidae (Superfamily Thelazioidea). We present a description and illustrations of these taxa. These nematodes have an indirect life cycle and amphibians are infected by consuming invertebrate, the intermediate hosts. The genus Spiroxys and superfamily Seuratoidea were reported for the first time for Argentinean amphibians. PMID:21180919

  16. Effects of Underwater Turbine Noise on Crab Larval Metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Pine, Matthew K; Jeffs, Andrew G; Radford, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    The development of marine tidal turbines has advanced at a rapid rate over the last decade but with little detailed understanding of the potential noise impacts on invertebrates. Previous research has shown that underwater reef noise plays an important role in mediating metamorphosis in many larval crabs and fishes. New research suggests that underwater estuarine noise may also mediate metamorphosis in estuarine crab larvae and that the noise emitted from underwater tidal and sea-based wind turbines may significantly influence larval metamorphosis in estuarine crabs. PMID:26611041

  17. A merganser die-off associated with larval eustrongylides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locke, L.N.; DeWitt, J.B.; Menzie, C.M.; Kerwin, J.A.

    1964-01-01

    A die-off of red-breasted mergansers on Lake Holly, Virginia Beach, Virginia, was found to be due to a larval Eustrongylides. Massive tissue destruction and hemorrhage was produced by the migration of the larval Eustrongylides. Earlier stages of the same Eustrongylides were found in eastern mosquitofish and silversides upon which the mergansers had been feeding. In addition, residues of DDT were found in mosquitofish, gizzard shad, and five mergansers collected from Lake Holly, and in the tissues of two mergansers from Back Bay, Virginia. However, the information available was insufficient to establish the significance of these residue levels.

  18. Aspects of larval, post-larval and juvenile ecology of Macrobrachium petersi (Hilgendorf) in the Keiskamma estuary, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, G. H. L.

    1985-10-01

    Although Macrobrachium petersi has nine larval stages, only stage I and a minimal number of stage II M. petersi larvae were caught in the Keiskamma estuary. Stage I larvae undergo a vertical migration at night which is markedly influenced by salinity, especially under stratified conditions. Larvae remain in the water column on the ebb tide, a behavioural pattern which effectively carried them to favourable salinities for growth and development. Stage I larvae show an association with salt front regions. The sudden decline in larval abundance from stage I to stage II downstream from the front suggests a change from a pelagic to an epibenthic existence. Later larval stages failed to appear in the plankton. However, post-larvae were caught in the estuary and a juvenile migration from the estuary to freshwater was monitored.

  19. HABITAT ASSOCIATIONS OF LARVAL FISH IN A LAKE SUPERIOR COASTAL WETLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Habitat associations of larval fishes in Great Lakes coastal wetlands (GLCW) are not well documented. To determine the distribution of larval fish in coastal wetlands with regard to location and vegetation characteristics, we used a larval tow-sled to sample four macrohabitat typ...

  20. Larval fish dynamics in spring pools in middle Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bettoli, Phillip William; Goldsworthy, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    We used lighted larval traps to assess reproduction by fishes inhabiting nine spring pools in the Barrens Plateau region of middle Tennessee between May and September 2004. The traps (n = 162 deployments) captured the larval or juvenile forms of Etheostoma crossopterum (Fringed Darter) (n = 188), Gambusia affinis (Western Mosquitofish) (n = 139), Hemitremia flammea (Flame Chub) (n = 55), the imperiled Fundulus julisia (Barrens Topminnow) (n = 10), and Forbesichthys agassizii (Spring Cavefish) (n = 1). The larval forms of four other species (Families Centrarchidae, Cyprinidae, and Cottidae) were not collected, despite the presence of adults. Larval Barrens Topminnow hatched over a protracted period (early June through late September); in contrast, hatching intervals were much shorter for Fringed Darter (mid-May through early June). Flame Chub hatching began before our first samples in early May and concluded by late-May. Juvenile Western Mosquitofish were collected between early June and late August. Our sampling revealed that at least two species (Flame Chub and Fringed Darter) were able to reproduce and recruit in habitats harboring the invasive Western Mosquitofish, while Barrens Topminnow could not.

  1. Evolved differences in larval social behavior mediated by novel pheromones

    PubMed Central

    Mast, Joshua D; De Moraes, Consuelo M; Alborn, Hans T; Lavis, Luke D; Stern, David L

    2014-01-01

    Pheromones, chemical signals that convey social information, mediate many insect social behaviors, including navigation and aggregation. Several studies have suggested that behavior during the immature larval stages of Drosophila development is influenced by pheromones, but none of these compounds or the pheromone-receptor neurons that sense them have been identified. Here we report a larval pheromone-signaling pathway. We found that larvae produce two novel long-chain fatty acids that are attractive to other larvae. We identified a single larval chemosensory neuron that detects these molecules. Two members of the pickpocket family of DEG/ENaC channel subunits (ppk23 and ppk29) are required to respond to these pheromones. This pheromone system is evolving quickly, since the larval exudates of D. simulans, the sister species of D. melanogaster, are not attractive to other larvae. Our results define a new pheromone signaling system in Drosophila that shares characteristics with pheromone systems in a wide diversity of insects. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04205.001 PMID:25497433

  2. Fruit Fly Liquid Larval Diet Technology Transfer and Update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since October 2006, USDA-ARS has been implementing a fruit fly liquid larval diet technology transfer, which has proceeded according to the following steps: (1) Recruitment of interested groups through request; (2) Establishment of the Material Transfer Agreement (MTA) with ARS; (3) Fruit fly liquid...

  3. Phenology of larval fish in the St. Louis River estuary

    EPA Science Inventory

    Little work has been done on the phenology of fish larvae in Great Lakes coastal wetlands. As part of an aquatic invasive species early detection study, we conducted larval fish surveys in the St. Louis River estuary (SLRE) in 2012 and 2013. Using multiple gears in a spatially ba...

  4. LARVAL FISH HABITAT QUALITY : THE EFFECTS OF FRESHWATER FLOW

    EPA Science Inventory

    We sampled larval fish in Suisun Marsh, in the San Francisco Bay estuary from February to June 1994-1999. We used principal components analysis (PCA) and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) on 13 taxonomic groups making up 99.7% of the catch and several environmental variable...

  5. New larval trematodes in Biomphalaria species (Planorbidae) from Northeastern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Fernández, María Virginia; Hamann, Monika Inés; de Núñez, Margarita Ostrowski

    2016-09-01

    Larval trematodes infecting Biomphalaria tenagophila and B. occidentalis were surveyed in a suburban and semipermanent pond of Corrientes province, Northeastern Argentina. A total of 1,409 snails were examined between spring 2011 to winter 2013, and 8 different larval trematodes were studied morphologically. Three of these species-Echinocercaria sp. IV, Ribeiroia sp. and Echinocercaria sp. XIV-have been previously found in Corrientes province. Six other trematodes belonging to Strigeidae (Furcocercaria sp. III), Clinostomidae (Cercaria Clinostomidae sp.), Spirorchiidae (Cercaria Spirorchiidae sp.) and Echinostomatidae (Echinocercaria sp. 1, Echinocercaria sp. 2, Echinocercaria sp. 3) are new species parasitizing Biomphalaria snails. Cercaria Spirorchiidae sp. is the third larval trematode related to Spirorchiidae recorded in South America and the first one for Argentina. Cercaria Clinostomidae sp. is the first one related to Clinostomidae in northeastern Argentina. The prevalence of larval trematodes infecting B. tenagophila and B. occidentalis in the environment studied was low (<5%) with the echinostome group better represented in terms of prevalence and species richness. Drought periods could affect the dynamics of parasitic transmission due to the absence of trematodes in the autumn and winter of the first seasonal cycle. However, in humid periods parasite transmission can occur throughout the year due to the presence of larvae in all seasons of the second seasonal cycle, although the less-warm seasons showed higher prevalence than the summer period probably related to the subtropical climate of Corrientes province. PMID:27447210

  6. Rainbow smelt - larval lake herring interactions: competitors or casual acquaintances?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Selgeby, James H.; MacCallum, Wayne R.; Hoff, Michael H.

    1994-01-01

    We examined the hypothesis that competition for food between rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) and larval lake herring (Coregonus artedi) was a cause for the declines of lake herring stocks in Lake Superior. We studied the diet of larval lake herring and of larval, juvenile, and adult rainbow smelt during 1974 in Black Bay, Ontario, where both species were abundant, and in the Apostle Islands Region, Wisconsin, where rainbow smelt was abundant but lake herring was scarce. No evidence of competition for food was found between larval lake herring and rainbow smelt. Spawning and hatching times of the two species were separate enough that most larvae of the two species did not occupy the study areas simultaneously. Juvenile and adult rainbow smelt were found with lake herring larvae, but their diets differed. Therefore, we concluded that rainbow smelt did not compete with lake herring larvae for food and that competition for food between rainbow smelt and lake herring larvae was not the factor that caused lake herring population declines in Lake Superior.

  7. A sampler for capturing larval and juvenile Atlantic menhaden

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedrick, J.D.; Hedrick, L.R.; Margraf, F.J.

    2005-01-01

    Interest in capturing larval and juvenile Atlantic menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus for use in laboratory studies required the design and construction of a sampling device that would allow us to make collections of live fish from open-water areas. Our device for capturing 1-2.5-in larval-juvenile fish was constructed of a stainless steel frame that supported a 9.84-ft-long (3-m-long)5 cone plankton net with a 3.28-ft-diameter (1-m-diameter) opening and a 0.04-in (1-mm) mesh size. Although the plankton net was similar to that used during typical larval fish collections, the cod end was constructed of Plexiglas and was nearly watertight; this prevented impingement and injury to larval fish and provided a calm-water environment. The cod end was designed for quick release from the plankton net, and the entire cod end could be submerged into a 75-gal onboard holding tank. This design and technique obviated the netting or emerging of fish from the water until they were returned to the laboratory. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  8. LARVAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE SPIDER CRAB, 'LIBINIA EMERGINATA' (MAJIDAE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Larval development of the spider crab, Libinia emarginata, consists of two zoeal stages and megalopa. Laboratory-reared larvae (South Carolina and Rhode Island) are described and compared with planktonic larvae from Narragansett Bay, RI. No significant variations in morphology we...

  9. Swimming behavior of larval Medaka fish under microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, R.; Ijiri, K.

    Fish exhibit looping and rolling behaviors when subjected to short periods of microgravity during parabolic flight. Strain-differences in the behavioral response of adult Medaka fish ( Oryzias latipes) were reported previously, however, there have been few studies of larval fish behavior under microgravity. In the present study, we investigated whether microgravity affects the swimming behavior of larvae at various ages (0 to 20 days after hatching), using different strains: HNI-II, HO5, ha strain, and variety of different strains (variety). The preliminary experiments were done in the ground laboratory: the development of eyesight was examined using optokinetic response for the different strains. The visual acuity of larvae improved drastically during 20 days after hatching. Strain differences of response were noted for the development of their visual acuity. In microgravity, the results were significantly different from those of adult Medaka. The larval fish appeared to maintain their orientation, except that a few of them exhibited looping and rolling behavior. Further, most larvae swam normally with their backs turning toward the light source (dorsal light response, DLR), and the rest of them stayed with their abdomen touching the surface of the container (ventral substrate response, VSR). For larval stages, strain-differences and age-differences in behavior were observed, but less pronounced than with adult fish under microgravity. Our observations suggest that adaptability of larval fish to the gravitational change and the mechanism of their postural control in microgravity are more variable than in adult fish.

  10. Managing Ammonia Emissions From Screwworm Larval Rearing Media.

    PubMed

    Sagel, Agustin; Phillips, Pamela; Chaudhury, Muhammad; Skoda, Steven

    2016-02-01

    Mass production, sterilization, and release of screwworms (Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel)) that were competitive in the field significantly contributed to the successful application of the sterile insect technique for eradication of screwworms from continental North America. Metabolic byproducts resulting from protein-rich diets required for larval screwworms lead to ammonia liberation, sometimes at high levels, within the mass rearing facility. Until recently a sodium polyacrylate gel bulking agent was used for the larval media and adsorbed much of the ammonia. A need to replace the gel with an environmentally "friendly" bulking agent, while not increasing ammonia levels in the rearing facility, led to a series of experiments with the objective of developing procedures to reduce ammonia emissions from the larval media bulked with cellulose fiber. Additives of ammonia-converting bacteria, potassium permanganate, and Yucca schidigera Roezl ex Otrgies powder extract, previously reported to reduce ammonia levels in organic environments, were evaluated. Ammonia-converting bacteria did not have a positive effect. Addition of Y. schidigera powder extract (∼1% of total volume), potassium permanganate (∼250 ppm), and a combination of these two additives (at these same concentrations) kept ammonia at equivalent levels as when larval media was bulked with gel. Potassium permanganate also had sufficient antimicrobial properties that the use of formaldehyde in the diet was not necessary. Further testing is needed, at a mass rearing level, before full implementation into the screwworm eradication program. PMID:26468514

  11. Effects of Vegetation Microclimate on Larval Cattle Fever Tick Survival

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle Fever Ticks (CFT), Rhipicephalus annulatus and R. microplus, have been a threat to the livestock industry for many years. These ticks are vectors of cattle fever, a disease produced by the hemoparasite Babesia bovis and B. bigemina. Laboratory research on CFT larval survival has shown that co...

  12. Stretch-activated cation channel from larval bullfrog skin.

    PubMed

    Hillyard, Stanley D; Willumsen, Niels J; Marrero, Mario B

    2010-05-01

    Cell-attached patches from isolated epithelial cells from larval bullfrog skin revealed a cation channel that was activated by applying suction (-1 kPa to -4.5 kPa) to the pipette. Activation was characterized by an initial large current spike that rapidly attenuated to a stable value and showed a variable pattern of opening and closing with continuing suction. Current-voltage plots demonstrated linear or inward rectification and single channel conductances of 44-56 pS with NaCl or KCl Ringer's solution as the pipette solution, and a reversal potential (-V(p)) of 20-40 mV. The conductance was markedly reduced with N-methyl-D-glucamide (NMDG)-Cl Ringer's solution in the pipette. Neither amiloride nor ATP, which are known to stimulate an apical cation channel in Ussing chamber preparations of larval frog skin, produced channel activation nor did these compounds affect the response to suction. Stretch activation was not affected by varying the pipette concentrations of Ca(2+) between 0 mmol l(-1) and 4 mmol l(-1) or by varying pH between 6.8 and 8.0. However, conductance was reduced with 4 mmol l(-1) Ca(2+). Western blot analysis of membrane homogenates from larval bullfrog and larval toad skin identified proteins that were immunoreactive with mammalian TRPC1 and TRPC5 (TRPC, canonical transient receptor potential channel) antibodies while homogenates of skin from newly metamorphosed bullfrogs were positive for TRPC1 and TRPC3/6/7 antibodies. The electrophysiological response of larval bullfrog skin resembles that of a stretch-activated cation channel characterized in Xenopus oocytes and proposed to be TRPC1. These results indicate this channel persists in all life stages of anurans and that TRP isoforms may be important for sensory functions of their skin. PMID:20435829

  13. Remotely Sensing Larval Population Dynamics of Rice Field Anophelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, Louisa R.; Dister, Sheri W.; Wood, Byron L.; Washino, Robert K.

    1997-01-01

    The primary objective of both studies was to determine if RS and GIS techniques could be used to distinguish between high and low larval-producing rice fields in California. Results of the first study suggested that early-season green-up and proximity to livestock pastures were positively correlated with high larval abundance. Based on the early-season spectral differences between high and low larval-producing fields, it appeared that canopy development and tillering influenced mosquito habitat quality. At that time, rice fields consisted of a mixture of plants and water, a combination that allowed An. freeborni females to lay eggs in partial sunlight, protected from both predators and wind. This established a population earlier in the season than in other, 'less-green' fields where tillering and plant emergence was too minimal for ovipositioning. The study also indicated the importance of the distance that a mosquito would have to fly in order to take a bloodmeal prior to ovipositing. These associations were fully explored in an expanded study two years later. The second study confirmed the positive relationship between early season canopy development and larval abundance, and also demonstrated the relationship between abundance and distance-to-pasture. The association between greenness (as measured using NDVI), distance-to-pasture, and abundance is illustrated. The second study also indicated the siginificance of the landscape context of rice fields for larval production. Fields that included opportunities for feeding and resting within the flight range of the mosquito had higher abundances than did fields that were in a homogeneous rice area.

  14. Food selection in larval fruit flies: dynamics and effects on larval development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Sebastian; Durisko, Zachary; Dukas, Reuven

    2014-01-01

    Selecting food items and attaining a nutritionally balanced diet is an important challenge for all animals including humans. We aimed to establish fruit fly larvae ( Drosophila melanogaster) as a simple yet powerful model system for examining the mechanisms of specific hunger and diet selection. In two lab experiments with artificial diets, we found that larvae deprived of either sucrose or protein later selectively fed on a diet providing the missing nutrient. When allowed to freely move between two adjacent food patches, larvae surprisingly preferred to settle on one patch containing yeast and ignored the patch providing sucrose. Moreover, when allowed to move freely between three patches, which provided either yeast only, sucrose only or a balanced mixture of yeast and sucrose, the majority of larvae settled on the yeast-plus-sucrose patch and about one third chose to feed on the yeast only food. While protein (yeast) is essential for development, we also quantified larval success on diets with or without sucrose and show that larvae develop faster on diets containing sucrose. Our data suggest that fruit fly larvae can quickly assess major nutrients in food and seek a diet providing a missing nutrient. The larvae, however, probably prefer to quickly dig into a single food substrate for enhanced protection over achieving an optimal diet.

  15. Linking River Morphology to Larval Drift of an Endangered Sturgeon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazzetta, L.; Jacobson, R. B.; Braaten, P. J.; Elliott, C. M.; Reuter, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    Computational models developed to calculate longitudinal advection and dispersion of contaminants in rivers have potential application in predicting larval drift. A critical component of this family of models is the longitudinal dispersion coefficient which parameterizes the processes that retain and distribute a contaminant along the river. Here we evaluate the potential for longitudinal dispersion coefficients to characterize larval drift of the endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in various segments of the free-flowing Missouri River ranging from Missouri to Montana. We randomly selected transects of acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) flow velocity data from reach-scale datasets that were collected in the Missouri River from 2002-2008 under comparable discharge conditions. We used previously developed equations (Kim and others, 2007) to calculate a one-dimensional longitudinal dispersion coefficient for each ADCP transect. We compared the statistical distributions of these coefficients for 2 to 6 reaches chosen from each of six geomorphic segments of the Missouri. Distributional patterns indicate that dispersion coefficients relate to observed variation in hydrology and geomorphology of the channel at the segment scale. Although one-dimensional dispersion analysis demonstrates potential as a tool for estimating pallid sturgeon larval drift and habitat suitability in unchannelized portions of the Missouri River, the large spatial variation in calculated dispersion coefficients resulting from river-training structures (wing dikes) in the Lower Missouri complicates selection of appropriate values. Recent data indicating that pallid sturgeon larvae occur in greater concentration in the thalweg indicate that the majority of larvae may bypass these structures and their associated retentive eddies. A two-dimensional space-averaged dispersion calculation and analysis may more accurately characterize the potential drift times and distances of larval

  16. Numerical simulations of barnacle larval dispersion coupled with field observations on larval abundance, settlement and recruitment in a tropical monsoon influenced coastal marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaonkar, Chetan A.; Samiksha, S. V.; George, Grinson; Aboobacker, V. M.; Vethamony, P.; Anil, Arga Chandrashekar

    2012-06-01

    Larval abundance in an area depends on various factors which operate over different spatial and temporal scales. Identifying the factors responsible for variations in larval supply and abundance is important to understand the settlement and recruitment variability of their population in a particular area. In view of this, observations were carried out to monitor the larval abundance, settlement and recruitment of barnacles on a regular basis for a period of two years. The results were then compared with the numerical modelling studies carried out along the west coast of India. Field observations of larval abundance showed temporal variations. The least abundance of larvae was mostly observed during the monsoon season and the peak in abundance was mostly observed during the pre-monsoon season. Numerical simulations also showed a seasonal change in larval dispersion and retention patterns. During pre-monsoon season the larval movement was mostly found towards south and the larvae released from the northern release sites contributed to larval abundance within the estuaries, whereas during the monsoon season the larval movement was mostly found towards north and the larvae released from southern release sites contributed to larval abundance within the estuary. During post-monsoon season, the larval movement was found towards the north in the beginning of the season and is shifted towards the south at the end of the season, but the movement was mostly restricted near to the release sites. Larval supply from the adjacent rocky sites to the estuaries was higher during the pre-monsoon season and the retention of larvae released from different sites within the estuaries was found to be highest during the late post-monsoon and early pre-monsoon season. Maximum larval supply and retention during the pre-monsoon season coincided with maximum larval abundance, settlement and recruitment of barnacles observed in the field studies. These observations showed that the pattern of

  17. The influence of substrate material on ascidian larval settlement.

    PubMed

    Chase, Anna L; Dijkstra, Jennifer A; Harris, Larry G

    2016-05-15

    Submerged man-made structures present novel habitat for marine organisms and often host communities that differ from those on natural substrates. Although many factors are known to contribute to these differences, few studies have directly examined the influence of substrate material on organism settlement. We quantified larval substrate preferences of two species of ascidians, Ciona intestinalis (cryptogenic, formerly C. intestinalis type B) and Botrylloides violaceus (non-native), on commonly occurring natural (granite) and man-made (concrete, high-density polyethylene, PVC) marine materials in laboratory trials. Larvae exhibited species-specific settlement preferences, but generally settled more often than expected by chance on concrete and HDPE. Variation in settlement between materials may reflect preferences for rougher substrates, or may result from the influence of leached chemicals on ascidian settlement. These findings indicate that an experimental plate material can influence larval behavior and may help us understand how substrate features may contribute to differences in settlement in the field. PMID:27039957

  18. Learning the specific quality of taste reinforcement in larval Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Schleyer, Michael; Miura, Daisuke; Tanimura, Teiichi; Gerber, Bertram

    2015-01-01

    The only property of reinforcement insects are commonly thought to learn about is its value. We show that larval Drosophila not only remember the value of reinforcement (How much?), but also its quality (What?). This is demonstrated both within the appetitive domain by using sugar vs amino acid as different reward qualities, and within the aversive domain by using bitter vs high-concentration salt as different qualities of punishment. From the available literature, such nuanced memories for the quality of reinforcement are unexpected and pose a challenge to present models of how insect memory is organized. Given that animals as simple as larval Drosophila, endowed with but 10,000 neurons, operate with both reinforcement value and quality, we suggest that both are fundamental aspects of mnemonic processing—in any brain. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04711.001 PMID:25622533

  19. Rapid effects of marine reserves via larval dispersal.

    PubMed

    Cudney-Bueno, Richard; Lavín, Miguel F; Marinone, Silvio G; Raimondi, Peter T; Shaw, William W

    2009-01-01

    Marine reserves have been advocated worldwide as conservation and fishery management tools. It is argued that they can protect ecosystems and also benefit fisheries via density-dependent spillover of adults and enhanced larval dispersal into fishing areas. However, while evidence has shown that marine reserves can meet conservation targets, their effects on fisheries are less understood. In particular, the basic question of if and over what temporal and spatial scales reserves can benefit fished populations via larval dispersal remains unanswered. We tested predictions of a larval transport model for a marine reserve network in the Gulf of California, Mexico, via field oceanography and repeated density counts of recently settled juvenile commercial mollusks before and after reserve establishment. We show that local retention of larvae within a reserve network can take place with enhanced, but spatially-explicit, recruitment to local fisheries. Enhancement occurred rapidly (2 yrs), with up to a three-fold increase in density of juveniles found in fished areas at the downstream edge of the reserve network, but other fishing areas within the network were unaffected. These findings were consistent with our model predictions. Our findings underscore the potential benefits of protecting larval sources and show that enhancement in recruitment can be manifested rapidly. However, benefits can be markedly variable within a local seascape. Hence, effects of marine reserve networks, positive or negative, may be overlooked when only focusing on overall responses and not considering finer spatially-explicit responses within a reserve network and its adjacent fishing grounds. Our results therefore call for future research on marine reserves that addresses this variability in order to help frame appropriate scenarios for the spatial management scales of interest. PMID:19129910

  20. Cost effectiveness analysis of larval therapy for leg ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Iglesias, Cynthia P; Bland, J Martin; Cullum, Nicky; Dumville, Jo C; Nelson, E Andrea; Torgerson, David J; Worthy, Gill

    2009-01-01

    Objective To assess the cost effectiveness of larval therapy compared with hydrogel in the management of leg ulcers. Design Cost effectiveness and cost utility analyses carried out alongside a pragmatic multicentre, randomised, open trial with equal randomisation. Population Intention to treat population comprising 267 patients with a venous or mixed venous and arterial ulcers with at least 25% coverage of slough or necrotic tissue. Interventions Patients were randomly allocated to debridement with bagged larvae, loose larvae, or hydrogel. Main outcome measure The time horizon was 12 months and costs were estimated from the UK National Health Service perspective. Cost effectiveness outcomes are expressed in terms of incremental costs per ulcer-free day (cost effectiveness analysis) and incremental costs per quality adjusted life years (cost utility analysis). Results The larvae arms were pooled for the main analysis. Treatment with larval therapy cost, on average, £96.70 (€109.61; $140.57) more per participant per year (95% confidence interval −£491.9 to £685.8) than treatment with hydrogel. Participants treated with larval therapy healed, on average, 2.42 days before those in the hydrogel arm (95% confidence interval −0.95 to 31.91 days) and had a slightly better health related quality of life, as the annual difference in QALYs was 0.011 (95% confidence interval −0.067 to 0.071). However, none of these differences was statistically significant. The incremental cost effectiveness ratio for the base case analysis was estimated at £8826 per QALY gained and £40 per ulcer-free day. Considerable uncertainty surrounds the outcome estimates. Conclusions Debridement of sloughy or necrotic leg ulcers with larval therapy is likely to produce similar health benefits and have similar costs to treatment with hydrogel. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN55114812 and National Research Register N0484123692. PMID:19304578

  1. Social coercion of larval development in an ant species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villalta, Irene; Amor, Fernando; Cerdá, Xim; Boulay, Raphaël

    2016-04-01

    Ants provide one of the best examples of the division of labor in animal societies. While the queens reproduce, workers generally refrain from laying eggs and dedicate themselves exclusively to domestic tasks. In many species, the small diploid larvae are bipotent and can develop either into workers or queens depending mostly on environmental cues. This generates a conflicting situation between the adults that tend to rear a majority of larvae into workers and the larvae whose individual interest may be to develop into reproductive queens. We tested the social regulation of larval caste fate in the fission-performing ant Aphaenogaster senilis. We first observed interactions between resident workers and queen- and worker-destined larvae in presence/absence of the queen. The results show that workers tend to specifically eliminate queen-destined larvae when the queen is present but not when she is absent or imprisoned in a small cage allowing for volatile pheromone exchanges. In addition, we found that the presence of already developed queen-destined larvae does not inhibit the development of younger still bipotent larvae into queens. Finally, we analyzed the cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of queen- and worker-destined larvae and found no significant quantitative or qualitative difference. Interestingly, the total amount of hydrocarbons on both larval castes is extremely low, which lends credence on the chemical insignificance hypothesis of larval ants. Overall, our results suggest that workers control larval development and police larvae that would develop into queens instead of workers. Such policing behavior is similar in many aspects to what is known of worker policing among adults.

  2. Social coercion of larval development in an ant species.

    PubMed

    Villalta, Irene; Amor, Fernando; Cerdá, Xim; Boulay, Raphaël

    2016-04-01

    Ants provide one of the best examples of the division of labor in animal societies. While the queens reproduce, workers generally refrain from laying eggs and dedicate themselves exclusively to domestic tasks. In many species, the small diploid larvae are bipotent and can develop either into workers or queens depending mostly on environmental cues. This generates a conflicting situation between the adults that tend to rear a majority of larvae into workers and the larvae whose individual interest may be to develop into reproductive queens. We tested the social regulation of larval caste fate in the fission-performing ant Aphaenogaster senilis. We first observed interactions between resident workers and queen- and worker-destined larvae in presence/absence of the queen. The results show that workers tend to specifically eliminate queen-destined larvae when the queen is present but not when she is absent or imprisoned in a small cage allowing for volatile pheromone exchanges. In addition, we found that the presence of already developed queen-destined larvae does not inhibit the development of younger still bipotent larvae into queens. Finally, we analyzed the cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of queen- and worker-destined larvae and found no significant quantitative or qualitative difference. Interestingly, the total amount of hydrocarbons on both larval castes is extremely low, which lends credence on the chemical insignificance hypothesis of larval ants. Overall, our results suggest that workers control larval development and police larvae that would develop into queens instead of workers. Such policing behavior is similar in many aspects to what is known of worker policing among adults. PMID:26874941

  3. Development of Drosophila larval neuromuscular junctions: maintaining synaptic strength.

    PubMed

    Li, H; Peng, X; Cooper, R L

    2002-01-01

    In spite of the available information about the development of Drosophila neuromuscular junctions, the correlation between nerve terminal morphology and maintenance of synaptic strength has still not been systematically addressed throughout larval development. We characterized the growth of the abdominal longitudinal muscle 6 (m6) and the motor terminals Ib and Is that innervate it within segment 4. In addition, we measured the evoked excitatory junction potential (EJP) amplitudes while the Ib and Is axons were selectively recruited. Regression analysis with natural log transformation of response variables indicated that the developmental curves for m6 and the motor axons Ib and Is were best fitted as second order polynomial regressions during larval development. Initially Is terminals are longer and possess more synaptic varicosities at the first instar stage. The Is terminals also grow faster in subsequent developmental stages. The growth of nerve terminals and their target m6 are not proportional although tightly correlated. This results in a larger average muscle area innervated by a single varicosity as the animal develops. The amplitudes of the EJPs of Ib and Is neurons show no developmental difference in their amplitudes from the first to the late third larval instar. The Is axon consistently produced larger EJPs than the Ib axon at each developmental stage. The time constants for both rising and decay phases of EJPs increase exponentially throughout larval development. The results presented not only help in quantifying the normal development of Drosophila neuromuscular junctions, but also provide a framework for future investigations to properly interpret developmental abnormalities that may occur in various mutants. PMID:12421617

  4. Larval RNA interference in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Linz, David M; Clark-Hachtel, Courtney M; Borràs-Castells, Ferran; Tomoyasu, Yoshinori

    2014-01-01

    The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, offers a repertoire of experimental tools for genetic and developmental studies, including a fully annotated genome sequence, transposon-based transgenesis, and effective RNA interference (RNAi). Among these advantages, RNAi-based gene knockdown techniques are at the core of Tribolium research. T. castaneum show a robust systemic RNAi response, making it possible to perform RNAi at any life stage by simply injecting double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into the beetle's body cavity. In this report, we provide an overview of our larval RNAi technique in T. castaneum. The protocol includes (i) isolation of the proper stage of T. castaneum larvae for injection, (ii) preparation for the injection setting, and (iii) dsRNA injection. Larval RNAi is a simple, but powerful technique that provides us with quick access to loss-of-function phenotypes, including multiple gene knockdown phenotypes as well as a series of hypomorphic phenotypes. Since virtually all T. castaneum tissues are susceptible to extracellular dsRNA, the larval RNAi technique allows researchers to study a wide variety of tissues in diverse contexts, including the genetic basis of organismal responses to the outside environment. In addition, the simplicity of this technique stimulates more student involvement in research, making T. castaneum an ideal genetic system for use in a classroom setting. PMID:25350485

  5. Evaluation of Human Attachment by Larval Amblyomma maculatum (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Portugal, José Santos; Goddard, Jerome

    2016-03-01

    The tick, Amblyomma maculatum Koch (Gulf Coast tick), has recently been shown to be an important disease vector of both medical and veterinary concern. Although much is known about the behavior and ecology of adults, little is known of the immatures. Larval feeding on humans has never been demonstrated (and thus, there are no collection records from humans). In this experiment, 10 larval A. maculatum, Amblyomma americanum (L.) (a positive control), and Dermacentor variabilis (Say) (a negative control), were applied to both forearms of 10 human volunteers (five male, five female). Ticks were placed in plastic caps and secured to skin with medical-grade adhesive tape, and volunteers remained sedentary during the experiment. After 15 min, caps were removed, and attachment was determined using fine-tipped forceps. Any A. maculatum that were attached were then removed and subsequently examined microscopically to verify identification. In total, 34 ticks attached to the subjects, including 11 A. maculatum (5.5%), 23 A. americanum (11.5%), and no D. variabilis. Amblyomma maculatum attached to six volunteers, and no apparent association between gender and attachment rate was noted. No skin lesions developed in the human volunteers bit by A. maculatum. This is the first report of larval A. maculatum attaching to humans, and is significant in that Rickettsia parkeri, a human pathogen vectored by this species, has recently been reported to be transmitted transovarially. If A. maculatum are infected as larvae, they could potentially transmit R. parkeri to people. PMID:26576936

  6. Larval RNA Interference in the Red Flour Beetle, Tribolium castaneum

    PubMed Central

    Tomoyasu, Yoshinori

    2014-01-01

    The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, offers a repertoire of experimental tools for genetic and developmental studies, including a fully annotated genome sequence, transposon-based transgenesis, and effective RNA interference (RNAi). Among these advantages, RNAi-based gene knockdown techniques are at the core of Tribolium research. T. castaneum show a robust systemic RNAi response, making it possible to perform RNAi at any life stage by simply injecting double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into the beetle’s body cavity. In this report, we provide an overview of our larval RNAi technique in T. castaneum. The protocol includes (i) isolation of the proper stage of T. castaneum larvae for injection, (ii) preparation for the injection setting, and (iii) dsRNA injection. Larval RNAi is a simple, but powerful technique that provides us with quick access to loss-of-function phenotypes, including multiple gene knockdown phenotypes as well as a series of hypomorphic phenotypes. Since virtually all T. castaneum tissues are susceptible to extracellular dsRNA, the larval RNAi technique allows researchers to study a wide variety of tissues in diverse contexts, including the genetic basis of organismal responses to the outside environment. In addition, the simplicity of this technique stimulates more student involvement in research, making T. castaneum an ideal genetic system for use in a classroom setting. PMID:25350485

  7. Assessment of current rates of Diadema antillarum larval settlement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, M. W.; Kramer, K. L.; Williams, S. M.; Johnston, L.; Szmant, A. M.

    2009-06-01

    The generally slow and incomplete recovery of the long-spined sea urchin, Diadema antillarum, from the 1983-84 Caribbean-wide die-off, particularly in the Florida Keys, USA, raises the question of factors limiting population recovery. This study sought to quantify larval settlement rates as an indicator of larval supply at two sites in the Florida Keys, utilizing methods comparable to an historic study. Settlement at two sites in southwest Puerto Rico was also examined as a comparison of present-day settlement rates at a site where D. antillarum recovery has been moderate. Monthly settlement rates were low (max < 2 m-2) and did not differ between the two sites examined in the Florida Keys. Settlement was significantly higher at only one of the Puerto Rico sites (max 16 m-2), but still an order of magnitude lower than that reported for historic populations in Curaçao (1982-83). Results are consistent with the hypothesis of low larval supply limiting D. antillarum recovery in the Florida Keys.

  8. Embryogenesis, hatching and larval development of Artemia during orbital spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spooner, B. S.; Debell, L.; Armbrust, L.; Guikema, J. A.; Metcalf, J.; Paulsen, A.

    1994-01-01

    Developmental biology studies, using gastrula-arrested cysts of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana, were conducted during two flights of the space shuttle Atlantis (missions STS-37 and STS-43) in 1991. Dehydrated cysts were activated, on orbit, by addition of salt water to the cysts, and then development was terminated by the addition of fixative. Development took place in 5 ml syringes, connected by tubing to activation syringes, containing salt water, and termination syringes, containing fixative. Comparison of space results with simultaneous ground control experiments showed that equivalent percentages of naupliar larvae hatched in the syringes (40%). Thus, reactivation of development, completion of embryogenesis, emergence and hatching took place, during spaceflight, without recognizable alteration in numbers of larvae produced. Post-hatching larval development was studied in experiments where development was terminated, by introduction of fixative, 2 days, 4 days, and 8 days after reinitiation of development. During spaceflight, successive larval instars or stages, interrupted by molts, occurred, generating brine shrimp at appropriate larval instars. Naupliar larvae possessed the single naupliar eye, and development of the lateral pair of adult eyes also took place in space. Transmission electron microscopy revealed extensive differentiation, including skeletal muscle and gut endoderm, as well as the eye tissues. These studies demonstrate the potential value of Artemia for developmental biology studies during spa ceflight, and show that extensive degrees of development can take place in this microgravity environment.

  9. Larval Defense against Attack from Parasitoid Wasps Requires Nociceptive Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Jessica L.; Tsubouchi, Asako; Tracey, W. Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Parasitoid wasps are a fierce predator of Drosophila larvae. Female Leptopilina boulardi (LB) wasps use a sharp ovipositor to inject eggs into the bodies of Drosophila melanogaster larvae. The wasp then eats the Drosophila larva alive from the inside, and an adult wasp ecloses from the Drosophila pupal case instead of a fly. However, the Drosophila larvae are not defenseless as they may resist the attack of the wasps through somatosensory-triggered behavioral responses. Here we describe the full range of behaviors performed by the larval prey in immediate response to attacks by the wasps. Our results suggest that Drosophila larvae primarily sense the wasps using their mechanosensory systems. The range of behavioral responses included both “gentle touch” like responses as well as nociceptive responses. We found that the precise larval response depended on both the somatotopic location of the attack, and whether or not the larval cuticle was successfully penetrated during the course of the attack. Interestingly, nociceptive responses are more likely to be triggered by attacks in which the cuticle had been successfully penetrated by the wasp. Finally, we found that the class IV neurons, which are necessary for mechanical nociception, were also necessary for a nociceptive response to wasp attacks. Thus, the class IV neurons allow for a nociceptive behavioral response to a naturally occurring predator of Drosophila. PMID:24205297

  10. Embryogenesis, hatching and larval development of Artemia during orbital spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spooner, B. S.; Debell, L.; Armbrust, L.; Guikema, J. A.; Metcalf, J.; Paulsen, A.

    1994-08-01

    Developmental biology studies, using gastrula-arrested cysts of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana, were conducted during two flights of the space shuttle Atlantis (missions STS-37 and STS-43) in 1991. Dehydrated cysts were activated, on orbit, by addition of salt water to the cysts, and then development was terminated by the addition of fixative. Development took place in 5 ml syringes, connected by tubing to activation syringes, containing salt water, and termination syringes, containing fixative. Comparison of space results with simultaneous ground control experiments showed that equivalent percentages of naupliar larvae hatched in the syringes (40%). Thus, reactivation of development, completion of embryogenesis, emergence and hatching took place, during spaceflight, without recognizable alteration in numbers of larvae produced. Post-hatching larval development was studied in experiments where development was terminated, by intrduction of fixative, 2 days, 4 days, and 8 days after reinitiation of development. During spaceflight, successive larval instars or stages, interrupted by molts, occurred, generating brine shrimp at appropriate larval instars. Naupliar larvae possessed the single naupliar eye, and development of the lateral pair of adult eyes also took place in space. Transmission electron microscopy revealed extensive differentiation, including skeletal muscle and gut endoderm, as well as the eye tissues. These studies demonstrate the potential value of Artemia for developmental biology studies during spaceflight, and show that extensive degress of development can take place in this microgravity environment.

  11. Larval connectivity in an effective network of marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Christie, Mark R; Tissot, Brian N; Albins, Mark A; Beets, James P; Jia, Yanli; Ortiz, Delisse M; Thompson, Stephen E; Hixon, Mark A

    2010-01-01

    Acceptance of marine protected areas (MPAs) as fishery and conservation tools has been hampered by lack of direct evidence that MPAs successfully seed unprotected areas with larvae of targeted species. For the first time, we present direct evidence of large-scale population connectivity within an existing and effective network of MPAs. A new parentage analysis identified four parent-offspring pairs from a large, exploited population of the coral-reef fish Zebrasoma flavescens in Hawai'i, revealing larval dispersal distances ranging from 15 to 184 km. In two cases, successful dispersal was from an MPA to unprotected sites. Given high adult abundances, the documentation of any parent-offspring pairs demonstrates that ecologically-relevant larval connectivity between reefs is substantial. All offspring settled at sites to the north of where they were spawned. Satellite altimetry and oceanographic models from relevant time periods indicated a cyclonic eddy that created prevailing northward currents between sites where parents and offspring were found. These findings empirically demonstrate the effectiveness of MPAs as useful conservation and management tools and further highlight the importance of coupling oceanographic, genetic, and ecological data to predict, validate and quantify larval connectivity among marine populations. PMID:21203576

  12. Characterisation of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) larval habitats at ground level and temporal fluctuations of larval abundance in Córdoba, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Grech, Marta; Sartor, Paolo; Estallo, Elizabet; Ludueña-Almeida, Francisco; Almirón, Walter

    2013-09-01

    The aims of this study were to characterise the ground-level larval habitats of the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus, to determine the relationships between habitat characteristics and larval abundance and to examine seasonal larval-stage variations in Córdoba city. Every two weeks for two years, 15 larval habitats (natural and artificial water bodies, including shallow wells, drains, retention ponds, canals and ditches) were visited and sampled for larval mosquitoes. Data regarding the water depth, temperature and pH, permanence, the presence of aquatic vegetation and the density of collected mosquito larvae were recorded. Data on the average air temperatures and accumulated precipitation during the 15 days prior to each sampling date were also obtained. Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae were collected throughout the study period and were generally most abundant in the summer season. Generalised linear mixed models indicated the average air temperature and presence of dicotyledonous aquatic vegetation as variables that served as important predictors of larval densities. Additionally, permanent breeding sites supported high larval densities. In Córdoba city and possibly in other highly populated cities at the same latitude with the same environmental conditions, control programs should focus on permanent larval habitats with aquatic vegetation during the early spring, when the Cx. quinquefasciatus population begins to increase. PMID:24037200

  13. Exploration of the “larval pool”: development and ground-truthing of a larval transport model off leeward Hawai‘i

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Donald R.

    2016-01-01

    Most adult reef fish show site fidelity thus dispersal is limited to the mobile larval stage of the fish, and effective management of such species requires an understanding of the patterns of larval dispersal. In this study, we assess larval reef fish distributions in the waters west of the Big Island of Hawai‘i using both in situ and model data. Catches from Cobb midwater trawls off west Hawai‘i show that reef fish larvae are most numerous in offshore waters deeper than 3,000 m and consist largely of pre-settlement Pomacanthids, Acanthurids and Chaetodontids. Utilizing a Lagrangian larval dispersal model, we were able to replicate the observed shore fish distributions from the trawl data and we identified the 100 m depth strata as the most likely depth of occupancy. Additionally, our model showed that for larval shore fish with a pelagic larval duration longer than 40 days there was no significant change in settlement success in our model. By creating a general additive model (GAM) incorporating lunar phase and angle we were able to explain 67.5% of the variance between modeled and in situ Acanthurid abundances. We took steps towards creating a predictive larval distribution model that will greatly aid in understanding the spatiotemporal nature of the larval pool in west Hawai‘i, and the dispersal of larvae throughout the Hawaiian archipelago. PMID:26855873

  14. Characterisation of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) larval habitats at ground level and temporal fluctuations of larval abundance in Córdoba, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Grech, Marta; Sartor, Paolo; Estallo, Elizabet; Ludueña-Almeida, Francisco; Almirón, Walter

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to characterise the ground-level larval habitats of the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus, to determine the relationships between habitat characteristics and larval abundance and to examine seasonal larval-stage variations in Córdoba city. Every two weeks for two years, 15 larval habitats (natural and artificial water bodies, including shallow wells, drains, retention ponds, canals and ditches) were visited and sampled for larval mosquitoes. Data regarding the water depth, temperature and pH, permanence, the presence of aquatic vegetation and the density of collected mosquito larvae were recorded. Data on the average air temperatures and accumulated precipitation during the 15 days prior to each sampling date were also obtained. Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae were collected throughout the study period and were generally most abundant in the summer season. Generalised linear mixed models indicated the average air temperature and presence of dicotyledonous aquatic vegetation as variables that served as important predictors of larval densities. Additionally, permanent breeding sites supported high larval densities. In Córdoba city and possibly in other highly populated cities at the same latitude with the same environmental conditions, control programs should focus on permanent larval habitats with aquatic vegetation during the early spring, when the Cx. quinquefasciatus population begins to increase. PMID:24037200

  15. Serologically defined Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus larval antigens in BmLF3, a partially pure Sephacryl S-300 fraction of crude larval proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is the second in a series providing a database of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus larval proteins that elicit a humoral immune response in cattle as a result of natural ectoparasite infestation. Larval proteins of R. microplus are complex and the profile is not dominated by any majo...

  16. Evolution of increased adult longevity in Drosophila melanogaster populations selected for adaptation to larval crowding.

    PubMed

    Shenoi, V N; Ali, S Z; Prasad, N G

    2016-02-01

    In holometabolous animals such as Drosophila melanogaster, larval crowding can affect a wide range of larval and adult traits. Adults emerging from high larval density cultures have smaller body size and increased mean life span compared to flies emerging from low larval density cultures. Therefore, adaptation to larval crowding could potentially affect adult longevity as a correlated response. We addressed this issue by studying a set of large, outbred populations of D. melanogaster, experimentally evolved for adaptation to larval crowding for 83 generations. We assayed longevity of adult flies from both selected (MCUs) and control populations (MBs) after growing them at different larval densities. We found that MCUs have evolved increased mean longevity compared to MBs at all larval densities. The interaction between selection regime and larval density was not significant, indicating that the density dependence of mean longevity had not evolved in the MCU populations. The increase in longevity in MCUs can be partially attributed to their lower rates of ageing. It is also noteworthy that reaction norm of dry body weight, a trait probably under direct selection in our populations, has indeed evolved in MCU populations. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the evolution of adult longevity as a correlated response of adaptation to larval crowding. PMID:26575793

  17. Larval and Post-Larval Stages of Pacific Oyster (Crassostrea gigas) Are Resistant to Elevated CO2

    PubMed Central

    R, Dineshram; Dennis, Choi K. S.; Adela, Li J.; Yu, Ziniu; Thiyagarajan, Vengatesen

    2013-01-01

    The average pH of surface oceans has decreased by 0.1 unit since industrialization and is expected to decrease by another 0.3–0.7 units before the year 2300 due to the absorption of anthropogenic CO2. This human-caused pH change is posing serious threats and challenges to the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas), especially to their larval stages. Our knowledge of the effect of reduced pH on C. gigas larvae presently relies presumptively on four short-term (<4 days) survival and growth studies. Using multiple physiological measurements and life stages, the effects of long-term (40 days) exposure to pH 8.1, 7.7 and 7.4 on larval shell growth, metamorphosis, respiration and filtration rates at the time of metamorphosis, along with the juvenile shell growth and structure of the C. gigas, were examined in this study. The mean survival and growth rates were not affected by pH. The metabolic, feeding and metamorphosis rates of pediveliger larvae were similar, between pH 8.1 and 7.7. The pediveligers at pH 7.4 showed reduced weight-specific metabolic and filtration rates, yet were able to sustain a more rapid post-settlement growth rate. However, no evidence suggested that low pH treatments resulted in alterations to the shell ultrastructures (SEM images) or elemental compositions (i.e., Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios). Thus, larval and post-larval forms of the C. gigas in the Yellow Sea are probably resistant to elevated CO2 and decreased near-future pH scenarios. The pre-adapted ability to resist a wide range of decreased pH may provide C. gigas with the necessary tolerance to withstand rapid pH changes over the coming century. PMID:23724027

  18. Expression and light-triggered movement of rhodopsins in the larval visual system of mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Manuel; Kimler, Kyle J.; Leming, Matthew T.; Hu, Xiaobang; Whaley, Michelle A.; O'Tousa, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT During the larval stages, the visual system of the mosquito Aedes aegypti contains five stemmata, often referred to as larval ocelli, positioned laterally on each side of the larval head. Here we show that stemmata contain two photoreceptor types, distinguished by the expression of different rhodopsins. The rhodopsin Aaop3 (GPROP3) is expressed in the majority of the larval photoreceptors. There are two small clusters of photoreceptors located within the satellite and central stemmata that express the rhodopsin Aaop7 (GPROP7) instead of Aaop3. Electroretinogram analysis of transgenic Aaop7 Drosophila indicates that Aaop3 and Aaop7, both classified as long-wavelength rhodopsins, possess similar but not identical spectral properties. Light triggers an extensive translocation of Aaop3 from the photosensitive rhabdoms to the cytoplasmic compartment, whereas light-driven translocation of Aaop7 is limited. The results suggest that these photoreceptor cell types play distinct roles in larval vision. An additional component of the larval visual system is the adult compound eye, which starts to develop at the anterior face of the larval stemmata during the 1st instar stage. The photoreceptors of the developing compound eye show rhodopsin expression during the 4th larval instar stage, consistent with indications from previous reports that the adult compound eye contributes to larval and pupal visual capabilities. PMID:25750414

  19. Butterfly oviposition preference is not related to larval performance on a polyploid herb.

    PubMed

    König, Malin A E; Wiklund, Christer; Ehrlén, Johan

    2016-05-01

    The preference-performance hypothesis predicts that female insects maximize their fitness by utilizing host plants which are associated with high larval performance. Still, studies with several insect species have failed to find a positive correlation between oviposition preference and larval performance. In the present study, we experimentally investigated the relationship between oviposition preferences and larval performance in the butterfly Anthocharis cardamines. Preferences were assessed using both cage experiments and field data on the proportion of host plant individuals utilized in natural populations. Larval performance was experimentally investigated using larvae descending from 419 oviposition events by 21 females on plants from 51 populations of two ploidy types of the perennial herb Cardamine pratensis. Neither ploidy type nor population identity influenced egg survival or larval development, but increased plant inflorescence size resulted in a larger final larval size. There was no correlation between female oviposition preference and egg survival or larval development under controlled conditions. Moreover, variation in larval performance among populations under controlled conditions was not correlated with the proportion of host plants utilized in the field. Lastly, first instar larvae added to plants rejected for oviposition by butterfly females during the preference experiment performed equally well as larvae growing on plants chosen for oviposition. The lack of a correlation between larval performance and oviposition preference for A. cardamines under both experimental and natural settings suggests that female host choice does not maximize the fitness of the individual offspring. PMID:27217940

  20. Larval descriptions of the family Porcellanidae: A worldwide annotated compilation of the literature (Crustacea, Decapoda).

    PubMed

    Vela, María José; González-Gordillo, Juan Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    For most of the family Porcellanidae, which comprises 283 species, larval development remains to be described. Full development has been only described for 52 species, while part of the larval cycle has been described for 45 species. The importance of knowing the complete larval development of a species goes beyond allowing the identification of larval specimens collected in the plankton. Morphological larval data also constitute a support to cladistic techniques used in the establishment of the phylogenetic status (see Hiller et al. 2006, Marco-Herrero et al. 2013). Nevertheless, the literature on the larval development of this family is old and widely dispersed and in many cases it is difficult to collect the available information on a particular taxon. Towards the aim of facilitating future research, all information available on the larval development of porcellanids has been compiled. Following the taxonomic checklist of Porcellanidae proposed by Osawa and McLaughlin (2010), a checklist has been prepared that reflects the current knowledge about larval development of the group including larval stages and the method used to obtain the larvae, together with references. Those species for which the recognised names have been changed according to Osawa and McLaughlin (2010) are indicated. PMID:27081332

  1. Cardiorespiratory ontogeny and response to environmental hypoxia of larval spiny lobster, Sagmariasus verreauxi.

    PubMed

    Fitzgibbon, Quinn P; Ruff, Nicole; Battaglene, Stephen C

    2015-06-01

    Cardiorespiratory function is vital to an organism's ability to respond to environmental stress and analysis of cardiorespiratory capacity of species or life stages can elucidate vulnerability to climate change. Spiny lobsters have one of the most complex pelagic larval life cycles of any invertebrate and recently there has been an unexplained decline in post-larval recruitment for a number of species. We conducted the first analysis of the larval ontogeny of oxygen consumption, heart rate, maxilla 2 ventilation rate and oxyregulatory capacity of the spiny lobster, Sagmariasus verreauxi, to gain insight into their vulnerability to ocean change and to investigate life stage specific sensitivity to temperature-dependent oxygen limitation. In normoxia, heart and maxilla 2 ventilation rates increased in early larval development before declining, which we hypothesise is related to the transition from myogenic to neurogenic cardiac control. Maxilla 2 ventilation rate was sensitive to hypoxia at all larval stages, while heart rate was only sensitive to hypoxia in the late phyllosoma stages. Oxygen consumption conformed to environmental hypoxia at all larval stages. Spiny lobster larvae have limited respiratory control due to immature gas exchange physiology, compounded by their exceptionally large size. The lack of oxyregulatory ability suggests that all development stages are vulnerable to changes in sea temperature and oxygen availability. The synergetic stressors of increased temperature and reduced dissolved oxygen in the marine environment will diminish spiny lobster larval performance, increasing the challenge to achieve their extended larval life cycle, which may contribute to declines in post-larval recruitment. PMID:25683612

  2. Location Isn’t Everything: Timing of Spawning Aggregations Optimizes Larval Replenishment

    PubMed Central

    Donahue, Megan J.; Karnauskas, Mandy; Toews, Carl; Paris, Claire B.

    2015-01-01

    Many species of reef fishes form large spawning aggregations that are highly predictable in space and time. Prior research has suggested that aggregating fish derive fitness benefits not just from mating at high density but, also, from oceanographic features of the spatial locations where aggregations occur. Using a probabilistic biophysical model of larval dispersal coupled to a fine resolution hydrodynamic model of the Florida Straits, we develop a stochastic landscape of larval fitness. Tracking virtual larvae from release to settlement and incorporating changes in larval behavior through ontogeny, we found that larval success was sensitive to the timing of spawning. Indeed, propagules released during the observed spawning period had higher larval success rates than those released outside the observed spawning period. In contrast, larval success rates were relatively insensitive to the spatial position of the release site. In addition, minimum (rather than mean) larval survival was maximized during the observed spawning period, indicating a reproductive strategy that minimizes the probability of recruitment failure. Given this landscape of larval fitness, we take an inverse optimization approach to define a biological objective function that reflects a tradeoff between the mean and variance of larval success in a temporally variable environment. Using this objective function, we suggest that the length of the spawning period can provide insight into the tradeoff between reproductive risk and reward. PMID:26103162

  3. Redescription of the early larval stages of the pandalid shrimp Chlorotocus crassicornis (Decapoda: Caridea: Pandalidae).

    PubMed

    Landeira, Jose M; Jiang, Guo-Chen; Chan, Tin-Yam; Shih, Tung-Wei; Gozález-Gordillo, J Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    The first four larval stages of the pandalid shrimp Chlorotocus crassicornis (A. Costa, 1871) are described and illustrated from laboratory-reared material obtained from ovigerous females collected in the southwestern Spain and south Taiwan. The second to fourth larval stages of this species are reported for the first time to science. Detailed examination of the first larval stages reveals that previous description misidentified some key larval characters which have prevented its identification in plankton samples. It is found that the zoeal morphology of Chlorotocus is not very different from other pandalid larvae, and in fact closely resembles Plesionika and Heterocarpus. PMID:26623885

  4. Larval descriptions of the family Porcellanidae: A worldwide annotated compilation of the literature (Crustacea, Decapoda)

    PubMed Central

    Vela, María José; González-Gordillo, Juan Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract For most of the family Porcellanidae, which comprises 283 species, larval development remains to be described. Full development has been only described for 52 species, while part of the larval cycle has been described for 45 species. The importance of knowing the complete larval development of a species goes beyond allowing the identification of larval specimens collected in the plankton. Morphological larval data also constitute a support to cladistic techniques used in the establishment of the phylogenetic status (see Hiller et al. 2006, Marco-Herrero et al. 2013). Nevertheless, the literature on the larval development of this family is old and widely dispersed and in many cases it is difficult to collect the available information on a particular taxon. Towards the aim of facilitating future research, all information available on the larval development of porcellanids has been compiled. Following the taxonomic checklist of Porcellanidae proposed by Osawa and McLaughlin (2010), a checklist has been prepared that reflects the current knowledge about larval development of the group including larval stages and the method used to obtain the larvae, together with references. Those species for which the recognised names have been changed according to Osawa and McLaughlin (2010) are indicated. PMID:27081332

  5. Location Isn't Everything: Timing of Spawning Aggregations Optimizes Larval Replenishment.

    PubMed

    Donahue, Megan J; Karnauskas, Mandy; Toews, Carl; Paris, Claire B

    2015-01-01

    Many species of reef fishes form large spawning aggregations that are highly predictable in space and time. Prior research has suggested that aggregating fish derive fitness benefits not just from mating at high density but, also, from oceanographic features of the spatial locations where aggregations occur. Using a probabilistic biophysical model of larval dispersal coupled to a fine resolution hydrodynamic model of the Florida Straits, we develop a stochastic landscape of larval fitness. Tracking virtual larvae from release to settlement and incorporating changes in larval behavior through ontogeny, we found that larval success was sensitive to the timing of spawning. Indeed, propagules released during the observed spawning period had higher larval success rates than those released outside the observed spawning period. In contrast, larval success rates were relatively insensitive to the spatial position of the release site. In addition, minimum (rather than mean) larval survival was maximized during the observed spawning period, indicating a reproductive strategy that minimizes the probability of recruitment failure. Given this landscape of larval fitness, we take an inverse optimization approach to define a biological objective function that reflects a tradeoff between the mean and variance of larval success in a temporally variable environment. Using this objective function, we suggest that the length of the spawning period can provide insight into the tradeoff between reproductive risk and reward. PMID:26103162

  6. Quantifying the drivers of larval density patterns in two tropical mosquito species to maximize control efficiency.

    PubMed

    De Little, Siobhan C; Bowman, David M J S; Whelan, Peter I; Brook, Barry W; Bradshaw, Corey J A

    2009-08-01

    Understanding the contributions of environmental variation and density feedbacks to changes in vector populations is essential for designing effective vector control. We analyzed monitoring datasets describing larval densities over 7 yr of the two dominant mosquito species, Aedes vigilax (Skuse) and Culex annulirostris (Skuse), of the greater Darwin area (Northern Territory, Australia). Using generalized linear and linear mixed-effects models, we tested hypotheses regarding the environmental determinants of spatio-temporal patterns in relative larval abundance in both species. The most important spatial drivers of Ae. vigilax and Cx. annulirostris larval densities were elevation and water presence. Ae. vigilax density correlates negatively with elevation, whereas there was a positive relationship between Cx. annulirostris density and elevation. These results show how larval habitats used by the saltwater-influenced breeder Ae. vigilax and the obligate freshwater breeder Cx. annulirostris are separated in a tidally influenced swamp. The models examining temporal drivers of larval density also identified this discrimination between freshwater and saltwater habitats. Ae. vigilax larval densities were positively related to maximum tide height and high tide frequency, whereas Cx. annulirostris larval densities were positively related to elevation and rainfall. Adult abundance in the previous month was the most important temporal driver of larval densities in both species, providing a clear dynamical link between the two main life phases in mosquito development. This study shows the importance of considering both spatial and temporal drivers, and intrinsic population dynamics, when planning vector control strategies to reduce larval density, adult population density, and disease transmission effectively. PMID:19689879

  7. Rising CO2 concentrations affect settlement behaviour of larval damselfishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devine, B. M.; Munday, P. L.; Jones, G. P.

    2012-03-01

    Reef fish larvae actively select preferred benthic habitat, relying on olfactory, visual and acoustic cues to discriminate between microhabitats at settlement. Recent studies show exposure to elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) impairs olfactory cue recognition in larval reef fishes. However, whether this alters the behaviour of settling fish or disrupts habitat selection is unknown. Here, the effect of elevated CO2 on larval behaviour and habitat selection at settlement was tested in three species of damselfishes (family Pomacentridae) that differ in their pattern of habitat use: Pomacentrus amboinensis (a habitat generalist), Pomacentrus chrysurus (a rubble specialist) and Pomacentrus moluccensis (a live coral specialist). Settlement-stage larvae were exposed to current-day CO2 levels or CO2 concentrations that could occur by 2100 (700 and 850 ppm) based on IPCC emission scenarios. First, pair-wise choice tests were performed using a two-channel flume chamber to test olfactory discrimination between hard coral, soft coral and coral rubble habitats. The habitat selected by settling fish was then compared among treatments using a multi-choice settlement experiment conducted overnight. Finally, settlement timing between treatments was compared across two lunar cycles for one of the species, P. chrysurus. Exposure to elevated CO2 disrupted the ability of larvae to discriminate between habitat odours in olfactory trials. However, this had no effect on the habitats selected at settlement when all sensory cues were available. The timing of settlement was dramatically altered by CO2 exposure, with control fish exhibiting peak settlement around the new moon, whereas fish exposed to 850 ppm CO2 displaying highest settlement rates around the full moon. These results suggest larvae can rely on other sensory information, such as visual cues, to compensate for impaired olfactory ability when selecting settlement habitat at small spatial scales. However, rising CO2 could cause larvae

  8. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Larval and Juvenile Red Drum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buckley, Jack

    1984-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a habitat model for larval and juvenile red drum. The model is scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1 (optimally suitable habitat) for estuarine areas along the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic coasts. Habitat suitability indices are designed for use with habitat evaluation procedures developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Guidelines for model application and techniques for estimating model variables are provided.

  9. Effect of three larval diets on larval development and male sexual performance of Anopheles gambiae s.s.

    PubMed

    Yahouédo, Gildas A; Djogbénou, Luc; Saïzonou, Jacques; Assogba, Bénoît S; Makoutodé, Michel; Gilles, Jeremie R L; Maïga, Hamidou; Mouline, Karine; Soukou, Bhonna K; Simard, Frédéric

    2014-04-01

    Population replacement/elimination strategies based on mass-release of sterile or otherwise genetically modified (male) mosquitoes are being considered in order to expand the malaria vector control arsenal on the way to eradication. A challenge in this context, is to produce male mosquitoes that will be able to compete and mate with wild females more efficiently than their wild counterparts, i.e. high fitness males. This study explored the effect of three larval food diets developed by the International Atomic Energy Agency on the overall fitness and mating performance of male Anopheles gambiae s.s. mosquitoes (Kisumu strain). Larval development (pupation and emergence rate, development time) was monitored, and adult wing length and energy reserves at emergence (i.e. lipids, sugars, glycogen and proteins) were measured. Male sexual performance was assessed through an insemination test whereby one male and 10 virgin females were maintained together in the same cage in order to record the number of inseminated females per 24h. Our results show that males reared on Diets 2 and 3 performed best during larval development. Males provided with treatment 2.2 had a shorter development time and performed best in insemination tests. However, these males had the lowest overall lifespan, suggesting a trade-off between longevity and sexual performances which needs to be taken into consideration when planning release. The results from this work were discussed in the context of sterile insect techniques or genetic control methods which is today one of the strategy in the overall mosquito control and elimination efforts. PMID:24291460

  10. Glycotope Sharing between Snail Hemolymph and Larval Schistosomes: Larval Transformation Products Alter Shared Glycan Patterns of Plasma Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Yoshino, Timothy P.; Wu, Xiao-Jun; Liu, Hongdi; Gonzalez, Laura A.; Deelder, André M.; Hokke, Cornelis H.

