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1

Exam #1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first exam in a class holds an opportunity for metacognitive teaching. At this point the student is open to hearing your message, especially if their outcome is less than they had hoped. This example walks through some strategies for implementing metacognitive teaching wrapped around the first exam.

Samson, Perry

2

Digital rectal exam  

MedlinePLUS

A digital rectal exam is an examination of the lower rectum. The doctor uses a gloved, lubricated finger to check for ... signs of prostate cancer . In women, a digital rectal exam may be performed during a routine gynecologic ...

3

Testicular self-exam  

MedlinePLUS

Testicular self-exam is an examination of the testicles that you do on yourself. ... A testicular self-exam may be done to check for testicular cancer . Testicles have blood vessels and other structures that can ...

4

DOS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses using the DOS PATH command (for MS-DOS) to enable the microcomputer user to move from directory to directory on a hard drive. Lists the commands to be programed, gives examples, and explains the use of each. (MVL)

Traven, Bill

1988-01-01

5

Examining Exam Reviews: A Comparison of Exam Scores and Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Instructors commonly use exam reviews to help students prepare for exams and to increase student success. The current study compared the effects of traditional, trivia, and practice test-based exam reviews on actual exam scores, as well as students' attitudes toward each review. Findings suggested that students' exam scores were significantly…

Hackathorn, Jana; Cornell, Kathryn; Garczynski, Amy M.; Solomon, Erin D.; Blankmeyer, Katheryn E.; Tennial, Rachel E.

2012-01-01

6

AAPT Physics Bowl Exam Review  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The AAPT Physics Bowl is an annual contest sponsored by the American Association of Physics Teachers to generate interest in physics and to recognize outstanding high school physics students and their teachers. The exam consists of multiple choice questions and has a time limit of forty-five minutes. Copies of the 1994-2000 Physics Bowl exams have been provided here by the AAPT in the form of Adobe Acrobat .PDF files. The answers are provided at the end of each exam. The current exam may no longer be given in the format of the exams listed below. The CD available from the AAPT Store has questions and answers from 2001 through 2006. 1994 AAPT/Metrologic Physics Bowl Exam 1995 AAPT/Metrologic Physics Bowl Exam 1996 AAPT/Metrologic Physics Bowl Exam 1997 AAPT/Metrologic Physics Bowl Exam 1998 AAPT/Metrologic Physics Bowl Exam 1999 AAPT/Metrologic Physics Bowl Exam 2000 AAPT/Metrologic Physics Bowl Exam

2003-10-16

7

Quizzes, Tests, and Exams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website features information on strategies for testing, including choosing appropriate testing methodologies and developing a test that assesses students as accurately and fairly as possible. Topics include different types of tests, construction of effective exams and alternative testing methods.

Davis, Barbara G.; Honolulu, University O.

8

Exam Question Exchange.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a take-home exam story problem based on stoichiometry. Requires the student to determine the percentage of phosphoric acid in a large container of nitric acid if a man fell into it. Provides assumptions, clues, and an acceptable solution. (MVL)

Ramette, R. W.

1988-01-01

9

Exam Question Exchange.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two exam questions are presented. One suitable for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate courses in organic chemistry, is on equivalent expressions for the description of several pericyclic reactions. The second, for general chemistry students, asks for an estimation of the rate of decay of a million-year-old Uranium-238 sample. (BB)

Alexander, John J., Ed.

1978-01-01

10

Avaliação clínica dos atletas paraolímpicos  

Microsoft Academic Search

O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar de modo amplo o comportamento de variáveis importantes para a saúde pre- ventiva e o desempenho dos atletas paraolímpicos. Os pa- ratletas foram avaliados clinicamente (aplicação de ques- tionário, história clínica, exame físico) e com exames laboratoriais, raio x simples de tórax e controle de doping. A equipe brasileira que participou dos Jogos Paraolímpi-

Roberto Vital; Marcelo Bichels Leitão; Marco Túlio de Mello; Sergio Tufik

2002-01-01

11

Normal - Mental Status Exam - Attention Sub-exam - Patient 1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this demonstration video, a patient is given a mental status exam. The patient is a female with no known neurological health problems who volunteered to act as a simulated patient in order to demonstrate 'normal' responses to exam techniques. Viewing the video requires installation of the free QuickTime Plug-in.

Pearson, John C.

