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Sample records for lose sleep gain

  1. Sleep Loses Out for Many Hooked on Video Games

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159434.html Sleep Loses Out for Many Hooked on Video Games ... Bloodborne," "Fallout" and "Call of Duty" worth losing sleep over? For plenty of gamers, the answer is ...

  2. Sleep Loses Out for Many Hooked on Video Games

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159434.html Sleep Loses Out for Many Hooked on Video Games ... Bloodborne," "Fallout" and "Call of Duty" worth losing sleep over? For plenty of gamers, the answer is ...

  3. The Persistence of Gaining and Losing Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, J. P.; Frye, A.

    2012-12-01

    Streams are commonly classified as "gaining" or "losing", according to their relationships with groundwater. However, the gaining and losing nature of a stream can vary in space and time. Understanding the spatial and temporal persistence of gaining and losing reaches is essential for understanding controls on stream health. This is particularly important during low flow conditions. Hydrologic models are typically designed to simulate high flows, and are challenged by low flow. This problem will become more important as hydrologists are asked to forecast the increasing occurrence of low flows as a consequence of climate change. Low flow discharges have been a focus of research as they are occurring earlier in the summer and have longer durations throughout the fall. A concern is how low flow will affect water resources and its users in the region when demand is at its highest. As low flow discharges continue to persist, debate over these rights will continue as well. This study we used chloride as a chemical tracer to monitor gains and losses of stream discharge of small watershed in Southwestern, Idaho. Six conductivity probes were spaced evenly 200m apart along a control reach 1200m in total length. Tracers were performed at least once a month at this site throughout the winter and spring and even more often during the summer dry down to understand the temporal changes occurring. Spatial variations were observed by performing basin wide tracers over a stream length of ~9km during the spring and late summer. Results show that stream baseflow is dependent on the winter snowpack and spring rains in order to recharge the deep groundwater systems and to create a hydrologic connection between the stream and local hillslopes. As a result, when winter snowpack's and spring rains are mild, this connectivity is cut off much sooner producing low flow conditions much earlier in the summer.

  4. Who Gains, Who Loses?: The Fiscal Impact of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costrell, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    Do school vouchers save the taxpayer money, or do they add to taxpayer burdens? Which groups of taxpayers are most affected, and do they gain or lose? What is the financial impact on public school districts? Usually, these questions are debated in the abstract. Now it is possible to get more concrete answers from the nation's longest-running…

  5. Impact of streambed heterogeneity on hyporheic exchange fluxes under losing and gaining stream flow conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Aryeh; Laube, Gerrit; Schmidt, Christian; Fleckenstein, Jan H.; Arnon, Shai

    2015-04-01

    Biogeochemical processes in streams are affected by water exchange between the surface and subsurface environments (e.g. hyporheic exchange). It has previously been shown that hyporheic exchange is strongly affected by the local morphology of the streambed and the flow conditions, including overlying water velocity and losing or gaining fluxes. The objectives of this work were to evaluate how the streambed heterogeneity is affecting hyporheic exchange. In addition, we tested how losing or gaining flow conditions are affecting the hyporheic exchange fluxes and the spatial distribution of the flow paths within the streambed. Experiments measuring the combined effect of streambed heterogeneity and losing and gaining flow conditions on hyporheic exchange were conducted in a laboratory flume system (640 cm long and 30 cm wide). The flow in the flume is fully controlled including gaining or losing fluxes, and it was packed with heterogeneous sediments. An estimate of the solute exchange between the stream and the sediment was obtained from the analysis of a salt tracer (NaCl) injection into the overlying water, which then was monitored by an electrical conductivity meter. In addition, dye injections into the overlying water were used to visualize the effect of sediment heterogeneity on the flow paths in the streambed. Experimental results showed that increasing losing and gaining fluxes resulted in a similar decline in the hyporheic exchange flux as previously observed for a homogenous streambed. However the location in which the hyporheic exchange takes place is different and is strongly influenced by the sediment heterogeneity. The spatial distribution of hyporheic exchange within the streambed will be discussed in light of the distribution of the local, horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivities.

  6. Oxygen consumption along bed forms under losing and gaining streamflow conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Falco, Natalie; Arnon, Shai; Boano, Fulvio

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that bed forms are the most significant geomorphological structure that drives hyporheic exchange and biogeochemical processes in stream networks. Other studies also demonstrated that due to the hyporheic flow patterns within bed form, biogeochemical processes do not occur uniformly along and within the bed forms. The objective of this work was to systematically evaluate how losing or gaining flow conditions affect oxygen consumption by biofilm along sandy bed forms. We measured the effects of losing and gaining flow conditions on oxygen consumption by combining modeling and experiments in a novel laboratory flume system that enable the control of losing and gaining fluxes. Oxygen consumption was measured after growing a benthic biofilm fed with Sodium Benzoate (as a carbon source) and measuring the distribution of oxygen in the streambed with microelectrodes. The experimental results were analyzed using a novel code that calculates vertical profiles of reaction rates in the presence of hyporheic water fluxes. These experimental observations and modeling revealed that oxygen distribution varied along the bed forms. The zone of oxygen consumption (i.e. depth of penetration) was the largest at the upstream side of the bed form and the smallest in the lee side (at the lowest part of the bed form), regardless of the flow conditions. Also, the zone of oxygen consumption was the largest under losing conditions, the smallest under gaining conditions, and in-between under neutral conditions. The distribution of oxygen consumption rates determined with our new model will be also discussed. Our preliminary results enable us to show the importance of the coupling between flow conditions and oxygen consumption along bed forms and are expected to improve our understanding of nutrient cycling in streams.

  7. Losing Neutrality: The Neural Basis of Impaired Emotional Control without Sleep.

    PubMed

    Simon, Eti Ben; Oren, Noga; Sharon, Haggai; Kirschner, Adi; Goldway, Noam; Okon-Singer, Hadas; Tauman, Rivi; Deweese, Menton M; Keil, Andreas; Hendler, Talma

    2015-09-23

    Sleep deprivation has been shown recently to alter emotional processing possibly associated with reduced frontal regulation. Such impairments can ultimately fail adaptive attempts to regulate emotional processing (also known as cognitive control of emotion), although this hypothesis has not been examined directly. Therefore, we explored the influence of sleep deprivation on the human brain using two different cognitive-emotional tasks, recorded using fMRI and EEG. Both tasks involved irrelevant emotional and neutral distractors presented during a competing cognitive challenge, thus creating a continuous demand for regulating emotional processing. Results reveal that, although participants showed enhanced limbic and electrophysiological reactions to emotional distractors regardless of their sleep state, they were specifically unable to ignore neutral distracting information after sleep deprivation. As a consequence, sleep deprivation resulted in similar processing of neutral and negative distractors, thus disabling accurate emotional discrimination. As expected, these findings were further associated with a decrease in prefrontal connectivity patterns in both EEG and fMRI signals, reflecting a profound decline in cognitive control of emotion. Notably, such a decline was associated with lower REM sleep amounts, supporting a role for REM sleep in overnight emotional processing. Altogether, our findings suggest that losing sleep alters emotional reactivity by lowering the threshold for emotional activation, leading to a maladaptive loss of emotional neutrality. Significance statement: Sleep loss is known as a robust modulator of emotional reactivity, leading to increased anxiety and stress elicited by seemingly minor triggers. In this work, we aimed to portray the neural basis of these emotional impairments and their possible association with frontal regulation of emotional processing, also known as cognitive control of emotion. Using specifically suited EEG and f

  8. Sociocultural influences on strategies to lose weight, gain weight, and increase muscles among ten cultural groups.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Marita P; Busija, Lucy; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Ricciardelli, Lina; Mellor, David; Mussap, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    This study determined how sociocultural messages to change one's body are perceived by adolescents from different cultural groups. In total, 4904 adolescents, including Australian, Chilean, Chinese, Indo-Fijian, Indigenous Fijian, Greek, Malaysian, Chinese Malaysian, Tongans in New Zealand, and Tongans in Tonga, were surveyed about messages from family, peers, and the media to lose weight, gain weight, and increase muscles. Groups were best differentiated by family pressure to gain weight. Girls were more likely to receive the messages from multiple sociocultural sources whereas boys were more likely to receive the messages from the family. Some participants in a cultural group indicated higher, and others lower, levels of these sociocultural messages. These findings highlight the differences in sociocultural messages across cultural groups, but also that adolescents receive contrasting messages within a cultural group. These results demonstrate the difficulty in representing a particular message as being characteristic of each cultural group. PMID:25497878

  9. Stream-aquifer interactions and hyporheic exchange in gaining and losing sinuous streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardenas, M. Bayani

    2009-06-01

    The irregular planform morphology of rivers leads to formation of hyporheic zones along its banks. This study investigates how hyporheic exchange in stream banks, whose planform is idealized as sinusoidal, is affected by net gains from and net losses of water to the adjacent aquifer. These effects are studied via numerical modeling of groundwater flow adjacent to sinuous channels across a broad range of sinuosity and gain/loss magnitude. Hyporheic zone areas and fluxes both decrease exponentially with increasing magnitude of net gain or loss relative to the case where the stream has no net flux of water (neutral). Residence time through the hyporheic zone also decreases with gain/loss magnitude. The hyporheic zones become constrained near the apex of bends, indicating that these areas could be hot spots for mixing and biogeochemical processing. Hyporheic zones in channels with smaller sinuosity are more prone to hyporheic flux and area reduction while very sinuous channels are able to maintain a hyporheic zone even under largely losing or gaining conditions. Equations fitted to the suite of simulation results allow for prediction of hyporheic flux, area, and residence time on the basis of aquifer hydraulic conductivity, channel sinuosity, and the ratio of along-valley and across-valley mean head gradients.

  10. Thermal regime of dune-covered sediments under gaining and losing water bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardenas, M. Bayani; Wilson, John L.

    2007-12-01

    We investigate the effects of current-bed form induced flow and heat transport through permeable-bottom sediments overlain by a marine or terrestrial water column that is gaining or losing deep groundwater. Heat transport is forced by the diel variation of temperature in the water column. The investigation utilizes sequentially coupled simulations of turbulent flow in the water column, and Darcy flow and heat transport in the sediments. The simulations address the question when, where, and by how much are diel water column temperature variations transmitted into sediments subjected to ambient-groundwater discharge? This is crucial information for detecting, observing, and predicting temperature-sensitive biogeochemical and ecological processes in the bottom sediments. When the groundwater gain or loss is small, it has no appreciable effect on temperatures in the sediments, which are controlled by heat conduction and current-bed form induced heat advection. As losing discharge increases, the temperature signal from the water column penetrates deeper into the sediments, with the largest temperature variations found under a downwelling zone along the stoss side of the bed form and damped temperature variations found near a narrow upwelling zone below the crest. Similar patterns are observed under gaining conditions, but with temperature variations penetrating to shallower depths; the interfacial exchange zone is diminished by upward movement of deep groundwater. Large gains or losses of deep groundwater prevent the formation of an interfacial exchange zone making heat transport almost vertically one-dimensional. The sensitivity of the sediment-thermal regime to hydrodynamic conditions increases with increasing water column current (Reynolds number) and with sediment permeability.

  11. Losing Sleep to Watch the Night-Sky: The Relationship between Sleep-Length and Noctcaelador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, William E.; Rose, Callie

    2005-01-01

    For most of history, humans have been watching the night-sky (Hawkins, 1983). Historically, individuals have watched the night-sky for aesthetic appreciation and to gain insights and knowledge (Brecher & Feirtag, 1979). Despite the long history of night-sky watching among humans and the apparent importance of the behavior to large groups of…

  12. Gaining, losing, and dry stream reaches at Bear Creek Valley, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, March and September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, J.A.; Mitchell, R.L. III

    1996-12-31

    A study was conducted, to delineate stream reaches that were gaining flow, losing flow, or that were dry in the upper reaches of Bear Creek Valley near the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The study included a review of maps and discharge data from a seepage investigation conducted at Bear Creek Valley; preparation of tables showing site identification and discharge and stream reaches that were gaining flow, losing flow, or that were dry; and preparation of maps showing measurement site locations and discharge measurements, and gaining, losing, and dry stream reaches. This report will aid in developing a better understanding of ground-water and surface-water interactions in the upper reaches of Bear Creek.

  13. Gaining pounds by losing pounds: preferences for lifestyle interventions to reduce obesity.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Mandy; Yi, Deokhee; Avenell, Alison; Douglas, Flora; Aucott, Lorna; van Teijlingen, Edwin; Vale, Luke

    2015-04-01

    While there is evidence that weight-loss interventions reduce morbidity, indications of their acceptability are limited. Understanding preferences for lifestyle interventions will help policymakers design interventions. We used a discrete choice experiment to investigate preferences for lifestyle interventions to reduce adult obesity. Attributes focused on: the components of the programme; weight change; short-term and longer-term health gains; time spent on the intervention and financial costs incurred. Data were collected through a web-based questionnaire, with 504 UK adults responding. Despite evidence that dietary interventions are the most effective way to lose weight, respondents preferred lifestyle interventions involving physical activity. While the evidence suggests that behaviour change support improves effectiveness of interventions, its value to participants was limited. A general preference to maintain current lifestyles, together with the sensitivity of take up to financial costs, suggests financial incentives could be used to help maximise uptake of healthy lifestyle interventions. An important target group for change, men, required more compensation to take up healthier lifestyles. Those of normal weight, who will increase in weight over time if they do not change their lifestyle, required the highest compensation. Policymakers face challenges in inducing people to change their behaviour and adopt healthy lifestyles. PMID:25348049

  14. Losing Sleep over It: Daily Variation in Sleep Quantity and Quality in Canadian Students' First Semester of University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galambos, Nancy L.; Dalton, Andrea L.; Maggs, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    Daily covariation of sleep quantity and quality with affective, stressful, academic, and social experiences were observed in a sample of Canadian 17-19-year-olds in their first year of university. Participants (N = 191) completed web-based checklists for 14 consecutive days during their first semester. Multilevel models predicting sleep quantity…

  15. The snooze of lose: Rapid reaching reveals that losses are processed more slowly than gains.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Craig S; Gallivan, Jason P; Wong, Jeremy D; Wispinski, Nathan J; Enns, James T

    2015-08-01

    Decision making revolves around weighing potential gains and losses. Research in economic decision making has emphasized that humans exercise disproportionate caution when making explicit choices involving loss. By comparison, research in perceptual decision making has revealed a processing advantage for targets associated with potential gain, though the effects of loss have been explored less systematically. Here, we use a rapid reaching task to measure the relative sensitivity (Experiment 1) and the time course (Experiments 2 and 3) of rapid actions with regard to the reward valence and probability of targets. We show that targets linked to a high probability of gain influence actions about 100 ms earlier than targets associated with equivalent probability and value of loss. These findings are well accounted for by a model of stimulus response in which reward modulates the late, postpeak phase of the activity. We interpret our results within a neural framework of biased competition that is resolved in spatial maps of behavioral relevance. As implied by our model, all visual stimuli initially receive positive activation. Gain stimuli can build off of this initial activation when selected as a target, whereas loss stimuli have to overcome this initial activation in order to be avoided, accounting for the observed delay between valences. Our results bring clarity to the perceptual effects of losses versus gains and highlight the importance of considering the timeline of different biasing factors that influence decisions. PMID:26097977

  16. Recent Health Insurance Trends for US Families: Children Gain While Parents Lose

    PubMed Central

    DeVoe, Jennifer E.; Tillotson, Carrie J.; Wallace, Lorraine S.

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, political and economic changes in the United States (US) have affected health insurance coverage for children and their parents. Most likely these policies have differentially affected coverage patterns for children (versus parents) and for low-income (versus high-income) families. We aimed to examine— qualitatively and quantitatively—the impact of changing health insurance coverage on US families. Primary data from interviews with Oregon families (2008–2010) were analyzed using an iterative process. Qualitative findings guided quantitative analyses of secondary data from the nationally-representative Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) (1998–2009); we used Joinpoint Regression to assess average annual percent changes (AAPC) in health insurance trends, examining child and parent status and type of coverage stratified by income. Interviewees reported that although children gained coverage, parents lost coverage. MEPS analyses confirmed this trend; the percentage of children uninsured all year decreased from 9.6 % in 1998 to 6.1 % in 2009; AAPC = −3.1 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] from −5.1 to −1.0), while the percentage of parents uninsured all year rose from 13.6 % in 1998 to 17.1 % in 2009, AAPC = 2.7 % (95 % CI 1.8–3.7). Low-income families experienced the most significant changes in coverage. Between 1998 and 2009, as US children gained health insurance, their parents lost coverage. Children’s health is adversely affected when parents are uninsured. Investigation beyond children’s coverage rates is needed to understand how health insurance policies and changing health insurance coverage trends are impacting children’s health. PMID:23817728

  17. Recent health insurance trends for US families: children gain while parents lose.

    PubMed

    DeVoe, Jennifer E; Tillotson, Carrie J; Angier, Heather; Wallace, Lorraine S

    2014-05-01

    In the past decade, political and economic changes in the United States (US) have affected health insurance coverage for children and their parents. Most likely these policies have differentially affected coverage patterns for children (versus parents) and for low-income (versus high-income) families. We aimed to examine--qualitatively and quantitatively--the impact of changing health insurance coverage on US families. Primary data from interviews with Oregon families (2008-2010) were analyzed using an iterative process. Qualitative findings guided quantitative analyses of secondary data from the nationally-representative Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) (1998-2009); we used Joinpoint Regression to assess average annual percent changes (AAPC) in health insurance trends, examining child and parent status and type of coverage stratified by income. Interviewees reported that although children gained coverage, parents lost coverage. MEPS analyses confirmed this trend; the percentage of children uninsured all year decreased from 9.6 % in 1998 to 6.1 % in 2009; AAPC = -3.1 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] from -5.1 to -1.0), while the percentage of parents uninsured all year rose from 13.6 % in 1998 to 17.1 % in 2009, AAPC = 2.7 % (95 % CI 1.8-3.7). Low-income families experienced the most significant changes in coverage. Between 1998 and 2009, as US children gained health insurance, their parents lost coverage. Children's health is adversely affected when parents are uninsured. Investigation beyond children's coverage rates is needed to understand how health insurance policies and changing health insurance coverage trends are impacting children's health. PMID:23817728

  18. Losing the left side of the world: Rightward shift in human spatial attention with sleep onset

    PubMed Central

    Bareham, Corinne A.; Manly, Tom; Pustovaya, Olga V.; Scott, Sophie K.; Bekinschtein, Tristan A.

    2014-01-01

    Unilateral brain damage can lead to a striking deficit in awareness of stimuli on one side of space called Spatial Neglect. Patient studies show that neglect of the left is markedly more persistent than of the right and that its severity increases under states of low alertness. There have been suggestions that this alertness-spatial awareness link may be detectable in the general population. Here, healthy human volunteers performed an auditory spatial localisation task whilst transitioning in and out of sleep. We show, using independent electroencephalographic measures, that normal drowsiness is linked with a remarkable unidirectional tendency to mislocate left-sided stimuli to the right. The effect may form a useful healthy model of neglect and help in understanding why leftward inattention is disproportionately persistent after brain injury. The results also cast light on marked changes in conscious experience before full sleep onset. PMID:24867667

  19. Impact of insufficient sleep on total daily energy expenditure, food intake, and weight gain

    PubMed Central

    Markwald, Rachel R.; Melanson, Edward L.; Smith, Mark R.; Higgins, Janine; Perreault, Leigh; Eckel, Robert H.; Wright, Kenneth P.

    2013-01-01

    Insufficient sleep is associated with obesity, yet little is known about how repeated nights of insufficient sleep influence energy expenditure and balance. We studied 16 adults in a 14- to 15-d-long inpatient study and quantified effects of 5 d of insufficient sleep, equivalent to a work week, on energy expenditure and energy intake compared with adequate sleep. We found that insufficient sleep increased total daily energy expenditure by ∼5%; however, energy intake—especially at night after dinner—was in excess of energy needed to maintain energy balance. Insufficient sleep led to 0.82 ± 0.47 kg (±SD) weight gain despite changes in hunger and satiety hormones ghrelin and leptin, and peptide YY, which signaled excess energy stores. Insufficient sleep delayed circadian melatonin phase and also led to an earlier circadian phase of wake time. Sex differences showed women, not men, maintained weight during adequate sleep, whereas insufficient sleep reduced dietary restraint and led to weight gain in women. Our findings suggest that increased food intake during insufficient sleep is a physiological adaptation to provide energy needed to sustain additional wakefulness; yet when food is easily accessible, intake surpasses that needed. We also found that transitioning from an insufficient to adequate/recovery sleep schedule decreased energy intake, especially of fats and carbohydrates, and led to −0.03 ± 0.50 kg weight loss. These findings provide evidence that sleep plays a key role in energy metabolism. Importantly, they demonstrate physiological and behavioral mechanisms by which insufficient sleep may contribute to overweight and obesity. PMID:23479616

  20. Sleep Is Increased By Weight Gain and Decreased By Weight Loss in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Zhiwei; Vgontzas, Alexandros N.; Bixler, Edward O.; Fang, Jidong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether weight loss could reverse excessive sleep in high-fat diet-induced obesity. Design: Three groups of mice participated in the study. A weight gain/loss group was fed with high-fat food for 6 weeks (weight gain), and regular food again for 4 weeks (weight loss). A control group and a weight gain only group were fed with regular food and high-fat food, respectively, for 10 weeks after the baseline. Participants: Adult male C57BL/6 mice. Measurements: The amounts of wake, rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) and non-REM sleep (NREMS) were determined at week 0 (baseline), week 6, and week 10. Results: The weight gain/loss group displayed a significant decrease in wakefulness and increases in NREMS and episodes of NREMS during 6 weeks of weight gain, which were reversed during subsequent 4 weeks of weight loss. The weight gain only group displayed significant decrease in wakefulness and increase of NREMS and REMS at both week 6 and week 10. The control group did not show significant sleep alterations during the experiment. Conclusion: These observations indicate that sleep alterations induced by weight gain are reversed by weight loss in obese animals. These data may shed light on the mechanisms underlying the well-established association between obesity and sleepiness in humans and may lead to new therapeutic strategies for these 2 increasingly prevalent problems in the modern societies. Citation: Guan Z; Vgontzas AN; Bixler EO; Fang J. Sleep is increased by weight gain and decreased by weight loss in mice. SLEEP 2008;31(5):627-633. PMID:18517033

  1. Weight gain and the sleeping electroencephalogram: study of 10 patients with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed Central

    Lacey, J H; Crisp, A H; Kalucy, R S; Hartmann, M K; Chien, C N

    1975-01-01

    The relation between reduced nutritional intake, with consequent weight loss, and sleep disturbance was studied by comparing certain sleep encephalogram patterns in a group of inpatients with anorexia nervosa before, during, and after a regimen of refeeding with a normal diet to a matched population mean weight. At low body weights patients had less sleep and more restlessness, especially in the last four hours of the night. During refeeding and weight gain slow-wave sleep initially increased and then tended to decrease during the final stage of restoration of weight back to matched population mean levels. With the overall weight gain, however, there was a significant increase in length of sleep and rapid eye movement sleep, the latter increasing especially during the later stages of weight gain. These results reaffirm that insomnia, and especially early morning waking, is associated with low body weight in anorexia nervosa, and their implications are discussed with particular reference to a hypothetical association between various anabolic profiles and the need for differing components of sleep. PMID:173448

  2. Losing Sleep over Tuition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogg, Piper

    2009-01-01

    With two children already in college and three more in the wings, the Nwanguma family knows about sacrifice. The annual tuition bill for Prince George's Community College typically comes to between $3,500 and $4,000 for the oldest son, Chuka. To afford it, Chuma Nwanguma, a Nigerian immigrant, often works overtime in addition to his regular night…

  3. Sleep

    MedlinePlus

    ... sleep deprivation? What are sleep myths? What are sleep disorders? Can certain diseases/conditions disrupt sleep? What is ... sleep deprivation? What are sleep myths? What are sleep disorders? Can certain diseases/conditions disrupt sleep? What is ...