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence supports the involvement of inducible, highly diverse lectin-like recognition molecules in snail hemocyte-mediated responses to larval Schistosoma mansoni. Because host lectins likely are involved in initial parasite recognition, we sought to identify specific carbohydrate structures (glycans) shared between larval S. mansoni and its host Biomphalaria glabrata to address possible mechanisms of immune avoidance through mimicry of elements associated with the host immunoreactivity. A panel of monoclonal antibodies (mABs) to specific S. mansoni glycans was used to identify the distribution and abundance of shared glycan epitopes (glycotopes) on plasma glycoproteins from B. glabrata strains that differ in their susceptibilities to infection by S. mansoni. In addition, a major aim of this study was to determine if larval transformation products (LTPs) could bind to plasma proteins, and thereby alter the glycotopes exposed on plasma proteins in a snail strain-specific fashion. Plasma fractions (<100 kDa/>100 kDa) from susceptible (NMRI) and resistant (BS-90) snail strains were subjected to SDS-PAGE and immunoblot analyses using mAB to LacdiNAc (LDN), fucosylated LDN variants, Lewis X and trimannosyl core glycans. Results confirmed a high degree of glycan sharing, with NMRI plasma exhibiting a greater distribution/abundance of LDN, F-LDN and F-LDN-F than BS-90 plasma (<100 kDa fraction). Pretreatment of blotted proteins with LTPs significantly altered the reactivity of specific mABs to shared glycotopes on blots, mainly through the binding of LTPs to plasma proteins resulting in either glycotope blocking or increased glycotope attachment to plasma. Many LTP-mediated changes in shared glycans were snail-strain specific, especially those in the <100 kDa fraction for NMRI plasma proteins, and for BS-90, mainly those in the >100 kDa fraction. Our data suggest that differential binding of S. mansoni LTPs to plasma proteins of susceptible and resistant B

  11. Glycotope sharing between snail hemolymph and larval schistosomes: larval transformation products alter shared glycan patterns of plasma proteins.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Timothy P; Wu, Xiao-Jun; Liu, Hongdi; Gonzalez, Laura A; Deelder, André M; Hokke, Cornelis H

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence supports the involvement of inducible, highly diverse lectin-like recognition molecules in snail hemocyte-mediated responses to larval Schistosoma mansoni. Because host lectins likely are involved in initial parasite recognition, we sought to identify specific carbohydrate structures (glycans) shared between larval S. mansoni and its host Biomphalaria glabrata to address possible mechanisms of immune avoidance through mimicry of elements associated with the host immunoreactivity. A panel of monoclonal antibodies (mABs) to specific S. mansoni glycans was used to identify the distribution and abundance of shared glycan epitopes (glycotopes) on plasma glycoproteins from B. glabrata strains that differ in their susceptibilities to infection by S. mansoni. In addition, a major aim of this study was to determine if larval transformation products (LTPs) could bind to plasma proteins, and thereby alter the glycotopes exposed on plasma proteins in a snail strain-specific fashion. Plasma fractions (< 100 kDa/> 100 kDa) from susceptible (NMRI) and resistant (BS-90) snail strains were subjected to SDS-PAGE and immunoblot analyses using mAB to LacdiNAc (LDN), fucosylated LDN variants, Lewis X and trimannosyl core glycans. Results confirmed a high degree of glycan sharing, with NMRI plasma exhibiting a greater distribution/abundance of LDN, F-LDN and F-LDN-F than BS-90 plasma (< 100 kDa fraction). Pretreatment of blotted proteins with LTPs significantly altered the reactivity of specific mABs to shared glycotopes on blots, mainly through the binding of LTPs to plasma proteins resulting in either glycotope blocking or increased glycotope attachment to plasma. Many LTP-mediated changes in shared glycans were snail-strain specific, especially those in the < 100 kDa fraction for NMRI plasma proteins, and for BS-90, mainly those in the > 100 kDa fraction. Our data suggest that differential binding of S. mansoni LTPs to plasma proteins of susceptible and resistant B

  12. Proteomic analysis through larval development of Solea senegalensis flatfish.

    PubMed

    Chicano-Gálvez, Eduardo; Asensio, Esther; Cañavate, José Pedro; Alhama, José; López-Barea, Juan

    2015-12-01

    The post-embryonic development of the Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis, a flatfish of growing interest in fisheries and aquaculture, is associated with drastic morpho-physiological changes during metamorphosis. Although in the last two decades knowledge on sole culture has notably increased, especially in Southern Europe, its progress was restricted due to lack of methods to control reproduction, improve larval quality and increase juvenile disease resistance. A limited knowledge of the physiological, molecular and genetic mechanisms involved is at the base of such limitation. A proteomic study was carried out to explore the molecular events that occur during S. senegalensis ontogenesis. Protein expression changes were monitored in larvae from 5 to 21 dph by combining 2DE and protein identification with de novo MS/MS sequencing. An average of 6177 ± 282 spots was resolved in 2DE gels. Hierarchical cluster analysis of the 705 selected spots grouped them in eight patterns. Thirty-four proteins were identified and assigned biological functions including structure, metabolism highlighting energy metabolism, transport, protein folding, stress response, chromatin organization and regulation of gene expression. These changes provide a sequential description of the molecular events associated with the biochemical and biological transformations that occur during sole larval development. PMID:26365915

  13. Development and plasticity of the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Kaushiki P.; Carrillo, Robert A.; Zinn, Kai

    2013-01-01

    The Drosophila larval neuromuscular system is relatively simple, containing only 32 motor neurons in each abdominal hemisegment, and its neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) are large, individually specified, and easy to visualize and record from. NMJ synapses exhibit developmental and functional plasticity while displaying stereotyped connectivity. Drosophila Type I NMJ synapses are glutamatergic, while the vertebrate NMJ uses acetylcholine as its primary neurotransmitter. The larval NMJ synapses use ionotropic glutamate receptors (GluRs) that are homologous to AMPA-type glutamate receptors in the mammalian brain, and they have postsynaptic scaffolds that resemble those found in mammalian postsynaptic densities. These features make the Drosophila neuromuscular system an excellent genetic model for the study of excitatory synapses in the mammalian central nervous system. The first section of the review presents an overview of NMJ development. The second section describes genes that regulate NMJ development, including: 1) genes that positively and negatively regulate growth of the NMJ; 2) genes required for maintenance of NMJ bouton structure; 3) genes that modulate neuronal activity and alter NMJ growth; 4) genes involved in trans-synaptic signaling at the NMJ. The third section describes genes that regulate acute plasticity, focusing on translational regulatory mechanisms. Since this review is intended for a developmental biology audience, it does not cover NMJ electrophysiology in detail, and does not review genes for which mutations produce only electrophysiological but no structural phenotypes. PMID:24014452

  14. Small nonnative fishes as predators of larval razorback suckers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, J.; Mueller, G.A.

    2008-01-01

    The razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus), an endangered big-river fish of the Colorado River basin, has demonstrated no sustainable recruitment in 4 decades, despite presence of spawning adults and larvae. Lack of adequate recruitment has been attributed to several factors, including predation by nonnative fishes. Substantial funding and effort has been expended on mechanically removing nonnative game fishes, typically targeting large predators. As a result, abundance of larger predators has declined, but the abundance of small nonnative fishes has increased in some areas. We conducted laboratory experiments to determine if small nonnative fishes would consume larval razorback suckers. We tested adults of three small species (threadfin shad, Dorosoma petenense; red shiner, Cyprinella lutrensis; fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas) and juveniles of six larger species (common carp, Cyprinus carpio; yellow bullhead, Ameiurus natalis; channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus; rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss; green sunfish, Lepomis cyanellus; bluegill, L. macrochirus). These nonnative fishes span a broad ecological range and are abundant within the historical range of the razorback sucker. All nine species fed on larval razorback suckers (total length, 9-16 mm). Our results suggest that predation by small nonnative fishes could be responsible for limiting recovery of this endangered species.

  15. Standardized Laboratory Feeding of Larval Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Bock, Friederike; Kuch, Ulrich; Pfenninger, Markus; Müller, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The Asian bush mosquito (Aedes japonicus japonicus, Theobald 1901) is an invasive culicid species which originates in Asia but is nowadays present in northern America and Europe. It is a competent vector for several human disease pathogens. In addition to the public health threat, this invasive species may also be an ecological threat for native container-breeding mosquitoes which share a similar larval habitat. Therefore, it is of importance to gain knowledge on ecological and eco-toxicological features of the Asian bush mosquito. However, optimal laboratory feeding conditions have not yet been established. Standardized feeding methods will be needed in assessing the impact of insecticides or competitional strength of this species. To fill this gap, we performed experiments on food quality and quantity for Ae. j. japonicus larvae. We found out that the commercial fish food TetraMin (Tetra, Melle, Germany) in a dose of 10 mg per larva is the most suitable food tested. We also suggest a protocol with a feeding sequence of seven portions for all larval stages of this species. PMID:26452522

  16. Chemical mediation of coral larval settlement by crustose coralline algae

    PubMed Central

    Tebben, J.; Motti, C. A; Siboni, Nahshon; Tapiolas, D. M.; Negri, A. P.; Schupp, P. J.; Kitamura, Makoto; Hatta, Masayuki; Steinberg, P. D.; Harder, T.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of marine invertebrates produce dispersive larvae which, in order to complete their life cycles, must attach and metamorphose into benthic forms. This process, collectively referred to as settlement, is often guided by habitat-specific cues. While the sources of such cues are well known, the links between their biological activity, chemical identity, presence and quantification in situ are largely missing. Previous work on coral larval settlement in vitro has shown widespread induction by crustose coralline algae (CCA) and in particular their associated bacteria. However, we found that bacterial biofilms on CCA did not initiate ecologically realistic settlement responses in larvae of 11 hard coral species from Australia, Guam, Singapore and Japan. We instead found that algal chemical cues induce identical behavioral responses of larvae as per live CCA. We identified two classes of CCA cell wall-associated compounds – glycoglycerolipids and polysaccharides – as the main constituents of settlement inducing fractions. These algae-derived fractions induce settlement and metamorphosis at equivalent concentrations as present in CCA, both in small scale laboratory assays and under flow-through conditions, suggesting their ability to act in an ecologically relevant fashion to steer larval settlement of corals. Both compound classes were readily detected in natural samples. PMID:26042834

  17. Resource Limitation, Controphic Ostracod Density and Larval Mosquito Development

    PubMed Central

    Rowbottom, Raylea; Carver, Scott; Barmuta, Leon A.; Weinstein, Philip; Foo, Dahlia; Allen, Geoff R.

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic environments can be restricted with the amount of available food resources especially with changes to both abiotic and biotic conditions. Mosquito larvae, in particular, are sensitive to changes in food resources. Resource limitation through inter-, and intra-specific competition among mosquitoes are known to affect both their development and survival. However, much less is understood about the effects of non-culicid controphic competitors (species that share the same trophic level). To address this knowledge gap, we investigated and compared mosquito larval development, survival and adult size in two experiments, one with different densities of non-culicid controphic conditions and the other with altered resource conditions. We used Aedes camptorhynchus, a salt marsh breeding mosquito and a prominent vector for Ross River virus in Australia. Aedes camptorhynchus usually has few competitors due to its halo-tolerance and distribution in salt marshes. However, sympatric ostracod micro-crustaceans often co-occur within these salt marshes and can be found in dense populations, with field evidence suggesting exploitative competition for resources. Our experiments demonstrate resource limiting conditions caused significant increases in mosquito developmental times, decreased adult survival and decreased adult size. Overall, non-culicid exploitation experiments showed little effect on larval development and survival, but similar effects on adult size. We suggest that the alterations of adult traits owing to non-culicid controphic competition has potential to extend to vector-borne disease transmission. PMID:26558896

  18. An electric beam trawl for the capture of larval lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLain, Alberton; Dahl, Frederick H.

    1968-01-01

    The chemicals used to control the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, in the Great Lakes have drastically reduced populations of larval lampreys in tributary streams. These larvicides are too costly and difficult to apply, however, in inland lakes, estuaries, and bays. Populations of sea lampreys in these areas constitute a threat to the refinement of the control. The gear available to locate, ample, and evaluate larval populations in deep water are inefficient. Electric shockers, satisfactory for collecting ammocoetes in streams, are limited to shallow water. The use of mechanical devices such as the Petersen dredge, anchor dredge, and the orange-peel dredge is time consuming, inefficient, and relatively ineffective in providing reliable quantitative evaluation of population size and composition over large areas of bottom. A device was required to sample adequately many areas in a short period of time, regardless of the depth of water. Mobility also was essential to permit operation of the unit in the various Great Lakes and in inland waters. An electrified beam trawl has been developed that most nearly meets these requirements. It has been used successfully to collect larvae of the sea lamprey, American brook lamprey (Lampetra lamottei), northern brook lamprey (Ichthyomyzon fossor), and silver lamprey (I. unicuspis). Effectiveness of the trawl did not appear to differ with species.

  19. Patterns, causes, and consequences of marine larval dispersal

    PubMed Central

    D’Aloia, Cassidy C.; Bogdanowicz, Steven M.; Francis, Robin K.; Majoris, John E.; Harrison, Richard G.; Buston, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying the probability of larval exchange among marine populations is key to predicting local population dynamics and optimizing networks of marine protected areas. The pattern of connectivity among populations can be described by the measurement of a dispersal kernel. However, a statistically robust, empirical dispersal kernel has been lacking for any marine species. Here, we use genetic parentage analysis to quantify a dispersal kernel for the reef fish Elacatinus lori, demonstrating that dispersal declines exponentially with distance. The spatial scale of dispersal is an order of magnitude less than previous estimates—the median dispersal distance is just 1.7 km and no dispersal events exceed 16.4 km despite intensive sampling out to 30 km from source. Overlaid on this strong pattern is subtle spatial variation, but neither pelagic larval duration nor direction is associated with the probability of successful dispersal. Given the strong relationship between distance and dispersal, we show that distance-driven logistic models have strong power to predict dispersal probabilities. Moreover, connectivity matrices generated from these models are congruent with empirical estimates of spatial genetic structure, suggesting that the pattern of dispersal we uncovered reflects long-term patterns of gene flow. These results challenge assumptions regarding the spatial scale and presumed predictors of marine population connectivity. We conclude that if marine reserve networks aim to connect whole communities of fishes and conserve biodiversity broadly, then reserves that are close in space (<10 km) will accommodate those members of the community that are short-distance dispersers. PMID:26508628

  20. FACS purification of Drosophila larval Neuroblasts for next generation sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Conder, Ryan; Schmauss, Gerald; Knoblich, Juergen A.

    2014-01-01

    Elegant tools are available for the genetic analysis of neural stem cell lineages in Drosophila, but a methodology for purifying stem cells and their differentiated progeny for transcriptome analysis is currently missing. Previous attempts to overcome this problem either involved using RNA isolated from whole larval brain tissue or co-transcriptional in vivo mRNA tagging. As both methods have limited cell type specificity, we developed a protocol for the isolation of Drosophila neural stem cells (neuroblasts, NBs) and their differentiated sibling cells by FACS. We dissected larval brains from fly strains expressing GFP under the control of a NB lineage-specific GAL4 line. Upon dissociation, we made use of differences in GFP intensity and cell size to separate NBs and neurons. The resulting cell populations are over 98% pure and can readily be used for live imaging or gene expression analysis. Our method is optimized for neural stem cells, but it can also be applied to other Drosophila cell types. Primary cell suspensions and sorted cell populations can be obtained within 1 d; material for deep-sequencing library preparation can be obtained within 4 d. PMID:23660757

  1. Standardized Laboratory Feeding of Larval Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Bock, Friederike; Kuch, Ulrich; Pfenninger, Markus; Müller, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The Asian bush mosquito (Aedes japonicus japonicus, Theobald 1901) is an invasive culicid species which originates in Asia but is nowadays present in northern America and Europe. It is a competent vector for several human disease pathogens. In addition to the public health threat, this invasive species may also be an ecological threat for native container-breeding mosquitoes which share a similar larval habitat. Therefore, it is of importance to gain knowledge on ecological and eco-toxicological features of the Asian bush mosquito. However, optimal laboratory feeding conditions have not yet been established. Standardized feeding methods will be needed in assessing the impact of insecticides or competitional strength of this species. To fill this gap, we performed experiments on food quality and quantity for Ae. j. japonicus larvae. We found out that the commercial fish food TetraMin (Tetra, Melle, Germany) in a dose of 10 mg per larva is the most suitable food tested. We also suggest a protocol with a feeding sequence of seven portions for all larval stages of this species. PMID:26452522

  2. Complex larval connectivity patterns among marine invertebrate populations

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Bonnie J.; Levin, Lisa A.; Fodrie, F. Joel; McMillan, Pat A.

    2007-01-01

    Based on the belief that marine larvae, which can spend days to months in the planktonic stage, could be transported considerable distances by ocean currents, it has long been assumed that populations of coastal species with a planktonic larval stage are demographically open and highly “connected.” Such assumptions about the connectivity of coastal populations govern approaches to managing marine resources and shape our fundamental understanding of population dynamics and evolution, yet are rarely tested directly due to the small size and high mortality of marine larvae in a physically complex environment. Here, we document a successful application of elemental fingerprinting as a tracking tool to determine sources of settled invertebrates and show that coastal mussel larvae, previously thought to be highly dispersed, can be retained within 20–30 km of their natal origin. We compare two closely related and co-occurring species, Mytilus californianus and Mytilus galloprovincialis, and determine that, despite expected similarities, they exhibit substantially different connectivity patterns. Our use of an in situ larval culturing technique overcomes the previous challenge of applying microchemical tracking methods to species with completely planktonic development. The exchange of larvae and resulting connectivities among marine populations have fundamental consequences for the evolution and ecology of species and for the management of coastal resources. PMID:17360636

  3. Resource Limitation, Controphic Ostracod Density and Larval Mosquito Development.

    PubMed

    Rowbottom, Raylea; Carver, Scott; Barmuta, Leon A; Weinstein, Philip; Foo, Dahlia; Allen, Geoff R

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic environments can be restricted with the amount of available food resources especially with changes to both abiotic and biotic conditions. Mosquito larvae, in particular, are sensitive to changes in food resources. Resource limitation through inter-, and intra-specific competition among mosquitoes are known to affect both their development and survival. However, much less is understood about the effects of non-culicid controphic competitors (species that share the same trophic level). To address this knowledge gap, we investigated and compared mosquito larval development, survival and adult size in two experiments, one with different densities of non-culicid controphic conditions and the other with altered resource conditions. We used Aedes camptorhynchus, a salt marsh breeding mosquito and a prominent vector for Ross River virus in Australia. Aedes camptorhynchus usually has few competitors due to its halo-tolerance and distribution in salt marshes. However, sympatric ostracod micro-crustaceans often co-occur within these salt marshes and can be found in dense populations, with field evidence suggesting exploitative competition for resources. Our experiments demonstrate resource limiting conditions caused significant increases in mosquito developmental times, decreased adult survival and decreased adult size. Overall, non-culicid exploitation experiments showed little effect on larval development and survival, but similar effects on adult size. We suggest that the alterations of adult traits owing to non-culicid controphic competition has potential to extend to vector-borne disease transmission. PMID:26558896

  4. System for maintaining sediment suspensions during larval fish studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chilton, E.W., II

    1991-01-01

    A new system was developed for maintaining suspensions of inorganic solids during laboratory studies on early life stages of fish. Microfine bentonite was successfully held in suspension in specially constructed units during a 21-d fishless test, a 28-d experiment with juvenile green sunfish (lepomis cyanellus), and four shorter experiments (5-9 d) with four species of larval fishes, white sucker (catostomus commersoni), northern pike (esox lucius), channel catfish (ictalurus punctatus), and walleye (stizostedion vitreum). Each experiment on larval fish was conducted until the yolk-sac had been absorbed. Concentrations of bentonite ranged from 0 to 728 mg/l. Each unit consisted of a holding chamber set in a stainless steel bowl and two submersible pumps that recirculated the suspension. Turbidity readings remained nearly constant throughout each experiment. Because the turbidity of suspensions was well correlated with bentonite concentration (r2 = 0.989) And easy to measure, turbidity was used as an indicator of concentration. The system is inexpensive, easy to assemble, and does not require a diluter system to maintain constant concentrations of suspended material.

  5. Chemical mediation of coral larval settlement by crustose coralline algae.

    PubMed

    Tebben, J; Motti, C A; Siboni, Nahshon; Tapiolas, D M; Negri, A P; Schupp, P J; Kitamura, Makoto; Hatta, Masayuki; Steinberg, P D; Harder, T

    2015-01-01

    The majority of marine invertebrates produce dispersive larvae which, in order to complete their life cycles, must attach and metamorphose into benthic forms. This process, collectively referred to as settlement, is often guided by habitat-specific cues. While the sources of such cues are well known, the links between their biological activity, chemical identity, presence and quantification in situ are largely missing. Previous work on coral larval settlement in vitro has shown widespread induction by crustose coralline algae (CCA) and in particular their associated bacteria. However, we found that bacterial biofilms on CCA did not initiate ecologically realistic settlement responses in larvae of 11 hard coral species from Australia, Guam, Singapore and Japan. We instead found that algal chemical cues induce identical behavioral responses of larvae as per live CCA. We identified two classes of CCA cell wall-associated compounds--glycoglycerolipids and polysaccharides--as the main constituents of settlement inducing fractions. These algae-derived fractions induce settlement and metamorphosis at equivalent concentrations as present in CCA, both in small scale laboratory assays and under flow-through conditions, suggesting their ability to act in an ecologically relevant fashion to steer larval settlement of corals. Both compound classes were readily detected in natural samples. PMID:26042834

  6. Effect of ace inhibitors and TMOF on growth, development, and trypsin activity of larval Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed

    Lemeire, Els; Borovsky, Dov; Van Camp, John; Smagghe, Guy

    2008-12-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is a zinc metallopeptidase capable of cleaving dipeptide or dipeptideamide moieties at the C-terminal end of peptides. ACE is present in the hemolymph and reproductive tissues of insects. The presence of ACE in the hemolymph and its broad substrate specificity suggests an important role in processing of bioactive peptides. This study reports the effects of ACE inhibitors on larval growth in the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis. Feeding ACE inhibitors ad lib decreased the growth rate, inhibited ACE activity in the larval hemolymph, and down-regulated trypsin activity in the larval gut. These results indicate that S. littoralis ACE may influence trypsin biosynthesis in the larval gut by interacting with a trypsin-modulating oostatic factor (TMOF). Injecting third instar larvae with a combination of Aea-TMOF and the ACE inhibitor captopril, down-regulated trypsin biosynthesis in the larval gut indicating that an Aea-TMOF gut receptor analogue could be present. Injecting captopril and enalapril into newly molted fifth instar larvae stopped larval feeding and decreased weight gain. Together, these results indicate that ACE inhibitors are efficacious in stunting larval growth and ACE plays an important role in larval growth and development. PMID:18949805

  7. Evaluation of waste artificial larval rearing media as oviposition attractant for New World screwworm (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The waste artificial larval rearing media of the New World Screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) were evaluated to determine their effectiveness as oviposition attractants. Various concentrations of waste larval media resulting from rearing screwworm larvae in gel and cellulose fiber-based ...

  8. Ascorbic Acid Influences the Development and Immunocompetence of Larval Heliothis virescens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report that ascorbic acid, which is known to be a free radical scavenger, to be important not only in insect development but also in larval resistance to baculovirus infection. We sequentially elevated the ascorbic acid content in diet and evaluated the effect on larval H. virescens development ...

  9. Influences of acid mine drainage and thermal enrichment on stream fish reproduction and larval survival

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hafs, Andrew W.; Horn, C.D.; Mazik, P.M.; Hartman, K.J.

    2010-01-01

    Potential effects of acid mine drainage (AMD) and thermal enrichment on the reproduction of fishes were investigated through a larval-trapping survey in the Stony River watershed, Grant County, WV. Trapping was conducted at seven sites from 26 March to 2 July 2004. Overall larval catch was low (379 individuals in 220 hours of trapping). More larval White Suckers were captured than all other species. Vectors fitted to nonparametric multidimensional scaling ordinations suggested that temperature was highly correlated to fish communities captured at our sites. Survival of larval Fathead Minnows was examined in situ at six sites from 13 May to 11 June 2004 in the same system. Larval survival was lower, but not significantly different between sites directly downstream of AMD-impacted tributaries (40% survival) and non-AMD sites (52% survival). The lower survival was caused by a significant mortality event at one site that coincided with acute pH depression in an AMD tributary immediately upstream of the site. Results from a Cox proportional hazard test suggests that low pH is having a significant negative influence on larval fish survival in this system. The results from this research indicate that the combination of low pH events and elevated temperature are negatively influencing the larval fish populations of the Stony River watershed. Management actions that address these problems would have the potential to substantially increase both reproduction rates and larval survival, therefore greatly enhancing the fishery.

  10. The effect of larval density on adult demographic traits in Ambystoma opacum

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, D.E. )

    1994-07-01

    Factors that affect traits of aquatic larvae of amphibians may have long-lasting effects on terrestrial juveniles and adults. I manipulated larval densities of marbled salamanders, Ambystoma opacum, in large-scale field enclosures during 2 yr, released the juveniles that metamorphosed from these enclosures, and tested for effects on adults that returned to the pond during 6-7 subsequent breeding seasons. Individuals from low larval density treatments tended to have greater lipid stores at metamorphosis than those from high densities and survived longer in a laboratory inanition study. In the field, individuals that experienced low larval density returned for their first reproductive bout as larger adults than those from high-density treatments. For 5-yr-old females released in 1986, low larval density was linked to greater clutch size; clutch size in 4-yr-old animals from the 1987 cohort did not differ between larval treatment groups. Larval density also influenced age at first reproduction, as animals rared at low densities returned to breed at younger ages. Averaged across both cohorts, the proportion of animals that returned to breed at least once was 21% for low-density groups compared to 6% for the high density groups. The larval environment exerted a strong influence on postmetamorphic traits, and thus larval density likely plays an important role of population regulation in both the aquatic and terrestrial phase of the life cycle. 81 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. A larval key to the Drusinae species (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae) of Austria, Germany, Switzerland and the dinaric western Balkan1

    PubMed Central

    Waringer, J.; Graf, W.; Pauls, S.U.; Previšić, A.; Kučinić, M.

    2016-01-01

    A larval key of the Drusinae of Central Europe and the dinaric western Balkan is presented. Phylogeographic relationships are discussed in the light of molecular genetics, feeding ecology and larval morphology. PMID:26985170

  12. Larval therapy from antiquity to the present day: mechanisms of action, clinical applications and future potential

    PubMed Central

    Whitaker, Iain S; Twine, Christopher; Whitaker, Michael J; Welck, Mathew; Brown, Charles S; Shandall, Ahmed

    2007-01-01

    When modern medicine fails, it is often useful to draw ideas from ancient treatments. The therapeutic use of fly larvae to debride necrotic tissue, also known as larval therapy, maggot debridement therapy or biosurgery, dates back to the beginnings of civilisation. Despite repeatedly falling out of favour largely because of patient intolerance to the treatment, the practice of larval therapy is increasing around the world because of its efficacy, safety and simplicity. Clinical indications for larval treatment are varied, but, in particular, are wounds infected with multidrug‐resistant bacteria and the presence of significant co‐morbidities precluding surgical intervention. The flies most often used in larval therapy are the facultative calliphorids, with the greenbottle blowfly (Lucilia sericata) being the most widely used species. This review summarises the fascinating and turbulent history of larval therapy from its origin to the present day, including mechanisms of action and evidence for its clinical applications. It also explores future research directions. PMID:17551073

  13. [Relationships among Cyrtotrachelus buqueti larval density and wormhole number and bamboo shoot damage degree].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yao-Jun; Wang, Shu-Fang; Gong, Jia-Wen; Liu, Chao; Mu, Chi; Qin, Hong

    2009-08-01

    In August of 2007 and 2008, a field investigation was made to study the relationships among Cyrtotrachelus buqueti larval density and wormhole number and bamboo shoot damage degree in Sichuan Province. The three pairs of variables, i. e., C. buqueti larval density and wormhole number, C. buqueti larval density and bamboo shoot damage degree, and C. buqueti wormhole number and bamboo shoot damage degree, fitted cubic equations well, with the correlation coefficients at P = 0.001. Based on these mathematical models, the forecast tables for C. buqueti larval density and bamboo shoot damage degree were established, and the thresholds of C. buqueti larval density and wormhole number were 0.13 and 0.40 individual per bamboo, respectively. PMID:19947221

  14. Wind direction and proximity to larval sites determines malaria risk in Kilifi District in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Midega, Janet T.; Smith, Dave L.; Olotu, Ally; Mwangangi, Joseph M.; Nzovu, Joseph G.; Wambua, Juliana; Nyangweso, George; Mbogo, Charles M.; Christophides, George K.; Marsh, Kevin; Bejon, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Studies of the fine-scale spatial epidemiology of malaria consistently identify malaria hotspots, comprising clusters of homesteads at high transmission intensity. These hotspots sustain transmission, and may be targeted by malaria-control programmes. Here we describe the spatial relationship between the location of Anopheles larval sites and human malaria infection in a cohort study of 642 children, aged 1–10-years-old. Our data suggest that proximity to larval sites predict human malaria infection, when homesteads are upwind of larval sites, but not when homesteads are downwind of larval sites. We conclude that following oviposition, female Anophelines fly upwind in search for human hosts and, thus, malaria transmission may be disrupted by targeting vector larval sites in close proximity, and downwind to malaria hotspots. PMID:22334077

  15. Correlated Evolution between Mode of Larval Development and Habitat in Muricid Gastropods

    PubMed Central

    Pappalardo, Paula; Rodríguez-Serrano, Enrique; Fernández, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Larval modes of development affect evolutionary processes and influence the distribution of marine invertebrates in the ocean. The decrease in pelagic development toward higher latitudes is one of the patterns of distribution most frequently discussed in marine organisms (Thorson's rule), which has been related to increased larval mortality associated with long pelagic durations in colder waters. However, the type of substrate occupied by adults has been suggested to influence the generality of the latitudinal patterns in larval development. To help understand how the environment affects the evolution of larval types we evaluated the association between larval development and habitat using gastropods of the Muricidae family as a model group. To achieve this goal, we collected information on latitudinal distribution, sea water temperature, larval development and type of substrate occupied by adults. We constructed a molecular phylogeny for 45 species of muricids to estimate the ancestral character states and to assess the relationship between traits using comparative methods in a Bayesian framework. Our results showed high probability for a common ancestor of the muricids with nonpelagic (and nonfeeding) development, that lived in hard bottoms and cold temperatures. From this ancestor, a pelagic feeding larva evolved three times, and some species shifted to warmer temperatures or sand bottoms. The evolution of larval development was not independent of habitat; the most probable evolutionary route reconstructed in the analysis of correlated evolution showed that type of larval development may change in soft bottoms but in hard bottoms this change is highly unlikely. Lower sea water temperatures were associated with nonpelagic modes of development, supporting Thorson's rule. We show how environmental pressures can favor a particular mode of larval development or transitions between larval modes and discuss the reacquisition of feeding larva in muricids

  16. Correlated evolution between mode of larval development and habitat in muricid gastropods.

    PubMed

    Pappalardo, Paula; Rodríguez-Serrano, Enrique; Fernández, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Larval modes of development affect evolutionary processes and influence the distribution of marine invertebrates in the ocean. The decrease in pelagic development toward higher latitudes is one of the patterns of distribution most frequently discussed in marine organisms (Thorson's rule), which has been related to increased larval mortality associated with long pelagic durations in colder waters. However, the type of substrate occupied by adults has been suggested to influence the generality of the latitudinal patterns in larval development. To help understand how the environment affects the evolution of larval types we evaluated the association between larval development and habitat using gastropods of the Muricidae family as a model group. To achieve this goal, we collected information on latitudinal distribution, sea water temperature, larval development and type of substrate occupied by adults. We constructed a molecular phylogeny for 45 species of muricids to estimate the ancestral character states and to assess the relationship between traits using comparative methods in a Bayesian framework. Our results showed high probability for a common ancestor of the muricids with nonpelagic (and nonfeeding) development, that lived in hard bottoms and cold temperatures. From this ancestor, a pelagic feeding larva evolved three times, and some species shifted to warmer temperatures or sand bottoms. The evolution of larval development was not independent of habitat; the most probable evolutionary route reconstructed in the analysis of correlated evolution showed that type of larval development may change in soft bottoms but in hard bottoms this change is highly unlikely. Lower sea water temperatures were associated with nonpelagic modes of development, supporting Thorson's rule. We show how environmental pressures can favor a particular mode of larval development or transitions between larval modes and discuss the reacquisition of feeding larva in muricids gastropods

  17. Modelling larval transport in a axial convergence front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robins, P.

    2010-12-01

    Marine larvae exhibit different vertical swimming behaviours, synchronised by factors such as tidal currents and daylight, in order to aid retention near the parent populations and hence promote production, avoid predation, or to stimulate digestion. This paper explores two types of larval migration in an estuarine axial convergent front which is an important circulatory mechanism in many coastal regions where larvae are concentrated. A parallelised, three-dimensional, ocean model was applied to an idealised estuarine channel which was parameterised from observations of an axial convergent front which occurs in the Conwy Estuary, U.K. (Nunes and Simpson, 1985). The model successfully simulates the bilateral cross-sectional recirculation of an axial convergent front, which has been attributed to lateral density gradients established by the interaction of the lateral shear of the longitudinal currents with the axial salinity gradients. On the flood tide, there is surface axial convergence whereas on the ebb tide, there is (weaker) surface divergence. Further simulations with increased/decreased tidal velocities and with stronger/weaker axial salinity gradients are planned so that the effects of a changing climate on the secondary flow can be understood. Three-dimensional Lagrangian Particle Tracking Models (PTMs) have been developed which use the simulated velocity fields to track larvae in the estuarine channel. The PTMs take into account the vertical migrations of two shellfish species that are commonly found in the Conwy Estuary: (i) tidal migration of the common shore crab (Carcinus maenas) and (ii), diel (daily) migration of the Great scallop (Pecten maximus). These migration behaviours are perhaps the most widespread amongst shellfish larvae and have been compared with passive (drifting) particles in order to assess their relative importance in terms of larval transport. Preliminary results suggest that the net along-estuary dispersal over a typical larval

  18. Biocontrol of larval mosquitoes by Acilius sulcatus (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae)

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Goutam; Mandal, Samir K; Ghosh, Arup K; Das, Dipanwita; Banerjee, Siddhartha S; Chakraborty, Sumanta

    2008-01-01

    Background Problems associated with resistant mosquitoes and the effects on non-target species by chemicals, evoke a reason to find alternative methods to control mosquitoes, like the use of natural predators. In this regard, aquatic coleopterans have been explored less compared to other insect predators. In the present study, an evaluation of the role of the larvae of Acilius sulcatus Linnaeus 1758 (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) as predator of mosquito immatures was made in the laboratory. Its efficacy under field condition was also determined to emphasize its potential as bio-control agent of mosquitoes. Methods In the laboratory, the predation potential of the larvae of A. sulcatus was assessed using the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say 1823 (Diptera: Culicidae) as prey at varying predator and prey densities and available space. Under field conditions, the effectiveness of the larvae of A. sulcatus was evaluated through augmentative release in ten cemented tanks hosting immatures of different mosquito species at varying density. The dip density changes in the mosquito immatures were used as indicator for the effectiveness of A. sulcatus larvae. Results A single larva of A. sulcatus consumed on an average 34 IV instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus in a 24 h period. It was observed that feeding rate of A. sulcatus did not differ between the light-on (6 a.m. – 6 p.m.), and dark (6 p.m. – 6 a.m.) phases, but decreased with the volume of water i.e., space availability. The prey consumption of the larvae of A. sulcatus differed significantly (P < 0.05) with different prey, predator and volume combinations, revealed through univariate ANOVA. The field study revealed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in larval density of different species of mosquitoes after 30 days from the introduction of A. sulcatus larvae, while with the withdrawal, a significant increase (p < 0.05) in larval density was noted indicating the efficacy of A. sulcatus in regulating mosquito

  19. The simple fly larval visual system can process complex images.

    PubMed

    Justice, Elizabeth Daubert; Macedonia, Nicholas James; Hamilton, Catherine; Condron, Barry

    2012-01-01

    Animals that have simple eyes are thought to only detect crude visual detail such as light level. However, predatory insect larvae using a small number of visual inputs seem to distinguish complex image targets. Here we show that Drosophila melanogaster larvae, which have 12 photoreceptor cells per hemisphere, are attracted to distinct motions of other, tethered larvae and that this recognition requires the visual system but not the olfactory system. In addition, attraction to tethered larvae still occurs across a clear plastic barrier, does not occur significantly in the dark and attraction occurs to a computer screen movie of larval motion. By altering the artificial attractant movie, we conclude that visual recognition involves both spatial and temporal components. Our results demonstrate that a simple but experimentally tractable visual system can distinguish complex images and that processing in the relatively large central brain may compensate for the simple input. PMID:23093193

  20. Larval dispersal drives trophic structure across Pacific coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Stier, Adrian C; Hein, Andrew M; Parravicini, Valeriano; Kulbicki, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Top predators are a critical part of healthy ecosystems. Yet, these species are often absent from spatially isolated habitats leading to the pervasive view that fragmented ecological communities collapse from the top down. Here we study reef fish from coral reef communities across the Pacific Ocean. Our analysis shows that species richness of reef fish top predators is relatively stable across habitats that vary widely in spatial isolation and total species richness. In contrast, species richness of prey reef fish declines rapidly with increasing isolation. By consequence, species-poor communities from isolated islands have three times as many predator species per prey species as near-shore communities. We develop and test a colonization-extinction model to reveal how larval dispersal patterns shape this ocean-scale gradient in trophic structure. PMID:25412873

  1. Neural Circuits Underlying Visually Evoked Escapes in Larval Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Timothy W; Gebhardt, Christoph; Naumann, Eva A; Riegler, Clemens; Ahrens, Misha B; Engert, Florian; Del Bene, Filippo

    2016-02-01

    Escape behaviors deliver organisms away from imminent catastrophe. Here, we characterize behavioral responses of freely swimming larval zebrafish to looming visual stimuli simulating predators. We report that the visual system alone can recruit lateralized, rapid escape motor programs, similar to those elicited by mechanosensory modalities. Two-photon calcium imaging of retino-recipient midbrain regions isolated the optic tectum as an important center processing looming stimuli, with ensemble activity encoding the critical image size determining escape latency. Furthermore, we describe activity in retinal ganglion cell terminals and superficial inhibitory interneurons in the tectum during looming and propose a model for how temporal dynamics in tectal periventricular neurons might arise from computations between these two fundamental constituents. Finally, laser ablations of hindbrain circuitry confirmed that visual and mechanosensory modalities share the same premotor output network. We establish a circuit for the processing of aversive stimuli in the context of an innate visual behavior. PMID:26804997

  2. Properties of the larval neuromuscular junction in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Jan, L Y; Jan, Y N

    1976-01-01

    The anatomy and physiology of the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction were studied. 2. The dependence of muscle resting potentials on [K+]o and [Na+]o follows the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz equation (PNa/PK=0-23). Chloride ions distribute passively across the membrane. 3. The mean specific membrane resistance of muscle fibres is 4-3 X 10(3) omega cm2, and the mean specific membrane capacitance is 7-1 muF/cm2. The muscle fibre is virtually isopotential. 4.Transmitter release is quantal. Both the miniature excitatory junctional potential and the evoked release follow the Poisson distribution. 5. Transmitter release depends on approximately the fourth power of [Ca2+]o. If Sr2+ replaces Ca2+, it depends on approximately the fourth power of [Sr2+]o. Mg2+ reduces transmitter release without altering the fourth power dependence on [Ca2+]o. Images A B A B Plate 3 PMID:11339

  3. Agreement among observers classifying larval sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mullett, K.M.; Bergstedt, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    Estimates of larval sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) abundance are used to rank Great Lakes tributaries for lampricide treatment. Observers subjectively stratify habitat into three categories: type I = preferred, type II = acceptable, type III = unacceptable. Agreement was evaluated among eight observers classifying habitats in small discrete plots in two Lake Superior tributaries, the Rock and Chocolay rivers, and among four observers classifying and measuring the amount of each habitat type along random transects in the Rock River. Agreement among the eight observers classifying habitat plots was high (Chocolay, ?? = 0.742 and Rock, ?? = 0.785). The amounts of types I, II, and III habitat estimated were statistically different among observers. However, the amount of variability found in the classification and measurement of habitat by observers had little effect on the ranking of 51 streams considered for lampricide treatment.

  4. The genus Odontophrynus (Anura: Odontophrynidae): a larval perspective.

    PubMed

    Filipe Augusto C, Do Nascimento; Tamí, Mott; José A, Langone; Christine A, Davis; Rafael O, De Sá

    2013-01-01

    The genus Odontophrynus consists of 11 species of medium-sized frogs distributed across south and east South America. This study examines and describes the chondrocrania and oral cavities of O. americanus, O. maisuma, O. carvalhoi, and O. cultripes, and review current knowledge about the larval external morphology of the genus. Twenty-one tadpoles were cleared and double-stained for chondrocranium description and five tadpoles were dissected for analysis in a scanning electron microscope. The presence of a tectum parientale may be considered here as a putative synapomorphy of the genus. The O. americanus and O. cultripes species groups were partially differentiated by the length of the processus pseudopterigoideus, shape of divergence of the hypobranchial plates, number of postnarial papillae, and number of projections of the lateral ridge papillae. The larvae of O. occidentalis species group, in turn, differed from others by presenting a greater total length. PMID:26106718

  5. Agreement among observers classifying larval sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mullett, Katherine M.; Bergstedt, Roger A.

    2003-01-01

    Estimates of larval sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) abundance are used to rank Great Lakes tributaries for lampricide treatment. Observers subjectively stratify habitat into three categories: type I = preferred, type II = acceptable, type III = unacceptable. Agreement was evaluated among eight observers classifying habitats in small discrete plots in two Lake Superior tributaries, the Rock and Chocolay rivers, and among four observers classifying and measuring the amount of each habitat type along random transects in the Rock River. Agreement among the eight observers classifying habitat plots was high (Chocolay, k = 0.742 and Rock, k = 0.785). The amounts of types I, II, and III habitat estimated were statistically different among observers. However, the amount of variability found in the classification and measurement of habitat by observers had little effect on the ranking of 51 streams considered for lampricide treatment.

  6. Environmentally relevant concentrations of microplastic particles influence larval fish ecology.

    PubMed

    Lönnstedt, Oona M; Eklöv, Peter

    2016-06-01

    The widespread occurrence and accumulation of plastic waste in the environment have become a growing global concern over the past decade. Although some marine organisms have been shown to ingest plastic, few studies have investigated the ecological effects of plastic waste on animals. Here we show that exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of microplastic polystyrene particles (90 micrometers) inhibits hatching, decreases growth rates, and alters feeding preferences and innate behaviors of European perch (Perca fluviatilis) larvae. Furthermore, individuals exposed to microplastics do not respond to olfactory threat cues, which greatly increases predator-induced mortality rates. Our results demonstrate that microplastic particles operate both chemically and physically on larval fish performance and development. PMID:27257256

  7. Feeding competition between larval lake whitefish and lake herring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savino, Jacqueline F.; Hudson, Patrick L.

    1995-01-01

    The potential for competition for food between larval lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and lake herring (C. artedi) 1- to 8-wk of age was explored in a series of 1-h laboratory feeding studies. Feeding started at 2-wk post-hatch. Learning and fish size appear to be more important than prey density at the onset of feeding. Species differed in their feeding behavior and consumption noticeably by 5-wk and substantially by 8-wk. Lake whitefish generally were more aggressive foragers than lake herring, attacking and capturing more prey. At high plankton density at 8-wk, lake herring feeding was depressed in mixed-fish treatments. This difference in competitive food consumption between the two coregonids occurs at a critical life stage, and when combined with other biotic and abiotic factors, may have a significant impact on recruitment.

  8. The Role of Dopamine in Drosophila Larval Classical Olfactory Conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kyung-An; Stocker, Reinhard F.; Thum, Andreas S.

    2009-01-01

    Learning and memory is not an attribute of higher animals. Even Drosophila larvae are able to form and recall an association of a given odor with an aversive or appetitive gustatory reinforcer. As the Drosophila larva has turned into a particularly simple model for studying odor processing, a detailed neuronal and functional map of the olfactory pathway is available up to the third order neurons in the mushroom bodies. At this point, a convergence of olfactory processing and gustatory reinforcement is suggested to underlie associative memory formation. The dopaminergic system was shown to be involved in mammalian and insect olfactory conditioning. To analyze the anatomy and function of the larval dopaminergic system, we first characterize dopaminergic neurons immunohistochemically up to the single cell level and subsequent test for the effects of distortions in the dopamine system upon aversive (odor-salt) as well as appetitive (odor-sugar) associative learning. Single cell analysis suggests that dopaminergic neurons do not directly connect gustatory input in the larval suboesophageal ganglion to olfactory information in the mushroom bodies. However, a number of dopaminergic neurons innervate different regions of the brain, including protocerebra, mushroom bodies and suboesophageal ganglion. We found that dopamine receptors are highly enriched in the mushroom bodies and that aversive and appetitive olfactory learning is strongly impaired in dopamine receptor mutants. Genetically interfering with dopaminergic signaling supports this finding, although our data do not exclude on naïve odor and sugar preferences of the larvae. Our data suggest that dopaminergic neurons provide input to different brain regions including protocerebra, suboesophageal ganglion and mushroom bodies by more than one route. We therefore propose that different types of dopaminergic neurons might be involved in different types of signaling necessary for aversive and appetitive olfactory memory

  9. Embryonic and larval development of Brycon amazonicus (SPIX & AGASSIZ, 1829).

    PubMed

    Nakauth, A C S Sampaio; Villacorta-Correa, M A; Figueiredo, M R; Bernardino, G; França, J M

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the embryonic and larval development of Brycon amazonicus, featuring the main events up to 50 hours after fertilization (AF). The material was provided by the Aquaculture Training, Technology and Production Center, Presidente Figueiredo (AM). The characterization was based on stereomicroscopic examination of the morphology of eggs, embryos and larvae and comparison with the literature. Matrinxã eggs are free, transparent, and spherical, with a perivitelline space of 0.56 ± 0.3 mm. The successive divisions give rise to cells with 64 blastomeres during the first hour AF. The gastrula stage, beginning 02 h 40 min AF, was characterized by progressive regression cells and the formation of the embryonic axis, leading to differentiation of the head and tail 05 h 30 min AF. From 06 to 09 h AF the somites, notochord, otic and optic vesicles and otoliths were observed, in addition to heart rate and the release of the tail. The larvae hatched at 10 h 30 min AF (29.9 °C), with a total length of 3.56 ± 0.46 mm. Between 19 and 30 h AF, we observed 1) pigmentation and gut formation, 2) branchial arches, 3) pectoral fins, 4) a mouth opening and 5) teeth. Cannibalism was initiated earlier (34 h AF) which was associated with rapid yolk absorption (more than 90% until 50 h AF), signaling the need for an exogenous nutritional source. The environmental conditions (especially temperature) influenced the time course of some events throughout the embryonic and larval development, suggesting the need for further studies on this subject. PMID:26909629

  10. Rapid declines in metabolism explain extended coral larval longevity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, E. M.; Baird, A. H.; Connolly, S. R.; Sewell, M. A.; Willis, B. L.

    2013-06-01

    Lecithotrophic, or non-feeding, marine invertebrate larvae generally have shorter pelagic larval durations (PLDs) than planktotrophic larvae. However, non-feeding larvae of scleractinian corals have PLDs far exceeding those of feeding larvae of other organisms and predictions of PLD based on energy reserves and metabolic rates, raising questions about how such longevity is achieved. Here, we measured temporal changes in metabolic rates and total lipid content of non-feeding larvae of four species of reef corals to determine whether changes in energy utilization through time contribute to extended larval durations. The temporal dynamics of both metabolic rates and lipid content were highly consistent among species. Prior to fertilization, metabolic rates were low (2.73-8.63 nmol O2 larva-1 h-1) before rapidly increasing to a peak during embryogenesis and early development 1-2 days after spawning. Metabolic rates remained high until shortly after larvae first became competent to metamorphose and then declined by up to two orders of magnitude to levels at or below rates seen in unfertilized eggs over the following week. Larvae remained in this state of low metabolic activity for up to 2 months. Consistent with temporal patterns in metabolic rates, depletion of lipids was extremely rapid during early development and then slowed dramatically from 1 week onward. Despite the very low metabolic rates in these species, larvae continued to swim and retained competence for at least 2 months. The capacity of non-feeding coral larvae to enter a state of low metabolism soon after becoming competent to metamorphose significantly extends dispersal potential, thereby accruing advantages typically associated with planktotrophy, notably enhanced population connectivity.

  11. Biased gene expression in early honeybee larval development

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Female larvae of the honeybee (Apis mellifera) develop into either queens or workers depending on nutrition. This nutritional stimulus triggers different developmental trajectories, resulting in adults that differ from each other in physiology, behaviour and life span. Results To understand how these trajectories are established we have generated a comprehensive atlas of gene expression throughout larval development. We found substantial differences in gene expression between worker and queen-destined larvae at 6 hours after hatching. Some of these early changes in gene expression are maintained throughout larval development, indicating that caste-specific developmental trajectories are established much earlier than previously thought. Within our gene expression data we identified processes that potentially underlie caste differentiation. Queen-destined larvae have higher expression of genes involved in transcription, translation and protein folding early in development with a later switch to genes involved in energy generation. Using RNA interference, we were able to demonstrate that one of these genes, hexamerin 70b, has a role in caste differentiation. Both queen and worker developmental trajectories are associated with the expression of genes that have alternative splice variants, although only a single variant of a gene tends to be differentially expressed in a given caste. Conclusions Our data, based on the biases in gene expression early in development together with published data, supports the idea that caste development in the honeybee consists of two phases; an initial biased phase of development, where larvae can still switch to the other caste by differential feeding, followed by commitment to a particular developmental trajectory. PMID:24350621

  12. Influence of Physiological Stress on Nutrient Stoichiometry in Larval Amphibians.

    PubMed

    Kirschman, Lucas J; Haslett, Savhannah; Fritz, Kelley A; Whiles, Matt R; Warne, Robin W

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to environmental stressors alters animal phenotypes as well as nutrient metabolism, assimilation, and excretion. While stress-induced shifts in nutrient processes are known to alter organismal carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stoichiometry, there has been little exploration of how environmental factors influence phosphorous (P). A better understanding of how P cycling varies with animal physiological state may provide insight into across-scale processes, because P is essential to animal function and ecological processes such as production and decomposition. We tested the effects of predator stress and exogenous glucocorticoids on C∶N∶P stoichiometry of larval amphibians. Glucocorticoids altered nutrient stoichiometry, apparently by modulating ossification and renal function. This reduced whole-body P and significantly increased N∶P. Additionally, elevated glucocorticoids caused a long-term reduction in P excretion. This reduction may reflect an initial unmeasured loss of P that glucocorticoids induce over acute timescales. In contrast, exposure to predator cues had no effect on larval C∶N∶P stoichiometry, which highlights that different stressors have varied effects on the endocrine stress response. Predation, in particular, is ubiquitous in the environment; thus, larvae responding to predators have conserved mechanisms that likely prevent or minimize physiological disruption. These results demonstrate the differing physiological roles of N and P, distinct nutrient demands associated with amphibian metamorphosis, and the contrasting effects that different environmental factors have on the physiological stress response. Our results also suggest that anthropogenic changes to the environment that induce chronic stress in amphibians could affect the biogeochemistry of nutrient-poor environments where they may act as keystone species. PMID:27327181

  13. Larval development of Culex quinquefasciatus in water with low to moderate.

    PubMed

    Noori, Navideh; Lockaby, B Graeme; Kalin, Latif

    2015-12-01

    Population growth and urbanization have increased the potential habitats, and consequently the abundance of Culex quinquefasciatus, the southern house mosquito, a vector of West Nile Virus in urban areas. Water quality is critical in larval habitat distribution and in providing microbial food resources for larvae. A mesocosm experiment was designed to demonstrate which specific components of water chemistry are conducive to larval Culex mosquitoes. Dose-response relationships between larval development and NO3 , NH4 , and PO4 concentrations in stream water were developed through this experiment to describe the isolated effects of each nutrient on pre-adult development. The emergence pattern of Culex mosquitoes was found to be strongly related to certain nutrients, and results showed that breeding sites with higher PO4 or NO3 concentrations had higher larval survival rates. High NO3 concentrations favor the development of male mosquitoes and suppress the development of female mosquitoes, but those adult females that do emerge develop faster in containers with high NO3 levels compared to the reference group. The addition of PO4 in the absence of nitrogen sources to the larval habitat slowed larval development, however, it took fewer days for larvae to reach the pupal stage in containers with combinations of NO3 and PO4 or NH4 and PO4 nutrients. Results from this study may bolster efforts to control WNV in urban landscapes by exploring water quality conditions of Culex larval habitats that produce adult mosquitoes. PMID:26611953

  14. Cyanobacteria associated with Anopheles albimanus (Diptera: Culicidae) larval habitats in southern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Martínez, M Guadalupe; Rodríguez, Mario H; Arredondo-Jiménez, Juan I; Méndez-Sanchez, José D; Bond-Compeán, J Guillermo; Cold-Morgan, Michelle

    2002-11-01

    Cyanobacteria associated with Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann larval habitats from southern Chiapas, Mexico, were isolated and identified from water samples and larval midguts using selective medium BG-11. Larval breeding sites were classified according to their hydrology and dominant vegetation. Cyanobacteria isolated in water samples were recorded and analyzed according to hydrological and vegetation habitat breeding types, and mosquito larval abundance. In total, 19 cyanobacteria species were isolated from water samples. Overall, the most frequently isolated cyanobacterial taxa were Phormidium sp., Oscillatoria sp., Aphanocapsa cf. littoralis, Lyngbya lutea, P. animalis, and Anabaena cf. spiroides. Cyanobacteria were especially abundant in estuaries, irrigation canals, river margins and mangrove lagoons, and more cyanobacteria were isolated from Brachiaria mutica, Ceratophyllum demersum, and Hymenachne amplexicaulis habitats. Cyanobacteria were found in habitats with low to high An. albimanus larval abundance, but Aphanocapsa cf. littoralis was associated with habitats of low larval abundance. No correlation was found between water chemistry parameters and the presence of cyanobacteria, however, water temperature (29.2-29.4 degrees C) and phosphate concentration (79.8-136.5 ppb) were associated with medium and high mosquito larvae abundance. In An. albimanus larval midguts, only six species of cyanobacteria were isolated, the majority being from the most abundant cyanobacteria in water samples. PMID:12495179

  15. Effects of larval density in Ambystoma opacum: An experiment in large-scale field enclosures

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, D.E. )

    1990-02-01

    This experiment was designed to measure the effects of larval density on larval traits in the salamander Ambystoma opacum, and to ascertain whether previous studies conducted at smaller spatial scales or higher densities produced artifactual results. Density effects on larval growth, body size at metamorphosis, length of larval period, and survival to metamorphosis were studied in A. opacum in large-scale (41 m{sup 2} and 23 m{sup 2}) field enclosures in two temporary ponds. Each enclosure contained indigenous populations of prey (zooplankton and insects) and predators, as well as the range of microhabitats present in these natural ponds. Initial larval densities were chosen to represent high and low levels of naturally occurring mean densities. The results suggest that, in natural ponds, the importance of intraspecific competition is dependent upon hydroperiod, and the intensity of competition influences predation risk. Thus, both density-dependent and density-independent factors affect body size and recruitment of larval A. opacum into the adult population. The use of large-scale field enclosures has advantages and disadvantages: it allows the examination of density-dependent processes under natural conditions and provides high statistical power because of low variability in larval traits; however, experimental designs must be simple and underlying mechanisms are difficult to identify.

  16. Larval intraspecific competition for food in the European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana.

    PubMed

    Thiéry, D; Monceau, K; Moreau, J

    2014-08-01

    Effective pest management with lower amounts of pesticides relies on accurate prediction of insect pest growth rates. Knowledge of the factors governing this trait and the resulting fitness of individuals is thus necessary to refine predictions and make suitable decisions in crop protection. The European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana, the major pest of grapes in Europe, is responsible for huge economic losses. Larvae very rarely leave the grape bunch on which they were oviposited and thus cannot avoid intraspecific competition. In this study, we determined the impact of intraspecific competition during the larval stage on development and adult fitness in this species. This was tested by rearing different numbers of larvae on an artificial diet and measuring developmental and reproductive life history traits. We found that intraspecific competition during larval development has a slight impact on the fitness of L. botrana. The principal finding of this work is that larval density has little effect on the life history traits of survivors. Thus, the timing of eclosion, duration of subsequent oviposition, fecundity appears to be more uniform in L. botrana than in other species. The main effect of larval crowding was a strong increase of larval mortality at high densities whereas the probability of emergence, sex ratio, pupal mass, fecundity and longevity of mated females were not affected by larval crowding. Owing to increased larval mortality at high larval densities, we hypothesized that mortality of larvae at high densities provided better access to food for the survivors with the result that more food was available per capita and there were no effect on fitness of survivors. From our results, larval crowding alters the reproductive capacity of this pest less than expected but this single factor should now be tested in interaction with limited resources in the wild. PMID:24788023

  17. Optimizing larval assessment to support sea lamprey control in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Michael J.; Adams, Jean V.; Cuddy, Douglas W.; Richards, Jessica M.; Fodale, Michael F.; Larson, Geraldine L.; Ollila, Dale J.; Slade, Jeffrey W.; Steeves, Todd B.; Young, Robert J.; Zerrenner, Adam

    2003-01-01

    Elements of the larval sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) assessment program that most strongly influence the chemical treatment program were analyzed, including selection of streams for larval surveys, allocation of sampling effort among stream reaches, allocation of sampling effort among habitat types, estimation of daily growth rates, and estimation of metamorphosis rates, to determine how uncertainty in each element influenced the stream selection program. First, the stream selection model based on current larval assessment sampling protocol significantly underestimated transforming sea lam-prey abundance, transforming sea lampreys killed, and marginal costs per sea lamprey killed, compared to a protocol that included more years of data (especially for large streams). Second, larval density in streams varied significantly with Type-I habitat area, but not with total area or reach length. Third, the ratio of larval density between Type-I and Type-II habitat varied significantly among streams, and that the optimal allocation of sampling effort varied with the proportion of habitat types and variability of larval density within each habitat. Fourth, mean length varied significantly among streams and years. Last, size at metamorphosis varied more among years than within or among regions and that metamorphosis varied significantly among streams within regions. Study results indicate that: (1) the stream selection model should be used to identify streams with potentially high residual populations of larval sea lampreys; (2) larval sampling in Type-II habitat should be initiated in all streams by increasing sampling in Type-II habitat to 50% of the sampling effort in Type-I habitat; and (3) methods should be investigated to reduce uncertainty in estimates of sea lamprey production, with emphasis on those that reduce the uncertainty associated with larval length at the end of the growing season and those used to predict metamorphosis.

  18. Predicting developmental neurotoxicity in rodents from larval zebrafish - - and vice versa

    EPA Science Inventory

    The complexity of standard mammalian developmental neurotoxicity tests limits evaluation of large numbers of chemicals. Less complex, more rapid assays using larval zebrafish are gaining popularity for evaluating the developmental neurotoxicity of chemicals; there remains, howeve...

  19. INFLUENCE OF AN INSECT GROWTH REGULATOR ON LARVAL DEVELOPMENT OF A MARINE CRUSTACEAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Larval survival, growth, and energy metabolism of an estuarine shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) were altered by exposure to low micrograms/l concentrations of an insect growth regulator (the juvenile hormone analogue, methoprene). Larvae were several orders of magnitude more sensitive...

  20. Larval salamanders and channel geomorphology are indicators of hydrologic permanence in forested headwater streams

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regulatory agencies need rapid indicators of hydrologic permanence for jurisdictional determinations of headwater streams. Our study objective was to assess the utility of larval salamander presence and assemblage structure and habitat variables for determining stream permanence ...

  1. A High-Throughput Method for the Analysis of Larval Developmental Phenotypes in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Olmedo, María; Geibel, Mirjam; Artal-Sanz, Marta; Merrow, Martha

    2015-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans postembryonic development consists of four discrete larval stages separated by molts. Typically, the speed of progression through these larval stages is investigated by visual inspection of the molting process. Here, we describe an automated method to monitor the timing of these discrete phases of C. elegans maturation, from the first larval stage through adulthood, using bioluminescence. The method was validated with a lin-42 mutant strain that shows delayed development relative to wild-type animals and with a daf-2 mutant that shows an extended second larval stage. This new method is inherently high-throughput and will finally allow dissecting the molecular machinery governing the speed of the developmental clock, which has so far been hampered by the lack of a method suitable for genetic screens. PMID:26294666

  2. INFLUENCE OF AN INSECT GROWTH REGULATOR ON THE LARVAL DEVELOPMENT OF AN ESTUARINE SHRIMP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The influence of methoprene, an insect growth regulator used in mosquito control, on larval development of the estuarine grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) was examined in the laboratory. o grass shrimp larvae successfully completed metamorphosis when continuously exposed to 1000 ...

  3. Morphological features to distinguish the larval stage of invasive Ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus) from native fish species

    EPA Science Inventory

    Larval fish surveys are used in a variety of research and monitoring activities, including identification of nursery habitat and invasive species early detection. Morphologically-based taxonomic identification of larvae collected from these surveys, however, is often challenging....

  4. Morphological features to distinguish the larval stage of invasive Ruffe from native fish species

    EPA Science Inventory

    Larval fish surveys are used in a variety of research and monitoring activities, including identification of nursery habitat and invasive species early detection. Morphologically-based taxonomic identification of larvae collected from these surveys, however, is often challenging....

  5. Stock-specific advection of larval walleye (Sander vitreus) in western Lake Erie: Implications for larval growth, mixing, and stock discrimination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michael Fraker; Eric J. Anderson; Cassandra J. May; Kuan-Yu Chen; Jeremiah J. Davis; Kristen M. DeVanna; Mark R. DuFour; Elizabeth A. Marschall; Christine M. Mayer; Jeffrey G. Miner; Kevin L. Pangle; Jeremy J. Pritt; Roseman, Edward F.; Jeffrey T. Tyson; Yingming Zhao; Stuart Ludsin

    2015-01-01

    Physical processes can generate spatiotemporal heterogeneity in habitat quality for fish and also influence the overlap of pre-recruit individuals (e.g., larvae) with high-quality habitat through hydrodynamic advection. In turn, individuals from different stocks that are produced in different spawning locations or at different times may experience dissimilar habitat conditions, which can underlie within- and among-stock variability in larval growth and survival. While such physically-mediated variation has been shown to be important in driving intra- and inter-annual patterns in recruitment in marine ecosystems, its role in governing larval advection, growth, survival, and recruitment has received less attention in large lake ecosystems such as the Laurentian Great Lakes. Herein, we used a hydrodynamic model linked to a larval walleye (Sander vitreus) individual-based model to explore how the timing and location of larval walleye emergence from several spawning sites in western Lake Erie (Maumee, Sandusky, and Detroit rivers; Ohio reef complex) can influence advection pathways and mixing among these local spawning populations (stocks), and how spatiotemporal variation in thermal habitat can influence stock-specific larval growth. While basin-wide advection patterns were fairly similar during 2011 and 2012, smaller scale advection patterns and the degree of stock mixing varied both within and between years. Additionally, differences in larval growth were evident among stocks and among cohorts within stocks which were attributed to spatiotemporal differences in water temperature. Using these findings, we discuss the value of linked physical–biological models for understanding the recruitment process and addressing fisheries management problems in the world's Great Lakes.