2009-01-02

12

USEFUL: Ultrasound Exam for Underlying Lesions Incorporated into Physical Exam  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The Ultrasound Screening Exam for Underlying Lesions (USEFUL) was developed in an attempt to establish a role for bedside ultrasound in the primary and preventive care setting. It is the purpose of our pilot study to determine if students were first capable of performing all of the various scans required of our USEFUL while defining such an ultrasound-assisted physical exam that would supplement the standard hands-on physical exam in the same head-to-toe structure. We also aimed to assess the time needed for an adequate exam and analyze if times improved with repetition and previous ultrasound training. Methods: Medical students with ranging levels of ultrasound training received a 25-minute presentation on our USEFUL followed by a 30-minute hands-on session. Following the hands-on session, the students were asked to perform a timed USEFUL on 2–3 standardized subjects. All images were documented as normal or abnormal with the understanding that an official detailed exam would be performed if an abnormality were to be found. All images were read and deemed adequate by board eligible emergency medicine ultrasound fellows. Results: Twenty-six exams were performed by 9 students. The average time spent by all students per USEFUL was 11 minutes and 19 seconds. Students who had received the University of California, Irvine School of Medicine's integrated ultrasound curriculum performed the USEFUL significantly faster (p< 0.0025). The time it took to complete the USEFUL ranged from 6 minutes and 32 seconds to 17 minutes, and improvement was seen with each USEFUL performed. The average time to complete the USEFUL on the first standardized patient was 13 minutes and 20 seconds, while 11 minutes and 2 seconds, and 9 minutes and 20 seconds were spent performing the exam on the second and third patient, respectively. Conclusion: Students were able to effectively complete all scans required by the USEFUL in a timely manner. Students who have been a part of the integrated ultrasound in medicine curriculum performed the USEFUL significantly faster than students who had not. Students were able to significantly improve upon the time it took them to complete the USEFUL with successive attempts. Future endpoints are aimed at assessing the feasibility and outcomes of an ultrasound-assisted physical exam in a primary care setting and the exam's effect on doctor-patient satisfaction. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(3):260–266.

Steller, Jon; Russell, Bianca; Lotfipour, Shahram; Maldonado, Graciela; Siepel, Tim; Jakle, Halsey; Hata, Stacy; Chiem, Alan; Fox, John Christian

2014-01-01

13

Are Online Exams an Invitation to Cheat?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the authors use data from two online courses in principles of economics to estimate a model that predicts exam scores from independent variables of student characteristics. In one course, the final exam was proctored, and in the other course, the final exam was not proctored. In both courses, the first three exams were unproctored.…

Harmon, Oskar R.; Lambrinos, James; Kennedy, Peter, Ed.

2008-01-01

14

Student Exam Creation as a Learning Tool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a relationship between: 1) comprehensiveness of student developed model tests and final exam score, 2) the quality of student developed model tests and answer keys combined, and final exam score, and 3) student developed model test similarity to instructor final exam and final exam score.…

Brink, Jan; Capps, Emerson; Sutko, Al

2004-01-01

15

Psychological Aspects of the Pelvic Exam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many women are traumatized by pelvic exanimations, resulting in reactions ranging from mild anxiety and embarrassment to avoiding the exam altogether. Studies which surveyed how women feel about pelvic exams are discussed and analyzed as are projects utilizing the educational pelvic exam approach. The concept of psychological preparation for pelvic exams is presented incorporating the importance of personal control. The

Alice D Domar

1986-01-01

16

Exam Schools from the Inside  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sometimes called "exam schools," academically selective institutions have long been a part of the American secondary-education landscape. The schools are diverse in origin and purpose. No single catalyst describes why or how they began as or morphed into academically selective institutions. A number of them were products of the country's efforts…

Finn, Chester E., Jr.; Hockett, Jessica

2012-01-01

17

HESI exams: consequences and remediation.  

PubMed

A growing body of knowledge supports the use of Elsevier's standardized HESI exams as an admission criterion to evaluate ongoing student performance and curricular outcomes and to measure students' preparedness for the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN). Because a plethora of research indicates that the HESI Exit Exam (E(2)) is a valid predictor of NCLEX-RN success, faculty often designate a benchmark E(2) score that students are required to achieve. Students who do not achieve the faculty-designated benchmark score are required to remediate and retest with a parallel version of the E(2) to determine the effectiveness of the remediation and to reevaluate the student's preparedness for the licensure exam. This study compared mean E(2) scores of students who attended schools that attached consequences to E(2) scores with students who attended schools that did not attach consequences to E(2) scores. Based on data obtained from the Eighth Validity Study Questionnaire, findings indicated that E(2) scores were significantly higher (P < .01) in schools that associated consequences with failure to achieve the faculty-designated E(2) score and were also significantly higher (P < .01) in schools that required, rather than merely suggested remediation. PMID:23566502

Lauer, Maria E; Yoho, Mary J

2013-01-01

18

Cumulative Exams in the Introductory Psychology Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many teachers require their students to take cumulative exams, but there are surprisingly few studies that examine the benefits of such exams. The purpose of this study was to determine whether introductory psychology students who take cumulative exams throughout the semester would have better long-term retention than students who take a…

Lawrence, Natalie K.

2013-01-01

19

The art of a pediatric exam.  