  4. Snooze... or Lose!: 10 "No-War" Ways to Improve Your Teen's Sleep Habits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emsellem, Helene A.

    2006-01-01

    Walk into any first-period high school classroom and it's obvious: teenagers are exhausted. Sleep deprivation is an epidemic as widespread as obesity-and just as damaging. Fortunately, science has answers and Dr. Helene Emsellem has solutions that all parents can use. Affecting the lives of more than 41 million adolescents in the United…

  5. Losing fat, gaining treatments: the use of biomedicine as a cure for folk illnesses in the Andes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This article explores how people in the Andes incorporate beliefs from both biomedical and ethnomedical systems in treating folk illnesses that often involve spiritual beings. The article focuses on the kharisiri—one who is believed to steal fat and blood from unsuspecting humans to make exchanges with the devil. The kharisiri in turn is rewarded with good fortune. Victims of kharisiris, however, fall ill and may die if untreated. Historically, kharisiri victims relied on ethnomedicine for treatment, but it appears biomedical pills are now perceived by some as an effective treatment. By drawing on participants’ attitudes towards biomedicine, and how people in the Andes conceptualize health, this article theorizes as to why biomedical pills are sought to treat kharisiri attacks but not for other folk illnesses. Methods Fieldwork was conducted in Arequipa and Yunguyo among market vendors, who make up a significant portion of Peru’s working population. This type of work increases the risk of different illnesses due to work conditions like exposure to extreme temperatures, long-distance travel, and social dynamics. Biomedical and ethnomedical products are often sold in and around marketplaces, making vendors a compelling group for exploring issues relating to treatment systems. Qualitative data was collected in 2011 with a follow-up visit in 2013. Participant observation, informal conversations, and unstructured interviews with 29 participants informed the study. Results Participants unanimously reported that biomedical pills are not capable of treating folk illnesses such as susto and mal de ojo. Several participants reported that pharmaceutical pills can cure kharisiri victims. Conclusions In comparison to other folk illnesses that involve spiritual beings, those who fall ill from a kharisiri attack lose physical elements (fat and blood) rather than their soul (ánimo) or becoming ill due to a misbalance in reciprocal relations—either with humans

  6. What do physicians gain (and lose) with experience? Qualitative results from a cross-national study of diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lutfey, Karen E; Marceau, Lisa D; Campbell, Stephen M; von dem Knesebeck, Olaf; McKinlay, John B

    2010-01-01

    An empirical puzzle has emerged over the last several decades of research on variation in clinical decision making involving mixed effects of physician experience. There is some evidence that physicians with greater experience may provide poorer quality care than their less experienced counterparts, as captured by various quality assurance measures. Physician experience is traditionally narrowly defined as years in practice or age, and there is a need for investigation into precisely what happens to physicians as they gain experience, including the reasoning and clinical skills acquired over time and the ways in which physicians consciously implement those skills into their work. In this study, we are concerned with 1) how physicians conceptualize and describe the meaning of their clinical experience, and 2) how they use their experience in clinical practice. To address these questions, we analyzed qualitative data drawn from in-depth interviews with physicians from the United States, United Kingdom, and Germany as a part of a larger factorial experiment of medical decision making for diabetes. Our results show that common measures of physician experience do not fully capture the skills physicians acquire over time or how they implement those skills in their clinical work. We found that what physicians actually gain over time is complex social, behavioral and intuitive wisdom as well as the ability to compare the present day patient against similar past patients. These active cognitive reasoning processes are essential components of a forward-looking research agenda in the area of physician experience and decision making. Guideline-based outcome measures, accompanied by underdeveloped age- and years-based definitions of experience, may prematurely conclude that more experienced physicians are providing deficient care while overlooking the ways in which they are providing more and better care than their less experienced counterparts. PMID:20356662

  7. Losing Sleep over Student Success?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordova, France A.

    2006-01-01

    Over the past year, a number of journals have reprised many of the questions plaguing higher education--providing a full year's worth of sleepless nights. While each of these issues justifies considerable dialogue and attention, the one issue on which parents, students, the public, and educators can agree is the importance--and the challenge--of…

  8. How's my sleep?: Personal sleep trackers are gaining in popularity, but their accuracy is still open to debate.

    PubMed

    Grifantini, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    When it comes to health and fitness, there's an app for just about everything. Want to track how many steps you've taken today? There's an app for that. Want to track the calories you've consumed? There's an app for that, too. And, if you want to know if you got a good night's sleep last night, well, now there's also an app for that. PMID:25437468

  9. Irregular sleep-wake syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep-wake syndrome - irregular ... routine during the day. The amount of total sleep time is normal, but the body clock loses ... have a different condition, such as shift work sleep disorder or jet lag syndrome.

  10. Losing ground.

    PubMed

    Carter, D

    1993-01-01

    A recent research effort by the Nepalese Topological Survey Branch and the Department of Soil Science and the University of British Columbia, Canada, found with the use of the geographic information system (GIS) that forest cover has expanded, but soil fertility is decreasing at a rapid rate in Nepal. These findings conflict with media allegations which allege forest destruction from farmers' wood-cutting practices and responsibility for flooding in Bangladesh. The research was conducted in the Jhikhu Khola watershed in the Middle Mountains, which is Nepal's most populous region that is intensively used in subsistence farming and grazing. Migration adds to the existing problems of soil erosion, sedimentation, deforestation, and loss in soil fertility. The soil is prone to erosion. Data were collected through the GIS system by aerial photos, field surveys, and soil analysis. Hydrometric stations to measure the sedimentation process were established in 7 places and farmers monitored the climate, water loss and gain, and sediment movement. Interviews were also conducted among the farm population on demographics, livestock, fodder and fuel consumption, crop yields and practices, and fertilizer use. Researchers aimed both to identify the causes of soil degradation and to estimate the productivity, profitability, and sustainability of different land uses and farming systems. Another finding was that, in Jhikhu Khola, the deforestation of the 1960s has been abated by reforestation efforts in the 1980s. This has contributed to a 10% expansion of forest cover, and increase of sloping terrace by 9%, and a decline in grazing land by 9% and shrub land by 6%. Calculations for the year 2000 showed that the fuelwood surplus would drop to 6% from 73% and food surplus of 25% would become a 27% deficit. The 40% deficiency in animal feed would increase to 54%. Although reforestation has added to forest cover, pine tree cultivation occurred on moderate elevations where grazing and

  11. Protein-losing enteropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007338.htm Protein-losing enteropathy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Protein-losing enteropathy is an abnormal loss of protein ...

  12. Bottle bill loses, nuclear power gains

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-11-01

    The November 3, 1987 elections saw a number of environmental-related referenda defeated for what was seen as economic reasons. Maine voters decided 59 to 41 percent against a proposal which would have closed down the Maine Yankee Nuclear Power Plant. In the District of Columbia, a litter reducing bill that would have required a 5 to 20 cent deposit on cans and bottles was defeated by 55 to 45 percent. Finally, in California, Indian Wells voters supported a project to build a one billion dollar resort in the nearby desert.

  13. [Protein-losing enteropathy].

    PubMed

    Amiot, A

    2015-07-01

    Protein-losing enteropathy is a rare syndrome of gastrointestinal protein loss. The primary causes can be classified into lymphatic leakage due to increased interstitial pressure and increased leakage of protein-rich fluids due to erosive or non-erosive gastrointestinal disorders. The diagnosis of protein-losing enteropathy should be considered in patients with chronic diarrhea and peripheral oedema. The diagnosis of protein-losing enteropathy is most commonly based on the determination of fecal alpha-1 antitrypsin clearance. Most protein-losing enteropathy cases are the result of either lymphatic obstruction or a variety of gastrointestinal disorders and cardiac diseases, while primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (Waldmann's disease) is less common. Treatment of protein-losing enteropathy targets the underlying disease but also includes dietary modification, such as high-protein and low-fat diet along with medium-chain triglyceride supplementation. PMID:25618488

  14. Sleep disturbances, body fat distribution, food intake and/or energy expenditure: pathophysiological aspects

    PubMed Central

    Shechter, Ari

    2015-01-01

    Data from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have illustrated a relationship between short sleep duration (SSD) and weight gain. Individuals with SSD are heavier and gain more weight over time than normal-duration sleepers. This sleep-obesity relationship may have consequences for obesity treatments, as it appears that short sleepers have reduced ability to lose weight. Laboratory-based clinical studies found that experimental sleep restriction affects energy expenditure and intake, possibly providing a mechanistic explanation for the weight gain observed in chronic short sleepers. Specifically, compared to normal sleep duration, sleep restriction increases food intake beyond the energetic costs of increased time spent awake. Reasons for this increased energy intake after sleep restriction are unclear but may include disrupted appetite-regulating hormones, altered brain mechanisms involved in the hedonic aspects of appetite, and/or changes in sleep quality and architecture. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a disorder at the intersection of sleep and obesity, and the characteristics of the disorder illustrate many of the effects of sleep disturbances on body weight and vice versa. Specifically, while obesity is among the main risk factors for OSA, the disorder itself and its associated disturbances in sleep quality and architecture seem to alter energy balance parameters and may induce further weight gain. Several intervention trials have shown that weight loss is associated with reduced OSA severity. Thus, weight loss may improve sleep, and these improvements may promote further weight loss. Future studies should establish whether increasing sleep duration/improving sleep quality can induce weight loss. PMID:25372728

  15. NIH Loses a Friend

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn Javascript on. NIH Loses a Friend Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Donald ... changingthefaceofmedicine/ . Sincerely, Donald West King, M.D., Chairman Friends of the National Library of Medicine Let Us ...

  16. Losing weight after pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... below the minimum number of calories you need. Breastfeeding If you are breastfeeding, you will want to lose weight slowly. Weight ... not affect your milk supply or your health. Breastfeeding makes your body burn calories. It helps you ...

  17. Losing Libraries, Saving Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    This summer, as public libraries continued to get budget hit after budget hit across the country, several readers asked for a comprehensive picture of the ravages of the recession on library service. In partnership with 2010 Movers & Shakers Laura Solomon and Mandy Knapp, Ohio librarians who bought the Losing Libraries domain name, "LJ" launched…

  18. Sleep, the Athlete, and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Peter Hudson

    2002-01-01

    Presents information to help athletic coaches and trainers gain a better understanding of what happens during sleep and how sleep can affect performance, outlining three practical suggestions for helping athletes improve their sleep quality (identify and obtain the amount of sleep one needs, keep a regular sleep schedule, and create an optimal…

  19. Eating Well and Losing Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Smoking - Eating Well and Losing Weight • Tools & Resources Sodium & High Blood Pressure Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 All About Heart Rate (Pulse) ...

  20. Neurobiological Consequences of Sleep Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Alkadhi, Karim; Zagaar, Munder; Alhaider, Ibrahim; Salim, Samina; Aleisa, Abdulaziz

    2013-01-01

    Although the physiological function of sleep is not completely understood, it is well documented that it contributes significantly to the process of learning and memory. Ample evidence suggests that adequate sleep is essential for fostering connections among neuronal networks for memory consolidation in the hippocampus. Sleep deprivation studies are extremely valuable in understanding why we sleep and what are the consequences of sleep loss. Experimental sleep deprivation in animals allows us to gain insight into the mechanism of sleep at levels not possible to study in human subjects. Many useful approaches have been utilized to evaluate the effect of sleep loss on cognitive function, each with relative advantages and disadvantages. In this review we discuss sleep and the detrimental effects of sleep deprivation mostly in experimental animals. The negative effects of sleep deprivation on various aspects of brain function including learning and memory, synaptic plasticity and the state of cognition-related signaling molecules are discussed. PMID:24179461

  1. Web Sites that Compare Loans Gain Users, Lose Lenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Ingrid

    2008-01-01

    Web sites that allow borrowers to compare student loans proliferated in the wake of last year's scandals that exposed conflicts of interest in the lending industry. Now the credit crunch is shifting demand for loan-comparison sites again, providing both new challenges and opportunities. More financial-aid officers are also pointing their students…

  2. Cross border health care provision: who gains, who loses.

    PubMed

    Levaggi, Rosella; Menoncin, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The diffusion of the welfare state has produced a widespread involvement of the public sector in financing the production of private goods for paternalistic reasons. In this chapter we model the production of health care as a merit impure local public good whose consumption is subsidized and whose access is free, but not unlimited. The impure local public good aspect means that the production of health care spreads its benefits beyond the geographical boundaries of the Region where it is produced. Finally, we include the (optional) provision of an equalization grant that allows reduction of fiscal imbalance among Regions. In this framework we study the possible effects of cross border provision of health care. We assume that information is complete and symmetric and that there is no comparative advantage in local provision. In this context devolution is always suboptimal for the whole community: the lack of coordination means that the impure public good is under-provided. However, more efficient Regions may be better off because of the impure public good nature of health care. PMID:24864389

  3. Gaining Momentum, Losing Ground. Tapping America's Potential, Progress Report 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapping America's Potential, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In July 2005, 15 of America's most prominent business organizations joined together to express their deep concern about the ability of the United States to sustain its scientific and technological leadership in a world where newly energized foreign competitors are investing in the capacity for innovation--the key driver of productivity and…

  4. Dredging in the Spratly Islands: Gaining Land but Losing Reefs

    PubMed Central

    Mora, Camilo; Caldwell, Iain R.; Birkeland, Charles; McManus, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Coral reefs on remote islands and atolls are less exposed to direct human stressors but are becoming increasingly vulnerable because of their development for geopolitical and military purposes. Here we document dredging and filling activities by countries in the South China Sea, where building new islands and channels on atolls is leading to considerable losses of, and perhaps irreversible damages to, unique coral reef ecosystems. Preventing similar damage across other reefs in the region necessitates the urgent development of cooperative management of disputed territories in the South China Sea. We suggest using the Antarctic Treaty as a positive precedent for such international cooperation. PMID:27031949

  5. Dredging in the Spratly Islands: Gaining Land but Losing Reefs.

    PubMed

    Mora, Camilo; Caldwell, Iain R; Birkeland, Charles; McManus, John W

    2016-03-01

    Coral reefs on remote islands and atolls are less exposed to direct human stressors but are becoming increasingly vulnerable because of their development for geopolitical and military purposes. Here we document dredging and filling activities by countries in the South China Sea, where building new islands and channels on atolls is leading to considerable losses of, and perhaps irreversible damages to, unique coral reef ecosystems. Preventing similar damage across other reefs in the region necessitates the urgent development of cooperative management of disputed territories in the South China Sea. We suggest using the Antarctic Treaty as a positive precedent for such international cooperation. PMID:27031949

  6. Sleep apnea and stroke.

    PubMed

    Culebras, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Clinical evidence has established that sleep apnea is a risk factor for stroke. Patients with stroke have a high prevalence of sleep apnea that may have preceded or developed as a result of the stroke. Well-established concurrent stroke risk factors for stroke like hypertension and atrial fibrillation respond favorably to the successful treatment of sleep apnea. The gold standard diagnosis of sleep apnea is obtained in the sleep laboratory, but unattended polysomnography is gaining acceptance. Positive airway pressure (PAP) (continuous positive airway pressure [CPAP] or bilevel positive airway pressure [BiPAP]) applications are the gold-standard treatment of sleep apnea. Suggestive evidence indicates that stroke occurrence or recurrence may be reduced with treatment of sleep apnea. PMID:25407131

  7. Nothing to lose: why early career scientists make ideal entrepreneurs.

    PubMed

    Thon, Jonathan N

    2014-12-01

    An entrepreneurial movement within science strives to invert the classical trajectory of academic research careers by positioning trainees at the apex of burgeoning industries. Young scientists today have nothing to lose and everything to gain by pursuing this 'third road', and academic institutes and established companies only stand to benefit from supporting this emerging movement of discovery research with economic purpose. PMID:25458606

  8. Sleep and Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Benefits Side Effects Variations Tips Healthy Sleep Habits Sleep Disorders by Category Insomnias Insomnia Child Insomnia Short Sleeper ... Work SIDS Sleep apnea Sleep Debt Sleep Deprivation Sleep Disorders Sleep history Sleep hygiene sleep length Sleep Need ...

  9. Sleep Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... the day, even if you have had enough sleep? You might have a sleep disorder. The most common kinds are Insomnia - a hard time falling or staying asleep Sleep apnea - breathing interruptions during sleep Restless legs syndrome - ...

  10. Sleep Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Sleep Problems Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... PDF 474KB) En Español Medicines to Help You Sleep Tips for Better Sleep Basic Facts about Sleep ...

  11. Sleep Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... on. Photo: iStock Take the National Center on Sleep Disorders Research Sleep Quiz TRUE OR FALSE ? _____1. Sleep ... sleepy during the day, you may have a sleep disorder. _____4. Opening the car window or turning the ...

  12. Sleep Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... have had enough sleep? You might have a sleep disorder. The most common kinds are Insomnia - a hard ... problems called parasomnias. There are treatments for most sleep disorders. Sometimes just having regular sleep habits can help.

  13. Clinical Psychology Training in Sleep and Sleep Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Meltzer, Lisa J.; Phillips, Cindy; Mindell, Jodi A.

    2009-01-01

    There is growing evidence to suggest that clinical psychologists would benefit from more training in sleep and sleep disorders. Sleep disturbances are commonly comorbid with mental health disorders and this relationship is often bidirectional. In addition, psychologists have become integral members of multidisciplinary sleep medicine teams and there are not enough qualified psychologists to meet the clinical demand. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current education on sleep and sleep disorders provided to clinical psychology predoctoral students and interns. Directors of graduate programs and internships (N = 212) completed a brief online survey on sleep education in their program. Only 6% of programs offers formal didactic courses in sleep, with 31% of programs offering training in the treatment of sleep disorders. There are few programs with sleep faculty (16%), and most reported that their institutions were ineffective in providing sleep education. Thirty-nine percent of training directors reported they would implement a standard curriculum on sleep, if available. The findings from this study suggest that more opportunities are needed for trainees in clinical psychology to gain didactic and clinical experience with sleep and sleep disorders. PMID:19132641

  14. Losing and Saving and Losing Physics in Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marder, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Texas has the second-largest population of the states, and played even a larger role in education reform movements of the past 15 years than its size would indicate. In the Fall of 2011, physicists across the country were surprised to learn that six university physics programs in Texas were threatened with closure because of small graduation numbers. Five of them ultimately closed. Many of the faculty at the institutions losing programs came together and formed a consortium that eventually made it possible to continue offering physics,by unconventional means, to their undergraduates. In the Spring of 2013 came an even larger change. Physics had been part of the recommended high school graduation plan in Texas. As part of a bill making sweeping changes to high school graduation requirements and accountability, the physics requirement was removed. Physics may partly be falling victim to the national focus on STEM, which suggests that the various disciplines of science are interchangeable and not individually important. None of the changes in Texas are hard to imagine coming to other states as well.

  15. Sleep Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Sleep Quiz Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents ... on. Photo: iStock Take the National Center on Sleep Disorders Research Sleep Quiz TRUE OR FALSE ? _____1. ...

  16. Sleep Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » About the NHLBI » Organization » National Center on Sleep Disorders Research (NCSDR) » Patient & Public Information » Sleep Quiz National Center on Sleep Disorders Research Research Professional Education Patient & Public Information Communications ...

  17. Metabolic consequences of sleep and circadian disorders

    PubMed Central

    Depner, Christopher M.; Stothard, Ellen R.; Wright, Kenneth P.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep and circadian rhythms modulate or control daily physiological patterns with importance for normal metabolic health. Sleep deficiencies associated with insufficient sleep schedules, insomnia with short-sleep duration, sleep apnea, narcolepsy, circadian misalignment, shift work, night eating syndrome and sleep-related eating disorder may all contribute to metabolic dysregulation. Sleep deficiencies and circadian disruption associated with metabolic dysregulation may contribute to weight gain, obesity, and type 2 diabetes potentially by altering timing and amount of food intake, disrupting energy balance, inflammation, impairing glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Given the rapidly increasing prevalence of metabolic diseases, it is important to recognize the role of sleep and circadian disruption in the development, progression, and morbidity of metabolic disease. Some findings indicate sleep treatments and countermeasures improve metabolic health, but future clinical research investigating prevention and treatment of chronic metabolic disorders through treatment of sleep and circadian disruption is needed. PMID:24816752

  18. [Sleep psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Chiba, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disorders are serious issues in modern society. There has been marked scientific interest in sleep for a century, with the discoveries of the electrical activity of the brain (EEG), sleep-wake system, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and circadian rhythm system. Additionally, the advent of video-polysomnography in clinical research has revealed some of the consequences of disrupted sleep and sleep deprivation in psychiatric disorders. Decades of clinical research have demonstrated that sleep disorders are intimately tied to not only physical disease (e. g., lifestyle-related disease) but psychiatric illness. According to The International Classification of Sleep Disorders (2005), sleep disorders are classified into 8 major categories: 1) insomnia, 2) sleep-related breathing disorders, 3) hypersomnias of central origin, 4) circadian rhythm sleep disorders, 5) parasomnias, 6) sleep-related movement disorders, 7) isolated symptoms, and 8) other sleep disorders. Several sleep disorders, including obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movement disorder, sleepwalking, REM sleep behavior disorder, and narcolepsy, may be comorbid or possibly mimic numerous psychiatric disorders, and can even occur due to psychiatric pharmacotherapy. Moreover, sleep disorders may exacerbate underlying psychiatric disorders when left untreated. Therefore, psychiatrists should pay attention to the intimate relationship between sleep disorders and psychiatric symptoms. Sleep psychiatry is an academic field focusing on interrelations between sleep medicine and psychiatry. This mini-review summarizes recent findings in sleep psychiatry. Future research on the bidirectional relation between sleep disturbance and psychiatric symptoms will shed light on the pathophysiological view of psychiatric disorders and sleep disorders. PMID:24050022

  19. Sleep and Chronic Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Sleep and Sleep Disorders Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... CDC.gov . Sleep About Us About Sleep Key Sleep Disorders Sleep and Chronic Disease How Much Sleep Do ...

  20. You Can Lose What You Never Had

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Cam

    2016-01-01

    An often-used idiom states: "you can't lose what you never had." Yet contrary to this expression, it "is" possible to lose what you never had--at least when special education support is concerned. In Ontario, as in other jurisdictions, special education exists as a codified system. An ever-changing nexus of discourses and…

  1. How Did Mars Lose Its Atmosphere?

    NASA Video Gallery

    Though it doesn't look like a nice place to live now, Mars may have had an atmosphere more like ours on Earth! But how did it lose it? One way a planet can lose its atmosphere is through a process ...

  2. Will Titan lose its veil?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrov, V.

    2007-08-01

    . If the real stock (CH4)real (CH4)crit=1.65.1020 kg, than Titan will lose its veil inevitably (scenario of the "mosaic history"), otherwise (CH4)real (CH4)crit the veil survives down to Titan's dying day ("continuous history"). References [1] H. B. Niemann and 17-co-authors, Nature, 438, 779, (2005). [2] V. Dimitrov, Prog. React. Kin. Mech. 30, N4, 227, (2006).