  6. Experimental Approach Reveals the Role of alx1 in the Evolution of the Echinoderm Larval Skeleton.

    PubMed

    Koga, Hiroyuki; Fujitani, Haruka; Morino, Yoshiaki; Miyamoto, Norio; Tsuchimoto, Jun; Shibata, Tomoko F; Nozawa, Masafumi; Shigenobu, Shuji; Ogura, Atsushi; Tachibana, Kazunori; Kiyomoto, Masato; Amemiya, Shonan; Wada, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Over the course of evolution, the acquisition of novel structures has ultimately led to wide variation in morphology among extant multicellular organisms. Thus, the origins of genetic systems for new morphological structures are a subject of great interest in evolutionary biology. The larval skeleton is a novel structure acquired in some echinoderm lineages via the activation of the adult skeletogenic machinery. Previously, VEGF signaling was suggested to have played an important role in the acquisition of the larval skeleton. In the present study, we compared expression patterns of Alx genes among echinoderm classes to further explore the factors involved in the acquisition of a larval skeleton. We found that the alx1 gene, originally described as crucial for sea urchin skeletogenesis, may have also played an essential role in the evolution of the larval skeleton. Unlike those echinoderms that have a larval skeleton, we found that alx1 of starfish was barely expressed in early larvae that have no skeleton. When alx1 overexpression was induced via injection of alx1 mRNA into starfish eggs, the expression patterns of certain genes, including those possibly involved in skeletogenesis, were altered. This suggested that a portion of the skeletogenic program was induced solely by alx1. However, we observed no obvious external phenotype or skeleton. We concluded that alx1 was necessary but not sufficient for the acquisition of the larval skeleton, which, in fact, requires several genetic events. Based on these results, we discuss how the larval expression of alx1 contributed to the acquisition of the larval skeleton in the putative ancestral lineage of echinoderms. PMID:26866800

  7. Experimental Approach Reveals the Role of alx1 in the Evolution of the Echinoderm Larval Skeleton

    PubMed Central

    Koga, Hiroyuki; Fujitani, Haruka; Morino, Yoshiaki; Miyamoto, Norio; Tsuchimoto, Jun; Shibata, Tomoko F.; Nozawa, Masafumi; Shigenobu, Shuji; Ogura, Atsushi; Tachibana, Kazunori; Kiyomoto, Masato; Amemiya, Shonan; Wada, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Over the course of evolution, the acquisition of novel structures has ultimately led to wide variation in morphology among extant multicellular organisms. Thus, the origins of genetic systems for new morphological structures are a subject of great interest in evolutionary biology. The larval skeleton is a novel structure acquired in some echinoderm lineages via the activation of the adult skeletogenic machinery. Previously, VEGF signaling was suggested to have played an important role in the acquisition of the larval skeleton. In the present study, we compared expression patterns of Alx genes among echinoderm classes to further explore the factors involved in the acquisition of a larval skeleton. We found that the alx1 gene, originally described as crucial for sea urchin skeletogenesis, may have also played an essential role in the evolution of the larval skeleton. Unlike those echinoderms that have a larval skeleton, we found that alx1 of starfish was barely expressed in early larvae that have no skeleton. When alx1 overexpression was induced via injection of alx1 mRNA into starfish eggs, the expression patterns of certain genes, including those possibly involved in skeletogenesis, were altered. This suggested that a portion of the skeletogenic program was induced solely by alx1. However, we observed no obvious external phenotype or skeleton. We concluded that alx1 was necessary but not sufficient for the acquisition of the larval skeleton, which, in fact, requires several genetic events. Based on these results, we discuss how the larval expression of alx1 contributed to the acquisition of the larval skeleton in the putative ancestral lineage of echinoderms. PMID:26866800

  8. Using post-settlement demography to estimate larval survivorship: a coral reef fish example.

    PubMed

    Johnson, D W; Christie, M R; Stallings, C D; Pusack, T J; Hixon, M A

    2015-11-01

    Many species have multi-stage life cycles in which the youngest stages (e.g., larvae) are small, dispersive, and abundant, whereas later stages are sessile or sedentary. Quantifying survival throughout such early stages is critical for understanding dispersal, population dynamics, and life history evolution. However, dispersive stages can be very difficult to sample in situ, and estimates of survival through the entire duration of these stages are typically poor. Here we describe how demographic information from juveniles and adults can be used to estimate survival throughout a dispersive larval stage that was not sampled directly. Using field measurements of demography, we show that detailed information on post-settlement growth, survival, and reproduction can be used to estimate average larval survivorship under the assumption that a typical individual replaces itself over its lifetime. Applying this approach to a common coral reef fish (bicolor damselfish, Stegastes partitus), we estimated average larval survivorship to be 0.108% (95% CI 0.025-0.484). We next compared this demography-based estimate to an expected value derived from published estimates of larval mortality rates. Our estimate of larval survivorship for bicolor damselfish was approximately two orders of magnitude greater than what would be expected if larval mortality of this species followed the average, size-dependent pattern of mortality inferred from a published sample of marine fishes. Our results highlight the importance of understanding mortality during the earliest phases of larval life, which are typically not sampled, as well as the need to understand the details of how larval mortality scales with body size. PMID:26093629

  9. Mechanistic insights into the effects of climate change on larval cod.

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, Trond; Stock, Charles; Drinkwater, Kenneth F; Curchitser, Enrique N

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the biophysical mechanisms that shape variability in fisheries recruitment is critical for estimating the effects of climate change on fisheries. In this study, we used an Earth System Model (ESM) and a mechanistic individual-based model (IBM) for larval fish to analyze how climate change may impact the growth and survival of larval cod in the North Atlantic. We focused our analysis on five regions that span the current geographical range of cod and are known to contain important spawning populations. Under the SRES A2 (high emissions) scenario, the ESM-projected surface ocean temperatures are expected to increase by >1 °C for 3 of the 5 regions, and stratification is expected to increase at all sites between 1950-1999 and 2050-2099. This enhanced stratification is projected to decrease large (>5 μm ESD) phytoplankton productivity and mesozooplankton biomass at all 5 sites. Higher temperatures are projected to increase larval metabolic costs, which combined with decreased food resources will reduce larval weight, increase the probability of larvae dying from starvation and increase larval exposure to visual and invertebrate predators at most sites. If current concentrations of piscivore and invertebrate predators are maintained, larval survival is projected to decrease at all five sites by 2050-2099. In contrast to past observed responses to climate variability in which warm anomalies led to better recruitment in cold-water stocks, our simulations indicated that reduced prey availability under climate change may cause a reduction in larval survival despite higher temperatures in these regions. In the lower prey environment projected under climate change, higher metabolic costs due to higher temperatures outweigh the advantages of higher growth potential, leading to negative effects on northern cod stocks. Our results provide an important first large-scale assessment of the impacts of climate change on larval cod in the North Atlantic. PMID

  10. Larval history influences post-metamorphic condition in a coral-reef fish.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Scott L

    2008-12-01

    Upon settlement, many fishes undergo an energetically costly metamorphic period that requires substantial nutritional reserves. Larval growth and the accumulation of lipids prior to metamorphosis are likely to influence growth and survival following this critical period. On the Caribbean island of St. Croix, I investigated relationships between larval growth, early life-history characteristics, and post-metamorphic lipid content in the bluehead wrasse Thalassoma bifasciatum. Lipid reserves remaining after metamorphosis were positively related (r2 = 0.62) to the width of the metamorphic band; thus, this otolith-derived trait may be used to estimate the condition at emergence of survivors collected at some later time. In contrast, pelagic larval duration, average larval growth, and otolith size at settlement were negatively related to post-metamorphic lipid content. Interestingly, the trend for slower growth among fish in good condition was not consistent over the entire pelagic larval duration. Analyses of daily larval growth histories indicated that fish with high lipid reserves grew rapidly in the last week prior to settlement, but relatively slowly during the early phases of larval life; those emerging with low lipid concentrations, however, displayed strikingly opposite patterns. These contrasting patterns of growth and energy storage were consistent at two sites and over three recruitment events. Otolith chemistry data suggested that differences in growth histories and body condition were consistent with the hypothesis of larval development in distinct oceanic environments (characterized by Pb concentration); but, within a water mass, differences reflected life-history trade-offs between growth and energy storage. The results have implications for understanding the processes driving juvenile survival, which may be condition dependent. PMID:18836749

  11. Modeling larval malaria vector habitat locations using landscape features and cumulative precipitation measures

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Predictive models of malaria vector larval habitat locations may provide a basis for understanding the spatial determinants of malaria transmission. Methods We used four landscape variables (topographic wetness index [TWI], soil type, land use-land cover, and distance to stream) and accumulated precipitation to model larval habitat locations in a region of western Kenya through two methods: logistic regression and random forest. Additionally, we used two separate data sets to account for variation in habitat locations across space and over time. Results Larval habitats were more likely to be present in locations with a lower slope to contributing area ratio (i.e. TWI), closer to streams, with agricultural land use relative to nonagricultural land use, and in friable clay/sandy clay loam soil and firm, silty clay/clay soil relative to friable clay soil. The probability of larval habitat presence increased with increasing accumulated precipitation. The random forest models were more accurate than the logistic regression models, especially when accumulated precipitation was included to account for seasonal differences in precipitation. The most accurate models for the two data sets had area under the curve (AUC) values of 0.864 and 0.871, respectively. TWI, distance to the nearest stream, and precipitation had the greatest mean decrease in Gini impurity criteria in these models. Conclusions This study demonstrates the usefulness of random forest models for larval malaria vector habitat modeling. TWI and distance to the nearest stream were the two most important landscape variables in these models. Including accumulated precipitation in our models improved the accuracy of larval habitat location predictions by accounting for seasonal variation in the precipitation. Finally, the sampling strategy employed here for model parameterization could serve as a framework for creating predictive larval habitat models to assist in larval control efforts. PMID:24903736

  12. Larval and metamorphic development of the foregut and proboscis in the caenogastropod Marsenina (Lamellaria) stearnsii.

    PubMed

    Page, L R

    2002-05-01

    The specialized, postmetamorphic feeding structures of predatory caenogastropods evolved by changes to an ancestral caenogastropod developmental program that generated a planktotrophic larval stage followed by a herbivorous postmetamorphic stage. As part of a program of comparative studies aimed at reconstructing these developmental changes, I studied the development of the postmetamorphic feeding system of Marsenina stearnsii using histological sections for light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The feeding system of this species has two very different designs during ontogeny. The larval system uses ciliary effectors to capture and ingest microalgae, whereas the juvenile/adult system includes a proboscis, jaws, and radular apparatus for predation on ascidian zooids. The postmetamorphic foregut begins to develop during the early larval phase, but the anlagen does not interfere with larval feeding because it develops as an increasingly elaborate outpocketing from the ventral wall of the larval esophagus. At metamorphosis, an opening is created in the anterior tip of the prospective, postmetamorphic buccal cavity and the margins of this opening anneal with the metamorphically remodeled lips of the larval mouth. This process exposes the jaws, which differentiate within the buccal cavity prior to metamorphosis. As a working hypothesis, I suggest that rupture of the buccal cavity to the outside at metamorphosis was selected as a mechanism to allow precocious development of jaws in species where jaws enhanced feeding performance by young juveniles. The larval esophagus of M. stearnsii appears to be completely destroyed at metamorphosis. Larval esophageal cells have distinctive apical characteristics (cilia, blebbed microvilli, stacks of lamellae within the glycocalyx) and no cells having this signature persist through metamorphosis. Development of the proboscis and proboscis sac, which begins prior to metamorphosis, conforms to previous

  13. Domestic Larval Control Practices and Malaria Prevalence among Under-Five Children in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Diabaté, Souleymane; Druetz, Thomas; Millogo, Tiéba; Ly, Antarou; Fregonese, Federica; Kouanda, Seni; Haddad, Slim

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Larval source management has contributed to malaria decline over the past years. However, little is known about the impact of larval control practices undertaken at the household level on malaria transmission. Methods The study was conducted in Kaya health district after the 2010 mass distribution of insecticide treated-nets and the initiation of malaria awareness campaigns in Burkina Faso. The aim was to (i) estimate the level of domestic larval control practices (cleaning of the house and its surroundings, eradication of larval sources, and elimination of hollow objects that might collect water); (ii) identify key determinants; and (iii) explore the structural relationships between these practices, participation in awareness-raising activities and mothers’ knowledge/attitudes/practices, and malaria prevalence among under-five children. Results Overall, 2004 households were surveyed and 1,705 under-five children were examined. Half of the mothers undertook at least one action to control larval proliferation. Mothers who had gone to school had better knowledge about malaria and were more likely to undertake domestic larval control practices. Living in highly exposed rural areas significantly decreased the odds of undertaking larval control actions. Mothers’ participation in malaria information sessions increased the adoption of vector control actions and bednet use. Malaria prevalence was statistically lower among children in households where mothers had undertaken at least one vector control action or used bed-nets. There was a 0.16 standard deviation decrease in malaria prevalence for every standard deviation increase in vector control practices. The effect of bednet use on malaria prevalence was of the same magnitude. Conclusion Cleaning the house and its surroundings, eradicating breeding sites, and eliminating hollow objects that might collect water play a substantial role in preventing malaria among under-five. There is a need for national

  14. Inter-individual stereotypy of the Platynereis larval visual connectome

    PubMed Central

    Randel, Nadine; Shahidi, Réza; Verasztó, Csaba; Bezares-Calderón, Luis A; Schmidt, Steffen; Jékely, Gáspár

    2015-01-01

    Developmental programs have the fidelity to form neural circuits with the same structure and function among individuals of the same species. It is less well understood, however, to what extent entire neural circuits of different individuals are similar. Previously, we reported the neuronal connectome of the visual eye circuit from the head of a Platynereis dumerilii larva (Randel et al., 2014). We now report a full-body serial section transmission electron microscopy (ssTEM) dataset of another larva of the same age, for which we describe the connectome of the visual eyes and the larval eyespots. Anatomical comparisons and quantitative analyses of the two circuits reveal a high inter-individual stereotypy of the cell complement, neuronal projections, and synaptic connectivity, including the left-right asymmetry in the connectivity of some neurons. Our work shows the extent to which the eye circuitry in Platynereis larvae is hard-wired. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08069.001 PMID:26061864

  15. Two Hemocyte Lineages Exist in Silkworm Larval Hematopoietic Organ

    PubMed Central

    Nakahara, Yuichi; Kanamori, Yasushi; Kiuchi, Makoto; Kamimura, Manabu

    2010-01-01

    Background Insects have multiple hemocyte morphotypes with different functions as do vertebrates, however, their hematopoietic lineages are largely unexplored with the exception of Drosophila melanogaster. Methodology/Principal Findings To study the hematopoietic lineage of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, we investigated in vivo and in vitro differentiation of hemocyte precursors in the hematopoietic organ (HPO) into the four mature hemocyte subsets, namely, plasmatocytes, granulocytes, oenocytoids, and spherulocytes. Five days after implantation of enzymatically-dispersed HPO cells from a GFP-expressing transgenic line into the hemocoel of normal larvae, differentiation into plasmatocytes, granulocytes and oenocytoids, but not spherulocytes, was observed. When the HPO cells were cultured in vitro, plasmatocytes appeared rapidly, and oenocytoids possessing prophenol oxidase activity appeared several days later. HPO cells were also able to differentiate into a small number of granulocytes, but not into spherulocytes. When functionally mature plasmatocytes were cultured in vitro, oenocytoids were observed 10 days later. These results suggest that the hemocyte precursors in HPO first differentiate into plasmatocytes, which further change into oenocytoids. Conclusions/Significance From these results, we propose that B. mori hemocytes can be divided into two major lineages, a granulocyte lineage and a plasmatocyte-oenocytoid lineage. The origins of the spherulocytes could not be determined in this study. We construct a model for the hematopoietic lineages at the larval stage of B. mori. PMID:20676370

  16. Whole-central nervous system functional imaging in larval Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Lemon, William C.; Pulver, Stefan R.; Höckendorf, Burkhard; McDole, Katie; Branson, Kristin; Freeman, Jeremy; Keller, Philipp J.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how the brain works in tight concert with the rest of the central nervous system (CNS) hinges upon knowledge of coordinated activity patterns across the whole CNS. We present a method for measuring activity in an entire, non-transparent CNS with high spatiotemporal resolution. We combine a light-sheet microscope capable of simultaneous multi-view imaging at volumetric speeds 25-fold faster than the state-of-the-art, a whole-CNS imaging assay for the isolated Drosophila larval CNS and a computational framework for analysing multi-view, whole-CNS calcium imaging data. We image both brain and ventral nerve cord, covering the entire CNS at 2 or 5 Hz with two- or one-photon excitation, respectively. By mapping network activity during fictive behaviours and quantitatively comparing high-resolution whole-CNS activity maps across individuals, we predict functional connections between CNS regions and reveal neurons in the brain that identify type and temporal state of motor programs executed in the ventral nerve cord. PMID:26263051

  17. Cannibalistic feeding of larval Trichogramma carverae parasitoids in moth eggs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heslin, Leeane M.; Merritt, David J.

    2005-09-01

    Wasps of the genus Trichogramma parasitise the eggs of Lepidoptera. They may deposit one or many eggs in each host. Survival is high at low density but reaches a plateau as density increases. To reveal the mechanism by which excess larvae die we chose a lepidopteran host that has flattened, transparent eggs and used video microscopy to record novel feeding behaviours and interactions of larval Trichogramma carverae (Oatman and Pinto) at different densities. Single larvae show a rapid food ingestion phase, followed by a period of extensive saliva release. Ultimately the host egg is completely consumed. The larva then extracts excess moisture from the egg, providing a dry environment for pupation. When multiple larvae are present, the initial scramble for food results in the larvae consuming all of the egg contents early in development. All larvae survive if there is sufficient food for all to reach a threshold developmental stage. If not, physical proximity results in attack and consumption of others, continuing until the surviving larvae reach the threshold stage beyond which attacks seem to be no longer effective. The number of larvae remaining at the end of rapid ingestion dictates how many will survive to emerge as adults.

  18. The larval parasitoid Microplitis croceipes oviposits in conspecific adults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takasu, Keiji; Hoang Le, K.

    2007-03-01

    Microplitis croceipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a larval parasitoid of Helicoverpa/Heliothis spp. In the course of mass rearing of M. croceipes, we found that females oviposited in the conspecific adults in rearing cages. When 20 pairs of inexperienced females and males or of experienced females and males were reared in a cage, the males lived for 14-15 days and the females for 18-20 days on average. At their death, 37-42% of the males and 50-57% of the females contained conspecific eggs or first instar larvae in their abdominal cavity. When two of inexperienced females met on a host-infested leaf of soybean, they attempted to sting each other. Of the attacked females, 30% contained a conspecific egg laid in their abdomen. In abdominal cavity of the adults parasitized by a conspecific female, the majority of the parasitoid eggs laid disappeared within 1 day after oviposition. Only 10-30% of the parasitoid eggs laid in conspecific adults hatched 3-4 days after oviposition, but those larvae never molted to second instar. When the adults were stung by one or two conspecific females, their subsequent longevity was significantly shorter than that for the control adults. Oviposition in conspecific adults may be prevalent in other parasitic wasps that quickly oviposit without intensive host examination, and have cuticle and size of abdomen to be stung by conspeicifcs.

  19. Effects of hatching time for larval ambystomatid salamanders

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boone, M.D.; Scott, D.E.; Niewiarowski, P.H.

    2002-01-01

    In aquatic communities, the phenology of breeding may influence species interactions. In the early-breeding marbled salamander, Ambystoma opacum, timing of pond filling may determine whether interactions among larvae are competitive or predatory. The objectives of our studies were to determine how time of egg hatching affected size, larval period, and survival to metamorphosis in A. opacum, and if early-hatching in A. opacum influenced the competitive and predator-prey relationships with smaller larvae of the mole salamander, Ambystoma talpoideum. Salamander larvae were reared from hatching through metamorphosis in large, outdoor enclosures located in a natural temporary pond in Aiken County, South Carolina, in two experiments. In study 1, we reared early- and late-hatching A. opacum larvae separately from hatching through metamorphosis. In study 2, we examined how early- versus late-hatching A. opacum affected a syntopic species, A. talpoideum. In general, early-hatching A. opacum were larger and older at metamorphosis, had greater survival, and left the pond earlier than late-hatching larvae. Ambystoma talpoideum reared in the presence of early-hatching A. opacum had lower survival than in controls, suggesting that A. opacum may predate upon A. talpoideum when they gain a growth advantage over later-hatching larvae. Our studies demonstrate that time of pond filling and phenology of breeding may influence population dynamics and alter the nature of relationships that develop among species.

  20. Elevated major ion concentrations inhibit larval mayfly growth and development.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Brent R; Weaver, Paul C; Nietch, Christopher T; Lazorchak, James M; Struewing, Katherine A; Funk, David H

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic disturbances, including those from developing energy resources, can alter stream chemistry significantly by elevating total dissolved solids. Field studies have indicated that mayflies (Order Ephemeroptera) are particularly sensitive to high total dissolved solids. In the present study, the authors measured 20-d growth and survivorship of larval Neocloeon triangulifer exposed to a gradient of brine salt (mixed NaCl and CaCl2 ) concentrations. Daily growth rates were reduced significantly in all salt concentrations above the control (363 µS cm(-1) ) and larvae in treatments with specific conductance >812 µS cm(-1) were in comparatively earlier developmental stages (instars) at the end of the experiment. Survivorship declined significantly when specific conductance was >1513 µS cm(-1) and the calculated 20-d 50% lethal concentration was 2866 µS cm(-1) . The present study's results provide strong experimental evidence that elevated ion concentrations similar to those observed in developing energy resources, such as oil and gas drilling or coal mining, can adversely affect sensitive aquatic insect species. PMID:25307284

  1. Costs and benefits of larval jumping behaviour of Bathyplectes anurus.

    PubMed

    Saeki, Yoriko; Tani, Soichiro; Fukuda, Katsuto; Iwase, Shun-ichiro; Sugawara, Yuma; Tuda, Midori; Takagi, Masami

    2016-02-01

    Bathyplectes anurus, a parasitoid of the alfalfa weevils, forms a cocoon in the late larval stage and exhibits jumping behaviour. Adaptive significance and costs of the cocoon jumping have not been thoroughly studied. We hypothesised that jumping has the fitness benefits of enabling habitat selection by avoiding unfavourable environments. We conducted laboratory experiments, which demonstrated that jumping frequencies increased in the presence of light, with greater magnitudes of temperature increase and at lower relative humidity. In addition, when B. anurus individuals were allowed to freely jump in an arena with a light gradient, more cocoons were found in the shady area, suggesting microhabitat selection. In a field experiment, mortality of cocoons placed in the sun was significantly higher than for cocoons placed in the shade. B. anurus cocoons respond to environmental stress by jumping, resulting in habitat selection. In the presence of potential predators (ants), jumping frequencies were higher than in the control (no ant) arenas, though jumping frequencies decreased after direct contact with the predators. Body mass of B. anurus cocoons induced to jump significantly decreased over time than cocoons that did not jump, suggesting a cost to jumping. We discuss the benefits and costs of jumping behaviour and potential evolutionary advantages of this peculiar trait, which is present in a limited number of species. PMID:26687130

  2. Effects of diphenylhydantoin on locomotion and thigmotaxis of larval zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiuyun; Lin, Jia; Zhang, Yinglan; Peng, Xiaolan; Guo, Ning; Li, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Antiepileptic effects of diphenylhydantoin (DPH) have been documented in animal studies and clinical research, while little is known about the effects of the drug on basic behaviors and anxiety-related behaviors. In order to understand neuroactivities of DPH deeply and administrate DPH in clinic rationally, it is necessary to study neurobehavioral effects of the drug. In the present study, the effects of DPH on the locomotor activity and thigmotaxis of zebrafish larvae at 5 days post fertilization (dpf) were explored under different illumination conditions. The influence of DPH on zebrafish larval responses to visual stimuli (sudden illumination transition from light to dark) was also investigated. Under light or dark condition, exposure to high concentrations of DPH resulted in decreased locomotor activity and thigmotaxis, whereas DPH treatment at low doses enhanced the locomotor activity. Additionally, sudden illumination transition induced robust increase in the locomotor activity and this phenomenon was not modified by DPH treatment. Our results suggest that DPH has potential stimulatory and inhibitory effects on the locomotor activity and possesses anxiolytic properties. In addition, responses of 5-dpf zebrafish larvae to visual stimuli were not modified by DPH treatment. PMID:26597863

  3. Microarray Noninvasive Neuronal Seizure Recordings from Intact Larval Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Michaela; Dhamne, Sameer C.; LaCoursiere, Christopher M.; Tambunan, Dimira; Poduri, Annapurna; Rotenberg, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Zebrafish epilepsy models are emerging tools in experimental epilepsy. Zebrafish larvae, in particular, are advantageous because they can be easily genetically altered and used for developmental and drug studies since agents applied to the bath penetrate the organism easily. Methods for electrophysiological recordings in zebrafish are new and evolving. We present a novel multi-electrode array method to non-invasively record electrical activity from up to 61 locations of an intact larval zebrafish head. This method enables transcranial noninvasive recording of extracellular field potentials (which include multi-unit activity and EEG) to identify epileptic seizures. To record from the brains of zebrafish larvae, the dorsum of the head of an intact larva was secured onto a multi-electrode array. We recorded from individual electrodes for at least three hours and quantified neuronal firing frequency, spike patterns (continuous or bursting), and synchrony of neuronal firing. Following 15 mM potassium chloride- or pentylenetetrazole-infusion into the bath, spike and burst rate increased significantly. Additionally, synchrony of neuronal firing across channels, a hallmark of epileptic seizures, also increased. Notably, the fish survived the experiment. This non-invasive method complements present invasive zebrafish neurophysiological techniques: it affords the advantages of high spatial and temporal resolution, a capacity to measure multiregional activity and neuronal synchrony in seizures, and fish survival for future experiments, such as studies of epileptogenesis and development. PMID:27281339

  4. Costs and benefits of larval jumping behaviour of Bathyplectes anurus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeki, Yoriko; Tani, Soichiro; Fukuda, Katsuto; Iwase, Shun-ichiro; Sugawara, Yuma; Tuda, Midori; Takagi, Masami

    2016-02-01

    Bathyplectes anurus, a parasitoid of the alfalfa weevils, forms a cocoon in the late larval stage and exhibits jumping behaviour. Adaptive significance and costs of the cocoon jumping have not been thoroughly studied. We hypothesised that jumping has the fitness benefits of enabling habitat selection by avoiding unfavourable environments. We conducted laboratory experiments, which demonstrated that jumping frequencies increased in the presence of light, with greater magnitudes of temperature increase and at lower relative humidity. In addition, when B. anurus individuals were allowed to freely jump in an arena with a light gradient, more cocoons were found in the shady area, suggesting microhabitat selection. In a field experiment, mortality of cocoons placed in the sun was significantly higher than for cocoons placed in the shade. B. anurus cocoons respond to environmental stress by jumping, resulting in habitat selection. In the presence of potential predators (ants), jumping frequencies were higher than in the control (no ant) arenas, though jumping frequencies decreased after direct contact with the predators. Body mass of B. anurus cocoons induced to jump significantly decreased over time than cocoons that did not jump, suggesting a cost to jumping. We discuss the benefits and costs of jumping behaviour and potential evolutionary advantages of this peculiar trait, which is present in a limited number of species.

  5. Effects of Disinfectants on Larval Development of Ascaris suum Eggs.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ki-Seok; Kim, Geon-Tae; Ahn, Kyu-Sung; Shin, Sung-Shik

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of several different commercial disinfectants on the embryogenic development of Ascaris suum eggs. A 1-ml aliquot of each disinfectant was mixed with approximately 40,000 decorticated or intact A. suum eggs in sterile tubes. After each treatment time (at 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 30, and 60 min), disinfectants were washed away, and egg suspensions were incubated at 25˚C in distilled water for development of larvae inside. At 3 weeks of incubation after exposure, ethanol, methanol, and chlorohexidin treatments did not affect the larval development of A. suum eggs, regardless of their concentration and treatment time. Among disinfectants tested in this study, 3% cresol, 0.2% sodium hypochlorite and 0.02% sodium hypochlorite delayed but not inactivated the embryonation of decorticated eggs at 3 weeks of incubation, because at 6 weeks of incubation, undeveloped eggs completed embryonation regardless of exposure time, except for 10% povidone iodine. When the albumin layer of A. suum eggs remained intact, however, even the 10% povidone iodine solution took at least 5 min to reasonably inactivate most eggs, but never completely kill them with even 60 min of exposure. This study demonstrated that the treatment of A. suum eggs with many commercially available disinfectants does not affect the embryonation. Although some disinfectants may delay or stop the embryonation of A. suum eggs, they can hardly kill them completely. PMID:26951988

  6. Effects of Disinfectants on Larval Development of Ascaris suum Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Ki-Seok; Kim, Geon-Tae; Ahn, Kyu-Sung; Shin, Sung-Shik

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of several different commercial disinfectants on the embryogenic development of Ascaris suum eggs. A 1-ml aliquot of each disinfectant was mixed with approximately 40,000 decorticated or intact A. suum eggs in sterile tubes. After each treatment time (at 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 30, and 60 min), disinfectants were washed away, and egg suspensions were incubated at 25˚C in distilled water for development of larvae inside. At 3 weeks of incubation after exposure, ethanol, methanol, and chlorohexidin treatments did not affect the larval development of A. suum eggs, regardless of their concentration and treatment time. Among disinfectants tested in this study, 3% cresol, 0.2% sodium hypochlorite and 0.02% sodium hypochlorite delayed but not inactivated the embryonation of decorticated eggs at 3 weeks of incubation, because at 6 weeks of incubation, undeveloped eggs completed embryonation regardless of exposure time, except for 10% povidone iodine. When the albumin layer of A. suum eggs remained intact, however, even the 10% povidone iodine solution took at least 5 min to reasonably inactivate most eggs, but never completely kill them with even 60 min of exposure. This study demonstrated that the treatment of A. suum eggs with many commercially available disinfectants does not affect the embryonation. Although some disinfectants may delay or stop the embryonation of A. suum eggs, they can hardly kill them completely. PMID:26951988

  7. Cannibalistic feeding of larval Trichogramma carverae parasitoids in moth eggs.

    PubMed

    Heslin, Leeane M; Merritt, David J

    2005-09-01

    Wasps of the genus Trichogramma parasitise the eggs of Lepidoptera. They may deposit one or many eggs in each host. Survival is high at low density but reaches a plateau as density increases. To reveal the mechanism by which excess larvae die we chose a lepidopteran host that has flattened, transparent eggs and used video microscopy to record novel feeding behaviours and interactions of larval Trichogramma carverae (Oatman and Pinto) at different densities. Single larvae show a rapid food ingestion phase, followed by a period of extensive saliva release. Ultimately the host egg is completely consumed. The larva then extracts excess moisture from the egg, providing a dry environment for pupation. When multiple larvae are present, the initial scramble for food results in the larvae consuming all of the egg contents early in development. All larvae survive if there is sufficient food for all to reach a threshold developmental stage. If not, physical proximity results in attack and consumption of others, continuing until the surviving larvae reach the threshold stage beyond which attacks seem to be no longer effective. The number of larvae remaining at the end of rapid ingestion dictates how many will survive to emerge as adults. PMID:16133105

  8. Optogenetic elevation of endogenous glucocorticoid level in larval zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    De Marco, Rodrigo J.; Groneberg, Antonia H.; Yeh, Chen-Min; Castillo Ramírez, Luis A.; Ryu, Soojin

    2013-01-01

    The stress response is a suite of physiological and behavioral processes that help to maintain or reestablish homeostasis. Central to the stress response is the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, as it releases crucial hormones in response to stress. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are the final effector hormones of the HPA axis, and exert a variety of actions under both basal and stress conditions. Despite their far-reaching importance for health, specific GC effects have been difficult to pin-down due to a lack of methods for selectively manipulating endogenous GC levels. Hence, in order to study stress-induced GC effects, we developed a novel optogenetic approach to selectively manipulate the rise of GCs triggered by stress. Using this approach, we could induce both transient hypercortisolic states and persistent forms of hypercortisolaemia in freely behaving larval zebrafish. Our results also established that transient hypercortisolism leads to enhanced locomotion shortly after stressor exposure. Altogether, we present a highly specific method for manipulating the gain of the stress axis with high temporal accuracy, altering endocrine and behavioral responses to stress as well as basal GC levels. Our study offers a powerful tool for the analysis of rapid (non-genomic) and delayed (genomic) GC effects on brain function and behavior, feedbacks within the stress axis and developmental programming by GCs. PMID:23653595

  9. Bioenergetic and kinematic consequences of limblessness in larval Diptera.

    PubMed

    Berrigan, D; Lighton, J R

    1993-06-01

    We report the cost of transport and kinematics of terrestrial locomotion by larval blowflies (Protophormia terraenovae, Diptera: Calliphoridae). We contrast inter- and intra-individual methods for estimating minimum cost of transport (MCOT) and the relationship between speed, contraction frequency and distance traveled per contraction. The minimum cost of transport calculated from intra-individual data is 2297 +/- 317 J kg-1 m-1 (S.E.M.) and the MCOT calculated from inter-individual comparisons is statistically indistinguishable at 1910 +/- 327 J kg-1 m-1. These values are almost ten times higher than the predicted value for a similar-sized limbed arthropod. Fly larvae travel by repeated peristaltic contractions and individual contractions cost about the same amount as individual strides in limbed insects. Both contraction frequency and distance traveled per contraction increase linearly with speed. Doubling the contraction frequency or the distance traveled per contraction approximately doubles speed. The cost of transport in fly larvae is among the highest recorded for terrestrial locomotion, confirming the suggestion that biomechanical and kinematic properties of limbless organisms with hydraulic skeletons lead to very high costs of transport. PMID:8340729

  10. Positive Effects of Nonnative Invasive Phragmites australis on Larval Bullfrogs

    PubMed Central

    Rogalski, Mary Alta; Skelly, David Kiernan

    2012-01-01

    Background Nonnative Phragmites australis (common reed) is one of the most intensively researched and managed invasive plant species in the United States, yet as with many invasive species, our ability to predict, control or understand the consequences of invasions is limited. Rapid spread of dense Phragmites monocultures has prompted efforts to limit its expansion and remove existing stands. Motivation for large-scale Phragmites eradication programs includes purported negative impacts on native wildlife, a view based primarily on observational results. We took an experimental approach to test this assumption, estimating the effects of nonnative Phragmites australis on a native amphibian. Methodology/Principal Findings Concurrent common garden and reciprocal transplant field experiments revealed consistently strong positive influences of Phragmites on Rana catesbeiana (North American bullfrog) larval performance. Decomposing Phragmites litter appears to contribute to the effect. Conclusions/Significance Positive effects of Phragmites merit further research, particularly in regions where both Phragmites and R. catesbeiana are invasive. More broadly, the findings of this study reinforce the importance of experimental evaluations of the effects of biological invasion to make informed conservation and restoration decisions. PMID:22952976

  11. Using larval fish community structure to guide long-term monitoring of fish spawning activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pritt, Jeremy J.; Roseman, Edward F.; Ross, Jason E.; DeBruyne, Robin L.

    2015-01-01

    Larval fishes provide a direct indication of spawning activity and may therefore be useful for long-term monitoring efforts in relation to spawning habitat restoration. However, larval fish sampling can be time intensive and costly. We sought to understand the spatial and temporal structure of larval fish communities in the St. Clair–Detroit River system, Michigan–Ontario, to determine whether targeted larval fish sampling can be made more efficient for long-term monitoring. We found that larval fish communities were highly nested, with lower river segments and late-spring samples containing the highest genus richness of larval fish. We created four sampling scenarios for each river system: (1) using all available data, (2) limiting temporal sampling to late spring, (3) limiting spatial sampling to lower river segments only, and (4) limiting both spatial and temporal sampling. By limiting the spatial extent of sampling to lower river sites and/or limiting the temporal extent to the late-spring period, we found that effort could be reduced by more than 50% while maintaining over 75% of the observed and estimated total genus richness. Similarly, limiting the sampling effort to lower river sites and/or the late-spring period maintained between 65% and 93% of the observed richness of lithophilic-spawning genera and invasive genera. In general, community composition remained consistent among sampling scenarios. Targeted sampling offers a lower-cost alternative to exhaustive spatial and temporal sampling and may be more readily incorporated into long-term monitoring.

  12. The role of internal waves in larval fish interactions with potential predators and prey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, Adam T.; Cowen, Robert K.; Guigand, Cedric M.; Hare, Jonathan A.; Tang, Dorothy

    2014-09-01

    Tidally driven internal wave packets in coastal environments have the potential to influence patchiness of larval fishes, prey, and gelatinous predators. We used the In Situ Ichthyoplankton Imaging System (ISIIS) to synoptically sample larval fishes, copepods, and planktonic predators (ctenophores, hydromedusae, chaetognaths, and polychaetes) across these predictable features in the summer near Stellwagen Bank, Massachusetts, USA. Full water column profiles and fixed depth transects (∼10 m depth) were used to quantify vertical and horizontal components of the fish and invertebrate distributions during stable and vertically mixed conditions associated with tidally generated internal waves. Larval fishes, consisting mostly of Urophycis spp., Merluccius bilinearis, and Labridae, were concentrated near the surface, with larger sizes generally occupying greater depths. During stable water column conditions, copepods formed a near surface thin layer several meters above the chlorophyll-a maximum that was absent when internal waves were propagating. In contrast, ctenophores and other predators were much more abundant at depth, but concentrations near 10 m increased immediately after the internal hydraulic jump mixed the water column. During the propagation of internal waves, the fine-scale abundance of larval fishes was more correlated with the abundance of gelatinous predators and less correlated with copepods compared to the stable conditions. Vertical oscillations caused by the internal hydraulic jump can disperse patches of zooplankton and force surface dwelling larval fishes into deeper water where probability of predator contact is increased, creating conditions potentially less favorable for larval fish growth and survival on short time scales.

  13. Assessing the toxicity of sediments using the medaka embryo-larval assay and 2 other bioassays.

    PubMed

    Barhoumi, Badreddine; Clérandeau, Christelle; Landi, Laure; Pichon, Anaïk; Le Bihanic, Florane; Poirier, Dominique; Anschutz, Pierre; Budzinski, Hélène; Driss, Mohamed Ridha; Cachot, Jérôme

    2016-09-01

    Sediments are sinks for aquatic pollutants, and analyzing toxicity in such complex matrices is still challenging. To evaluate the toxicity of bioavailable pollutants accumulated in sediments from the Bizerte lagoon (Tunisia), a novel assay, the medaka embryo-larval assay by sediment contact, was applied. Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos were incubated in direct contact with sediment samples up to hatching. Lethal and sublethal adverse effects were recorded in embryos and larvae up to 20 d postfertilization. Results from medaka embryo-larval assay were compared with cytotoxicity (Microtox®), genotoxicity (SOS chromotest), and pollutant content of sediments. The results highlight differences in the contamination profile and toxicity pattern between the different studied sediments. A significant correlation was shown between medaka embryo-larval assay by sediment contact and SOS chromotest responses and concentrations of most organic pollutants studied. No correlation was shown between pollutant levels and Microtox. According to the number of sediment samples detected as toxic, medaka embryo-larval assay by sediment contact was more sensitive than Microtox, which in turn was more sensitive than the SOS chromotest; and medaka embryo-larval assay by sediment contact allowed sediment toxicity assessment of moderately polluted sediments without pollutant extraction and using an ecologically realistic exposure scenario. Although medaka embryo-larval assay by sediment contact should be tested on a larger sample set, the results show that it is sensitive and convenient enough to monitor the toxicity of natural sediments. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2270-2280. © 2016 SETAC. PMID:26823140

  14. Enhancement of Larval RNAi Efficiency by Over-expressing Argonaute2 in Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhiqian; Zeng, Baosheng; Ling, Lin; Xu, Jun; You, Lang; Aslam, Abu F.M.; Tan, Anjiang; Huang, Yongping

    2015-01-01

    RNA interference has been described as a powerful genetic tool for gene functional analysis and a promising approach for pest management. However, RNAi efficiency varies significantly among insect species due to distinct RNAi machineries. Lepidopteran insects include a large number of pests as well as model insects, such as the silkworm, Bombyx mori. However, only limited success of in vivo RNAi has been reported in lepidoptera, particularly during the larval stages when the worms feed the most and do the most harm to the host plant. Enhancing the efficiency of larval RNAi in lepidoptera is urgently needed to develop RNAi-based pest management strategies. In the present study, we investigate the function of the conserved RNAi core factor, Argonaute2 (Ago2), in mediating B. mori RNAi efficiency. We demonstrate that introducing BmAgo2 dsRNA inhibits the RNAi response in both BmN cells and embryos. Furthermore, we establish several transgenic silkworm lines to assess the roles of BmAgo2 in larval RNAi. Over-expressing BmAgo2 significantly facilitated both dsRNA-mediated larval RNAi when targeting DsRed using dsRNA injection and shRNA-mediated larval RNAi when targeting BmBlos2 using transgenic shRNA expression. Our results show that BmAgo2 is involved in RNAi in B. mori and provides a promising approach for improving larval RNAi efficiency in B. mori and in lepidopteran insects in general. PMID:25561900

  15. Drosophila Food-Associated Pheromones: Effect of Experience, Genotype and Antibiotics on Larval Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Thibert, Julien; Farine, Jean-Pierre; Cortot, Jérôme; Ferveur, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    Animals ubiquitously use chemical signals to communicate many aspects of their social life. These chemical signals often consist of environmental cues mixed with species-specific signals—pheromones—emitted by conspecifics. During their life, insects can use pheromones to aggregate, disperse, choose a mate, or find the most suitable food source on which to lay eggs. Before pupariation, larvae of several Drosophila species migrate to food sources depending on their composition and the presence of pheromones. Some pheromones derive from microbiota gut activity and these food-associated cues can enhance larval attraction or repulsion. To explore the mechanisms underlying the preference (attraction/repulsion) to these cues and clarify their effect, we manipulated factors potentially involved in larval response. In particular, we found that the (i) early exposure to conspecifics, (ii) genotype, and (iii) antibiotic treatment changed D. melanogaster larval behavior. Generally, larvae—tested either individually or in groups—strongly avoided food processed by other larvae. Compared to previous reports on larval attractive pheromones, our data suggest that such attractive effects are largely masked by food-associated compounds eliciting larval aversion. The antagonistic effect of attractive vs. aversive compounds could modulate larval choice of a pupariation site and impact the dispersion of individuals in nature. PMID:26987117

  16. Larval development of the subantarctic king crabs Lithodes santolla and Paralomis granulosa reared in the laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calcagno, J. A.; Anger, K.; Lovrich, G. A.; Thatje, S.; Kaffenberger, A.

    2004-02-01

    The larval development and survival in the two subantarctic lithodid crabs Lithodes santolla (Jaquinot) and Paralomis granulosa (Molina) from the Argentine Beagle Channel were studied in laboratory cultures. In L. santolla, larval development lasted about 70 days, passing through three zoeal stages and the megalopa stage, with a duration of approximately 4, 7, 11 and 48 days, respectively. The larval development in P. granulosa is more abbreviated, comprising only two zoeal stages and the megalopa stage, with 6, 11 and 43 days' duration, respectively. In both species, we tested for effects of presence versus absence of food (Artemia nauplii) on larval development duration and survival rate. In P. granulosa, we also studied effects of different rearing conditions, such as individual versus mass cultures, as well as aerated versus unaerated cultures. No differences in larval development duration and survival were observed between animals subjected to those different rearing conditions. The lack of response to the presence or absence of potential food confirms, in both species, a complete lecithotrophic mode of larval development. Since lithodid crabs are of high economic importance in the artisanal fishery in the southernmost parts of South America, the knowledge of optimal rearing conditions for lithodid larvae is essential for future attempts at repopulating the collapsing natural stocks off Tierra del Fuego.

  17. Larval traits carry over to affect post-settlement behaviour in a common coral reef fish.

    PubMed

    Dingeldein, Andrea L; White, J Wilson

    2016-07-01

    Most reef fishes begin life as planktonic larvae before settling to the reef, metamorphosing and entering the benthic adult population. Different selective forces determine survival in the planktonic and benthic life stages, but traits established in the larval stage may carry over to affect post-settlement performance. We tested the hypothesis that larval traits affect two key post-settlement fish behaviours: social group-joining and foraging. Certain larval traits of reef fishes are permanently recorded in the rings in their otoliths. In the bluehead wrasse (Thalassoma bifasciatum), prior work has shown that key larval traits recorded in otoliths (growth rate, energetic condition at settlement) carry over to affect post-settlement survival on the reef, with higher-larval-condition fish experiencing less post-settlement mortality. We hypothesized that this selective mortality is mediated by carry-over effects on post-settlement antipredator behaviours. We predicted that better-condition fish would forage less and be more likely to join groups, both behaviours that would reduce predation risk. We collected 550 recently settled bluehead wrasse (Thalassoma bifasciatum) from three reef sites off St. Croix (USVI) and performed two analyses. First, we compared each settler's larval traits to the size of its social group to determine whether larval traits influenced group-joining behaviour. Secondly, we observed foraging behaviour in a subset of grouped and solitary fish (n = 14) for 1-4 days post-settlement. We then collected the fish and tested whether larval traits influenced the proportion of time spent foraging. Body length at settlement, but not condition, affected group-joining behaviour; smaller fish were more likely to remain solitary or in smaller groups. However, both greater length and better condition were associated with greater proportions of time spent foraging over four consecutive days post-settlement. Larval traits carry over to affect post

  18. Is the Schwabe Organ a Retained Larval Eye? Anatomical and Behavioural Studies of a Novel Sense Organ in Adult Leptochiton asellus (Mollusca, Polyplacophora) Indicate Links to Larval Photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Sumner-Rooney, Lauren H; Sigwart, Julia D

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of a sensory organ, the Schwabe organ, was recently reported as a unifying feature of chitons in the order Lepidopleurida. It is a patch of pigmented tissue located on the roof of the pallial cavity, beneath the velum on either side of the mouth. The epithelium is densely innervated and contains two types of potential sensory cells. As the function of the Schwabe organ remains unknown, we have taken a cross-disciplinary approach, using anatomical, histological and behavioural techniques to understand it. In general, the pigmentation that characterises this sensory structure gradually fades after death; however, one particular concentrated pigment dot persists. This dot is positionally homologous to the larval eye in chiton trochophores, found in the same neuroanatomical location, and furthermore the metamorphic migration of the larval eye is ventral in species known to possess Schwabe organs. Here we report the presence of a discrete subsurface epithelial structure in the region of the Schwabe organ in Leptochiton asellus that histologically resembles the chiton larval eye. Behavioural experiments demonstrate that Leptochiton asellus with intact Schwabe organs actively avoid an upwelling light source, while Leptochiton asellus with surgically ablated Schwabe organs and a control species lacking the organ (members of the other extant order, Chitonida) do not (Kruskal-Wallis, H = 24.82, df = 3, p < 0.0001). We propose that the Schwabe organ represents the adult expression of the chiton larval eye, being retained and elaborated in adult lepidopleurans. PMID:26366861

  19. Is the Schwabe Organ a Retained Larval Eye? Anatomical and Behavioural Studies of a Novel Sense Organ in Adult Leptochiton asellus (Mollusca, Polyplacophora) Indicate Links to Larval Photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Sumner-Rooney, Lauren H.; Sigwart, Julia D.

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of a sensory organ, the Schwabe organ, was recently reported as a unifying feature of chitons in the order Lepidopleurida. It is a patch of pigmented tissue located on the roof of the pallial cavity, beneath the velum on either side of the mouth. The epithelium is densely innervated and contains two types of potential sensory cells. As the function of the Schwabe organ remains unknown, we have taken a cross-disciplinary approach, using anatomical, histological and behavioural techniques to understand it. In general, the pigmentation that characterises this sensory structure gradually fades after death; however, one particular concentrated pigment dot persists. This dot is positionally homologous to the larval eye in chiton trochophores, found in the same neuroanatomical location, and furthermore the metamorphic migration of the larval eye is ventral in species known to possess Schwabe organs. Here we report the presence of a discrete subsurface epithelial structure in the region of the Schwabe organ in Leptochiton asellus that histologically resembles the chiton larval eye. Behavioural experiments demonstrate that Leptochiton asellus with intact Schwabe organs actively avoid an upwelling light source, while Leptochiton asellus with surgically ablated Schwabe organs and a control species lacking the organ (members of the other extant order, Chitonida) do not (Kruskal-Wallis, H = 24.82, df = 3, p < 0.0001). We propose that the Schwabe organ represents the adult expression of the chiton larval eye, being retained and elaborated in adult lepidopleurans. PMID:26366861

  20. Larval and nurse worker control of developmental plasticity and the evolution of honey bee queen-worker dimorphism

    PubMed Central

    Linksvayer, Timothy A.; Kaftanoglu, Osman; Akyol, Ethem; Blatch, Sydella; Amdam, Gro V.; Page, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    Social evolution in honey bees has produced strong queen-worker dimorphism for plastic traits that depend on larval nutrition. The honey bee developmental program includes both larval components that determine plastic growth responses to larval nutrition and nurse components that regulate larval nutrition. We studied how these two components contribute to variation in worker and queen body size and ovary size for two pairs of honey bee lineages that show similar differences in worker body-ovary size allometry but have diverged over different evolutionary time scales. Our results indicate: that the lineages have diverged for both nurse and larval developmental components, that rapid changes in worker body-ovary allometry may disrupt queen development, and that queen-worker dimorphism arises mainly from discrete nurse-provided nutritional environments, not from a developmental switch that converts variable nutritional environments into discrete phenotypes. Both larval and nurse components have likely contributed to the evolution of queen-worker dimorphism. PMID:21696476

  1. Larval and nurse worker control of developmental plasticity and the evolution of honey bee queen-worker dimorphism.

    PubMed

    Linksvayer, T A; Kaftanoglu, O; Akyol, E; Blatch, S; Amdam, G V; Page, R E

    2011-09-01

    Social evolution in honey bees has produced strong queen-worker dimorphism for plastic traits that depend on larval nutrition. The honey bee developmental programme includes both larval components that determine plastic growth responses to larval nutrition and nurse components that regulate larval nutrition. We studied how these two components contribute to variation in worker and queen body size and ovary size for two pairs of honey bee lineages that show similar differences in worker body-ovary size allometry but have diverged over different evolutionary timescales. Our results indicate that the lineages have diverged for both nurse and larval developmental components, that rapid changes in worker body-ovary size allometry may disrupt queen development and that queen-worker dimorphism arises mainly from discrete nurse-provided nutritional environments, not from a developmental switch that converts variable nutritional environments into discrete phenotypes. Both larval and nurse components have likely contributed to the evolution of queen-worker dimorphism. PMID:21696476

  2. Turbulent shear spurs settlement in larval sea urchins

    PubMed Central

    Gaylord, Brian; Hodin, Jason; Ferner, Matthew C.

    2013-01-01

    Marine invertebrates commonly produce larvae that disperse in ocean waters before settling into adult shoreline habitat. Chemical and other seafloor-associated cues often facilitate this latter transition. However, the range of effectiveness of such cues is limited to small spatial scales, creating challenges for larvae in finding suitable sites at which to settle, especially given that they may be carried many kilometers by currents during their planktonic phase. One possible solution is for larvae to use additional, broader-scale environmental signposts to first narrow their search to the general vicinity of a candidate settlement location. Here we demonstrate strong effects of just such a habitat-scale cue, one with the potential to signal larvae that they have arrived in appropriate coastal areas. Larvae of the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) exhibit dramatic enhancement in settlement following stimulation by turbulent shear typical of wave-swept shores where adults of this species live. This response manifests in an unprecedented fashion relative to previously identified cues. Turbulent shear does not boost settlement by itself. Instead, it drives a marked developmental acceleration that causes “precompetent” larvae refractory to chemical settlement inducers to immediately become “competent” and thereby reactive to such inducers. These findings reveal an unrecognized ability of larval invertebrates to shift the trajectory of a major life history event in response to fluid-dynamic attributes of a target environment. Such an ability may improve performance and survival in marine organisms by encouraging completion of their life cycle in advantageous locations. PMID:23572585

  3. Genetic analysis of Eclosion hormone action during Drosophila larval ecdysis.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Eileen; Mena, Wilson; Lahr, Eleanor C; Johnson, Erik C; Ewer, John

    2015-12-15

    Insect growth is punctuated by molts, during which the animal produces a new exoskeleton. The molt culminates in ecdysis, an ordered sequence of behaviors that causes the old cuticle to be shed. This sequence is activated by Ecdysis triggering hormone (ETH), which acts on the CNS to activate neurons that produce neuropeptides implicated in ecdysis, including Eclosion hormone (EH), Crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) and Bursicon. Despite more than 40 years of research on ecdysis, our understanding of the precise roles of these neurohormones remains rudimentary. Of particular interest is EH; although it is known to upregulate ETH release, other roles for EH have remained elusive. We isolated an Eh null mutant in Drosophila and used it to investigate the role of EH in larval ecdysis. We found that null mutant animals invariably died at around the time of ecdysis, revealing an essential role in its control. Further analyses showed that these animals failed to express the preparatory behavior of pre-ecdysis while directly expressing the motor program of ecdysis. Although ETH release could not be detected, the lack of pre-ecdysis could not be rescued by injections of ETH, suggesting that EH is required within the CNS for ETH to trigger the normal ecdysial sequence. Using a genetically encoded calcium probe, we showed that EH configured the response of the CNS to ETH. These findings show that EH plays an essential role in the Drosophila CNS in the control of ecdysis, in addition to its known role in the periphery of triggering ETH release. PMID:26395475

  4. Ecology of larval trematodes in three marine gastropods.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Lawrence A

    2002-01-01

    To comprehend natural host-parasite systems, ecological knowledge of both hosts and parasites is critical. Here I present a view of marine systems based on the snail Ilyanassa obsoleta and its trematodes. This system is reviewed and two others, those of the snails Cerithidea californica and Littorina littorea, are then summarized and compared. Trematodes can profoundly affect the physiology, behaviour and spatial distribution of hosts. Studying these systems is challenging because trematodes are often embedded in host populations in unappreciated ways. Trematode prevalence is variable, but can be high in populations of all three hosts. Conditions under which single- and multiple-species infections can accumulate are considered. Adaptive relations between species are likely the most important and potentials for adaptation of parasites to hosts, hosts to parasites, and parasites to other parasites are also considered. Even if colonization rate is low, a snail population can develop high trematode prevalence, if infections persist long and the host is long-lived and abundant. Trematodes must be adapted to use their snail hosts. However, both I. obsoleta and L. littorea possess highly dispersed planktonic larvae and trematode prevalence is variable among snail populations. Host adaptation to specific infections, or even to trematodes in general, is unlikely because routine exposure to trematodes is improbable. Crawl-away juveniles of C. californica make adaptation to trematodes in that system a possibility. Trematode species in all three systems are not likely adapted to each other. Multiple-species infections are rare and definitive hosts scatter parasite eggs among snail populations with variable prevalences. Routine co-occurrence of trematodes in snails is thus unlikely. Adaptations of these larval trematodes to inhabit the snail host must, then, be the basis for what happens when they do co-occur. PMID:12396215

  5. Do larval fishes exhibit diel drift patterns in a large, turbid river?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeves, K.S.; Galat, D.L.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research suggested larval fishes do not exhibit a diel drift cycle in turbid rivers (transparency <30 cm). We evaluated this hypothesis in the turbid, lower Missouri River, Missouri. We also reviewed diel patterns of larval drift over a range of transparencies in rivers worldwide. Larval fishes were collected from the Missouri River primary channel every 4 h per 24-h period during spring-summer 2002. Water transparency was measured during this period and summarized for previous years. Diel drift patterns were analyzed at the assemblage level and lower taxonomic levels for abundant groups. Day and night larval fish catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) was compared for the entire May through August sampling period and spring (May - June) and summer (July - August) seasons separately. There were no significant differences between day and night CPUE at the assemblage level for the entire sampling period or for the spring and summer seasons. However, Hiodon alosoides, Carpiodes/Ictiobus spp. and Macrhybopsis spp. exhibited a diel cycle of abundance within the drift. This pattern was evident although mean Secchi depth (transparency) ranged from 4 to 25 cm during the study and was <30 cm from May through August over the previous nine years. Larval diel drift studies from 48 rivers excluding the Missouri River indicated the primary drift period for larval fishes was at night in 38 rivers and during the day for five, with the remaining rivers showing no pattern. Water transparency was reported for 10 rivers with six being <30 cm or 'low'. Two of these six turbid rivers exhibited significant diel drift patterns. The effect of water transparency on diel drift of larval fishes appears taxa-specific and patterns of abundant taxa could mask patterns of rare taxa when analyzed only at the assemblage level. ?? 2010 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  6. Muscle organizers in Drosophila: the role of persistent larval fibers in adult flight muscle development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, E. R.; Fernandes, J.; Keshishian, H.

    1996-01-01

    In many organisms muscle formation depends on specialized cells that prefigure the pattern of the musculature and serve as templates for myoblast organization and fusion. These include muscle pioneers in insects and muscle organizing cells in leech. In Drosophila, muscle founder cells have been proposed to play a similar role in organizing larval muscle development during embryogenesis. During metamorphosis in Drosophila, following histolysis of most of the larval musculature, there is a second round of myogenesis that gives rise to the adult muscles. It is not known whether muscle founder cells organize the development of these muscles. However, in the thorax specific larval muscle fibers do not histolyze at the onset of metamorphosis, but instead serve as templates for the formation of a subset of adult muscles, the dorsal longitudinal flight muscles (DLMs). Because these persistent larval muscle fibers appear to be functioning in many respects like muscle founder cells, we investigated whether they were necessary for DLM development by using a microbeam laser to ablate them singly and in combination. We found that, in the absence of the larval muscle fibers, DLMs nonetheless develop. Our results show that the persistent larval muscle fibers are not required to initiate myoblast fusion, to determine DLM identity, to locate the DLMs in the thorax, or to specify the total DLM fiber volume. However, they are required to regulate the number of DLM fibers generated. Thus, while the persistent larval muscle fibers are not obligatory for DLM fiber formation and differentiation, they are necessary to ensure the development of the correct number of fibers.

  7. Predicting crappie recruitment in Ohio reservoirs with spawning stock size, larval density, and chlorophyll concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bunnell, David B.; Hale, R. Scott; Vanni, Michael J.; Stein, Roy A.

    2006-01-01

    Stock-recruit models typically use only spawning stock size as a predictor of recruitment to a fishery. In this paper, however, we used spawning stock size as well as larval density and key environmental variables to predict recruitment of white crappies Pomoxis annularis and black crappies P. nigromaculatus, a genus notorious for variable recruitment. We sampled adults and recruits from 11 Ohio reservoirs and larvae from 9 reservoirs during 1998-2001. We sampled chlorophyll as an index of reservoir productivity and obtained daily estimates of water elevation to determine the impact of hydrology on recruitment. Akaike's information criterion (AIC) revealed that Ricker and Beverton-Holt stock-recruit models that included chlorophyll best explained the variation in larval density and age-2 recruits. Specifically, spawning stock catch per effort (CPE) and chlorophyll explained 63-64% of the variation in larval density. In turn, larval density and chlorophyll explained 43-49% of the variation in age-2 recruit CPE. Finally, spawning stock CPE and chlorophyll were the best predictors of recruit CPE (i.e., 74-86%). Although larval density and recruitment increased with chlorophyll, neither was related to seasonal water elevation. Also, the AIC generally did not distinguish between Ricker and Beverton-Holt models. From these relationships, we concluded that crappie recruitment can be limited by spawning stock CPE and larval production when spawning stock sizes are low (i.e., CPE , 5 crappies/net-night). At higher levels of spawning stock sizes, spawning stock CPE and recruitment were less clearly related. To predict recruitment in Ohio reservoirs, managers should assess spawning stock CPE with trap nets and estimate chlorophyll concentrations. To increase crappie recruitment in reservoirs where recruitment is consistently poor, managers should use regulations to increase spawning stock size, which, in turn, should increase larval production and recruits to the fishery.

  8. Larval retention and connectivity among populations of corals and reef fishes: history, advances and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, G. P.; Almany, G. R.; Russ, G. R.; Sale, P. F.; Steneck, R. S.; van Oppen, M. J. H.; Willis, B. L.

    2009-06-01

    The extent of larval dispersal on coral reefs has important implications for the persistence of coral reef metapopulations, their resilience and recovery from an increasing array of threats, and the success of protective measures. This article highlights a recent dramatic increase in research effort and a growing diversity of approaches to the study of larval retention within (self-recruitment) and dispersal among (connectivity) isolated coral reef populations. Historically, researchers were motivated by alternative hypotheses concerning the processes limiting populations and structuring coral reef assemblages, whereas the recent impetus has come largely from the need to incorporate dispersal information into the design of no-take marine protected area (MPA) networks. Although the majority of studies continue to rely on population genetic approaches to make inferences about dispersal, a wide range of techniques are now being employed, from small-scale larval tagging and paternity analyses, to large-scale biophysical circulation models. Multiple approaches are increasingly being applied to cross-validate and provide more realistic estimates of larval dispersal. The vast majority of empirical studies have focused on corals and fishes, where evidence for both extremely local scale patterns of self-recruitment and ecologically significant connectivity among reefs at scales of tens of kilometers (and in some cases hundreds of kilometers) is accumulating. Levels of larval retention and the spatial extent of connectivity in both corals and fishes appear to be largely independent of larval duration or reef size, but may be strongly influenced by geographic setting. It is argued that high levels of both self-recruitment and larval import can contribute to the resilience of reef populations and MPA networks, but these benefits will erode in degrading reef environments.

  9. Role of circulation scales and water mass distributions on larval fish habitats in the Eastern Tropical Pacific off Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    León-Chávez, Cristina A.; Beier, Emilio; Sánchez-Velasco, Laura; Barton, Eric Desmond; Godínez, Victor M.

    2015-06-01

    On the basis of five oceanographic cruises carried out in the Eastern Tropical Pacific off Mexico, relationships between the larval fish habitats (areas inhabited by larval fish assemblages) and the environmental circulation scales (mesoscale, seasonal, and interannual) were examined. Analysis of in situ data over a grid of hydrographic stations and oblique zooplankton hauls with bongo net (505 µm) was combined with orthogonal robust functions decomposition applied to altimetry anomalies obtained from satellite. During both cool (March and June) and warm (August and November) periods, Bray-Curtis dissimilarity Index defined three recurrent larval fish habitats which varied in species composition and extent as a function of the environmental scales. The variability of the Tropical larval fish habitat (characterized by high species richness, and dominated by Vinciguerria lucetia, Diogenichthys laternatus, and Diaphus pacificus) was associated with the seasonal changes. The Transitional-California Current larval fish habitat (dominated by V. lucetia and D. laternatus, with lower mean abundance and lower species richness than in the Tropical habitat) and Coastal-and-Upwelling larval fish habitat (dominated by Bregmaceros bathymaster) was associated mainly with mesoscale activity induced by eddies and with coastal upwelling. During February 2010, the Tropical larval fish habitat predominated offshore and the Transitional-California Current larval fish habitat was not present, which we attribute to the effect of El Niño conditions. Thus, the mesoscale, seasonal, and interannual environmental scales affect the composition and extension of larval fish habitats.

  10. Larval food quantity affects the capacity of adult mosquitoes to transmit human malaria.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Lillian L M; Murdock, Courtney C; Jacobs, Gregory R; Thomas, Rachel J; Thomas, Matthew B

    2016-07-13

    Adult traits of holometabolous insects are shaped by conditions experienced during larval development, which might impact interactions between adult insect hosts and parasites. However, the ecology of larval insects that vector disease remains poorly understood. Here, we used Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes and the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, to investigate whether larval conditions affect the capacity of adult mosquitoes to transmit malaria. We reared larvae in two groups; one group received a standard laboratory rearing diet, whereas the other received a reduced diet. Emerging adult females were then provided an infectious blood meal. We assessed mosquito longevity, parasite development rate and prevalence of infectious mosquitoes over time. Reduced larval food led to increased adult mortality and caused a delay in parasite development and a slowing in the rate at which parasites invaded the mosquito salivary glands, extending the time it took for mosquitoes to become infectious. Together, these effects increased transmission potential of mosquitoes in the high food regime by 260-330%. Such effects have not, to our knowledge, been shown previously for human malaria and highlight the importance of improving knowledge of larval ecology to better understand vector-borne disease transmission dynamics. PMID:27412284

  11. Embryogenesis and Larval Biology of the Cold-Water Coral Lophelia pertusa

    PubMed Central

    Strömberg, Susanna M.; Dahl, Mikael P.; Lundälv, Tomas; Brooke, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Cold-water coral reefs form spectacular and highly diverse ecosystems in the deep sea but little is known about reproduction, and virtually nothing about the larval biology in these corals. This study is based on data from two locations of the North East Atlantic and documents the first observations of embryogenesis and larval development in Lophelia pertusa, the most common framework-building cold-water scleractinian. Embryos developed in a more or less organized radial cleavage pattern from ∼160 µm large neutral or negatively buoyant eggs, to 120–270 µm long ciliated planulae. Embryogenesis was slow with cleavage occurring at intervals of 6–8 hours up to the 64-cell stage. Genetically characterized larvae were sexually derived, with maternal and paternal alleles present. Larvae were active swimmers (0.5 mm s−1) initially residing in the upper part of the water column, with bottom probing behavior starting 3–5 weeks after fertilization. Nematocysts had developed by day 30, coinciding with peak bottom-probing behavior, and possibly an indication that larvae are fully competent to settle at this time. Planulae survived for eight weeks under laboratory conditions, and preliminary results indicate that these planulae are planktotrophic. The late onset of competency and larval longevity suggests a high dispersal potential. Understanding larval biology and behavior is of paramount importance for biophysical modeling of larval dispersal, which forms the basis for predictions of connectivity among populations. PMID:25028936

  12. Circulation constrains the evolution of larval development modes and life histories in the coastal ocean.

    PubMed

    Pringle, James M; Byers, James E; Pappalardo, Paula; Wares, John P; Marshall, Dustin

    2014-04-01

    The evolutionary pressures that drive long larval planktonic durations in some coastal marine organisms, while allowing direct development in others, have been vigorously debated. We introduce into the argument the asymmetric dispersal of larvae by coastal currents and find that the strength of the currents helps determine which dispersal strategies are evolutionarily stable. In a spatially and temporally uniform coastal ocean of finite extent, direct development is always evolutionarily stable. For passively drifting larvae, long planktonic durations are stable when the ratio of mean to fluctuating currents is small and the rate at which larvae increase in size in the plankton is greater than the mortality rate (both in units of per time). However, larval behavior that reduces downstream larval dispersal for a given time in plankton will be selected for, consistent with widespread observations of behaviors that reduce dispersal of marine larvae. Larvae with long planktonic durations are shown to be favored not for the additional dispersal they allow, but for the additional fecundity that larval feeding in the plankton enables. We analyzed the spatial distribution of larval life histories in a large database of coastal marine benthic invertebrates and documented a link between ocean circulation and the frequency of planktotrophy in the coastal ocean. The spatial variation in the frequency of species with planktotrophic larvae is largely consistent with our theory; increases in mean currents lead to a decrease in the fraction of species with planktotrophic larvae over a broad range of temperatures. PMID:24933820

  13. Soundscape manipulation enhances larval recruitment of a reef-building mollusk

    PubMed Central

    Bohnenstiehl, DelWayne R.; Eggleston, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Marine seafloor ecosystems, and efforts to restore them, depend critically on the influx and settlement of larvae following their pelagic dispersal period. Larval dispersal and settlement patterns are driven by a combination of physical oceanography and behavioral responses of larvae to a suite of sensory cues both in the water column and at settlement sites. There is growing evidence that the biological and physical sounds associated with adult habitats (i.e., the “soundscape”) influence larval settlement and habitat selection; however, the significance of acoustic cues is rarely tested. Here we show in a field experiment that the free-swimming larvae of an estuarine invertebrate, the eastern oyster, respond to the addition of replayed habitat-related sounds. Oyster larval recruitment was significantly higher on larval collectors exposed to oyster reef sounds compared to no-sound controls. These results provide the first field evidence that soundscape cues may attract the larval settlers of a reef-building estuarine invertebrate. PMID:26056624

  14. Building a Beetle: How Larval Environment Leads to Adult Performance in a Horned Beetle

    PubMed Central

    Reaney, Leeann T.; Knell, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    The link between the expression of the signals used by male animals in contests with the traits which determine success in those contests is poorly understood. This is particularly true in holometabolous insects such as horned beetles where signal expression is determined during metamorphosis and is fixed during adulthood, whereas performance is influenced by post-eclosion feeding. We used path analysis to investigate the relationships between larval and adult nutrition, horn and body size and fitness-related traits such as strength and testes mass in the horned beetle Euoniticellus intermedius. In males weight gain post-eclosion had a central role in determining both testes mass and strength. Weight gain was unaffected by adult nutrition but was strongly correlated with by horn length, itself determined by larval resource availability, indicating strong indirect effects of larval nutrition on the adult beetle’s ability to assimilate food and grow tissues. Female strength was predicted by a simple path diagram where strength was determined by eclosion weight, itself determined by larval nutrition: weight gain post-eclosion was not a predictor of strength in this sex. Based on earlier findings we discuss the insulin-like signalling pathway as a possible mechanism by which larval nutrition could affect adult weight gain and thence traits such as strength. PMID:26244874

  15. Larval Settlement: The Role of Surface Topography for Sessile Coral Reef Invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Whalan, Steve; Abdul Wahab, Muhammad A.; Sprungala, Susanne; Poole, Andrew J.; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-01-01

    For sessile marine invertebrates with complex life cycles, habitat choice is directed by the larval phase. Defining which habitat-linked cues are implicated in sessile invertebrate larval settlement has largely concentrated on chemical cues which are thought to signal optimal habitat. There has been less effort establishing physical settlement cues, including the role of surface microtopography. This laboratory based study tested whether surface microtopography alone (without chemical cues) plays an important contributing role in the settlement of larvae of coral reef sessile invertebrates. We measured settlement to tiles, engineered with surface microtopography (holes) that closely matched the sizes (width) of larvae of a range of corals and sponges, in addition to surfaces with holes that were markedly larger than larvae. Larvae from two species of scleractinian corals (Acropora millepora and Ctenactis crassa) and three species of coral reef sponges (Luffariella variabilis, Carteriospongia foliascens and Ircinia sp.,) were used in experiments. L. variabilis, A. millepora and C. crassa showed markedly higher settlement to surface microtopography that closely matched their larval width. C. foliascens and Ircinia sp., showed no specificity to surface microtopography, settling just as often to microtopography as to flat surfaces. The findings of this study question the sole reliance on chemical based larval settlement cues, previously established for some coral and sponge species, and demonstrate that specific physical cues (surface complexity) can also play an important role in larval settlement of coral reef sessile invertebrates. PMID:25671562

  16. Larval starvation reduces responsiveness to feeding stimuli and does not affect feeding preferences in a butterfly.

    PubMed

    Kehl, Tobias; Fischer, Klaus

    2012-07-01

    It is commonly assumed that holometabolic insects such as Lepidoptera rely primarily on larval storage reserves for reproduction. Recent studies though have documented a prominent role of adult-derived carbohydrates for butterfly reproduction. Moreover, a few studies have shown that adult butterflies may also benefit from adult-derived amino acids, at least when larval storage reserves are reduced. Given that in holometabolous insects larval deficiencies are carried over into the adult stage, reduced storage reserves have the potential to modulate adult feeding preferences and responses in order to allow for a successful compensation. We tested this hypothesis here in the fruit-feeding butterfly Bicyclus anynana using larval food stress to manipulate storage reserves. Alcohols (methanol, ethanol, butanol, propanol), sugars (maltose, glucose, fructose, sucrose), and acetic acid acted as feeding stimuli, while butterflies did not respond to other substances such as amino acids, yeast, salts, or vitamins. Contrary to expectations, stressed butterflies showed a weaker response than controls to several feeding stimuli. In preference tests, butterflies preferred sugar solutions containing proline, arginine, glutamic acid, acetic acid, or ethanol over plain sugar solutions, but discriminated against salts. However, there were no general differences among starved and control butterflies. We conclude that larval food-stress does not elicit compensatory feeding behavior such as a stronger preference for amino acids or other essential nutrients in B. anynana. Instead, the stress imposed by a period of starvation yielded negative effects. PMID:22634044

  17. Quantitative trait loci for life span in Drosophila melanogaster: interactions with genetic background and larval density.