PubMed

: This article discusses incorporating "artistry" into a primary care pediatric exam, a technique that considers a child's cognitive developmental stage, previous medical experiences, and the family's general stressors and fears. Benefits of using the artistic exam technique include decreased fear and anxiety for both the child and parent and fewer unnecessary diagnostic tests. The artistic exam has also been shown to improve adherence to pre- and postcare instructions and improved quality outcomes. PMID:24841465

Riley, Debra

2014-06-15

20

Economics 201B - Final Exam -- 2001  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Final examination for an economics class at UCLA focusing on game theory. The exam provides some economic contextualization, but focuses mostly on theory. Solutions to the exam are available here: http://levine.sscnet.ucla.edu/econ201/final01a.pdf.

21

Tailoring the Preparticipation Exam to Female Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the basics of the preparticipation exam, focusing on aspects specific to females, such as menstrual dysfunction, disordered eating, and orthopedic problems such as scoliosis and patellofemoral pain. Health history questionnaire and other parts of the exam are included in six tables. (SM)

Johnson, Mimi D.

1992-01-01

22

How External Exit Exams Spur Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared with minimum competency tests, curriculum-based external exit exams provide better measures of students' achievement levels. Analysis of Third Mathematics and Science Study data shows that 13 year-olds from exit-exam countries are ahead of nonparticipating countries. Effects on college enrollment, job success, and test scores are…

Bishop, John H.; Mane, Ferran; Bishop, Michael

2001-01-01

23

Theme-Based Exams in General Chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theme-based exams have been implemented in a one-semester, advanced-level general chemistry course for science and engineering majors. The exams are based on interdisciplinary topics related to chemistry, physics, materials science, environmental science, earth science, soil science, biochemistry, and chemical, mechanical, electrical, and civil engineering. This is part of a larger effort to bring a motivating state-of-the-art focus to the lecture and laboratory of this course by teaching general chemistry in the context of current research topics and technical challenges related to the career goals of the students in the course. Student attitudes toward the theme-based exams were evaluated. Students determined the theme-based exams to be more interesting, informative, and less upsetting than traditional exams. Additionally, end-of-course evaluations indicated that students were almost unanimous in recognizing that chemistry would be important for their future professional careers.

Amato-Wierda, Carmela

1999-06-01

24

Exam Frequency Comparison in Introductory Soil Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes a study in which the number of exams administered in a semester was examined to determine its impact on students' grades and on course evaluations regarding their recommendation of the course and the instructor to other students. The course was an introductory soil science course in which, over 3 semesters, 5 exams were given per semester. For the next 5 semesters, the number of exams was increased to 10 per semester. For the most recent semesters, students responded that they preferred more frequent exams. Grouping of the semesters into those with either 5 or 10 tests showed a higher overall class grade-point average for the semesters with more tests, and a Chi-square test showed that the higher grades were due to an increase in the proportion of A's. This grouping also showed that giving more exams did not significantly affect the students' response concerning recommendations of the course or the instructor to other students.

Barbarick, K.

25

Profile of State High School Exit Exam Policies. Alaska  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This individual profile provides information on Alaska's high school exit exam standards and policies. Some of the categories presented include: (1) State exit exam policy; (2) Type of Test; (3) Purpose; (4) Major changes in exit exam policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (5) Subjects tested on exam; (6) Grade exam first…

Center on Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

26

Expedition 35/36 Final Exams  

NASA Video Gallery

Three Expedition 35/36 crew members prepare for their final exams in their Sokol launch and entry suits at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia. NASA astronaut Chris Cassidy a...

27

Expedition 32 Final Soyuz Qualification Exams  

NASA Video Gallery

Expedition 32 Flight Engineers Suni Williams, Yuri Malenchenko and Aki Hoshide take their final Soyuz systems qualification exams at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia. The ...

28

Taking Exams (Black Box Software Testing classes)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This subset of the Black Box Software Testing collection includes lecture videos, slides, suggested readings, and study questions focusing on skills needed for Taking Exams - especially answering essay questions.

Kaner, Cem; Fiedler, Rebecca L.

2011-06-01

29

Impact of HESI Specialty Exams: the ninth HESI Exit Exam validity study.  

PubMed

Using an ex post facto, nonexperimental design, this, the ninth validity study of Elsevier's HESI Exit Exam (E(2)), reexamined the predictive accuracy of the E(2). The value of administering HESI Specialty Exams within the nursing curriculum in terms of E(2) scores was also investigated. The sample was composed of nursing students (N = 3,790) from 63 randomly selected schools-26 baccalaureate, 31 associate degree, and 6 diploma programs-throughout the United States who took the E(2) between September 2008 and August 2009. As in the previous 8 studies, the E(2) was found to be highly accurate (96.61%) in predicting success on the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN). Findings also indicated that students who took one or more HESI Specialty Exams during their nursing curriculum had a significantly higher mean E(2) score (P ? .0001) than students who did not take HESI Specialty Exams during their nursing curriculum. Of the 8 HESI Specialty Exams investigated, scores on the Critical Care, Pediatrics, and Medical-Surgical specialty exams were most predictive of NCLEX-RN success. Schools of nursing that used HESI Specialty Exams as course final exams had a significantly higher mean E(2) score (P < .01) than schools that used the exams for remediation and practice. PMID:23566499

Zweighaft, Elizabeth L

2013-01-01

30

Relationship between Students' Formative Exam-Taking Strategies and Summative Exam Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored graduate students' formative exam-taking strategies in an online classroom. Research questions were: (1) What formative test-taking strategies did students use? (2) Were the strategies related to the students' final exam scores? Students (N=50) in a semester-long measurement class took weekly formative 20-item, multiple-choice…

Klecker, Beverly M.; Klecker, Richard L.