  3. Time, Not Sleep, Unbinds Contexts from Item Memory

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Roy; Tijdens, Ron R.; Meeter, Martijn M.; Sweegers, Carly C. G.; Talamini, Lucia M.

    2014-01-01

    Contextual cues are known to benefit memory retrieval, but whether and how sleep affects this context effect remains unresolved. We manipulated contextual congruence during memory retrieval in human volunteers across 12 h and 24 h intervals beginning with either sleep or wakefulness. Our data suggest that whereas contextual cues lose their potency with time, sleep does not modulate this process. Furthermore, our results are consistent with the idea that sleep's beneficial effect on memory retention depends on the amount of waking time that has passed between encoding and sleep onset. The findings are discussed in the framework of competitive consolidation theory. PMID:24498441

  4. Gifted Students and Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harsh, John; Karnes, Frances; Eiers, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors emphasize that good sleep health is essential if gifted children are to gain the greatest benefit from opportunities to grow intellectually, socially, and spiritually while maintaining good psychological and physical health. The outstanding abilities that characterize these children and enable high levels of…

  5. Order Lunch Early, Lose Weight Later?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160190.html Order Lunch Early, Lose Weight Later? Study found those ... a new study suggests. Researchers examined the lunch orders of 690 employees using a corporate cafeteria and ...

  6. Medical Mystery: Losing the sense of smell

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hearing Disorders Medical Mystery: Losing the sense of smell Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... a teenager that took away her sense of smell. Photo courtesy of Malone University Imagine, if you ...

  7. 'Doctor, how can I lose weight?'.

    PubMed

    Bright-See, E

    1983-11-01

    Millions of Canadians are trying to lose weight. According to the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company's recently released height and weight tables, some of them don't need to lose weight from a health standpoint. For those who would benefit from weight loss, a good program includes a balanced, low fat, high fiber diet; exercise; behavior modification and moral support. Few of the popular books and self-help groups offer all these essential components. PMID:21283478

  8. Sleep disorders - overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... Narcolepsy; Hypersomina; Daytime sleepiness; Sleep rhythm; Sleep disruptive behaviors; Jet lag ... a regular sleep schedule (sleep rhythm problem) Unusual behaviors during sleep (sleep-disruptive behaviors) PROBLEMS FALLING AND ...

  9. Sleep Eduction: Treatment & Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Benefits Side Effects Variations Tips Healthy Sleep Habits Sleep Disorders by Category Insomnias Insomnia Child Insomnia Short Sleeper Hypersomnias Narcolepsy Insufficient Sleep Syndrome Long Sleeper Sleep Breathing Disorders Sleep Apnea Snoring Central Sleep Apnea Overview & Facts ...

  10. Sleep Talking (Somniloquy)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Benefits Side Effects Variations Tips Healthy Sleep Habits Sleep Disorders by Category Insomnias Insomnia Child Insomnia Short Sleeper Hypersomnias Narcolepsy Insufficient Sleep Syndrome Long Sleeper Sleep Breathing Disorders Sleep Apnea Snoring Central Sleep Apnea Overview & Facts ...

  11. Sleep Apnea Information Page

    MedlinePlus

    ... is Sleep Apnea? Sleep apnea is a common sleep disorder characterized by brief interruptions of breathing during sleep. ... better ways to prevent, treat, and ultimately cure sleep disorders, such as sleep apnea. NIH Patient Recruitment for ...

  12. Healthy Sleep Habits

    MedlinePlus

    ... Benefits Side Effects Variations Tips Healthy Sleep Habits Sleep Disorders by Category Insomnias Insomnia Child Insomnia Short Sleeper Hypersomnias Narcolepsy Insufficient Sleep Syndrome Long Sleeper Sleep Breathing Disorders Sleep Apnea Snoring Central Sleep Apnea Overview & Facts ...

  13. Changing your sleep habits

    MedlinePlus

    Insomnia - sleep habits; Sleep disorder - sleep habits; Problems falling asleep; Sleep hygiene ... People who have insomnia are often worried about getting enough sleep. The more they try to sleep, the more frustrated and upset they ...

  14. Sleep Apnea

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep apnea is a common disorder that causes your breathing to stop or get very shallow. Breathing ... an hour. The most common type is obstructive sleep apnea. It causes your airway to collapse or ...

  15. Sleep Apnea

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep apnea is a common disorder that causes your breathing to stop or get very shallow. Breathing pauses ... an hour. The most common type is obstructive sleep apnea. It causes your airway to collapse or become ...

  16. Sleep Behavior and Unemployment Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Antillón, Marina; Mullahy, John

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has reported that habitually short sleep duration is a risk factor for declining health, including increased risk of obesity, diabetes and coronary heart disease. In this study we investigate whether macroeconomic conditions are associated with variation in mean sleep time in the United States, and if so, whether the effect is procyclical or countercyclical. We merge state unemployment rates from 2003 through 2012 with the American Time Use Survey, a nationally representative sample of adults with 24 hour time diaries. We find that higher aggregate unemployment is associated with longer mean sleep duration, with each additional point of state unemployment associated with an additional average 0.83 minutes of sleep (p<0.001), after adjusting for a secular trend of increasing sleep over the time period. Despite a national poll in 2009 that found one-third of Americans reporting losing sleep over the economy, we do not find that higher state unemployment is associated with more sleeplessness. Instead, we find that higher state unemployment is associated with less frequent time use described as “sleeplessness” (marginal effect = 0.05 at 4% unemployment and 0.034 at 14% unemployment, p<0.001), after controlling for a secular trend. PMID:24958451

  17. Alterations in sleep architecture in response to experimental sleep curtailment are associated with signs of positive energy balance

    PubMed Central

    Shechter, Ari; O'Keeffe, Majella; Roberts, Amy L.; Zammit, Gary K.; RoyChoudhury, Arindam

    2012-01-01

    Sleep reduction is associated with increased energy intake and weight gain, though few studies have explored the relationship between sleep architecture and energy balance measures in the context of experimental sleep restriction. Fourteen males and 13 females (body mass index: 22–26 kg/m2) participated in a crossover sleep curtailment study. Participants were studied under two sleep conditions: short (4 h/night; 0100–0500 h) and habitual (9 h/night; 2200–0700 h), for 5 nights each. Sleep was polysomnographically recorded nightly. Outcome measures included resting metabolic rate (RMR), feelings of appetite-satiety, and ad libitum food intake. Short sleep resulted in reductions in stage 2 sleep and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep duration (P < 0.001), as well as decreased percentage of stage 2 sleep and REM sleep and increased slow wave sleep (SWS) percentage (P < 0.05). Linear mixed model analysis demonstrated a positive association between stage 2 sleep duration and RMR (P = 0.051). Inverse associations were observed between REM sleep duration and hunger (P = 0.031) and between stage 2 sleep duration and appetite for sweet (P = 0.015) and salty (P = 0.046) foods. Stage 2 sleep percentage was inversely related to energy consumed (P = 0.024). Stage 2 sleep (P = 0.005), SWS (P = 0.008), and REM sleep (P = 0.048) percentages were inversely related to fat intake, and SWS (P = 0.040) and REM sleep (P = 0.050) were inversely related to carbohydrate intake. This study demonstrates that changes in sleep architecture are associated with markers of positive energy balance and indicate a means by which exposure to short sleep duration and/or an altered sleep architecture profile may lead to excess weight gain over time. PMID:22972835

  18. Is sleep deprivation a contributor to obesity in children?

    PubMed

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2016-03-01

    Chronic lack of sleep (called "sleep deprivation") is common in modern societies with 24/7 availability of commodities. Accumulating evidence supports the role of reduced sleep as contributing to the current obesity epidemic in children and youth. Longitudinal studies have consistently shown that short sleep duration is associated with weight gain and the development of obesity. Recent experimental studies have reported that sleep restriction leads to weight gain in humans. Increased food intake appears to be the main mechanism by which insufficient sleep results in weight gain. Voluntary sleep restriction has been shown to increase snacking, the number of meals eaten per day, and the preference for energy-dense foods. Although the causes of sleep loss in the pediatric population are numerous, more research looking at screen exposure before bedtime and its effects on sleep is needed given the pervasiveness of electronic media devices in today's environment. Health professionals should routinely ask questions about sleep and promote a good night's sleep because insufficient sleep impacts activity and eating behaviors. Future research should examine the clinical benefits of increasing sleep duration on eating behaviors and body weight control and determine the importance of adequate sleep to improve the treatment of obesity. PMID:26576804

  19. Mammalian sleep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staunton, Hugh

    2005-05-01

    This review examines the biological background to the development of ideas on rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep), so-called paradoxical sleep (PS), and its relation to dreaming. Aspects of the phenomenon which are discussed include physiological changes and their anatomical location, the effects of total and selective sleep deprivation in the human and animal, and REM sleep behavior disorder, the latter with its clinical manifestations in the human. Although dreaming also occurs in other sleep phases (non-REM or NREM sleep), in the human, there is a contingent relation between REM sleep and dreaming. Thus, REM is taken as a marker for dreaming and as REM is distributed ubiquitously throughout the mammalian class, it is suggested that other mammals also dream. It is suggested that the overall function of REM sleep/dreaming is more important than the content of the individual dream; its function is to place the dreamer protagonist/observer on the topographical world. This has importance for the developing infant who needs to develop a sense of self and separateness from the world which it requires to navigate and from which it is separated for long periods in sleep. Dreaming may also serve to maintain a sense of ‘I’ness or “self” in the adult, in whom a fragility of this faculty is revealed in neurological disorders.

  20. Bubble-fusion professor loses faculty post

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2008-10-01

    Purdue University in the US has announced that Rusi Taleyarkhan - who was found guilty of scientific misconduct by the university in July - will lose his title of Al Bement Jr Professor of Nuclear Engineering and will not be able to advise graduate students for at least three years. Purdue has also denied an appeal from the researcher about the misconduct verdict.

  1. Obstructive sleep apnea - adults

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep apnea - obstructive - adults; Apnea - obstructive sleep apnea syndrome - adults; Sleep-disordered breathing - adults; OSA - adults ... the upper airway for obstructive sleep apnea in adults. Sleep . 2010;33:1408-1413. PMID: 21061864 www. ...

  2. National Sleep Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Turkish Ukrainian Urdu Vietnamese Welsh Yiddish Choose a Sleep Topic sleep.org Sleep Disorders View More Items ... Recommendations. More Join Now Become a Professional Member Sleep.org Footer Redirect Learn about how sleep impacts ...

  3. Sleep disorders - overview

    MedlinePlus

    Insomnia; Narcolepsy; Hypersomina; Daytime sleepiness; Sleep rhythm; Sleep disruptive behaviors; Jet lag ... excessive daytime sleepiness) Problems sticking to a regular sleep schedule (sleep rhythm problem) Unusual behaviors during sleep ( ...

  4. Sleep and Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... There are two types of sleep: non-rapid eye movement -- or NREM sleep -- and rapid eye movement -- or REM sleep. NREM sleep includes four stages, ranging from light to deep sleep. Then we go into REM sleep, the most active ... During REM sleep, the eyes move back and forth beneath the eyelids and ...

  5. Sleep Disorders Associated with Primary Mitochondrial Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ramezani, Ryan J.; Stacpoole, Peter W.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Primary mitochondrial diseases are caused by heritable or spontaneous mutations in nuclear DNA or mitochondrial DNA. Such pathological mutations are relatively common in humans and may lead to neurological and neuromuscular complication that could compromise normal sleep behavior. To gain insight into the potential impact of primary mitochondrial disease and sleep pathology, we reviewed the relevant English language literature in which abnormal sleep was reported in association with a mitochondrial disease. Design: We examined publications reported in Web of Science and PubMed from February 1976 through January 2014, and identified 54 patients with a proven or suspected primary mitochondrial disorder who were evaluated for sleep disturbances. Measurements and Results: Both nuclear DNA and mitochondrial DNA mutations were associated with abnormal sleep patterns. Most subjects who underwent polysomnography had central sleep apnea, and only 5 patients had obstructive sleep apnea. Twenty-four patients showed decreased ventilatory drive in response to hypoxia and/or hypercapnia that was not considered due to weakness of the intrinsic muscles of respiration. Conclusions: Sleep pathology may be an underreported complication of primary mitochondrial diseases. The probable underlying mechanism is cellular energy failure causing both central neurological and peripheral neuromuscular degenerative changes that commonly present as central sleep apnea and poor ventilatory response to hypercapnia. Increased recognition of the genetics and clinical manifestations of mitochondrial diseases by sleep researchers and clinicians is important in the evaluation and treatment of all patients with sleep disturbances. Prospective population-based studies are required to determine the true prevalence of mitochondrial energy failure in subjects with sleep disorders, and conversely, of individuals with primary mitochondrial diseases and sleep pathology. Citation: Ramezani RJ

  6. Surviving the tornado of mental illness: psychiatric survivors' experiences of getting, losing, and keeping housing.

    PubMed

    Forchuk, Cheryl; Ward-Griffin, Catherine; Csiernik, Rick; Turner, Katherine

    2006-04-01

    This qualitative study explored experiences of psychiatric consumer-survivors related to housing. Nine focus groups involving 90 people were conducted in urban and rural areas in South-Western Ontario. A set of open-ended questions was used. Many participants described a devastating experience of losing much of what was important to them and going through a long arduous process to rebuild their lives. Group discussions were audiotaped and transcribed. Individual and team analyses of the transcripts revealed that psychiatric survivors experienced three levels of upheaval, loss, and destruction, similar to the effects of a tornado: losing ground, struggling to survive, and gaining stability. Within each of these levels, five major themes were identified: living in fear, losing control of basic human rights, attempting to hold onto and create relationships, identifying supports and seeking services, and obtaining personal space and place. A caring community response, including adequate housing, income support, and community care, can help people rebuild their lives. PMID:16603754

  7. The "Biggest Loser" Expounds on the Benefits of Losing Pounds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section The "Biggest Loser" Expounds on the Benefits of Losing Pounds Past Issues / Winter 2008 ... 186 pounds, going from 361 to 175 pounds. The Twins on Losing Weight Bill: "The only way ...

  8. Troubled sleep

    PubMed Central

    Haig, David

    2014-01-01

    Disrupted sleep is probably the most common complaint of parents with a new baby. Night waking increases in the second half of the first year of infant life and is more pronounced for breastfed infants. Sleep-related phenotypes of infants with Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes suggest that imprinted genes of paternal origin promote greater wakefulness whereas imprinted genes of maternal origin favor more consolidated sleep. All these observations are consistent with a hypothesis that waking at night to suckle is an adaptation of infants to extend their mothers’ lactational amenorrhea, thus delaying the birth of a younger sib and enhancing infant survival. PMID:24610432

  9. Protein-losing nephropathy in small animals.

    PubMed

    Littman, Meryl P

    2011-01-01

    Genetic and acquired defects of glomerular permselectivity may lead to proteinuria and protein-losing nephropathy (PLN). Morbidity and mortality from complications of PLN may be severe even before progression to azotemia and renal failure. Leakage of plasma proteins into the glomerular filtrate can damage tubular cells and the function of the entire nephron. Detection, localization, and treatment of proteinuria are important to decrease the clinical signs and complications of PLN and the likelihood of progression to renal failure. Thorough diagnostic work-ups help to identify subsets of glomerular disease and their response to specific treatment protocols. PMID:21251510

  10. Sleep-Dependent Consolidation of Procedural Motor Memories in Children and Adults: The Pre-Sleep Level of Performance Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Ines; Metzkow-Meszaros, Maila; Knapp, Susanne; Born, Jan

    2012-01-01

    In striking contrast to adults, in children sleep following training a motor task did not induce the expected (offline) gain in motor skill performance in previous studies. Children normally perform at distinctly lower levels than adults. Moreover, evidence in adults suggests that sleep dependent offline gains in skill essentially depend on the…

  11. Exercise & Sleep

    MedlinePlus

    ... on. Feature: Back to School, the Healthy Way Exercise & Sleep Past Issues / Fall 2012 Table of Contents ... helps kids. Photo: iStock 6 "Bests" About Kids' Exercise At least one hour of physical activity a ...

  12. Sleeping sickness

    MedlinePlus

    Human African trypanosomiasis ... Kirchoff LV. Agents of African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness). In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolan R, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases . 8th ...

  13. American Sleep Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... of sleep. Why we sleep. Why do we dream? Sleep Hygiene Tips Get good sleep now. What ... Forum Posts 90 minute rule. _ Re: Insomnia question _ Artificial foods acting as stimulant and causing insomnia _ DNP ...

  14. Pediatric sleep apnea

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep apnea - pediatric; Apnea - pediatric sleep apnea syndrome; Sleep-disordered breathing - pediatric ... During sleep, all of the muscles in the body become more relaxed. This includes the muscles that help keep ...

  15. Obstructive sleep apnea - adults

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep apnea - obstructive - adults; Apnea - obstructive sleep apnea syndrome - adults; Sleep-disordered breathing - adults; OSA - adults ... When you sleep, all of the muscles in your body become more relaxed. This includes the muscles that help keep your ...

  16. Isolated sleep paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... from sleep. It is not associated with another sleep disorder. ... Sleep paralysis can be a symptom of narcolepsy . But if you do not have other symptoms of narcolepsy, there is usually no need to have sleep studies done.

  17. Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep

    MedlinePlus

    ... Many of the body's cells also show increased production and reduced breakdown of proteins during deep sleep. ... deep sleep, REM sleep is associated with increased production of proteins. One study found that REM sleep ...

  18. Snoring and Sleep Apnea

    MedlinePlus

    ... Find an ENT Doctor Near You Snoring and Sleep Apnea Snoring and Sleep Apnea Patient Health Information ... newsroom@entnet.org . Insight into sleeping disorders and sleep apnea Forty-five percent of normal adults snore ...

  19. Pediatric sleep apnea

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep apnea - pediatric; Apnea - pediatric sleep apnea syndrome; Sleep-disordered breathing - pediatric ... Untreated pediatric sleep apnea may lead to: High blood pressure Heart or lung problems Slow growth and development

  20. Isolated sleep paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... from sleep. It is not associated with another sleep disorder. Symptoms Episodes of isolated sleep paralysis last from ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Sleep Disorders Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  1. American Sleep Apnea Association

    MedlinePlus

    American Sleep Apnea Association Learn About the CPAP Assistance Program About ASAA News about ASAA Who we are Leadership Team Supporting the ASAA Financials Learn Healthy sleep Sleep apnea Other sleep disorders Personal stories Treat Test Yourself ...

  2. Male ironman triathletes lose skeletal muscle mass.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Baumann, Barbara; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether male triathletes in an Ironman triathlon lose body mass in the form of fat mass or skeletal muscle mass in a field study at the Ironman Switzerland in 27 male Caucasian non-professional Ironman triathletes. Pre- and post-race body mass, fat mass and skeletal muscle mass were determined. In addition, total body water, hematological and urinary parameters were measured in order to quantify hydration status. Body mass decreased by 1.8 kg (p< 0.05), skeletal muscle decreased by 1.0 kg (p< 0.05) whereas fat mass showed no changes. Urinary specific gravity, plasma urea and plasma volume increased (p< 0.05). Pre- to post-race change (Delta) in body mass was not associated with ? skeletal muscle mass. Additionally, there was no association between Delta plasma urea and Delta skeletal muscle mass; Delta plasma volume was not associated with Delta total body water (p< 0.05). We concluded that male triathletes in an Ironman triathlon lose 1.8 kg of body mass and 1 kg of skeletal muscle mass, presumably due to a depletion of intramyocellular stored glycogen and lipids. PMID:20199992

  3. Refreshing Sleep and Sleep Continuity Determine Perceived Sleep Quality.

    PubMed

    Libman, Eva; Fichten, Catherine; Creti, Laura; Conrod, Kerry; Tran, Dieu-Ly; Grad, Roland; Jorgensen, Mary; Amsel, Rhonda; Rizzo, Dorrie; Baltzan, Marc; Pavilanis, Alan; Bailes, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Sleep quality is a construct often measured, employed as an outcome criterion for therapeutic success, but never defined. In two studies we examined appraised good and poor sleep quality in three groups: a control group, individuals with obstructive sleep apnea, and those with insomnia disorder. In Study 1 we used qualitative methodology to examine good and poor sleep quality in 121 individuals. In Study 2 we examined sleep quality in 171 individuals who had not participated in Study 1 and evaluated correlates and predictors of sleep quality. Across all six samples and both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, the daytime experience of feeling refreshed (nonrefreshed) in the morning and the nighttime experience of good (impaired) sleep continuity characterized perceived good and poor sleep. Our results clarify sleep quality as a construct and identify refreshing sleep and sleep continuity as potential clinical and research outcome measures. PMID:27413553

  4. Refreshing Sleep and Sleep Continuity Determine Perceived Sleep Quality

    PubMed Central

    Fichten, Catherine; Creti, Laura; Conrod, Kerry; Tran, Dieu-Ly; Grad, Roland; Jorgensen, Mary; Amsel, Rhonda; Rizzo, Dorrie; Baltzan, Marc; Pavilanis, Alan; Bailes, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Sleep quality is a construct often measured, employed as an outcome criterion for therapeutic success, but never defined. In two studies we examined appraised good and poor sleep quality in three groups: a control group, individuals with obstructive sleep apnea, and those with insomnia disorder. In Study 1 we used qualitative methodology to examine good and poor sleep quality in 121 individuals. In Study 2 we examined sleep quality in 171 individuals who had not participated in Study 1 and evaluated correlates and predictors of sleep quality. Across all six samples and both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, the daytime experience of feeling refreshed (nonrefreshed) in the morning and the nighttime experience of good (impaired) sleep continuity characterized perceived good and poor sleep. Our results clarify sleep quality as a construct and identify refreshing sleep and sleep continuity as potential clinical and research outcome measures. PMID:27413553

  5. Electroencephalographic studies of sleep

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, W. B.; Agnew, H. W., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Various experimental studies on sleep are described. The following areas are discussed: (1) effect of altered day length on sleep, (2) effect of a partial loss of sleep on subsequent nocturnal sleep; (3) effect of rigid control over sleep-wake-up times; (4) sleep and wakefulness in a time-free environment; (5) distribution of spindles during a full night of sleep; and (6) effect on sleep and performance of swiftly changing shifts of work.