    PubMed Central

    Leips, J; Mackay, T F

    2000-01-01

    The genetic architecture of variation in adult life span was examined for a population of recombinant inbred lines, each of which had been crossed to both inbred parental strains from which the lines were derived, after emergence from both high and low larval density. QTL affecting life span were mapped within each sex and larval density treatment by linkage to highly polymorphic roo-transposable element markers, using a composite interval mapping method. We detected a total of six QTL affecting life span; the additive effects and degrees of dominance for all were highly sex- and larval environment-specific. There were significant epistatic interactions between five of the life span QTL, the effects of which also differed according to genetic background, sex, and larval density. Five additional QTL were identified that contributed to differences among lines in their sensitivity to variation in larval density. Further fine-scale mapping is necessary to determine whether candidate genes within the regions to which the QTL map are actually responsible for the observed variation in life span. PMID:10924473

  18. Low larval abundance in the Sargasso Sea: new evidence about reduced recruitment of the Atlantic eels.

    PubMed

    Hanel, Reinhold; Stepputtis, Daniel; Bonhommeau, Sylvain; Castonguay, Martin; Schaber, Matthias; Wysujack, Klaus; Vobach, Michael; Miller, Michael J

    2014-12-01

    The European eel Anguilla anguilla has shown decreased recruitment in recent decades. Despite increasing efforts to establish species recovery measures, it is unclear if the decline was caused by reduced numbers of reproductive-stage silver eels reaching the spawning area, low early larval survival, or increased larval mortality during migration to recruitment areas. To determine if larval abundances in the spawning area significantly changed over the past three decades, a plankton trawl sampling survey for anguillid leptocephali was conducted in March and April 2011 in the spawning area of the European eel that was designed to directly compare to collections made in the same way in 1983 and 1985. The catch rates of most anguilliform leptocephali were lower in 2011, possibly because of the slightly smaller plankton trawl used, but the relative abundances of European eel and American eel, Anguilla rostrata, leptocephali were much lower in 2011 than in 1983 and 1985 when compared to catches of other common leptocephali. The leptocephali assemblage was the same in 2011 as in previous years, but small larvae of mesopelagic snipe eels, Nemichthys scolopaceus, which spawn sympatrically with anguillid eels, were less abundant. Temperature fronts in the spawning area were also poorly defined compared to previous years. Although the causes for low anguillid larval abundances in 2011 are unclear, the fact that there are presently fewer European and American eel larvae in the spawning area than during previous time periods indicates that decreased larval abundance and lower eventual recruitment begin within the spawning area. PMID:25307845

  19. Low larval abundance in the Sargasso Sea: new evidence about reduced recruitment of the Atlantic eels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanel, Reinhold; Stepputtis, Daniel; Bonhommeau, Sylvain; Castonguay, Martin; Schaber, Matthias; Wysujack, Klaus; Vobach, Michael; Miller, Michael J.

    2014-12-01

    The European eel Anguilla anguilla has shown decreased recruitment in recent decades. Despite increasing efforts to establish species recovery measures, it is unclear if the decline was caused by reduced numbers of reproductive-stage silver eels reaching the spawning area, low early larval survival, or increased larval mortality during migration to recruitment areas. To determine if larval abundances in the spawning area significantly changed over the past three decades, a plankton trawl sampling survey for anguillid leptocephali was conducted in March and April 2011 in the spawning area of the European eel that was designed to directly compare to collections made in the same way in 1983 and 1985. The catch rates of most anguilliform leptocephali were lower in 2011, possibly because of the slightly smaller plankton trawl used, but the relative abundances of European eel and American eel, Anguilla rostrata, leptocephali were much lower in 2011 than in 1983 and 1985 when compared to catches of other common leptocephali. The leptocephali assemblage was the same in 2011 as in previous years, but small larvae of mesopelagic snipe eels, Nemichthys scolopaceus, which spawn sympatrically with anguillid eels, were less abundant. Temperature fronts in the spawning area were also poorly defined compared to previous years. Although the causes for low anguillid larval abundances in 2011 are unclear, the fact that there are presently fewer European and American eel larvae in the spawning area than during previous time periods indicates that decreased larval abundance and lower eventual recruitment begin within the spawning area.

  20. Obligate larval inhibition of Ostertagia gruehneri in Rangifer tarandus? Causes and consequences in an Arctic system.

    PubMed

    Hoar, Bryanne M; Eberhardt, Alexander G; Kutz, Susan J

    2012-09-01

    Larval inhibition is a common strategy of Trichostrongylidae nematodes that may increase survival of larvae during unfavourable periods and concentrate egg production when conditions are favourable for development and transmission. We investigated the propensity for larval inhibition in a population of Ostertagia gruehneri, the most common gastrointestinal Trichostrongylidae nematode of Rangifer tarandus. Initial experimental infections of 4 reindeer with O. gruehneri sourced from the Bathurst caribou herd in Arctic Canada suggested that the propensity for larval inhibition was 100%. In the summer of 2009 we infected 12 additional reindeer with the F1 and F2 generations of O. gruehneri sourced from the previously infected reindeer to further investigate the propensity of larval inhibition. The reindeer were divided into 2 groups and half were infected before the summer solstice (17 June) and half were infected after the solstice (16 July). Reindeer did not shed eggs until March 2010, i.e. 8 and 9 months post-infection. These results suggest obligate larval inhibition for at least 1 population of O. gruehneri, a phenomenon that has not been conclusively shown for any other trichostrongylid species. Obligate inhibition is likely to be an adaptation to both the Arctic environment and to a migratory host and may influence the ability of O. gruehneri to adapt to climate change. PMID:22953998

  1. Patterning the dorsal longitudinal flight muscles (DLM) of Drosophila: insights from the ablation of larval scaffolds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandes, J. J.; Keshishian, H.

    1996-01-01

    The six Dorsal Longitudinal flight Muscles (DLMs) of Drosophila develop from three larval muscles that persist into metamorphosis and serve as scaffolds for the formation of the adult fibers. We have examined the effect of muscle scaffold ablation on the development of DLMs during metamorphosis. Using markers that are specific to muscle and myoblasts we show that in response to the ablation, myoblasts which would normally fuse with the larval muscle, fuse with each other instead, to generate the adult fibers in the appropriate regions of the thorax. The development of these de novo DLMs is delayed and is reflected in the delayed expression of erect wing, a transcription factor thought to control differentiation events associated with myoblast fusion. The newly arising muscles express the appropriate adult-specific Actin isoform (88F), indicating that they have the correct muscle identity. However, there are frequent errors in the number of muscle fibers generated. Ablation of the larval scaffolds for the DLMs has revealed an underlying potential of the DLM myoblasts to initiate de novo myogenesis in a manner that resembles the mode of formation of the Dorso-Ventral Muscles, DVMs, which are the other group of indirect flight muscles. Therefore, it appears that the use of larval scaffolds is a superimposition on a commonly used mechanism of myogenesis in Drosophila. Our results show that the role of the persistent larval muscles in muscle patterning involves the partitioning of DLM myoblasts, and in doing so, they regulate formation of the correct number of DLM fibers.

  2. Larval food quantity affects the capacity of adult mosquitoes to transmit human malaria

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Lillian L. M.; Murdock, Courtney C.; Jacobs, Gregory R.; Thomas, Rachel J.; Thomas, Matthew B.

    2016-01-01

    Adult traits of holometabolous insects are shaped by conditions experienced during larval development, which might impact interactions between adult insect hosts and parasites. However, the ecology of larval insects that vector disease remains poorly understood. Here, we used Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes and the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, to investigate whether larval conditions affect the capacity of adult mosquitoes to transmit malaria. We reared larvae in two groups; one group received a standard laboratory rearing diet, whereas the other received a reduced diet. Emerging adult females were then provided an infectious blood meal. We assessed mosquito longevity, parasite development rate and prevalence of infectious mosquitoes over time. Reduced larval food led to increased adult mortality and caused a delay in parasite development and a slowing in the rate at which parasites invaded the mosquito salivary glands, extending the time it took for mosquitoes to become infectious. Together, these effects increased transmission potential of mosquitoes in the high food regime by 260–330%. Such effects have not, to our knowledge, been shown previously for human malaria and highlight the importance of improving knowledge of larval ecology to better understand vector-borne disease transmission dynamics. PMID:27412284

  3. Characterization of Arginine Kinase in the Barnacle Amphibalanus Amphitrite and Its Role in the Larval Settlement.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gen; Yan, Guo-Yong; Yang, Xiao-Xue; Wong, Yue-Him; Sun, Jin; Zhang, Yu; He, Li-Sheng; Xu, Ying; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2016-06-01

    Energy metabolism is a key process in larval settlement of barnacles, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain ambiguous. Arginine kinase (AK) mainly participates in energy metabolism in invertebrates. So far, its roles in barnacles have not been studied. In the present study, we raised an antibody against AK from Amphibalanus amphitrite Darwin to characterize the roles of AK in the larval settlement process. Among the developmental stages, AK was highly expressed during the cypris stage. Along with the aging process in cyprids, the level of AK decreased. The immunostaining results showed that AK was localized to muscular tissues in cyprids, including antennules, antennular muscles, and thoracic limbs. The larval settlement rate decreased and larval movement was inhibited in response to treatments with high concentrations of AK inhibitors (rutin and quercetin). These results demonstrated that AK was involved in the larval settlement of A. amphitrite through mediating energy supply in muscle tissues. Moreover, further analysis indicated that both the p38 MAPK and NO/cGMP pathways positively mediated the expression of AK in cyprids. PMID:27245369

  4. Heavy metals in mosquito larval habitats in urban Kisumu and Malindi, Kenya, and their impact.

    PubMed

    Mireji, Paul O; Keating, Joseph; Hassanali, Ahmed; Mbogo, Charles M; Nyambaka, Hudson; Kahindi, Samuel; Beier, John C

    2008-05-01

    Concentrations and distribution of cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, manganese and zinc in mosquito larval habitats in urban Kisumu and Malindi, Kenya and their effect on the presence of Anopheles gambiae, Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles funestus larvae were investigated. Manganese and iron were the most prevalent heavy metals in water of larval habitats in urban Kisumu and Malindi, respectively. Iron was the most prevalent heavy metal in bottom sediments in larval habitats in both cities. The highest concentrations of all heavy metals, except cadmium and iron, were recorded in the poorly planned-well drained stratum in the two cities. All heavy metals were more concentrated in human-made than in natural larval habitats. Copper was positively associated with the presence of Ae. aegypti, and lead was associated with the presence of An. gambiae and Ae. aegypti in urban Kisumu. Absence of significant correlation between the other metals and mosquito species in both cities, despite relatively high concentrations, suggest that the local larval populations, including key malaria vectors have adapted to the detected levels of these metals. PMID:17532467

  5. Functional genomics identifies regulators of the phototransduction machinery in the Drosophila larval eye and adult ocelli.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Abhishek Kumar; Bargmann, Bastiaan O R; Tsachaki, Maria; Fritsch, Cornelia; Sprecher, Simon G

    2016-02-15

    Sensory perception of light is mediated by specialized Photoreceptor neurons (PRs) in the eye. During development all PRs are genetically determined to express a specific Rhodopsin (Rh) gene and genes mediating a functional phototransduction pathway. While the genetic and molecular mechanisms of PR development is well described in the adult compound eye, it remains unclear how the expression of Rhodopsins and the phototransduction cascade is regulated in other visual organs in Drosophila, such as the larval eye and adult ocelli. Using transcriptome analysis of larval PR-subtypes and ocellar PRs we identify and study new regulators required during PR differentiation or necessary for the expression of specific signaling molecules of the functional phototransduction pathway. We found that the transcription factor Krüppel (Kr) is enriched in the larval eye and controls PR differentiation by promoting Rh5 and Rh6 expression. We also identified Camta, Lola, Dve and Hazy as key genes acting during ocellar PR differentiation. Further we show that these transcriptional regulators control gene expression of the phototransduction cascade in both larval eye and adult ocelli. Our results show that PR cell type-specific transcriptome profiling is a powerful tool to identify key transcriptional regulators involved during several aspects of PR development and differentiation. Our findings greatly contribute to the understanding of how combinatorial action of key transcriptional regulators control PR development and the regulation of a functional phototransduction pathway in both larval eye and adult ocelli. PMID:26769100

  6. Connectivity in the Intra-American Seas and implications for potential larval transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, H.; Li, Y.; He, R.; Eggleston, D. B.

    2015-06-01

    A major challenge in marine ecology is to describe patterns of larval dispersal and population connectivity, as well as their underlying processes. We re-assessed broad-scale population connectivity with a focus on the 18 coral reef hot spots in the Intra-American Seas described in Roberts (Science 278:1454-1457, 1997), by including seasonal and inter-annual variability in potential larval dispersal. While overall dispersal patterns were in agreement with previous findings, further statistical analyses show that dispersal patterns driven by mean circulation initially described by Roberts (Science 278:1454-1457, 1997) can significantly underestimate particle connectivity envelopes. The results from this study indicate that seasonal and inter-annual variability in circulation are crucial in modulating both dispersal distance and directional anisotropy of virtual larvae over most coral reef sites and that certain larval hotspots are likely more strongly connected than originally thought. Improved larval dispersal transport envelopes can enhance the accuracy of probability estimates which, in turn, may help to explain episodic larval settlement in certain times and places, and guide spatial management such as marine protected areas.

  7. Hiding opaque eyes in transparent organisms: a potential role for larval eyeshine in stomatopod crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Feller, K D; Cronin, T W

    2014-09-15

    Opaque screening pigments are a fundamental requisite for preserving resolution in image-forming eyes. Possession of any type of image-forming eye in a transparent, pelagic animal will thus undermine the ability of that animal to be invisible in the water column. Transparent, pelagic animals must therefore deal with the trade-off between the ability to see and the ability of other animals to see them. Stomatopod larvae, like many transparent crustaceans, possess specialized optics in their compound eyes that minimize the volume of the opaque retina. Though the volumes of these retinas are reduced, their opacity remains conspicuous to an observer. The light reflected from structures overlying the retinas of stomatopod crustacean larval eyes, referred to here as eyeshine, is hypothesized to further reduce the visibility of opaque retinas. Blue or green wavelengths of light are most strongly reflected in stomatopod larval eyeshine, suggesting a putative spectral matching to the light environment against which the larval eyes are viewed. We tested the efficacy of stomatopod crustacean larval eyeshine as an ocular camouflaging mechanism by photographing larvae in their natural light environment and analysing the contrast of eyes with the background light. To test for spectral matching between stomatopod larval eyeshine and the background light environment, we characterized the spectrum of eyeshine and calculated its performance using radiometric measurements collected at the time of each photographic series. These results are the first to demonstrate an operative mirror camouflage matched in both spectrum and radiance to the pelagic background light environment. PMID:25232197

  8. Embryogenesis and larval biology of the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Ann I; Järnegren, Johanna; Strömberg, Susanna M; Dahl, Mikael P; Lundälv, Tomas; Brooke, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Cold-water coral reefs form spectacular and highly diverse ecosystems in the deep sea but little is known about reproduction, and virtually nothing about the larval biology in these corals. This study is based on data from two locations of the North East Atlantic and documents the first observations of embryogenesis and larval development in Lophelia pertusa, the most common framework-building cold-water scleractinian. Embryos developed in a more or less organized radial cleavage pattern from ∼ 160 µm large neutral or negatively buoyant eggs, to 120-270 µm long ciliated planulae. Embryogenesis was slow with cleavage occurring at intervals of 6-8 hours up to the 64-cell stage. Genetically characterized larvae were sexually derived, with maternal and paternal alleles present. Larvae were active swimmers (0.5 mm s(-1)) initially residing in the upper part of the water column, with bottom probing behavior starting 3-5 weeks after fertilization. Nematocysts had developed by day 30, coinciding with peak bottom-probing behavior, and possibly an indication that larvae are fully competent to settle at this time. Planulae survived for eight weeks under laboratory conditions, and preliminary results indicate that these planulae are planktotrophic. The late onset of competency and larval longevity suggests a high dispersal potential. Understanding larval biology and behavior is of paramount importance for biophysical modeling of larval dispersal, which forms the basis for predictions of connectivity among populations. PMID:25028936

  9. Genetic and evolutionary analysis of the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Megan

    Although evolution of brains and behaviors is of fundamental biological importance, we lack comprehensive understanding of the general principles governing these processes or the specific mechanisms and molecules through which the evolutionary changes are effected. Because synapses are the basic structural and functional units of nervous systems, one way to address these problems is to dissect the genetic and molecular pathways responsible for morphological evolution of a defined synapse. I have undertaken such an analysis by examining morphology of the larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ) in wild caught D. melanogaster as well as in over 20 other species of Drosophila. Whereas variation in NMJ morphology within a species is limited, I discovered a surprisingly extensive variation among different species. Compared with evolution of other morphological traits, NMJ morphology appears to be evolving very rapidly. Moreover, my data indicate that natural selection rather than genetic drift is primarily responsible for evolution of NMJ morphology. To dissect underlying molecular mechanisms that may govern NMJ growth and evolutionary divergence, I focused on a naturally occurring variant in D. melanogaster that causes NMJ overgrowth. I discovered that the variant mapped to Mob2, a gene encoding a kinase adapter protein originally described in yeast as a member of the Mitotic Exit Network (MEN). I have subsequently examined mutations in the Drosophila orthologs of all the core components of the yeast MEN and found that all of them function as part of a common pathway that acts presynaptically to negatively regulate NMJ growth. As in the regulation of yeast cytokinesis, these components of the MEN appear to act ultimately by regulating actin dynamics during the process of bouton growth and division. These studies have thus led to the discovery of an entirely new role for the MEN---regulation of synaptic growth---that is separate from its function in cell division. This work

  10. Effects of ammonia on fertilization, development, and larval survival in the Northern Pacific asteroid, Asterias amurensis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Hoon; Sung, Chan-Gyoung; Moon, Seong-Dae; Lee, Jong-Hyeon

    2013-07-01

    For developing a complementary test organism to sea urchin during winter in Korea, sensitivities of sperm, embryo, and larvae of Asterias amurensis to un-ionized ammonia were evaluated. The EC₅₀s (Mean ± SD, n = 3) for fertilization and development were 169 ± 62 and 70 ± 19 μg/L, respectively. The 48, 72, and 96-h LC₅₀s for larval survival were 1,674 ± 583, 498 ± 221, and 336 ± 107 μg/L, respectively. The sensitivities of fertilization, development, and larval survival tests with A. amurensis are higher than or comparable to those of sea urchin and other taxonomic groups. Therefore, fertilization, development, and larval survival tests using A. amurensis are suitable for assessing pore water toxicity of marine sediments in Korea. PMID:23674221

  11. Predation by odonate nymphs on larval razorback suckers (Xyrauchen texanus) under laboratory conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horn, Michael J.; Marsh, Paul C.; Mueller, Gordon; Burke, Tom

    1994-01-01

    High larval mortality has plagued efforts to raise razorback suckers (Xyrauchen texanus) in a Lake Mohave, Arizona-Nevada backwater. Observations indicate odonate nymph densities may be high enough to impact larval survival. In laboratory tests conducted in aquaria, damselfly (Coenagrionidae: Enallagma sp.) and dragonfly (Libellulidae: Tramea sp.) nymphs consumed 81% and 76% respectively of 11.8 ± 0.7 mm total length larval razorbacks in 7 days compared to 12% mortality in controls. Larger razorback larvae (14 to 15 mm TL) were less susceptible than smaller fish, showing 53% mortality versus 18% in controls. Extensive growth of sago pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus) may exacerbate predation effects in the backwater, by allowing odonates access to more of the water column.

  12. [Establishment of an anesthesia model induced by etomidate in larval zebrafish].

    PubMed

    DU, Wen-Jie; DU, Jiu-Lin; Yu, Tian

    2016-06-25

    Despite the wide application of general anesthetic drugs in clinic, it is still unclear how these drugs induce the state of general anesthesia. Larval zebrafish has emerged as an ideal model for dissecting the mechanism of neural systems due to the conserved and simple brain structure. In the present study, we established an anesthesia model from behavioral to electrophysiological levels using larval zebrafish for the first time. Bath application of etomidate, as a kind of intravenous anesthetic drugs, suppressed the spontaneous locomotion of zebrafish in a concentration-dependent manner. Consistently, in vivo fictive motor patterns of spinal motoneurons recorded extracellularly were significantly inhibited as well. Furthermore, using in vivo extracellular recording and whole-cell recording, we found that etomidate application suppressed local field potentials (LFP) of the brain and blocked visually evoked responses of optic tectal neurons. The study indicates that larval zebrafish can serve as an ideal vertebrate animal model for studying neural mechanisms underlying general anesthesia. PMID:27350203

  13. A developmental and energetic basis linking larval oyster shell formation to acidification sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldbusser, George G.; Brunner, Elizabeth L.; Haley, Brian A.; Hales, Burke; Langdon, Christopher J.; Prahl, Frederick G.

    2013-05-01

    Acidified waters are impacting commercial oyster production in the U.S. Pacific Northwest, and favorable carbonate chemistry conditions are predicted to become less frequent. Within 48 h of fertilization, unshelled Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) larvae precipitate roughly 90% of their body weight as calcium carbonate. We measured stable carbon isotopes in larval shell and tissue and in algal food and seawater dissolved inorganic carbon in a longitudinal study of larval development and growth. Using these data and measured biochemical composition of larvae, we show that sensitivity of initial shell formation to ocean acidification results from diminished ability to isolate calcifying fluid from surrounding seawater, a limited energy budget and a strong kinetic demand for calcium carbonate precipitation. Our results highlight an important link between organism physiology and mineral kinetics in larval bivalves and suggest the consideration of mineral kinetics may improve understanding winners and losers in a high CO2 world.

  14. Larval feeding behavior and ant association in frosted elfin, Callophrys irus (Lycaenidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albanese, G.; Nelson, M.W.; Vickery, P.D.; Sievert, P.R.

    2007-01-01

    Callophrys irus is a rare and declining lycaenid found in the eastern U.S., inhabiting xeric and open habitats maintained by disturbance. Populations are localized and monophagous. We document a previously undescribed larval feeding behavior in both field and lab reared larvae in which late instar larvae girdled the main stem of the host plant. Girdled stems provide a unique feeding sign that was useful in detecting the presence of larvae in the field. We also observed frequent association of field larvae with several species of ants and provide a list of ant species. We suggest two hypotheses on the potential benefits of stem-girdling to C. irus larvae: 1) Stem girdling provides phloem sap as a larval food source and increases the leaf nutrient concentration, increasing larval growth rates and providing high quality honeydew for attending ants; 2) Stem girdling reduces stem toxicity by inhibiting transport of toxins from roots to the stem.

  15. Diel periodicity of drift of larval fishes in tributaries of Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, J.H.; McKenna, J.E., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Diel patterns of downstream drift were examined during mid-June in three tributaries of Lake Ontario. Larval fishes were collected in drift nets that were set in each stream for 72 consecutive hours and emptied at 4-h intervals. Fantail darter (Ethostoma flabellare) and blacknose dace (Rhinichthys atractulus) were the two most abundant native stream fishes and were two of the three species collected in the ichthyoplankton drift. Fantail darter larvae comprised 100%, 98.9%, and 70.2% of the ichthyoplankton in the three streams. Most larval fishes (96%) drifted at night with peak catches occurring at 2400h in Orwell Brook and Trout Brook and 0400h in Little Sandy Creek. Based on stream temperatures, peak spawning and larval drift of blacknose dace probably occurred later in the season.

  16. Mosquito Larval Habitats, Land Use, and Potential Malaria Risk in Northern Belize from Satellite Image Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, Kevin; Masuoka, Penny; Rejmankova, Eliska; Grieco, John; Johnson, Sarah; Roberts, Donald

    2004-01-01

    The distribution of Anopheles mosquito habitats and land use in northern Belize is examined with satellite data. -A land cover classification based on multispectral SPOT and multitemporal Radarsat images identified eleven land cover classes, including agricultural, forest, and marsh types. Two of the land cover types, Typha domingensis marsh and flooded forest, are Anopheles vestitipennis larval habitats. Eleocharis spp. marsh is the larval habitat for Anopheles albimanus. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analyses of land cover demonstrate that the amount of T-ha domingensis in a marsh is positively correlated with the amount of agricultural land in the adjacent upland, and negatively correlated with the amount of adjacent forest. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that nutrient (phosphorus) runoff from agricultural lands is causing an expansion of Typha domingensis in northern Belize. This expansion of Anopheles vestitipennis larval habitat may in turn cause an increase in malaria risk in the region.

  17. Evolution and development of gastropod larval shell morphology: experimental evidence for mechanical defense and repair.

    PubMed

    Hickman, C S

    2001-01-01

    The structural diversity of gastropod veliger larvae offers an instructive counterpoint to the view of larval forms as conservative archetypes. Larval structure, function, and development are fine-tuned for survival in the plankton. Accordingly, the study of larval adaptation provides an important perspective for evolutionary-developmental biology as an integrated science. Patterns of breakage and repair in the field, as well as patterns of breakage in arranged encounters with zooplankton under laboratory conditions, are two powerful sources of data on the adaptive significance of morphological and microsculptural features of the gastropod larval shell. Shells of the planktonic veliger larvae of the caenogastropod Nassarius paupertus [GOULD] preserve multiple repaired breaks, attributed to unsuccessful zooplankton predators. In culture, larvae isolated from concentrated zooplankton samples rapidly repaired broken apertural margins and restored the "ideal" apertural form, in which an elaborate projection or "beak" covers the head of the swimming veliger. When individuals with repaired apertures were reintroduced to a concentrated mixture of potential zooplankton predators, the repaired margins were rapidly chipped and broken back. The projecting beak of the larval shell is the first line of mechanical defense, covering the larval head and mouth and potentially the most vulnerable part of the shell to breakage. Patterns of mechanical failure show that spiral ridges do reinforce the beak and retard breakage. The capacity for rapid shell repair and regeneration, and the evolution of features that resist or retard mechanical damage, may play a more prominent role than previously thought in enhancing the ability of larvae to survive in the plankton. PMID:11256430

  18. Fauna and Larval Habitat Characteristics of Mosquitoes in Neka County, Northern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Nikookar, Seyed Hassan; Moosa-Kazemi, Seyed Hassan; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mohammad Reza; Vatandoost, Hassan; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Ataei, Abolfazl; Anjamrooz, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ecological studies on mosquitoes are very important in vector control programs. There are a few studies about the ecology of mosquitoes in northern Iran. This study was carried out to detect fauna and larval habitat characteristics of mosquitoes. Methods: This study aimed to determine fauna and the ecology of mosquitoes in Neka County, Mazandaran Province, northern Iran from April to December, 2009. The larval collection was conducted using standard dipper, and the characteristics of larval habitat were investigated based on degree of transparency of water, type of water (stagnant or running), plant vegetation, sunny or shady, temperature and altitude of the natural or artificial breeding places. Results: The mosquito larvae were collected from 72 habitats and identified using systematic keys. Nine species of mosquitoes were identified: Anopheles claviger (0.31%), An. maculipennis (0.54%), An. plumbeus (10.28%), An. superpictus (0.01%), Culiseta annulata (1.07%), Cs. longiareolata (8.91%), Culex mimeticus (0.03%), Cx. pipiens (63.99%), and Ochlerotatus geniculatus (14.85%). The range of temperature in the larval habitats was 19.6–22.5 °C. Significant difference was observed in the rate of temperature among the species in the larval habitats (P< 0.05). A checklist of mosquitoes including seven genera and 32 species has been provided for Mazandaran Province. Conclusion: The most dominant species were Cx. pipiens. They were collected from the larval habitats like Border Rivers, ponds, rain water pools, discarded tires and tree holes. Culiseta annulata was included to the checklist of mosquitoes in Mazandaran Province. PMID:26623437

  19. Larval Starvation to Satiation: Influence of Nutrient Regime on the Success of Acanthaster planci

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Kennedy; Graba-Landry, Alexia; Dworjanyn, Symon A.; Byrne, Maria

    2015-01-01

    High density populations of the crown-of-thorns seastar, Acanthaster planci, are a major contributor to the decline of coral reefs, however the causes behind periodic outbreaks of this species are not understood. The enhanced nutrients hypothesis posits that pulses of enhanced larval food in eutrophic waters facilitate metamorphic success with a flow-on effect for population growth. The larval resilience hypothesis suggests that A. planci larvae naturally thrive in tropical oligotrophic waters. Both hypotheses remain to be tested empirically. We raised A. planci larvae in a range of food regimes from starvation (no food) to satiation (excess food). Algal cell concentration and chlorophyll levels were used to reflect phytoplankton conditions in nature for oligotrophic waters (0-100 cells ml-1; 0-0.01 μg chl a L-1), natural background levels of nutrients on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) (1,000-10,000 cells ml-1; 0.1-1.0 μg chl a L-1), and enhanced eutrophic conditions following runoff events (100,000 cells ml-1; 10 μg chl a L-1). We determine how these food levels affected larval growth and survival, and the metamorphic link between larval experience and juvenile quality (size) in experiments where food ration per larvae was carefully controlled. Phytoplankton levels of 1 μg chl a L-1, close to background levels for some reefs on the GBR and following flood events, were optimal for larval success. Development was less successful above and below this food treatment. Enhanced larval performance at 1 μg chl a L-1 provides empirical support for the enhanced nutrients hypothesis, but up to a limit, and emphasizes the need for appropriate mitigation strategies to reduce eutrophication and the consequent risk of A. planci outbreaks. PMID:25790074

  20. MicroRNA-dependent roles of Drosha and Pasha in the Drosophila larval ovary morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huiming; Li, Mengjie; Hu, Xiaolong; Xin, Tianchi; Zhang, Shu; Zhao, Gengchun; Xuan, Tao; Li, Mingfa

    2016-08-15

    The Drosophila larval ovary morphogenesis mainly involves coordinated development of somatic and germ cell lineages that is essential for forming a correct number of niche-germline stem cell (GSC) units (ovarioles) in the adult ovary. Ecdysone, Insulin, Activin, Dpp and EGFR signaling pathways form a regulatory network that orchestrates ovarian soma and germ line throughout larval development. Identification and characterization of additional genes or machineries involved in this process will provide more insights into the underlying mechanisms. Here, we show that the core microRNA (miRNA) pathway components Drosha and Pasha are required for coordinated development of somatic and germ cell precursors in the larval ovary. Drosha or pasha mutants display defective proliferation of primordial germ cells (PGCs), the precursors of GSCs prior to late third larval instar (LL3) and promoted PGC differentiation at LL3. In the mean time, loss of Drosha or Pasha function perturbs somatic precursor development, causing defects in formation of terminal filaments (TFs), a major composition of the GSC niche at LL3, as well as in TF precursor accumulation at early larval stages. Comparative analysis of the mutant phenotypes reveals that three other key miRNA pathway components, Dicer-1 (Dcr-1), Loquacious (Loqs) and Argonaute-1 (Ago-1) have similar effects as Drosha and Pasha indicated above, suggesting a role of the canonical miRNA pathway in the ovary development. Furthermore, genome-wide screening and genetic studies identify a set of Drosha-controlled miRNAs including miR-8, miR-14, miR-33, miR-184, miR-317 and let-7-C that function in this gonadogenesis. Taken together, this study provides the first ever demonstration that miRNA-mediated regulation is involved in the Drosophila larval ovary morphogenesis. PMID:27339292

  1. Divergence of larval resource acquisition for water conservation and starvation resistance in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Parkash, Ravi; Aggarwal, Dau Dayal; Ranga, Poonam; Singh, Divya

    2012-07-01

    Laboratory selection experiments have evidenced storage of energy metabolites in adult flies of desiccation and starvation resistant strains of D. melanogaster but resource acquisition during larval stages has received lesser attention. For wild populations of D. melanogaster, it is not clear whether larvae acquire similar or different energy metabolites for desiccation and starvation resistance. We tested the hypothesis whether larval acquisition of energy metabolites is consistent with divergence of desiccation and starvation resistance in darker and lighter isofemale lines of D. melanogaster. Our results are interesting in several respects. First, we found contrasting patterns of larval resource acquisition, i.e., accumulation of higher carbohydrates during 3rd instar larval stage of darker flies versus higher levels of triglycerides in 1st and 2nd larval instars of lighter flies. Second, 3rd instar larvae of darker flies showed ~40 h longer duration of development at 21°C; and greater accumulation of carbohydrates (trehalose and glycogen) in fed larvae as compared with larvae non-fed after 150 h of egg laying. Third, darker isofemale lines have shown significant increase in total water content (18%); hemolymph (86%) and dehydration tolerance (11%) as compared to lighter isofemale lines. Loss of hemolymph water under desiccation stress until death was significantly higher in darker as compared to lighter isofemale lines but tissue water loss was similar. Fourth, for larvae of darker flies, about 65% energy content is contributed by carbohydrates for conferring greater desiccation resistance while the larvae of lighter flies acquire 2/3 energy from lipids for sustaining starvation resistance; and such energy differences persist in the newly eclosed flies. Thus, larval stages of wild-caught darker and lighter flies have evolved independent physiological processes for the accumulation of energy metabolites to cope with desiccation or starvation stress. PMID

  2. Induction of Larval Settlement in the Reef Coral Porites astreoides by a Cultivated Marine Roseobacter Strain.

    PubMed

    Sharp, K H; Sneed, J M; Ritchie, K B; Mcdaniel, L; Paul, V J

    2015-04-01

    Successful larval settlement and recruitment by corals is critical for the survival of coral reef ecosystems. Several closely related strains of γ-proteobacteria have been identified as cues for coral larval settlement, but the inductive properties of other bacterial taxa naturally occurring in reef ecosystems have not yet been explored. In this study, we assayed bacterial strains representing taxonomic groups consistently detected in corals for their ability to influence larval settlement in the coral Porites astreoides. We identified one α-proteobacterial strain, Roseivivax sp. 46E8, which significantly increased larval settlement in P. astreoides. Logarithmic growth phase (log phase) cell cultures of Roseivivax sp. 46E8 and filtrates (0.22μm) from log phase Roseivivax sp. 46E8 cultures significantly increased settlement, suggesting that an extracellular settlement factor is produced during active growth phase. Filtrates from log phase cultures of two other bacterial isolates, Marinobacter sp. 46E3, and Cytophaga sp. 46B6, also significantly increased settlement, but the cell cultures themselves did not. Monospecific biofilms of the three strains did not result in significant increases in larval settlement. Organic and aqueous/methanol extracts of Roseivivax sp. 46E8 cultures did not affect larval settlement. Examination of filtrates from cell cultures showed that Roseivivax sp. 46E8 spontaneously generated virus-like particles in log and stationary phase growth. Though the mechanism of settlement enhancement by Roseivivax sp. 46E8 is not yet elucidated, our findings point to a new aspect of coral-Roseobacter interactions that should be further investigated, especially in naturally occurring, complex microbial biofilms on reef surfaces. PMID:25920713

  3. Larval green and white sturgeon swimming performance in relation to water-diversion flows

    PubMed Central

    Verhille, Christine E.; Poletto, Jamilynn B.; Cocherell, Dennis E.; DeCourten, Bethany; Baird, Sarah; Cech, Joseph J.; Fangue, Nann A.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known of the swimming capacities of larval sturgeons, despite global population declines in many species due in part to fragmentation of their spawning and rearing habitats by man-made water-diversion structures. Larval green (Acipenser medirostris) and white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) inhabit the highly altered Sacramento–San Joaquin watershed, making them logical species to examine vulnerability to entrainment by altered water flows. The risk of larval sturgeon entrainment is influenced by the ontogeny of swimming capacity and dispersal timing and their interactions with water-diversion structure operations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe and compare the ontogeny and allometry of larval green and white sturgeon swimming capacities until completion of metamorphosis into juveniles. Despite the faster growth rates and eventual larger size of larval white sturgeon, green sturgeon critical swimming velocities remained consistently, though modestly, greater than those of white sturgeon throughout the larval life stage. Although behavioural interactions with water-diversion structures are also important considerations, regarding swimming capacity, Sacramento–San Joaquin sturgeons are most vulnerable to entrainment in February–May, when white sturgeon early larvae are in the middle Sacramento River, and April–May, when green sturgeon early larvae are in the upper river. Green sturgeon migrating downstream to the estuary and bays in October–November are also susceptible to entrainment due to their movements combined with seasonal declines in their swimming capacity. An additional inter-species comparison of the allometric relationship between critical swimming velocities and total length with several sturgeon species found throughout the world suggests a similar ontogeny of swimming capacity with growth. Therefore, although dispersal and behaviour differ among river systems and sturgeon species, similar recommendations are

  4. Effects of metal and predator stressors in larval southern toads (Anaxyrus terrestris).

    PubMed

    Rumrill, Caitlin T; Scott, David E; Lance, Stacey L

    2016-08-01

    Natural and anthropogenic stressors typically do not occur in isolation; therefore, understanding ecological risk of contaminant exposure should account for potential interactions of multiple stressors. Realistically, common contaminants can also occur chronically in the environment. Because parental exposure to stressors may cause transgenerational effects on offspring, affecting their ability to cope with the same or novel environmental stressors, the exposure histories of generations preceding that being tested should be considered. To examine multiple stressor and parental exposure effects we employed a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design in outdoor 1000-L mesocosms (n = 24). Larval southern toads (Anaxyrus terrestris), bred from parents collected from reference and metal-contaminated sites, were exposed to two levels of both an anthropogenic (copper-0, 30 µg/L Cu) and natural (predator cue - present/absent) stressor and reared to metamorphosis. Toads from the metal-contaminated parental source population were smaller at metamorphosis and had delayed development; i.e., a prolonged larval period. Similarly, larval Cu exposure also reduced size at metamorphosis and prolonged the larval period. We, additionally, observed a significant interaction between larval Cu and predator-cue exposure on larval period, wherein delayed emergence was only present in the 30-µg/L Cu treatments in the absence of predator cues. The presence of parental effects as well as an interaction between aquatic stressors on commonly measured endpoints highlight the importance of conducting multistressor studies across generations to obtain data that are more relevant to field conditions in order to determine population-level effects of contaminant exposure. PMID:27272662

  5. A note on the population genetic consequences of delayed larval development in insects.

    PubMed

    de Salles, Marcos Mattoso; Otto, Paulo A

    2013-09-01

    Observations by Dobzhansky's group in the 1940s suggesting that the presence of recessive genotypes could account for lower larval developmental rates in Drosophila melanogaster were not confirmed at the time and all subsequent investigations on this subject focused on the analysis of ecological models based on competition among pre-adult individuals. However, a paper published in this journal in 1991 eventually confirmed the finding made by Dobzhansky and his co-workers. In this report, we provide a theoretical analysis of the population genetic effects of a delay in the rate of larval development produced by such a genetic mechanism. PMID:24130452

  6. First Record and Larval Habitat Description of Culex (Melanoconion) pilosus from Buenos Aires Province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Urcola, Juan Ignacio; Fischer, Sylvia

    2015-09-01

    Larvae of Culex (Melanoconion) pilosus were collected during February-April 2014 in temporary pools in "Bosques de Ezeiza," a large forested park, near Buenos Aires city, Argentina. This is the first record in Buenos Aires Province, extending the distribution of this species 380 km to the south. Regarding habitat use, Cx. (Mel.) pilosus is a generalist, although a slight association of larval abundances with pools of lower pH and higher vegetation cover was observed. The comparison of larval instars of Cx. (Mel.) pilosus with those of other genera suggests a life-history strategy similar to that of floodwater mosquitoes. PMID:26375909

  7. Larval ontogenetic stages of Chaetopterus: developmental heterochrony in the evolution of chaetopterid polychaetes.

    PubMed

    Irvine, S Q; Chaga, O; Martindale, M Q

    1999-12-01

    Seven post-gastrulation larval stages are described for the sedentary polychaete Chaetopterus. Analysis of larval anatomy and morphology through ontogeny reveals significant differences in the temporal sequence of segmentation, and in the character of segments formed, from the typical embryological pattern described for other polychaete families, such as nereidids or spionids. When compared in alternative phylogenetic schemes, these differences represent significant developmental heterochrony, among other evolutionary transitions, which has arisen in the chaetopterid lineage. The heterochrony is correlated with the extreme morphological regionalization along the anterior-posterior body axis, a feature that is also characteristic of chaetopterids. PMID:10630333

  8. Comparative toxicity of 3-trifluormethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) to larval lampreys and eleven species of fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Applegate, Vernon C.; King, Everett L.

    1962-01-01

    The tolerances of larval lampreys, rainbow trout, and 10 species of warmwater fishes to 3-trifluormethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM), a selective lamprey larvicide, were determined in three dilution waters of different physical and chemical characteristics. Differential toxic effects of the chemical to larval lampreys and test fishes varied broadly with the species of fish. Smallmouth bass and other centrarchids were most tolerant of the chemical; walleye, yellow perch, bullheads, and white suckers were most susceptible. The toxicity of TFM to both lampreys and fishes diminished as the conductivity and alkalinity of the dilution water increased. The differential action of the chemical was retained in all waters, however.

  9. LIMNETIC LARVAL FISH IN THE NEARSHORE ZONE OF THE SOUTH SHORE OF THE CENTRAL BASIN OF LAKE ERIE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents the results of a survey of larval fish in the nearshore zone of the central basin of Lake Erie from Conneaut to Sandusky, Ohio. Larval fish were sampled at 10 transects during each of 8 cruise periods between 2 May and 9 August 1978. Concentrations of fish la...

  10. PHOTO-INDUCED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON TOXIC POTENTIALS OF NEAR SHORE LARVAL FISH HABITAT IN THE GREAT LAKES, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Photo-induced toxicity (PIT) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) has been documented in laboratory studies for both invertebrate and vertebrate aquatic organisms. PIT has not been verified in field studies for larval fish to date. Filtered water samples and larval fish were...

  11. Effect of Larval Competition on Extrinsic Incubation Period and Vectorial Capacity of Aedes albopictus for Dengue Virus.

    PubMed

    Bara, Jeffrey; Rapti, Zoi; Cáceres, Carla E; Muturi, Ephantus J

    2015-01-01

    Despite the growing awareness that larval competition can influence adult mosquito life history traits including susceptibility to pathogens, the net effect of larval competition on human risk of exposure to mosquito-borne pathogens remains poorly understood. We examined how intraspecific larval competition affects dengue-2 virus (DENV-2) extrinsic incubation period and vectorial capacity of its natural vector Aedes albopictus. Adult Ae. albopictus from low and high-larval density conditions were orally challenged with DENV-2 and then assayed for virus infection and dissemination rates following a 6, 9, or 12-day incubation period using real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR. We then modeled the effect of larval competition on vectorial capacity using parameter estimates obtained from peer-reviewed field and laboratory studies. Larval competition resulted in significantly longer development times, lower emergence rates, and smaller adults, but did not significantly affect the extrinsic incubation period of DENV-2 in Ae. albopictus. Our vectorial capacity models suggest that the effect of larval competition on adult mosquito longevity likely has a greater influence on vectorial capacity relative to any competition-induced changes in vector competence. Furthermore, we found that large increases in the viral dissemination rate may be necessary to compensate for small competition-induced reductions in daily survivorship. Our results indicate that mosquito populations that experience stress from larval competition are likely to have a reduced vectorial capacity, even when susceptibility to pathogens is enhanced. PMID:25951173

  12. Life History Changes in Coral Fluorescence and the Effects of Light Intensity on Larval Physiology and Settlement in Seriatopora hystrix

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Melissa S.; Fan, Tung-Yung; Deheyn, Dimitri D.

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescence is common in both coral adult and larval stages, and is produced by fluorescent proteins that absorb higher energy light and emit lower energy light. This study investigated the changes of coral fluorescence in different life history stages and the effects of parental light environment on larval fluorescence, larval endosymbiotic dinoflagellate abundance, larval size and settlement in the brooding coral Seriatopora hystrix. Data showed that coral fluorescence changed during development from green in larvae to cyan in adult colonies. In larvae, two green fluorescent proteins (GFPs) co-occur where the peak emission of one GFP overlaps with the peak excitation of the second GFP allowing the potential for energy transfer. Coral larvae showed great variation in GFP fluorescence, dinoflagellate abundance, and size. There was no obvious relationship between green fluorescence intensity and dinoflagellate abundance, green fluorescence intensity and larval size, or dinoflagellate abundance and larval size. Larvae of parents from high and low light treatments showed similar green fluorescence intensity, yet small but significant differences in size, dinoflagellate abundance, and settlement. The large variation in larval physiology combined with subtle effects of parental environment on larval characteristics seem to indicate that even though adult corals produce larvae with a wide range of physiological capacities, these larvae can still show small preferences for settling in similar habitats as their parents. These data highlight the importance of environmental conditions at the onset of life history and parent colony effects on coral larvae. PMID:23544072

  13. Effect of Larval Competition on Extrinsic Incubation Period and Vectorial Capacity of Aedes albopictus for Dengue Virus

    PubMed Central

    Bara, Jeffrey; Rapti, Zoi; Cáceres, Carla E.; Muturi, Ephantus J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the growing awareness that larval competition can influence adult mosquito life history traits including susceptibility to pathogens, the net effect of larval competition on human risk of exposure to mosquito-borne pathogens remains poorly understood. We examined how intraspecific larval competition affects dengue-2 virus (DENV-2) extrinsic incubation period and vectorial capacity of its natural vector Aedes albopictus. Adult Ae. albopictus from low and high-larval density conditions were orally challenged with DENV-2 and then assayed for virus infection and dissemination rates following a 6, 9, or 12-day incubation period using real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR. We then modeled the effect of larval competition on vectorial capacity using parameter estimates obtained from peer-reviewed field and laboratory studies. Larval competition resulted in significantly longer development times, lower emergence rates, and smaller adults, but did not significantly affect the extrinsic incubation period of DENV-2 in Ae. albopictus. Our vectorial capacity models suggest that the effect of larval competition on adult mosquito longevity likely has a greater influence on vectorial capacity relative to any competition-induced changes in vector competence. Furthermore, we found that large increases in the viral dissemination rate may be necessary to compensate for small competition-induced reductions in daily survivorship. Our results indicate that mosquito populations that experience stress from larval competition are likely to have a reduced vectorial capacity, even when susceptibility to pathogens is enhanced. PMID:25951173

  14. Impacts of a gape limited Brook Trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, on larval Northwestern salamander, Ambystoma gracile, growth: A field enclosure experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Currens, C.R.; Liss, W.J.; Hoffman, R.L.

    2007-01-01

    The formation of amphibian population structure is directly affected by predation. Although aquatic predators have been shown to have direct negative effects on larval salamanders in laboratory and field experiments, the potential impacts of gape-limited fish on larval salamander growth has been largely underexplored. We designed an enclosure experiment conducted in situ to quantify the effects of gape-limited Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) on larval Northwestern Salamander (Ambystoma gracile) growth. We specifically tested whether the presence of fish too small to consume larvae had a negative effect on larval growth. The results of this study indicate that the presence of a gape-limited S. fontinalis can have a negative effect on growth of larval A. gracile salamanders. Copyright 2007 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  15. Oyster larval transport in coastal Alabama: Dominance of physical transport over biological behavior in a shallow estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Choong-Ki; Park, Kyeong; Powers, Sean P.; Graham, William M.; Bayha, Keith M.

    2010-10-01

    Among the various factors affecting recruitment of marine invertebrates and fish, larval transport may produce spatial and temporal patterns of abundance that are important determinants of management strategies. Here we conducted a field and modeling study to investigate the larval transport of eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, in Mobile Bay and eastern Mississippi Sound, Alabama. A three-dimensional larval transport model accounting for physical transport, biological movement of larvae, and site- and larval-specific conditions was developed. A hydrodynamic model was used to simulate physical transport, and biological movement was parameterized as a function of swimming and sinking velocity of oyster larvae. Site- and larval-specific conditions, including spawning location, spawning stock size, spawning time, and larval period, were determined based on the previous studies. The model reasonably reproduced the observed gradient in oyster spat settlement and bivalve larval concentration, although the model results were less dynamic than the data, probably owing to the simplified biological conditions employed in the model. A persistent gradient decreasing from west to east in the model results at time scales of overall average, season, and each survey in 2006 suggests that the larval supply may be responsible for the corresponding gradient in oyster spat settlement observed over the past 40 years. Biological movement increased larval retention near the spawning area, thus providing a favorable condition for local recruitment of oysters. Inclusion of biological movement, however, caused little change in the overall patterns of larval transport and still resulted in a west-east gradient, presumably because of frequent destratification in the shallow Mobile Bay system.

  16. New records of larval stages of the eel cod genus Muraenolepis Günther 1880 (Gadiformes: Muraenolepididae) from the western Antarctic Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Konstantinidis, P; Hilton, E J; Matarese, A C

    2016-08-01

    Three newly discovered larval specimens of the genus Muraenolepis collected from the waters of the western Antarctic Peninsula are described. Knowledge of their natural history is sparse and information about their early life history is based on only a few larval stages. Here, the available literature on larval eel cods is reviewed, and the specimens placed in context. PMID:27354338

  17. Physiological effects of compensatory growth during the larval stage of the ladybird, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jiaqin; De Clercq, Patrick; Pan, Chang; Li, Haosen; Zhang, Yuhong; Pang, Hong

    2015-12-01

    The growth rate of insects may vary in response to shifty environments. They may achieve compensatory growth after a period of food restriction followed by ad libitum food, which may further affect the reproductive performance and lifespan of the resulting phenotypes. However, little is known about the physiological mechanisms associated with such growth acceleration in insects. The present study examined the metabolic rate, the antioxidant enzyme activity and the gene expression of adult Cryptolaemus montrouzieri (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) after experiencing compensatory growth during its larval stages. Starved C. montrouzieri individuals achieved a similar developmental time and adult body mass as those supplied with ad libitum food during their entire larval stage, indicating that compensatory growth occurred as a result of the switch in larval food regime. Further, the compensatory growth was found to exert effects on the physiological functions of C. montrouzieri, in terms of its metabolic rates and enzyme activities. The adults undergoing compensatory growth were characterized by a higher metabolic rate, a lower activity of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione reductase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase and a lower gene expression of P450 and trehalase. Taken together, the results indicate that although compensatory growth following food restriction in early larval life prevents developmental delay and body mass loss, the resulting adults may encounter physiological challenges affecting their fitness. PMID:26546057

  18. Pyriproxyfen and house flies (Diptera: Muscidae): effects of direct exposure and autodissemination to larval habitats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult house flies (Musca domestica L.) that were exposed as young flies to filter paper (3.75 % a.i.) or sugar (0.01-0.1 %) treated with pyriproxyfen produced significantly fewer F1 pupae than untreated flies but adult emergence success from pupae was unaffected. In contrast, treatment of larval re...

  19. Swimming Speed of Larval Snail Does Not Correlate with Size and Ciliary Beat Frequency

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kit Yu Karen; Jiang, Houshuo; Padilla, Dianna K.

    2013-01-01

    Many marine invertebrates have planktonic larvae with cilia used for both propulsion and capturing of food particles. Hence, changes in ciliary activity have implications for larval nutrition and ability to navigate the water column, which in turn affect survival and dispersal. Using high-speed high-resolution microvideography, we examined the relationship between swimming speed, velar arrangements, and ciliary beat frequency of freely swimming veliger larvae of the gastropod Crepidula fornicata over the course of larval development. Average swimming speed was greatest 6 days post hatching, suggesting a reduction in swimming speed towards settlement. At a given age, veliger larvae have highly variable speeds (0.8–4 body lengths s−1) that are independent of shell size. Contrary to the hypothesis that an increase in ciliary beat frequency increases work done, and therefore speed, there was no significant correlation between swimming speed and ciliary beat frequency. Instead, there are significant correlations between swimming speed and visible area of the velar lobe, and distance between centroids of velum and larval shell. These observations suggest an alternative hypothesis that, instead of modifying ciliary beat frequency, larval C. fornicata modify swimming through adjustment of velum extension or orientation. The ability to adjust velum position could influence particle capture efficiency and fluid disturbance and help promote survival in the plankton. PMID:24367554

  20. Legacy of road salt: Apparent positive larval effects counteracted by negative postmetamorphic effects in wood frogs.

    PubMed

    Dananay, Kacey L; Krynak, Katherine L; Krynak, Timothy J; Benard, Michael F

    2015-10-01

    Road salt runoff has potentially large effects on wetland communities, but is typically investigated in short-term laboratory trials. The authors investigated effects of road salt contamination on wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) by combining a field survey with 2 separate experiments. The field survey tested whether wood frog larval traits were associated with road salt contamination in natural wetlands. As conductivity increased, wood frog larvae were less abundant, but those found were larger. In the first experiment of the present study, the authors raised larvae in outdoor artificial ponds under 4 salt concentrations and measured larval vital rates, algal biomass, and zooplankton abundance. Salt significantly increased larval growth, algal biomass, and decreased zooplankton abundance. In the second experiment, the authors raised larvae to metamorphosis in the presence and absence of salt contamination and followed resulting juvenile frogs in terrestrial pens at high and low densities. Exposure to road salt as larvae caused juvenile frogs to have greater mortality in low-density terrestrial environments, possibly because of altered energy allocation, changes in behavior, or reduced immune defenses. The present study suggests that low concentrations of road salt can have positive effects on larval growth yet negative effects on juvenile survival. These results emphasize the importance of testing for effects of contaminants acting through food webs and across multiple life stages as well as the potential for population-level consequences in natural environments. PMID:26033303

  1. Transcriptomic profile of Drosophila melanogaster larval midgut and responses to oxidative stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oligoarray analysis was used to determine the number and nature of genes expressed in third-instar Drosophila melanogaster larval midguts. The majority of transcripts were associated with protein synthesis and metabolism. Serine proteases were the main proteolytic enzymes detected. Some 40% of th...

  2. A liquid larval diet for rearing Bactrocera invadens and Ceratitis fasciventris (Diptera:Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White and Ceratitis fasciventris (Bezzi) are the major fruit fly pests of fruits and vegetables in Africa. The effects of two types of larval diet, liquid and solid (carrot based), on various quality control parameters (pupal recovery, pupal weight, adult emergenc...

  3. Transcriptome of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) larval midgut in response to infection by Bacillus thuringiensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transcriptomic profiles of the lepidopteran insect pest Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth) were characterized in the larval midgut in response to infection by the biopesticide Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki. RNA-Seq approaches were used to define a set of 49,613 assembled transcript sequences, of which...

  4. Evaluating efficacy of bacteriophage therapy against Staphylococcus aureus infections using a silkworm larval infection model.

    PubMed

    Takemura-Uchiyama, Iyo; Uchiyama, Jumpei; Kato, Shin-ichiro; Inoue, Tetsuyoshi; Ujihara, Takako; Ohara, Naoya; Daibata, Masanori; Matsuzaki, Shigenobu

    2013-10-01

    Silkworm larva has recently been recognized as an alternative model animal for higher mammals to evaluate the effects of antibiotics. In this study, we examined the efficacy of the bacteriophage (phage) therapy, which harnesses phages as antibacterial agents, against Staphylococcus aureus infections, using the silkworm larval infection model. Two newly isolated staphylococcal phages, S25-3 and S13', were used as therapeutic phage candidates. They were assigned to two different lytic phage genera, Twort-like and AHJD-like viruses, based on their morphologies and the N-terminal amino acid sequences of the major capsid proteins. Both had a broad host range and strong lytic activity and showed preservative quality. Administration of these phages alone caused no adverse effects in the silkworm larvae. Moreover, the viruses showed life-prolonging effects in the silkworm larval infection model 10 min, 6 h, 12 h, and 24 h following infection. Such phage effects in the silkworm larval model were almost paralleled to the therapeutic efficacies in mouse models. These results suggest that phages S25-3 and S13' are eligible as therapeutic candidates and that the silkworm larval model is valid for the evaluation of phage therapy as well as mouse models. PMID:23869440

  5. Larval viability and serological response in horses with long term Trichinella infection.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, 35 horses were infected with 1000, 5000, or 10,000 T. spiralis muscle larvae and the course of infection was followed for 1 year. Larval burdens in selected muscles, the condition and infectivity of larvae in tissue, and the serological response of infected horses were assessed. The ...

  6. Exploring Larval Development and Applications in Marine Fish Aquaculture Using Pink Snapper Embryos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamaru, Clyde; Haverkort-Yeh, Roxanne D.; Gorospe, Kelvin D.; Rivera, Malia Ana J.

    2014-01-01

    This biology investigation on "Pristipomoides filamentosus" larval development, survival, and aquaculture research was developed with three educational objectives: to provide high school students with (1) a scientific background on the biology and science of fisheries as well as overfishing, its consequences, and possible mitigations;…

  7. Evaluation of yeast products in fruit fly adult diet and liquid larval diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several yeasts and yeast products were tested as components of adult diet for Medfly, Ceratitis capitata, Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, and Melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae and larval liquid diet for Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis in mass rearing process. Three hydrolyzed yeasts ...

  8. EXPOSURE METHOD CONSIDERATIONS FOR MEASURING VITELLOGENIN EXPRESSION IN LARVAL AND MALE FATHEAD MINNOWS (PIMEPHALES PROMELAS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our laboratory has developed methods for measuring the expression of the vitellogenin (Vg) gene in larval and adult male fathead minnows. During this development we found several conditions that affect background Vg levels and we observed preconditions for the expression of this...

  9. Fun with Flukes: The Use of ICT in the Study of Larval Trematode Behaviour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rea, J. G.; Irwin, S. W. B.

    2001-01-01

    Recommends a number of investigations using video-capture and two readily available, non-pathogenic larval Digeneans with contrasting life cycles and behavior. The activities support the hypothesis that parasites exhibit behavior that increases their chances of a host infection. (DDR)

  10. Properties of the Visible Light Phototaxis and UV Avoidance Behaviors in the Larval Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Guggiana-Nilo, Drago A.; Engert, Florian

    2016-01-01

    For many organisms, color is an essential source of information from visual scenes. The larval zebrafish has the potential to be a model for the study of this topic, given its tetrachromatic retina and high dependence on vision. In this study we took a step toward understanding how the larval zebrafish might use color sensing. To this end, we used a projector-based paradigm to force a choice of a color stimulus at every turn of the larva. The stimuli used spanned most of the larval spectral range, including activation of its Ultraviolet (UV) cone, which has not been described behaviorally before. We found that zebrafish larvae swim toward visible wavelengths (>400 nm) when choosing between them and darkness, as has been reported with white light. However, when presented with UV light and darkness zebrafish show an intensity dependent avoidance behavior. This UV avoidance does not interact cooperatively with phototaxis toward longer wavelengths, but can compete against it in an intensity dependent manner. Finally, we show that the avoidance behavior depends on the presence of eyes with functional UV cones. These findings open future avenues for studying the neural circuits that underlie color sensing in the larval zebrafish. PMID:27594828

  11. Response of larval sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) to pulsed DC electrical stimuli in laboratory experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, Anjanette K.; Weisser, John W.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Famoye, Felix

    2003-01-01

    Four electrical factors that are used in pulsed DC electrofishing for larval sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) were evaluated in two laboratory studies to determine the optimal values to induce larval emergence over a range of water temperatures and conductivities. Burrowed larvae were exposed to combinations of pulsed DC electrical factors including five pulse frequencies, three pulse patterns, and two levels of duty cycle over a range of seven voltage gradients in two separate studies conducted at water temperatures of 10, 15, and 20°C and water conductivities of 25, 200, and 900 μS/cm. A four-way analysis of variance was used to determine significant (α = 0.05) influences of each electrical factor on larval emergence. Multiple comparison tests with Bonferroni adjustments were used to determine which values of each factor resulted in significantly higher emergence at each temperature and conductivity. Voltage gradient and pulse frequency significantly affected emergence according to the ANOVA model at each temperature and conductivity tested. Duty cycle and pulse pattern generally did not significantly influence the model. Findings suggest that a setting of 2.0 V/cm, 3 pulses/sec, 10% duty, and 2:2 pulse pattern seems the most promising in waters of medium conductivity and across a variety of temperatures. This information provides a basis for understanding larval response to pulsed DC electrofishing gear factors and identifies electrofisher settings that show promise to increase the efficiency of the gear during assessments for burrowed sea lamprey larvae.

  12. The safety of 17a-methyltestosterone administered in feed to larval Nile tilapia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Techniques developed to control sexual differentiation in fishes have typically involved androgen or estrogen (i.e., steroid) treatment, which directs sexual differentiation toward males or females. Treatment regimens have included immersion of larval fish in water containing a steroid, incorporati...

  13. Strain-Specific Changes in Locomotor Behavior in Larval Zebrafish Elicited by Cholinergic Challenge

    EPA Science Inventory

    Some studies have compared the baseline behavior of different strains of larval zebrafish (Danio rerio), but there is sparse information on strain-specific responses to chemical challenges. The following study examines both the basal activity and response to a pharmacological cha...