2010-01-01

31

Can Students Predict Their Scores in Exams?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes a statistical study in which students were asked to predict their own exam scores. The actual and predicted scores of 61 students in 6 years of an advanced plant genetics course and the differences between their actual and predicted scores were analyzed by various statistical measures. An overall mean difference between actual and predicted scores showed that the students, on average, were able to predict their scores within 5 percent of the actual value. However, students were not able to predict their exam scores accurately or precisely; the difference between actual and predicted scores was statistically different from zero. In addition, student demographic types such as age, GPA, or level of education were not significant factors for accuracy in predicting marks on the exam.

Sharma, H.

32

Learning during a Collaborative Final Exam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collaborative testing has been suggested to serve as a good learning activity, for example, compared to individual testing. The aim of the present study was to measure learning at different levels of knowledge during a collaborative final exam in a course in basic methods and statistical procedures. Results on pre- and post-tests taken…

Dahlstrom, Orjan

2012-01-01

33

EXPOSURE ANALYSIS MODELING SYSTEM: REFERENCE MANUAL FOR EXAMS 2  

EPA Science Inventory

The Exposure Analysis Modeling System (EXAMS), published in 1982 (EPA-600/3-82-023), provides rapid evaluations of the behavior of synthetic organic chemicals in aquatic ecosystems. EXAMS combines laboratory data describing reactivity and thermodynamic properties of chemicals wit...

34

Proposing Questions for the Upcoming Midterm Exam  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This in-class exercise is done during the last half of the class meeting prior to a midterm exam (which is held during a class period), to get the students to initiate their own review processes. To begin, a map of the lecture hall is shown, divided into a large number of seating areas (18, in the example used in the attached material). The exact number is not too important, it just needs to be enough to ensure not too much repetition yet sufficient variety among the teams. Each seating area is assigned a particular type of exam question (diagram, matching, ordering, multiple answer, short essay answer, or whatever other question types you use) and a topic that will be on the immediately upcoming midterm exam. The topics are currently taken from the textbook, divided relatively finely but not so finely that there is insufficient material for them to formulate an exam question from the material. Ten minutes is allotted for the students to form groups of 2-3 (more in a team is less productive for individual students), then for each team to review its assigned topic, and to create a reasonable question and answer set in the assigned format. Following this, another 10 minutes is allotted for the teams to evaluate one other team's set and to work out improvements with the originating team, if needed. (This last activity doesn't always happen.) At the end of this stage I collect a copy of the question, the answer, the names of the originators, and the names of the checkers for each Q&A set. I post all the question/answer sets on Blackboard as fast as I can enter them, so they can serve all the students as a review basis for the exam. Depending on my schedule, that can take from 2-6 hours. I try not to correct incorrect answers or other problems, preferring instead to post a warning (see attached examples) urging students to check the answers given. This is not generally successful, as many students merely memorize the list, right or wrong, without apparently checking it.

Gertsch, Leslie

35

Enhanced Security for Online Exams Using Group Cryptography  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While development of the Internet has contributed to the spread of online education, online exams have not been widely adopted. An online exam is defined here as one that takes place over the insecure Internet, and where no proctor is in the same location as the examinees. This paper proposes an enhanced secure online exam management environment…

Jung, I. Y.; Yeom, H. Y.

2009-01-01

36

Evaluating Multiple-Choice Exams in Large Introductory Physics Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reliability and validity of professionally written multiple-choice exams have been extensively studied for exams such as the SAT, graduate record examination, and the force concept inventory. Much of the success of these multiple-choice exams is attributed to the careful construction of each question, as well as each response. In this study,…

Scott, Michael; Stelzer, Tim; Gladding, Gary

2006-01-01

37

The Effect of Announced Quizzes on Exam Performance: II  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

I administered announced, multiple-choice quizzes to 1 of 2 sections of a Psychology of Learning class in each of 2 consecutive fall semesters. The quizzes were administered between the first and second exams which were also multiple-choice. Quizzes were discontinued after the second exam. After the second exam, students completed a questionnaire…

Azorlosa, Julian L.