  6. Sleep quality influences subsequent motor skill acquisition.

    PubMed

    Appleman, Erica R; Albouy, Genevieve; Doyon, Julien; Cronin-Golomb, Alice; King, Bradley R

    2016-06-01

    While the influence of sleep on motor memory consolidation has been extensively investigated, its relation to initial skill acquisition is less well understood. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of sleep quality and quantity on subsequent motor skill acquisition in young adults without sleep disorders. Fifty-five healthy adults (mean age = 23.8 years; 34 women) wore actigraph wristbands for 4 nights, which provided data on sleep patterns before the experiment, and then returned to the laboratory to engage in a motor sequence learning task (explicit 5-item finger sequence tapping task). Indicators of sleep quality and quantity were then regressed on a measure of motor skill acquisition (Gains Within Training, GWT). Wake After Sleep Onset (WASO; i.e., the total amount of time the participants spent awake after falling asleep) was significantly and negatively related to GWT. This effect was not because of general arousal level, which was measured immediately before the motor task. Conversely, there was no relationship between GWT and sleep duration or self-reported sleep quality. These results indicate that sleep quality, as assessed by WASO and objectively measured with actigraphy before the motor task, significantly impacts motor skill acquisition in young healthy adults without sleep disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26881313

  7. The Influence of Sleep Disordered Breathing on Weight Loss in a National Weight Management Program

    PubMed Central

    Janney, Carol A.; Kilbourne, Amy M.; Germain, Anne; Lai, Zongshan; Hoerster, Katherine D.; Goodrich, David E.; Klingaman, Elizabeth A.; Verchinina, Lilia; Richardson, Caroline R.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objective: To investigate the influence of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) on weight loss in overweight/obese veterans enrolled in MOVE!, a nationally implemented behavioral weight management program delivered by the National Veterans Health Administration health system. Methods: This observational study evaluated weight loss by SDB status in overweight/obese veterans enrolled in MOVE! from May 2008–February 2012 who had at least two MOVE! visits, baseline weight, and at least one follow-up weight (n = 84,770). SDB was defined by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. Primary outcome was weight change (lb) from MOVE! enrollment to 6- and 12-mo assessments. Weight change over time was modeled with repeated-measures analyses. Results: SDB was diagnosed in one-third of the cohort (n = 28,269). At baseline, veterans with SDB weighed 29 [48] lb more than those without SDB (P < 0.001). On average, veterans attended eight MOVE! visits. Weight loss patterns over time were statistically different between veterans with and without SDB (P < 0.001); veterans with SDB lost less weight (−2.5 [0.1] lb) compared to those without SDB (−3.3 [0.1] lb; P = 0.001) at 6 months. At 12 mo, veterans with SDB continued to lose weight whereas veterans without SDB started to re-gain weight. Conclusions: Veterans with sleep disordered breathing (SDB) had significantly less weight loss over time than veterans without SDB. SDB should be considered in the development and implementation of weight loss programs due to its high prevalence and negative effect on health. Citation: Janney CA, Kilbourne AM, Germain A, Lai Z, Hoerster KD, Goodrich DE, Klingaman EA, Verchinina L, Richardson CR. The influence of sleep disordered breathing on weight loss in a national weight management program. SLEEP 2016;39(1):59–65. PMID:26350475

  8. Neuroimmunologic aspects of sleep and sleep loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, N. L.; Szuba, M. P.; Staab, J. P.; Evans, D. L.; Dinges, D. F.

    2001-01-01

    The complex and intimate interactions between the sleep and immune systems have been the focus of study for several years. Immune factors, particularly the interleukins, regulate sleep and in turn are altered by sleep and sleep deprivation. The sleep-wake cycle likewise regulates normal functioning of the immune system. Although a large number of studies have focused on the relationship between the immune system and sleep, relatively few studies have examined the effects of sleep deprivation on immune parameters. Studies of sleep deprivation's effects are important for several reasons. First, in the 21st century, various societal pressures require humans to work longer and sleep less. Sleep deprivation is becoming an occupational hazard in many industries. Second, to garner a greater understanding of the regulatory effects of sleep on the immune system, one must understand the consequences of sleep deprivation on the immune system. Significant detrimental effects on immune functioning can be seen after a few days of total sleep deprivation or even several days of partial sleep deprivation. Interestingly, not all of the changes in immune physiology that occur as a result of sleep deprivation appear to be negative. Numerous medical disorders involving the immune system are associated with changes in the sleep-wake physiology--either being caused by sleep dysfunction or being exacerbated by sleep disruption. These disorders include infectious diseases, fibromyalgia, cancers, and major depressive disorder. In this article, we will describe the relationships between sleep physiology and the immune system, in states of health and disease. Interspersed will be proposals for future research that may illuminate the clinical relevance of the relationships between sleeping, sleep loss and immune function in humans. Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company.

  9. Assessment of sleep in patients with fibromyalgia: qualitative development of the fibromyalgia sleep diary

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Sleep disturbance is a common experience in fibromyalgia (FM). The field lacks a sleep specific patient reported outcome (PRO) measure developed and validated in a FM population. The study objective is to gain an in-depth understanding of sleep in FM and to develop a PRO measure of it. Methods Research involved the following stages: 1) A literature review conducted to identify key concepts associated with FM patient experience of sleep and PRO measures that have been used to assess this; 2) Qualitative interviews with therapeutic area experts; 3) Focus groups with FM patients who experienced sleep disturbance; 4) Development of a conceptual framework and the Fibromyalgia Sleep Diary (FMSD); and 5) Cognitive interviews with patients to explore content validity of the FMSD. Results The literature review and expert interviews supported sleep disturbance being an important aspect of the FM patient experience, and underscored the need for a new FM specific sleep PRO measure. Results from the focus groups demonstrated that FM patients experience sleep disturbances that they attribute to their FM symptoms, such as pain and stiffness, confirming the importance of understanding more about sleep changes. Aspects of sleep raised by FM patients included poor sleep quality and insufficient quantity including difficulty with falling asleep, getting comfortable, and staying asleep; restlessness; light sleep; not feeling rested upon awakening; and difficulty starting the day. Cognitive interview results showed that the 8-item FMSD, developed to reflect the concepts identified above, was relevant to FM patients with content that was interpreted as intended. Conclusions The FMSD was developed in line with the recommendations of the FDA PRO guidance and ISPOR PRO Task Force. The qualitative evidence generated thus far strongly supports the content validity of the FMSD as a PRO measure of sleep disturbance in FM populations. Psychometric evaluation of the FMSD to

  10. Quantitative genetic research on sleep: a review of normal sleep, sleep disturbances and associated emotional, behavioural, and health-related difficulties.

    PubMed

    Barclay, Nicola L; Gregory, Alice M

    2013-02-01

    Over the past 50 years, well over 100 twin studies have focussed on understanding factors contributing to variability in normal sleep-wake characteristics and sleep disturbances. Whilst we have gained a great deal from these studies, there is still much to be learnt. Twin studies can be used in multiple ways to answer questions beyond simply estimating heritability. This paper provides a comprehensive review of some of the most important findings from twin studies relating to sleep to date, with a focus on studies investigating genetic and environmental influences contributing to i) objective and subjective measures of normal sleep characteristics (e.g., sleep stage organisation, sleep quality); as well as sleep disturbances and disorders such as dyssomnias (e.g., insomnia, narcolepsy) and parasomnias (e.g., sleepwalking, bruxism); ii) the persistence of sleep problems from childhood to adulthood, and the possibility that the aetiological influences on sleep change with age; iii) the associations between sleep disturbances, emotional, behavioural and health-related problems; and iv) processes of gene-environment correlation and interaction. We highlight avenues for further research, emphasising the need to further consider the aetiology of longitudinal associations between sleep disturbances and psychopathology; the genetic and environmental overlap between sleep and numerous phenotypes; and processes of gene-environment interplay and epigenetics. PMID:22560641

  11. Gaining Momentum, Losing Ground. Tapping America's Potential (TAP) Progress Report, 2008. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapping America's Potential, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In July 2005, Business Roundtable and fifteen of America's most prominent business organizations--Tapping America's Potential, the TAP coalition--issued a report stating that "one of the pillars of American economic prosperity--U.S. scientific and technological superiority--is beginning to atrophy even as other nations are developing their own…

  12. Gaining Access or Losing Ground? Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Students in Undergraduate Engineering, 1994-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundy-Wagner, Valerie C.; Veenstra, Cindy P.; Orr, Marisa K.; Ramirez, Nichole M.; Ohland, Matthew W.; Long, Russell A.

    2014-01-01

    Expanding access to engineering for underrepresented groups has by and large focused on ethnicity/race and gender, with little understanding of socioeconomic disadvantages. In this study, we use economic, human, and cultural capital theories to frame and then describe access to undergraduate engineering degree programs and bachelor's degrees.…

  13. Gaining myocytes or losing fibroblasts: Challenges in cardiac fibroblast reprogramming for infarct repair.

    PubMed

    Nagalingam, Raghu S; Safi, Hamza A; Czubryt, Michael P

    2016-04-01

    Unlike most somatic tissues, the heart possesses a very limited inherent ability to repair itself following damage. Attempts to therapeutically salvage the myocardium after infarction, either by sparing surviving myocytes or by injection of exogenous cells of varied provenance, have met with limited success. Cardiac fibroblasts are numerous, resistant to hypoxia, and amenable to phenotype reprogramming to cardiomyocytes - a potential panacea to an intractable problem. However, the long-term effects of mass conversion of fibroblasts are as-yet unknown. Since fibroblasts play key roles in normal cardiac function, treating these cells as a ready source of replacements for myocytes may have the effect of swapping one problem for another. This review briefly examines the roles of cardiac fibroblasts, recaps the strides made so far in their reprogramming to cardiomyocytes both in vitro and in vivo, and discusses the potential ramifications of large-scale cellular identity swapping. While such therapy offers great promise, the potential repercussions require consideration and careful study. PMID:26640115

  14. Losing the Lake: Simulations to Promote Gains in Student Knowledge and Interest about Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nussbaum, E. Michael; Owens, Marissa C.; Sinatra, Gale M.; Rehmat, Abeera P.; Cordova, Jacqueline R.; Ahmad, Sajjad; Harris, Fred C., Jr.; Dascalu, Sergiu M.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change literacy plays a key role in promoting sound political decisions and promoting sustainable consumption patterns. Based on evidence suggesting that student understanding and interest in climate change is best accomplished through studying local effects, we developed a simulation/game exploring the impact of climate change on the…

  15. Another health insurance gap: gaining and losing coverage among natives and immigrants at older ages.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Adriana M; Hardy, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    As the immigrant population grows older and larger, limitations on access to health insurance may create a new subgroup of people who remain outside or on the margin of coverage. Using the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) data from the 2004 and 2008 panels, we address the health insurance gap between foreign-born and native-born adults among those aged 50-64 and the 65 and older, two sub-populations that have received relatively little attention in past research. We argue that current practices leave a significant minority of older foreign-born residents inconsistently covered or without any insurance. We find that health insurance coverage for older immigrants is both less likely and more episodic even when compositional differences in SES and assimilation are controlled. PMID:24267758

  16. Sleep in Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    PubMed

    Iranzo, Alex

    2016-03-01

    Disorders of sleep are an integral part of neurodegenerative diseases and include insomnia, sleep-wake cycle disruption, excessive daytime sleepiness that may be manifested as persistent somnolence or sudden onset of sleep episodes, obstructive and central sleep apnea, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, and restless legs syndrome. The origin of these sleep disorders is multifactorial including degeneration of the brain areas that modulate sleep, the symptoms of the disease, and the effect of medications. Treatment of sleep disorders in patients with neurodegenerative diseases should be individualized and includes behavioral therapy, sleep hygiene, bright light therapy, melatonin, hypnotics, waking-promoting agents, and continuous positive airway pressure. PMID:26972029

  17. Resonator modes in high gain free electron lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Ming ); Deacon, D.A.G. ); Madey, J.M.J. . Dept. of Physics)

    1989-10-01

    When the gain in a free electron laser is high enough to produce optical guiding, the resonator mode distorts and loses its forward-backward symmetry. We show that the resonator mode in a high gain FEL can be easily constructed using the mode expansion technique taken separately in the interaction and the free-space regions. We propose design strategies to achieve maximal gain and optimal mode quality, and discuss the stability of the optimized mode. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Is the Fungus Magnaporthe Losing DNA Methylation?

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Ken-ichi; Van Vu, Ba; Kadotani, Naoki; Tanaka, Masaki; Murata, Toshiki; Shiina, Kohta; Chuma, Izumi; Tosa, Yukio; Nakayashiki, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    The long terminal repeat retrotransposon, Magnaporthe gypsy-like element (MAGGY), has been shown to be targeted for cytosine methylation in a subset of Magnaporthe oryzae field isolates. Analysis of the F1 progeny from a genetic cross between methylation-proficient (Br48) and methylation-deficient (GFSI1-7-2) isolates revealed that methylation of the MAGGY element was governed by a single dominant gene. Positional cloning followed by gene disruption and complementation experiments revealed that the responsible gene was the DNA methyltransferase, MoDMT1, an ortholog of Neurospora crassa Dim-2. A survey of MAGGY methylation in 60 Magnaporthe field isolates revealed that 42 isolates from rice, common millet, wheat, finger millet, and buffelgrass were methylation proficient while 18 isolates from foxtail millet, green bristlegrass, Japanese panicgrass, torpedo grass, Guinea grass, and crabgrass were methylation deficient. Phenotypic analyses showed that MoDMT1 plays no major role in development and pathogenicity of the fungus. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the average copy number of genomic MAGGY elements was not significantly different between methylation-deficient and -proficient field isolates even though the levels of MAGGY transcript were generally higher in the former group. MoDMT1 gene sequences in the methylation-deficient isolates suggested that at least three independent mutations were responsible for the loss of MoDMT1 function. Overall, our data suggest that MoDMT1 is not essential for the natural life cycle of the fungus and raise the possibility that the genus Magnaporthe may be losing the mechanism of DNA methylation on the evolutionary time scale. PMID:23979580

  19. 21 CFR 182.1745 - Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose. 182.1745 Section... GRAS Food Substances § 182.1745 Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose. (a) Product. Sodium carboxy-methylcellulose is the sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose not less than 99.5 percent on a dry-weight...

  20. 21 CFR 182.1745 - Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose. 182.1745 Section... (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1745 Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose. (a) Product. Sodium carboxy-methylcellulose is the sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose...

  1. 21 CFR 182.1745 - Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose. 182.1745 Section... GRAS Food Substances § 182.1745 Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose. (a) Product. Sodium carboxy-methylcellulose is the sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose not less than 99.5 percent on a dry-weight...

  2. 21 CFR 182.1745 - Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose. 182.1745 Section... GRAS Food Substances § 182.1745 Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose. (a) Product. Sodium carboxy-methylcellulose is the sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose not less than 99.5 percent on a dry-weight...

  3. Sleep Changes in Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... ages can have a sleep disorder such as sleep apnea. Restless legs syndrome or periodic limb movement disorder ... that can cause problems with sleep. What is sleep apnea? Sleep apnea is a disorder in which a ...

  4. Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator You are here Home / Online Tools Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator Print Share Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator Pregnancy Weight Gain Intro ...

  5. Sleep Apnea Detection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Sleep > Sleep Apnea ...

  6. Medicines for sleep

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000758.htm Medicines for sleep To use the sharing features on ... or illegal drug use Over-the-counter sleep medicines Most over-the-counter (OTC) sleeping pills contain ...

  7. Treatments for Sleep Changes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contributing medical factors Non-drug strategies Medications Common sleep changes Many people with Alzheimer’s experience changes in ... at night. Subscribe now Non-drug treatments for sleep changes Non-drug treatments aim to improve sleep ...

  8. Good Night's Sleep

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms to see if you might have a sleep disorder like insomnia, sleep apnea, or a movement disorder. ... periodic limb movement disorder, and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder are common in older adults. These movement disorders ...

  9. Sleep and your health

    MedlinePlus

    ... and awake, even when you are very tired. Sleep disorders Sleep problems are a big reason why many ... through the night. It is the most common sleep disorder. Insomnia can last for a night, a couple ...

  10. Aging changes in sleep

    MedlinePlus

    ... CHANGES Sleeping difficulty is an annoying problem. Chronic insomnia is a major cause of auto accidents and ... health condition is affecting your sleep. COMMON PROBLEMS Insomnia is one of the more common sleep problems ...

  11. Role of Sleep and Sleep Loss in Hormonal Release and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Leproult, Rachel; Van Cauter, Eve

    2011-01-01

    Compared to a few decades ago, adults, as well as children, sleep less. Sleeping as little as possible is often seen as an admirable behavior in contemporary society. However, sleep plays a major role in neuroendocrine function and glucose metabolism. Evidence that the curtailment of sleep duration may have adverse health effects has emerged in the past 10 years. Accumulating evidence from both epidemiologic studies and well-controlled laboratory studies indicates that chronic partial sleep loss may increase the risk of obesity and weight gain. The present chapter reviews epidemiologic studies in adults and children and laboratory studies in young adults indicating that sleep restriction results in metabolic and endocrine alterations, including decreased glucose tolerance, decreased insulin sensitivity, increased evening concentrations of cortisol, increased levels of ghrelin, decreased levels of leptin and increased hunger and appetite. Altogether, the evidence points to a possible role of decreased sleep duration in the current epidemic of obesity. Bedtime extension in short sleepers should be explored as a novel behavioral intervention that may prevent weight gain or facilitate weight loss. Avoiding sleep deprivation may help to prevent the development of obesity, particularly in children. PMID:19955752

  12. The Neurobiology of Orofacial Pain and Sleep and Their Interactions.

    PubMed

    Lavigne, G J; Sessle, B J

    2016-09-01

    This article provides an overview of the neurobiology of orofacial pain as well as the neural processes underlying sleep, with a particular focus on the mechanisms that underlie pain and sleep interactions including sleep disorders. Acute pain is part of a hypervigilance system that alerts the individual to injury or potential injury of tissues. It can also disturb sleep. Disrupted sleep is often associated with chronic pain states, including those that occur in the orofacial region. The article presents many insights that have been gained in the last few decades into the peripheral and central mechanisms involved in orofacial pain and its modulation, as well as the circuits and processes in the central nervous system that underlie sleep. Although it has become clear that sleep is essential to preserve and maintain health, it has also been found that pain, particularly chronic pain, is commonly associated with disturbed sleep. In the presence of chronic pain, a circular relationship may prevail, with mutual deleterious influences causing an increase in pain and a disruption of sleep. This article also reviews findings that indicate that reducing orofacial pain and improving sleep need to be targeted together in the management of acute to chronic orofacial pain states in order to improve an orofacial pain patient's quality of life, to prevent mood alterations or exacerbation of sleep disorder (e.g., insomnia, sleep-disordered breathing) that can negatively affect their pain, and to promote healing and optimize their health. PMID:27154736

  13. Overview of sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Roldan, Glenn; Ang, Robert C

    2006-03-01

    Sleep disorders are common and can affect anyone, from every social class and every ethnic background. It is estimated that more than 70 million Americans are afflicted by chronic sleep disorders. Currently about 88 sleep disorders are described by the International Classification of Sleep Disorders as established by The American Academy of Sleep Medicine. This article describes the dyssomnias and parasomnias most commonly seen in the clinical setting of the sleep disorder clinic or laboratory. PMID:16530646

  14. Sleep disturbances and inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Ali, Tauseef; Orr, William C

    2014-11-01

    With an estimated 70 million Americans suffering, sleep disorders have become a global issue, and discovering their causes and consequences are the focus of many clinical research studies. Sleep is now also considered to be an important environmental and behavioral factor associated with the process of inflammation and the immune system. Increased sleepiness is considered part of the acute phase of response to tissue injury, and sleep loss activates inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Clinical studies in many immune-mediated diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis, have revealed an association of sleep disturbances with disease activity. Recent research suggests that individuals with sleep abnormalities are also at greater risk of serious adverse health, economic consequences, and most importantly increased all-cause mortality. The importance of sleep in inflammatory bowel disease has recently gained attention with some published studies demonstrating the association of sleep disturbances with disease activity, subclinical inflammation, and risk of disease relapse. A comprehensive review of sleep physiology and its association with the immune system is provided here. Experimental and clinical studies exploring this relationship in inflammatory bowel disease are reviewed, and the clinical implications of this relationship and future directions for research are also discussed. PMID:25025716

  15. Increased food intake and changes in metabolic hormones in response to chronic sleep restriction alternated with short periods of sleep allowance.

    PubMed

    Barf, R Paulien; Desprez, Tifany; Meerlo, Peter; Scheurink, Anton J W

    2012-01-01

    Rodent models for sleep restriction have good face validity when examining food intake and related regulatory metabolic hormones. However, in contrast to epidemiological studies in which sleep restriction is associated with body weight gain, sleep-restricted rats show a decrease in body weight. This difference with the human situation might be caused by the alternation between periods of sleep restriction and sleep allowance that often occur in real life. Therefore, we assessed the metabolic consequences of a chronic sleep restriction protocol that modeled working weeks with restricted sleep time alternated by weekends with sleep allowance. We hypothesized that this protocol could lead to body weight gain. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: sleep restriction (SR), forced activity control (FA), and home cage control (HC). SR rats were subjected to chronic sleep restriction by keeping them awake for 20 h per day in slowly rotating drums. To model the human condition, rats were subjected to a 4-wk protocol, with each week consisting of a 5-day period of sleep restriction followed by a 2-day period of sleep allowance. During the first experimental week, SR caused a clear attenuation of growth. In subsequent weeks, two important processes occurred: 1) a remarkable increase in food intake during SR days, 2) an increase in weight gain during the weekends of sleep allowance, even though food intake during those days was comparable to controls. In conclusion, our data revealed that the alternation between periods of sleep restriction and sleep allowance leads to complex changes in food intake and body weight, that prevent the weight loss normally seen in continuous sleep-restricted rats. Therefore, this "week-weekend" protocol may be a better model to study the metabolic consequences of restricted sleep. PMID:22012696

  16. Sleep and sleep disorders in older adults.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Kate

    2011-03-01

    A common but significant change associated with aging is a profound disruption to the daily sleep-wake cycle. It has been estimated that as many as 50% of older adults complain about difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep. Poor sleep results in increased risk of significant morbidity and mortality. Moreover, in younger adults, compromised sleep has been shown to have a consistent effect on cognitive function, which may suggest that sleep problems contribute to the cognitive changes that accompany older age. The multifactorial nature of variables affecting sleep in old age cannot be overstated. Changes in sleep have been thought to reflect normal developmental processes, which can be further compromised by sleep disturbances secondary to medical or psychiatric diseases (e.g., chronic pain, dementia, depression), a primary sleep disorder that can itself be age-related (e.g., Sleep Disordered Breathing and Periodic Limb Movements During Sleep), or some combination of any of these factors. Given that changes in sleep quality and quantity in later life have implications for quality of life and level of functioning, it is imperative to distinguish the normal age-related sleep changes from those originating from pathological processes. PMID:21225347

  17. Chronic sleep deprivation and seasonality: implications for the obesity epidemic.

    PubMed

    Cizza, G; Requena, M; Galli, G; de Jonge, L

    2011-11-01

    Sleep duration has progressively fallen over the last 100 years while obesity has increased in the past 30 years. Several studies have reported an association between chronic sleep deprivation and long-term weight gain. Increased energy intake due to sleep loss has been listed as the main mechanism. The consequences of chronic sleep deprivation on energy expenditure have not been fully explored. Sleep, body weight, mood and behavior are subjected to circannual changes. However, in our modern environment seasonal changes in light and ambient temperature are attenuated. Seasonality, defined as cyclic changes in mood and behavior, is a stable personality trait with a strong genetic component. We hypothesize that the attenuation in seasonal changes in the environment may produce negative consequences, especially in individuals more predisposed to seasonality, such as women. Seasonal affective disorder, a condition more common in women and characterized by depressed mood, hypersomnia, weight gain, and carbohydrate craving during the winter, represents an extreme example of seasonality. One of the postulated functions of sleep is energy preservation. Hibernation, a phenomenon characterized by decreased energy expenditure and changes in the state of arousal, may offer useful insight into the mechanisms behind energy preservation during sleep. The goals of this article are to: a) consider the contribution of changes in energy expenditure to the weight gain due to sleep loss; b) review the phenomena of seasonality, hibernation, and their neuroendocrine mechanisms as they relate to sleep, energy expenditure, and body weight regulation. PMID:21720205

  18. Shifting from Implicit to Explicit Knowledge: Different Roles of Early- and Late-Night Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yordanova, Juliana; Kolev, Vasil; Verleger, Rolf; Bataghva, Zhamak; Born, Jan; Wagner, Ullrich

    2008-01-01

    Sleep has been shown to promote the generation of explicit knowledge as indicated by the gain of insight into previously unrecognized task regularities. Here, we explored whether this generation of explicit knowledge depends on pre-sleep implicit knowledge, and specified the differential roles of slow-wave sleep (SWS) vs. rapid eye movement (REM)…

  19. Too Hot to Sleep? Sleep Behaviour and Surface Body Temperature of Wahlberg’s Epauletted Fruit Bat

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Colleen T.; Awuah, Adwoa; Jordaan, Maryna; Magagula, Londiwe; Mkhize, Truth; Paine, Christine; Raymond-Bourret, Esmaella; Hart, Lorinda A.