  14. Effect of Leaf Type and Pesticide Exposure on Abundance of Bacterial Taxa in Mosquito Larval Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Muturi, Ephantus J.; Orindi, Benedict O.; Kim, Chang-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Lentic freshwater systems including those inhabited by aquatic stages of mosquitoes derive most of their carbon inputs from terrestrial organic matter mainly leaf litter. The leaf litter is colonized by microbial communities that provide the resource base for mosquito larvae. While the microbial biomass associated with different leaf species in container aquatic habitats is well documented, the taxonomic composition of these microbes and their response to common environmental stressors is poorly understood. We used indoor aquatic microcosms to determine the abundances of major taxonomic groups of bacteria in leaf litters from seven plant species and their responses to low concentrations of four pesticides with different modes of action on the target organisms; permethrin, malathion, atrazine and glyphosate. We tested the hypotheses that leaf species support different quantities of major taxonomic groups of bacteria and that exposure to pesticides at environmentally relevant concentrations alters bacterial abundance and community structure in mosquito larval habitats. We found support for both hypotheses suggesting that leaf litter identity and chemical contamination may alter the quality and quantity of mosquito food base (microbial communities) in larval habitats. The effect of pesticides on microbial communities varied significantly among leaf types, suggesting that the impact of pesticides on natural microbial communities may be highly complex and difficult to predict. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the potential for detritus composition within mosquito larval habitats and exposure to pesticides to influence the quality of mosquito larval habitats. PMID:23940789

  15. Quantitative Proteomics Study of Larval Settlement in the Barnacle Balanus amphitrite

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hao; Matsumura, Kiyotaka; Wong, Yue Him; Ravasi, Timothy; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Barnacles are major sessile components of the intertidal areas worldwide, and also one of the most dominant fouling organisms in fouling communities. Larval settlement has a crucial ecological effect not only on the distribution of the barnacle population but also intertidal community structures. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the transition process from the larval to the juvenile stage remain largely unclear. In this study, we carried out comparative proteomic profiles of stage II nauplii, stage VI nauplii, cyprids, and juveniles of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite using label-free quantitative proteomics, followed by the measurement of the gene expression levels of candidate proteins. More than 700 proteins were identified at each stage; 80 were significantly up-regulated in cyprids and 95 in juveniles vs other stages. Specifically, proteins involved in energy and metabolism, the nervous system and signal transduction were significantly up-regulated in cyprids, whereas proteins involved in cytoskeletal remodeling, transcription and translation, cell proliferation and differentiation, and biomineralization were up-regulated in juveniles, consistent with changes associated with larval metamorphosis and tissue remodeling in juveniles. These findings provided molecular evidence for the morphological, physiological and biological changes that occur during the transition process from the larval to the juvenile stages in B. amphitrite. PMID:24551147

  16. INFLUENCE OF AN INSECT GROWTH REGULATOR ON THE LARVAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE MUD CRAB RHITHOPANOPEUS HARRISSII

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of the juvenile hormone analogue (S)-methoprene on the larval development and survival of the estuarine mud crab hithropanopeus harrisii were examined in the laboratory. rablarvae continuously exposed to 1000 ug (S)-methoprene/liter did not survive beyond zoeal stage I. i...

  17. Bioecology of Stenoma catenifer (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) and associated larval parasitoids reared from Hass avocados in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Hoddle, Mark S; Hoddle, Christina D

    2008-06-01

    A 10-wk study of the avocado seed-feeding moth Stenoma catenifer Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae), was conducted in a commercial 'Hass' avocado (Persea americana Miller [Lauraceae]) orchard in Guatemala. Up to 45% of fruit in the orchard were damaged by larval S. catenifer. Larval-to-adult survivorship for 1,881 S. catenifer larvae in Hass fruit was 37%, and adult sex ratio was 51% female. Four species of larval parasitoid were reared from field-collected S. catenifer larvae. The most common parasitoid reared was a gregarious Apanteles sp., which parasitized 53% of larvae and produced on average eight to nine cocoons per host. Apanteles sp. sex ratio was 47% female and 87% of parasitoids emerged successfully from cocoons. Apanteles sp. longevity was approximately equal to 1.5 d in the absence of food, and when provisioned with honey, parasitoids survived for 5-7 d. The mean number of cocoons produced by Apanteles sp. per host, and larval parasitism rates were not significantly affected by the number of S. catenifer larvae inhabiting seeds. Oviposition studies conducted with S. catenifer in the laboratory indicated that this moth lays significantly more eggs on the branch to which the fruit pedicel is attached than on avocado fruit. When given a choice between Hass and non-Hass avocados, S. catenifer lays up to 2.69 times more eggs on Hass. PMID:18613567

  18. Properties of the Visible Light Phototaxis and UV Avoidance Behaviors in the Larval Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Guggiana-Nilo, Drago A; Engert, Florian

    2016-01-01

    For many organisms, color is an essential source of information from visual scenes. The larval zebrafish has the potential to be a model for the study of this topic, given its tetrachromatic retina and high dependence on vision. In this study we took a step toward understanding how the larval zebrafish might use color sensing. To this end, we used a projector-based paradigm to force a choice of a color stimulus at every turn of the larva. The stimuli used spanned most of the larval spectral range, including activation of its Ultraviolet (UV) cone, which has not been described behaviorally before. We found that zebrafish larvae swim toward visible wavelengths (>400 nm) when choosing between them and darkness, as has been reported with white light. However, when presented with UV light and darkness zebrafish show an intensity dependent avoidance behavior. This UV avoidance does not interact cooperatively with phototaxis toward longer wavelengths, but can compete against it in an intensity dependent manner. Finally, we show that the avoidance behavior depends on the presence of eyes with functional UV cones. These findings open future avenues for studying the neural circuits that underlie color sensing in the larval zebrafish. PMID:27594828

  19. Acidification reduced growth rate but not swimming speed of larval sea urchins

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kit Yu Karen; García, Eliseba; Dupont, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Swimming behaviors of planktonic larvae impact dispersal and population dynamics of many benthic marine invertebrates. This key ecological function is modulated by larval development dynamics, biomechanics of the resulting morphology, and behavioral choices. Studies on ocean acidification effects on larval stages have yet to address this important interaction between development and swimming under environmentally-relevant flow conditions. Our video motion analysis revealed that pH covering present and future natural variability (pH 8.0, 7.6 and 7.2) did not affect age-specific swimming of larval green urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis in still water nor in shear, despite acidified individuals being significantly smaller in size (reduced growth rate). This maintenance of speed and stability in shear was accompanied by an overall change in size-corrected shape, implying changes in swimming biomechanics. Our observations highlight strong evolutionary pressure to maintain swimming in a varying environment and the plasticity in larval responses to environmental change. PMID:25978405

  20. Development of a larval diet for the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera:Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mass-rearing protocols must be developed. In particular, a cost-effective larval diet, to implement the sterile insect technique against Anastrepha fratercculus (Wiedemann). The key elements of this diet are the optimal nutrients and their concentrations, diet supports or bulking agents, and the pH ...

  1. Worker honey bee ovary development: seasonal variation and the influence of larval and adult nutrition.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Shelley E R; Higo, Heather A; Winston, Mark L

    2006-01-01

    We examined the effect of larval and adult nutrition on worker honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) ovary development. Workers were fed high or low-pollen diets as larvae, and high or low-protein diets as adults. Workers fed low-protein diets at both life stages had the lowest levels of ovary development, followed by those fed high-protein diets as larvae and low- quality diets as adults, and then those fed diets poor in protein as larvae but high as adults. Workers fed high-protein diets at both life stages had the highest levels of ovary development. The increases in ovary development due to improved dietary protein in the larval and adult life stages were additive. Adult diet also had an effect on body mass. The results demonstrate that both carry-over of larval reserves and nutrients acquired in the adult life stage are important to ovary development in worker honey bees. Carry-over from larval development, however, appears to be less important to adult fecundity than is adult nutrition. Seasonal trends in worker ovary development and mass were examined throughout the brood rearing season. Worker ovary development was lowest in spring, highest in mid-summer, and intermediate in fall. PMID:16228242

  2. A review of postfeeding larval dispersal in blowflies: implications for forensic entomology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Leonardo; Godoy, Wesley Augusto Conde; von Zuben, Claudio José

    2006-05-01

    Immature and adult stages of blowflies are one of the primary invertebrate consumers of decomposing animal organic matter. When the food supply is consumed or when the larvae complete their development and migrate prior to the total removal of the larval substrate, they disperse to find adequate places for pupation, a process known as postfeeding larval dispersal. Several important ecological and physiological aspects of this process were studied since the work by Green (Ann Appl Biol 38:475, 1951) 50 years ago. An understanding of postfeeding larval dispersal can be useful for determining the postmortem interval (PMI) of human cadavers in legal medicine, particularly because this interval may be underestimated if older dispersing larvae or those that disperse longer, faster, and deeper are not taken into account. In this article, we review the process of postfeeding larval dispersal and its implications for legal medicine, in particular showing that aspects such as burial behavior and competition among species of blowflies can influence this process and consequently, the estimation of PMI.

  3. COMPARATIVE ACUTE SENSITIVITY OF LARVAL TOPSMELT, , ATHERINOPS AFFINIS, AND INLAND SILVERSIDES, MENIDIA BERYLLINA, TO ELEVEN CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Larval topsmelt (Atherinops affinis) and inland Silversides (Menidia eryllina) were exposed in 96-hr static acute toxicity tests to eleven chemicals to determine the relative sensitivity of the two atherinid species. igh to low LC50 ratios for endosulfan, methoxychlor, carbopheno...

  4. Functional Assays and Alternative Species: Using Larval Zebrafish in Developmental Neurotoxicity Screening

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is developing and evaluating methods to screen and prioritize large numbers of chemicals for developmental toxicity. Towards this goal, we are exploring methods to detect developmental neurotoxicants in very young larval zebrafish. We have...

  5. Correlating Whole Brain Neural Activity with Behavior in Head-Fixed Larval Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Orger, Michael B; Portugues, Ruben

    2016-01-01

    We present a protocol to combine behavioral recording and imaging using 2-photon laser-scanning microscopy in head-fixed larval zebrafish that express a genetically encoded calcium indicator. The steps involve restraining the larva in agarose, setting up optics that allow projection of a visual stimulus and infrared illumination to monitor behavior, and analysis of the neuronal and behavioral data. PMID:27464817

  6. Conspecific cases as alternative grazing surfaces for larval Glossosoma intermedium (Trichoptera:Glossosomatidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cavanaugh, Jennifer C.; Haro, Roger J.; Jones, Shane N.

    2004-01-01

    Larval Glossosoma intermedium are dominant benthic grazers that often deplete their food resources (periphyton). We observed G. Intermedium grazing periphyton from conspecific cases, a possible result of limited resources on stream cobbles, and we hypothesized that case grazing increases when periphyton resources become scarce. This hypothesis was tested by monitoring frequency of case grazing among G. Intermedium in 3 streams in southwest Wisconsin for 1 y, and also in the laboratory using time-lapse video of larvae on tiles with and without periphyton. In situ periphyton biomass was higher on larval cases than on the stream cobbles to which larvae had access, irrespective of density, age, or size structure of G, intermedium. Case grazing was positively related to larval densities at 2 of the 3 streams. In laboratory experiments, larval encounter rates were similar in both tile treatments, although frequency and duration of case grazing increased on tiles lacking periphyton. These results suggest that periphyton on G. Intermedium cases can provide an important resource patch for this species, especially when periphyton biomass is low in the ambient environment.

  7. Effect of six tropical tanniferous plant extracts on larval exsheathment of Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Lorena Mayana Beserra de; Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria Leal; Macedo, Iara Tersia Freitas; Morais, Selene Maia de; Monteiro, Maria Vivina Barros; Campello, Claudio Cabral; Ribeiro, Wesley Lyeverton Correia; Batista, Emanuelle Karine Frota

    2011-01-01

    Tanniferous plants represent a promising alternative for controlling gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants. This experiment evaluated the effects of extracts from the leaf and stem of Anadenanthera colubrina, Leucaena leucocephala and Mimosa tenuiflora on larval exsheathment of Haemonchus contortus in vitro and verified the role of tannins in this process. Third-stage larvae of H. contortus were incubated with extracts for 3 hours and were exposed to sodium hypochlorite solution. The extracts were tested at 300 μg.mL(-1) and accompanied by controls: phosphate buffer solution (PBS) and polyvinyl polypyrrolidone (PVPP). The larval exsheathment was evaluated for 60 minutes, and the results were subjected to the Kruskal-Wallis test (p < 0.05). The six extracts blocked larval exsheathment. After PVPP addition, a tannin inhibitor, the exsheathment percentage was similar to the PBS (p > 0.05), except for L. leucocephala and M. tenuiflora leaf extracts. However, pre-incubation with PVPP of these two extracts significantly changed larval exsheathment when compared to the non-treated extracts (p < 0.05). These results suggest that A. colubrina, L. leucocephala and M. tenuiflora could be useful in gastrointestinal nematode control and that tannins are probably the main compounds involved in the observed effects. However, in vivo and toxicological studies should be conducted. PMID:21722491

  8. LARVAL FISH DIVERSITY IN SUISAN MARSH, CALIFORNIA: ARE INTERMEDIATE FLOWS THE BEST?

    EPA Science Inventory

    We sampled larval fish in Suisun Marsh, in the San Francisco Bay estuary from February to June 1995-1999. We used principal components analysis (PCA) and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) on 13 taxonomic groups making up 99.7% of the catch and several environmental variable...

  9. Inbreeding Effects in Families of Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae): Larval Development in Laboratory Bioassays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inbreeding depression of laboratory-reared insects has the potential to affect their larval performance and reproductive output. Two studies of laboratory-reared colonies of Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) were conducted to assess whether inbreeding affected a laboratory bioass...

  10. Larval quality of aquacultured Florida pompano, Trachinotus carolinus L. fed rotifers enriched with selected commercial diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of larviculture methods for marine finfish has been a major bottleneck to ensure a consistent and reliable source of seed stock. This study examined the effect of selected rotifer enrichment diets on growth, survival, and fatty acid content of larval Florida pompano, Trachinotus carolin...

  11. Larval performance of aquacultured Florida pompano, Trachinotus carolinus L. fed rotifers enriched with selected commercial diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of larviculture methods for marine finfish has been a major bottleneck to ensure a consistent and reliable source of seed stock. This study examined the effect of selected rotifer enrichment diets on growth, survival, and fatty acid content of larval Florida pompano, Trachinotus carolin...

  12. Effect of temperature on larval sunshine bass growth and survival to the fingerling stage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Determining the optimum conditions for tank culture of sunshine bass fingerlings will facilitate a year-round supply of seed for the production cycle of this increasingly popular food fish. This experiment determined the relationship between temperature and larval sunshine bass growth and survival ...

  13. Gonadosomatic mosaicism for lethal mutations in Drosophila lethal mutations disturbing larval development

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, A.I.; Sakharova, N.Yu.

    1988-11-01

    Phenogenetic analysis of autonomous lethal mutations obtained by the method of gonadosomatic mosaicism which manifested during larval stages, established that the nuclei of hypodermal cells, salivary glands suprapharyngeal ganglion, pharynx, esophagus, gizzard, and hindgut are the derivatives of the same nucleus (from the first two nuclei of cleavage) as the nuclei of the cells of the imaginal-somatic tissues.

  14. Identification of volatiles from waste larval rearing media that attract gravid screwworm flies to oviposit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The waste product of the artificial larval rearing media of the primary screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax, attracts gravid female screwworm flies to oviposit. The volatile component of this waste product was collected using solid phase microextraction techniques and subjected to gas chromatography-...

  15. Tracing Nitrogen through Landscapes to Coastal Wetlands using d15N of Larval Fish

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our objective was to evaluate the use of the nitrogen stable isotope value (d15N) of larval fish as an indicator of incipient anthropogenic nitrogen loading to coastal wetlands in the Great Lakes. We sampled coastal wetlands in five Lake Superior south shore tributaries that had ...

  16. Efficacy and longevity of the newly developed catnip oil microcapsules against stable fly oviposition larval growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae), is one of the most important pests of cattle and costs U.S. cattle producers billions of dollars in losses annually. In this study, the efficacy of catnip oil encapsulated in gelatin in oviposition deterrence and larval growth inhibition in st...

  17. Efficacy and longevity of newly developed catnip oil microcapsules against stable fly oviposition and larval growth.

    PubMed

    Zhu, J J; Wienhold, B J; Wehrle, J; Davis, D; Chen, H; Taylor, D; Friesen, K; Zurek, L

    2014-06-01

    The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae), is one of the most important pests of cattle and costs U.S. cattle producers billions of dollars in losses annually. In this study, the efficacy of catnip oil encapsulated in gelatin in oviposition deterrence and larval growth inhibition in stable flies was examined under laboratory conditions. More than 98% inhibition of stable fly larval growth and female oviposition was observed in larval and oviposition media treated with encapsulated catnip oil (0.5 g). Further, dose-response tests showed that as little as 0.1 g of encapsulated catnip oil provided > 85% oviposition deterrence. The release of nepetalactones from the capsules was more rapid when the capsules were placed on a moist substrate rather than a dry substrate. Encapsulated catnip oil also exhibited antibacterial activity, supporting the hypothesis that its inhibition of larval growth may be based on its killing of the bacteria on which larvae feed. The use of encapsulated catnip oil can provide an alternative control strategy for stable fly management. PMID:24111783

  18. The relationship between pelagic larval duration and range size in tropical reef fishes: a synthetic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lester, Sarah E; Ruttenberg, Benjamin I

    2005-01-01

    We address the conflict in earlier results regarding the relationship between dispersal potential and range size. We examine all published pelagic larval duration data for tropical reef fishes. Larval duration is a convenient surrogate for dispersal potential in marine species that are sedentary as adults and that therefore only experience significant dispersal during their larval phase. Such extensive quantitative dispersal data are only available for fishes and thus we use a unique dataset to examine the relationship between dispersal potential and range size. We find that dispersal potential and range size are positively correlated only in the largest ocean basin, the Indo-Pacific, and that this pattern is driven primarily by the spatial distribution of habitat and dispersal barriers. Furthermore, the relationship strengthens at higher taxonomic levels, suggesting an evolutionary mechanism. We document a negative correlation between species richness and larval duration at the family level in the Indo-Pacific, implying that speciation rate may be negatively related to dispersal potential. If increased speciation rate within a taxonomic group results in smaller range sizes within that group, speciation rate could regulate the association between range size and dispersal potential. PMID:16007745

  19. Larval dermestid beetles feeding on nestling snail kites, wood storks, and great blue herons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, N.F.R.; Ogden, J.C.; Bittner, J.D.; Grau, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    In recent years abdominal lesions attributable to larval dermestid beetles (Dermestes nidum) have appeared in nestling Snail (Everglade) Kites (Rostrhamus sociabilis), Wood Storks (Mycteria americana), and Great Blue Herons (Ardea herodias). Although it appears that most nestlings affected have survived, the degree of threat posed by dermestid larvae to various avian species is as yet unclear.

  20. Larval dermestid beetles feeding on nestling snail kites, wood storks, and great blue herons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, N.F.R.; Ogden, J.C.; Bittner, J.D.; Grau, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    In recent years abdominal lesions attributable to larval dermestid beetles (D. nidum) have appeared in nestling snail (Everglade) kites (R. sociabilis), wood storks (M. americana) and great blue herons (A. herodias). Although it appears that most nestlings affected have survived, the degree of threat posed by dermestid larvae to various avian species is as yet unclear.

  1. Dispersal of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) from larval development sites in a Nebraska landscape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seven mark recapture studies of stable flies wer conducted in a mixed agricultural environment in northeastern Nebraska. Larval developmental sites were marked by dusting the surface with fluorescent pigments and stable flies were recaptured with grids of Alsynite sticky traps. Recaptured flies were...

  2. Ingestibility, digestibility, and engineered biological control potential of Flavobacterium hibernum, isolated from larval mosquito habitats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shicheng; Kaufman, Michael G; Korir, Michelle L; Walker, Edward D

    2014-02-01

    Flavobacterium hibernum, isolated from larval habitats of the eastern tree hole mosquito, A. triseriatus, remained suspended in the larval feeding zone much longer (8 days) than other bacteria. Autofluorescent protein markers were developed for the labeling of F. hibernum with a strong flavobacterial expression system. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged F. hibernum cells were quickly consumed by larval mosquitoes at an ingestion rate of 9.5 × 10(4)/larva/h. The ingested F. hibernum cells were observed mostly in the foregut and midgut and rarely in the hindgut, suggesting that cells were digested and did not pass the gut viably. The NanoLuc luciferase reporter system was validated for quantitative larval ingestion rate and bacterial fate analyses. Larvae digested 1.87 × 10(5) cells/larva/h, and few F. hibernum cells were excreted intact. Expression of the GFP::Cry11A fusion protein with the P20 chaperone protein from Bacillus thuringiensis H-14 was successfully achieved in F. hibernum. Whole-cell bioassays of recombinant F. hibernum exhibited high larvicidal activity against A. triseriatus in microplates and in microcosms simulating tree holes. F. hibernum cells persisted in microcosms at 100, 59, 30, and 10% of the initial densities at days 1, 2, 3, and 6, respectively, when larvae were absent, while larvae consumed nearly all of the F. hibernum cells within 3 days of their addition to microcosms. PMID:24296502

  3. LARVAL FISH DISTRIBUTIONS IN SOUTHWESTERN LAKE ERIE NEAR THE MONROE POWER PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents and discusses studies of larval fish distribution near a large power plant on western Lake Erie using methods that attempt to account for the confounding effect of environmental variation on technique effectiveness. Distributions in the coastal zone were sampl...

  4. LARVAL SALAMANDER GROWTH RESPONDS TO ENRICHMENT OF A NUTRIENT POOR HEADWATER STREAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    While many studies have measured effects of nutrient enrichment on higher trophic levels in grazing food webs, few such studies exist for detritus-based systems. We measured effects of nitrogen and phosphorus addition on growth of larval Eruycea wilderae in a heterotrophic head...

  5. Analysis of ESTs Generated from Immune-Stimulated Hemocytes of Larval Heliothis virescens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heliothis virescens immunome components responding to baculoviral and bacterial infection were identified from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) generated from an immune-stimulated larval hemocyte cDNA library. A total of 5548 ESTs were generated comprising 448 contigs and 1114 singletons, totaling 16...

  6. SAMPLING LARVAL FISH IN THE LITTORAL ZONE OF WESTERN LAKE ERIE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sampling techniques for larval fish were evaluated in the littoral zone (1- to 6-m deep) of western Lake Erie in 1975 and 1976. Catch rates were compared using slow-speed, 1-m-diameter plankton nets in daytime and nighttime oblique and stratified tows above bottom and in daytime ...

  7. Proteolytic activity regarding Sarconesiopsis magellanica (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larval excretions and secretions.

    PubMed

    Pinilla, Yudi T; Moreno-Pérez, Darwin A; Patarroyo, Manuel A; Bello, Felio J

    2013-12-01

    Sarconesiopsis magellanica (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is a medically important necrophagous fly which is used for establishing the post-mortem interval. Diptera maggots release proteolytic enzymes contained in larval excretion and secretion (ES) products playing a key role in digestion. Special interest in proteolytic enzymes has also been aroused regarding understanding their role in wound healing since they degrade necrotic tissue during larval therapy. This study was thus aimed at identifying and characterising S. magellanica proteolytic enzyme ES products for the first time. These products were obtained from first-, second- and third-instar larvae taken from a previously-established colony. ES proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE and their proteolytic activity was characterised by zymograms and inhibition assays involving BAPNA (Nα-benzoyl-dl-Arg-p-nitroanilide) and SAPNA substrates, using synthetic inhibitors. The protein profile ranged from ∼69kDa to ∼23kDa; several of them coincided with the Lucilia sericata ES protein profile. Serine-protease hydrolysis activity (measured by zymogram) was confirmed when a ∼25kDa band disappeared upon ES incubation with PMSF inhibitor at pH 7.8. Analysis of larval ES proteolytic activity on BAPNA and SAPNA substrates (determined by using TLCK and TPCK specific inhibitors) suggested a greater amount of trypsin-like protease. These results support the need for further experiments aimed at validating S. magellanica use in larval therapy. PMID:24076089

  8. CONSUMPTIONS RATES OF SUMMER FLOUNDER LARVAE ON ROTIFER AND BRINE SHRIMP PREY DURING LARVAL REARING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Larval summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus were hatched and reared through metamorphosis in the laboratory. At several points in the rearing cycle, larvae were removed from their rearing chambers and placed in small bowls, where they were fed known quantities of the rotifer Bra...

  9. Larval habitat of Anopheles philippinensis: a vector of malaria in Bangladesh.

    PubMed Central

    Elias, M.

    1996-01-01

    This article reviews the various types of larval habitat of the malaria vector Anopheles philippinensis Ludlow in Bangladesh and characterizes its breeding ecology. Discussed also are the possible implications of the environmental changes on its breeding habitats resulting from intensified land use brought about by population increase and developments in irrigation and water resources. PMID:8823969

  10. Factors associated with larval control practices in a dengue outbreak prone area.

    PubMed

    Mohamad, Mariam; Selamat, Mohamad Ikhsan; Ismail, Zaliha

    2014-01-01

    In order to reduce the risk of dengue outbreak recurrence in a dengue outbreak prone area, the members of the community need to sustain certain behavior to prevent mosquito from breeding. Our study aims to identify the factors associated with larval control practices in this particular community. A cross-sectional study involves 322 respondents living in a dengue outbreak prone area who were interviewed using a pretested questionnaire. The level of knowledge about Aedes mosquitoes, dengue transmission, its symptoms, and personal preventive measures ranges from fair to good. The level of attitude towards preventive measures was high. However, reported level of personal larval control practices was low (33.2%). Our multiple logistic regression analysis showed that only those with a good level of attitude towards personal preventive measure and frequent attendance to health campaigns were significantly associated with the good larval control practices. We conclude that, in a dengue outbreak prone area, having a good attitude towards preventive measures and frequent participation in health campaigns are important factors to sustain practices on larval control. PMID:25309602

  11. Complete genome sequence of the larval shellfish pathogen Vibrio Tubiashii type strain ATCC 19109

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vibrio tubiashii is a larval shellfish pathogen. Here we report the first closed genome sequence for this species (American Type Culture Collection type strain 19109), which has two chromosomes (3,294,490 and 1,766,582 bp), two megaplasmids (251,408 and 122,808 bp) and two plasmids (57,076 and 47,9...

  12. Emergence flux declines disproportionately to larval density along a stream metals gradient

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, Travis S.; Kraus, Johanna M.; Walters, David M.; Wanty, Richard B.

    2013-01-01

    Effects of contaminants on adult aquatic insect emergence are less well understood than effects on insect larvae. We compared responses of larval density and adult emergence along a metal contamination gradient. Nonlinear threshold responses were generally observed for larvae and emergers. Larval densities decreased significantly at low metal concentrations but precipitously at concentrations of metal mixtures above aquatic life criteria (Cumulative Criterion Accumulation Ratio (CCAR) ≥ 1). In contrast, adult emergence declined precipitously at low metal concentrations (CCAR ≤ 1), followed by a modest decline above this threshold. Adult emergence was a more sensitive indicator of the effect of low metals concentrations on aquatic insect communities compared to larvae, presumably because emergence is limited by a combination of larval survival and other factors limiting successful emergence. Thus effects of exposure to larvae are not manifest until later in life (during metamorphosis and emergence). This loss in emergence reduces prey subsidies to riparian communities at concentrations considered safe for aquatic life. Our results also challenge the widely held assumption that adult emergence is a constant proportion of larval densities in all streams.

  13. Linking Planktonic Larval Abundance to Internal Bores at the Head of the Monterey Submarine Canyon.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelan, J.; Walter, R. K.; Steinbeck, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Variability in the physical coastal environment can play an important role in determining the spatio-temporal variation in abundance of planktonic organisms. Combining planktonic larval abundance estimates over the course of a year with concurrent temperature and current data, this study provides empirical data linking a locally predominant internal tidal feature to patterns of biological abundance in the very nearshore environment at the head of Monterey Submarine Canyon. The physical observations indicate the presence of seasonally-variable semidiurnal internal bores that result in the pumping of cold (subthermocline) waters onto the adjacent shelf. Analysis of the larval abundance data indicates an assemblage shift from a relatively abundant shelf assemblage of larval fishes to a reduced abundance assemblage that is concurrent with the semidiurnal cold water intrusions driven by the tidal pumping. Results suggest that the tidal period pumping of subthermocline waters by internal bores dilutes or displaces shelf waters and their associated planktonic larval community. This could have important ecological implications at these scales and may also be of interest when siting industrial facilities that require seawater for cooling or desalination, as it would potentially reduce their impact on regional planktonic communities by diluting their rates of entrainment.

  14. Volatiles from waste larval rearing media attract gravid screwworm flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) to oviposit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gravid screwworm flies, Cochliomyia hominivorax, are attracted to the volatiles from waste larval rearing media to deposit eggs. Studies were conducted to identify chemicals from the waste media volatiles and determine their effectiveness to attract gravid flies to oviposit. Volatiles were collected...

  15. Larval cases of caddisfly (Insecta: Trichoptera) affinity in Early Permian marine environments of Gondwana.

    PubMed

    Mouro, Lucas D; Zatoń, Michał; Fernandes, Antonio C S; Waichel, Breno L

    2016-01-01

    Caddisflies (Trichoptera) are small, cosmopolitan insects closely related to the Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). Most caddisflies construct protective cases during their larval development. Although the earliest recognisable caddisflies date back to the early Mesozoic (Early and Middle Triassic), being particularly numerous and diverse during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, the first records of their larval case constructions are known exclusively from much younger, Early to Middle Jurassic non-marine deposits in the northern hemisphere. Here we present fossils from the Early Permian (Asselian-Sakmarian) marine deposits of Brazil which have strong morphological and compositional similarity to larval cases of caddisflies. If they are, which is very probable, these finds not only push back the fossil record of true caddisflies, but also indicate that their larvae constructed cases at the very beginning of their evolution in marine environments. Since modern caddisflies that construct larval cases in marine environments are only known from eastern Australia and New Zealand, we suggest that this marine ecology may have first evolved in western Gondwana during the Early Permian and later spread across southern Pangea. PMID:26765261

  16. Larval cases of caddisfly (Insecta: Trichoptera) affinity in Early Permian marine environments of Gondwana

    PubMed Central

    Mouro, Lucas D.; Zatoń, Michał; Fernandes, Antonio C.S.; Waichel, Breno L.

    2016-01-01

    Caddisflies (Trichoptera) are small, cosmopolitan insects closely related to the Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). Most caddisflies construct protective cases during their larval development. Although the earliest recognisable caddisflies date back to the early Mesozoic (Early and Middle Triassic), being particularly numerous and diverse during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, the first records of their larval case constructions are known exclusively from much younger, Early to Middle Jurassic non-marine deposits in the northern hemisphere. Here we present fossils from the Early Permian (Asselian–Sakmarian) marine deposits of Brazil which have strong morphological and compositional similarity to larval cases of caddisflies. If they are, which is very probable, these finds not only push back the fossil record of true caddisflies, but also indicate that their larvae constructed cases at the very beginning of their evolution in marine environments. Since modern caddisflies that construct larval cases in marine environments are only known from eastern Australia and New Zealand, we suggest that this marine ecology may have first evolved in western Gondwana during the Early Permian and later spread across southern Pangea. PMID:26765261

  17. Laboratory evaluation of novaluron for controlling larval horn flies, house flies, and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A granular formulation of novaluron (Novaluron 0.2G, 0.2% AI), a newer benzoylphenyl urea insecticide, was evaluated for its efficacy in controlling the larval stage of horn flies, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus), house flies, Musca domestica Linnaeus, and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (Linnaeus)...

  18. Nestedness patterns of container-dwelling mosquitoes: Effects of larval habitat within variable terrestial matrices

    EPA Science Inventory

    Distributions of mosquito larvae likely are a consequence of multiple factors, although two commonly studied factors (quality of the larval environment and the terrestrial matrix in which these habitats reside) have rarely and simultaneously been varied in the field to understand...

  19. Development of a recombinant protein-based ELISA for diagnosis of larval cyathostomin infection.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Mairi C; Tzelos, Thomas; Handel, Ian; McWilliam, Hamish E G; Hodgkinson, Jane E; Nisbet, Alasdair J; Kharchenko, Vitaliy O; Burgess, Stewart T G; Matthews, Jacqueline B

    2016-07-01

    Cyathostomins are ubiquitous nematodes of horses. Once ingested, they can spend a substantial time as encysted larvae in the intestinal wall. The larvae can comprise up to 90% of the total burden, with up to several million worms reported in individuals. These stages can emerge in large numbers to cause life-threatening colitis. Direct methods for detection of encysted larval burdens in live horses do not exist. Previously, two antigen complexes were identified as promising markers for infection. A component of these, cyathostomin gut associated larval antigen-1 (Cy-GALA-1), was identified following immunoscreening of a complementary DNA library. Serum immunoglobulin G(T) (IgG(T)) responses to Cy-GALA-1 were shown to inform on larval infection. Sequence analysis of polymerase chain reaction products amplified from individual worms indicated that Cy-GALA-1 was derived from Cyathostomum pateratum. As cyathostomin infections always comprise multiple species, a diagnostic test must account for this. Here, segments of the Cy-gala gene were isolated from four common species, Cyathostomum catinatum, Cylicocyclus ashworthi, Cylicostephanus goldi and Cylicostephanus longibursatus, and the associated proteins expressed in recombinant form. The specificity and immunogenicity of each protein was confirmed. Each protein was assessed by enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) for its ability for informing on the presence of encysted larval infection and the level of burden. PMID:27174468

  20. [EFFICACY OF A NEW MEBENDAZOLE FORMULATION FOR EXPERIMENTAL ECHINOCOCCUS GRANULOSUS LARVAL INVASION IN ALBINO MICE].

    PubMed

    Kovalenko, F P; Kukhaleva, I V; Shkolyar, N A; Legonkov, Yu A; Musaev, G Kh; Bulanova, T E; Samochatova, E I

    2015-01-01

    The problem of echinococcosis has acquired special urgency in Russia in the last 10 years. The dramatically worse epidemiological situation of echinococcosis in the country is suggested by just frequent cases of cystic echinococcosis in the indigenous population of Moscow and its region, including children. Currently, albendazole that is less toxic than mebendazole remains the drug of choice, However, some authors note that E. granulosus larval cysts are moresusceptible to mebendazole than to albendazole. Both drugs mainly show parasitological activity and have no larvicidal effect particularly in larval alveococcosis. Analysis of the results of chemotherapy, with a group of benzimidazole carbamates for echinococcosis in 6 clinical centers from 5 European countries (Italy, Bulgaria, Romania, Greece, and Turkey) over the past 30 years showed that the evaluation of therapeutic effectiveness was overestimated; thus, 40% of all parasitic larval cysts that were considered dead became active again after, 2 years after the treatment. The original oil micronized mebendazole suspension tested by us in albino mice with late-stage larval cystic echinococcosis showed the properties of a highly effective and safe systemic larvicide that caused prompt death in the entire parasite population in the treated animals even in extreme hyperinvasion when the baseline parasite weight was greater than the host's one. PMID:26827585

  1. Atlantic surfclam connectivity within the Middle Atlantic Bight: Mechanisms underlying variation in larval transport and settlement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xinzhong; Munroe, Daphne; Haidvogel, Dale; Powell, Eric N.

    2016-05-01

    Larval transport and settlement have been shown in various studies to be essential in determining population abundance and connectivity for benthic invertebrates. This transport is influenced by both the physical environment and biological behavior. The Atlantic surfclam, Spisula solidissima, is a commercially important benthic invertebrate fishery species along the U.S northeastern coast. In this study, a physical circulation model is coupled to a surfclam larval model to investigate the dynamics of larval transport and settlement within the Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB) shelf in 2006. The main physical mechanisms causing variability in larval transport and settlement are also examined. Model results show that surfclam larvae released from July to early October experience relatively larger settlement rates, due to higher average temperatures experienced by larvae. Larval along-shore transport exhibits a mean down-coast pattern following the coastal current from the northeast to the southwest, with most high-frequency (period of 2-10 days) variations caused by fluctuations in the along-shore surface wind stress, and with seasonal variations speculated to be driven mainly by changes in the across-shelf density gradient. Larval across-shelf movement is highly correlated with the along-shore surface wind stress mediated by coastal upwelling and downwelling episodes, but the correlation is further dependent on the vertical distribution of the larvae, particularly their position relative to the thermocline. Most surfclam larvae released from the Middle Atlantic shelf stay below the thermocline and experience a net onshore transport during the summer-stratified season when upwelling-favorable wind forcing dominates. A proposed critical value of water temperature at the thermocline successfully regulates the observed patterns of vertical distribution of surfclam larvae and their across-shelf movement off the New Jersey and South Virginia shelves; that is, when the water

  2. Neuroblast lineage-specific origin of the neurons of the Drosophila larval olfactory system

    PubMed Central

    Das, Abhijit; Gupta, Tripti; Davla, Sejal; Godino, Laura Lucia Prieto; Diegelmann, Sören; Reddy, O. Venkateswara; VijayRaghavan, K.; Reichert, Heinrich; Lovick, Jennifer; Hartenstein, Volker

    2014-01-01

    The complete neuronal repertoire of the central brain of Drosophila originates from only approximately 100 pairs of neural stem cells, or neuroblasts. Each neuroblast produces a highly stereotyped lineage of neurons which innervate specific compartments of the brain. Neuroblasts undergo two rounds of mitotic activity: embryonic divisions produce lineages of primary neurons that build the larval nervous system; after a brief quiescence, the neuroblasts go through a second round of divisions in larval stage to produce secondary neurons which are integrated into the adult nervous system. Here we investigate the lineages that are associated with the larval antennal lobe, one of the most widely studied neuronal systems in fly. We find that the same five neuroblasts responsible for the adult antennal lobe also produce the antennal lobe of the larval brain. However, there are notable differences in the composition of larval (primary) lineages and their adult (secondary) counterparts. Significantly, in the adult, two lineages (lNB/BAlc and adNB/BAmv3) produce uniglomerular projection neurons connecting the antennal lobe with the mushroom body and lateral horn; another lineage, vNB/BAla1, generates multiglomerular neurons reaching the lateral horn directly. lNB/BAlc, as well as a fourth lineage, vlNB/BAla2, generate a diversity of local interneurons. We describe a fifth, previously unknown lineage, BAlp4, which connects the posterior part of the antennal lobe and the neighboring tritocerebrum (gustatory center) with a higher brain center located adjacent to the mushroom body. In the larva, only one of these lineages, adNB/BAmv3, generates all uniglomerular projection neurons. Also as in the adult, lNB/BAlc and vlNB/BAla2 produce local interneurons which, in terms of diversity in architecture and transmitter expression, resemble their adult counterparts. In addition, lineages lNB/BAlc and vNB/BAla1, as well as the newly described BAlp4, form numerous types of projection

  3. Neuroblast lineage-specific origin of the neurons of the Drosophila larval olfactory system.

    PubMed

    Das, Abhijit; Gupta, Tripti; Davla, Sejal; Prieto-Godino, Lucia L; Diegelmann, Sören; Reddy, O Venkateswara; Raghavan, K Vijay; Reichert, Heinrich; Lovick, Jennifer; Hartenstein, Volker

    2013-01-15

    The complete neuronal repertoire of the central brain of Drosophila originates from only approximately 100 pairs of neural stem cells, or neuroblasts. Each neuroblast produces a highly stereotyped lineage of neurons which innervate specific compartments of the brain. Neuroblasts undergo two rounds of mitotic activity: embryonic divisions produce lineages of primary neurons that build the larval nervous system; after a brief quiescence, the neuroblasts go through a second round of divisions in larval stage to produce secondary neurons which are integrated into the adult nervous system. Here we investigate the lineages that are associated with the larval antennal lobe, one of the most widely studied neuronal systems in fly. We find that the same five neuroblasts responsible for the adult antennal lobe also produce the antennal lobe of the larval brain. However, there are notable differences in the composition of larval (primary) lineages and their adult (secondary) counterparts. Significantly, in the adult, two lineages (lNB/BAlc and adNB/BAmv3) produce uniglomerular projection neurons connecting the antennal lobe with the mushroom body and lateral horn; another lineage, vNB/BAla1, generates multiglomerular neurons reaching the lateral horn directly. lNB/BAlc, as well as a fourth lineage, vlNB/BAla2, generate a diversity of local interneurons. We describe a fifth, previously unknown lineage, BAlp4, which connects the posterior part of the antennal lobe and the neighboring tritocerebrum (gustatory center) with a higher brain center located adjacent to the mushroom body. In the larva, only one of these lineages, adNB/BAmv3, generates all uniglomerular projection neurons. Also as in the adult, lNB/BAlc and vlNB/BAla2 produce local interneurons which, in terms of diversity in architecture and transmitter expression, resemble their adult counterparts. In addition, lineages lNB/BAlc and vNB/BAla1, as well as the newly described BAlp4, form numerous types of projection

  4. Effects of Larval Mosquitoes (Aedes triseriatus) and Stemflow on Microbial Community Dynamics in Container Habitats†

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Michael G.; Walker, Edward D.; Smith, Tracy W.; Merritt, Richard W.; Klug, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    The dynamics of the microbial food sources for Aedes triseriatus larvae in microcosms were found to be strongly influenced by larval presence. The total abundance of bacteria in water samples generally increased in response to larvae, including populations of cultivable, facultatively anaerobic bacteria. Additionally, a portion of the community shifted from Pseudomonaceae to Enterobacteriaceae. Bacterial abundance on leaf material was significantly reduced in the presence of actively feeding larvae. Principle-component analysis of whole community fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles showed that larvae changed the microbial community structure in both the water column and the leaf material. Cyclopropyl FAMEs, typically associated with bacteria, were reduced in microcosms containing larvae; however, other bacterial fatty acids showed no consistent response. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids characteristic of microeukaryotes (protozoans and meiofauna) declined in abundance when larvae were present, indicating that larval feeding reduced the densities of these microorganisms. However, presumed fungal lipid markers either increased or were unchanged in response to larvae. Larval presence also affected microbial nitrogen metabolism through modification of the physiochemical conditions or by grazing on populations of bacteria involved in nitrification-denitrification. Stemflow primarily influenced inorganic ion and organic compound concentrations in the microcosms and had less-pronounced effects on microbial community parameters than did larval presence. Stemflow treatments diluted concentrations of all inorganic ions (chloride, sulfate, and ammonium) and organic compounds (total dissolved organic carbon, soluble carbohydrates, and total protein) measured, with the exceptions of nitrite and nitrate. Stemflow addition did not measurably affect larval biomass in the microcosms but did enhance development rates and early emergence patterns of adults. PMID:10347058

  5. Pharmacological induction of larval settlement and metamorphosis in the blue mussel Mytilus edulis L.

    PubMed

    Dobretsov, Sergey V; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2003-02-01

    The blue mussel Mytilus edulis L. is an important aquaculture and fouling species in northern seas. Although the general role of chemical cues for settlement of larvae of the blue mussel has been proposed, few studies have focused on induction of settlement and metamorphosis by pharmacological agents. In this study, the induction of larval settlement of the blue mussel by pharmacological compounds was investigated through a series of laboratory experiments with an aim of identifying artificial cues for laboratory bioassay systems in fouling and antifouling research. Gamma-aminobutiric acid (GABA), dihydroxyphenyl L-alanine (DOPA), isobutyl methylxanthine (IBMX) and acetylcholine chloride (ACH) at 10(-7)-10(-2) M as well as KCl at 10-40 mM K+ in excess of the level in normal seawater were tested for their inductive effect on larval settlement. In filtered seawater (FSW) < 9% of the larvae settled after 48 h. Elevated K+ and GABA levels had no effect on larval settlement and metamorphosis. DOPA at 10(-5) M and IBMX at 10(-6)-10(-4) M induced 41-83% larval settlement and ACH at 10(-7)-10(-5) M induced < 40% larval settlement. While the highest settlement rates were observed after 48 h exposure to the chemical, most of the larvae settled within 24 h. Compounds at concentrations of 10(-3)-10(-2) M were either toxic to larvae or retarded the growth of the post-larvae shell. Juveniles resulting from induction by lower concentrations of chemicals had a very high survival rate, completed metamorphosis and grew as well as the juveniles that metamorphosed spontaneously. IBMX at 10(-6)-10(-4) M and L-DOPA at 10(-5) M are effective agents for induction of settlement and metamorphosis for future studies using juvenile M. edulis. PMID:14618689

  6. Larval Temperature-Food Effects on Adult Mosquito Infection and Vertical Transmission of Dengue-1 Virus.

    PubMed

    Buckner, Eva A; Alto, Barry W; Lounibos, L Philip

    2016-01-01

    Temperature-food interactions in the larval environment can affect life history and population growth of container mosquitoes Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus Skuse, the primary vectors of chikungunya and dengue viruses. We used Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus, and dengue-1 virus (DENV-1) from Florida to investigate whether larval rearing temperature can alter the effects of larval food levels on Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus life history and DENV-1 infection and vertical transmission. Although we found no effect of larval treatments on survivorship to adulthood, DENV-1 titer, or DENV-1 vertical transmission, rates of vertical transmission up to 16-24% were observed in Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti, which may contribute to maintenance of this virus in nature. Larval treatments had no effect on number of progeny and DENV-1 infection in Ae. aegypti, but the interaction between temperature and food affected number of progeny and DENV-1 infection of the female Ae. albopictus parent. The cooler temperature (24°C) yielded the most progeny and this effect was accentuated by high food relative to the other conditions. Low and high food led to the highest (∼90%) and lowest (∼65%) parental infection at the cooler temperature, respectively, whereas intermediate infection rates (∼75-80%) were observed for all food conditions at the elevated temperature. These results suggest that temperature and food availability have minimal influence on rate of vertical transmission and a stronger influence on adults of Ae. albopictus than of Ae. aegypti, which could have consequences for dengue virus epidemiology. PMID:26489999

  7. Climate change and larval transport in the ocean: fractional effects from physical and physiological factors.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Matthew S; Poti, Matt; Karnauskas, Kristopher B

    2016-04-01

    Changes in larval import, export, and self-seeding will affect the resilience of coral reef ecosystems. Climate change will alter the ocean currents that transport larvae and also increase sea surface temperatures (SST), hastening development, and shortening larval durations. Here, we use transport simulations to estimate future larval connectivity due to: (1) physical transport of larvae from altered circulation alone, and (2) the combined effects of altered currents plus physiological response to warming. Virtual larvae from islands throughout Micronesia were moved according to present-day and future ocean circulation models. The Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) spanning 2004-2012 represented present-day currents. For future currents, we altered HYCOM using analysis from the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Earth System Model, version 1-Biogeochemistry, Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 experiment. Based on the NCAR model, regional SST is estimated to rise 2.74 °C which corresponds to a ~17% decline in larval duration for some taxa. This reduction was the basis for a separate set of simulations. Results predict an increase in self-seeding in 100 years such that 62-76% of islands experienced increased self-seeding, there was an average domainwide increase of ~1-3% points in self-seeding, and increases of up to 25% points for several individual islands. When changed currents alone were considered, approximately half (i.e., random) of all island pairs experienced decreased connectivity but when reduced PLD was added as an effect, ~65% of connections were weakened. Orientation of archipelagos relative to currents determined the directional bias in connectivity changes. There was no universal relationship between climate change and connectivity applicable to all taxa and settings. Islands that presently export large numbers of larvae but that also maintain or enhance this role into the future should be the focus of conservation

  8. Live Cell Imaging of Butterfly Pupal and Larval Wings In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ohno, Yoshikazu; Otaki, Joji M.

    2015-01-01

    Butterfly wing color patterns are determined during the late larval and early pupal stages. Characterization of wing epithelial cells at these stages is thus critical to understand how wing structures, including color patterns, are determined. Previously, we successfully recorded real-time in vivo images of developing butterfly wings over time at the tissue level. In this study, we employed similar in vivo fluorescent imaging techniques to visualize developing wing epithelial cells in the late larval and early pupal stages 1 hour post-pupation. Both larval and pupal epithelial cells were rich in mitochondria and intracellular networks of endoplasmic reticulum, suggesting high metabolic activities, likely in preparation for cellular division, polyploidization, and differentiation. Larval epithelial cells in the wing imaginal disk were relatively large horizontally and tightly packed, whereas pupal epithelial cells were smaller and relatively loosely packed. Furthermore, larval cells were flat, whereas pupal cells were vertically elongated as deep as 130 μm. In pupal cells, many endosome-like or autophagosome-like structures were present in the cellular periphery down to approximately 10 μm in depth, and extensive epidermal feet or filopodia-like processes were observed a few micrometers deep from the cellular surface. Cells were clustered or bundled from approximately 50 μm in depth to deeper levels. From 60 μm to 80 μm in depth, horizontal connections between these clusters were observed. The prospective eyespot and marginal focus areas were resistant to fluorescent dyes, likely because of their non-flat cone-like structures with a relatively thick cuticle. These in vivo images provide important information with which to understand processes of epithelial cell differentiation and color pattern determination in butterfly wings. PMID:26107809

  9. Model-Derived Dispersal Pathways from Multiple Source Populations Explain Variability of Invertebrate Larval Supply

    PubMed Central

    Domingues, Carla P.; Nolasco, Rita; Dubert, Jesus; Queiroga, Henrique

    2012-01-01

    Background Predicting the spatial and temporal patterns of marine larval dispersal and supply is a challenging task due to the small size of the larvae and the variability of oceanographic processes. Addressing this problem requires the use of novel approaches capable of capturing the inherent variability in the mechanisms involved. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study we test whether dispersal and connectivity patterns generated from a bio-physical model of larval dispersal of the crab Carcinus maenas, along the west coast of the Iberian Peninsula, can predict the highly variable daily pattern of wind-driven larval supply to an estuary observed during the peak reproductive season (March–June) in 2006 and 2007. Cross-correlations between observed and predicted supply were significant (p<0.05) and strong, ranging from 0.34 to 0.81 at time lags of −6 to +5 d. Importantly, the model correctly predicted observed cross-shelf distributions (Pearson r = 0.82, p<0.001, and r = 0.79, p<0.01, in 2006 and 2007) and indicated that all supply events were comprised of larvae that had been retained within the inner shelf; larvae transported to the outer shelf and beyond never recruited. Estimated average dispersal distances ranged from 57 to 198 km and were only marginally affected by mortality. Conclusions/Significance The high degree of predicted demographic connectivity over relatively large geographic scales is consistent with the lack of genetic structuring in C. maenas along the Iberian Peninsula. These findings indicate that the dynamic nature of larval dispersal can be captured by mechanistic biophysical models, which can be used to provide meaningful predictions of the patterns and causes of fine-scale variability in larval supply to marine populations. PMID:22558225

  10. Development of the Acoustically Evoked Behavioral Response in Larval Plainfin Midshipman Fish, Porichthys notatus

    PubMed Central

    Alderks, Peter W.; Sisneros, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    The ontogeny of hearing in fishes has become a major interest among bioacoustics researchers studying fish behavior and sensory ecology. Most fish begin to detect acoustic stimuli during the larval stage which can be important for navigation, predator avoidance and settlement, however relatively little is known about the hearing capabilities of larval fishes. We characterized the acoustically evoked behavioral response (AEBR) in the plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus, and used this innate startle-like response to characterize this species' auditory capability during larval development. Age and size of larval midshipman were highly correlated (r2 = 0.92). The AEBR was first observed in larvae at 1.4 cm TL. At a size ≥1.8 cm TL, all larvae responded to a broadband stimulus of 154 dB re1 µPa or −15.2 dB re 1 g (z-axis). Lowest AEBR thresholds were 140–150 dB re 1 µPa or −33 to −23 dB re 1 g for frequencies below 225 Hz. Larval fish with size ranges of 1.9–2.4 cm TL had significantly lower best evoked frequencies than the other tested size groups. We also investigated the development of the lateral line organ and its function in mediating the AEBR. The lateral line organ is likely involved in mediating the AEBR but not necessary to evoke the startle-like response. The midshipman auditory and lateral line systems are functional during early development when the larvae are in the nest and the auditory system appears to have similar tuning characteristics throughout all life history stages. PMID:24340003

  11. Biological Recruitment in Buoyancy Driven Coastal Systems: Maintenance of Larval Patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilburg, C.; Garvine, R.

    2002-12-01

    A number of fisheries depend on the transport of larvae between estuaries and the coastal ocean. This study focuses on the fate of the blue crab, which spawns in the estuary and uses the coastal ocean as a nursery. Recent studies have yielded conceptual models of the transport of blue crab larvae. Maximum spawning occurs in late July and early August at the mouth of the estuary. Once spawned, blue crab larvae rise to the surface and maintain a surface distribution. They are transported out of the estuary within the buoyant river discharge. Offshore Ekman transport associated with upwelling events transport the larvae out of the coastal current, while the associated upshelf currents advect the larvae back towards the estuary. Onshore Ekman transport associated with downwelling events transport the blue crab larvae back into the estuary. Several studies have shown that blue crab larvae form discrete patches that remain intact throughout their time on the coastal shelf. The persistence of patches, despite the dispersive activity of physical diffusion, suggests an active biological role involving larval swimming. The possibility of horizontal swimming as a mechanism for the persistence of larval patches is examined using a physical circulation model, consisting of an idealized estuary and the adjoining coastal region. This physical model is coupled to a tracer algorithm that incorporates larval swimming. A series of simulations were performed to determine the larval swimming speeds necessary for the persistence of larval patches during transport within a buoyant coastal current and upwelling and downwelling episodes. These simulations as well as the validity of their results are discussed.

  12. Role of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1 δ Endotoxin Binding in Determining Potency during Lepidopteran Larval Development

    PubMed Central

    Gilliland, Androulla; Chambers, Catherine E.; Bone, Eileen J.; Ellar, David J.

    2002-01-01

    Five economically important crop pests, Manduca sexta, Pieris brassicae, Mamestra brassicae, Spodoptera exigua, and Agrotis ipsilon, were tested at two stages of larval development for susceptibility to Bacillus thuringiensis toxins Cry1Ac, Cry1Ca, Cry1J, and Cry1Ba. Bioassay results for M. sexta showed that resistance to all four Cry toxins increased from the neonate stage to the third-instar stage; the increase in resistance was most dramatic for Cry1Ac, the potency of which decreased 37-fold. More subtle increases in resistance during larval development were seen in M. brassicae for Cry1Ca and in P. brassicae for Cry1Ac and Cry1J. By contrast, the sensitivity of S. exigua did not change during development. At both larval stages, A. ipsilon was resistant to all four toxins. Because aminopeptidase N (APN) is a putative Cry1 toxin binding protein, APN activity was measured in neonate and third-instar brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV). With the exception of S. exigua, APN activity was found to be significantly lower in neonates than in third-instar larvae and thus inversely correlated with increased resistance during larval development. The binding characteristics of iodinated Cry1 toxins were determined for neonate and third-instar BBMV. In M. sexta, the increased resistance to Cry1Ac and Cry1Ba during larval development was positively correlated with fewer binding sites in third-instar BBMV than in neonate BBMV. The other species-instar-toxin combinations did not reveal positive correlations between potency and binding characteristics. The correlation between binding and potency was inconsistent for the species-instar-toxin combinations used in this study, reaffirming the complex mode of action of Cry1 toxins. PMID:11916662

  13. Coexpression analysis of nine neuropeptides in the neurosecretory preoptic area of larval zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Herget, Ulrich; Ryu, Soojin

    2015-01-01

    The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus in mammals coordinates neuroendocrine, autonomic and behavioral responses pivotal for homeostasis and the stress response. A large amount of studies in rodents has documented that the PVN contains diverse neuronal cell types which can be identified by the expression of distinct secretory neuropeptides. Interestingly, PVN cell types often coexpress multiple neuropeptides whose relative coexpression levels are subject to environment-induced plasticity. Due to their small size and transparency, zebrafish larvae offer the possibility to comprehensively study the development and plasticity of the PVN in large groups of intact animals, yet important anatomical information about the larval zebrafish PVN-homologous region has been missing. Therefore we recently defined the location and borders of the larval neurosecretory preoptic area (NPO) as the PVN-homologous region in larval zebrafish based on transcription factor expression and cell type clustering. To identify distinct cell types present in the larval NPO, we also generated a comprehensive 3D map of 9 zebrafish homologs of typical neuropeptides found in the mammalian PVN (arginine vasopressin (AVP), corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), proenkephalin a (penka)/b (penkb), neurotensin (NTS), oxytocin (OXT), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), cholecystokinin (CCK), and somatostatin (SST)). Here we extend this chemoarchitectural map to include the degrees of coexpression of two neuropeptides in the same cell by performing systematic pairwise comparisons. Our results allowed the subclassification of NPO cell types, and differences in variability of coexpression profiles suggest potential targets of biochemical plasticity. Thus, this work provides an important basis for the analysis of the development, function, and plasticity of the primary neuroendocrine brain region in larval zebrafish. PMID:25729355

  14. Evidence for the Involvement of p38 MAPK Activation in Barnacle Larval Settlement

    PubMed Central

    He, Li-Sheng; Xu, Ying; Matsumura, Kiyotaka; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Gen; Qi, Shu-Hua; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    The barnacle Balanus ( = Amphibalanus) amphitrite is a major marine fouling animal. Understanding the molecular mechanism of larval settlement in this species is critical for anti-fouling research. In this study, we cloned one isoform of p38 MAPK (Bar-p38 MAPK) from this species, which shares the significant characteristic of containing a TGY motif with other species such as yeast, Drosophila and humans. The activation of p38 MAPK was detected by an antibody that recognizes the conserved dual phosphorylation sites of TGY. The results showed that phospho-p38 MAPK (pp38 MAPK) was more highly expressed at the cyprid stage, particularly in aged cyprids, in comparison to other stages, including the nauplius and juvenile stages. Immunostaining showed that Bar-p38 MAPK and pp38 MAPK were mainly located at the cyprid antennules, and especially the third and fourth segments, which are responsible for substratum exploration during settlement. The expression and localization patterns of Bar-p38 MAPK suggest its involvement in larval settlement. This postulation was also supported by the larval settlement bioassay with the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580. Behavioral analysis by live imaging revealed that the larvae were still capable of exploring the surface of the substratum after SB203580 treatment. This shows that the effect of p38 MAPK on larval settlement might be by regulating the secretion of permanent proteinaceous substances. Furthermore, the level of pp38 MAPK dramatically decreased after full settlement, suggesting that Bar-p38 MAPK maybe plays a role in larval settlement rather than metamorphosis. Finally, we found that Bar-p38 MAPK was highly activated when larvae confronted extracts of adult barnacle containing settlement cues, whereas larvae pre-treated with SB203580 failed to respond to the crude adult extracts. PMID:23115639

  15. The Drosophila larval visual system: high-resolution analysis of a simple visual neuropil.

    PubMed

    Sprecher, Simon G; Cardona, Albert; Hartenstein, Volker

    2011-10-01

    The task of the visual system is to translate light into neuronal encoded information. This translation of photons into neuronal signals is achieved by photoreceptor neurons (PRs), specialized sensory neurons, located in the eye. Upon perception of light the PRs will send a signal to target neurons, which represent a first station of visual processing. Increasing complexity of visual processing stems from the number of distinct PR subtypes and their various types of target neurons that are contacted. The visual system of the fruit fly larva represents a simple visual system (larval optic neuropil, LON) that consists of 12 PRs falling into two classes: blue-senstive PRs expressing Rhodopsin 5 (Rh5) and green-sensitive PRs expressing Rhodopsin 6 (Rh6). These afferents contact a small number of target neurons, including optic lobe pioneers (OLPs) and lateral clock neurons (LNs). We combine the use of genetic markers to label both PR subtypes and the distinct, identifiable sets of target neurons with a serial EM reconstruction to generate a high-resolution map of the larval optic neuropil. We find that the larval optic neuropil shows a clear bipartite organization consisting of one domain innervated by PRs and one devoid of PR axons. The topology of PR projections, in particular the relationship between Rh5 and Rh6 afferents, is maintained from the nerve entering the brain to the axon terminals. The target neurons can be subdivided according to neurotransmitter or neuropeptide they use as well as the location within the brain. We further track the larval optic neuropil through development from first larval instar to its location in the adult brain as the accessory medulla. PMID:21781960

  16. The Drosophila larval visual system: high-resolution analysis of a simple visual neuropil

    PubMed Central

    Sprecher, Simon G.; Cardona, Albert; Hartenstein, Volker

    2012-01-01

    The task of the visual system is to translate light into neuronal encoded information. This translation of photons into neuronal signals is achieved by photoreceptor neurons (PRs), specialized sensory neurons, located in the eye. Upon perception of light the PRs will send a signal to target neurons, which represent a first station of visual processing. Increasing complexity of visual processing stems from the number of distinct PR-subtypes and their various types of target neurons that are contacted. The visual system of the fruit fly larva represents a simple visual system (larval optic neuropil, LON) that consists of 12 PRs falling into two classes: blue-senstive PRs expressing Rhodopsin 5 (Rh5) and green-sensitive PRs expressing Rhodopsin 6 (Rh6). These afferents contact a small number of target neurons, including optic lobe pioneers (OLPs) and lateral clock neurons (LNs). We combine the use of genetic markers to label both PR-subtypes and the distinct, identifiable sets of target neurons with a serial EM reconstruction to generate a high-resolution map of the larval optic neuropil. We find that the larval optic neuropil shows a clear bipartite organization consisting of one domain innervated by PRs and one devoid of PR axons. The topology of PR projections, in particular the relationship between Rh5 and Rh6 afferents, is maintained from the nerve entering the brain to the axon terminals. The target neurons can be subdivided according to neurotransmitter or neuropeptide they use as well as the location within the brain. We further track the larval optic neuropil through development from first larval instar to its location in the adult brain as the accessory medulla. PMID:21781960

  17. Habitat use by larval fishes in a temperate South African surf zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watt-Pringle, Peter; Strydom, Nadine A.

    2003-12-01

    Larval fishes were sampled in the Kwaaihoek surf zone on the south east coast of South Africa. On six occasions between February and May 2002, larval fishes were collected in two habitat types identified in the inner surf zone using a modified beach-seine net. The surf zone habitats were classified as either sheltered trough areas or adjacent exposed surf areas. Temperature, depth and current measurements were taken at all sites. Trough habitats consisted of a depression in surf topography characterised by reduced current velocities and greater average depth than adjacent surf areas. In total, 325 larval fishes were collected. Of these, 229 were collected in trough and 96 in surf habitats. At least 22 families and 37 species were represented in the catch. Dominant families were the Mugilidae, Sparidae, Atherinidae, and Engraulidae. Dominant species included Liza tricuspidens and Liza richardsonii (Mugilidae), Rhabdosargus holubi and Sarpa salpa (Sparidae), Atherina breviceps (Atherinidae) and Engraulis japonicus (Engraulide). Mean CPUE of postflexion larvae of estuary-dependent species was significantly greater in trough areas. The proportion of postflexion larval fishes in trough habitat was significantly greater than that of preflexion stages, a result that was not apparent in surf habitat sampled. CPUE of postflexion larvae of estuary-dependent fishes was negatively correlated with current magnitude and positively correlated with habitat depth. Mean body length of larval fishes was significantly greater in trough than in surf habitats. These results provide evidence that the CPUE of postflexion larvae of estuary-dependent fishes is higher in trough habitat in the surf zone and this may be indicative of active habitat selection for areas of reduced current velocity/wave action. The implications of this behaviour for estuarine recruitment processes are discussed.

  18. Selecting Great Lakes streams for lampricide treatment based on larval sea lamprey surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christie, Gavin C.; Adams, Jean V.; Steeves, Todd B.; Slade, Jeffrey W.; Cuddy, Douglas W.; Fodale, Michael F.; Young, Robert J.; Kuc, Miroslaw; Jones, Michael L.

    2003-01-01

    The Empiric Stream Treatment Ranking (ESTR) system is a data-driven, model-based, decision tool for selecting Great Lakes streams for treatment with lampricide, based on estimates from larval sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) surveys conducted throughout the basin. The 2000 ESTR system was described and applied to larval assessment surveys conducted from 1996 to 1999. A comparative analysis of stream survey and selection data was conducted and improvements to the stream selection process were recommended. Streams were selected for treatment based on treatment cost, predicted treatment effectiveness, and the projected number of juvenile sea lampreys produced. On average, lampricide treatments were applied annually to 49 streams with 1,075 ha of larval habitat, killing 15 million larval and 514,000 juvenile sea lampreys at a total cost of $5.3 million, and marginal and mean costs of $85 and $10 per juvenile killed. The numbers of juvenile sea lampreys killed for given treatment costs showed a pattern of diminishing returns with increasing investment. Of the streams selected for treatment, those with > 14 ha of larval habitat targeted 73% of the juvenile sea lampreys for 60% of the treatment cost. Suggested improvements to the ESTR system were to improve accuracy and precision of model estimates, account for uncertainty in estimates, include all potentially productive streams in the process (not just those surveyed in the current year), consider the value of all larvae killed during treatment (not just those predicted to metamorphose the following year), use lake-specific estimates of damage, and establish formal suppression targets.