2011-01-01

38

What Students Learn When Studying Physics Practice Exam Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We developed a web-based tool to provide students with access to old exam problems and solutions. By controlling the order in which students saw the problems, as well as their access to solutions, we obtained data about student learning by studying old exam problems. Our data suggest that in general students learn from doing old exam problems, and…

Fakcharoenphol, Witat; Potter, Eric; Stelzer, Timothy

2011-01-01

39

The Effect of Announced Quizzes on Exam Performance: Quiz Content  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

I administered quizzes to two sections of a course named "The Psychology of Learning." There were three multiple choice exams during the semester. Quizzes were given between exam 1 and exam 2. For one section, (lecture) quizzes occurred after the material had been covered in lecture. For the other section, quizzes were based on material not yet…

Azorlosa, Julian L.

2012-01-01

40

Effect of Paper Color and Question Order on Exam Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To deter cheating, teachers commonly use exams printed on differently colored paper or with varied question orders. Previous studies, however, reported that paper color and question order affect exam performance and suggested that teachers should adjust students' scores accordingly and discontinue the use of alternate exam forms. We conducted 2…

Tal, Ilanit R.; Akers, Katherine G.; Hodge, Gordon K.

2008-01-01

41

X-Ray Exam: Lower Leg (Tibia and Fibula)  

MedlinePLUS

X-Ray Exam: Lower Leg (Tibia and Fibula) KidsHealth > Parents > Doctors & Hospitals > Medical Tests & Exams > X-Ray Exam: Lower Leg (Tibia and Fibula) Print ... If You Have Questions What It Is An X-ray of the tibia and fibula is a ...

42

Physics exam preparation: A comparison of three methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this clinical study on helping students prepare for an exam, we compared three different treatments. All students were asked to take a practice exam. One group was then given worked-out solutions for that exam, another group was given the solutions and targeted exercises to do as homework based on the result of their practice exam, and the third group was given the solutions, homework, and also an hour of one-on-one tutoring. Participants from all three conditions significantly outperformed the control group on the midterm exam. However, participants that had one-on-one tutoring did not outperform the other two participant groups.

Fakcharoenphol, Witat; Stelzer, Timothy

2014-06-01

43

Understanding Student Preparation of Exam Note Sheets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In a previous study, I allowed introductory physics students to create a notecard (or sheet) for their midterm and final exams in an attempt to remove equation memorizing as a focus of the course. I hoped to use the study of these cards as an epistemological lens that would uncover their perceptions and attitudes about the course. Without follow-up questions, though, epistemology remained unclear. I have continued this line of research by adding anonymous survey questions that probe why students chose to include what they did, how (if at all) the notes were helpful, and how their card preparation changed throughout the semester. Through my analysis, I found cases where the survey questions reveal epistemological insight about students the note sheets alone would not. For example, one student with an equation-centered note sheet did not see equations as the most central course component, but he considered himself fluent enough in concepts that he felt he could leave conceptual statements out. I also discuss some of the more thoughtful survey answers I received, some future study possibilities, and efforts to discuss exam preparation in the classroom.

Mccaskey, Timothy L.

2014-01-31

44

Washington Readies for High School Exit Exam: State Already Enacted Various Alternatives to Passing Exams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author reports that sophomores who take the Washington Assessment of Student Learning this week will be the first who must pass the state exam to graduate. The long-awaited testing has caused anxiety across the state, as hopes that Washington will enter a new era of educational accountability are balanced by fears of turmoil…

Trotter, Andrew

2006-01-01

45

Engagement with Online Pre-Exam Formative Tests Improves Exam Performance and Feedback Satisfaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Union of Students (NUS) National Student Experience Report identified examination feedback as an area where students had particular concerns. This finding was echoed in the authors' institution and triggered an action research project to investigate ways of improving students' perceptions of pre- and post-exam feedback. We report the…

Hope, Sheila A.; Polwart, Anthony

2012-01-01

46

A One-Hour Practical Lab Exam for Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A lab practical exam for second-year organic chemistry is presented that tests multiple lab skills and theory that the students have acquired directly from laboratory experiences. This exam motivates students to learn lab skills and is an effective end-of-term test for many of those skills. (Contains 2 figures.)

Neeland, Edward G.

2007-01-01

47

Should I Give the Exam before or after the Break?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to help faculty make decisions about when to administer an exam in relation to an in-semester break. Students in multiple sections of an undergraduate educational psychology class were assigned to take an exam either before or after a scheduled 5-day break (Thursday-Monday). A multiple regression analysis revealed the break…

O'Connor, Kevin J.

2014-01-01

48

State High School Exit Exams: Working to Raise Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Center on Education Policy (CEP) has been studying state high school exit examinations since 2002. This is the sixth annual report on our comprehensive study of exit exams. The information comes from several sources: our survey of states that have mandatory exit exams, interviews with state officials, media reports, state Web sites, and case…

Center on Education Policy, 2007

2007-01-01

49

Commitment to Study as a Technique to Improve Exam Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a technique that could increase study time by reducing procrastination. Randomly selected college students (N=197) made written commitments to study for an exam. Students in the commitment condition reported significantly more study time than did students in a control group; they also performed significantly better on the exam. (RJM)

Leeming, Frank C.