    2015-01-01

    The significance of sleep and factors that affect it have been well documented, however, in light of global climate change the effect of temperature on sleep patterns has only recently gained attention. Unlike many mammals, bats (order: Chiroptera) are nocturnal and little is known about their sleep and the effects of ambient temperature (Ta) on their sleep. Consequently we investigated seasonal temperature effects on sleep behaviour and surface body temperature of free-ranging Wahlberg’s epauletted fruit bat, Epomophorus wahlbergi, at a tree roost. Sleep behaviours of E. wahlbergi were recorded, including: sleep duration and sleep incidences (i.e. one eye open and both eyes closed). Sleep differed significantly across all the individuals in terms of sleep duration and sleep incidences. Individuals generally spent more time awake than sleeping. The percentage of each day bats spent asleep was significantly higher during winter (27.6%), compared with summer (15.6%). In summer, 20.7% of the sleeping bats used one eye open sleep, and this is possibly the first evidence of one-eye-sleep in non-marine mammals. Sleep duration decreased with extreme heat as bats spent significantly more time trying to cool by licking their fur, spreading their wings and panting. Skin temperatures of E. wahlbergi were significantly higher when Ta was ≥35°C and no bats slept at these high temperatures. Consequently extremely hot days negatively impact roosting fruit bats, as they were forced to be awake to cool themselves. This has implications for these bats given predicted climate change scenarios. PMID:25775371

  20. Sleep: A Health Imperative

    PubMed Central

    Luyster, Faith S.; Strollo, Patrick J.; Zee, Phyllis C.; Walsh, James K.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic sleep deficiency, defined as a state of inadequate or mistimed sleep, is a growing and underappreciated determinant of health status. Sleep deprivation contributes to a number of molecular, immune, and neural changes that play a role in disease development, independent of primary sleep disorders. These changes in biological processes in response to chronic sleep deficiency may serve as etiological factors for the development and exacerbation of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases and, ultimately, a shortened lifespan. Sleep deprivation also results in significant impairments in cognitive and motor performance which increase the risk of motor vehicle crashes and work-related injuries and fatal accidents. The American Academy of Sleep Medicine and the Sleep Research Society have developed this statement to communicate to national health stakeholders the current knowledge which ties sufficient sleep and circadian alignment in adults to health. Citation: Luyster FS; Strollo PJ; Zee PC; Walsh JK. Sleep: a health imperative. SLEEP 2012;35(6):727-734. PMID:22654183

  1. Sleep Discrepancy, Sleep Complaint, and Poor Sleep Among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Discrepancy between self-report- and actigraphy-measured sleep, often considered an artifact of measurement error, has been well documented among insomnia patients. Sleep problems are common among older adults, and this discrepancy may represent meaningful sleep-related phenomenon, which could have clinical and research significance. Method. Sleep discrepancy was examined in 4 groups of older adults (N = 152, mean age = 71.93 years) based on sleep complaint versus no complaint and presence versus absence of insomnia symptoms. Participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory-second edition (BDI-II) and 14 nights of sleep diaries and actigraphy. Results. Controlling for covariates, group differences were found in the duration and frequency of discrepancy in sleep onset latency (SOLd) and wake after sleep onset (WASOd). Those with insomnia symptoms and complaints reported greater duration and frequency of WASOd than the other 3 groups. Quantities of SOLd and WASOd were related to BDI-II score and group status, indicating that sleep discrepancy has meaningful clinical correlates. Discussion. Discrepancy occurred across all groups but was pronounced among the group with both insomnia symptoms and complaints. This discrepancy may provide a means of quantifying and conceptualizing the transition from wake to sleep among older adults, particularly those with sleeping problems. PMID:23804432

  2. Sleep for cognitive enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Diekelmann, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Sleep is essential for effective cognitive functioning. Loosing even a few hours of sleep can have detrimental effects on a wide variety of cognitive processes such as attention, language, reasoning, decision making, learning and memory. While sleep is necessary to ensure normal healthy cognitive functioning, it can also enhance performance beyond the boundaries of the normal condition. This article discusses the enhancing potential of sleep, mainly focusing on the domain of learning and memory. Sleep is known to facilitate the consolidation of memories learned before sleep as well as the acquisition of new memories to be learned after sleep. According to a widely held model this beneficial effect of sleep relies on the neuronal reactivation of memories during sleep that is associated with sleep-specific brain oscillations (slow oscillations, spindles, ripples) as well as a characteristic neurotransmitter milieu. Recent research indicates that memory processing during sleep can be boosted by (i) cueing memory reactivation during sleep; (ii) stimulating sleep-specific brain oscillations; and (iii) targeting specific neurotransmitter systems pharmacologically. Olfactory and auditory cues can be used, for example, to increase reactivation of associated memories during post-learning sleep. Intensifying neocortical slow oscillations (the hallmark of slow wave sleep (SWS)) by electrical or auditory stimulation and modulating specific neurotransmitters such as noradrenaline and glutamate likewise facilitates memory processing during sleep. With this evidence in mind, this article concludes by discussing different methodological caveats and ethical issues that should be considered when thinking about using sleep for cognitive enhancement in everyday applications. PMID:24765066

  3. Physically Active Rats Lose More Weight during Calorie Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Smyers, Mark E.; Bachir, Kailey Z.; Britton, Steven L.; Koch, Lauren G.; Novak, Colleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Daily physical activity shows substantial inter-individual variation, and low physical activity is associated with obesity and weight gain. Elevated physical activity is also associated with high intrinsic aerobic capacity, which confers considerable metabolic health benefits. Rats artificially selected for high intrinsic aerobic capacity (high-capacity runners, HCR) are more physically active than their low-capacity counterparts (low-capacity runners, LCR). To test the hypothesis that physical activity counters metabolic thriftiness, we measured physical activity and weight loss during three weeks of 50% calorie restriction (CR) in the HCR and LCR rat lines. At baseline, HCR ate more and were more active than LCR; this was seen in male rats, where LCR are considerably heavier than HCR, as well as in a set of female rats where body weight did not differ between the lines, demonstrating that this effect is consistent across sex and not secondary to body weight. We show for the first time that HCR lose more weight than LCR relative to baseline. Physical activity levels declined throughout CR, and this was more pronounced in HCR than in LCR, yet some aspects of activity remained elevated in HCR relative to LCR even during CR. This is consistent with the idea that low physical activity contributes to metabolic thriftiness during food restriction, allowing LCR to defend body mass, particularly lean mass. This has implications for physical activity during diet-induced weight loss, the genetic underpinnings of individual differences in weight loss during a diet, and the potential evolutionary opposition between metabolic thriftiness and aerobic capacity. PMID:25449411

  4. Physically active rats lose more weight during calorie restriction.

    PubMed

    Smyers, Mark E; Bachir, Kailey Z; Britton, Steven L; Koch, Lauren G; Novak, Colleen M

    2015-02-01

    Daily physical activity shows substantial inter-individual variation, and low physical activity is associated with obesity and weight gain. Elevated physical activity is also associated with high intrinsic aerobic capacity, which confers considerable metabolic health benefits. Rats artificially selected for high intrinsic aerobic capacity (high-capacity runners, HCR) are more physically active than their low-capacity counterparts (low-capacity runners, LCR). To test the hypothesis that physical activity counters metabolic thriftiness, we measured physical activity and weight loss during three weeks of 50% calorie restriction (CR) in the HCR and LCR rat lines. At baseline, HCR ate more and were more active than LCR; this was seen in male rats, where LCR are considerably heavier than HCR, as well as in a set of female rats where body weight did not differ between the lines, demonstrating that this effect is consistent across sex and not secondary to body weight. We show for the first time that HCR lose more weight than LCR relative to baseline. Physical activity levels declined throughout CR, and this was more pronounced in HCR than in LCR, yet some aspects of activity remained elevated in HCR relative to LCR even during CR. This is consistent with the idea that low physical activity contributes to metabolic thriftiness during food restriction, allowing LCR to defend body mass, particularly lean mass. This has implications for physical activity during diet-induced weight loss, the genetic underpinnings of individual differences in weight loss during a diet, and the potential evolutionary opposition between metabolic thriftiness and aerobic capacity. PMID:25449411

  5. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired

  6. Adolescents' Sleep Behaviors and Perceptions of Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noland, Heather; Price, James H.; Dake, Joseph; Telljohann, Susan K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Sleep duration affects the health of children and adolescents. Shorter sleep durations have been associated with poorer academic performance, unintentional injuries, and obesity in adolescents. This study extends our understanding of how adolescents perceive and deal with their sleep issues. Methods: General education classes were…

  7. Sodium Oxybate-Induced Sleep Driving and Sleep-Related Eating Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Douglas Mckay; Maze, Tanisha; Shafazand, Shirin

    2011-01-01

    Hypnosedative-induced complex behaviors have gained increased attention in recent years as a potential complication of benzodiazepines and benzodiazepine-receptor agonist use. Sodium oxybate (SO), the sodium salt of γ-hydroxybutyrate, an inhibitory neurotransmitter, has been associated with dose-dependent rates of somnambulism; however, there is limited information about complex motor behaviors with SO. We describe a patient with narcolepsy-cataplexy who experienced one episode of sleep-driving and at least two sleep-related eating episodes with therapeutic doses of SO. Citation: Wallace DM; Maze T; Shafazand S. Sodium oxybate-induced sleep driving and sleep-related eating disorder. J Clin Sleep Med 2011;7(3):310-311. PMID:21677903

  8. Labile sleep promotes awareness of abstract knowledge in a serial reaction time task

    PubMed Central

    Kirov, Roumen; Kolev, Vasil; Verleger, Rolf; Yordanova, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    Sleep has been identified as a critical brain state enhancing the probability of gaining insight into covert task regularities. Both non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep have been implicated with offline re-activation and reorganization of memories supporting explicit knowledge generation. According to two-stage models of sleep function, offline processing of information during sleep is sequential requiring multiple cycles of NREM and REM sleep stages. However, the role of overnight dynamic sleep macrostructure for insightfulness has not been studied so far. In the present study, we test the hypothesis that the frequency of interactions between NREM and REM sleep stages might be critical for awareness after sleep. For that aim, the rate of sleep stage transitions was evaluated in 53 participants who learned implicitly a serial reaction time task (SRTT) in which a determined sequence was inserted. The amount of explicit knowledge about the sequence was established by verbal recall after a night of sleep following SRTT learning. Polysomnography was recorded in this night and in a control night before and was analyzed to compare the rate of sleep-stage transitions between participants who did or did not gain awareness of task regularity after sleep. Indeed, individual ability of explicit knowledge generation was strongly associated with increased rate of transitions between NREM and REM sleep stages and between light sleep stages and slow wave sleep. However, the rate of NREM–REM transitions specifically predicted the amount of explicit knowledge after sleep in a trait-dependent way. These results demonstrate that enhanced lability of sleep goes along with individual ability of knowledge awareness. Observations suggest that facilitated dynamic interactions between sleep stages, particularly between NREM and REM sleep stages play a role for offline processing which promotes rule extraction and awareness. PMID:26441730

  9. Sleep Apnea Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Apnea Facts Sleep Apnea Links Sleep Apnea Facts Sleep apnea affects up to 18 million Americans The condition was ... member is the first to notice signs of sleep apnea in someone with the ... diagnosed. The condition affects about 4 percent of middle-aged men and ...

  10. Sleep and Infant Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarullo, Amanda R.; Balsam, Peter D.; Fifer, William P.

    2011-01-01

    Human neonates spend the majority of their time sleeping. Despite the limited waking hours available for environmental exploration, the first few months of life are a time of rapid learning about the environment. The organization of neonate sleep differs qualitatively from adult sleep, and the unique characteristics of neonatal sleep may promote…

  11. Sleep Disorders (PDQ)

    MedlinePlus

    ... The two main phases of sleep are rapid eye movement (REM) and non-rapid eye movement (NREM): REM sleep, also known as "dream sleep," ... taken during sleep that show: Brain wave changes. Eye movements. Breathing rate. Blood pressure . Heart rate and electrical ...

  12. Impact of sleep and sleep loss on glucose homeostasis and appetite regulation

    PubMed Central

    Knutson, Kristen L

    2007-01-01

    Synopsis Over the past 30 years there has been an increase in the prevalence of obesity and diabetes, both of which can have serious consequences for longevity and quality of life. Sleep durations may have also decreased over this time period. This chapter reviews laboratory and epidemiologic evidence for an association between sleep loss and impairments in glucose metabolism and appetite regulation, which could increase the risk of diabetes or weight gain. PMID:18516218

  13. Sleep and Stroke.

    PubMed

    Mims, Kimberly Nicole; Kirsch, Douglas

    2016-03-01

    Evidence increasingly suggests sleep disorders are associated with higher risk of cardiovascular events, including stroke. Strong data correlate untreated sleep apnea with poorer stroke outcomes and more recent evidence implicates sleep disruption as a possible etiology for increased cerebrovascular events. Also, sleep duration may affect incidence of cardiovascular events. In addition, sleep-disordered breathing, insomnia, restless legs syndrome, and parasomnias can occur as a result of cerebrovascular events. Treatment of sleep disorders improve sleep-related symptoms and may also improve stroke recovery and risk of future events. PMID:26972032

  14. Promoting healthy sleep.

    PubMed

    Price, Bob

    2016-03-01

    Nurses are accustomed to helping others with their sleep problems and dealing with issues such as pain that may delay or interrupt sleep. However, they may be less familiar with what constitutes a healthy night's sleep. This article examines what is known about the process and purpose of sleep, and examines the ways in which factors that promote wakefulness and sleep combine to help establish a normal circadian rhythm. Theories relating to the function of sleep are discussed and research is considered that suggests that sleep deficit may lead to metabolic risks, including heart disease, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and several types of cancer. PMID:26959472

  15. Occupational Sleep Medicine.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Philip; Drake, Christopher

    2016-03-01

    Sleep and circadian rhythms significantly impact almost all aspects of human behavior and are therefore relevant to occupational sleep medicine, which is focused predominantly around workplace productivity, safety, and health. In this article, 5 main factors that influence occupational functioning are reviewed: (1) sleep deprivation, (2) disordered sleep, (3) circadian rhythms, (4) common medical illnesses that affect sleep and sleepiness, and (5) medications that affect sleep and sleepiness. Consequences of disturbed sleep and sleepiness are also reviewed, including cognitive, emotional, and psychomotor functioning and drowsy driving. PMID:26972034

  16. Sleep disorders in children.

    PubMed

    Ward, Teresa; Mason, Thornton B A

    2002-12-01

    Sleep disorders are common in childhood, and may affect multiple aspects of a child's life and the lives of other family members. A sleep disorder assessment should begin with detailed sleep history and a review of interrelated health issues. Factors contributing to disturbed sleep may be discovered or confirmed by a thorough physical examination. Thereafter, appropriate ancillary testing can provide support for a specific clinical diagnosis. The spectrum of childhood sleep disorders includes OSA, narcolepsy, RLS/PLMD, sleep onset association disorder, and parasomnias. Diagnosing sleep disorders in children remains a challenge; however, a multidisciplinary approach may provide an opportunity for productive collaboration and, thereby, more effective patient management. Centers treating pediatric sleep disorders may include providers from a variety of disciplines in pediatric healthcare, such as child psychology, pulmonology, neurology, psychiatry, nursing, and otolaryngology. Over the last decade, research in pediatric sleep disorders has expanded greatly, paralleled by an increased awareness of the importance of adequate, restorative sleep in childhood. PMID:12587368

  17. Call it Worm Sleep.

    PubMed

    Trojanowski, Nicholas F; Raizen, David M

    2016-02-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans stops feeding and moving during a larval transition stage called lethargus and following exposure to cellular stressors. These behaviors have been termed 'sleep-like states'. We argue that these behaviors should instead be called sleep. Sleep during lethargus is similar to sleep regulated by circadian timers in insects and mammals, and sleep in response to cellular stress is similar to sleep induced by sickness in other animals. Sleep in mammals and Drosophila shows molecular and functional conservation with C. elegans sleep. The simple neuroanatomy and powerful genetic tools of C. elegans have yielded insights into sleep regulation and hold great promise for future research into sleep regulation and function. PMID:26747654

  18. Isolated sleep paralysis elicited by sleep interruption.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, T; Miyasita, A; Sasaki, Y; Inugami, M; Fukuda, K

    1992-06-01

    We elicited isolated sleep paralysis (ISP) from normal subjects by a nocturnal sleep interruption schedule. On four experimental nights, 16 subjects had their sleep interrupted for 60 minutes by forced awakening at the time when 40 minutes of nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep had elapsed from the termination of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in the first or third sleep cycle. This schedule produced a sleep onset REM period (SOREMP) after the interruption at a high rate of 71.9%. We succeeded in eliciting six episodes of ISP in the sleep interruptions performed (9.4%). All episodes of ISP except one occurred from SOREMP, indicating a close correlation between ISP and SOREMP. We recorded verbal reports about ISP experiences and recorded the polysomnogram (PSG) during ISP. All of the subjects with ISP experienced inability to move and were simultaneously aware of lying in the laboratory. All but one reported auditory/visual hallucinations and unpleasant emotions. PSG recordings during ISP were characterized by a REM/W stage dissociated state, i.e. abundant alpha electroencephalographs and persistence of muscle atonia shown by the tonic electromyogram. Judging from the PSG recordings, ISP differs from other dissociated states such as lucid dreaming, nocturnal panic attacks and REM sleep behavior disorders. We compare some of the sleep variables between ISP and non-ISP nights. We also discuss the similarities and differences between ISP and sleep paralysis in narcolepsy. PMID:1621022

  19. Dietary nutrients associated with short and long sleep duration. Data from a nationally representative sample.

    PubMed

    Grandner, Michael A; Jackson, Nicholas; Gerstner, Jason R; Knutson, Kristen L

    2013-05-01

    Short sleep duration is associated with weight gain and obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, psychiatric illness, and performance deficits. Likewise, long sleep duration is also associated with poor physical and mental health. The role of a healthy diet in habitual sleep duration represents a largely unexplored pathway linking sleep and health. This study evaluated associations between habitual sleep parameters and dietary/nutritional variables obtained via the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2007-2008. We hypothesized that habitual very short (<5h) short (5-6h) and long (9+h) sleep durations are associated with intake of a number of dietary nutrient variables. Overall, energy intake varied across very short (2036kcal), short (2201kcal), and long (1926kcal) sleep duration, relative to normal (2151kcal) sleep duration (p=0.001). Normal sleep duration was associated with the greatest food variety (17.8), compared to very short (14.0), short (16.5) and long (16.3) sleep duration (p<0.001). Associations between sleep duration were found across nutrient categories, with significant associations between habitual sleep duration and proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. In stepwise analyses, significant contributors of unique variance included theobromine (long sleep RR=0.910, p<0.05), vitamin C (short sleep RR=0.890, p<0.05), tap water (short sleep RR=0.952, p<0.001; very short (<5h) sleep RR=0.941, p<0.05), lutein+zeaxanthin (short sleep RR=1.123, p<0.05), dodecanoic acid (long sleep RR=0.812, p<0.05), choline (long sleep RR=0.450, p=0.001), lycopene (very short (<5h) sleep RR=0.950, p<0.05), total carbohydrate (very short (<5h) sleep RR=0.494, p<0.05; long sleep RR=0.509, p<0.05), selenium (short sleep RR=0.670, p<0.01) and alcohol (long sleep RR=1.172, p<0.01). Overall, many nutrient variables were associated with short and/or long sleep duration, which may be explained by differences in food variety. Future studies should

  20. Ostriches Sleep like Platypuses

    PubMed Central

    Lesku, John A.; Meyer, Leith C. R.; Fuller, Andrea; Maloney, Shane K.; Dell'Omo, Giacomo

    2011-01-01

    Mammals and birds engage in two distinct states of sleep, slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. SWS is characterized by slow, high amplitude brain waves, while REM sleep is characterized by fast, low amplitude waves, known as activation, occurring with rapid eye movements and reduced muscle tone. However, monotremes (platypuses and echidnas), the most basal (or ‘ancient’) group of living mammals, show only a single sleep state that combines elements of SWS and REM sleep, suggesting that these states became temporally segregated in the common ancestor to marsupial and eutherian mammals. Whether sleep in basal birds resembles that of monotremes or other mammals and birds is unknown. Here, we provide the first description of brain activity during sleep in ostriches (Struthio camelus), a member of the most basal group of living birds. We found that the brain activity of sleeping ostriches is unique. Episodes of REM sleep were delineated by rapid eye movements, reduced muscle tone, and head movements, similar to those observed in other birds and mammals engaged in REM sleep; however, during REM sleep in ostriches, forebrain activity would flip between REM sleep-like activation and SWS-like slow waves, the latter reminiscent of sleep in the platypus. Moreover, the amount of REM sleep in ostriches is greater than in any other bird, just as in platypuses, which have more REM sleep than other mammals. These findings reveal a recurring sequence of steps in the evolution of sleep in which SWS and REM sleep arose from a single heterogeneous state that became temporally segregated into two distinct states. This common trajectory suggests that forebrain activation during REM sleep is an evolutionarily new feature, presumably involved in performing new sleep functions not found in more basal animals. PMID:21887239

  1. INFLUENCE OF SLEEP ON OBESITY IN CHILDREN.

    PubMed

    Anton-Paduraru, Dana-teodora; Teslariu, Oana; Mocanu, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a global epidemic with long term implications. The main cause of obesity is an increase in calorie intake and a decrease in physical activity, but also there is clear evidence suggesting a link between the duration and quality of sleep and obesity risk. Good sleep habits are involved in increased ability to concentrate at school, improvement of general state, immune system development, increased quality of life. On the other hand, there are several mechanisms by which chronic sleep deprivation induces weight gain: disturbance of hormones that control hunger center, increased time for meals, reduced physical activity, metabolic changes. Recently, nighttime sleep duration has declined, in contrast with the increasing prevalence of obesity. Childhood sleep habits have a long term effect on weight, with repercussions even into adulthood. This is the reason why there is increasing interest to include sleep quality on the list for childhood obesity prevention. Sleep represents an important and independent risk factor of obesity in children and adolescents and it should be taken into consideration in the management of obesity. PMID:27483699

  2. Effect of sleep restriction on orthostatic cardiovascular control in humans.

    PubMed

    Muenter, N K; Watenpaugh, D E; Wasmund, W L; Wasmund, S L; Maxwell, S A; Smith, M L

    2000-03-01

    We hypothesized that sleep restriction (4 consecutive nights, 4 h sleep/night) attenuates orthostatic tolerance. The effect of sleep restriction on cardiovascular responses to simulated orthostasis, arterial baroreflex gain, and heart rate variability was evaluated in 10 healthy volunteers. Arterial baroreflex gain was determined from heart rate responses to nitroprusside-phenylephrine injections, and orthostatic tolerance was tested via lower body negative pressure (LBNP). A Finapres device measured finger arterial pressure. No difference in baroreflex function, heart rate variability, or LBNP tolerance was observed with sleep restriction (P > 0.3). Systolic pressure was greater at -60 mmHg LBNP after sleep restriction than before sleep restriction (110 +/- 6 and 124 +/- 3 mmHg before and after sleep restriction, respectively, P = 0.038), whereas heart rate decreased (108 +/- 8 and 99 +/- 8 beats/min before and after sleep restriction, respectively, P = 0.028). These data demonstrate that sleep restriction produces subtle changes in cardiovascular responses to simulated orthostasis, but these changes do not compromise orthostatic tolerance. PMID:10710392

  3. Metabolic consequences of chronic sleep restriction in rats: changes in body weight regulation and energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Barf, R P; Van Dijk, G; Scheurink, A J W; Hoffmann, K; Novati, A; Hulshof, H J; Fuchs, E; Meerlo, P

    2012-10-10

    Epidemiological studies have shown an association between short or disrupted sleep and an increased risk to develop obesity. In animal studies, however, sleep restriction leads to an attenuation of weight gain that cannot be explained by changes in energy intake. In the present study, we assessed whether the attenuated weight gain under conditions of restricted sleep is a consequence of an overall increase in energy expenditure. Adult male rats were subjected to a schedule of chronic sleep restriction (SR) for 8 days with a 4h window of unrestricted rest per day. Electroencephalogram and electromyogram recordings were performed to quantify the effect of the sleep restriction schedule on sleep-wake patterns. In a separate experiment, we measured sleep restriction-induced changes in body weight, food intake, and regulatory hormones such as glucose, insulin, leptin and corticosterone. To investigate whether a change in energy expenditure underlies the attenuation of weight gain, energy expenditure was measured by the doubly labeled water method from day 5 until day 8 of the SR protocol. Results show a clear attenuation of weight gain during sleep restriction but no change in food intake. Baseline plasma glucose, insulin and leptin levels are decreased after sleep restriction which presumably reflects the nutritional status of the rats. The daily energy expenditure during SR was significantly increased compared to control rats. Together, we conclude that the attenuation of body weight gain in sleep restricted rats is explained by an overall increase in energy expenditure together with an unaltered energy intake. PMID:22995976

  4. Sleeping Birds Do Not Respond to Predator Odour

    PubMed Central

    Amo, Luisa; Caro, Samuel P.; Visser, Marcel E.