  19. Los Alamos National Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammel, Edward F., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Current and post World War II scientific research at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (New Mexico) is discussed. The operation of the laboratory, the Los Alamos consultant program, and continuation education, and continuing education activities at the laboratory are also discussed. (JN)

  20. amontillado, the Drosophila homolog of the prohormone processing protease PC2, is required during embryogenesis and early larval development.

    PubMed Central

    Rayburn, Lowell Y M; Gooding, Holly C; Choksi, Semil P; Maloney, Dhea; Kidd, Ambrose R; Siekhaus, Daria E; Bender, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Biosynthesis of most peptide hormones and neuropeptides requires proteolytic excision of the active peptide from inactive proprotein precursors, an activity carried out by subtilisin-like proprotein convertases (SPCs) in constitutive or regulated secretory pathways. The Drosophila amontillado (amon) gene encodes a homolog of the mammalian PC2 protein, an SPC that functions in the regulated secretory pathway in neuroendocrine tissues. We have identified amon mutants by isolating ethylmethanesulfonate (EMS)-induced lethal and visible mutations that define two complementation groups in the amon interval at 97D1 of the third chromosome. DNA sequencing identified the amon complementation group and the DNA sequence change for each of the nine amon alleles isolated. amon mutants display partial embryonic lethality, are defective in larval growth, and arrest during the first to second instar larval molt. Mutant larvae can be rescued by heat-shock-induced expression of the amon protein. Rescued larvae arrest at the subsequent larval molt, suggesting that amon is also required for the second to third instar larval molt. Our data indicate that the amon proprotein convertase is required during embryogenesis and larval development in Drosophila and support the hypothesis that AMON acts to proteolytically process peptide hormones that regulate hatching, larval growth, and larval ecdysis. PMID:12586710

  1. Larval gizzard shad characteristics in Lake Oahe, South Dakota: A species at the northern edge of its range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fincel, Mark J.; Chipps, Steven R.; Graeb, Brian D. S.; Edwards, Kris R.

    2013-01-01

    Gizzard shad, Dorosoma cepedianum, have generally been restricted to the lower Missouri River impoundments in South Dakota. In recent years, gizzard shad numbers have increased in Lake Oahe, marking the northern-most natural population. These increases could potentially affect recreational fishes. Specifically, questions arise about larval gizzard shad growth dynamics and if age-0 gizzard shad in Lake Oahe will exhibit fast or slow growth, both of which can have profound effects on piscivore populations in this reservoir. In this study, we evaluated larval gizzard shad hatch timing, growth, and density in Lake Oahe. We collected larval gizzard shad from six sites from May to July 2008 and used sagittal otoliths to estimate the growth and back-calculate the hatch date. We found that larval gizzard shad hatched earlier in the upper part of the reservoir compared to the lower portion and that hatch date appeared to correspond to warming water temperatures. The peak larval gizzard shad density ranged from 0.6 to 33.6 (#/100 m3) and varied significantly among reservoir sites. Larval gizzard shad growth ranged from 0.24 to 0.57 (mm/d) and differed spatially within the reservoir. We found no relationship between the larval gizzard shad growth or density and small- or large-bodied zooplankton density (p > 0.05). As this population exhibits slow growth and low densities, gizzard shad should remain a suitable forage option for recreational fishes in Lake Oahe.

  2. An extraordinarily long larval duration of 4.5 years from hatching to metamorphosis for teleplanic veligers of Fusitriton oregonensis.

    PubMed

    Strathmann, Megumi F; Strathmann, Richard R

    2007-10-01

    Veliger larvae of the NE Pacific snail Fusitriton oregonensis were reared in culture for 4.5 to 4.6 years from hatching to metamorphosis and through postlarval growth to reproduction. Larval shells grew in length from 0.20 to 3.9 mm. Late veligers grew slowly, but shell sizes increased even in the 4th and 5th years. Widths of larval shells at late stages equaled or exceeded those of the protoconchs of two juveniles from the field. Cultured larvae did not metamorphose until presented with subtidal rocks and associated biota. There was no indication of larval senescence: the first 2 years of postmetamorphic shell growth were slightly faster, and time from metamorphosis to first reproduction (3.3 years) was slightly less than for an individual that had developed to metamorphic competence in the plankton. A 4.5-year larval phase exceeds previous estimates for teleplanic larval durations and greatly exceeds estimates of the time for transport across oceans. This extraordinarily long larval period may exceed the usual duration in nature but shows that larval periods can be much longer than previously suspected without complete stasis in growth and with little if any loss of viability. PMID:17928522

  3. Warmer winters reduce frog fecundity and shift breeding phenology, which consequently alters larval development and metamorphic timing.

    PubMed

    Benard, Michael F

    2015-03-01

    One widely documented phenological response to climate change is the earlier occurrence of spring-breeding events. While such climate change-driven shifts in phenology are common, their consequences for individuals and populations have rarely been investigated. I addressed this gap in our knowledge by using a multi-year observational study of six wood frog (Rana sylvatica) populations near the southern edge of their range. I tested first if winter temperature or precipitation affected the date of breeding and female fecundity, and second if timing of breeding affected subsequent larval development rate, mass at metamorphosis, date of metamorphosis, and survival. Warmer winters were associated with earlier breeding but reduced female fecundity. Winter precipitation did not affect breeding date, but was positively associated with female fecundity. There was no association between earlier breeding and larval survival or mass at metamorphosis, but earlier breeding was associated with delayed larval development. The delay in larval development was explained through a counterintuitive correlation between breeding date and temperature during larval development. Warmer winters led to earlier breeding, which in turn was associated with cooler post-breeding temperatures that slowed larval development. The delay in larval development did not fully compensate for the earlier breeding, such that for every 2 days earlier that breeding took place, the average date of metamorphosis was 1 day earlier. Other studies have found that earlier metamorphosis is associated with increased postmetamorphic growth and survival, suggesting that earlier breeding has beneficial effects on wood frog populations. PMID:25263760

  4. The impacts of larval density and protease inhibition on feeding in medicinal larvae of the greenbottle fly Lucilia sericata.

    PubMed

    Wilson, M R; Nigam, Y; Jung, W; Knight, J; Pritchard, D I

    2016-03-01

    Larval therapy, the therapeutic use of blowfly larvae to treat chronic wounds, is primarily used in debridement. There are, however, gaps in current knowledge of the optimal clinical application of the therapy and mechanisms of action in the debridement process. Using an artificial assay, two studies were undertaken to investigate these aspects of larval debridement by Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae); the first studied the effects of the density of larvae on tissue digestion and larval mass, and the second considered the effects on the same parameters of incorporating protease inhibitors into the feeding substrate. The total mass of tissue digested increased with larval density until saturation was observed at 5.0-7.5 larvae/cm(2) . This range was considered optimal as lower doses resulted in the removal of less tissue and higher doses offered no additional tissue removal and appeared to exacerbate competition for feeding. In the second study, increased protease inhibitor concentration led to significant decreases in tissue digestion and larval mass, suggesting that serine proteases, particularly trypsin, may play major roles in larval digestion. Such information is important in elucidating the main constituents that make up larval digestive products and may be significant in the development of new therapies. PMID:26463514

  5. Effects of fish oil, DHA oil and lecithin in microparticulate diets on stress tolerance of larval gilthead seabream ( Sparus aurata)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jing-Ke; Wang, Wen-Qi; Li, Kui-Ran; Lei, Ji-Lin

    2002-12-01

    The effects of natural fish oil, DHA oil and soybean lecithin in microparticulate diets on stress tolerance of larval gilthead seabream ( Sparus aurata) were investigated after 15 days feeding trials. The tolerance of larval gilthead seabream to various stress factors such as exposure to air (lack of dissolved oxygen), changes in water temperature (low) and salinity (high) were determined. This study showed that microparticulate diet with natural fish oil and soybean lecithin was the most effective for increasing the tolerance of larval gilthead seabream to various stresses, and that microparticulate diet with natural fish oil and palmitic acid (16∶0) was more effective than microparticulate diet with DHA oil and soybean lecithin.

  6. Ovipositional preference and larval performance of the banded sunflower moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and its larval parasitoids on resistant and susceptible lines of sunflower (Asterales: Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Chirumamilla, Anitha; Knodel, Janet J; Charlet, Laurence D; Hulke, Brent S; Foster, Stephen P; Ode, Paul J

    2014-02-01

    Banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes Walsingham, is one of the most destructive seed-feeding insect pests of sunflowers, causing significant economic yield losses in the northern Great Plains. In an attempt to understand host-plant resistance mechanisms for this pest, we field-tested, over several years, the effects of seven sunflower accessions, rated as resistant to C. hospes in previous screening trials, and a susceptible control (Par 1673-2), on the ovipositional preference and larval performance of C. hospes and its larval parasitoids. Of the resistant accessions, PI 494859 was the most preferred for oviposition, receiving a significantly greater number of eggs per head than did the susceptible Par 1673-2 in 2 of 3 yr. However, the numbers of larvae, and consequently the rate of seed infestation, found in PI 494859 heads were significantly lower than those in Par 1673-2 heads over all 3 yr. Female moths laid relatively few eggs on accessions PI 170385, 291403, and 251902, compared with on Par 1673-2, resulting in lower numbers of larvae per head and lower percentages of seed damaged. No association was observed between the concentrations of two diterpenoid alcohols or two diterpenoid acids in sunflower bracts and the numbers of eggs laid on the heads of the accessions. The number of banded sunflower moth larvae and the proportion of seeds damaged were positively correlated with kaurenoic acid concentrations and negatively correlated with kauranol concentrations. A positive association between resistance to larval feeding and parasitism was found in years 2006 and 2008, with resistant accessions having significantly greater proportions of parasitized larvae than did the susceptible Par 1673-2. PMID:24367911

  7. Density-dependent effects in experimental larval populations of Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) can be negative, neutral, or overcompensatory depending on density and diet levels.

    PubMed

    Gilles, J R L; Lees, R S; Soliban, S M; Benedict, M Q

    2011-03-01

    Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae were reared from hatching to the adult stage in the laboratory under a range of diet and larval concentrations using a factorial design. The range circumscribed most of the larval densities and diet concentrations that would allow larval growth and survival using the particular diet formulation and water volume we tested. We determined how these variables affected three outcomes, as follows: larval development rate, survival, and wing length. As has been reported previously, negative density dependence of survival as a function of increased larval density was the prevalent effect on all outcomes when diet was limiting. When diet was not limiting, density dependence was not observed, and three cases of overcompensatory survival were seen. We discuss these results in the context of diet and larval densities for mass rearing and the effect of larval competition on control strategies. PMID:21485365

  8. Stockpile Stewardship: Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, Charlie; Morgan, Nathanial; Goorley, Tom; Merrill, Frank; Funk, Dave; Korzekwa, Deniece; Laintz, Ken

    2012-01-26

    "Heritage of Science" is a short video that highlights the Stockpile Stewardship program at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Stockpile Stewardship was conceived in the early 1990s as a national science-based program that could assure the safety, security, and effectiveness of the U.S. nuclear deterrent without the need for full-scale underground nuclear testing. This video was produced by Los Alamos National Laboratory for screening at the Lab's Bradbury Science Museum in Los Alamos, NM and is narrated by science correspondent Miles O'Brien.

  9. Stockpile Stewardship: Los Alamos

    ScienceCinema

    McMillan, Charlie; Morgan, Nathanial; Goorley, Tom; Merrill, Frank; Funk, Dave; Korzekwa, Deniece; Laintz, Ken

    2014-08-12

    "Heritage of Science" is a short video that highlights the Stockpile Stewardship program at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Stockpile Stewardship was conceived in the early 1990s as a national science-based program that could assure the safety, security, and effectiveness of the U.S. nuclear deterrent without the need for full-scale underground nuclear testing. This video was produced by Los Alamos National Laboratory for screening at the Lab's Bradbury Science Museum in Los Alamos, NM and is narrated by science correspondent Miles O'Brien.

  10. Differential patterns of divergence in ocean drifters: Implications for larval flatfish advection and recruitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilderbuer, Thomas; Duffy-Anderson, Janet T.; Stabeno, Phyllis; Hermann, Albert

    2016-05-01

    In an effort to better understand the physics of the eastern Bering Sea shelf current as it relates to flatfish advection to favorable near-shore areas, sets of multiple, satellite-tracked, oceanic drifters were released in 2010, 2012 and 2013. The release sites and dates were chosen to coincide with known spawning locations for northern rock sole (Lepidopsetta polyxystra) and known time of larval emergence. The drifters were drogued 5-each at 20 and 40 m in 2010 and 2012, and 4 at 40 m and 2 at 20 m in 2013. The locations of drifters were used to calculate divergence over a 90-day period that corresponds to the larval pelagic duration of Bering Sea shelf northern rock sole. Results indicate that there are alternating periods of positive and negative divergence with an overall trend toward drifter separation after 90 days, roughly the end of the rock sole planktonic larval period. Examination of the drifter behavior at the hourly scale indicates that semi-daily tidal forcing is the primary mechanism of drifter divergence and convergence. Field observations of early-stage northern rock sole larval distributions over the same period indicate that predominant oceanographic advection is northerly over the continental shelf among preflexion stages, though juveniles are predominantly found in nursery areas located ~ 400 km eastward and inshore. Evidence from drifter deployments suggests that behavioral movements during the postflexion and early juvenile larval phases that optimize eastward periodicity of tidal cycles is a viable mechanism to enhance eastward movement of northern rock sole larvae to favorable nursery grounds. A regional ocean modeling system (ROMS) was implemented to track the different rates of dispersion in simulations both with and without tidal forcing, and was used to estimate effective horizontal eddy diffusion in the case of both isobaric (fixed-depth) and Lagrangian (neutrally buoyant) particles. The addition of tidal forcing had a pronounced

  11. Comparison of alpha-amylase activity in larval stages of flour beetles, Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebionidae).

    PubMed

    Bandani, A R; Balvasi, A

    2006-01-01

    Flour beetles attack stored grain products such as flour, cereals, meal, dried pet food, dried flowers and even dried museum specimens and other foods in the house. Stored-product insects cause tremendous losses by lowering weight, germination rate, nutritional value and grain grade. These beetles are of the most important pests of stored products in the home and grocery stores. The adult female may live for as long as two years, depositing 300 to 400 eggs. The life cycle requires one to four months when temperatures are favorable. Several methods could be used to control this insect including synthetic insecticides, biological control, physical control and transgenic plant carrying gene of interest. Chemical controls are discouraged due to pesticide residue in the commodities and resistance in insects. The study of insect digestive enzymes seems to make sense in the realization that the gut is the major interface between the insect and its environment. Hence, an understanding of digestive enzyme function is essential when developing methods of insect control such as the use of enzyme inhibitors and transgenic plants to control insect pests. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to get a good understanding from enzyme composition of different larval stages of the insect and finally characterize amylase which is the key enzyme in digestive system of this insect. For alpha-amylase study whole larvae were homogenized in 0.02 M phosphate buffer at pH 7.2. The homogenates were separately transferred to a 1.5 ml of centrifuge tubes and centrifuged at 15000xg for 20 min at 4degrees C. The supernatants were used as enzyme source in assays. alpha-Amylase activity was assayed by the dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) procedure using 1% soluble starch (Merck) as substrate. The results show that enzyme activity (OD) in the first, second, third and fourth larval stages were 0.5, 1.15, 1.35 and 1.362, respectively. There are significant differences in amylase activity in

  12. Circulating Biomphalaria glabrata hemocyte subpopulations possess shared schistosome glycans and receptors capable of binding larval glycoconjugates.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Timothy P; Wu, Xiao-Jun; Gonzalez, Laura A; Hokke, Cornelis H

    2013-01-01

    Host lectin-like recognition molecules may play an important role in innate resistance in Biomphalaria glabrata snails to larval schistosome infection, thus implicating parasite-expressed glycans as putative ligands for these lectin receptors. While host lectins may utilize specific glycan structures for parasite recognition, it also has been hypothesized that the parasite may use this system to evade immune detection by mimicking naturally-expressed host glycans, resulting in reduced immunorecognition capacity. By employing immunocytochemical (ICC) and Western blot assays using schistosome glycan-specific monoclonal antibodies (mABs) we sought to identify specific glycan epitopes (glycotopes) shared in common between larval Schistosoma mansoni and B. glabrata hemocytes, the primary immune effector cells in snails. Results confirmed the presence of selected larval glycotopes on subpopulations of hemocytes by ICC and association with numerous hemocyte proteins by Western blot analyses, including a trimannosyl core N-glycan (TriMan), and two fucosylated lacdiNAc (LDN) variants, F-LDN and F-LDN-F. Snail strain differences were seen in the prevalence of constitutively expressed F-LDN on hemocytes, and in the patterns of protein immunoreactivity with these mABs. In contrast, there was little to no hemocyte reactivity with mABs for Lewis X (LeX), LDN, LDN-F or LDN-DF. When intact hemocytes were exposed to larval transformation products (LTPs), distinct cell subpopulations displayed weak (LeX, LDN-DF) to moderate (LDN, LDN-F) glycotope reactivity by ICC, including snail strain differences in the prevalence of LDN-reactive cellular subsets. Far-Western blot analyses of the hemocytes following exposure to larval transformation proteins (LTPs) also revealed multiple mAB-reactive hemocyte protein bands for LeX, LDN, LDN-F, and LDN-DF. These results demonstrate the existence of complex patterns of shared larval glycan constitutively expressed on hemocytes and their proteins

  13. Distribution and retention of Petrolisthes armatus in a coastal plain estuary: The role of vertical movement in larval transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilburg, Charles E.; Seay, Jennie E.; Bishop, T. Dale; Miller, Harlan L., III; Meile, Christof

    2010-06-01

    Since transport of planktonic larvae is essential to the maintenance and expansion of many marine species, we examined the spatial and temporal distribution of green porcelain crab Petrolisthes armatus (Gibbes, 1850) larvae and the possible underlying physical and behavioral mechanisms using a combination of field observations and numerical modeling. The field study consisted of observations of larval abundance and distribution as well as hydrographic surveys of the Satilla River estuary on the east coast of the USA in August 2006. Larvae were found throughout the water column within the tributaries but primarily at depth in the main river. A numerical model was used to examine the effect of flow and possible larval behavior responsible for the observed distribution and the consequences for larval retention in the estuary. Model results that included downward larval movement are consistent with the field observations, supporting the hypothesis that P. armatus larvae vertically migrate within the water column, which aids in their retention within the estuary.

  14. Identification of Gender-specific Transcripts by Microarray in Gonad Tissue of Larval and Juvenile Xenopus tropicalis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Amphibian model species Xenopus tropicalis is currently being utilized by EPA in the development of a standardized in vivo reproductive toxicity assay. Perturbations to the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis from exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds during larval develop...

  15. The Effect of UV-C Exposure on Larval Survival of the Dreissenid Quagga Mussel.

    PubMed

    Stewart-Malone, Alecia; Misamore, Michael; Wilmoth, Siri; Reyes, Alejandro; Wong, Wai Hing; Gross, Jackson

    2015-01-01

    The rapid spread of quagga mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) has lead to their invasion of Lake Mead, Nevada, the largest reservoir in North America and partially responsible for providing water to millions of people in the southwest. Current strategies for mitigating the growth and spread of quagga mussels primarily include physical and chemical means of removing adults within water treatment, delivery, and hydropower facilities. In the present study, germicidal ultraviolet light (UV-C) was used to target the larval stage of wild-caught quagga mussel. The lethal effect of UV-C was evaluated at four different doses, 0.0, 13.1, 26.2, and 79.6 mJ/cm2. Tested doses were determined based on results from preliminary trials. The results demonstrate that germicidal UV-C is effective in controlling the free-swimming life history stages of larval quagga mussels. PMID:26186734

  16. Larval morphology of Panorpodes kuandianensis (Insecta, Mecoptera, Panorpodidae) and its evolutionary implications

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Lu; Yue, Chao; Hua, Baozhen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Larval characters play a significant role in evolutionary and systematic studies of holometabolous insects. However, Panorpodidae, a derived family of Mecoptera, are largely unknown in their immature stages to date. Here, the first instar larva of the short-faced scorpionfly Panorpodes kuandianensis Zhong, Zhang & Hua, 2011 is described and illustrated using light and scanning electron microscopy. The larva of Panorpodes is remarkable for the absence of compound eyes on the head and the presence of seven small unpaired proleg-like processes along the midventral line on abdominal segments II–VIII. The homology of these unpaired appendage-like processes, their ecological adaptation, and the evolutionary implications of some larval characters of Panorpodidae are discussed. PMID:24715802

  17. Microarray Analysis of the Juvenile Hormone Response in Larval Integument of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Daojun; Peng, Jian; Meng, Meng; Wei, Ling; Kang, Lixia; Qian, Wenliang; Xia, Qingyou

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) coordinates with 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) to regulate larval growth and molting in insects. However, little is known about how this cooperative control is achieved during larval stages. Here, we induced silkworm superlarvae by applying the JH analogue (JHA) methoprene and used a microarray approach to survey the mRNA expression changes in response to JHA in the silkworm integument. We found that JHA application significantly increased the expression levels of most genes involved in basic metabolic processes and protein processing and decreased the expression of genes associated with oxidative phosphorylation in the integument. Several key genes involved in the pathways of insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS) and 20E signaling were also upregulated after JHA application. Taken together, we suggest that JH may mediate the nutrient-dependent IIS pathway by regulating various metabolic pathways and further modulate 20E signaling. PMID:24809046

  18. Calcium Imaging of Neuronal Activity in Free-Swimming Larval Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Muto, Akira; Kawakami, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Visualization of neuronal activity during animal behavior is a critical step in understanding how the brain generates behavior. In the model vertebrate zebrafish, imaging of the brain has been done mostly by using immobilized fish. Here, we describe a novel method to image neuronal activity of the larval zebrafish brain during prey capture behavior. We expressed a genetically encoded fluorescent calcium indicator, GCaMP, in the optic tectum of the midbrain using the Gal4-UAS system. Tectal activity was then imaged in unrestrained larvae during prey perception. Since larval zebrafish swim only intermittently, detection of the neuronal activity is possible between swimming bouts. Our method makes functional brain imaging under natural behavioral conditions feasible and will greatly benefit the study of neuronal activities that evoke animal behaviors. PMID:27464819

  19. Calf milk replacers as substitutes for milk in the larval diet of the screwworm (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Friese, D D

    1992-10-01

    The effect of calf milk replacers as substitutes for nonfat dry milk in the larval diet of the screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), was determined in the laboratory. Pupal weight and fecundity of females were significantly greater than the control with some of the formulations tested. Larval crawl-off patterns for all diets were similar. Pupal weights were significantly affected only on day 1 of the 4-d crawl-off period. Among the formulations of calf milk replacer, Gold Label brand products showed the most promise as substitutes for the nonfat dry milk presently used in the screwworm production facility. Use of calf milk replacers would lead to a yearly savings of 39.3% in the cost of the dietary milk component. At a production level of 250 million flies weekly, this substitution would save approximately $338,000 dollars yearly. PMID:1401483

  20. Effect of temperature on feeding period of larval blacklegged ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on eastern fence lizards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rulison, Eric L.; LeBrun, Roger A.; Ginsberg, Howard S.

    2014-01-01

    Ambient temperature can influence tick development time, and can potentially affect tick interactions with pathogens and with vertebrate hosts. We studied the effect of ambient temperature on duration of attachment of larval blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis Say, to eastern fence lizards, Sceloporus undulatus (Bose & Daudin). Feeding periods of larvae that attached to lizards under preferred temperature conditions for the lizards (WARM treatment: temperatures averaged 36.6°C at the top of the cage and 25.8°C at the bottom, allowing behavioral thermoregulation) were shorter than for larvae on lizards held under cool conditions (COOL treatment temperatures averaged 28.4°C at top of cage and 24.9°C at the bottom). The lizards were infested with larvae four times at roughly monthly intervals. Larval numbers successfully engorging and dropping declined and feeding period was longer after the first infestation.

  1. Immigration of larval plaice ( Pleuronectes platessa L.) into the western wadden sea: A question of timing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovenkamp, Frans

    Migration of larval plaice into a nursery area in the western Wadden Sea was monitored during three immigration seasons. Daily otolith increments were used to estimate age and hatch dates of the larvae, and the hatch dates were compared to egg-production curves. Different cohorts of larvae invaded the area, originating from different spawning grounds. During a cold year, most larvae probably came from the Western Channel, but during the two warm years most larvae originated from more northern spawning grounds. Settlement on a tidal flat showed a delayed response to immigration in the first part of the season, but a direct response later in the season. Length-frequency distributions of settled juveniles were compared to expected frequencies based on a simple growth model. It is argued that early in the season growth-related mortality may have been too high to ensure successful settlement, and that timing could be of significant importance for larval immigration to be successful.

  2. Entomopathogenic fungi in cornfields and their potential to manage larval western corn rootworm Diabrotica virgifera virgifera.

    PubMed

    Rudeen, Melissa L; Jaronski, Stefan T; Petzold-Maxwell, Jennifer L; Gassmann, Aaron J

    2013-11-01

    Entomopathogenic ascomycete fungi are ubiquitous in soil and on phylloplanes, and are important natural enemies of many soil-borne arthropods including larval western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, which is a major pest of corn. We measured the prevalence of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae sensu lato in ten cornfields in Iowa, USA by baiting with larval insects. B. bassiana and M. anisopliae s.l. were present in 60% ± 6.3% and 55% ± 6.4% of soil samples, respectively. Subsequent laboratory bioassays found that some M. anisopliae s.l. strains collected from cornfields killed a greater proportion of D.v. virgifera larvae than a standard commercial strain. PMID:24120889

  3. The Effect of UV-C Exposure on Larval Survival of the Dreissenid Quagga Mussel

    PubMed Central

    Stewart-Malone, Alecia; Misamore, Michael; Wilmoth, Siri; Reyes, Alejandro; Wong, Wai Hing; Gross, Jackson

    2015-01-01

    The rapid spread of quagga mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) has lead to their invasion of Lake Mead, Nevada, the largest reservoir in North America and partially responsible for providing water to millions of people in the southwest. Current strategies for mitigating the growth and spread of quagga mussels primarily include physical and chemical means of removing adults within water treatment, delivery, and hydropower facilities. In the present study, germicidal ultraviolet light (UV-C) was used to target the larval stage of wild-caught quagga mussel. The lethal effect of UV-C was evaluated at four different doses, 0.0, 13.1, 26.2, and 79.6 mJ/cm2. Tested doses were determined based on results from preliminary trials. The results demonstrate that germicidal UV-C is effective in controlling the free-swimming life history stages of larval quagga mussels. PMID:26186734

  4. The biosynthesis of crustacean chitin by a microsomal enzyme from larval brine shrimp.

    PubMed

    Horst, M N

    1981-02-10

    A microsomal preparation from larval stages of the brine shrimp Artemia salina was found to catalyze the transfer of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine to an endogenous acceptor. The product was identified as chitin by its resistance to extraction with alkali and high concentrations of urea and the liberation of chito-oligosaccharides by treatment with purified chitinases. The enzyme requires Mg2+ for activity and is inhibited by UDP and diflubenzuron, but not by Polyoxin D. The pH optimum is 7.0. The enzyme is not significantly activated by N-acetyl-D-glucosamine nor by trypsin treatment. Incorporation of radioactivity into endogenous acceptor is inhibited by chitodextrins which appear to serve as alternate acceptors. The crustacean enzyme can also utilize exogenous, macromolecular chitin as acceptor. The enzyme, which was partially purified by sucrose step-gradient ultracentrifugation, appears maximally active after 72 h of larval growth. PMID:6450211

  5. Microarray Analysis of the Juvenile Hormone Response in Larval Integument of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Daojun; Peng, Jian; Meng, Meng; Wei, Ling; Kang, Lixia; Qian, Wenliang; Xia, Qingyou

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) coordinates with 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) to regulate larval growth and molting in insects. However, little is known about how this cooperative control is achieved during larval stages. Here, we induced silkworm superlarvae by applying the JH analogue (JHA) methoprene and used a microarray approach to survey the mRNA expression changes in response to JHA in the silkworm integument. We found that JHA application significantly increased the expression levels of most genes involved in basic metabolic processes and protein processing and decreased the expression of genes associated with oxidative phosphorylation in the integument. Several key genes involved in the pathways of insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS) and 20E signaling were also upregulated after JHA application. Taken together, we suggest that JH may mediate the nutrient-dependent IIS pathway by regulating various metabolic pathways and further modulate 20E signaling. PMID:24809046

  6. Larval ecomorphology of 13 Libellulidae (Anisoptera, Odonata) of the Middle Rio Doce Valley, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Giacomini, H C; De Marco Jr, P

    2008-02-01

    In the lakes of the Middle Rio Doce, Minas Gerais (MG), two groups of larval Libellulidae are distinguished by preferences of habitat use: one uses mainly aquatic macrophytes and the other uses the bottom substrate. The goal of this work was to verify if there is a morphological distinction between the two groups of species. Thirteen body measures were taken from the larvae and analyzed. No difference was found between the two groups of species regarding the body size, but shape differences were observed for two morphological variables. The species that use mainly macrophytes tend to have larger relative measures of the labium and smaller measures of the abdomen width. Advantages in resource obtainment and in vulnerability to predation are probably the explanations for the morphological divergence among these larval groups. PMID:18470400

  7. UV wavelengths experienced during development affect larval newt visual sensitivity and predation efficiency.

    PubMed

    Martin, Mélissa; Théry, Marc; Rodgers, Gwendolen; Goven, Delphine; Sourice, Stéphane; Mège, Pascal; Secondi, Jean

    2016-02-01

    We experimentally investigated the influence of developmental plasticity of ultraviolet (UV) visual sensitivity on predation efficiency of the larval smooth newt, Lissotriton vulgaris. We quantified expression of SWS1 opsin gene (UV-sensitive protein of photoreceptor cells) in the retinas of individuals who had developed in the presence (UV+) or absence (UV-) of UV light (developmental treatments), and tested their predation efficiency under UV+ and UV- light (testing treatments). We found that both SWS1 opsin expression and predation efficiency were significantly reduced in the UV- developmental group. Larvae in the UV- testing environment displayed consistently lower predation efficiency regardless of their developmental treatment. These results prove for the first time, we believe, functional UV vision and developmental plasticity of UV sensitivity in an amphibian at the larval stage. They also demonstrate that UV wavelengths enhance predation efficiency and suggest that the magnitude of the behavioural response depends on retinal properties induced by the developmental lighting environment. PMID:26843556

  8. Larval fish distribution in shallow coastal waters off North Western Iberia (NE Atlantic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azeiteiro, Ulisses Miranda; Bacelar-Nicolau, Leonor; Resende, Paula; Gonçalves, Fernando; Pereira, Mário Jorge

    2006-09-01

    Monthly sampling for ichthyoplankton was conducted at three stations very near to the coast (near to shore shallow stations before the surf zone in direction to the shoreline) of Atlantic northwestern Portugal within contrasting localities: rocky shore, in front of a sandy beach receiving an estuary and a fishing port with heavy anthropogenic impact. Sampling was conducted from August 2002 to October 2003, always at full moon, at low tide and high tide in daylight hours, at the water column using a 48 cm diameter plankton net with 335 μm mesh. Analysis of the physico-chemical parameters pointed out the spatial (horizontal) homogeneity of the sampling area. Fish larvae from 41 taxa belonging to 17 families were identified; Blenniidae, Labridae, Ammodytidae, Clupeidae, Gobiidae, Soleidae and Gobiesocidae were the most representative during the study period. Parablennius gattorugine, Ammodytes tobianus, Symphodus melops, Sardina pilchardus, Lipophrys pholis and Coryphoblennius galerita were the most representative species (percentage contribution to total abundance). Peak abundance of fish eggs occurred during May, June and August 2003 and fish larvae occurred during May and July 2003 and August 2002 and 2003; there was a pronounced winter/early spring (March 2003) peak in larval abundance dominated by the small sandeel A. tobianus. This study identifies the occurrence of a conspicuous assemblage of larval fishes at very nearshore shallow environments of a variety of species with different adult habitats: the fish larvae assemblage was dominated by intertidal species. The present study has shown that temporal and spatial variations in the larval fish assemblage are related to environmental conditions and biological dynamics: the results suggest that abiotic conditions mediate biotic parameters, and that both abiotic and biotic characteristics regulated the larval fishes at very nearshore shallow environments.

  9. Seasonal variation in sensitivity of larval sea lampreys to the lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scholefield, R.J.; Slaght, K.S.; Stephens, B.E.

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the sensitivity of larval sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus to the lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) in a series of toxicity tests in spring and summer. Although noted previously, the seasonal variation in sensitivity to TFM had never been tested as a means of reducing TFM usage in stream treatments. A preliminary study consisted of three spring and four summer static toxicity tests conducted at 12??C. A more comprehensive study consisted of 12 spring and summer paired flow-through toxicity tests conducted both at seasonal water temperatures and at 12??C. The sensitivity of larval sea lampreys to TFM was greater in spring than in summer. The preliminary static toxicity tests indicated that the concentration of TFM needed to kill larval sea lampreys in spring (May and June) was about one-half that required in summer (August); the concentrations lethal to 50% and 99.9% of the test animals (the LC50 and LC99.9 values) were less in spring than in summer. Analysis of variance of the flow-through toxicity data indicated that season significantly affected both the LC50 and LC99.9 values. For all 12 paired flow-through toxicity tests, the spring LC50 and LC99.9 values were less than the corresponding summer values. For 9 of the 12 paired flow-through toxicity tests, the dose-response toxicity lines were parallel and allowed statistical comparison of the LC50 values. The spring LC50 values were significantly lower than the summer values in eight of the nine tests. Verification of a seasonal variation in the sensitivity of larval sea lampreys to TFM will allow inclusion of this factor in the selection model currently used by both the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the Department of Fisheries and Oceans-Canada to schedule lampricide stream treatments. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  10. Functional Genetic Screen to Identify Interneurons Governing Behaviorally Distinct Aspects of Drosophila Larval Motor Programs.

    PubMed

    Clark, Matt Q; McCumsey, Stephanie J; Lopez-Darwin, Sereno; Heckscher, Ellie S; Doe, Chris Q

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila larval crawling is an attractive system to study rhythmic motor output at the level of animal behavior. Larval crawling consists of waves of muscle contractions generating forward or reverse locomotion. In addition, larvae undergo additional behaviors, including head casts, turning, and feeding. It is likely that some neurons (e.g., motor neurons) are used in all these behaviors, but the identity (or even existence) of neurons dedicated to specific aspects of behavior is unclear. To identify neurons that regulate specific aspects of larval locomotion, we performed a genetic screen to identify neurons that, when activated, could elicit distinct motor programs. We used 165 Janelia CRM-Gal4 lines-chosen for sparse neuronal expression-to ectopically express the warmth-inducible neuronal activator TrpA1, and screened for locomotor defects. The primary screen measured forward locomotion velocity, and we identified 63 lines that had locomotion velocities significantly slower than controls following TrpA1 activation (28°). A secondary screen was performed on these lines, revealing multiple discrete behavioral phenotypes, including slow forward locomotion, excessive reverse locomotion, excessive turning, excessive feeding, immobile, rigid paralysis, and delayed paralysis. While many of the Gal4 lines had motor, sensory, or muscle expression that may account for some or all of the phenotype, some lines showed specific expression in a sparse pattern of interneurons. Our results show that distinct motor programs utilize distinct subsets of interneurons, and provide an entry point for characterizing interneurons governing different elements of the larval motor program. PMID:27172197

  11. Functional Genetic Screen to Identify Interneurons Governing Behaviorally Distinct Aspects of Drosophila Larval Motor Programs

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Matt Q.; McCumsey, Stephanie J.; Lopez-Darwin, Sereno; Heckscher, Ellie S.; Doe, Chris Q.

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila larval crawling is an attractive system to study rhythmic motor output at the level of animal behavior. Larval crawling consists of waves of muscle contractions generating forward or reverse locomotion. In addition, larvae undergo additional behaviors, including head casts, turning, and feeding. It is likely that some neurons (e.g., motor neurons) are used in all these behaviors, but the identity (or even existence) of neurons dedicated to specific aspects of behavior is unclear. To identify neurons that regulate specific aspects of larval locomotion, we performed a genetic screen to identify neurons that, when activated, could elicit distinct motor programs. We used 165 Janelia CRM-Gal4 lines—chosen for sparse neuronal expression—to ectopically express the warmth-inducible neuronal activator TrpA1, and screened for locomotor defects. The primary screen measured forward locomotion velocity, and we identified 63 lines that had locomotion velocities significantly slower than controls following TrpA1 activation (28°). A secondary screen was performed on these lines, revealing multiple discrete behavioral phenotypes, including slow forward locomotion, excessive reverse locomotion, excessive turning, excessive feeding, immobile, rigid paralysis, and delayed paralysis. While many of the Gal4 lines had motor, sensory, or muscle expression that may account for some or all of the phenotype, some lines showed specific expression in a sparse pattern of interneurons. Our results show that distinct motor programs utilize distinct subsets of interneurons, and provide an entry point for characterizing interneurons governing different elements of the larval motor program. PMID:27172197

  12. Larval adaptations and patterns of brachiopod diversity in space and time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valentine, J. W.; Jablonski, D.

    1983-01-01

    Modern biodistributional patterns suggest that modes of larval development are a factor in determining the patterns of diversity in benthic invertebrates. Paleozoic brachiopods had diversity patterns suggesting that they possessed both planktotrophic and nonplanktotrophic modes. It is presently hypothesized that the planktotrophic lineages were lost to extinction, largely or entirely during the Permian-Triassic event, and that the failure of the articulate brachiopods to regain their former importance is substantially due to their nonplanktotrophic developmental mode.

  13. Diatoms as food of larval sea lampreys in a small tributary of northern Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manion, Patrick J.

    1967-01-01

    The food and food preferences of sea lamprey ammocoetes have not been investigated. The food of the larval American brook lamprey, Lampetra lamottei, in the Great Lakes region consisted mainly of diatoms and desmids according to Creaser and Hann. Schroll discussed the biology of feeding of ammocoetes of Lampetra planeri and Eudontomyzon danfordi in Europe. This report presents data on the availability and use of diatoms by sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus, ammocoetes in a small tributary of northern Lake Michigan.

  14. Available benthic habitat type may influence predation risk in larval lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Dustin M.; Welsh, Stuart; Turk, Philip J.

    2012-01-01

    Population declines of lamprey species have largely been attributed to habitat degradation, yet there still remain many unanswered questions about the relationships between lampreys and their habitats (Torgensen & Close 2004; Smith et al. 2011). One scarcely researched area of lamprey ecology is the effect of predation on lampreys (Cochran 2009). Specifically, the influence of available habitat on predation risk has not been documented for larval lampreys but may be important to the management and conservation of lamprey populations.

  15. Larval Environment Alters Amphibian Immune Defenses Differentially across Life Stages and Populations

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Recent global declines, extirpations and extinctions of wildlife caused by newly emergent diseases highlight the need to improve our knowledge of common environmental factors that affect the strength of immune defense traits. To achieve this goal, we examined the influence of acidification and shading of the larval environment on amphibian skin-associated innate immune defense traits, pre and post-metamorphosis, across two populations of American Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana), a species known for its wide-ranging environmental tolerance and introduced global distribution. We assessed treatment effects on 1) skin-associated microbial communities and 2) post-metamorphic antimicrobial peptide (AMP) production and 3) AMP bioactivity against the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). While habitat acidification did not affect survival, time to metamorphosis or juvenile mass, we found that a change in average pH from 7 to 6 caused a significant shift in the larval skin microbial community, an effect which disappeared after metamorphosis. Additionally, we found shifts in skin-associated microbial communities across life stages suggesting they are affected by the physiological or ecological changes associated with amphibian metamorphosis. Moreover, we found that post-metamorphic AMP production and bioactivity were significantly affected by the interactions between pH and shade treatments and interactive effects differed across populations. In contrast, there were no significant interactions between treatments on post-metamorphic microbial community structure suggesting that variation in AMPs did not affect microbial community structure within our study. Our findings indicate that commonly encountered variation in the larval environment (i.e. pond pH and degree of shading) can have both immediate and long-term effects on the amphibian innate immune defense traits. Our work suggests that the susceptibility of amphibians to emerging diseases could be related to

  16. Individual and mixture effects of selected pharmaceuticals on larval development of the estuarine shrimp Palaemon longirostris.

    PubMed

    González-Ortegón, Enrique; Blasco, Julian; Nieto, Elena; Hampel, Miriam; Le Vay, Lewis; Giménez, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Few ecotoxicological studies incorporate within the experimental design environmental variability and mixture effects when assessing the impact of pollutants on organisms. We have studied the combined effects of selected pharmaceutical compounds and environmental variability in terms of salinity and temperature on survival, development and body mass of larvae of the estuarine shrimp Palaemon longirostris. Drug residues found in coastal waters occur as mixture, and the evaluation of combined effects of simultaneously occurring compounds is indispensable for their environmental risk assessment. All larval stages of P. longirostris were exposed to the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) diclofenac sodium (DS: 40 and 750 μg L(-1)), the lipid regulator clofibric acid (CA: 17 and 361 μg L(-1)) and the fungicide clotrimazole (CLZ: 0.14 and 4 μg L(-1)). We observed no effect on larval survival of P. longirostris with the tested pharmaceuticals. However, and in contrast to previous studies on larvae of the related marine species Palaemon serratus, CA affected development through an increase in intermoult duration and reduced growth without affecting larval body mass. These developmental effects in P. longirostris larvae were similar to those observed in the mixture of DS and CA confirming the toxic effects of CA. In the case of CLZ, its effects were similar to those observed previously in P. serratus: high doses affected development altering intermoult duration, tended to reduce the number of larval instars and decreased significantly the growth rate. This study suggests that an inter-specific life histories approach should be taken into account to assess the effect of emergent compounds in coastal waters. PMID:26163379

  17. Effect of Moringa oleifera flower extract on larval trypsin and acetylcholinesterase activities in Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Pontual, Emmanuel Viana; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique; Dias de Assis, Caio Rodrigo; de Souza Bezerra, Ranilson; Xavier, Haroudo Satiro; Navarro, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes

    2012-03-01

    Aedes aegypti control is crucial to reducing dengue fever. Aedes aegypti larvae have developed resistance to organophosporous insecticides and the use of natural larvicides may help manage larval resistance by increasing elements in insecticide rotation programs. Here, we report on larvicidal activity of Moringa oleifera flower extract against A. aegypti L(1), L(2), L(3), and L(4) as well as the effect of flower extract on gut trypsin and whole-larval acetylcholinesterase from L(4.) In addition, the heated flower extract was investigated for larvicidal activity against L(4) and effect on larval gut trypsin. Moringa oleifera flower extract contains a proteinaceous trypsin inhibitor (M. oleifera flower trypsin inhibitor, MoFTI), triterpene (β-amyrin), sterol (β-sitosterol) as well as flavonoids (kaempferol and quercetin). Larvicidal activity was detected against L(2), L(3), and L(4) (LC(50) of 1.72%, 1.67%, and 0.92%, respectively). Flower extract inhibited L(4) gut trypsin (MoFTI K(i) = 0.6 nM) and did not affect acetylcholinesterase activity. In vivo assay showed that gut trypsin activity from L(4) treated with M. oleifera flower extract decreased over time (0-1,440 min) and was strongly inhibited (98.6%) after 310 min incubation; acetylcholinesterase activity was not affected. Thermal treatment resulted in a loss of trypsin inhibitor and larvicidal activities, supporting the hypothesis that flower extract contains a proteinaceous trypsin inhibitor that may be responsible for the deleterious effects on larval mortality. PMID:22392801

  18. Zooplankton variability and larval striped bass foraging: Evaluating potential match/mismatch regulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chick, J.H.; Van Den Avyle, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    We quantified temporal and spatial variability of zooplankton in three potential nursery sites (river, transition zone, lake) for larval striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in Lake Marion, South Carolina, during April and May 1993-1995. In two of three years, microzooplankton (rotifers and copepod nauplii) density was significantly greater in the lake site than in the river or transition zone. Macrozooplankton (>200 ??m) composition varied among the three sites in all years with adult copepods and cladocerans dominant at the lake, and juvenile Corbicula fluminea dominant at the river and transition zone. Laboratory feeding experiments, simulating both among-site (site treatments) and within-site (density treatments) variability, were conducted in 1995 to quantify the effects of the observed zooplankton variability on foraging success of larval striped bass. A greater proportion of larvae fed in the lake than in the river or transition-zone treatments across all density treatments: mean (x), 10x and 100x. Larvae also ingested significantly more dry mass of prey in the lake treatment in both the mean and 10x density treatments. Field zooplankton and laboratory feeding data suggest that both spatial and temporal variability of zooplankton influence larval striped bass foraging. Prey density levels that supported successful foraging in our feeding experiments occurred in the lake during late April and May in 1994 and 1995 but were never observed in the river or transition zone. Because the rivers flowing into Lake Marion are regulated, it may be possible to devise flow management schemes that facilitate larval transport to the lake and thereby increase the proportion of larvae matched to suitable prey resources.

  19. Effect of Dietary Components on Larval Life History Characteristics in the Medfly (Ceratitis capitata: Diptera, Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Nash, William J.; Chapman, Tracey

    2014-01-01

    Background The ability to respond to heterogenous nutritional resources is an important factor in the adaptive radiation of insects such as the highly polyphagous Medfly. Here we examined the breadth of the Medfly’s capacity to respond to different developmental conditions, by experimentally altering diet components as a proxy for host quality and novelty. Methodology/Principal Findings We tested responses of larval life history to diets containing protein and carbohydrate components found in and outside the natural host range of this species. A 40% reduction in the quantity of protein caused a significant increase in egg to adult mortality by 26.5%±6% in comparison to the standard baseline diet. Proteins and carbohydrates had differential effects on larval versus pupal development and survival. Addition of a novel protein source, casein (i.e. milk protein), to the diet increased larval mortality by 19.4%±3% and also lengthened the duration of larval development by 1.93±0.5 days in comparison to the standard diet. Alteration of dietary carbohydrate, by replacing the baseline starch with simple sugars, increased mortality specifically within the pupal stage (by 28.2%±8% and 26.2%±9% for glucose and maltose diets, respectively). Development in the presence of the novel carbohydrate lactose (milk sugar) was successful, though on this diet there was a decrease of 29.8±1.6 µg in mean pupal weight in comparison to pupae reared on the baseline diet. Conclusions The results confirm that laboratory reared Medfly retain the ability to survive development through a wide range of fluctuations in the nutritional environment. We highlight new facets of the responses of different stages of holometabolous life histories to key dietary components. The results are relevant to colonisation scenarios and key to the biology of this highly invasive species. PMID:24465851

  20. Exposure to a putative alarm cue reduces downstream drift in larval sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Wagner, C M; Kierczynski, K E; Hume, J B; Luhring, T M

    2016-09-01

    An experimental mesocosm study suggested larval sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus detect and respond to an alarm cue released by dead adult conspecifics. Larvae exhibited a reduced tendency to move downstream when exposed to the cue and were less likely to move under continuous v. pulsed exposure. These findings support the hypothesis that short-term exposure to the alarm cue would probably result in retraction into the burrow, consistent with the blind, cryptic lifestyle of the larval P. marinus. PMID:27456088

  1. Surface ultrastructure of larval mouthpart sensilla of the muga silkmoth, Antheraea assamensis, an endemic species of North-East India.

    PubMed

    Dey, Sudip; Singh, Surendra; Chakraborty, Rahul

    2011-03-01

    Scanning electron microscopy of different larval stages of the muga silk moth Antheraea assamensis revealed the presence of sensilla chaetica, sensilla trichoidea, sensilla styloconica, gustatory sensilla, sensory pegs, placoid sensilla, etc., on their mouth parts. Some variations were observed in the number and sub-types of sensilla in certain larval stages indicating some differences in sensitivity of the worms in different instars to the food plant and microhabitat. PMID:20669308

  2. The effects of a parasitic copepod on the recent larval growth of a fish inhabiting rocky coasts.

    PubMed

    Palacios-Fuentes, Pamela; Landaeta, Mauricio F; Muñoz, Gabriela; Plaza, Guido; Ojeda, F Patricio

    2012-10-01

    Parasites can infect larval, juvenile or adult marine fishes; however, the effects of parasites on the growth and condition of fish larvae have seldom been investigated. This study analysed the effects of a parasitic copepod on the larval growth of the Chilean triplefin Helcogrammoides chilensis (Tripterygiidae) based on the microstructure of the sagittal otoliths. Fish larvae were collected during the austral spring of 2010 off central Chile. Their body length ranged from 5.1 to 16.6 mm (2 to 57 days old). They were parasitised by a penellid larval copepod that was always externally attached to the ventral side of the fish's gut. The prevalence of the copepod ranged from 2.7% to 20.8%, with one to four parasites per fish larva. Relationships between otolith size (radius, perimeter) and larval size were equal for parasitised and unparasitised fish larvae (P > 0.05). Larval growth was also similar for unparasitised (0.21 mm/day) and parasitised fish larvae (0.19 mm/day) (P > 0.05). However, a comparison of same-aged larvae showed that the larvae with copepods were smaller in both length and estimated body volume than the larvae without copepods. The Recent Otolith Growth Index, indicated that larval H. chilensis with copepods showed a reduction in recent growth and condition compared with those without evidence of copepods (P < 0.05). Nevertheless, a higher parasite load (two vs. one pennellids) did not decrease the condition of the larval fish. The infestation of pennellids on coastal fish larvae may therefore induce an increase in the pelagic larval duration and potentially affect the settlement rates of this intertidal fish. PMID:22752746

  3. Larval Dispersal Modeling of Pearl Oyster Pinctada margaritifera following Realistic Environmental and Biological Forcing in Ahe Atoll Lagoon

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Yoann; Dumas, Franck; Andréfouët, Serge

    2014-01-01

    Studying the larval dispersal of bottom-dwelling species is necessary to understand their population dynamics and optimize their management. The black-lip pearl oyster (Pinctada margaritifera) is cultured extensively to produce black pearls, especially in French Polynesia's atoll lagoons. This aquaculture relies on spat collection, a process that can be optimized by understanding which factors influence larval dispersal. Here, we investigate the sensitivity of P. margaritifera larval dispersal kernel to both physical and biological factors in the lagoon of Ahe atoll. Specifically, using a validated 3D larval dispersal model, the variability of lagoon-scale connectivity is investigated against wind forcing, depth and location of larval release, destination location, vertical swimming behavior and pelagic larval duration (PLD) factors. The potential connectivity was spatially weighted according to both the natural and cultivated broodstock densities to provide a realistic view of connectivity. We found that the mean pattern of potential connectivity was driven by the southwest and northeast main barotropic circulation structures, with high retention levels in both. Destination locations, spawning sites and PLD were the main drivers of potential connectivity, explaining respectively 26%, 59% and 5% of the variance. Differences between potential and realistic connectivity showed the significant contribution of the pearl oyster broodstock location to its own dynamics. Realistic connectivity showed larger larval supply in the western destination locations, which are preferentially used by farmers for spat collection. In addition, larval supply in the same sectors was enhanced during summer wind conditions. These results provide new cues to understanding the dynamics of bottom-dwelling populations in atoll lagoons, and show how to take advantage of numerical models for pearl oyster management. PMID:24740288

  4. Juvenile Green Frog (Rana clamitans) Predatory Ability not Affected by Exposure to Carbaryl at Different Times During Larval Development

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Melanie J.; Kleinhenz, Peter; Boone, Michelle D.

    2011-01-01

    Larval exposure to pesticides can occur at different times during development, and can negatively impact amphibian fitness. We examined the effects of larval green frog (Rana clamitans) exposure to carbaryl at 2, 4, 8, or 16 weeks of development on juvenile predatory ability. We did not find evidence that predatory ability was affected by exposure to carbaryl, which suggests that carbaryl does not have latent effects on the predatory performance of green frogs in subsequent life stages. PMID:21462236

  5. Patterns in larval fish assemblages under the influence of the Brazil current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsuragawa, M.; Dias, J. F.; Harari, J.; Namiki, C.; Zani-Teixeira, M. L.

    2014-10-01

    The present work investigates the composition of larval fish assemblages in the area under the influence of the Brazil Current (BC) off the Southeastern Brazilian Bight. Ichthyoplankton was sampled during two oceanographic cruises (November-December/1997 - spring; May/2001 - autumn) with bongo nets oblique tows. Seasonal variation and a coastal-ocean pattern in the distribution of larval fish was observed and was influenced by the dynamics of the water masses, Coastal Water (CW), Tropical Water (TW) and South Atlantic Central Water (SACW), the last two of which were transported by the BC. During spring, the shelf assemblage was dominated by larvae of small pelagic fishes, such as Sardinella brasiliensis, Engraulis anchoita and Trachurus lathami, and was associated with the enrichment of shallow water by the SACW upwelling. In autumn, the abundance of coastal species larvae was reduced, and the shelf assemblage was dominated by Bregmaceros cantori. A transitional assemblage occurred during the spring, and comprised mesopelagic and coastal species. In both seasons, the oceanic assemblage was dominated by the mesopelagic families, Myctophidae, Sternopthychidae and Phosichthyidae. The oceanographic conditions also demonstrated clear differences between the northern and southern subareas, particularly in the shelf zone. This was especially the case during autumn when a latitudinal gradient in larval fish assemblages became more pronounced.

  6. Microscopic identification of novel cell types in the integument of larval lake sturgeon, Acipenser fulvescens.

    PubMed

    Shute, Lauren; Huebner, Erwin; Anderson, W Gary

    2016-01-01

    Osmoregulation, respiration, nutrient/mineral transport, and defense mechanisms are all evident in the integument of fish. The role of the integument in these physiological processes is particularly important during early life history in larval fishes, as functional systems such as the gills and gastrointestinal tract are not fully developed. Using a variety of microscopy techniques, we describe the morphology of keratinocytes, mitochondria rich cells, ciliated cells and mucous cells of the skin, yolk sac, and gills. The cytology we observed was similar to previous studies describing the integument of larval fish, however, we have also identified two novel cell types on the integument of larval Lake Sturgeon, Acipenser fulvescens, between 9 and 34 days post fertilization. Our detailed analysis included a multifaceted microscopy approach using scanning electron, transmission electron, and light microscopy to elucidate the histology of the tissue and cellular morphology in addition to quantification and distribution of these novel cell types. The first cell type had a characteristic ampullary shape with a central cavity and a pore opening at the surface. The second, located on the free surface of the epidermis, had an uneven plasma membrane surface. Based on the abundance of secretory vesicles, organelles necessary for protein synthesis, and the lack of neural connection in both cell types, we propose these cells to be involved in the release of semiochemicals that may act as a pheromone, alarm substance, or chemical defense mechanism. PMID:26440535

  7. Identification of excitatory premotor interneurons which regulate local muscle contraction during Drosophila larval locomotion.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Eri; Truman, James W; Nose, Akinao

    2016-01-01

    We use Drosophila larval locomotion as a model to elucidate the working principles of motor circuits. Larval locomotion is generated by rhythmic and sequential contractions of body-wall muscles from the posterior to anterior segments, which in turn are regulated by motor neurons present in the corresponding neuromeres. Motor neurons are known to receive both excitatory and inhibitory inputs, combined action of which likely regulates patterned motor activity during locomotion. Although recent studies identified candidate inhibitory premotor interneurons, the identity of premotor interneurons that provide excitatory drive to motor neurons during locomotion remains unknown. In this study, we searched for and identified two putative excitatory premotor interneurons in this system, termed CLI1 and CLI2 (cholinergic lateral interneuron 1 and 2). These neurons were segmentally arrayed and activated sequentially from the posterior to anterior segments during peristalsis. Consistent with their being excitatory premotor interneurons, the CLIs formed GRASP- and ChAT-positive putative synapses with motoneurons and were active just prior to motoneuronal firing in each segment. Moreover, local activation of CLI1s induced contraction of muscles in the corresponding body segments. Taken together, our results suggest that the CLIs directly activate motoneurons sequentially along the segments during larval locomotion. PMID:27470675

  8. Flexible responses to visual and olfactory stimuli by foraging Manduca sexta: larval nutrition affects adult behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Goyret, Joaquín; Kelber, Almut; Pfaff, Michael; Raguso, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Here, we show that the consequences of deficient micronutrient (β-carotene) intake during larval stages of Manduca sexta are carried across metamorphosis, affecting adult behaviour. Our manipulation of larval diet allowed us to examine how developmental plasticity impacts the interplay between visual and olfactory inputs on adult foraging behaviour. Larvae of M. sexta were reared on natural (Nicotiana tabacum) and artificial laboratory diets containing different concentrations of β-carotene (standard diet, low β-carotene, high β-carotene and cornmeal). This vitamin-A precursor has been shown to be crucial for photoreception sensitivity in the retina of M. sexta. After completing development, post-metamorphosis, starved adults were presented with artificial feeders that could be either scented or unscented. Regardless of their larval diet, adult moths fed with relatively high probabilities on scented feeders. When feeders were unscented, moths reared on tobacco were more responsive than moths reared on β-carotene-deficient artificial diets. Strikingly, moths reared on artificial diets supplemented with increasing amounts of β-carotene (low β and high β) showed increasing probabilities of response to scentless feeders. We discuss these results in relationship to the use of complex, multi-modal sensory information by foraging animals. PMID:19419987

  9. Mosquito autogeny in Aedes caspius (Diptera: Culicidae): alterations of larval nourishments reservation upon bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ashraf M

    2013-08-01

    The present study recorded mosquito autogeny for the first time amongst Aedes caspius species in the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia. Laboratory rearing showed an obligatory autogenous species of Ae. caspius since it foregoes blood feeding during its first ovarian cycle, even in the presence of the hosts (CD mouse), but produces its second egg batch only if ingested a blood meal. Both morphological and molecular identification confirmed that both autogenous and anautogenous strains belong to the same species of Ae. caspius. Data from biochemical analysis showed significant 2, 1.6, and 1.4 folds higher total carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids reserves respectively in the fourth larval instar of the autogenous strain compared to that of the anautogenous ones. In addition, exposing the fourth larval instars of autogenous strain to the infection stress by the mosquito larvicidal bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis var kurstaki has significantly reduced total carbohydrates, proteins and lipids reserves by 29%, 35%, and 46%, respectively, at 12 h postinfection compared to those of uninfected ones. These reductions in nourishment reserves were more pronounced at 24 h postinfection in the case of proteins and lipids, but not carbohydrates. These results may indicate that bacterial infection is a health stress that significantly reduced nourishments reservation, which may interrupt the success of adult autogeny. However, the impact of infection-induced decline in larval nourishments reservation on successful adult autogeny is still to be investigated. PMID:23955943

  10. Gene flow by larval dispersal in the Antarctic notothenioid fish Gobionotothen gibberifrons.

    PubMed

    Matschiner, Michael; Hanel, Reinhold; Salzburger, Walter

    2009-06-01

    The diversification of the teleost suborder Notothenioidei (Perciformes) in Antarctic waters provides one of the most striking examples of a marine adaptive radiation. Along with a number of adaptations to the cold environment, such as the evolution of antifreeze glycoproteins, notothenioids diversified into eight families and at least 130 species. Here, we investigate the genetic population structure of the humped rockcod (Gobionotothen gibberifrons), a benthic notothenioid fish. Six populations were sampled at different locations around the Scotia Sea, comprising a large part of the species' distribution range (N = 165). Our analyses based on mitochondrial DNA sequence data (352 bp) and eight microsatellite markers reveal a lack of genetic structuring over large geographic distances (Phi(ST) < or = 0.058, F(ST) < or = 0.005, P values nonsignificant). In order to test whether this was due to passive larval dispersal, we used GPS-tracked drifter trajectories, which approximate movement of passive surface particles with ocean currents. The drifter data indicate that the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) connects the sampling locations in one direction only (west-east), and that passive transport is possible within the 4-month larval period of G. gibberifrons. Indeed, when applying the isolation-with-migration model in IMA, strong unidirectional west-east migration rates are detected in the humped rockcod. This leads us to conclude that, in G. gibberifrons, genetic differentiation is prevented by gene flow via larval dispersal with the ACC. PMID:19457182

  11. Modeling the spawning strategies and larval survival of the Brazilian sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Daniela Faggiani; Pezzi, Luciano Ponzi; Gherardi, Douglas Francisco Marcolino; Camargo, Ricardo

    2014-04-01

    An Individual Based Model (IBM), coupled with a hydrodynamic model (ROMS), was used to investigate the spawning strategies and larval survival of the Brazilian Sardine in the South Brazil Bight (SBB). ROMS solutions were compared with satellite and field data to assess their representation of the physical environment. Two spawning experiments were performed for the summer along six years, coincident with ichthyoplankton survey cruises. In the first one, eggs were released in spawning habitats inferred from a spatial model. The second experiment simulated a random spawning to test the null hypothesis that there are no preferred spawning sites. Releasing eggs in the predefined spawning habitats increases larval survival, suggesting that the central-southern part of the SBB is more suitable for larvae development because of its thermodynamic characteristics. The Brazilian sardine is also capable of exploring suitable areas for spawning, according to the interannual variability of the SBB. The influence of water temperature, the presence of Cape Frio upwelling, and surface circulation on the spawning process was tested. The Cape Frio upwelling plays an important role in the modulation of Brazilian sardine spawning zones over SBB because of its lower than average water temperature. This has a direct influence on larval survival and on the interannual variability of the Brazilian sardine spawning process. The hydrodynamic condition is crucial in determining the central-southern part of SBB as the most suitable place for spawning because it enhances simulated coastal retention of larvae.

  12. Apical organs in echinoderm larvae: insights into larval evolution in the Ambulacraria.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Maria; Nakajima, Yoko; Chee, Francis C; Burke, Robert D

    2007-01-01

    The anatomy and cellular organization of serotonergic neurons in the echinoderm apical organ exhibits class-specific features in dipleurula-type (auricularia, bipinnaria) and pluteus-type (ophiopluteus, echinopluteus) larvae. The apical organ forms in association with anterior ciliary structures. Apical organs in dipleurula-type larvae are more similar to each other than to those in either of the pluteus forms. In asteroid bipinnaria and holothuroid auricularia the apical organ spans ciliary band sectors that traverse the anterior-most end of the larvae. The asteroid apical organ also has prominent bilateral ganglia that connect with an apical network of neurites. The simple apical organ of the auricularia is similar to that in the hemichordate tornaria larva. Apical organs in pluteus forms differ markedly. The echinopluteus apical organ is a single structure on the oral hood between the larval arms comprised of two groups of cells joined by a commissure and its cell bodies do not reside in the ciliary band. Ophioplutei have a pair of lateral ganglia associated with the ciliary band of larval arms that may be the ophiuroid apical organ. Comparative anatomy of the serotonergic nervous systems in the dipleurula-type larvae of the Ambulacraria (Echinodermata+Hemichordata) suggests that the apical organ of this deuterostome clade originated as a simple bilaterally symmetric nerve plexus spanning ciliary band sectors at the anterior end of the larva. From this structure, the apical organ has been independently modified in association with the evolution of class-specific larval forms. PMID:17845515

  13. Drosulfakinin activates CCKLR-17D1 and promotes larval locomotion and escape response in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xu; Peterson, Jonathan; Nachman, Ronald J.; Ganetzky, Barry

    2012-01-01

    Neuropeptides are ubiquitous in both mammals and invertebrates and play essential roles in regulation and modulation of many developmental and physiological processes through activation of G-protein-coupled-receptors (GPCRs). However, the mechanisms by which many of the neuropeptides regulate specific neural function and behaviors remain undefined. Here we investigate the functions of Drosulfakinin (DSK), the Drosophila homolog of vertebrate neuropeptide cholecystokinin (CCK), which is the most abundant neuropeptide in the central nervous system. We provide biochemical evidence that sulfated DSK-1 and DSK-2 activate the CCKLR-17D1 receptor in a cell culture assay. We further examine the role of DSK and CCKLR-17D1 in the regulation of larval locomotion, both in a semi-intact larval preparation and in intact larvae under intense light exposure. Our results suggest that DSK/CCKLR-17D1 signaling promote larval body wall muscle contraction and is necessary for mediating locomotor behavior in stress-induced escape response. PMID:22885328

  14. The relative effect of behaviour in larval dispersal in a low energy embayment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daigle, Rémi M.; Chassé, Joël; Metaxas, Anna

    2016-05-01

    This study examined the relative importance of tidal phase, larval behaviour, release site, depth layer, and vertical swimming velocity on mean in-sea dispersal distance, retention, distance from shore, and population connectivity. Using a biophysical model, we simulated larval dispersal of marine benthic invertebrates for 6 taxonomic groups representing different combinations of swimming speed, and depth preference in St. George's Bay, NS, Canada, a shallow bay with low energy (e.g. lack of estuarine circulation). The biophysical model was run over a period of 3 months, from Jul to Sep, representing the period when larvae of the targeted species were present, and at each of 3 years. Overall, release site had the strongest effect of all factors on the dispersal metrics. Although less important than release site in our system, vertical distribution and swim speed had a significant effect which would likely be more pronounced in high (i.e. with features such as estuarine circulation or internal waves) than low energy environments. Retention and distance from shore were more responsive to our manipulations than dispersal distance, both in terms of the number of ecologically significant effects and the magnitudes of their effect size. These findings allow for the prioritization of biophysical model parameters and improved simulations of larval dispersal.