1997-01-01

50

An Expanded Framework for Analyzing General Chemistry Exams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes an expanded framework to aid chemical educators in constructing exams for their courses. The framework has three primary levels: definition, algorithmic, and conceptual. These primary levels have often been used in chemical education research to analyze and describe exam questions, but in this study the definition,…

Smith, K. Christopher; Nakhleh, Mary B.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

2010-01-01

51

Approaches to Studying and Academic Performance in Short Essay Exams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research has generally failed to find a relation between the way students approach the task of studying and their exam grades. The present study investigated why it is that a deep approach to studying, which has been shown to result in a higher quality of learning, does not consistently result in higher exam grades. The participants in…

Minbashian, Amirali; Huon, Gail F.; Bird, Kevin D.

2004-01-01

52

Authorized Crib Cards Do Not Improve Exam Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We experimentally investigated the effect of authorized crib cards on undergraduates' multiple-choice exam performance for lower order and higher order questions and on anxiety levels in an upper division child and adolescent development course. Students (N =54) in 2 sections could use crib cards during 2 of the 4 exams. Despite student…

Dickson, K. Laurie; Miller, Michelle D.

2005-01-01

53

Should I Do a Breast Self-Exam?  

MedlinePLUS

... Breast Self-Exam? KidsHealth > Teens > Q&A > Girl Stuff > Should I Do a Breast Self-Exam? Print ... outside of KidsHealth's control. Sign up for our free weekly eNewsletters here About KidsHealth About Nemours Contact ...

54

EXPOSURE ANALYSIS MODELING SYSTEM (EXAMS): USER MANUAL AND SYSTEM DOCUMENTATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The Exposure Analysis Modeling System (EXAMS) was designed for rapid evaluation of the behavior of synthetic organic chemicals in aquatic ecosystems. From the chemistry of a compound and the relevant transport and physical/chemical characteristics of the ecosystem, EXAMS computes...

55

Restricted Access to Exam Grades on the Web by HIP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual learning is a new idea that has attained a new form with the emergence of new technologies such as the Internet. One of the issues in the field of E-learning is the way of announcing exams' grades. In this paper, a new method is introduced for restricting public access to exams' grades on the web by using a new

Sajad Shirali-shahreza; Mohammad Shirali-shahreza; Ali Movaghar

2007-01-01

56

The Red Effect, Anxiety, and Exam Performance: A Multistudy Examination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Laboratory studies have established a negative relationship between the color red and academic performance. This research examined whether this effect would generalize to classroom performance and whether anxiety and negative affect might mediate the effect. In two studies, students taking classroom exams were randomly assigned an exam color. We…

Smajic, Adnan; Merritt, Stephanie; Banister, Christina; Blinebry, Amanda

2014-01-01

57

The Impact of Daily Extra Credit Quizzes on Exam Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined whether offering daily extra credit quizzes predicted exam performance in an advanced psychology course (n = 36). Results revealed that extra credit performance was a strong predictor of exam performance, above and beyond gender, college grade point average, and ACT scores. In addition, results suggested that nearly half of the…

Padilla-Walker, Laura M.

2006-01-01

58

DOS basics  

SciTech Connect

DOS is an acronym for Disk Operating System. It is actually a set of programs that allows you to control your personal computer. DOS offers the capabilities to create and manage files; organize and maintain information placed on disks; use application programs such as WordPerfect, Lotus 123, Excel, Windows, etc. In addition, DOS provides the basic utilities needed to copy files from one area to another, delete files and list files. The latest version of DOS also offers more advanced features that include hard disk compression and memory management. Basic DOS commands are discussed.

O`Connor, P.

1994-09-01

59

The Impact of Statewide Exit Exams: A Descriptive Case Study of Three German States with Differing Low Stakes Exam Regimes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we present results from a study investigating the impact of three state exit exam systems on teaching and learning in college-preparatory schools. The study compares one state with a traditionally more centralized exam regime, one state that is more de-centralized and one state that has recently switched to more centralized…

van Ackeren, Isabell; Block, Rainer; Klein, E. Dominique; Kuhn, Svenja M.

2012-01-01

60

DOS basics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

DOS is an acronym for Disk Operating System. It is actually a set of programs that allows you to control your personal computer. DOS offers the capabilities to create and manage files; organize and maintain information placed on disks; use application pro...

P. O'Connor

1994-01-01

61

Exam Question Exchange: A Popular Approach to Reaction Kinetics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an undergraduate physical chemistry question and its acceptable solution. This question, presented to share exam questions with other teachers, shows the analogy between molecular kinetics and population dynamics. (HM)

Collins, Michael P. S.; Alexander, John J., Ed.

1979-01-01

62

Remedial Study plus Retake Exams Equals Better Grades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes adaptation of the Retake System to larger lecture classes and tests the importance of remedial study in improving exam performance for 410 students enrolled in an interdisciplinary (chemistry, physics, and biology) science course for nonscience majors. (HM)

Van Winkle, Lon J.