    2011-01-01

    Background During sleep animals are relatively unresponsive and unaware of their environment, and therefore, more exposed to predation risk than alert and awake animals. This vulnerability might influence when, where and how animals sleep depending on the risk of predation perceived before going to sleep. Less clear is whether animals remain sensitive to predation cues when already asleep. Methodology/Principal Findings We experimentally tested whether great tits are able to detect the chemical cues of a common nocturnal predator while sleeping. We predicted that birds exposed to the scent of a mammalian predator (mustelid) twice during the night would not go into torpor (which reduces their vigilance) and hence would not reduce their body temperature as much as control birds, exposed to the scent of another mammal that does not represent a danger for the birds (rabbit). As a consequence of the higher body temperature birds exposed to the scent of a predator are predicted to have a higher resting metabolic rate (RMR) and to lose more body mass. In the experiment, all birds decreased their body temperature during the night, but we did not find any influence of the treatment on body temperature, RMR, or body mass. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that birds are not able to detect predator chemical cues while sleeping. As a consequence, antipredatory strategies taken before sleep, such as roosting sites inspection, may be crucial to cope with the vulnerability to predation risk while sleeping. PMID:22110676

  5. Sleep Duration and Obesity in Adults: What Are the Connections?

    PubMed

    Theorell-Haglöw, Jenny; Lindberg, Eva

    2016-09-01

    Collectively, cross-sectional and longitudinal studies on self-reported sleep duration and obesity do not show a clear pattern of association with some showing a negative linear relationship, some showing a U-shaped relationship, and some showing no relationship. Associations between sleep duration and obesity seem stronger in younger adults. Cross-sectional studies using objectively measured sleep duration (actigraphy or polysomnography (PSG)) also show this mixed pattern whereas all longitudinal studies to date using actigraphy or PSG have failed to show a relationship with obesity/weight gain. It is still too early and a too easy solution to suggest that changing the sleep duration will cure the obesity epidemic. Given novel results on emotional stress and poor sleep as mediating factors in the relationship between sleep duration and obesity, detection and management of these should become the target of future clinical efforts as well as future research. PMID:27372108

  6. Metabolic consequences of sleep and sleep loss

    PubMed Central

    Van Cauter, Eve; Spiegel, Karine; Tasali, Esra; Leproult, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Reduced sleep duration and quality appear to be endemic in modern society. Curtailment of the bedtime period to minimum tolerability is thought to be efficient and harmless by many. It has been known for several decades that sleep is a major modulator of hormonal release, glucose regulation and cardiovascular function. In particular, slow wave sleep (SWS), thought to be the most restorative sleep stage, is associated with decreased heart rate, blood pressure, sympathetic nervous activity and cerebral glucose utilization, compared with wakefulness. During SWS, the anabolic growth hormone is released while the stress hormone cortisol is inhibited. In recent years, laboratory and epidemiologic evidence have converged to indicate that sleep loss may be a novel risk factor for obesity and type 2 diabetes. The increased risk of obesity is possibly linked to the effect of sleep loss on hormones that play a major role in the central control of appetite and energy expenditure, such as leptin and ghrelin. Reduced leptin and increased ghrelin levels correlate with increases in subjective hunger when individuals are sleep restricted rather than well rested. Given the evidence, sleep curtailment appears to be an important, yet modifiable, risk factor for the metabolic syndrome, diabetes and obesity. The marked decrease in average sleep duration in the last 50 years coinciding with the increased prevalence of obesity, together with the observed adverse effects of recurrent partial sleep deprivation on metabolism and hormonal processes, may have important implications for public health. PMID:18929315

  7. Sleep: a health imperative.

    PubMed

    Luyster, Faith S; Strollo, Patrick J; Zee, Phyllis C; Walsh, James K

    2012-06-01

    Chronic sleep deficiency, defined as a state of inadequate or mistimed sleep, is a growing and underappreciated determinant of health status. Sleep deprivation contributes to a number of molecular, immune, and neural changes that play a role in disease development, independent of primary sleep disorders. These changes in biological processes in response to chronic sleep deficiency may serve as etiological factors for the development and exacerbation of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases and, ultimately, a shortened lifespan. Sleep deprivation also results in significant impairments in cognitive and motor performance which increase the risk of motor vehicle crashes and work-related injuries and fatal accidents. The American Academy of Sleep Medicine and the Sleep Research Society have developed this statement to communicate to national health stakeholders the current knowledge which ties sufficient sleep and circadian alignment in adults to health. PMID:22654183

  8. Patterns of sleep behaviour.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, W. B.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of the electroencephalogram as the critical measurement procedure for sleep research, and survey of major findings that have emerged in the last decade on the presence of sleep within the twenty-four-hour cycle. Specifically, intrasleep processes, frequency of stage changes, sequence of stage events, sleep stage amounts, temporal patterns of sleep, and stability of intrasleep pattern in both man and lower animals are reviewed, along with some circadian aspects of sleep, temporal factors, and number of sleep episodes. It is felt that it is particularly critical to take the presence of sleep into account whenever performance is considered. When it is recognized that responsive performance is extremely limited during sleep, it is easy to visualize the extent to which performance is controlled by sleep itself.

  9. Sleep locally, act globally.

    PubMed

    Rattenborg, Niels C; Lima, Steven L; Lesku, John A

    2012-10-01

    In most animals, sleep is considered a global brain and behavioral state. However, recent intracortical recordings have shown that aspects of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and wakefulness can occur simultaneously in different parts of the cortex in mammals, including humans. Paradoxically, however, NREM sleep still manifests as a global behavioral shutdown. In this review, the authors examine this paradox from an evolutionary perspective. On the basis of strategic modeling, they suggest that in animals with brains composed of heavily interconnected and functionally interdependent units, a global regulator of sleep maintains the behavioral shutdown that defines sleep and thereby ensures that local use-dependent functions are performed in a safe and efficient manner. This novel perspective has implications for understanding deficits in human cognitive performance resulting from sleep deprivation, sleep disorders such as sleepwalking, changes in consciousness that occur during sleep, and the function of sleep itself. PMID:22572533

  10. Parenting and infant sleep.

    PubMed

    Sadeh, Avi; Tikotzky, Liat; Scher, Anat

    2010-04-01

    Infant sleep undergoes dramatic evolution during the first year of life. This process is driven by underlying biological forces but is highly dependent on environmental cues including parental influences. In this review the links between infant sleep and parental behaviors, cognitions, emotions and relationships as well as psychopathology are examined within the context of a transactional model. Parental behaviors, particularly those related to bedtime interactions and soothing routines, are closely related to infant sleep. Increased parental involvement is associated with more fragmented sleep. Intervention based on modifying parental behaviors and cognitions have direct effect on infant sleep. It appears that parental personality, psychopathology and related cognitions and emotions contribute to parental sleep-related behaviors and ultimately influence infant sleep. However, the links are bidirectional and dynamic so that poor infant sleep may influence parental behaviors and poor infant sleep appears to be a family stressor and a risk factor for maternal depression. PMID:19631566

  11. How Is Sleep Apnea Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topics CPAP High Blood Pressure Overweight and Obesity Sleep Deprivation and Deficiency Sleep Studies Send a link to ... For more information, go to the Health Topics Sleep Deprivation and Deficiency article.) If treatment and enough sleep ...

  12. Sleep and the Endocrine System.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Dionne; Tsai, Sheila C

    2016-03-01

    In this article, the effect of sleep and sleep disorders on endocrine function and the influence of endocrine abnormalities on sleep are discussed. Sleep disruption and its associated endocrine consequences in the critically ill patient are also reviewed. PMID:26972038

  13. [Sleep and dreams in pictures].

    PubMed

    Stoll, R T

    1995-04-11

    Human life is divided into two thirds wakefulness and one third sleep. A newborn child sleeps to strengthen, the adult for regeneration. At the end of life man sinks down into the sleep of death: Hypnos and Thanatos are twin sons of the Queen of Night. Myths from different cultures are influenced by the experience of sleep and its inner world of pictures, the dreams. Artists, painters and sculptors let their visions float steadily into new pictures, and creatures of sleep formed out of diverse materials. Devine sleep, sleep for new life, sleep of health, creative sleep, prophetic sleep, sleep for revelation and for decisions. PMID:7732243

  14. Longitudinal relations between constructive and destructive conflict and couples' sleep.

    PubMed

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Kelly, Ryan J; Koss, Kalsea J; Rauer, Amy J

    2015-06-01

    We examined longitudinal relations between interpartner constructive (negotiation) and destructive (psychological and physical aggression) conflict strategies and couples' sleep over 1 year. Toward explicating processes of effects, we assessed the intervening role of internalizing symptoms in associations between conflict tactics and couples' sleep. Participants were 135 cohabiting couples (M age = 37 years for women and 39 years for men). The sample included a large representation of couples exposed to economic adversity. Further, 68% were European American and the remainder were primarily African American. At Time 1 (T1), couples reported on their conflict and their mental health (depression, anxiety). At T1 and Time 2, sleep was examined objectively with actigraphs for 7 nights. Three sleep parameters were derived: efficiency, minutes, and latency. Actor-partner interdependence models indicated that husbands' use of constructive conflict forecasted increases in their own sleep efficiency as well as their own and their wives' sleep duration over time. Actor and partner effects emerged, and husbands' and wives' use of destructive conflict strategies generally predicted worsening of some sleep parameters over time. Several mediation and intervening effects were observed for destructive conflict strategies. Some of these relations reveal that destructive conflict is associated with internalizing symptoms, which in turn are associated with some sleep parameters longitudinally. These findings build on a small, albeit growing, literature linking sleep with marital functioning, and illustrate that consideration of relationship processes including constructive conflict holds promise for gaining a better understanding of factors that influence the sleep of men and women. PMID:25915089

  15. Longitudinal Relations Between Constructive and Destructive Conflict and Couples’ Sleep

    PubMed Central

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Koss, Kalsea J.; Kelly, Ryan J.; Rauer, Amy J.

    2016-01-01

    We examined longitudinal relations between interpartner constructive (negotiation) and destructive (psychological and physical aggression) conflict strategies and couples’ sleep over 1 year. Toward explicating processes of effects, we assessed the intervening role of internalizing symptoms in associations between conflict tactics and couples’ sleep. Participants were 135 cohabiting couples (M age = 37 years for women and 39 years for men). The sample included a large representation of couples exposed to economic adversity. Further, 68% were European American and the remainder were primarily African American. At Time 1 (T1), couples reported on their conflict and their mental health (depression, anxiety). At T1 and Time 2, sleep was examined objectively with actigraphs for 7 nights. Three sleep parameters were derived: efficiency, minutes, and latency. Actor–partner interdependence models indicated that husbands’ use of constructive conflict forecasted increases in their own sleep efficiency as well as their own and their wives’ sleep duration over time. Actor and partner effects emerged, and husbands’ and wives’ use of destructive conflict strategies generally predicted worsening of some sleep parameters over time. Several mediation and intervening effects were observed for destructive conflict strategies. Some of these relations reveal that destructive conflict is associated with internalizing symptoms, which in turn are associated with some sleep parameters longitudinally. These findings build on a small, albeit growing, literature linking sleep with marital functioning, and illustrate that consideration of relationship processes including constructive conflict holds promise for gaining a better understanding of factors that influence the sleep of men and women. PMID:25915089

  16. Neuroimaging Insights into the Pathophysiology of Sleep Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Desseilles, Martin; Dang-Vu, Thanh; Schabus, Manuel; Sterpenich, Virginie; Maquet, Pierre; Schwartz, Sophie

    2008-01-01

    Neuroimaging methods can be used to investigate whether sleep disorders are associated with specific changes in brain structure or regional activity. However, it is still unclear how these new data might improve our understanding of the pathophysiology underlying adult sleep disorders. Here we review functional brain imaging findings in major intrinsic sleep disorders (i.e., idiopathic insomnia, narcolepsy, and obstructive sleep apnea) and in abnormal motor behavior during sleep (i.e., periodic limb movement disorder and REM sleep behavior disorder). The studies reviewed include neuroanatomical assessments (voxel-based morphometry, magnetic resonance spectroscopy), metabolic/functional investigations (positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging), and ligand marker measurements. Based on the current state of the research, we suggest that brain imaging is a useful approach to assess the structural and functional correlates of sleep impairments as well as better understand the cerebral consequences of various therapeutic approaches. Modern neuroimaging techniques therefore provide a valuable tool to gain insight into possible pathophysiological mechanisms of sleep disorders in adult humans. Citation: Desseilles M; Dang-Vu TD; Schabus M; Sterpenich V; Maquet P; Schwartz S. Neuroimaging insights into the pathophysiology of sleep disorders. SLEEP 2008;31(6):777–794. PMID:18548822

  17. Childhood epilepsy and sleep

    PubMed Central

    Al-Biltagi, Mohammed A

    2014-01-01

    Sleep and epilepsy are two well recognized conditions that interact with each other in a complex bi-directional way. Some types of epilepsies have increased activity during sleep disturbing it; while sleep deprivation aggravates epilepsy due to decreased seizure threshold. Epilepsy can deteriorate the sleep-related disorders and at the same time; the parasomnias can worsen the epilepsy. The secretion of sleep-related hormones can also be affected by the occurrence of seizures and supplementation of epileptic patients with some of these sleep-related hormones may have a beneficial role in controlling epilepsy. PMID:25254184

  18. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Thakkar, Mahesh M.; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used “over the counter” sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to understand how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models, and a combination of multi-disciplinary experimental methodologies to examine and understand anatomical and cellular substrates mediating the effects of acute and chronic alcohol exposure on sleep-wakefulness. The results of our studies suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol’s action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Lesions of the BF cholinergic neurons or blockade of AD A1 receptors results in attenuation of alcohol-induced sleep promotion, suggesting that AD and BF cholinergic neurons are critical for sleep-promoting effects of alcohol. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern

  19. Sleep, epilepsy, and autism.

    PubMed

    Accardo, Jennifer A; Malow, Beth A

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this review article is to explore the links between sleep and epilepsy and the treatment of sleep problems in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Epilepsy and sleep have bidirectional relationships, and problems with both are highly prevalent in children with ASD. Literature is reviewed to support the view that sleep is particularly important to address in the context of ASD. Identification and management of sleep disorders may improve seizure control and challenging behaviors. In closing, special considerations for evaluating and treating sleep disorders in children with ASD and epilepsy are reviewed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Autism and Epilepsy". PMID:25496798

  20. Sleep-related headaches.

    PubMed

    Rains, Jeanetta C; Poceta, J Steven

    2012-11-01

    Irrespective of diagnosis, chronic daily, morning, or "awakening" headache patterns are soft signs of a sleep disorder. Sleep apnea headache may emerge de novo or may present as an exacerbation of cluster, migraine, tension-type, or other headache. Insomnia is the most prevalent sleep disorder in chronic migraine and tension-type headache, and increases risk for depression and anxiety. Sleep disturbance (e.g., sleep loss, oversleeping, schedule shift) is an acute headache trigger for migraine and tension-type headache. Snoring and sleep disturbance are independent risk factors for progression from episodic to chronic headache. PMID:23099138

  1. Sleep physiology and sleep disorders in childhood

    PubMed Central

    El Shakankiry, Hanan M

    2011-01-01

    Sleep has long been considered as a passive phenomenon, but it is now clear that it is a period of intense brain activity involving higher cortical functions. Overall, sleep affects every aspect of a child’s development, particularly higher cognitive functions. Sleep concerns are ranked as the fifth leading concern of parents. Close to one third of all children suffer from sleep disorders, the prevalence of which is increased in certain pediatric populations, such as children with special needs, children with psychiatric or medical diagnoses and children with autism or pervasive developmental disorders. The paper reviews sleep physiology and the impact, classification, and management of sleep disorders in the pediatric age group. PMID:23616721

  2. Effects of an interleukin-1 receptor antagonist on human sleep, sleep-associated memory consolidation, and blood monocytes.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Eva-Maria; Linz, Barbara; Diekelmann, Susanne; Besedovsky, Luciana; Lange, Tanja; Born, Jan

    2015-07-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines like interleukin-1 beta (IL-1) are major players in the interaction between the immune system and the central nervous system. Various animal studies report a sleep-promoting effect of IL-1 leading to enhanced slow wave sleep (SWS). Moreover, this cytokine was shown to affect hippocampus-dependent memory. However, the role of IL-1 in human sleep and memory is not yet understood. We administered the synthetic IL-1 receptor antagonist anakinra (IL-1ra) in healthy humans (100mg, subcutaneously, before sleep; n=16) to investigate the role of IL-1 signaling in sleep regulation and sleep-dependent declarative memory consolidation. Inasmuch monocytes have been considered a model for central nervous microglia, we monitored cytokine production in classical and non-classical blood monocytes to gain clues about how central nervous effects of IL-1ra are conveyed. Contrary to our expectation, IL-1ra increased EEG slow wave activity during SWS and non-rapid eye movement (NonREM) sleep, indicating a deepening of sleep, while sleep-associated memory consolidation remained unchanged. Moreover, IL-1ra slightly increased prolactin and reduced cortisol levels during sleep. Production of IL-1 by classical monocytes was diminished after IL-1ra. The discrepancy to findings in animal studies might reflect species differences and underlines the importance of studying cytokine effects in humans. PMID:25535859

  3. Regulation of Sleep by Neuropeptide Y-Like System in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    He, Chunxia; Yang, Yunyan; Zhang, Mingming; Price, Jeffrey L.; Zhao, Zhangwu

    2013-01-01

    Sleep is important for maintenance of normal physiology in animals. In mammals, neuropeptide Y (NPY), a homolog of Drosophila neuropeptide F (NPF), is involved in sleep regulation, with different effects in human and rat. However, the function of NPF on sleep in Drosophila melanogaster has not yet been described. In this study, we investigated the effects of NPF and its receptor-neuropeptide F receptor (NPFR1) on Drosophila sleep. Male flies over-expressing NPF or NPFR1 exhibited increased sleep during the nighttime. Further analysis demonstrated that sleep episode duration during nighttime was greatly increased and sleep latency was significantly reduced, indicating that NPF and NPFR1 promote sleep quality, and their action on sleep is not because of an impact of the NPF signal system on development. Moreover, the homeostatic regulation of flies after sleep deprivation was disrupted by altered NPF signaling, since sleep deprivation decreased transcription of NPF in control flies, and there were less sleep loss during sleep deprivation and less sleep gain after sleep deprivation in flies overexpressing NPF and NPFR1 than in control flies, suggesting that NPF system auto-regulation plays an important role in sleep homeostasis. However, these effects did not occur in females, suggesting a sex-dependent regulatory function in sleep for NPF and NPFR1. NPF in D1 brain neurons showed male-specific expression, providing the cellular locus for male-specific regulation of sleep by NPF and NPFR1. This study brings a new understanding into sleep studies of a sexually dimorphic regulatory mode in female and male flies. PMID:24040211

  4. Sleep restriction and serving accuracy in performance tennis players, and effects of caffeine.

    PubMed

    Reyner, L A; Horne, J A

    2013-08-15

    Athletes often lose sleep on the night before a competition. Whilst it is unlikely that sleep loss will impair sports mostly relying on strength and endurance, little is known about potential effects on sports involving psychomotor performance necessitating judgement and accuracy, rather than speed, as in tennis for example, and where caffeine is 'permitted'. Two studies were undertaken, on 5h sleep (33%) restriction versus normal sleep, on serving accuracy in semi-professional tennis players. Testing (14:00 h-16:00 h) comprised 40 serves into a (1.8 m×1.1 m) 'service box' diagonally, over the net. Study 1 (8 m; 8 f) was within-Ss, counterbalanced (normal versus sleep restriction). Study 2 (6m;6f -different Ss) comprised three conditions (Latin square), identical to Study 1, except for an extra sleep restriction condition with 80 mg caffeine vs placebo in a sugar-free drink, given (double blind), 30 min before testing. Both studies showed significant impairments to serving accuracy after sleep restriction. Caffeine at this dose had no beneficial effect. Study 1 also assessed gender differences, with women significantly poorer under all conditions, and non-significant indications that women were more impaired by sleep restriction (also seen in Study 2). We conclude that adequate sleep is essential for best performance of this type of skill in tennis players and that caffeine is no substitute for 'lost sleep'. 210. PMID:23916998

  5. 'I want to lose weight': Early risk for disordered eating?