  15. Not All Offspring Are Created Equal: Variation in Larval Characteristics in a Serially Spawning Damselfish

    PubMed Central

    Maddams, Jessica Claire; McCormick, Mark Ian

    2012-01-01

    The way organisms allocate their resources to growth and reproduction are key attributes differentiating life histories. Many organisms spawn multiple times in a breeding season, but few studies have investigated the impact of serial spawning on reproductive allocation. This study investigated whether resource allocation was influenced by parental characteristics and prior spawning history in a serial spawning tropical damselfish (Pomacentrus amboinensis). The offspring attributes of isolated parents of known characteristics were monitored over a 6-week breeding period in the field. Smaller females produced larvae of longer length and larger energy reserves at hatching. This finding is contrary to several other studies that found larger females produce offspring of greater quality. We found that resource allocation in the form of reproductive output was not influenced by the number of spawning events within the breeding season, with larger females producing the greatest number of offspring. Larval characteristics changed as spawning progressed. There was a general decline in length of larvae produced, with an increase in the size of the larval yolk-sac, for all females regardless of size as spawning progressed. This trend was accentuated by the smallest females. This change in larval characteristics may reflect a parental ability to forecast unfavourable conditions as the season progresses or a mechanism to ensure that some will survive no matter what conditions they encounter. This study highlights the importance of accounting for temporal changes in reproductive allocation in studies of reproductive trade-offs and investigations into the importance of parental effects. PMID:23155389

  16. Sole larval supply to coastal nurseries: Interannual variability and connectivity at interregional and interpopulation scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savina, M.; Lunghi, M.; Archambault, B.; Baulier, L.; Huret, M.; Le Pape, O.

    2016-05-01

    Simulating fish larval drift helps assess the sensitivity of recruitment variability to early life history. An individual-based model (IBM) coupled to a hydrodynamic model was used to simulate common sole larval supply from spawning areas to coastal and estuarine nursery grounds at the meta-population scale (4 assessed stocks), from the southern North Sea to the Bay of Biscay (Western Europe) on a 26-yr time series, from 1982 to 2007. The IBM allowed each particle released to be transported by currents, to grow depending on temperature, to migrate vertically depending on development stage, to die along pelagic stages or to settle on a nursery, representing the life history from spawning to metamorphosis. The model outputs were analysed to explore interannual patterns in the amounts of settled sole larvae at the population scale; they suggested: (i) a low connectivity between populations at the larval stage, (ii) a moderate influence of interannual variation in the spawning biomass, (iii) dramatic consequences of life history on the abundance of settling larvae and (iv) the effects of climate variability on the interannual variability of the larvae settlement success.

  17. Identification of excitatory premotor interneurons which regulate local muscle contraction during Drosophila larval locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Eri; Truman, James W.; Nose, Akinao

    2016-01-01

    We use Drosophila larval locomotion as a model to elucidate the working principles of motor circuits. Larval locomotion is generated by rhythmic and sequential contractions of body-wall muscles from the posterior to anterior segments, which in turn are regulated by motor neurons present in the corresponding neuromeres. Motor neurons are known to receive both excitatory and inhibitory inputs, combined action of which likely regulates patterned motor activity during locomotion. Although recent studies identified candidate inhibitory premotor interneurons, the identity of premotor interneurons that provide excitatory drive to motor neurons during locomotion remains unknown. In this study, we searched for and identified two putative excitatory premotor interneurons in this system, termed CLI1 and CLI2 (cholinergic lateral interneuron 1 and 2). These neurons were segmentally arrayed and activated sequentially from the posterior to anterior segments during peristalsis. Consistent with their being excitatory premotor interneurons, the CLIs formed GRASP- and ChAT-positive putative synapses with motoneurons and were active just prior to motoneuronal firing in each segment. Moreover, local activation of CLI1s induced contraction of muscles in the corresponding body segments. Taken together, our results suggest that the CLIs directly activate motoneurons sequentially along the segments during larval locomotion. PMID:27470675

  18. Larval sensilla of the moth Heliothis virescens respond to sex pheromone components.

    PubMed

    Zielonka, M; Gehrke, P; Badeke, E; Sachse, S; Breer, H; Krieger, J

    2016-10-01

    Female-released sex pheromones orchestrate the mating behaviour of moths. Recent studies have shown that sex pheromones not only attract adult males but also caterpillars. Single sensillum recordings revealed that larval antennal sensilla of the moth Heliothis virescens respond to specific sex pheromone components. In search for the molecular basis of pheromone detection in larvae, we found that olfactory sensilla on the larval antennae are equipped with the same molecular elements that mediate sex pheromone detection in adult male moths, including the Heliothis virescens receptors 6 (HR6) and HR13, as well as sensory neurone membrane protein 1 (SNMP1). Thirty-eight olfactory sensory neurones were identified in three large sensilla basiconica; six of these are considered as candidate pheromone responsive cells based on the expression of SNMP1. The pheromone receptor HR6 was found to be expressed in two cells and the receptor HR13 in three cells. These putative pheromone responsive neurones were accompanied by cells expressing pheromone-binding protein 1 (PBP1) and PBP2. The results indicate that the responsiveness of larval sensilla to female-emitted sex pheromones is based on the same molecular machinery as in the antennae of adult males. PMID:27465144

  19. A geospatial evaluation of Aedes vigilax larval control efforts across a coastal wetland, Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Kurucz, N; Whelan, P I; Carter, J M; Jacups, S P

    2009-12-01

    Adjacent to the northern suburbs of Darwin is a coastal wetland that contains important larval habitats for Aedes vigilax (Skuse), the northern salt marsh mosquito. This species is a vector for Ross River virus and Barmah Forest virus, as well as an appreciable human pest. In order to improve aerial larval control efforts, we sought to identify the most important vegetation categories and climatic/seasonal aspects associated with control operations in these wetlands. By using a generalized linear model to compare aerial control for each vegetation category, we found that Schoenoplectus/mangrove areas require the greatest amount of control for tide-only events (30.1%), and also extensive control for tide and rain events coinciding (18.2%). Our results further indicate that tide-affected reticulate vegetation indicated by the marsh grasses Sporobolus virginicus and Xerochloa imberbis require extensive control for Ae. vigilax larvae after rain-only events (44.7%), and tide and rain events coinciding (38.0%). The analyses of vector control efforts by month indicated that September to January, with a peak in November and December, required the most control. A companion paper identifies the vegetation categories most associated with Aedes vigilax larvae population densities in the coastal wetland. To maximize the efficiency of aerial salt marsh mosquito control operations in northern Australia, aerial control efforts should concentrate on the vegetation categories with high larval densities between September and January. PMID:20836835

  20. Hydrodynamics of larval settlement: The influence of turbulent stress events at potential recruitment sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crimaldi, John P.; Thompson, Janet K.; Rosman, Johanna H.; Lowe, Ryan J.; Koseff, Jeffrey R.

    2002-01-01

    We describe a laboratory investigation into the effect of turbulent hydrodynamic stresses on clam larvae in the settlement phase of the recruitment process. A two-component laser-Doppler anemometer (LDA) was used to measure time histories of the instantaneous turbulence structure at potential recruitment sites within reconstructed beds of the adult Asian clam, Potamocorbula amurensis. Measurements were made for two flow speeds over beds with three different clam densities and two different clam heights. We analyze the statistical effect of the turbulence on the larval flux to the bed and on the probability of successful anchoring to the substrate. It is shown that the anchoring probability depends on the nature of the instantaneous stress events rather than on mean stresses. The instantaneous turbulence structure near the bed is altered by the flow rate and the spacing and height of adult clams living in the substrate. The ability to anchor quickly is therefore extremely important, since the time sequence of episodic turbulent stress events influences larval settlement success. The probability of successful larval settlement is predicted to decrease as the spacing between adults decreases, implying that the hydrodynamics impose negative feedback on clam bed aggregation dynamics.

  1. Strengthened currents override the effect of warming on lobster larval dispersal and survival.

    PubMed

    Cetina-Heredia, Paulina; Roughan, Moninya; van Sebille, Erik; Feng, Ming; Coleman, Melinda A

    2015-12-01

    Human-induced climate change is projected to increase ocean temperature and modify circulation patterns, with potential widespread implications for the transport and survival of planktonic larvae of marine organisms. Circulation affects the dispersal of larvae, whereas temperature impacts larval development and survival. However, the combined effect of changes in circulation and temperature on larval dispersal and survival has rarely been studied in a future climate scenario. Such understanding is crucial to predict future species distributions, anticipate ecosystem shifts and design effective management strategies. We simulate contemporary (1990s) and future (2060s) dispersal of lobster larvae using an eddy-resolving ocean model in south-eastern Australia, a region of rapid ocean warming. Here we show that the effects of changes in circulation and temperature can counter each other: ocean warming favours the survival of lobster larvae, whereas a strengthened western boundary current diminishes the supply of larvae to the coast by restricting cross-current larval dispersal. Furthermore, we find that changes in circulation have a stronger effect on connectivity patterns of lobster larvae along south-eastern Australia than ocean warming in the future climate so that the supply of larvae to the coast reduces by ~4% and the settlement peak shifts poleward by ~270 km in the model simulation. Thus, ocean circulation may be one of the dominant factors contributing to climate-induced changes of species ranges. PMID:26268457

  2. Juvenile hormone receptors in insect larval epidermis: Identification by photoaffinity labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Palli, S.R.; Osir, E.O.; Edwards, M.; Hiruma, K.; Riddiford, L.M. ); Eng, W.; Boehm, M.F.; Kulscar, P.; Ujvary, I.; Prestwich, G.D. )

    1990-01-01

    Tritiated photoaffinity analogs of the natural lepidopteran juvenile hormones, JH I and II (epoxy({sup 3}H)bishomofarnesyl diazoacetate (({sup 3}H)EHDA) and epoxy({sup 3}H)homofarnesyl diazoacetate (({sup 3}H)EHDA)), and of the JH analog methoprene (({sup 3}H)methoprene diazoketone (({sup 3}H)MDK)) were synthesized and used to identify specific JH binding proteins in the larval epidermis of the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta). EBDA and EHDA specifically photolabeled a 29-kDa nuclear protein (pI 5.8). This protein and a second 29-kDa protein (pI 6.0) were labeled by MDK, but excess unlabeled methoprene or MDK only prevented binding to the latter. These 29-kDa proteins are also present in larval fat body but not in epidermis from either wandering stage or allatectomized larvae, which lack high-affinity JH binding sites. A 29-kDa nuclear protein with the same developmental specificity as this JH binder bound the DNA of two larval endocuticle genes. A 38-kDa cytosolic protein was also specifically photolabeled by these photoaffinity analogs. The 29-kDa nuclear protein is likely the high-affinity receptor for JH that mediates its genomic action, whereas the 38-kDa cytosolic protein may serve as an intracellular carrier for these highly lipophilic hormones and hormone analogs.

  3. Methoprene-tolerant 1 regulates gene transcription to maintain insect larval status.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wen-Li; Liu, Chun-Yan; Liu, Wen; Wang, Di; Wang, Jin-Xing; Zhao, Xiao-Fan

    2014-08-01

    Insect molting and metamorphosis are regulated by two hormones: 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and juvenile hormone (JH). The hormone 20E regulates gene transcription via the nuclear receptor EcR to promote metamorphosis, whereas JH regulates gene transcription via its intracellular receptor methoprene-tolerant (Met) to prevent larval-pupal transition. However, the function and mechanism of Met in various insect developments are not well understood. We propose that Met1 plays a key role in maintaining larval status not only by promoting JH-responsive gene transcription but also by repressing 20E-responsive gene transcription in the Lepidopteran insect Helicoverpa armigera. Met1 protein is increased during feeding stage and decreased during molting and metamorphic stages. Met1 is upregulated by JH III and a low concentration of 20E independently, but is downregulated by a high concentration of 20E. Knockdown of Met1 in larvae causes precocious pupation, decrease in JH pathway gene expression, and increase in 20E pathway gene expression. Met1 interacts with heat shock protein 90 and binds to JH response element to regulate Krüppel homolog 1 transcription in JH III induction. Met1 interacts with ultraspiracle protein 1 (USP1) to repress 20E transcription complex EcRB1/USP1 formation and binding to ecdysone response element. These data indicate that JH via Met1 regulates JH pathway gene expression and represses 20E pathway gene expression to maintain the larval status. PMID:24872508

  4. Adaptation of indigenous larval parasitoids to Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Italy.

    PubMed

    Ferracini, Chiara; Ingegno, Barbara Letizia; Navone, Paolo; Ferrari, Ester; Mosti, Marco; Tavella, Luciana; Alma, Alberto

    2012-08-01

    Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is a serious threat to tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) crops in South America. In Europe, after its first detection in Spain in 2006, it rapidly spread through the Mediterranean basin, reaching Italy 2 yr later. The aim of our work was to find indigenous effective biological control agents and to evaluate their potential role in the control of larval populations of T. absoluta in controlled conditions. Nine species of larval parasitoids emerged from field-collected tomato leaves infested by T. absoluta. The most abundant, Necremnus near artynes (Walker) and Necremnus near tidius (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), were tested in laboratory parasitism trials. Furthermore, because the species N. artynes and N. tidius are each reported in literature as an ectoparasitoid of Cosmopterix pulchrimella Chambers (Lepidoptera: Cosmopterigidae) on upright pellitory plants, olfactometer bioassays were performed to assess the response of our parasitoids to the odors of tomato and pellitory leaves infested by T absoluta and C. pulchrimella, respectively, compared with healthy ones. Both Necremnus species showed good adaptation to the invasive pest, and we observed a high larval mortality of T. absoluta because of host feeding and parasitism. Even olfactory responses highlighted a preference of both wasps for tomato plants infested by the exotic pest. These preliminary results demonstrated a high suitability of these indigenous natural enemies for controlling T. absoluta. Further investigations are needed to confirm their role as potential biological agents in commercial tomato plantations. PMID:22928311

  5. Not my "type": larval dispersal dimorphisms and bet-hedging in opisthobranch life histories.

    PubMed

    Krug, Patrick J

    2009-06-01

    When conditions fluctuate unpredictably, selection may favor bet-hedging strategies that vary offspring characteristics to avoid reproductive wipe-outs in bad seasons. For many marine gastropods, the dispersal potential of offspring reflects both maternal effects (egg size, egg mass properties) and larval traits (development rate, habitat choice). I present data for eight sea slugs in the genus Elysia (Opisthobranchia: Sacoglossa), highlighting potentially adaptive variation in traits like offspring size, timing of metamorphosis, hatching behavior, and settlement response. Elysia zuleicae produced both planktotrophic and lecithotrophic larvae, a true case of poecilogony. Both intracapsular and post-hatching metamorphosis occurred among clutches of "Boselia" marcusi, E. cornigera, and E. crispata, a dispersal dimorphism often misinterpreted as poecilogony. Egg masses of E. tuca hatched for up to 16 days but larvae settled only on the adult host alga Halimeda, whereas most larvae of E. papillosa spontaneously metamorphosed 5-7 days after hatching. Investment in extra-capsular yolk may allow mothers to increase larval size relative to egg size and vary offspring size within and among clutches. Flexible strategies of larval dispersal and offspring provisioning in Elysia spp. may represent adaptations to the patchy habitat of these specialized herbivores, highlighting the evolutionary importance of variation in a range of life-history traits. PMID:19556600

  6. Antioxidant properties of royal jelly associated with larval age and time of harvest.

    PubMed

    Liu, Je-Ruei; Yang, Yuan-Chang; Shi, Li-Shian; Peng, Chi-Chung

    2008-12-10

    This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant properties of royal jelly (RJ) collected from larvae of different ages that were transferred in artificial bee queen cells for 24, 48, and 72 h. RJ harvested from the 1 day old larvae 24 h after the graft displayed predominant antioxidant properties, including scavenging activity of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation, and reducing power. Regardless of the initial larval age, lower antioxidant activities were observed in the RJ harvested later than 24 h except for the activity of superoxide dismutase. In addition, higher contents of proteins and polyphenolic compounds were determined in the RJ harvested 24 h than that harvested 48 or 72 h after the graft. It implied that the polyphenolic compounds may be the major component for giving the antioxidant activities in RJ. In summary, the time of harvest and the initial larval age did affect the antioxidant potencies in RJ, and RJ collected 24 h after the larval transfer showed the most substantial antioxidant activities. PMID:19007163

  7. Toxicity of organophosphorus pesticide sumithion on larval stages of stinging catfish Heteropneustes fossilis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahjahan, Md.; Kabir, Md. Farajul; Sumon, Kizar Ahmed; Bhowmik, Lipi Rani; Rashid, Harunur

    2016-04-01

    Sumithion is widely used to control brittle in paddy fields and tiger bug in fish larval rearing ponds. The objective of this study was to elucidate the toxic effects of sumithion on larval stages of stinging catfish Heteropneustes fossilis. Larvae were exposed to two concentrations (150 and 250 μg/L) of sumithion with one control in three replicates of each. Larvae samples were collected at 20- and 24-h intervals followed by observation under a digital microscope. Exposures of stinging catfish larvae to sumithion produced deformities including irregular head shape, lordosis, yolk sac edema, body arcuation, tissue ulceration, etc. The mortality rates of larvae were significantly increased in response to increase in sumithion concentrations. Furthermore, around 30% of the total adult stinging catfish reared in sumithiontreated aquaculture ponds were found to be deformed permanently. These findings highlight that exposure of stinging catfish to sumithion at the critical and sensitive stages in their life cycle may significantly reduce the number of returning adults. Therefore, the use of sumithion for crop protection needs to be considered carefully and alternatives to sumithion should to be developed for controlling aquatic insects in aqua-ponds during larval rearing.

  8. Larval Development of Two N. E. Pacific Pilidiophoran Nemerteans (Heteronemertea; Lineidae).

    PubMed

    Hiebert, Terra C; Maslakova, Svetlana A

    2015-12-01

    Unique to the phylum Nemertea, the pilidium is an unmistakable planktonic larva found in one group of nemerteans, the Pilidiophora. Inside the pilidium, the juvenile develops from a series of epidermal invaginations in the larval body, called imaginal discs. The discs grow and fuse around the larval gut over the course of weeks to months in the plankton. Once complete, the juvenile breaks free from the larval body in a catastrophic metamorphosis, and often devours the larva as its first meal. One third of nemertean species are expected to produce a pilidium, but the larvae are known for very few species; development from fertilization to metamorphosis has been described in only one species, Micrura alaskensis. Known pilidia include both planktotrophic and lecithotrophic forms, and otherwise exhibit great morphological diversity. Here, we describe the complete development in two lineiform species that are common to the northeast Pacific coast, Micrura wilsoni and Lineus sp. "red." Both species possess typical, cap-shaped planktotrophic pilidia, and the order of emergence of imaginal discs is similar to that which is described in M. alaskensis. The pilidium of Lineus sp. "red" resembles pilidia of several other species, such as Lineus flavescens, and potentially characterizes a pilidiophoran clade. M. wilsoni has relatively transparent oocytes and a pilidium with what appears to be a unique pattern of pigmentation. The adults of both species are more commonly observed in intertidal zones than their larvae are in the plankton. PMID:26695825

  9. CCDC-55 is required for larval development and distal tip cell migration in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Kovacevic, Ismar; Ho, Richard; Cram, Erin J

    2012-01-01

    The Caenorhabditis elegans distal tip cells (DTCs) are an in vivo model for the study of developmentally regulated cell migration. In this study, we characterize a novel role for CCDC-55, a conserved coiled-coil domain containing protein, in DTC migration and larval development in C. elegans. Although animals homozygous for a probable null allele, ccdc-55(ok2851), display an early larval arrest, RNAi depletion experiments allow the analysis of later phenotypes and suggest that CCDC-55 is needed within the DTC for migration to cease at the end of larval morphogenesis. The ccdc-55 gene is found in an operon with rnf-121 and rnf-5, E3 ubiquitin ligases that target cell migration genes such as the β-integrin PAT-3. Genetic interaction studies using RNAi depletion and the deletion alleles rnf-121(ok848) and rnf-5(tm794) indicate that CCDC-55 and the RNF genes act at least partially in parallel to promote termination of cell migration in the adult DTC. PMID:22285439

  10. Spinal motor neurons are regenerated after mechanical lesion and genetic ablation in larval zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Ohnmacht, Jochen; Yang, Yujie; Maurer, Gianna W.; Barreiro-Iglesias, Antón; Tsarouchas, Themistoklis M.; Wehner, Daniel; Sieger, Dirk; Becker, Catherina G.; Becker, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In adult zebrafish, relatively quiescent progenitor cells show lesion-induced generation of motor neurons. Developmental motor neuron generation from the spinal motor neuron progenitor domain (pMN) sharply declines at 48 hours post-fertilisation (hpf). After that, mostly oligodendrocytes are generated from the same domain. We demonstrate here that within 48 h of a spinal lesion or specific genetic ablation of motor neurons at 72 hpf, the pMN domain reverts to motor neuron generation at the expense of oligodendrogenesis. By contrast, generation of dorsal Pax2-positive interneurons was not altered. Larval motor neuron regeneration can be boosted by dopaminergic drugs, similar to adult regeneration. We use larval lesions to show that pharmacological suppression of the cellular response of the innate immune system inhibits motor neuron regeneration. Hence, we have established a rapid larval regeneration paradigm. Either mechanical lesions or motor neuron ablation is sufficient to reveal a high degree of developmental flexibility of pMN progenitor cells. In addition, we show an important influence of the immune system on motor neuron regeneration from these progenitor cells. PMID:26965370

  11. Structural homology of identified motoneurones in larval and adult stages of hemi- and holometabolous insects.

    PubMed

    Breidbach, O; Kutsch, W

    1990-07-15

    The set of neurones innervating the dorsal longitudinal muscles was studied with cobalt and nickel backfills in: (1) larval and adult locusts (Schistocerca gregaria and Locusta migratoria), (2) the larval and adult beetle (Zophobas morio), and (3) various segments of these insect species. In all specimens 11 neurones were encountered, which can be subdivided into a group of 7 motoneurones that stem from the next anterior ganglion and 4 neurones located in the ganglion of the segment containing the muscles. The latter group comprises 2 contralateral and 2 medial somata, of which one is a dorsal unpaired median neurone. The results were analysed under different aspects. This neural set and the basic structure of the dendritic fields is similar in: (1) different segments (serial homology), (2) the larval stage and imago of the same species with or without a pronounced metamorphosis (ontogeny), and (3) the studied hemi- and holometabolous insects (phylogeny). Our results support the notion that the structure of these neurones is conserved irrespectively of changes in the periphery and strategy of postembryonic development. PMID:2398139

  12. The effect of condensed tannins from seven herbages on Trichostrongylus colubriformis larval migration in vitro.

    PubMed

    Molan, A L; Waghorn, G C; Min, B R; McNabb, W C

    2000-01-01

    The effects of condensed tannins (CT) extracted from seven forages on the motility of the economically important nematode, Trichostrongylus colubriformis (Giles, 1892), were evaluated by using a larval migration inhibition (LMI) assay. The assay involved incubation of third stage (L3) exsheathed T. colubriformis larvae with CT extracted from Lotus pedunculatus, Lotus corniculatus, sulla (Hedysarum coronarium), sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia), Dorycnium rectum, Dorycnium pentaphyllum and dock (Rumex obtusifolius) and measurement of larval migration through nylon mesh with a 20 microm pore size. At 100 microg ml(-1), CT from L. pedunculatus, L. corniculatus, sulla, sainfoin, D. rectum, D. pentaphyllum and dock inhibited 20%, 10%, 15%, 25%, 28%, 32% and 27% of the larvae, respectively from passing through the sieves compared to controls (no CT added). At 1000 microg CT ml(-1), CT purified from D. pentaphyllum had the highest inhibitory activity (63%) against 1-month old larvae followed by sainfoin (59%), L. pedunculatus (57%), D. rectum (53%), dock (50%), sulla (40%) and L. corniculatus (37%). Seven-month old larvae were more sensitive to the action of CT than 1-month old larvae (P < 0.001). Addition of 2 microg polyethylene glycol ([PEG] per microg CT; to remove the effect of CT) eliminated 81-93% of the CT activity (P < 0.001) compared to incubations without PEG. The impact of CT on larval migration suggests a possible role for these plants in ruminant diets as a means to reduce dependence upon proprietary anthelmintics. PMID:10833014

  13. Adult and larval traits as determinants of geographic range size among tropical reef fishes

    PubMed Central

    Luiz, Osmar J.; Allen, Andrew P.; Robertson, D. Ross; Floeter, Sergio R.; Kulbicki, Michel; Vigliola, Laurent; Becheler, Ronan; Madin, Joshua S.

    2013-01-01

    Most marine organisms disperse via ocean currents as larvae, so it is often assumed that larval-stage duration is the primary determinant of geographic range size. However, empirical tests of this relationship have yielded mixed results, and alternative hypotheses have rarely been considered. Here we assess the relative influence of adult and larval-traits on geographic range size using a global dataset encompassing 590 species of tropical reef fishes in 47 families, the largest compilation of such data to date for any marine group. We analyze this database using linear mixed-effect models to control for phylogeny and geographical limits on range size. Our analysis indicates that three adult traits likely to affect the capacity of new colonizers to survive and establish reproductive populations (body size, schooling behavior, and nocturnal activity) are equal or better predictors of geographic range size than pelagic larval duration. We conclude that adult life-history traits that affect the postdispersal persistence of new populations are primary determinants of successful range extension and, consequently, of geographic range size among tropical reef fishes. PMID:24065830

  14. Spawning, fertilization, and larval development of Potamocorbula amurensis (Mollusca: Bivalvia) from San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nicolini, M.H.; Penry, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    In Potamocorbula amurensis time for development to the straight-hinge larval stage is 48 hr at 15??C. Potamocorbula amurensis settles at a shell length of approximately 135 ??m 17 to 19 days after fertilization. Our observations of timing of larval devdlopment in P. amurensis support the hypothesis of earlier workers that its route of initial introduction to San Francisco Bay was as veliger larvae transported in ballast water by trans-Pacific cargo ships. The length of the larval period of P. amurensis relative to water mass residence times in San Francisco Bay suggests that it is sufficient to allow substantial dispersal from North Bay to South Bay populations in concordance with previous observations that genetic differentiation among populations of P. amurensis in San Francisco Bay is low. Potamocorbula amurensis is markedly euryhaline at all stages of development. Spawning and fertilization can occur at salinities from 5 to 25 psu, and eggs and sperms can each tolerance at least a 10-psu step increase or decrease in salinity. Embryos that are 2 hr old can tolerate the same range of salinities from (10 to 30 psu), and by the time they are 24 hr old they can tolerate the same range of salinities (2 to 30 psu) that adult clams can. The ability of P. amurensis larvae to tolerate substantial step changes in salinity suggests a strong potential to survive incomplete oceanic exchanges of ballast water and subsequent discharge into receiving waters across a broad range of salinities.

  15. Effects of parasites on larval and juvenile stages of the coral reef fish Pomacentrus moluccensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grutter, A. S.; Cribb, T. H.; McCallum, H.; Pickering, J. L.; McCormick, M. I.

    2010-03-01

    The ecological role of parasites in the early life-history stages of coral reef fish is far from clear. Parasitism in larval, recently settled and juvenile stages of a coral reef fish damselfish (Pomacentridae) was therefore investigated by quantifying the ontogenetic change in parasite load and comparing the growth rates of parasitized juvenile fish to those of unparasitized ones. Parasite prevalence in two lunar pulses of Pomacentrus moluccensis was 4 and 0% for larval stage fish, 34 and 56% for recently settled fish and 42 and 49% for juveniles. A significant increase in parasite prevalence with age group was found; the most marked increase occurred immediately after larval fish had settled. Standard length did not model prevalence well; as length is a proxy for age, this indicates that the higher prevalence in recently settled and juvenile fish compared with larvae was not a simple result of parasites accumulating with age. In one of three cohorts, there was some evidence that parasitism affected the growth rate of juveniles, as measured by otolith width. The study suggests that settling on the reef exposes young fish to potentially harmful parasites. This supports the idea that the pelagic phase may have the effect of reducing the exposure of young fish to the debilitating effects of parasites.

  16. A reappraisal of the hormonal regulation of larval fat body histolysis in female Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Richard, D S; Arnim, A E; Gilbert, L I

    1993-02-15

    The histolysis of larval fat body cells in adult female Drosophila melanogaster was examined in wild type and mutant animals. The fat body cells of wild type (Canton-S), apterous56f homozygotes, apterous78jts homozygotes and heterozygotes, apterous4/+, ecdysoneless1 homozygotes and heterozygotes all underwent histolysis normally during the 72 h following adult eclosion. Only in the case of ap4/ap4 adults did the cells fail to histolyze normally. The fat body cells of both diapausing and non-diapausing wild type females underwent histolysis at the same rate. Attempts to demonstrate histolysis in vitro were unsuccessful, even in the presence of juvenile hormones (JHs), larval ring glands, or adult ovaries. In all strains other than the ap4 homozygotes, a significant proportion of larval fat body cells were dead at any time while the ap4/ap4 animals, almost all cells remained viable. It is postulated that fat body cell lysis following eclosion is not a JH-mediated event, but is elicited by an as yet unidentified factor(s), possibly originating in the ovary. PMID:8440351

  17. Larval mortality rates and population dynamics of Lesser Sandeel ( Ammodytes marinus) in the northwestern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath, Michael R.; Rasmussen, Jens; Bailey, Martin C.; Dunn, John; Fraser, John; Gallego, Alejandro; Hay, Stephen J.; Inglis, Michelle; Robinson, Susan

    2012-05-01

    Intense fishing of a stock of sandeels ( Ammodytes marinus) on the sand banks off the Firth of Forth, northeast Scotland, during the 1990s led to a decline in catch per unit effort to uneconomic levels and collateral failures of piscivorous seabird breeding success at nearby colonies. A prohibition on fishing in 1999 was followed by a short-term recovery of stock biomass, but then a sustained decline to very low levels of abundance. Demographic survey data show that despite the decline in stock, recruit abundance was maintained implying an increasing larval survival rate, and that the stock decline was not due to recruitment failure. To verify this hypothesis we analysed a 10-year long data set of weekly catches of sandeel larvae at a nearby plankton monitoring site to determine the patterns of larval mortality and dispersal. We found that the loss rate of larvae up to 20 d age decreased over time, corresponding with the trend in survival rate implied by the stock demography data. The pattern of loss rate in relation to hatchling abundance implied that mortality may have been density dependent. Our study rules out increased larval mortality as the primary cause of decline in the sandeel stock.

  18. An Optimized Whole-Body Cortisol Quantification Method for Assessing Stress Levels in Larval Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Chen-Min; Glöck, Mario; Ryu, Soojin

    2013-01-01

    Glucocorticoids serve important regulatory functions for many physiological processes and are critical mediators of the stress response. The stress response is a set of bodily processes aimed at counteracting a state of threatened homeostasis. Proper stress response is critical for the survival of an animal, however prolonged or abnormal stress response can be detrimental and is implicated in a number of human diseases such as depression and metabolic diseases. To dissect the underlying mechanism of this complex and important response, the zebrafish, Danio rerio offer important advantages such as ease of genetic manipulations and high-throughput behavioral analyses. However, there is a paucity of suitable methods to measure stress level in larval zebrafish. Therefore, an efficient low-cost method to monitor stress hormone levels will greatly facilitate stress research in zebrafish larvae. In this study, we optimized sample collection as well as cortisol extraction methods and developed a home-made ELISA protocol for measuring whole-body cortisol level in zebrafish larvae. Further, using our customized protocols, we characterized the response of larval zebrafish to a variety of stressors. This assay, developed for efficient cortisol quantification, will be useful for systematic and large-scale stress analyses in larval zebrafish. PMID:24223943

  19. Spinal motor neurons are regenerated after mechanical lesion and genetic ablation in larval zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Ohnmacht, Jochen; Yang, Yujie; Maurer, Gianna W; Barreiro-Iglesias, Antón; Tsarouchas, Themistoklis M; Wehner, Daniel; Sieger, Dirk; Becker, Catherina G; Becker, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    In adult zebrafish, relatively quiescent progenitor cells show lesion-induced generation of motor neurons. Developmental motor neuron generation from the spinal motor neuron progenitor domain (pMN) sharply declines at 48 hours post-fertilisation (hpf). After that, mostly oligodendrocytes are generated from the same domain. We demonstrate here that within 48 h of a spinal lesion or specific genetic ablation of motor neurons at 72 hpf, the pMN domain reverts to motor neuron generation at the expense of oligodendrogenesis. By contrast, generation of dorsal Pax2-positive interneurons was not altered. Larval motor neuron regeneration can be boosted by dopaminergic drugs, similar to adult regeneration. We use larval lesions to show that pharmacological suppression of the cellular response of the innate immune system inhibits motor neuron regeneration. Hence, we have established a rapid larval regeneration paradigm. Either mechanical lesions or motor neuron ablation is sufficient to reveal a high degree of developmental flexibility of pMN progenitor cells. In addition, we show an important influence of the immune system on motor neuron regeneration from these progenitor cells. PMID:26965370

  20. CCDC-55 is required for larval development and distal tip cell migration in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Kovacevic, Ismar; Ho, Richard; Cram, Erin J.

    2012-01-01

    The C. elegans distal tip cells (DTCs) are an in vivo model for the study of developmentally regulated cell migration. In this study we characterize a novel role for CCDC-55, a conserved coiled-coil domain containing protein, in DTC migration and larval development in C. elegans. Although animals homozygous for a probable null allele, ccdc-55(ok2851), display an early larval arrest, RNAi depletion experiments allow the analysis of later phenotypes and suggest that CCDC-55 is needed within the DTC for migration to cease at the end of larval morphogenesis. The ccdc-55 gene is found in an operon with rnf-121 and rnf-5, E3 ubiquitin ligases that target cell migration genes such as the β-integrin PAT-3. Genetic interaction studies using RNAi depletion and the deletion alleles rnf-121(ok848) and rnf-5(tm794) indicate that CCDC-55 and the RNF genes act at least partially in parallel to promote termination of cell migration in the adult DTC. PMID:22285439

  1. Artificial substrates for oviposition and larval development of the pepper weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Addesso, K M; McAuslane, H J; Stansly, P A; Slansky, F; Schuster, D J

    2009-02-01

    The pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a major pest of cultivated peppers (Capsicum spp.) and other cultivated and wild species within the family Solanaceae. Laboratory study of this insect, as well as its biological control agents, will be greatly facilitated by an artificial rearing system that does not rely on pepper fruit. An egg collection method and amendments to a standard larval diet were investigated for use in the rearing of this weevil. Spherical sachets made of Parafilm or netting enclosing leaves of pepper, American black nightshade, eggplant, tomato, potato, and jasmine tobacco induced oviposition. Tomato, potato, and jasmine tobacco leaves were accepted despite the fact that these are not oviposition hosts for pepper weevils in the wild. A standard larval diet formula was modified in an attempt to improve egg hatch, larval survival, developmental time, and adult mass. The diet formula was modified with the addition of freeze-dried jalapeño pepper powder, an additional lipid source, alternate protein sources, and the removal of methyl paraben. None of the aforementioned treatments resulted in a significant improvement over the standard diet. Egg hatch was greater when eggs were incubated on moist paper towels rather than in diet; thus, placement of neonates rather than eggs into diet improved production of adults. Suggestions for more efficient rearing of weevils on the currently available diet and future directions for the development of an artificial rearing system for pepper weevil are discussed. PMID:19253644

  2. Maintenance and regulation of extracellular volume and the ion environment in Drosophila larval nerves

    PubMed Central

    Leiserson, William M.; Keshishian, Haig

    2010-01-01

    In mammals and insects, paracellular blood barriers isolate the nervous system from the rest of the animal. Glia and accessory cells of the nervous system use pumps, channels, cotransporters, and exchangers collectively to maintain the extracellular ion environment and osmotic balance in the nervous system. At present the molecular mechanisms that regulate this process remain unclear. In humans, loss of extracellular ion and volume regulation in the nervous system poses serious health threats. Drosophila is a model genetic organism with a proven track record for uncovering molecular mechanisms relevant to human health and disease. Here, we review what is known about extracellular ion and volume regulation in larval abdominal nerves, present some new data about the impact of neural activity on the extracellular environment, and relate the findings to mammalian systems. Homologies have been found at the level of morphology, physiology, molecular mechanisms, and mutant phenotypes. The Fray-Ncc69 module regulates extracellular volume in larval nerves. Genetic rescue experiments with the mammalian orthologs prove this module has a direct correlate in humans. This and other molecular homologies, together with the similar physiological needs, suggest that uncovering the molecular mechanisms of ion and volume regulation in larval nerves will likely provide significant insights into this process in mammalian systems. PMID:21305613

  3. Energy metabolism during larval development of green and white abalone, Haliotis fulgens and H. sorenseni.

    PubMed

    Moran, Amy L; Manahan, Donal T

    2003-06-01

    An understanding of the biochemical and physiological energetics of lecithotrophic development is useful for interpreting patterns of larval development, dispersal potential, and life-history evolution. This study investigated the metabolic rates and use of biochemical reserves in two species of abalone, Haliotis fulgens (the green abalone) and H. sorenseni (the white abalone). Larvae of H. fulgens utilized triacylglycerol as a primary source of endogenous energy reserves for development ( approximately 50% depletion from egg to metamorphic competence). Amounts of phospholipid remained constant, and protein dropped by about 30%. After embryogenesis, larvae of H. fulgens had oxygen consumption rates of 81.7 +/- 5.9 (SE) pmol larva(-1) h(-1) at 15 degrees C through subsequent development. The loss of biochemical reserves fully met the needs of metabolism, as measured by oxygen consumption. Larvae of H. sorenseni were examined during later larval development and were metabolically and biochemically similar to H. fulgens larvae at a comparable stage. Metabolic rates of both species were very similar to previous data for a congener, H. rufescens, suggesting that larval metabolism and energy utilization may be conserved among closely related species that also share similar developmental morphology and feeding modes. PMID:12807704

  4. Effects of egg size on success of larval salamanders in complex aquatic environments. [Ambystoma talpoideum

    SciTech Connect

    Semlitsch, R.D. ); Whitfield Gibbons, J. )

    1990-10-01

    Effects of egg size on growth, survival, and metamorphosis of larval salamanders (Ambystoma talpoideum) were examined in varying environments. Pond drying regime and presence vs. absence of an interspecific competitor were manipulated in a factorial experiment using artificial ponds to measure the responses of larvae. Females that were 4 yr old produced larger eggs and hatchlings than 1-yr-old females. Differences in body size at hatching persisted through day 49 of the experiment but disappeared by day 129. Drying regime also affected body size at day 49 but not at day 129. Larvae from large eggs, and larvae in constant water level ponds, had higher survival to day 129 than larvae from small eggs, and in drying ponds. There was also a significant interaction between egg size and drying regime. Larvae from large eggs survived better than larvae from small eggs in the constant water level ponds, but not in drying ponds. Interspecific competitors did not affect growth or survival to day 129. More individuals metamorphosed from drying ponds than from constant water level ponds. The growth advantages conferred by larger body size at hatching are transient and may disappear during compensatory growth later in the larval period. Body size advantages early in the larval period, however, probably account for increased survival through size-specific mechanisms at a time when newly hatched larvae are most vulnerable.

  5. Characterization of larval habitats for anopheline mosquitoes in a malarious area under elimination program in the southeast of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Soleimani-Ahmadi, Moussa; Vatandoost, Hassan; Zare, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the effects of environmental characteristics of larval habitats on distribution and abundance of anopheline mosquitoes in Bashagard county, a malarious area in southeast of Iran. Methods Larvae were collected monthly using the standard dipping method and identified using a morphological-based key. Environmental characteristics of the larval habitats were recorded. Water samples were taken from habitats during larval collection for physico-chemical characterization. Statistical analyses were performed. Results In total 5 150 anopheline larvae from 36 larval habitats were collected and identified. They comprised of six species: Anopheles culicifacies (29.36%), Anopheles moghulensis (25.20%), Anopheles dthali (18.02%), Anopheles superpictus (17.24%), Anopheles turkhudi (5.17%) and Anopheles stephensi (5.01%). The most common larval habitats were natural and clear water bodies such as riverbeds with sandy substrates and still water. Furthermore, the anopheline larvae were abundant in permanent and full sunlight habitats without vegetation and algae. Larval density was positively correlated with water temperature. Chemical characteristics including conductivity, total alkalinity, sulphate and chloride had significant effects on distribution and abundance of anopheline species. Conclusions The result of this study indicates a correlation between some environmental characteristics and anopheline larvae abundance which can be considered for effective planning and implementing malaria elimination program in Iran. PMID:25183151

  6. Close encounters with eddies: oceanographic features increase growth of larval reef fishes during their journey to the reef.

    PubMed

    Shulzitski, Kathryn; Sponaugle, Su; Hauff, Martha; Walter, Kristen; D'Alessandro, Evan K; Cowen, Robert K

    2015-01-01

    Like most benthic marine organisms, coral reef fishes produce larvae that traverse open ocean waters before settling and metamorphosing into juveniles. Where larvae are transported and how they survive is a central question in marine and fisheries ecology. While there is increasing success in modelling potential larval trajectories, our knowledge of the physical and biological processes contributing to larval survivorship during dispersal remains relatively poor. Mesoscale eddies (MEs) are ubiquitous throughout the world's oceans and their propagation is often accompanied by upwelling and increased productivity. Enhanced production suggests that eddies may serve as important habitat for the larval stages of marine organisms, yet there is a lack of empirical data on the growth rates of larvae associated with these eddies. During three cruises in the Straits of Florida, we sampled larval fishes inside and outside five cyclonic MEs. Otolith microstructure analysis revealed that four of five species of reef fish examined had consistently faster growth inside these eddies. Because increased larval growth often leads to higher survivorship, larvae that encounter MEs during transit are more likely to contribute to reef populations. Successful dispersal in oligotrophic waters may rely on larval encounter with such oceanographic features. PMID:25631227

  7. Close encounters with eddies: oceanographic features increase growth of larval reef fishes during their journey to the reef

    PubMed Central

    Shulzitski, Kathryn; Sponaugle, Su; Hauff, Martha; Walter, Kristen; D'Alessandro, Evan K.; Cowen, Robert K.

    2015-01-01

    Like most benthic marine organisms, coral reef fishes produce larvae that traverse open ocean waters before settling and metamorphosing into juveniles. Where larvae are transported and how they survive is a central question in marine and fisheries ecology. While there is increasing success in modelling potential larval trajectories, our knowledge of the physical and biological processes contributing to larval survivorship during dispersal remains relatively poor. Mesoscale eddies (MEs) are ubiquitous throughout the world's oceans and their propagation is often accompanied by upwelling and increased productivity. Enhanced production suggests that eddies may serve as important habitat for the larval stages of marine organisms, yet there is a lack of empirical data on the growth rates of larvae associated with these eddies. During three cruises in the Straits of Florida, we sampled larval fishes inside and outside five cyclonic MEs. Otolith microstructure analysis revealed that four of five species of reef fish examined had consistently faster growth inside these eddies. Because increased larval growth often leads to higher survivorship, larvae that encounter MEs during transit are more likely to contribute to reef populations. Successful dispersal in oligotrophic waters may rely on larval encounter with such oceanographic features. PMID:25631227

  8. Parallel Evolution of Larval Feeding Behavior, Morphology, and Habitat in the Snail-Kiling fly Genus Tetanocera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, E. G.; Foote, B. A.; Malukiewicz, J.; Hoeh, W. R.

    2005-05-01

    Sciomyzid larvae (Diptera: Acalyptratae) display a wide range of feeding behaviors, typically preying on a wide variety of gastropods. The genus Tetanocera is particularly interesting because its species occupy five larval feeding groups with each species' larvae living in one of two habitat types (aquatic or terrestrial). We constructed a molecular phylogeny for Tetanocera, estimated evolutionary transitions in larval feeding behaviors and habitats that occurred during Tetanocera phylogenesis, and investigated potential correlations among larval habitat and morphological characteristics. Approximately 3800 base pairs (both mitochondrial and nuclear) of sequence data were used to build the phylogeny. Larval feeding groups and habitat type were mapped onto the phylogeny and pair-wise comparisons were used to evaluate potential associations between habitat and morphology. Feeding and habitat groups within Tetanocera were usually not monophyletic and it was estimated that Tetanocera lineages made at least three independent aquatic to terrestrial transitions. These parallel habitat shifts were typically accompanied by parallel character state changes in four morphological characteristics (larval color and three posterior spiracular disc characters). These larval habitat-morphology associations were statistically significant and consistent with the action of natural selection in facilitating the morphological changes that occurred during aquatic to terrestrial habitat transitions in Tetanocera.

  9. Residence time and drift patterns of larval June sucker Chasmistes liorus in the lower Provo River as determined by otolith microstructure.

    PubMed

    Ellsworth, C M; Belk, M C; Keleher, C J

    2010-08-01

    Estimates of age derived from daily ring counts from otoliths and capture rates of larval June sucker Chasmistes liorus were used to determine the relationship between discharge rates of the Provo River and residence time and patterns of larval drift. During 1997, larval drift occurred over a 22 day period when discharge rates were low (mean +/-s.d. 3.2 +/- 0.0 m(3) s(-1)). In 1998, larval drift occurred in two separate events over a 40 day period. Discharge was higher during the first larval drift period (19 days; 24.8 +/- 1.3 m(3) s(-1)) and lower during the second larval drift period (17 days; 7.0 +/- 0.9 m(3) s(-1)). In 1997, no larval fish were collected at the lowermost transect on the Provo River (nearest Utah Lake), and few larvae >21 days of age were found. During the first drift period of 1998, larval C. liorus were collected at all transects, and mean age of larvae collected between upstream and downstream transects increased by c. 7 days. During the second drift period of 1998, only a few were collected in the lowermost transects, and age did not increase with proximity to the lake. Patterns in catch and age distribution of larval C. liorus in the lower Provo River suggest that recruitment failure occurs during the larval drift period in years with insufficient discharge to transport larvae into the lake. PMID:20701638

  10. Temporal Patterns of Larval Fish Occurrence in a Large Subtropical River

    PubMed Central

    Shuai, Fangmin; Li, Xinhui; Li, Yuefei; Li, Jie; Yang, Jiping; Lek, Sovan

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of temporal patterns of larval fish occurrence is limited in south China, despite its ecological importance. This research examines the annual and seasonal patterns of fish larval presence in the large subtropical Pearl River. Data is based on samples collected every two days, from 2006 to 2013. In total, 45 taxa representing 13 families and eight orders were sampled. The dominant larval family was Cyprinidae, accounting for 27 taxa. Squaliobarbus curriculus was the most abundant species, followed by Megalobrama terminalis, Xenocypris davidi, Cirrhinus molitorella, Hemiculter leuscisculus and Squalidus argentatus. Fish larvae abundances varied significantly throughout the seasons (multivariate analyses: Cluster, SIMPROF and ANOSIM). The greatest numbers occurred between May and September, peaking from June through August, which corresponds to the reproductive season. In this study, redundancy analysis was used to describe the relationship between fish larval abundance and associated environmental factors. Mean water temperature, river discharge, atmospheric pressure, maximum temperature and precipitation play important roles in larval occurrence patterns. According to seasonal variations, fish larvae occurrence is mainly affected by water temperature. It was also noted that the occurrence of Salanx reevesii and Cyprinus carpio larvae is associated with higher dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations, higher atmospheric pressure and lower water temperatures which occur in the spring. On the other hand, M. terminalis, X. davidi, and C. molitorella are associated with high precipitation, high river discharge, low atmospheric pressure and low DO concentrations which featured during the summer months. S. curriculus also peaks in the summer and is associated with peak water temperatures and minimum NH3–N concentrations. Rhinogobius giurinus occur when higher atmospheric pressure, lower precipitation and lower river discharges occur in the autumn. Dominant fish

  11. Exploring the larval transcriptome of the common sole (Solea solea L.)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The common sole (Solea solea) is a promising candidate for European aquaculture; however, the limited knowledge of the physiological mechanisms underlying larval development in this species has hampered the establishment of successful flatfish aquaculture. Although the fact that genomic tools and resources are available for some flatfish species, common sole genomics remains a mostly unexplored field. Here, we report, for the first time, the sequencing and characterisation of the transcriptome of S. solea and its application for the study of molecular mechanisms underlying physiological and morphological changes during larval-to-juvenile transition. Results The S. solea transcriptome was generated from whole larvae and adult tissues using the Roche 454 platform. The assembly process produced a set of 22,223 Isotigs with an average size of 726 nt, 29 contigs and a total of 203,692 singletons. Of the assembled sequences, 75.2% were annotated with at least one known transcript/protein; these transcripts were then used to develop a custom oligo-DNA microarray. A total of 14,674 oligonucleotide probes (60 nt), representing 12,836 transcripts, were in situ synthesised onto the array using Agilent non-contact ink-jet technology. The microarray platform was used to investigate the gene expression profiles of sole larvae from hatching to the juvenile form. Genes involved in the ontogenesis of the visual system are up-regulated during the early stages of larval development, while muscle development and anaerobic energy pathways increase in expression over time. The gene expression profiles of key transcripts of the thyroid hormones (TH) cascade and the temporal regulation of the GH/IGF1 (growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor I) system suggest a pivotal role of these pathways in fish growth and initiation of metamorphosis. Pre-metamorphic larvae display a distinctive transcriptomic landscape compared to previous and later stages. Our findings highlighted the up

  12. Temporal Patterns of Larval Fish Occurrence in a Large Subtropical River.

    PubMed

    Shuai, Fangmin; Li, Xinhui; Li, Yuefei; Li, Jie; Yang, Jiping; Lek, Sovan

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of temporal patterns of larval fish occurrence is limited in south China, despite its ecological importance. This research examines the annual and seasonal patterns of fish larval presence in the large subtropical Pearl River. Data is based on samples collected every two days, from 2006 to 2013. In total, 45 taxa representing 13 families and eight orders were sampled. The dominant larval family was Cyprinidae, accounting for 27 taxa. Squaliobarbus curriculus was the most abundant species, followed by Megalobrama terminalis, Xenocypris davidi, Cirrhinus molitorella, Hemiculter leuscisculus and Squalidus argentatus. Fish larvae abundances varied significantly throughout the seasons (multivariate analyses: Cluster, SIMPROF and ANOSIM). The greatest numbers occurred between May and September, peaking from June through August, which corresponds to the reproductive season. In this study, redundancy analysis was used to describe the relationship between fish larval abundance and associated environmental factors. Mean water temperature, river discharge, atmospheric pressure, maximum temperature and precipitation play important roles in larval occurrence patterns. According to seasonal variations, fish larvae occurrence is mainly affected by water temperature. It was also noted that the occurrence of Salanx reevesii and Cyprinus carpio larvae is associated with higher dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations, higher atmospheric pressure and lower water temperatures which occur in the spring. On the other hand, M. terminalis, X. davidi, and C. molitorella are associated with high precipitation, high river discharge, low atmospheric pressure and low DO concentrations which featured during the summer months. S. curriculus also peaks in the summer and is associated with peak water temperatures and minimum NH3-N concentrations. Rhinogobius giurinus occur when higher atmospheric pressure, lower precipitation and lower river discharges occur in the autumn. Dominant fish

  13. Larval abundance and dispersal at deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the southern Mariana Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaulieu, S. E.; Watanabe, H.; Mills, S. W.; Pradillon, F.; Kojima, S.; Mullineaux, L. S.

    2010-12-01

    Since the discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents over thirty years ago, scientists have been perplexed by the question: “How are the faunal populations established and maintained at these very discrete and often ephemeral habitats?” For the animals that are sessile or have limited mobility as adults, dispersal to these habitats occurs early in the life cycle, as planktonic larvae in the water column. Due to the difficulties in sampling deep-sea larvae, including low abundances (dilute concentrations), we have very few quantitative estimates of larval dispersal between or larval supply to hydrothermal vents. Here, we will present results of an international, collaborative effort to study larval abundance and dispersal at vents near the back-arc spreading center in the southern Mariana Trough. On R/V Yokosuka cruise YK10-11 in September 2010, we will deploy large-volume plankton pumps at approximately 3000-m depth at Snail (also called South Backarc), Archaean, and Pika, three of the Vents (Volcanic) Unit sites in the U.S. Marianas Trench Marine National Monument. These vents are being studied as part of the Japanese multi-disciplinary program TAIGA (Trans-crustal Advection and In-situ biogeochemical proceses of Global sub-sea floor Aquifer). These will be the first collections of vent larvae in the Mariana back-arc, and we will compare the abundances and diversity of larvae to similar work conducted at the Ridge 2000 East Pacific Rise Integrated Studies Site. We will deploy a current meter near the Snail site (on-axis) for preliminary estimates of passive larval transport on the time scale of the cruise. The three study sites are situated in a line perpendicular to the back-arc spreading axis, and thus may be interesting in terms of local dispersal processes. Perhaps more interesting, however, is that the back-arc vents that we will visit are as close as 25 km to known vents on the arc, yet 600 km south of the other known vents in the back-arc. These two

  14. Relationships between habitat conditions, larval traits, and juvenile performance in a marine invertebrate.

    PubMed

    Giménez, Luis

    2010-05-01

    Environmental effects on sets of traits of organisms can have important consequences on populations. In marine species with complex life cycles, plastic responses in larval traits can affect size at metamorphosis and juvenile growth. These traits can ultimately affect survival and recruitment. Here, I evaluate links between pelagic conditions, natural variations in larval physiological traits (duration of development, size of the megalopa stage), size at metamorphosis, and juvenile growth in the shore crab Carcinus maenas. I sampled settling larvae (megalopae) of C. maenas, daily, during the settlement season of three consecutive years, in the island of Helgoland (North Sea, German Bight). Megalopae were brought to the laboratory where postmetamorphic growth was evaluated under different larval food environments. Traits varied considerably at several temporal scales; variation was not consistent among years. However, the size at metamorphosis was always larger at the start of the settlement season. Some variability correlated with predicted changes in transport processes and dynamics of plume fronts around the study area. Positive relationships between predicted periods of formation of plume fronts, settlement rates, and size at metamorphosis suggest a link between oceanographic conditions and individual traits. Size at metamorphosis explained juvenile growth rates: during the first five juvenile stages, larger individuals grew faster and reached larger size at stage (that is, at any stage observed). Megalopae experiencing ad libitum food conditions grew faster as juveniles than those deprived of food, showing that size at metamorphosis and juvenile growth respond plastically to variations in the larval food environment. I conclude that juvenile growth rate in C. maenas can be affected by natural environmental conditions experienced by larval stages; this effect is mediated by changes in the size at metamorphosis. Most likely the most important factor operating on

  15. Terrestrial vegetation and aquatic chemistry influence larval mosquito abundance in catch basins, Chicago, USA

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background An important determinant of mosquito-borne pathogen transmission is the spatial distribution of vectors. The primary vectors of West Nile virus (WNV) in Illinois are Culex pipiens Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae) and Culex restuans Theobald. In urban environments, these mosquitoes commonly oviposit in roadside storm water catch basins. However, use of this habitat is inconsistent, with abundance of larvae varying significantly across catch basins at a fine spatial scale. Methods We tested the hypothesis that attributes of the biotic and abiotic environment contribute to spatial and temporal variation in production of mosquito vectors, characterizing the relationship between terrestrial vegetation and aquatic chemistry and Culex abundance in Chicago, Illinois. Larvae were sampled from 60 catch basins from June 14 to October 3, 2009. Density of shrubs and 14 tree genera surrounding the basins were quantified, as well as aquatic chemistry content of each basin. Results We demonstrate that the spatial pattern of Culex abundance in catch basins is strongly influenced by environmental characteristics, resulting in significant variation across the urban landscape. Using regression and machine learning techniques, we described landscape features and microhabitat characteristics of four Chicago neighborhoods and examined the implications of these measures for larval abundance in adjacent catch basins. The important positive predictors of high larval abundance were aquatic ammonia, nitrates, and area of shrubs of height <1 m surrounding the catch basins, whereas pH and area of flowering shrub were negatively correlated with larval abundance. Tree density, particularly of arborvitae, maple, and pear, also positively influenced the distribution of Culex during the fruit-bearing periods and early senescent periods in August and September. Conclusions This study identifies environmental predictors of mosquito production in urban environments. Because an abundance of

  16. BOLTS: a BiOphysical Larval Tracking System for Measuring Dispersal Characteristics and Marine Population Connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paris, C. B.; Srinivasan, A.; Kourafalou, V.; Sponaugle, S.; Cowen, R. K.

    2008-12-01

    While metapopulation research with hypothetical dispersal matrices has shown how the scales of larval dispersal, transport processes, local recruitment, and temporal and spatial variability in dispersal influence population persistence, the pattern of demographic connectivity produced by larval dispersal is still a key uncertainty. To address this problem, a coupled bio-physical model has been developed that quantifies the degree of connectivity between populations. Such spatially explicit models, forced by dynamic currents coupled to a realistic seascape and life history traits, produce dispersal kernels for a range of scales over which dispersal is practically unquantifiable by current empirical methods. The BiOphysical Larval Tracking System (BOLTS) presented here allows a Lagrangian stochastic individual-based model (IBM) to be coupled via OPENDAP framework to any 3-dimensional fields of circulation models including to domains of various resolutions through 'Lagrangian nesting'. We demonstrate the capabilities of the software in measuring the characteristics of dispersal and evaluating the variability of larval connectivity through two examples at different scales: 1) Caribbean-scale simulations of BOLTS using the large scale (resolution ~7 km) Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) from the Global Data Assimilative Experiment (GODAE) provide us with expected connectivity patterns of a reef building coral. By seeding the model with a large number of active particles, it is possible to assemble dispersal kernels and migration matrices from the start (spawning) and the end point (settlement) of individual particle trajectories. Any single run is a stochastic realization of a probabilistic process, thus the full probability density function (pdf) of the kernel requires averaging over many dispersal events. The model output is further corroborated with empirical measures of gene flow among coral colonies around the Caribbean. 2) Coastal-scale simulations of BOLTS

  17. Modelling developmental changes in the carbon and nitrogen budgets of larval brachyuran crabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anger, K.

    1990-03-01

    The uptake and partitioning of nutritional carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) were studied during the complete larval development of a brachyuran crab, Hyas araneus, reared under constant conditions in the laboratory. Biochemical and physiological data were published in a foregoing paper, and complete budgets of C and N were now constructed from these data. Regression equations describing rates of feeding ( F), growth ( G), respiration ( R), and ammonia excretion ( U) as functions of time during individual larval moult cycles were inserted in a simulation model, in order to analyse time-dependent (i.e. developmental) patterns of variation in these parameters as well as in bioenergetic efficiencies. Absolute daily feeding rates ( F; per individual) as well as carbon and nitrogen-specific rates ( F/C, F/N) are in general maximum in early, and minimum in late stages of individual larval moult cycles (postmoult and premoult, respectively). Early crab zoeae may ingest equivalents of up to ca 40% body C and 30% body N per day, respectively, whereas megalopa larvae usually eat less than 10%. Also growth rates ( G; G/C, G/N) reveal decreasing tendencies both during individual moult cycles and, on the average, in subsequent instars. Conversion of C and N data to lipid and protein, respectively, suggests that in all larval instars there is initially an increase in the lipid: protein ratio. Protein, however, remains clearly the predominant biochemical constituent in larval biomass. The absolute and specific values of respiration ( R; R/C) and excretion ( U; U/N) vary only little during the course of individual moult cycles. Thus, their significance in relation to G increases within the C and N budgets, and net growth efficiency ( K 2) decreases concurrently. Also gross growth and assimilation efficiency ( K 2; A/F) are, in general, maximum in early stages of the moult cycle (postmoult). Biochemical data suggest that lipid utilization efficiency is particularly high in early moult

  18. Occurrence of Terranova larval types (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in Australian marine fish with comments on their specific identities.

    PubMed

    Shamsi, Shokoofeh; Suthar, Jaydipbhai

    2016-01-01

    Pseudoterranovosis is a well-known human disease caused by anisakid larvae belonging to the genus Pseudoterranova. Human infection occurs after consuming infected fish. Hence the presence of Pseudoterranova larvae in the flesh of the fish can cause serious losses and problems for the seafood, fishing and fisheries industries. The accurate identification of Pseudoterranova larvae in fish is important, but challenging because the larval stages of a number of different genera, including Pseudoterranova, Terranova and Pulchrascaris, look similar and cannot be differentiated from each other using morphological criteria, hence they are all referred to as Terranova larval type. Given that Terranova larval types in seafood are not necessarily Pseudoterranova and may not be dangerous, the aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of Terranova larval types in Australian marine fish and to determine their specific identity. A total of 137 fish belonging to 45 species were examined. Terranova larval types were found in 13 species, some of which were popular edible fish in Australia. The sequences of the first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2 respectively) of the Terranova larvae in the present study showed a high degree of similarity suggesting that they all belong to the same species. Due to the lack of a comparable sequence data of a well identified adult in the GenBank database the specific identity of Terranova larval type in the present study remains unknown. The sequence of the ITS regions of the Terranova larval type in the present study and those of Pseudoterranova spp. available in GenBank are significantly different, suggesting that larvae found in the present study do not belong to the genus Pseudoterranova, which is zoonotic. This study does not rule out the presence of Pseudoterranova larvae in Australian fish as Pseudoterranova decipiens E has been reported in adult form from seals in Antarctica and it is known that they

  19. Occurrence of Terranova larval types (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in Australian marine fish with comments on their specific identities

    PubMed Central

    Suthar, Jaydipbhai

    2016-01-01

    Pseudoterranovosis is a well-known human disease caused by anisakid larvae belonging to the genus Pseudoterranova. Human infection occurs after consuming infected fish. Hence the presence of Pseudoterranova larvae in the flesh of the fish can cause serious losses and problems for the seafood, fishing and fisheries industries. The accurate identification of Pseudoterranova larvae in fish is important, but challenging because the larval stages of a number of different genera, including Pseudoterranova, Terranova and Pulchrascaris, look similar and cannot be differentiated from each other using morphological criteria, hence they are all referred to as Terranova larval type. Given that Terranova larval types in seafood are not necessarily Pseudoterranova and may not be dangerous, the aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of Terranova larval types in Australian marine fish and to determine their specific identity. A total of 137 fish belonging to 45 species were examined. Terranova larval types were found in 13 species, some of which were popular edible fish in Australia. The sequences of the first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2 respectively) of the Terranova larvae in the present study showed a high degree of similarity suggesting that they all belong to the same species. Due to the lack of a comparable sequence data of a well identified adult in the GenBank database the specific identity of Terranova larval type in the present study remains unknown. The sequence of the ITS regions of the Terranova larval type in the present study and those of Pseudoterranova spp. available in GenBank are significantly different, suggesting that larvae found in the present study do not belong to the genus Pseudoterranova, which is zoonotic. This study does not rule out the presence of Pseudoterranova larvae in Australian fish as Pseudoterranova decipiens E has been reported in adult form from seals in Antarctica and it is known that they

  20. Los Alamos offers Fellowships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico is calling for applications for postdoctoral appointments and research fellowships. The positions are available in geoscience as well as other scientific disciplines.The laboratory, which is operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy, awards J. Robert Oppenheimer Research Fellowships to scientists that either have or will soon complete doctoral degrees. The appointments are for two years, are renewable for a third year, and carry a stipend of $51,865 per year. Potential applicants should send a resume or employment application and a statement of research goals to Carol M. Rich, Div. 89, Human Resources Development Division, MS P290, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 by mid-November.

  1. Isolation of intact larval haemoglobin from the brine shrimp Artemia salina. Prevention of degradation in vitro by proteases induced during larval development.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, B C; Krissansen, G W; Smith, M G; Tate, W P

    1980-05-29

    Haemoglobin induced in the larval stage of the brine shrimp, Artemia salina is extensively degraded when isolated from the later developmental stages of the larvae. Alkaline proteases appear in the organism a few hours after the induction of haemoglobin and cause the observed degradation. Addition of 2.6 mM phenylmethylsulphonyl fluoride or 20 micrograms/ml soybean trypsin inhibitor to the extraction buffer used for haemoglobin isolation prevents most of this degradation. Discrete haem proteins are found in extracts of the brine shrimp larvae isolated before induction of the proteases, and the major species has a molecular weight of over 200,000. This is believed to be the native haemoglobin. A spread of lower molecular weight haem-containing polypeptides is found in extracts of larvae isolated after induction of the proteases. These products are believed to result from degradation of the discrete haem proteins present in protease-free extracts. PMID:6990994

  2. Larval fish habitats and hydrography in the Biosphere Reserve of the Upper Gulf of California (June 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Velasco, L.; Lavín, M. F.; Jiménez-Rosenberg, S. P. A.; Montes, J. M.; Turk-Boyer, P. J.