1978-01-01

63

EXAM: A Two-State Thermodynamic Analysis Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

EXAM is a computer program written for the analysis of data from calorimetric or spectroscopic data on the denaturation of proteins, oligonucleotides, lipids and other macromolecules in terms of a two-state model of thermodynamic equilibrium.

W. H. Kirchhoff

1993-01-01

64

Oswego City School District Regents Exam Prep Center: Earth Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site was designed to prepare high school students for the New York State Regents Earth Science Examination. The multiple-choice review questions cover the following topics: size, shape, and composition of the Earth; mapping; rocks and minerals; weathering, erosion, deposition, and landforms; earthquakes and plate tectonics; Earth history; meteorology and climate; and astronomy. Other resources include practice questions requiring a written response, a New York State Regents exam overview, old regents exams, and reference tables.

65

Do Open-Book Exams Impede Long-Term Learning in Introductory Biology Courses?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students in an introductory biology course who were given open-book exams during the semester earned significantly higher grades on these exams, but significantly lower grades on the closed-book final exam, than students who took in-class, closed-book exams throughout the semester. Exam format was also associated with changes in academic behavior; students who had upcoming open-book exams attended fewer lectures and help sessions and submitted fewer extra-credit assignments than students who had upcoming closed-book exams. These results suggest that open-book exams diminish long-term learning and promote academic behaviors that typify lower levels of academic achievement.

Jensen, Philip A.; Moore, Randy

2007-07-01

66

Corners, Walls, and Doors: The Methodology of Exams in a Course on American Indian Literatures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A college teacher altered her approach to evaluating students' progress in an American Indian literatures course by replacing written exams with oral exams. Students were given questions prior to the exam conference and were allowed one page of written notes. Suggests that written exams clash pedagogically with the literatures and cultures being…

Sprayberry, Sandra L.

1996-01-01

67

Going Green and Using Less Paper to Print Exams: Student Performance, Completion Time, and Preference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies measured the impact on student exam performance and exam completion time of strategies aimed to reduce the amount of paper used for printing multiple-choice course exams. Study 1 compared single-sided to double-sided printed exams. Study 2 compared a single-column arrangement of multiple-choice answer options to a space (and paper)…

O'Connor, Kevin J.

2014-01-01

68

The Coordinators of Psychiatric Education (COPE) Residency In-Training Exam: A Preliminary Psychometric Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The Coordinators of Psychiatric Education (COPE) Residency In-Training Exam is a formative exam for Canadian psychiatric residents that was reconstructed using assessment best practices. An assessment of psychometric properties was subsequently performed on the exam to ensure preliminary validity and reliability. Methods: An exam

Montgomery, Gregory P. J.; Crockford, David N.; Hecker, Kent

2010-01-01

69

Using collaborative group exams to investigate students' ability to learn  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of our primary learning goals for our students is: we would like them to be able to learn physics on their own. Unfortunately few existing assessments can assess students' ability to learn without being taught. We are developing a new format of exam which challenges students to work together as a class to tackle a difficult problem that requires them to learn new physics. Rather than restrict their activities, we offer them a resource-rich environment of textbooks and internet access. Students are required to transfer their knowledge by answering a related question on a more standard ``individual exam'' two days later. In this paper we will discuss the format of the exams, background theory, and present evidence of how students are able to learn new physics on their own. Our results show that although students struggle at first, they do surprisingly well once they get used to the format.

Lin, Yuhfen; Brookes, David T.

2013-01-01

70

A final-exam comparison involving computer-based instruction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In an introductory classical mechanics course, the same final exams were given to 540 students taught in the usual way and to 486 students who received computer-based instruction. All students scored better on problems which had been made up by their own lecturer. Students in the computer-based course scored better overall. These statistically significant results are of interest not only for comparing the two forms of instruction but also for their implications on the use of exam scores for such comparisons.

Jones, Lorella; Kane, Dennis; Avner, R. A.; Sherwood, Bruce

2005-10-27

71

From Exam Factories to Communities of Discovery: The Democratic Route  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"From Exam Factories to Communities of Discovery" passionately calls for educators to challenge the dominant market-led model of education and instead build a more democratic one, better able to face threats such as environmental damage; intensified global competition; corrosive social inequalities in and between nations in the world; and the need…

Coffield, Frank; Williamson, Bill

2011-01-01

72

Success on Algorithmic and LOCS vs. Conceptual Chemistry Exam Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes differences in students' performance on algorithmic, lower-order cognitive skills (LOCS), and conceptual exam questions and the correlations between their achievements on these categories across different populations.Reports that the highest scores were obtained for the algorithmic questions, the lowest for the conceptual questions, and…