    PubMed

    Gusella, Joanne; Goodwin, Jacqueline; van Roosmalen, Erica

    2008-02-01

    The present study examined the risk of disordered eating and its relation to attempts to lose weight by surveying a Maritime Canadian sample of 247 girls and boys in grades 6, 7 and 8. Current attempts to lose weight were highest in grade 8 girls (41% of girls and 9% of boys) compared with grade 6 (14% of girls and 24% of boys) and grade 7 (21% of girls and 13% of boys) children. Of those trying to lose weight, 71.4% were in the average range for weight and height, 12.2% were overweight and 16.3% were obese. The Children's version of the Eating Attitudes Test (ChEAT) was used to assess eating attitudes and behaviours, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale was used as a measure of self-esteem. The results showed that 8.5% of the children fell in the high-risk group for disordered eating (ChEAT score 20 or higher). Those in the high-risk group were significantly more likely to fear being overweight (90%), to have tried to lose weight in the past (81%), to be currently trying to lose weight (76%), and to have engaged in binge eating (38%) and self-induced vomiting (24%). The best predictor of membership in the high-risk group for girls was current attempts at weight loss and having lower self-esteem. Only two boys fell in the high-risk group. Body mass index and current weight category (underweight, average, overweight and obese) could not explain the differences between the low- and high-risk groups. Knowing that a child is trying to lose weight can aid in identifying youth at risk for disordered eating, and can provide an opportunity for preventive education. PMID:19183713

  6. Mass-losing red giants in open clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jura, M.

    1987-01-01

    Mass-losing stars in open clusters with main-sequence turn-offs at intermediate mass have been searched for by using the IRAS data base. The absence of many strong 60 micron sources in open clusters implies that intermediate-mass stars lose much of their mass during an intense wind phase of rather short duration. For stars of about seven solar masses, this phase, if it exists at all, lasts for not much more than 100,000 yr. For stars of about four solar masses, the intense wind phase appears to last considerably less than 10 million yr; it may well last for less than a million yr.

  7. Sleep and Aging: Insomnia

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Sleep and Aging Insomnia Insomnia is the most common sleep complaint ... us | contact us | site map National Institute on Aging | U.S. National Library of Medicine | National Institutes of ...

  8. Sleep and your health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Practice of Sleep Medicine . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 65. Carskadon MA, Dement WC. ... Practice of Sleep Medicine . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 2. Centers for Disease Control ...

  9. Sleep and Eating Disorders.

    PubMed

    Allison, Kelly C; Spaeth, Andrea; Hopkins, Christina M

    2016-10-01

    Insomnia is related to an increased risk of eating disorders, while eating disorders are related to more disrupted sleep. Insomnia is also linked to poorer treatment outcomes for eating disorders. However, over the last decade, studies examining sleep and eating disorders have relied on surveys, with no objective measures of sleep for anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, and only actigraphy data for binge eating disorder. Sleep disturbance is better defined for night eating syndrome, where sleep efficiency is reduced and melatonin release is delayed. Studies that include objectively measured sleep and metabolic parameters combined with psychiatric comorbidity data would help identify under what circumstances eating disorders and sleep disturbance produce an additive effect for symptom severity and for whom poor sleep would increase risk for an eating disorder. Cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia may be a helpful addition to treatment of those with both eating disorder and insomnia. PMID:27553980

  10. Sleeping during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... your partner) up at night. continue Finding a Good Sleeping Position Early in your pregnancy, try to get ... may safely improve your chances of getting a good night's sleep: Cut out caffeinated drinks like soda, coffee, and ...

  11. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    MedlinePlus

    ... daytime drowsiness that can result in accidents, lost productivity and relationship problems. The National Sleep Foundation estimates ... the person just enough to restart the breathing process. Sleep apnea is generally defined as the presence ...

  12. Teenagers and sleep

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000872.htm Teenagers and sleep To use the sharing features on this page, ... need. What Makes it Hard for Teens to Sleep? Several factors make it hard for teens to ...

  13. Central sleep apnea

    MedlinePlus

    ... pressure (CPAP) , bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) or adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV). Some types of central sleep ... et al. The treatment of central sleep apnea syndromes in adults: practice parameters with an evidence-based ...

  14. Sleep in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Vigeta, Sônia Maria Garcia; Hachul, Helena; Tufik, Sergio; de Oliveira, Eleonora Menicucci

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors that most influence the perception of sleep quality in postmenopausal women. We used the methodological strategy of the Collective Subject Discourse (CSD), which is based on a theoretical framework of social representations theory. We obtained the data by interviewing 22 postmenopausal Brazilian women who were experiencing insomnia. The women gave accounts of their difficulties with sleep; a variety of dimensions were identified within the data. The onset of sleep disorders might have occurred during childhood or in situations considered to be stressful, and were not necessarily associated with menopause. We found that hormonal alterations occurring during menopause, psychosocial factors, and sleep-breathing disorders triggered occasional sleep disturbances during this time of life. Participants were aware of the consequences of sleep deprivation. In addition, inadequate sleep hygiene habits figured prominently as determinants in the persistence of sleep disturbances. PMID:21917564

  15. Sleep and Newborns

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... Your Newborn Sleep Establishing a bedtime routine (bathing, reading, singing) will help your baby relax and sleep ...

  16. Sleep disorders in children.

    PubMed

    Hoban, Timothy F

    2010-01-01

    Although sleep disorders such as insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea are common in both children and adults, the clinical features and treatments for these conditions differ considerably between these two populations. Whereas an adult with obstructive sleep apnea typically presents with a history of obesity, snoring, and prominent daytime somnolence, a child with the condition is more likely to present with normal body weight, tonsillar hypertrophy, and inattentiveness during school classes. The adult with suspected sleep apnea almost always undergoes a baseline polysomnogram and proceeds to treatment only if this test confirms the diagnosis, while many children with suspected sleep apnea are treated empirically with adenotonsillectomy without ever receiving a sleep study to verify the diagnosis. This article reviews sleep disorders in children, with a particular focus on age-related changes in sleep, conditions that primarily affect children, and disorders for which clinical manifestations and treatment differ substantially from the adult population. PMID:20146688

  17. Sleep and Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Size Email Print Share Sleep Tips for Children's Mental Health Page Content ​​​Sleep has become a casualty ... MPH, FAAP Last Updated 5/23/2016 Source Mental Health, Naturally: The Family Guide to Holistic Care ...

  18. Pediatric Sleep Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sulman, Cecille G.

    2014-01-01

    Adenotonsillectomy is the most common surgery performed for sleep disordered breathing with good outcomes. Children with obesity, craniofacial disorders, and neurologic impairment are at risk for persistent sleep apnea after adenotonsillectomy. Techniques exist to address obstructive lesions of the palate, tongue base, or craniofacial skeleton in children with persistent sleep apnea. Children with obstructive sleep apnea have a higher rate of peri-operative complications. PMID:24926473

  19. Sleep and Metabolism: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sunil; Kavuru, Mani

    2010-01-01

    Sleep and its disorders are increasingly becoming important in our sleep deprived society. Sleep is intricately connected to various hormonal and metabolic processes in the body and is important in maintaining metabolic homeostasis. Research shows that sleep deprivation and sleep disorders may have profound metabolic and cardiovascular implications. Sleep deprivation, sleep disordered breathing, and circadian misalignment are believed to cause metabolic dysregulation through myriad pathways involving sympathetic overstimulation, hormonal imbalance, and subclinical inflammation. This paper reviews sleep and metabolism, and how sleep deprivation and sleep disorders may be altering human metabolism. PMID:20811596

  20. Obstructive sleep apnea and metabolic bone disease: Insights in to the relationship between bone and sleep

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Christine M.; Shea, Steven A.; Stone, Katie L.; Cauley, Jane A.; Rosen, Clifford J.; Redline, Susan; Karsenty, Gerard; Orwoll, Eric S.

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and low bone mass are two prevalent conditions, particularly among older adults, a section of the U.S. population that is expected to grow dramatically over the coming years. OSA, the most common form of sleep disordered breathing, has been linked to multiple cardiovascular, metabolic, hormonal and inflammatory derangements and may have adverse effects on bone. However, little is known about how OSA (including the associated hypoxia and sleep loss) affects bone metabolism. In order to gain insight into the relationship between sleep and bone, we review the growing information on OSA and metabolic bone disease and discuss the pathophysiological mechanisms by which OSA may affect bone metabolism/architecture. PMID:25639209

  1. Physiology of Sleep.

    PubMed

    Carley, David W; Farabi, Sarah S

    2016-02-01

    IN BRIEF Far from a simple absence of wakefulness, sleep is an active, regulated, and metabolically distinct state, essential for health and well-being. In this article, the authors review the fundamental anatomy and physiology of sleep and its regulation, with an eye toward interactions between sleep and metabolism. PMID:26912958

  2. Sleep and Your Preschooler

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Sleep and Your Preschooler KidsHealth > For Parents > Sleep and Your Preschooler Print A A A Text ... Preschoolers need about 11 to 12 hours of sleep each day, which can include a nap. There's ...

  3. What Is Sleep Apnea?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Sleep Apnea? Español Sleep apnea (AP-ne-ah) is ... many people. Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Sleep Apnea Research: The HeartBeat Study 06/07/2012 ...

  4. Meaning-Making through Narrative: On Not Losing the Plot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Terry

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the process of meaning-making from within the "narrative" mode and in particular considers the difficulty or even impossibility, in certain kinds of organisational and social situations, of constructing viable narratives. This experience is sometimes referred to as "losing the plot", hence the subtitle of the article. When…

  5. Learning to Lose: Weight Loss Classes and Personal Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Adult learning takes place not only in educational organisations, but through participation in leisure and special interest groups. Commercially operated weight management organisations recruit large numbers of adults to their classes to learn how to eat healthily and lose weight. They publish readers' "real life" success stories in their…

  6. Glycerol dynamics in weight-losing cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Edén, E; Edström, S; Bennegárd, K; Lindmark, L; Lundholm, K

    1985-02-01

    This study was designed to show whether weight-losing cancer patients have an elevated glycerol turnover. Four groups of patients were examined: weight-losing cancer patients, weight-losing patients without cancer, cancer patients without weight loss, and weight-stable and well-nourished hospitalized control patients. Glycerol was infused intravenously at three different rates (200, 400, and 800 mumol/hr/kg body weight) after an overnight fast. This allowed measurement of clearance and plasma glycerol turnover. Weight-losing cancer patients (group 1) had an almost threefold higher glycerol turnover per kilogram of body weight compared with malnourished and well-nourished noncancer patients. However, both malnourished cancer and noncancer patients had an elevated glycerol turnover compared with well-nourished patients when glycerol turnover was related to whole body lipids. The results how that progressive clinical cancer is associated with an elevated plasma glycerol turnover, probably indicating an increased whole body lipolysis. This may explain the loss of body fat during the development of cancer cachexia. PMID:4038560

  7. They Snooze, You Lose: The Educator's Guide to Successful Presentations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burmark, Lynell

    2011-01-01

    In today's increasingly visual world, the art of giving presentations is a much-needed talent. "They Snooze, You Lose", provides a comprehensive guide made especially for teachers and administrators who want to become presentation "stars" in their classrooms, at board meetings, or any time they are in front of an audience. This book describes how…

  8. We're Losing Our Minds: Rethinking American Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Richard P.; Hersh, Richard H.

    2011-01-01

    America is being held back by the quality and quantity of learning in college. This is a true educational emergency! Many college graduates cannot think critically, write effectively, solve problems, understand complex issues, or meet employers' expectations. We are losing our minds--and endangering our social, economic, and scientific leadership.…

  9. 5 CFR 531.241 - Retaining and losing GM status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... retained rate under 5 CFR part 536. (A retained grade is not considered in determining whether a GM employee has been reduced in grade. See 5 CFR 536.205.) ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retaining and losing GM status....

  10. Changes in taste preference and steps taken after sleep curtailment.

    PubMed

    Smith, Shannon L; Ludy, Mary-Jon; Tucker, Robin M

    2016-09-01

    A substantial proportion of the population does not achieve the recommended amount of sleep. Previous work demonstrates that sleep alterations perturb energy balance by disrupting appetite hormones, increasing energy intake, and decreasing physical activity. This study explored the influence of sleep duration on taste perception as well as effects on dietary intake and physical activity. Participants (n=24 habitual short sleepers and n=27 habitual long sleepers, 82.4% female, 88.2% white, 25.2±7.7years) completed two randomized taste visits; one following short sleep duration (≤7h) and one following long sleep duration (>7h). Taste perception measures included sweet and salt detection thresholds (ascending 3-alternative, forced-choice method), as well as sweet preference (Monell 2-series, forced-choice, paired-comparison, tracking method). Steps and sleep were tracked via FitBit, an activity monitoring device. Dietary intake was assessed using 24-hour recalls and analyzed using Nutritionist Pro. Habitual long-sleepers had a higher sweet taste preference (p=0.042) and took fewer steps (p=0.036) following sleep curtailment compared to the night where they slept >7h but did not experience changes in dietary intake or detection thresholds. Habitual short-sleepers did not experience changes in taste perception, activity, or dietary intake following sleep alteration. Habitual long-sleepers may be at greater risk of gaining weight when typical sleep patterns are disrupted. PMID:27184237

  11. Impact of lifestyle and technology developments on sleep

    PubMed Central

    Shochat, Tamar

    2012-01-01

    Although the physiological and psychological mechanisms involved in the development of sleep disorders remain similar throughout history, factors that potentiate these mechanisms are closely related to the “zeitgeist”, ie, the sociocultural, technological and lifestyle trends which characterize an era. Technological advancements have afforded modern society with 24-hour work operations, transmeridian travel and exposure to a myriad of electronic devices such as televisions, computers and cellular phones. Growing evidence suggests that these advancements take their toll on human functioning and health via their damaging effects on sleep quality, quantity and timing. Additional behavioral lifestyle factors associated with poor sleep include weight gain, insufficient physical exercise and consumption of substances such as caffeine, alcohol and nicotine. Some of these factors have been implicated as self-help aids used to combat daytime sleepiness and impaired daytime functioning. This review aims to highlight current lifestyle trends that have been shown in scientific investigations to be associated with sleep patterns, sleep duration and sleep quality. Current understanding of the underlying mechanisms of these associations will be presented, as well as some of the reported consequences. Available therapies used to treat some lifestyle related sleep disorders will be discussed. Perspectives will be provided for further investigation of lifestyle factors that are associated with poor sleep, including developing theoretical frameworks, identifying underlying mechanisms, and establishing appropriate therapies and public health interventions aimed to improve sleep behaviors in order to enhance functioning and health in modern society. PMID:23616726

  12. CGRP neurons mediate sleep-specific circadian output in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Kunst, Michael; Hughes, Michael E.; Raccuglia, Davide; Felix, Mario; Li, Michael; Barnett, Gregory; Duah, Janelle; Nitabach, Michael N.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Imbalances in amount and timing of sleep are harmful to physical and mental health. Therefore, the study of the underlying mechanisms is of great biological importance. Proper timing and amount of sleep is regulated by both the circadian clock and homeostatic sleep drive. However, very little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which the circadian clock regulates sleep. In this study we describe a novel role for DIURETIC HORMONE 31 (DH31), the fly homologue of the vertebrate neuropeptide CALCITONIN GENE RELATED PEPTIDE (CGRP), as a circadian wake-promoting signal that awakens the fly in anticipation of dawn. Results Analysis of loss-of-function and gain-of-function Drosophila mutants demonstrates that DH31 suppresses sleep late at night. DH31 is expressed by a subset of dorsal circadian clock neurons that also express the receptor for the circadian neuropeptide PIGMENT DISPERSING FACTOR (PDF). PDF secreted by the ventral pacemaker subset of circadian clock neurons acts on PDF receptors in the DH31-expressing dorsal clock neurons to increase DH31 secretion before dawn. Activation of PDFR in DH31 positive DN1 specifically affects sleep and has no effect on circadian rhythms, thus constituting a dedicated locus for circadian regulation of sleep. Conclusions We identified a novel signaling molecule (DH31) as part of a neuropeptide relay mechanism for circadian control of sleep. Our results indicate that outputs of the clock controlling sleep and locomotor rhythms are mediated via distinct neuronal/cellular channels. PMID:25455031

  13. Sleep and primary headaches.

    PubMed

    Aguggia, Marco; Cavallini, M; Divito, N; Ferrero, M; Lentini, A; Montano, V; Tinebra, M C; Saracco, M G; Valfrè, W

    2011-05-01

    The relationship between sleep and primary headaches has been known for over a century, particularly for headaches occurring during the night or early morning. Migraine, tension-tyre headache, and cluster headache may cause sleep fragmentation, insomnia, and hypersomnia, causing considerable social and economical costs and several familial problems. By contrast, sleep disorders may themselves trigger headache attacks. Finally, headaches and sleep disorders can also be symptoms of other underlying pathologies. Despite this background, there is still no clarity about the mechanism that links these two entities and their interdependence remains to be defined. Patients with primary headache should undergo a careful assessment of sleep habits. PMID:21533713

  14. Sleep in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Richardson, P

    1996-07-01

    The article examines relationships between pregnancy and maternal sleep. Specifically, sleep as a restorative process is considered with regard for the metabolic and arousal demands of childbearing. The analysis draws attention to the limited number of studies in the area and the need for greater research interest in pregnancy sleep phenomena. The available evidence indicates that maternal slow-wave and rapid eye movement which are key to anabolic activity and neural-cerebral recharge, are protected throughout pregnancy until perhaps the last 3 to 4 weeks before delivery. The sleep disturbances about which term gravidas complain appear to be based on increased periods of wakefulness after sleep onset. PMID:8717994

  15. Behavioral state-specific inhibitory postsynaptic potentials impinge on cat lumbar motoneurons during active sleep.

    PubMed

    Morales, F R; Boxer, P; Chase, M H

    1987-11-01

    High-gain intracellular records were obtained from lumbar motoneurons in intact, undrugged cats during naturally occurring states of wakefulness, quiet sleep, and active sleep. Spontaneous, discrete, inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) were found to impinge on lumbar motoneurons during all states of sleep and wakefulness. IPSPs which occurred during wakefulness and quiet sleep were of relatively low amplitude and had a low frequency of occurrence. During the state of active sleep there occurred a great increase in inhibitory input. This was the result of the appearance of large-amplitude IPSPs and of an increase in the frequency of low-amplitude IPSPs which were indistinguishable from those recorded during wakefulness and quiet sleep. In addition to a difference in amplitude, the time course of the large IPSPs recorded during active sleep further differentiated them from the smaller IPSPs recorded during wakefulness, quiet sleep, and active sleep; i.e., their rise-time and half-width were of longer duration and their rate-of-rise was significantly faster. We suggest that the large, active sleep-specific IPSPs reflect the activity of a group of inhibitory interneurons which are inactive during wakefulness and quiet sleep and which discharge during active sleep. These as yet unidentified interneurons would then serve as the last link in the brain stem-spinal cord inhibitory system which is responsible for producing muscle atonia during the state of active sleep. PMID:3666087

  16. Autism and sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Devnani, Preeti A; Hegde, Anaita U

    2015-01-01

    "Autism Spectrum Disorders" (ASDs) are neurodevelopment disorders and are characterized by persistent impairments in reciprocal social interaction and communication. Sleep problems in ASD, are a prominent feature that have an impact on social interaction, day to day life, academic achievement, and have been correlated with increased maternal stress and parental sleep disruption. Polysomnography studies of ASD children showed most of their abnormalities related to rapid eye movement (REM) sleep which included decreased quantity, increased undifferentiated sleep, immature organization of eye movements into discrete bursts, decreased time in bed, total sleep time, REM sleep latency, and increased proportion of stage 1 sleep. Implementation of nonpharmacotherapeutic measures such as bedtime routines and sleep-wise approach is the mainstay of behavioral management. Treatment strategies along with limited regulated pharmacotherapy can help improve the quality of life in ASD children and have a beneficial impact on the family. PubMed search was performed for English language articles from January 1995 to January 2015. Following key words: Autism spectrum disorder, sleep disorders and autism, REM sleep and autism, cognitive behavioral therapy, sleep-wise approach, melatonin and ASD were used. Only articles reporting primary data relevant to the above questions were included. PMID:26962332

  17. Family Disorganization, Sleep Hygiene, and Adolescent Sleep Disturbance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billows, Michael; Gradisar, Michael; Dohnt, Hayley; Johnston, Anna; McCappin, Stephanie; Hudson, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The link between sleep hygiene and adolescent sleep is well documented, though evidence suggests contributions from other factors, particularly the family environment. The present study examined whether sleep hygiene mediated the relationship between family disorganization and self-reported sleep onset latency, total sleep time, and daytime…

  18. Sleep and Sleep Problems: From Birth to 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du Mond, Courtney; Mindell, Jodi A.

    2011-01-01

    Sleep is an important aspect of a child's early development and is essential to family well-being. During their first 3 years, infants and toddlers spend more than 50% of their lives sleeping. However, concerns about sleep and sleep problems are among the most common issues brought to the attention of pediatricians. Although sleep is one of the…

  19. Dreaming without REM sleep.

    PubMed

    Oudiette, Delphine; Dealberto, Marie-José; Uguccioni, Ginevra; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Merino-Andreu, Milagros; Tafti, Mehdi; Garma, Lucile; Schwartz, Sophie; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2012-09-01

    To test whether mental activities collected from non-REM sleep are influenced by REM sleep, we suppressed REM sleep using clomipramine 50mg (an antidepressant) or placebo in the evening, in a double blind cross-over design, in 11 healthy young men. Subjects were awakened every hour and asked about their mental activity. The marked (81%, range 39-98%) REM-sleep suppression induced by clomipramine did not substantially affect any aspects of dream recall (report length, complexity, bizarreness, pleasantness and self-perception of dream or thought-like mentation). Since long, complex and bizarre dreams persist even after suppressing REM sleep either partially or totally, it suggests that the generation of mental activity during sleep is independent of sleep stage. PMID:22647346

  20. Sleep disorders in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Bourjeily, Ghada

    2009-01-01

    Sleep complaints are a common occurrence in pregnancy that are in part due to pregnancy-associated anatomic and physiological changes but may also be due to pathological causes. In the non-pregnant population, sleep deprivation has been associated with physical and cognitive issues; poor sleep may even be associated with adverse maternal outcomes. Maternal obesity, one of the most prevalent risk factors in obstetric practices, together with physiologic changes of pregnancy predispose to the development of sleep disordered breathing. Symptoms of sleep disordered breathing have also been associated with poor maternal outcomes. Management options of restless legs syndrome and narcolepsy pose a challenge in pregnancy; benefits of therapy need to be weighed against the potential harm to the fetus. This article briefly reviews the normal changes in pregnancy affecting sleep, gives an overview of certain sleep disorders occurring in pregnancy, and suggests management options specific for this population.