    2012-02-01

    The Upper Gulf of California (UGC) is a Biosphere Reserve that despite its extreme environmental conditions (macrotidal inverse estuary) houses a high fish species richness. An intensive sampling of fish larvae and hydrography was carried out during June 2008 in the UGC. From 56 zooplankton sampling stations with a maximum of three sampling strata (each 5 m deep, from 0 to 15 m), a total of 29,505 fish larvae were collected, included in 99 taxa and 32 families. The Bray-Curtis Index defined three main larval fish habitats that varied in composition. (i) The "Mixed" larval habitat was mostly defined in the vertically mixed western sector of the UGC; the coastal pelagic Anchoa spp. presented high abundance in this habitat, associated with demersal species such as Gobulus crescentalis and Scianidae type 1. The lowest diversity and abundance, and the highest salinity, temperature and chlorophyll distinguished this larval habitat. (ii) The "Front" habitat was located mostly on the physical-chemical frontal zone between the UGC and the Northern Gulf; it had the highest specific richness and larval abundance. The dominant species were the coastal pelagics Anchoa spp. and Opisthonema sp. 1; the latter was almost limited to the north by the frontal zone. (iii) The "Shelf" habitat, found over the shelf off the mainland, was the deepest and less salty, and was also dominated by Opisthonema sp. 1, but included epipelagic species such as Scombridae (e.g., Scomber japonicus, Auxis spp., Scomberomerus sierra), probably from the adjacent deeper zone. These larval fish habitats had well-defined limits that coincided with marked environmental gradients, with the lowest larval diversity in the saltiest environment; this suggests that the human-induced shift to hypersaline conditions may have reduced the preferred larval habitat for some species. The habitats most likely change with the seasons, with implications for the management of the reserve.

  3. Effects of Tail Clipping on Larval Performance and Tail Regeneration Rates in the Near Eastern Fire Salamander, Salamandra infraimmaculata.

    PubMed

    Segev, Ori; Polevikove, Antonina; Blank, Lior; Goedbloed, Daniel; Küpfer, Eliane; Gershberg, Anna; Koplovich, Avi; Blaustein, Leon

    2015-01-01

    Tail-tip clipping is a common technique for collecting tissue samples from amphibian larvae and adults. Surprisingly, studies of this invasive sampling procedure or of natural tail clipping--i.e., bites inflicted by predators including conspecifics--on the performance and fitness of aquatic larval stages of urodeles are scarce. We conducted two studies in which we assessed the effects of posterior tail clipping (~30 percent of tail) on Near Eastern fire salamander (Salamandra infraimmaculata) larvae. In a laboratory study, we checked regeneration rates of posterior tail-tip clipping at different ages. Regeneration rates were hump-shaped, peaking at the age of ~30 days and then decreasing. This variation in tail regeneration rates suggests tradeoffs in resource allocation between regeneration and somatic growth during early and advanced development. In an outdoor artificial pond experiment, under constant larval densities, we assessed how tail clipping of newborn larvae affects survival to, time to, and size at metamorphosis. Repeated measures ANOVA on mean larval survival per pond revealed no effect of tail clipping. Tail clipping had correspondingly no effect on larval growth and development expressed in size (mass and snout-vent length) at, and time to, metamorphosis. We conclude that despite the given variation in tail regeneration rates throughout larval ontogeny, clipping of 30% percent of the posterior tail area seems to have no adverse effects on larval fitness and survival. We suggest that future use of this imperative tool for the study of amphibian should take into account larval developmental stage during the time of application and not just the relative size of the clipped tail sample. PMID:26065683

  4. Interaction between spawning habitat and coastally steered circulation regulate larval fish retention in a large shallow temperate bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvarez, Itziar; Catalán, Ignacio A.; Jordi, Antoni; Alemany, Francisco; Basterretxea, Gotzon

    2015-12-01

    Larval retention plays a fundamental role in the persistence of coastal fish assemblages. Here, we examine larval fish distribution and abundance patterns in Palma Bay, a large (˜20 km) wind-driven microtidal bay in the southern coast of Mallorca (Spain, NW Mediterranean Sea). Larval fish assemblage structure in the bay were analyzed during July 2010 and interpreted in the context of the observed circulation patterns, adult habitat distribution and spawning traits. Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) observations showed the presence of retentive flow patterns in the middle of the bay enhancing local larval accumulation and self-recruitment. In consequence, larval abundances were higher in this central part of the bay (˜40 m depth, mean abundance 607.6 ± 383 ind. 10 m-2) than along the coastal fringe (<35 m 113.7 ± 91 ind. 10 m-2). Also, a multivariate predictive approach based on Redundancy Analysis (RDA) revealed differences between the larval fish assemblages in areas inside the bay, constituted by small pelagic and benthopelagic taxa (gobids, Chromis chromis and Serranus hepatus) and offshore larvae, mostly from meso and large pelagic fish. These larval fish assemblages were structured according to depth variations and zooplankton abundance, and remained relatively unmixed because of the circulation patterns in the mouth of the bay that uncouple its dynamics from alongshelf circulation. Even larvae of typically pelagic species that spawn close to the coast (Sardinella aurita, Auxis rochei) were associated with the retentive effect of the bay. Our study highlights the important role of coastal bays in the regulation of coastal fish population dynamics and as hotspots for the maintenance of diversity in the Mediterranean Sea.

  5. The Los Alamos primer

    SciTech Connect

    Serber, R.

    1992-01-01

    This book contains the 1943 lecture notes of Robert Serber. Serber was a protege of J. Robert Oppenheimer and member of the team that built the first atomic bomb - reveal what the Los Alamos scientists knew, and did not know, about the terrifying weapon they were building.

  6. Foraging and predation risk for larval cisco (Coregonus artedi) in Lake Superior: a modelling synthesis of empirical survey data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, Jared T.; Yule, Daniel L.; Jones, Michael L.; Quinlan, Henry R.; Berglund, Eric K.

    2014-01-01

    The relative importance of predation and food availability as contributors to larval cisco (Coregonus artedi) mortality in Lake Superior were investigated using a visual foraging model to evaluate potential predation pressure by rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) and a bioenergetic model to evaluate potential starvation risk. The models were informed by observations of rainbow smelt, larval cisco, and zooplankton abundance at three Lake Superior locations during the period of spring larval cisco emergence and surface-oriented foraging. Predation risk was highest at Black Bay, ON, where average rainbow smelt densities in the uppermost 10 m of the water column were >1000 ha−1. Turbid conditions at the Twin Ports, WI-MN, affected larval cisco predation risk because rainbow smelt remained suspended in the upper water column during daylight, placing them alongside larval cisco during both day and night hours. Predation risk was low at Cornucopia, WI, owing to low smelt densities (<400 ha−1) and deep light penetration, which kept rainbow smelt near the lakebed and far from larvae during daylight. In situ zooplankton density estimates were low compared to the values used to develop the larval coregonid bioenergetics model, leading to predictions of negative growth rates for 10 mm larvae at all three locations. The model predicted that 15 mm larvae were capable of attaining positive growth at Cornucopia and the Twin Ports where low water temperatures (2–6 °C) decreased their metabolic costs. Larval prey resources were highest at Black Bay but warmer water temperatures there offset the benefit of increased prey availability. A sensitivity analysis performed on the rainbow smelt visual foraging model showed that it was relatively insensitive, while the coregonid bioenergetics model showed that the absolute growth rate predictions were highly sensitive to input parameters (i.e., 20% parameter perturbation led to order of magnitude differences in model estimates). Our

  7. Offshore-onshore linkages in the larval life history of sole in the Gulf of Lions (NW-Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morat, Fabien; Letourneur, Yves; Blamart, Dominique; Pécheyran, Christophe; Darnaude, Audrey M.; Harmelin-Vivien, Mireille

    2014-08-01

    Understanding individual dispersion from offshore natal areas to coastal nurseries during pelagic larval life is especially important for the sustainable management of exploited marine fish species. For several years, the hatching period, the larval life duration, the average growth rate and the otolith chemical composition (δ13C, δ18O, Sr:Ca and Ba:Ca) during the larval life were studied for young of the year (YOY) of sole collected in three main nurseries of the Gulf of Lions (GoL) (Thau, Mauguio and Berre). We investigated the spatial variation in the origin of the sole larvae which colonised the nurseries around the GoL, and whether temporal differences in environmental conditions during this life stage affected growth and larval life duration. The hatching period ranges from October to March, depending on year and site. Average ages at metamorphosis varied between 43 and 50 days, with the lowest and highest values consistently found for Mauguio and Berre, respectively. Otolith growth rates ranged between 2.7 and 3.2 μm d-1, with the lowest values in Thau and Mauguio and the highest in Berre. Otolith chemical composition during the larval life also varied, suggesting contrasted larval environmental histories in YOY among nurseries. In fishes from Berre and Mauguio, larval life was more influenced by the Rhône River, showing consistently higher larval Ba:Ca ratios (10/23 μmol mol-1) and lower δ13C (-6.5/-6.1‰) and δ18O values (-1.6/0.1‰) than for Thau (with Ba:Ca ratios < 8 μmol mol-1, δ13C ˜-2.3‰ and δ18O ˜1.5‰). Differences in larval otolith composition were observed for 2004, with higher Ba:Ca and lower δ13C and δ18O values than in the two other years. These differences were explained by changes in composition and chemical signatures of water masses after an exceptional flooding event of the Rhône River in late 2003.

  8. Dry season refugia for anopheline larvae and mapping of the seasonal distribution in mosquito larval habitats in Kandi, northeastern Benin

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The dynamics of mosquito populations depends on availability of suitable surface water for oviposition. It is well known that suitable management of mosquito larval habitats in the sub-Saharan countries, particularly during droughts, could help to suppress vector densities and malaria transmission. We conducted a field survey to investigate the spatial and seasonal distribution of mosquito larval habitats and identify drought-refugia for anopheline larvae. Methods A GIS approach was used to identify, geo-reference and follow up longitudinally from May 2012 to May 2013, all mosquito breeding sites in two rural sites (Yondarou and Thui), one urban (Kossarou), and one peri-urban (Pèdè) site at Kandi, a municipality in northeastern Benin. In Kandi, droughts are excessive with no rain for nearly six months and a lot of sunshine. A comprehensive record of mosquito larval habitats was conducted periodically in all sites for the identification of drought-refugia of anopheline larval stages. With geospatialisation data, seasonal larval distribution maps were generated for each study site with the software ArcGIS version 10.2. Results Overall, 187 mosquito breeding sites were identified of which 29.95% were recorded during drought. In rural, peri-urban and urban sites, most of the drought-refugia of anopheline larvae were domestic in nature (61.54%). Moreover, in rural settings, anopheline larvae were also sampled in cisterns and wells (25% of larval habitats sampled during drought in Yondarou and 20% in Thui). The mapping showed a significant decrease in the spatial distribution of mosquito larval habitats in rural, peri-urban and urban sites during drought, except in Yondarou (rural) where the aridity did not seem to influence the distribution of larval habitats. Conclusion Our data showed that the main drought-refugia of anopheline larvae were of a domestic nature as well as wells and cisterns. A suitable management of mosquito larvae in sub-Saharan countries

  9. Cloning of aquaporin-1 of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus: its expression during the larval development in hyposalinity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ontogenetic variation in salinity adaptation has been noted for the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, which uses the export strategy for larval development: females migrate from the estuaries to the coast to spawn, larvae develop in the ocean, and postlarvae (megalopae) colonize estuarine areas. We hypothesized that C. sapidus larvae may be stenohaline and have limited osmoregulatory capacity which compromises their ability to survive in lower salinity waters. We tested this hypothesis using hatchery-raised larvae that were traceable to specific life stages. In addition, we aimed to understand the possible involvement of AQP-1 in salinity adaptation during larval development and during exposure to hyposalinity. Results A full-length cDNA sequence of aquaporin (GenBank JQ970426) was isolated from the hypodermis of the blue crab, C. sapidus, using PCR with degenerate primers and 5′ and 3′ RACE. The open reading frame of CasAQP-1 consists of 238 amino acids containing six helical structures and two NPA motifs for the water pore. The expression pattern of CasAQP-1 was ubiquitous in cDNAs from all tissues examined, although higher in the hepatopancreas, thoracic ganglia, abdominal muscle, and hypodermis and lower in the antennal gland, heart, hemocytes, ovary, eyestalk, brain, hindgut, Y-organs, and gill. Callinectes larvae differed in their capacity to molt in hyposalinity, as those at earlier stages from Zoea (Z) 1 to Z4 had lower molting rates than those from Z5 onwards, as compared to controls kept in 30 ppt water. No difference was found in the survival of larvae held at 15 and 30 ppt. CasAQP-1 expression differed with ontogeny during larval development, with significantly higher expression at Z1-2, compared to other larval stages. The exposure to 15 ppt affected larval-stage dependent CasAQP-1 expression which was significantly higher in Z2- 6 stages than the other larval stages. Conclusions We report the ontogenetic variation in CasAQP-1

  10. Encounter with mesoscale eddies enhances survival to settlement in larval coral reef fishes

    PubMed Central

    Shulzitski, Kathryn; Sponaugle, Su; Hauff, Martha; Walter, Kristen D.; Cowen, Robert K.

    2016-01-01

    Oceanographic features, such as eddies and fronts, enhance and concentrate productivity, generating high-quality patches that dispersive marine larvae may encounter in the plankton. Although broad-scale movement of larvae associated with these features can be captured in biophysical models, direct evidence of processes influencing survival within them, and subsequent effects on population replenishment, are unknown. We sequentially sampled cohorts of coral reef fishes in the plankton and nearshore juvenile habitats in the Straits of Florida and used otolith microstructure analysis to compare growth and size-at-age of larvae collected inside and outside of mesoscale eddies to those that survived to settlement. Larval habitat altered patterns of growth and selective mortality: Thalassoma bifasciatum and Cryptotomus roseus that encountered eddies in the plankton grew faster than larvae outside of eddies and likely experienced higher survival to settlement. During warm periods, T. bifasciatum residing outside of eddies in the oligotrophic Florida Current experienced high mortality and only the slowest growers survived early larval life. Such slow growth is advantageous in nutrient poor habitats when warm temperatures increase metabolic demands but is insufficient for survival beyond the larval stage because only fast-growing larvae successfully settled to reefs. Because larvae arriving to the Straits of Florida from distant sources must spend long periods of time outside of eddies, our results indicate that they have a survival disadvantage. High productivity features such as eddies not only enhance the survival of pelagic larvae, but also potentially increase the contribution of locally spawned larvae to reef populations. PMID:27274058

  11. Larval starvation improves metabolic response to adult starvation in honey bees (Apis mellifera L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Campbell, Jacob B; Kaftanoglu, Osman; Page, Robert E; Amdam, Gro V; Harrison, Jon F

    2016-04-01

    Environmental changes during development have long-term effects on adult phenotypes in diverse organisms. Some of the effects play important roles in helping organisms adapt to different environments, such as insect polymorphism. Others, especially those resulting from an adverse developmental environment, have a negative effect on adult health and fitness. However, recent studies have shown that those phenotypes influenced by early environmental adversity have adaptive value under certain (anticipatory) conditions that are similar to the developmental environment, though evidence is mostly from morphological and behavioral observations and it is still rare at physiological and molecular levels. In the companion study, we applied a short-term starvation treatment to fifth instar honey bee larvae and measured changes in adult morphology, starvation resistance, hormonal and metabolic physiology and gene expression. Our results suggest that honey bees can adaptively respond to the predicted nutritional stress. In the present study, we further hypothesized that developmental starvation specifically improves the metabolic response of adult bees to starvation instead of globally affecting metabolism under well-fed conditions. Here, we produced adult honey bees that had experienced a short-term larval starvation, then we starved them for 12 h and monitored metabolic rate, blood sugar concentrations and metabolic reserves. We found that the bees that experienced larval starvation were able to shift to other fuels faster and better maintain stable blood sugar levels during starvation. However, developmental nutritional stress did not change metabolic rates or blood sugar levels in adult bees under normal conditions. Overall, our study provides further evidence that early larval starvation specifically improves the metabolic responses to adult starvation in honey bees. PMID:27030776

  12. Larval Behaviours and Their Contribution to the Distribution of the Intertidal Coral Reef Sponge Carteriospongia foliascens

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Wahab, Muhammad Azmi; de Nys, Rocky; Webster, Nicole; Whalan, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Sponges (Phylum Porifera) are an evolutionary and ecologically significant group; however information on processes influencing sponge population distributions is surprisingly limited. Carteriospongia foliascens is a common Indo-Pacific sponge, which has been reported from the intertidal to the mesophotic. Interestingly, the distribution of C. foliascens at inshore reefs of the Great Barrier Reef is restricted to the intertidal with no individuals evident in adjacent subtidal habitats. The abundance of C. foliascens and substrate availability was first quantified to investigate the influence of substrate limitation on adult distribution. Pre-settlement processes of larval spawning, swimming speeds, phototaxis, vertical migration, and settlement to intertidal and subtidal substrate cues were also quantified. Notably, suitable settlement substrate (coral rubble) was not limiting in subtidal habitats. C. foliascens released up to 765 brooded larvae sponge−1 day−1 during the day, with larvae (80%±5.77) being negatively phototactic and migrating to the bottom within 40 minutes from release. Subsequently, larvae (up to 58.67%±2.91) migrated to the surface after the loss of the daylight cue (nightfall), and after 34 h post-release >98.67% (±0.67) of larvae had adopted a benthic habit regardless of light conditions. Intertidal and subtidal biofilms initiated similar settlement responses, inducing faster (as early 6 h post-release) and more successful metamorphosis (>60%) than unconditioned surfaces. C. foliascens has a high larval supply and larval behaviours that support recruitment to the subtidal. The absence of C. foliascens in subtidal habitats at inshore reefs is therefore proposed to be a potential consequence of post-settlement mortalities. PMID:24853091

  13. Effects of an increasing filter feeder stock on larval abundance in the Oosterschelde estuary (SW Netherlands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troost, Karin; Gelderman, Edzard; Kamermans, Pauline; Smaal, Aad C.; Wolff, Wim J.

    2009-02-01

    Predation by adult bivalves on bivalve larvae has been suggested to reduce larval abundance in areas with high bivalve filter-feeder biomass. Although the occurrence of larviphagy is well-studied in the laboratory, its effects in the field have scarcely been studied. We studied larviphagy at different spatial scales in the Oosterschelde estuary. On the scale of individuals, we confirmed that larviphagy occurs in Crassostrea gigas and Mytilus edulis in the Oosterschelde estuary, by examining stomach contents of adult bivalves. On a local scale, we studied effects of larviphagy by a Pacific oyster ( C. gigas) bed on presence of larvae in the overlying water column by sampling larvae with fixed plankton nets. Abundance of blue mussel ( M. edulis) larvae was significantly reduced by the oyster. Abundance of C. gigas larvae did not seem to be reduced by the oyster bed, but spawning by the adult oysters during the sampling period may have affected the results. On estuary-scale, the effect of larviphagy on larval abundance of C. gigas and M. edulis was studied using existing monitoring data over 6 years for M. edulis and 13 years for C. gigas. Numbers of M. edulis larvae showed no significant trend over the 6 years studied. Abundance of C. gigas larvae declined with an increasing filter feeder stock (that was mainly caused by an increase in C. gigas stock). This decline may be due to direct effects of larviphagy or indirect effects such as lowered food levels, and was not compensated by an increased larval production. All results combined, complemented with a theoretical estimate of the effect of larviphagy on estuary-scale, strongly suggest that larviphagy is major source of mortality for bivalve larvae in the Oosterschelde estuary.

  14. Laboratory studies on larval growth of Polydora ligni, Polydora ciliata, and Pygospio elegans (Polychaeta, Spionidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anger, K.; Anger, V.; Hagmeier, E.

    1986-12-01

    The spionid polychaete species Polydora ligni, P. ciliata, and Pygospio elegans were cultivated in the laboratory over several successive generations. A flow-through cultivation system for Polydora spp. is described. Duration of life cycles (time from hatching of the larva to first reproduction) and life spans (hatching to death) of these species were not significantly influenced by the degree of inbreeding nor by individual age of the parents. Minimum time from metamorphosis (15-setiger stage) to first hatching of offspring larvae (in the 3-setiger stage) at 18°C was 33 days in Polydora spp. and 81 days in Pygospio elegans. Larval growth patterns are described in terms of number of setigers, body length, and biomass (dry weight, carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen), in relation to time after hatching. Regression models are proposed which link these measures of larval growth and, thus, may be used for conversions. Rates of development and growth show a high degree of variability in all three species, not only caused by variation in environmental factors such as temperature or food, but also among and within single hatches of larvae reared under identical conditions. Larvae were reared at constant temperatures (6°, 12°, and 18°C). Temperature affected larval growth in Polydora ligni more than in P. ciliata, and least of all in Pygospio elegans. Only the latter species was able to develop at 6°C from hatching to metamorphosis. This differential response may be explained by differences in the natural spawning season of these species. Eleven phytoplankton species were tested as to their food values. A “relative index of growth” is proposed which compares the slopes of two growth curves (one standard and one test condition). The flagellate Dunaliella tertiolecta was used as a standard food in these experiments. Most algal species were less suitable, and only the diatom Thalassiosira rotula was consistently better food for spionid larvae than D. tertiolecta.

  15. Larval nutrition affects life history traits in a capital breeding moth.

    PubMed

    Colasurdo, Nadia; Gélinas, Yves; Despland, Emma

    2009-06-01

    Fitness depends not only on resource uptake but also on the allocation of these resources to various life history functions. This study explores the life-history consequences of larval diet in terms not only of larval performance but also of adult body composition and reproductive traits in the forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria Hübner). Caterpillars were reared on their preferred tree host, trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides), or on one of three artificial foods: high protein:low carbohydrate, equal protein-to-carbohydrate ratio or low protein:high carbohydrate. Survivorship, larval development rate and adult body size were lowest on the carbohydrate-biased diet and similar on the protein-biased and equal-ratio diets. Fecundity increased with body size but did not otherwise differ between diets. Moths reared on the carbohydrate-biased diet allocated a lower proportion of their mass to the ovaries and more to somatic growth whereas those on equal-ratio and protein-biased diets allocated more to reproductive tissue and less to somatic tissue. These differences in allocation to reproduction arose from differences in the size of eggs, an index of offspring quality. No differences were found in lipid and protein content of female ovaries, accessory glands or somatic tissue, or of the whole body of male moths. The findings show that physiological processes regulate the composition of the different components of the adult body. Diet effects occur as differences in overall body size and in relative allocation to these components. Although lepidopterans can, to a large extent, compensate post-ingestively for nutritionally deficient diets, investment in reproduction vs somatic growth depends on the nutrients available. PMID:19482996

  16. A Glycoprotein in Shells of Conspecifics Induces Larval Settlement of the Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, Hebert Ely; Hashimoto, Kyotaro; Yoshida, Asami; Hara, Kenji; Imai, Chisato Chris; Kitamura, Hitoshi; Satuito, Cyril Glenn

    2013-01-01

    Settlement of larvae of Crassostrea gigas on shell chips (SC) prepared from shells of 11 different species of mollusks was investigated. Furthermore, the settlement inducing compound in the shell of C. gigas was extracted and subjected to various treatments to characterize the chemical cue. C. gigas larvae settled on SC of all species tested except on Patinopecten yessoensis and Atrina pinnata. In SC of species that induced C. gigas larvae to settle, settlement was proportionate to the amount of SC supplied to the larvae. When compared to C. gigas SC, all species except Crassostrea nippona showed lower settlement inducing activities, suggesting that the cue may be more abundant or in a more available form to the larvae in shells of conspecific and C. nippona than in other species. The settlement inducing activity of C. gigas SC remained intact after antibiotic treatment. Extraction of C. gigas SC with diethyl ether (Et2O-ex), ethanol (EtOH-ex), and water (Aq-ex) did not induce larval settlement of C. gigas larvae. However, extraction of C. gigas SC with 2N of hydrochloric acid (HCl-ex) induced larval settlement that was at the same level as the SC. The settlement inducing compound in the HCl-ex was stable at 100°C but was destroyed or degraded after pepsin, trypsin, PNGase F and trifluoromethanesulfonic acid treatments. This chemical cue eluted between the molecular mass range of 45 and 150 kDa after gel filtration and revealed a major band at 55 kDa on the SDS-PAGE gel after staining with Stains-all. Thus, a 55 kDa glycoprotein component in the organic matrix of C. gigas shells is hypothesized to be the chemical basis of larval settlement on conspecifics. PMID:24349261

  17. Larval Habitats Diversity and Distribution of the Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Species in the Republic of Moldova.

    PubMed

    Sulesco, Tatiana M; Toderas, Lidia G; Uspenskaia, Inga G; Toderas, I K

    2015-11-01

    A countrywide field survey of immature mosquitoes was conducted in Moldova with the aim to evaluate the Culicidae species composition in different larval habitats and their distribution in the country. In total, 259 potential larval habitats were sampled in the 53 localities, resulting in 9,456 specimens. Twenty species belonging to the genera Anopheles, Aedes, Culex, Culiseta, and Uranotaenia were collected. Mean species richness in aquatic habitats ranged from 1.00 to 4.00, and, for example, was higher in swamps, flood plains, ditches, and large ground pools and lower in rivers, streams, tree-holes, and containers. Six mosquito species were identified only in a single type of aquatic habitat. Anopheles maculipennis s.l., Culex pipiens pipiens L., and Culex modestus Ficalbi were the most abundant and distributed species representing over 80% of the identified specimens. Three, four, and five associated species were recorded from 23.5% of mosquito-positive aquatic habitats. Our findings demonstrate the co-occurrence of Cx. p. pipiens and Culex torrentium Martini in natural and rural environments. It is concluded that the study area has undergone a dramatic ecological change since the previous studies in the 1950s, causing the near extinction of Culex theileri Theobald from Moldova. An. maculipennis s.l. larval abundance, reduced by the DDT control of the adults in the 1950s, had returned to those of the 1940s. Restoration of An. maculipennis s.l. abundance in combination with imported malaria cases constitute a risk of the reintroduction of malaria transmission in Moldova. PMID:26364191

  18. Ecological Support of Larval Fish During Multigenerational Studies on Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taub, Frieda B.

    1998-01-01

    Live, microscopic food is required by larval Zebrafish, Danio rerio, which are candidates for the Aquatic Habitat of the Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP). Zebrafish have proven to be convenient research animals, and their embryology and genetics are extensively documented. Their ability to mature at 3 months of age, and the transparent eggs which hatches in 2 days, are attractive attributes for space research. Among the goals of the SSBRP Aquatic Habitat is the ability to study three generations, with the objective of maintaining adults, their offspring, and the maintaining of these offspring through maturity and spawning. For Zebrafish, it is anticipated that sexually mature fish (PI) would be delivered to Space Station and spawned in space. The challenge would be it to provide appropriate microscopic foods for the offspring (FI), and 3 months later for the next generation (F2); if these were raised to maturity and bred, live foods would be required at approximately 6 months. In laboratories where Zebrafish are traditionally reared, the larval foods are the protozoan Parameciwn micromultinucleatwn and later brine shrimp Artemia nauplii. Under normal laboratory conditions, the rearing of these foods are relatively easy, although time consuming because of the food organisms must be separated from their rearing medium which is discarded. A freshwater food chain that would ensur-e healthy on- orbit research animals is needed. ne food chain should (a) be reared in conditions that are compatible with the larval fish (water chemistry, pH, temperature and light), (b) assist in maintaining water quality (by removing ammonia, nitrate, phosphate, carbon dioxide, and bacteria) and (c) be convenient for the space crew (minimize handling and waste production).

  19. Zinc oxide nanoparticles alter hatching and larval locomotor activity in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Chen, Te-Hao; Lin, Chia-Chi; Meng, Pei-Jie

    2014-07-30

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NP) are extensively used in various consumer products such as sunscreens and cosmetics, with high potential of being released into aquatic environments. In this study, fertilized zebrafish (Danio rerio) eggs were exposed to various concentrations of ZnO NP suspensions (control, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, and 10mg/L) or their respective centrifuged supernatants (0.03, 0.01, 0.08, 0.17, 0.75, and 1.21mg/L dissolved Zn ions measured) until reaching free swimming stage. Exposure to ZnO NP suspensions and their respective centrifuged supernatants caused similar hatching delay, but did not cause larval mortality or malformation. Larval activity level, mean velocity, and maximum velocity were altered in the groups exposed to high concentrations of ZnO NP (5-10mg/L) but not in the larvae exposed to the supernatants. To evaluate possible mechanism of observed effects caused by ZnO NP, we also manipulated the antioxidant environment by co-exposure to an antioxidant compound (N-acetylcysteine, NAC) or an antioxidant molecule suppressor (buthionine sulfoximine, BSO) with 5mg/L ZnO NP. Co-exposure to NAC did not alter the effects of ZnO NP on hatchability, but co-exposure to BSO caused further hatching delay. For larval locomotor activity, co-exposure to NAC rescued the behavioral effect caused by ZnO NP, but co-exposure to BSO did not exacerbate the effect. Our data indicated that toxicity of ZnO NP cannot be solely explained by dissolved Zn ions, and oxidative stress may involve in ZnO NP toxicity. PMID:24424259

  20. Thermoregulation in larval aggregations of carrion-feeding blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slone, D.H.; Gruner, Susan V.

    2007-01-01

    The growth and development of carrion-feeding calliphorid (Diptera Calliphoridae) larvae, or maggots, is of great interest to forensic sciences, especially for estimation of a postmortem interval (PMI). The development rate of calliphorid larvae is influenced by the temperature of their immediate environment. Heat generation in larval feeding aggregations (=maggot masses) is a well-known phenomenon, but it has not been quantitatively described. Calculated development rates that do not include internally generated temperatures will result in overestimation of PMI. Over a period of 2.5 yr, 80 pig, Sus scrofa L., carcasses were placed out at study sites in north central Florida and northwestern Indiana. Once larval aggregations started to form, multiple internal and external temperatures, and weather observations were taken daily or every few days between 1400 and 1800 hours until pupation of the larvae. Volume of each aggregation was determined by measuring surface area and average depth. Live and preserved samples of larvae were taken for species identification. The four most common species collected were Lucilia coeruleiviridis (=Phaenicia) (Macquart) (77%), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.) (8.3%), Chrysomya rufifaces (Macquart) (7.7%), and Phormia regina (Meigen) (5.5%). Statistical analyses showed that 1) volume of a larval mass had a strong influence on its temperature, 2) internal temperatures of masses on the ground were influenced by soil temperature and mass volume, 3) internal temperatures of masses smaller than 20 cm3 were influenced by ambient air temperature and mass volume, and 4) masses larger than 20 cm3 on the carcass had strongly regulated internal temperatures determined only by the volume of the mass, with larger volumes associated with higher temperatures. Nonsignificant factors included presence of rain or clouds, shape of the aggregation, weight of the carcass, species composition of the aggregation, time since death, or season.

  1. Predictions of adult Anopheles albimanus densities in villages based on distances to remotely sensed larval habitats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rejmankova, E.; Roberts, D. R.; Pawley, A.; Manguin, S.; Polanco, J.

    1995-01-01

    Remote sensing is particularly helpful for assessing the location and extent of vegetation formations, such as herbaceous wetlands, that are difficult to examine on the ground. Marshes that are sparsely populated with emergent macrophytes and dense cyanobacterial mats have previously been identified as very productive Anopheles albimanus larval habitats. This type of habitat was detectable on a classified multispectral System Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre image of northern Belize as a mixture of two isoclasses. A similar spectral signature is characteristic for vegetation of river margins consisting of aquatic grasses and water hyacinth, which constitutes another productive larval habitat. Based on the distance between human settlements (sites) of various sizes and the nearest marsh/river exhibiting this particular class combination, we selected two groups of sites: those located closer than 500 m and those located more than 1,500 m from such habitats. Based on previous adult collections near larval habitats, we defined a landing rate of 0.5 mosquitoes/human/min from 6:30 PM to 8:00 PM as the threshold for high (> or = 0.5 mosquitoes/human/min) versus low (< 0.5 mosquitoes/human/min) densities of An. albimanus. Sites located less than 500 m from the habitat were predicted as having values higher than this threshold, while lower values were predicted for sites located greater than 1,500 m from the habitat. Predictions were verified by collections of mosquitoes landing on humans. The predictions were 100% accurate for sites in the > 1,500-m category and 89% accurate for sites in the < 500-m category.

  2. Oviposition by Spodoptera exigua on Nicotiana attenuata primes induced plant defence against larval herbivory.

    PubMed

    Bandoly, Michele; Hilker, Monika; Steppuhn, Anke

    2015-08-01

    Plants exhibit multifarious defence traits against herbivory that are constitutively expressed or induced upon attack. Insect egg deposition often precedes impending larval attack, and several plants can increase their resistance against larvae after experiencing the oviposition by an herbivore. The nature of such oviposition-mediated resistance remains unknown, and here we aim to determine plant traits that explain it. We test whether oviposition on a host plant can induce plant defence responses or enhance (prime) the induction of defence traits in response to larval herbivory. We exposed Nicotiana attenuata plants to oviposition by moths of a generalist herbivore, Spodoptera exigua. Its larvae suffered higher mortality, retarded development and inflicted less feeding damage on oviposition-experienced than on oviposition-unexperienced plants. While oviposition alone did not induce any of the examined defence traits, oviposited plants exhibited a stronger inducibility of known defence traits, i.e. caffeoylputrescine (CP) and trypsin protease inhibitors (TPIs). We found no effects of oviposition on phytohormone levels, but on the feeding-inducible accumulation of the transcription factor NaMyb8 that is governing biosynthesis of phenylpropanoid-polyamine conjugates, including CP. Comparison of larval performance on wild-type plants, CP-deficient plants (silenced NaMyb8 gene), and TPI-deficient plants (silenced NaPI gene) revealed that priming of plant resistance to larvae by prior oviposition required NaMyb8-mediated defence traits. Our results show that plants can use insect egg deposition as a warning signal to prime their feeding-induced defence. PMID:26096574

  3. Diet composition and feeding activity of larval spring-spawning herring: Importance of environmental variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arula, T.; Kotta, J.; Lankov, A.; Simm, M.; Põlme, S.

    2012-02-01

    Availability of suitable prey in sufficient quantities during the shift to exogenous feeding is an important factor determining survival and growth of larval fish. The question of what factors regulate prey consumption in larval fish has remained a focus of fisheries oceanography. In this paper feeding ecology of the larval spring-spawning herring Clupea harengus membras was studied in relation to selected environmental abiotic and biotic parameters in the shallow sheltered Pärnu Bay during the 1970s and 2000s. The copepod Eurytemora affinis was the strongly dominating dietary item during all the years while other prey items were ingested only sporadically. Feeding activity of herring larvae was governed by different environmental variables and the relationships varied amongst the size classes of herring larvae. The studied abiotic (i.e., wind speed, water temperature, water transparency) or biotic variables (i.e., density of copepod nauplii, copepodite stages I-V and adults of E. affinis, mean developmental stage of copepods and density of fish larvae) had no significant effects on the feeding activity of small larvae. The feeding activity of medium larvae was only affected by water transparency and that of large larvae by a combination of water temperature, wind speed and the structure of local copepod community, respectively. On the other hand, the diet composition of all herring larvae was best described by the density of copepod nauplii. In addition, the density of fish larvae improved the model of small larvae and the density of adult copepods that of medium larvae, respectively. Time was significant for the feeding activity of medium larvae indicating some unexplained variability that was not taken into account by the studied abiotic and biotic variables.

  4. Effects of Mimosa tenuiflora on larval establishment of Haemonchus contortus in sheep.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, L M B; Macedo, I T F; Vieira, L S; Camurça-Vasconcelos, A L F; Tomé, A R; Sampaio, R A; Louvandini, H; Bevilaqua, C M L

    2013-09-23

    Anthelmintic resistance has limited the ability to control the gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants and has therefore awakened an interest in the study of tanniferous plants as a source of anthelmintics. This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Mimosa tenuiflora intake, a tanniferous plant that is fed to small ruminants in northeastern Brazil, on the larval establishment of Haemonchus contortus in sheep. In this experiment, 18 nematode-free sheep were divided into three groups (n=6) according to live weight. Group 1 was fed M. tenuiflora leaves; Group 2 was fed M. tenuiflora stems; Group 3 served as the control group and was fed Cynodon dactylon, a plant with low levels of tannins. The animals consumed the plants for 13 days (Day -7 to Day 5). On Day 0, the sheep were experimentally infected with 4500 third-stage H. contortus each. Five days after infection (Day 5), the sheep were slaughtered to count the worm burden and perform a histological analysis of the abomasum. The daily plant intake and the live weight gain of the animals were recorded. The groups that ingested M. tenuiflora leaves and stems consumed less dry matter than did those that ingested C. dactylon (P<0.05). The consumption of M. tenuiflora leaves did not reduce the L3 establishment of H. contortus compared to the control (P>0.05). The intake of M. tenuiflora stems tended toward decreasing larval establishment, but the reduction was not significant (P>0.05). No significant differences were observed in the mucosal cellular response and live weight gain among the groups. These data demonstrated that, with the protocol used, M. tenuiflora has no effect on larval establishment of H. contortus in sheep. PMID:23643453

  5. Does the zooplankton prey availability limit the larval habitats of pike in the Baltic Sea?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallasvuo, Meri; Salonen, Maiju; Lappalainen, Antti

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate whether the availability of suitable zooplankton prey limits the distribution of the coastal larval areas of pike ( Esox lucius) in two archipelago areas of the northern Baltic Sea and (2) compare the availability of zooplankton prey in spring between different types of coastal littoral habitat. According to the results, reed belt habitats formed by Phragmites australis constitute hot spots for zooplankton prey in the coastal ecosystem. During the spring, reed-covered shores of the inner archipelago maintained more than 10 times higher densities of copepods and cladocerans, the preferred prey for larval pike, compared to the other studied shores. Temperature conditions were also most favourable in the reed belt habitat. Thus, the reed belts of the inner and middle archipelago were shown to form the best habitat for larval pike in the coastal area of the northern Baltic Sea, and this was also the only habitat where pike larvae were found. Our results suggest that the poor survival and recruitment of pike in the outer archipelago, however, cannot exclusively be explained by sub-optimal feeding conditions of the larvae. There are also other important factors, presumably connected to the exposure to the open sea, that affect the distribution of the pike larvae. Our results, however, highlight the importance of sheltered coastal reed belt shores as reproduction habitat for spring-spawning fish in the northern Baltic Sea. Further, this study disproves the assumption that the seaweed bladder wrack ( Fucus vesiculosus) forms a reproduction habitat for pike in the coastal area.

  6. A role for blind DN2 clock neurons in temperature entrainment of the Drosophila larval brain.

    PubMed

    Picot, Marie; Klarsfeld, André; Chélot, Elisabeth; Malpel, Sébastien; Rouyer, François

    2009-07-01

    Circadian clocks synchronize to the solar day by sensing the diurnal changes in light and temperature. In adult Drosophila, the brain clock that controls rest-activity rhythms relies on neurons showing Period oscillations. Nine of these neurons are present in each larval brain hemisphere. They can receive light inputs through Cryptochrome (CRY) and the visual system, but temperature input pathways are unknown. Here, we investigate how the larval clock network responds to light and temperature. We focused on the CRY-negative dorsal neurons (DN2s), in which light-dark (LD) cycles set molecular oscillations almost in antiphase to all other clock neurons. We first showed that the phasing of the DN2s in LD depends on the pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) neuropeptide in four lateral neurons (LNs), and on the PDF receptor in the DN2s. In the absence of PDF signaling, these cells appear blind, but still synchronize to temperature cycles. Period oscillations in the DN2s were stronger in thermocycles than in LD, but with a very similar phase. Conversely, the oscillations of LNs were weaker in thermocycles than in LD, and were phase-shifted in synchrony with the DN2s, whereas the phase of the three other clock neurons was advanced by a few hours. In the absence of any other functional clock neurons, the PDF-positive LNs were entrained by LD cycles but not by temperature cycles. Our results show that the larval clock neurons respond very differently to light and temperature, and strongly suggest that the CRY-negative DN2s play a prominent role in the temperature entrainment of the network. PMID:19571122

  7. Encounter with mesoscale eddies enhances survival to settlement in larval coral reef fishes.

    PubMed

    Shulzitski, Kathryn; Sponaugle, Su; Hauff, Martha; Walter, Kristen D; Cowen, Robert K

    2016-06-21

    Oceanographic features, such as eddies and fronts, enhance and concentrate productivity, generating high-quality patches that dispersive marine larvae may encounter in the plankton. Although broad-scale movement of larvae associated with these features can be captured in biophysical models, direct evidence of processes influencing survival within them, and subsequent effects on population replenishment, are unknown. We sequentially sampled cohorts of coral reef fishes in the plankton and nearshore juvenile habitats in the Straits of Florida and used otolith microstructure analysis to compare growth and size-at-age of larvae collected inside and outside of mesoscale eddies to those that survived to settlement. Larval habitat altered patterns of growth and selective mortality: Thalassoma bifasciatum and Cryptotomus roseus that encountered eddies in the plankton grew faster than larvae outside of eddies and likely experienced higher survival to settlement. During warm periods, T. bifasciatum residing outside of eddies in the oligotrophic Florida Current experienced high mortality and only the slowest growers survived early larval life. Such slow growth is advantageous in nutrient poor habitats when warm temperatures increase metabolic demands but is insufficient for survival beyond the larval stage because only fast-growing larvae successfully settled to reefs. Because larvae arriving to the Straits of Florida from distant sources must spend long periods of time outside of eddies, our results indicate that they have a survival disadvantage. High productivity features such as eddies not only enhance the survival of pelagic larvae, but also potentially increase the contribution of locally spawned larvae to reef populations. PMID:27274058

  8. Slc4-like anion transporters of the larval mosquito alimentary canal

    PubMed Central

    Linser, Paul J.; Oviedo, Marco Neira; Hirata, Taku; Seron, Theresa J.; Smith, Kristin E.; Piermarini, Peter M.; Romero, Michael F.

    2012-01-01

    Mosquito larvae exhibit luminal pH extremes along the axial length of their alimentary canal that range from very alkaline (pH > 10) in the anterior midgut to slightly acid in the hindgut. The principal buffer in the system is thought to be bicarbonate and/or carbonate, because the lumen is known to contain high levels of bicarbonate/carbonate and is surrounded by various epithelial cell types which express a variety of carbonic anhydrases. However, the precise mechanisms responsible for the transport of bicarbonate/carbonate into and out of the lumen are unclear. In the present study, we test the hypothesis that SLC4-like anion transporters play a role in bicarbonate/carbonate accumulation in the larval mosquito alimentary canal. Molecular, physiological and immnuohistochemical characterizations of Slc4-like transporters in the gut of larval mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae) demonstrate the presence of both a Na+-independent chloride/bicarbonate anion exchanger (AE) as well as a Na+-dependent anion exchanger (NDAE). Notably, immunolocalization experiments in Malpighian tubules show that the two proteins can be located in the same tissue, but to different cell types. Immunolabeling experiments in the gastric caecae show that the two proteins can be found in the same cells, but on opposite sides (basal vs. apical). In summary, our results indicate that the alimentary canal of larval mosquitoes exhibits robust expression of two SLC4-like transporters in locations that are consistent with a role in the regulation of luminal pH. The precise physiological contributions of each transporter remain to be determined. PMID:22251674

  9. Host selection by the pine processionary moth enhances larval performance: An experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Contreras, Tomás; Soler, Juan J.; Soler, Manuel

    2014-02-01

    The development of a phytophagous insect depends on the nutritional characteristics of plants on which it feeds. Offspring from different females, however, may vary in their ability to develop in different host species and therefore females should place their eggs on host plants that result in the highest performance for the insect offspring. Causes underlying the predicted relationships between host selection and offspring performance may be: (1) a genetic association between larval ability to exploit particular hosts and the female insect's host preference; and (2) phenotypic plasticity of larvae that may be due to (a) maternal effects (e.g. differential investment in eggs) or (b) diet. In this work, we analyse the performance (i.e. hatching success and larval size and mortality) of the pine processionary (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) caterpillar developing in Aleppo (Pinus halepensis) or maritime (Pinus pinaster) pines. Larvae of this moth species do not move from the individual pine selected by the mother for oviposition. By means of cross-fostering experiments of eggs batches and silk nests of larvae between these two pine species, we explored whether phenotypic plasticity of offspring traits or genetic correlations between mother and offspring traits account for variation in developmental characteristics of caterpillars. Our results showed that females preferentially selected Aleppo pine for oviposition. Moreover, the offspring had the highest probability of survival and reached a larger body size in this pine species independently of whether or not batches were experimentally cross-fostered. Notably, the interaction between identity of donor and receiver pine species of larvae nests explained a significant proportion of variance of larval size and mortality, suggesting a role of diet-induced phenotypic plasticity of the hatchlings. These results suggest that both female selection of the more appropriate pine species and phenotypic plasticity of larva explain the

  10. Tissue-Specific Transcriptome Profiling of Plutella Xylostella Third Instar Larval Midgut

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Wen; Lei, Yanyuan; Fu, Wei; Yang, Zhongxia; Zhu, Xun; Guo, Zhaojiang; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Xu, Baoyun; Zhou, Xuguo; Zhang, Youjun

    2012-01-01

    The larval midgut of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, is a dynamic tissue that interfaces with a diverse array of physiological and toxicological processes, including nutrient digestion and allocation, xenobiotic detoxification, innate and adaptive immune response, and pathogen defense. Despite its enormous agricultural importance, the genomic resources for P. xylostella are surprisingly scarce. In this study, a Bt resistant P. xylostella strain was subjected to the in-depth transcriptome analysis to identify genes and gene networks putatively involved in various physiological and toxicological processes in the P. xylostella larval midgut. Using Illumina deep sequencing, we obtained roughly 40 million reads containing approximately 3.6 gigabases of sequence data. De novo assembly generated 63,312 ESTs with an average read length of 416bp, and approximately half of the P. xylostella sequences (45.4%, 28,768) showed similarity to the non-redundant database in GenBank with a cut-off E-value below 10-5. Among them, 11,092 unigenes were assigned to one or multiple GO terms and 16,732 unigenes were assigned to 226 specific pathways. In-depth analysis indentified genes putatively involved in insecticide resistance, nutrient digestion, and innate immune defense. Besides conventional detoxification enzymes and insecticide targets, novel genes, including 28 chymotrypsins and 53 ABC transporters, have been uncovered in the P. xylostella larval midgut transcriptome; which are potentially linked to the Bt toxicity and resistance. Furthermore, an unexpectedly high number of ESTs, including 46 serpins and 7 lysozymes, were predicted to be involved in the immune defense. As the first tissue-specific transcriptome analysis of P. xylostella, this study sheds light on the molecular understanding of insecticide resistance, especially Bt resistance in an agriculturally important insect pest, and lays the foundation for future functional genomics research. In addition, current

  11. Urbanization Increases Aedes albopictus Larval Habitats and Accelerates Mosquito Development and Survivorship

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yiji; Kamara, Fatmata; Zhou, Guofa; Puthiyakunnon, Santhosh; Li, Chunyuan; Liu, Yanxia; Zhou, Yanhe; Yao, Lijie; Yan, Guiyun; Chen, Xiao-Guang

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Aedes albopictus is a very invasive and aggressive insect vector that causes outbreaks of dengue fever, chikungunya disease, and yellow fever in many countries. Vector ecology and disease epidemiology are strongly affected by environmental changes. Urbanization is a worldwide trend and is one of the most ecologically modifying phenomena. The purpose of this study is to determine how environmental changes due to urbanization affect the ecology of Aedes albopictus. Methods Aquatic habitats and Aedes albopictus larval population surveys were conducted from May to November 2013 in three areas representing rural, suburban, and urban settings in Guangzhou, China. Ae. albopictus adults were collected monthly using BG-Sentinel traps. Ae. albopictus larva and adult life-table experiments were conducted with 20 replicates in each of the three study areas. Results The urban area had the highest and the rural area had the lowest number of aquatic habitats that tested positive for Ae. albopictus larvae. Densities in the larval stages varied among the areas, but the urban area had almost two-fold higher densities in pupae and three-fold higher in adult populations compared with the suburban and rural areas. Larvae developed faster and the adult emergence rate was higher in the urban area than in suburban and rural areas. The survival time of adult mosquitoes was also longer in the urban area than it was in suburban and rural areas. Study regions, surface area, water depth, water clearance, surface type, and canopy coverage were important factors associated with the presence of Ae. albopictus larvae. Conclusions Urbanization substantially increased the density, larval development rate, and adult survival time of Ae. albopictus, which in turn potentially increased the vector capacity, and therefore, disease transmissibility. Mosquito ecology and its correlation with dengue virus transmission should be compared in different environmental settings. PMID:25393814

  12. Aspects of Embryonic and Larval Development in Bighead Carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and Silver Carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

    PubMed Central

    George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.

    2013-01-01

    As bighead carp Hypophthalmichthysnobilis and silver carp H. molitrix (the bigheaded carps) are poised to enter the Laurentian Great Lakes and potentially damage the region’s economically important fishery, information on developmental rates and behaviors of carps is critical to assessing their ability to establish sustainable populations within the Great Lakes basin. In laboratory experiments, the embryonic and larval developmental rates, size, and behaviors of bigheaded carp were tracked at two temperature treatments, one “cold” and one “warm”. Developmental rates were computed using previously described stages of development and the cumulative thermal unit method. Both species have similar thermal requirements, with a minimum developmental temperature for embryonic stages of 12.1° C for silver carp and 12.9° C for bighead carp, and 13.3° C for silver carp larval stages and 13.4° C for bighead carp larval stages. Egg size differed among species and temperature treatments, as egg size was larger in bighead carp, and “warm" temperature treatments. The larvae started robust upwards vertical swimming immediately after hatching, interspersed with intervals of sinking. Vertical swimming tubes were used to measure water column distribution, and ascent and descent rates of vertically swimming fish. Water column distribution and ascent and descent rates changed with ontogeny. Water column distribution also showed some diel periodicity. Developmental rates, size, and behaviors contribute to the drift distance needed to fulfill the early life history requirements of bigheaded carps and can be used in conjunction with transport information to assess invasibility of a river. PMID:23967350

  13. Aspects of embryonic and larval development in bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.

    2013-01-01

    As bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp H. molitrix (the bigheaded carps) are poised to enter the Laurentian Great Lakes and potentially damage the region’s economically important fishery, information on developmental rates and behaviors of carps is critical to assessing their ability to establish sustainable populations within the Great Lakes basin. In laboratory experiments, the embryonic and larval developmental rates, size, and behaviors of bigheaded carp were tracked at two temperature treatments, one “cold” and one “warm”. Developmental rates were computed using previously described stages of development and the cumulative thermal unit method. Both species have similar thermal requirements, with a minimum developmental temperature for embryonic stages of 12.1° C for silver carp and 12.9° C for bighead carp, and 13.3° C for silver carp larval stages and 13.4° C for bighead carp larval stages. Egg size differed among species and temperature treatments, as egg size was larger in bighead carp, and “warm" temperature treatments. The larvae started robust upwards vertical swimming immediately after hatching, interspersed with intervals of sinking. Vertical swimming tubes were used to measure water column distribution, and ascent and descent rates of vertically swimming fish. Water column distribution and ascent and descent rates changed with ontogeny. Water column distribution also showed some diel periodicity. Developmental rates, size, and behaviors contribute to the drift distance needed to fulfill the early life history requirements of bigheaded carps and can be used in conjunction with transport information to assess invasibility of a river.

  14. Evaluation of five antibiotics on larval gut bacterial diversity of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiao-Li; Kang, Zhi-Wei; Pan, Qin-Jian; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2015-10-01

    Larvae of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), have rich microbial communities inhabiting the gut, and these bacteria contribute to the fitness of the pest. In this study we evaluated the effects of five antibiotics (rifampicin, ampicillin, tetracycline, streptomycin sulfate and chloramphenicol) on the gut bacterial diversity of P. xylostella larvae. We screened five different concentrations for each antibiotic in a leaf disc assay, and found that rifampicin and streptomycin sulfate at 3 mg/mL significantly reduced the diversity of the bacterial community, and some bacterial species could be rapidly eliminated. The number of gut bacteria in the rifampicin group and streptomycin sulfate group decreased more rapidly than the others. With the increase of antibiotic concentration, the removal efficiency was improved, whereas toxic effects became more apparent. All antibiotics reduced larval growth and development, and eventually caused high mortality, malformation of the prepupae, and hindered pupation and adult emergence. Among the five antibiotics, tetracycline was the most toxic and streptomycin sulfate was a relatively mild one. Some dominant bacteria were not affected by feeding antibiotics alone. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis graph showed that the most abundant and diverse bacteria in P. xylostella larval gut appeared in the cabbage feeding group, and diet change and antibiotics intake influenced gut flora abundance. Species diversity was significantly reduced in the artificial diet and antibiotics treatment groups. After feeding on the artificial diet with rifampicin, streptomycin sulfate and their mixture for 10 days, larval gut bacteria could not be completely removed as detected with the agarose gel electrophoresis method. PMID:25183343

  15. Population divergences despite long pelagic larval stages: lessons from crocodile icefishes (Channichthyidae).

    PubMed

    Damerau, M; Matschiner, M; Salzburger, W; Hanel, R

    2014-02-01

    Dispersal via pelagic larval stages plays a key role in population connectivity of many marine species. The degree of connectivity is often correlated with the time that larvae spend in the water column. The Antarctic notothenioid fishes develop through an unusually long pelagic larval phase often exceeding 1 year. Notothenioids thus represent a prime model system for studying the influence of prolonged larval phases on population structure in otherwise demersal species. Here, we compare the population genetic structure and demographic history of two sub-Antarctic crocodile icefish species (Chaenocephalus aceratus and Champsocephalus gunnari) from the Scotia Arc and Bouvet Island in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean to delineate the relative importance of species-specific, oceanographic and paleoclimatic factors to gene flow. Based on 7 (C. aceratus) and 8 (C. gunnari) microsatellites, as well as two mitochondrial DNA markers (cytochrome b, D-loop), we detect pronounced population genetic structure in both species (amova FSTs range from 0.04 to 0.53). High genetic similarities were found concordantly in the populations sampled at the Southern Scotia Arc between Elephant Island and South Orkney Islands, whereas the populations from Bouvet Island, which is located far to the east of the Scotia Arc, are substantially differentiated from those of the Scotia Arc region. Nonetheless, haplotype genealogies and Bayesian cluster analyses suggest occasional gene flow over thousands of kilometres. Higher divergences between populations of C. gunnari as compared to C. aceratus are probably caused by lower dispersal capabilities and demographic effects. Bayesian skyline plots reveal population size reductions during past glacial events in both species with an estimated onset of population expansions about 25 000 years ago. PMID:24372945

  16. Effects of water availability on emerald ash borer larval performance and phloem phenolics of Manchurian and black ash.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sourav; Whitehill, Justin G A; Hill, Amy L; Opiyo, Stephen O; Cipollini, Don; Herms, Daniel A; Bonello, Pierluigi

    2014-04-01

    The invasive emerald ash borer (EAB) beetle is a significant threat to the survival of North American ash. In previous work, we identified putative biochemical and molecular markers of constitutive EAB resistance in Manchurian ash, an Asian species co-evolved with EAB. Here, we employed high-throughput high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection and mass spectrometry (HPLC-PDA-MS) to characterize the induced response of soluble phloem phenolics to EAB attack in resistant Manchurian and susceptible black ash under conditions of either normal or low water availability, and the effects of water availability on larval performance. Total larval mass per tree was lower in Manchurian than in black ash. Low water increased larval numbers and mean larval mass overall, but more so in Manchurian ash. Low water did not affect levels of phenolics in either host species, but six phenolics decreased in response to EAB. In both ashes, pinoresinol A was induced by EAB, especially in Manchurian ash. Pinoresinol A and pinoresinol B were negatively correlated with each other in both species. The higher accumulation of pinoresinol A in Manchurian ash after attack may help explain the resistance of this species to EAB, but none of the responses measured here could explain increased larval performance in trees subjected to low water availability. PMID:24125060

  17. Larval Exposure to the Juvenile Hormone Analog Pyriproxyfen Disrupts Acceptance of and Social Behavior Performance in Adult Honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Fourrier, Julie; Deschamps, Matthieu; Droin, Léa; Alaux, Cédric; Fortini, Dominique; Beslay, Dominique; Le Conte, Yves; Devillers, James; Aupinel, Pierrick; Decourtye, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Background Juvenile hormone (JH) plays an important role in honeybee development and the regulation of age-related division of labor. However, honeybees can be exposed to insect growth regulators (IGRs), such as JH analogs developed for insect pest and vector control. Although their side effects as endocrine disruptors on honeybee larval or adult stages have been studied, little is known about the subsequent effects on adults of a sublethal larval exposure. We therefore studied the impact of the JH analog pyriproxyfen on larvae and resulting adults within a colony under semi-field conditions by combining recent laboratory larval tests with chemical analysis and behavioral observations. Oral and chronic larval exposure at cumulative doses of 23 or 57 ng per larva were tested. Results Pyriproxyfen-treated bees emerged earlier than control bees and the highest dose led to a significant rate of malformed adults (atrophied wings). Young pyriproxyfen-treated bees were more frequently rejected by nestmates from the colony, inducing a shorter life span. This could be linked to differences in cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profiles between control and pyriproxyfen-treated bees. Finally, pyriproxyfen-treated bees exhibited fewer social behaviors (ventilation, brood care, contacts with nestmates or food stocks) than control bees. Conclusion Larval exposure to sublethal doses of pyriproxyfen affected several life history traits of the honeybees. Our results especially showed changes in social integration (acceptance by nestmates and social behaviors performance) that could potentially affect population growth and balance of the colony. PMID:26171610

  18. Energy beyond the pupal stage: larval nutrition and its long-time consequences for male mating performance in a scorpionfly.

    PubMed

    Engels, Sierk; Sauer, Klaus Peter

    2007-07-01

    The basic requirement for selection to take effect is variation in fitness relevant traits among individuals of a population. This study is concerned with the question whether environmental conditions met during an early phase of life history that is dominated by the natural component of selection will affect traits and behaviour in a sexual selection context after metamorphosis in a holometabolous insect species. We examined the effects of nutrition as a proximate factor responsible for intrasexual phenotypic variation in the mating performance of male Panorpa vulgaris (Mecoptera: Panorpidae). For this purpose, we manipulated food availability during larval development as well as during adulthood. To obtain matings and to increase their reproductive success males must secrete salivary masses which are then consumed by the females during copulation. The results of the present study are consistent with those of previous studies demonstrating a strong effect of nutrition during adulthood on various fitness relevant traits (salivary gland development, saliva investment in copulations, etc.). But moreover, we could show that food availability during larval development affected male body weight and that there was an interaction between larval and adult diet affecting salivary gland weight relative to body weight. Therefore, food availability during the larval stage can become an important and limiting factor for salivary gland development (and mating success) depending on food availability during adulthood. Several other variables (number of salivary masses, copulation duration, salivary mass weight and saliva investment) seemed not to be associated with larval nutrition. PMID:17572436

  19. Mutation of a Cuticular Protein, BmorCPR2, Alters Larval Body Shape and Adaptability in Silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Liang; Xiong, Gao; Wang, Ri-xin; He, Song-zhen; Chen, Jie; Tong, Xiao-ling; Hu, Hai; Li, Chun-lin; Gai, Ting-ting; Xin, Ya-qun; Liu, Xiao-fan; Chen, Bin; Xiang, Zhong-huai; Lu, Cheng; Dai, Fang-yin

    2014-01-01

    Cuticular proteins (CPs) are crucial components of the insect cuticle. Although numerous genes encoding cuticular proteins have been identified in known insect genomes to date, their functions in maintaining insect body shape and adaptability remain largely unknown. In the current study, positional cloning led to the identification of a gene encoding an RR1-type cuticular protein, BmorCPR2, highly expressed in larval chitin-rich tissues and at the mulberry leaf-eating stages, which is responsible for the silkworm stony mutant. In the Dazao-stony strain, the BmorCPR2 allele is a deletion mutation with significantly lower expression, compared to the wild-type Dazao strain. Dysfunctional BmorCPR2 in the stony mutant lost chitin binding ability, leading to reduced chitin content in larval cuticle, limitation of cuticle extension, abatement of cuticle tensile properties, and aberrant ratio between internodes and intersegmental folds. These variations induce a significant decrease in cuticle capacity to hold the growing internal organs in the larval development process, resulting in whole-body stiffness, tightness, and hardness, bulging intersegmental folds, and serious defects in larval adaptability. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report the corresponding phenotype of stony in insects caused by mutation of RR1-type cuticular protein. Our findings collectively shed light on the specific role of cuticular proteins in maintaining normal larval body shape and will aid in the development of pest control strategies for the management of Lepidoptera. PMID:24514903

  20. Influence of summer conditions on the larval fish assemblage in the eastern coast of Tunisia (Ionian Sea, Southern Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarrad, Rafik; Alemany, Francisco; Rodriguez, José-María; Jarboui, Othman; Lopez-Jurado, José-Luis; Balbin, Rosa

    2013-02-01

    The structure of the summer larval fish assemblage off the eastern coast of Tunisia and its relation to environmental conditions was studied, from ichthyoplankton samples taken during a survey conducted between 23rd June and 9th July 2008. A total of 68 larval fish taxa were identified, 52 to species level. The taxonomic composition and abundance of the larval fish assemblage showed high spatial heterogeneity. Mesoscale hydrographic features, such as eddies, seem to play an important role in the spatial distribution of fish larvae in the area, enhancing concentration and retention. The larval fish assemblage was dominated by the small pelagic species Sardinella aurita (26.6% of the total larval fish abundance), followed by Engraulis encrasicolus (22.6%), Spicara spp. (8.6%) and Mullus barbatus (6.8%). Shannon-Weaver index (H') ranged between 0 and 2.62. The highest values were found offshore, at 95 miles east of Sousse, over depths around 250 m. The diversity was higher in this region as a result of transport by currents and retention by eddies. It has also been shown that the eastern coast of Tunisia is a spawning ground for the tuna species Auxis rochei, Thunnus thynnus and Thunnus alalunga. Larvae of mesopelagic fishes represented 5.46% of the total abundance, with Cyclothone braueri, Ceratoscopelus maderensis and Lampanyctus crocodilus being the most important species. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) indicated that depth was the most important environmental factor in explaining species distribution.

  1. Mutation of a cuticular protein, BmorCPR2, alters larval body shape and adaptability in silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Liang; Xiong, Gao; Wang, Ri-xin; He, Song-zhen; Chen, Jie; Tong, Xiao-ling; Hu, Hai; Li, Chun-lin; Gai, Ting-ting; Xin, Ya-qun; Liu, Xiao-fan; Chen, Bin; Xiang, Zhong-huai; Lu, Cheng; Dai, Fang-yin

    2014-04-01

    Cuticular proteins (CPs) are crucial components of the insect cuticle. Although numerous genes encoding cuticular proteins have been identified in known insect genomes to date, their functions in maintaining insect body shape and adaptability remain largely unknown. In the current study, positional cloning led to the identification of a gene encoding an RR1-type cuticular protein, BmorCPR2, highly expressed in larval chitin-rich tissues and at the mulberry leaf-eating stages, which is responsible for the silkworm stony mutant. In the Dazao-stony strain, the BmorCPR2 allele is a deletion mutation with significantly lower expression, compared to the wild-type Dazao strain. Dysfunctional BmorCPR2 in the stony mutant lost chitin binding ability, leading to reduced chitin content in larval cuticle, limitation of cuticle extension, abatement of cuticle tensile properties, and aberrant ratio between internodes and intersegmental folds. These variations induce a significant decrease in cuticle capacity to hold the growing internal organs in the larval development process, resulting in whole-body stiffness, tightness, and hardness, bulging intersegmental folds, and serious defects in larval adaptability. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report the corresponding phenotype of stony in insects caused by mutation of RR1-type cuticular protein. Our findings collectively shed light on the specific role of cuticular proteins in maintaining normal larval body shape and will aid in the development of pest control strategies for the management of Lepidoptera. PMID:24514903

  2. Larval and early juvenile fish distribution and assemblage structure in the Canadian Beaufort Sea during July-August, 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulic, Joclyn E.; Papst, Michael H.

    2013-11-01

    The distribution and composition of marine larval and early juvenile fish were investigated during a multidisciplinary project conducted in the nearshore Canadian Beaufort Sea in July and August, 2005. Larvae were sampled using replicate bongo net (500 μm) tows within 50 m water depth. A total of 458 larval fish representing seven families were captured.Multivariate statistical analyses revealed two distinct larval assemblages that were closely correlated to water mass category. The two larval fish assemblages were defined as coastal and estuarine. The coastal assemblage was dominated by Pacific Herring (Clupea pallasii) and was found in the shallow intense plume water mass. This area is greatly influenced by the Mackenzie River outflow. The estuarine assemblage was dominated by Arctic Cod (Boreogadus saida) and was typically found within the diffuse plume and oceanic water masses. Other larval fish families that were represented in the estuarine assemblage were Cottidae, Stichaeidae, Liparidae and Agonidae. Species richness and abundance was greater along the Toker transect in Kugmallit Bay than the Paktoa transect northwest of Garry Island in the Mackenzie Bay.

  3. Diamondback Moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) Exhibits Oviposition and Larval Feeding Preferences