  1. Sleep-related violence.

    PubMed

    Mahowald, Mark W; Schenck, Carlos H; Cramer Bornemann, Michel A

    2005-03-01

    Most violent behaviors arise from wakefulness. It is important to realize that violent behaviors that may have forensic science implications can arise from the sleep period. By virtue of the fact that these behaviors arise from sleep, they are executed without conscious awareness, and, therefore, without culpability. The most common underlying conditions arising from sleep are disorders of arousal (sleepwalking and sleep terrors), the rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, and nocturnal seizures. In addition, there are a number of psychiatric conditions (dissociative disorders, malingering, and Munchausen syndrome by proxy) that actually arise from periods of wakefulness occurring during the sleep period. The clinical and medico-legal evaluation of such cases is outlined, and should be performed by a multidisciplinary team of experienced sleep medicine practitioners. PMID:15743554

  2. Sleep and psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Abad, Vivien C.; Guilleminault, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders constitute 15.4% of the disease burden in established market economies. Many psychiatric disorders are associated with sleep disturbances, and the relationship is often bidirectional. This paper reviews the prevalence of various psychiatric disorders, their clinical presentation, and their association with sleep disorders. Among the psychiatric disorders reviewed are affective disorders, psychosis, anxiety disorders (including post-traumatic stress disorder), substance abuse disorders, eating disorders, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders. The spectrum of associated sleep disorders includes insomnia, hypersomnia, nocturnal panic, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations, restless legs/periodic limb movements of sleep, obstructive sleep apnea, and parasomnias. The effects on sleep of various psychotropic medications utilized to treat the above psychiatric disorders are summarized. PMID:16416705

  3. Dietary Macronutrients and Sleep.

    PubMed

    Lindseth, Glenda; Murray, Ashley

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the effects of macronutrient diets on sleep quantity and quality. Using a repeated-measures, randomized crossover study design, 36 young adults served as their own control, and consumed high protein, carbohydrate, fat, and control diets. Treatment orders were counterbalanced across the dietary groups. Following consumption of the study diets, sleep measures were examined for within-subject differences. Fatty acid intakes and serum lipids were further analyzed for differences. Sleep actigraphs indicated wake times and wake minutes (after sleep onset) were significantly different when comparing consumption of macronutrient diets and a control diet. Post hoc testing indicated high carbohydrate intakes were associated with significantly shorter (p < .001) wake times. Also, the Global Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index© post hoc results indicated high fat intake was associated with significantly better (p < .05) sleep in comparison with the other diets. These results highlight the effects that dietary manipulations may have on sleep. PMID:27170039

  4. Sleep deprivation therapy.

    PubMed

    Svestka, Jaromir

    2008-11-01

    Sleep deprivation is a useful therapeutic option in the treatment of depressive disorders, especially in pharmacoresistant disorders. Its therapeutic efficacy in other indications has not, however, been confirmed. According to current knowledge, application of sleep therapy requires concomitant therapy to prevent early relapses of depression. Total sleep deprivation is the classic variant of its clinical use. Partial sleep deprivation has a somewhat less pronounced antidepressant effect, and the duration of sleep deprivation rather than application timing determines its therapeutic effect. The most reliable predictors of sleep deprivation efficacy are marked diurnal fluctuations of depressive mood, patient locomotor activity, and limbic hyperactivity in the central nervous system. The mechanism of the antidepressant effect of sleep deprivation remains unknown. PMID:19029872

  5. Why does consciousness fade in early sleep?

    PubMed

    Tononi, Giulio; Massimini, Marcello

    2008-01-01

    Consciousness fades during deep nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep early in the night, yet cortical neurons remain active, keep receiving sensory inputs, and can display patterns of synchronous activity. Why then does consciousness fade? According to the integrated information theory of consciousness, what is critical for consciousness is not firing rates, sensory input, or synchronization per se, but rather the ability of a system to integrate information. If consciousness is the capacity to integrate information, then the brain should be able to generate consciousness to the extent that it has a large repertoire of available states (information), yet it cannot be decomposed into a collection of causally independent subsystems (integration). A key prediction stemming from this hypothesis is that such ability should be greatly reduced in deep NREM sleep; the dreamless brain either breaks down into causally independent modules, shrinks its repertoire of possible responses, or both. In this article, we report the results of a series of experiments in which we employed a combination of transcranial magnetic stimulation and high-density electroencephalography (TMS/hd-EEG) to directly test this prediction in humans. Altogether, TMS/hdEEG measurements suggest that the sleeping brain, despite being active and reactive, loses its ability of entering states that are both integrated and differentiated; it either breaks down in causally independent modules, responding to TMS with a short and local activation, or it bursts into an explosive and aspecific response, producing a full-fledged slow wave. PMID:18591492

  6. Sleep from an Islamic perspective.

    PubMed

    Bahammam, Ahmed S

    2011-10-01

    Sleep medicine is a relatively new scientific specialty. Sleep is an important topic in Islamic literature, and the Quran and Hadith discuss types of sleep, the importance of sleep, and good sleep practices. Islam considers sleep as one of the signs of the greatness of Allνh (God) and encourages followers to explore this important sign. The Quran describes different types of sleep, and these correspond with sleep stages identified by modern science. The Quran discusses the beneficial effects of sleep and emphasizes the importance of maintaining a pattern of light and darkness. A mid-day nap is an important practice for Muslims, and the Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him (pbuh) promoted naps as beneficial. In accordance with the practice and instructions of Muhammad (pbuh), Muslims have certain sleep habits and these sleep habits correspond to some of the sleep hygiene rules identified by modern science. Details during sleep include sleep position, like encouraging sleep on the right side and discouraging sleep in the prone position. Dream interpretation is an established science in the Islamic literature and Islamic scholars have made significant contributions to theories of dream interpretation. We suggest that sleep scientists examine religious literature in general and Islamic literature in particular, to understand the views, behaviors, and practices of ancient people about the sleep and sleep disorders. Such studies may help to answer some unresolved questions in sleep science or lead to new areas of inquiry. PMID:21977062

  7. Sleep from an Islamic perspective

    PubMed Central

    BaHammam, Ahmed S.

    2011-01-01

    Sleep medicine is a relatively new scientific specialty. Sleep is an important topic in Islamic literature, and the Quran and Hadith discuss types of sleep, the importance of sleep, and good sleep practices. Islam considers sleep as one of the signs of the greatness of Allνh (God) and encourages followers to explore this important sign. The Quran describes different types of sleep, and these correspond with sleep stages identified by modern science. The Quran discusses the beneficial effects of sleep and emphasizes the importance of maintaining a pattern of light and darkness. A mid-day nap is an important practice for Muslims, and the Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him (pbuh) promoted naps as beneficial. In accordance with the practice and instructions of Muhammad (pbuh), Muslims have certain sleep habits and these sleep habits correspond to some of the sleep hygiene rules identified by modern science. Details during sleep include sleep position, like encouraging sleep on the right side and discouraging sleep in the prone position. Dream interpretation is an established science in the Islamic literature and Islamic scholars have made significant contributions to theories of dream interpretation. We suggest that sleep scientists examine religious literature in general and Islamic literature in particular, to understand the views, behaviors, and practices of ancient people about the sleep and sleep disorders. Such studies may help to answer some unresolved questions in sleep science or lead to new areas of inquiry. PMID:21977062

  8. Weight loss and gain in athletes.

    PubMed

    Rankin, Janet Walberg

    2002-08-01

    Guidance from health professionals will assist the significant proportion of athletes who desire a change in their body weight. Athletes who use drastic food or fluid restriction to lose weight may experience negative consequences, including loss of lean tissue, hormonal disturbances, and performance impairment. Excess food consumption for weight gain can increase body fat and risk factors for chronic diseases. Weight change is best done during the off-season, modifying energy intake up or down by 500 kcal/d. Adequate carbohydrate (60%-65%, > 5 g/kg) and protein (15%, 1.2-1.8 g/kg) and a low fat intake (20%-25%) is appropriate for either weight loss or gain. The athletic staff should be knowledgeable about the latest rules related to weight and appropriate weight control methods so they may guide their athletes using modest, safe approaches that will not negatively affect health or performance. PMID:12831697

  9. My Daughter's Gain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weis, Maura

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author relates her and her husband's dilemma in letting their child Hannah live in a residential home. Hannah has electrical status epilecticus during sleep (ESES), or Tassinaris syndrome, a seizure disorder that emerges in the mid- to late-toddler years. Individuals with Tassinaris syndrome often display the sudden onset of…

  10. Chronic hiccups and sleep.

    PubMed

    Arnulf, I; Boisteanu, D; Whitelaw, W A; Cabane, J; Garma, L; Derenne, J P

    1996-04-01

    To explore the effect of sleep on hiccups, we studied eight patients aged 20-81 years, all males with chronic hiccups lasting 7 days to 7 years, by means of overnight polysomnography. The incidence of new bouts of hiccups and the likelihood of hiccups being present were both highest in wakefulness and became progressively lower through stages I-IV of slow wave sleep (SWS) to rapid eye movement sleep (REMS). There was a significant tendency for hiccups to disappear at sleep onset and REMS onset. Of all 21 bouts of hiccups that were observed to stop, 10/21 did so during an apnea or hypopnea. Frequency of hiccups within a bout slowed progressively from wakefulness through the stages of SWS to REMS. For the whole group, mean frequency decreased significantly from wakefulness [(25.6 +/- 12.1), (mean +/- SD)] to sleep onset or stage I (22.3 +/- 12.2). Sleep latency was increased from 8 +/- 16.3 minutes when hiccups were absent to 16.35 +/- 19.9 minutes when it was present. Sleep efficiency was poor because of long waking periods, and there were deficiencies of both SWS and REMS. Hiccups themselves were not responsible for any arousals or awakenings. We conclude that neural mechanisms responsible for hiccups are strongly influenced by sleep state and that hiccups disrupt sleep onset but not established sleep. PMID:8723381

  11. Sleep and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Beccuti, Guglielmo; Pannain, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review This review summarizes the most recent evidence linking decreased sleep duration and poor sleep quality to obesity, focusing upon studies in adults. Recent findings Published and unpublished health examination surveys and epidemiological studies suggest that the worldwide prevalence of obesity has doubled since 1980. In 2008, 1 in 10 adults was obese, with women more likely to be obese than men. This obesity epidemic has been paralleled by a trend of reduced sleep duration. Poor sleep quality, which leads to overall sleep loss has also become a frequent complaint. Growing evidence from both laboratory and epidemiological studies points to short sleep duration and poor sleep quality as new risk factors for the development of obesity. Summary Sleep is an important modulator of neuroendocrine function and glucose metabolism and sleep loss has been shown to result in metabolic and endocrine alterations, including decreased glucose tolerance, decreased insulin sensitivity, increased evening concentrations of cortisol, increased levels of ghrelin, decreased levels of leptin, and increased hunger and appetite. Recent epidemiological and laboratory evidence confirm previous findings of an association between sleep loss and increased risk of obesity. PMID:21659802

  12. [Headache and sleep disorders].

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Masayuki; Suzuki, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Hirata, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Headache and sleep problems are both some of the most commonly reported symptoms in clinical practice. There is a clear association between chronic headache and sleep disorders, especially headaches occurring during the night or early morning. Identification of sleep problems in chronic headache patients is worthwhile because treatment of sleep disorders among chronic headache patients may be followed by improve of the headache. Morning headache has been recognised as an obstructive sleep apnoea related symptom. Treatment with continuous positive airway pressure usually reduced headache, however, we often encounter obstructive sleep apnoea patients who present various characteristics of morning headache that often do not fulfil the criteria for "sleep apnoea headache" according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders: 2nd edition (ICHD-2) criteria. The pathophysiologic background for a relation between obstructive sleep apnoea and morning headache is multifactorial. We should also be noted that tension-type headache and migraine might be coexisted in obstructive sleep apnoea patients. In addition, we review the relationship between migraine and sleep disorders such as restless legs syndrome, narcolepsy and parasomnia (dream enacting behaviour) including our studies. PMID:25672689

  13. Sleep, Cognition and Dementia.

    PubMed

    Porter, Verna R; Buxton, William G; Avidan, Alon Y

    2015-12-01

    The older patient population is growing rapidly around the world and in the USA. Almost half of seniors over age 65 who live at home are dissatisfied with their sleep, and nearly two-thirds of those residing in nursing home facilities suffer from sleep disorders. Chronic and pervasive sleep complaints and disturbances are frequently associated with excessive daytime sleepiness and may result in impaired cognition, diminished intellect, poor memory, confusion, and psychomotor retardation all of which may be misinterpreted as dementia. The key sleep disorders impacting patients with dementia include insomnia, hypersomnolence, circadian rhythm misalignment, sleep disordered breathing, motor disturbances of sleep such as periodic leg movement disorder of sleep and restless leg syndrome, and parasomnias, mostly in the form of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD). RBD is a pre-clinical marker for a class of neurodegenerative diseases, the "synucleinopathies", and requires formal polysomnographic evaluation. Untreated sleep disorders may exacerbate cognitive and behavioral symptoms in patients with dementia and are a source of considerable stress for bed partners and family members. When left untreated, sleep disturbances may also increase the risk of injury at night, compromise health-related quality of life, and precipitate and accelerate social and economic burdens for caregivers. PMID:26478197

  14. Forerunners of REM sleep.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Hartmut; Salzarulo, Piero

    2012-02-01

    The development of sleep research can be divided into two main periods. The first one was initiated in 1863 by the first systematic measurement of the depth of sleep, the second in 1953 by the discovery of recurrent episodes of rapid eye movements in sleep. The main methodological procedure in the first of these two periods was the measurement of a single physiological variable, while beginning with long-term measurements of the electroencephalogram (EEG) in sleep, multi-channel, polygraphic recording became the method of choice for sleep studies. Although rhythmic changes in the ultradian frequency range of one to 2 h were observed early in many variables during sleep (movements, autonomic functions, penile erections), the recognition of the existence of two different states of sleep (rapid eye movement (REM) and non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep)) was contingent upon a 'synthetic' view, which focus on the coalescence of multiple variables. The dual concept of sleep organization evolved stepwise in parallel to the rapid growth of neurophysiological knowledge and techniques in the first half of the 20th century, culminating in the discovery of REM sleep. PMID:21906979

  15. The risk of losing 10 years of life put in perspective: views of college student smokers.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Shu-Hui; Huang, Song-Lih

    2015-03-01

    Health messages have limited effects on young smokers. The health effects typically have long latent periods, and the appreciation of risk depends on the meaning given to longevity. This study aims to understand how college student smokers interpreted the risks of losing 10 years of life because of smoking. In-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with 23 male smokers from a relatively low-achieving college in southern Taiwan. The participants had vague ideas about the future; were not expecting a successful life, thought life was stressful and boring; and expressed that there was no need to live too long. Many believed that removing the stress and having a composed lifestyle was the way to becoming healthy, which could be achieved only by people with economic success. They would quit had they been rich. Empowerment to help young smokers gain control over their life events may be the key to tobacco control. PMID:23695539

  16. Coal slurry lobby loses again: but believes time is on its side

    SciTech Connect

    Madison, C.

    1980-10-11

    Time favors the Slurry Transport Association's attempts to overcome railroad and railroad-union opposition and gain legislative support for coal-slurry pipelines. The long-standing support for railroads in Congress has so far successfully blocked the efforts of a coalition of slurry lobbyists to develop an alternative method of coal transport. Pipeline sponsors seek eminent domainright to cross railroad rights-of-way, but the railroads feel they cannot afford to lose even 20 percent of their profitable coal freight. At issue is whether coal should guarantee a monopoly to the railroads at the expense of national energy needs, policies which mandate coal substitution for oil and gas, and coal exports. Union lobbyists impress legislators with the impact of pipelines on employees even though Congress recently deregulated the railroads. (DCK)

  17. Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Ju; Lee, Jung Hie; Duffy, Jeanne F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review circadian rhythm sleep disorders, including underlying causes, diagnostic considerations, and typical treatments. Methods Literature review and discussion of specific cases. Results Survey studies 1,2 suggest that up to 3% of the adult population suffers from a circadian rhythm sleep disorder (CRSD). However, these sleep disorders are often confused with insomnia, and an estimated 10% of adult and 16% of adolescent sleep disorders patients may have a CRSD 3-6. While some CRSD (such as jet lag) can be self-limiting, others when untreated can lead to adverse medical, psychological, and social consequences. The International Classification of Sleep Disorders classifies CRSD as dyssomnias, with six subtypes: Advanced Sleep Phase Type, Delayed Sleep Phase Type, Irregular Sleep Wake Type, Free Running Type, Jet Lag Type, and Shift Work Type. The primary clinical characteristic of all CRSD is an inability to fall asleep and wake at the desired time. It is believed that CRSD arise from a problem with the internal biological clock (circadian timing system) and/or misalignment between the circadian timing system and the external 24-hour environment. This misalignment can be the result of biological and/or behavioral factors. CRSD can be confused with other sleep or medical disorders. Conclusions Circadian rhythm sleep disorders are a distinct class of sleep disorders characterized by a mismatch between the desired timing of sleep and the ability to fall asleep and remain asleep. If untreated, CRSD can lead to insomnia and excessive daytime sleepiness, with negative medical, psychological, and social consequences. It is important for physicians to recognize potential circadian rhythm sleep disorders so that appropriate diagnosis, treatment, and referral can be made. PMID:25368503

  18. The ambivalence of losing weight after bariatric surgery

    PubMed Central

    Warholm, Christine; Øien, Aud Marie; Råheim, Målfrid

    2014-01-01

    This study is grounded in a phenomenological lifeworld perspective. It aims at providing rich descriptions of lived experience of the process of losing weight after obesity surgery. Two women participated in in-depth interviews four times each during the first postoperative year. Based on the women’s experiences, a meaning structure—the ambivalence of losing weight after obesity surgery—was identified across the women’s processes of change. This consisted of five core themes: movement and activity—freedom but new demands and old restraints; eating habits and digestion—the complexity of change; appearance—smaller, but looser; social relations—stability and change; and being oneself—vulnerability and self-assurance. These core themes changed over time in terms of dominance. The experience of ambivalence is discussed according to a phenomenological perspective of the body as lived experience. PMID:24480033

  19. Losing a valued member of the medical practice team.

    PubMed

    Hills, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Losing a valued member of your staff can be disruptive, painful, and costly to your medical practice. And despite your best intentions and impeccable employee management policies and skills, things will happen beyond your control, and people move on. Being prepared for that possibility will help you minimize and contain the damage and move your practice forward. This article suggests 15 strategies that you can use to mitigate the effects of losing a valued employee. These include strategies to protect your practice's interests and several that will smooth the transition for your remaining staff. This article also describes 10 ways that losing a valued employee can impact a practice. It offers 10 additional strategies to help you cope with the death of an employee, one of the most difficult challenges a practice manager may ever face. This article further suggests several easy-to-implement practice management techniques that will help you soften the blow of employee turnover. It offers a sample farewell letter to announce an employee's departure from your practice and suggests six knowledge transfer questions to ask before the employee leaves. Finally, this article provides a comprehensive list of more than 30 thoughtful, eye-opening, and revealing questions that you can ask in an employee exit interview or exit survey. PMID:25807601

  20. Sleep behaviour: sleep in continuously active dolphins.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Yuske; Arai, Kazutoshi; Kohshima, Shiro

    2006-06-22

    Sleep has been assumed to be necessary for development and to be a vital function in mammals and other animals. However, Lyamin et al. claim that in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and killer whales (Orcinus orca), neonates and their mothers show almost no sleep behaviour for the first month after birth; this conclusion is based on their observation that the cetaceans keep swimming, avoid obstacles and rarely close their eyes for 24 hours a day throughout that period. Here we analyse the behaviour and eye closure of three neonate-mother pairs of bottlenose dolphins and find that, although the animals tend to open both eyes when surfacing to breathe, one or both eyes are closed during 'swim rest', an underwater sleeping behaviour that is associated with continuous activity. This observation calls into question the conclusions of Lyamin et al., who overlooked this type of sleep by analysing the animals' eye state only when they surfaced to breathe. PMID:16791150

  1. The impact of sleep deprivation on food desire in the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Greer, Stephanie M.; Goldstein, Andrea N.; Walker, Matthew P.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence supports a link between sleep loss and obesity. However, the detrimental impact of sleep deprivation on central brain mechanisms governing appetitive food desire remains unknown. Here we report that sleep deprivation significantly decreases activity in appetitive evaluation regions within the human frontal cortex and insula cortex during food desirability choices, combined with a converse amplification of activity within the amygdala. Moreover, this bi-directional change in the profile of brain activity is further associated with a significant increase in the desire for weight-gain promoting high-calorie foods following sleep deprivation, the extent of which is predicted by the subjective severity of sleep loss across participants. These findings provide an explanatory brain mechanism by which insufficient sleep may lead to the development/maintenance of obesity through diminished activity in higher-order cortical evaluation regions, combined with excess subcortical responsivity in the amygdala, resulting in selection of foods most capable of triggering weight-gain. PMID:23922121

  2. Guide to Understanding Your Sleep Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... ASAA Financials Learn Healthy sleep Sleep apnea Other sleep disorders Personal stories Treat Test Yourself Diagnosis Treatment Options ... a result of sleep-disordered breathing or other sleep disorders. Each arousal sends you back to a lighter ...

  3. Dementia - behavior and sleep problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000029.htm Dementia - behavior and sleep problems To use the sharing features on this ... sleep and stay asleep Tips for Behavior and Sleep Problems Having a daily routine may help. Calmly ...

  4. Sleep disorders in the elderly

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep disorders in the elderly involve any disrupted sleep pattern. This can include problems falling or staying asleep, ... for medical causes and determine which type of sleep disorder is causing the problem.

  5. Sleep disorders in the elderly

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000064.htm Sleep disorders in the elderly To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Sleep disorders in the elderly involve any disrupted sleep pattern. ...

  6. PROCESSES ORGANISMIC: SLEEP AND DREAMING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter reviews studies relating biological and mental activity during sleep and discusses how sleep affects waking behavior. The research shows that sleep and waking behaviors—-both physiological and cognitive--are more directly related than previously imagined....

  7. Iii. Sleep assessment methods.

    PubMed

    Sadeh, Avi

    2015-03-01

    Sleep is a complex phenomenon that could be understood and assessed at many levels. Sleep could be described at the behavioral level (relative lack of movements and awareness and responsiveness) and at the brain level (based on EEG activity). Sleep could be characterized by its duration, by its distribution during the 24-hr day period, and by its quality (e.g., consolidated versus fragmented). Different methods have been developed to assess various aspects of sleep. This chapter covers the most established and common methods used to assess sleep in infants and children. These methods include polysomnography, videosomnography, actigraphy, direct observations, sleep diaries, and questionnaires. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are highlighted. PMID:25704734

  8. Sleep and plasticity.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2012-01-01

    While there is ample agreement that the cognitive role of sleep is explained by sleep-dependent synaptic changes, consensus is yet to be established as to the nature of these changes. Some researchers believe that sleep promotes global synaptic downscaling, leading to a non-Hebbian reset of synaptic weights that is putatively necessary for the acquisition of new memories during ensuing waking. Other investigators propose that sleep also triggers experience-dependent, Hebbian synaptic upscaling able to consolidate recently acquired memories. Here, I review the molecular and physiological evidence supporting these views, with an emphasis on the calcium signaling pathway. I argue that the available data are consistent with sleep promoting experience-dependent synaptic embossing, understood as the simultaneous non-Hebbian downscaling and Hebbian upscaling of separate but complementary sets of synapses, heterogeneously activated at the time of memory encoding and therefore differentially affected by sleep. PMID:21947578

  9. Isolated sleep paralysis.

    PubMed

    Sawant, Neena S; Parkar, Shubhangi R; Tambe, Ravindra

    2005-10-01

    Sleep paralysis (SP) is a cardinal symptom of narcolepsy. However, little is available in the literature about isolated sleep paralysis. This report discusses the case of a patient with isolated sleep paralysis who progressed from mild to severe SP over 8 years. He also restarted drinking alcohol to be able to fall asleep and allay his anxiety symptoms. The patient was taught relaxation techniques and he showed complete remission of the symptoms of SP on follow up after 8 months. PMID:20711316

  10. [Sleep and neurological diseases].

    PubMed

    Mayer, G

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge of the physiology of sleep-wake regulation can contribute to an understanding of the pathophysiology and symptoms of neurological diseases and is helpful for initiating specific therapies for sleep-wake cycle stabilization. Based on historically important observations on the close relationship between sleep and neurological diseases, new insights and developments in selected neurological entities are presented in this review article. PMID:27167889