Zoller, Uri; And Others

1995-01-01

73

The CPA Exam as a Postcurriculum Accreditation Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Business schools often attain accreditation to demonstrate program efficacy. J. A. Marts, J. D. Baker, and J. M. Garris (1988) hypothesized that candidates from Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business International (AACSB)-accredited accounting programs perform better on the CPA exam than do candidates from non-AACSB-accredited…

Barilla, Anthony G.; Jackson, Robert E.; Mooney, J. Lowell

2008-01-01

74

Factors Distinguishing Exceptional Performance on the Uniform CPA Exam.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of data from 234 Certified Public Accountant (CPA) candidates (98 of whom failed at least 1 part of the exam) showed that higher grades in the CPA review course correlated with passing the first time. Higher high school class rank and larger high school class size influenced exceptional test performance. (SK)

Ashbaugh, Donald L.; Thompson, A. Frank

1993-01-01

75

A General Chemistry Final Exam Based on the Chemical Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a final exam that is based on six papers from the primary chemical literature. Allows general chemistry students a chance to see a sample of the chemical literature and enables them to realize that the day-to-day use of chemistry requires a broad-brush approach - the simultaneous application of a myriad of concepts. Contains 12…

Burness, James H.

1996-01-01

76

Getting Interpersonal on a University Entrance Exam Impromptu Writing Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the types of audience engagement strategies used by a Japanese secondary school student in an after school course preparing for a high-stakes impromptu academic writing task on a university entrance exam. The study uses appraisal theory--the branch of Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) concerned with the patterning of…

Myskow, Gordon; Gordon, Kana

2012-01-01

77

Residency Applicants Misinterpret Their United States Medical Licensing Exam Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proper interpretation of the results of the United States Medical Licensing Exam (USMLE) is important for program directors, residents, and faculty who advise applicants about applying for residency positions. We suspected that applicants often misinterpreted their performance in relationship to others who took the same examination. In 2005, 54…

Jones, Roger C.; Desbiens, Norman A.

2009-01-01

78

Psychosocial Factors Associated with Skin Self-Exam Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors examined psychosocial factors associated with skin self-exam (SSE) performance by young adults. Participants and Methods: The authors administered surveys to 218 US college students (aged 18-26 years) attending a large midwestern university. Results: Contrary to prior research, men (44%) and women (49%) were relatively…

Jensen, Jakob D.; Moriarty, Cortney M.

2008-01-01

79

Assessment in undergraduate medical education: a review of course exams  

PubMed Central

Introduction The purpose of this study is to describe an approach for evaluating assessments used in the first 2 years of medical school and report the results of applying this method to current first and second year medical student examinations. Methods Three faculty members coded all exam questions administered during the first 2 years of medical school. The reviewers discussed and compared the coded exam questions. During the bi-monthly meetings, all differences in coding were resolved with consensus as the final criterion. We applied Moore's framework to assist the review process and to align it with National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) standards. Results The first and second year medical school examinations had 0% of competence level questions. The majority, more than 50% of test questions, were at the NBME recall level. Conclusion It is essential that multiple-choice questions (MCQs) test the attitudes, skills, knowledge, and competency in medical school. Based on our findings, it is evident that our exams need to be improved to better prepare our medical students for successful completion of NBME step exams.

Vanderbilt, Allison A.; Feldman, Moshe; Wood, Isaac K.

2013-01-01

80

Correlates of Performance Anxiety in Practical Music Exams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A sample of 120 young musicians (36 males and 84 females) aged between 15 and 18 years (M = 16.5, SD = 0.97) were administered the EPQ-R short scale and a revised PAI-R, a self-report measure of performance anxiety in practical music exams. Principal components analysis indicated that the PAI-R scores were best represented by a single component…

Rae, Gordon; McCambridge, Karen

2004-01-01

81

AL State Profile. Alabama: Alabama High School Graduation Exam (AHSGE), 3rd Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides information about Alabama High School Graduation Exam, 3rd Edition, a comprehensive standards-based exam. The purpose of the exam is to: (1) Provide schools with student academic diagnostic information; (2) Determine prospective high school graduates' mastery of the state curriculum; (3) Increase alignment of local curriculum…

Center on Education Policy, 2010

2010-01-01

82

Teacher Licensure Exams and Black Teacher Candidates: Toward New Theory and Promising Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Basic skills" teacher licensure exams such as Praxis are the first gatekeepers to the teaching profession. Fewer than half of the aspiring Black teachers who take these exams pass on their first attempt. While critiques of these exams are warranted, critiques alone will do little to help certify more Black teachers. This solution-oriented article…

Petchauer, Emery

2012-01-01

83

Building the ACS Exams Anchoring Concept Content Map for Undergraduate Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ability to coherently assess content knowledge throughout an entire undergraduate career represents a significant advantage for programmatic assessment strategies. Chemistry, as a discipline, has an unusual tool in this regard because of the nationally standardized exams from the ACS Exams Institute. These exams are norm-referenced and allow…

Murphy, Kristen; Holme, Thomas; Zenisky, April; Caruthers, Heather; Knaus, Karen

2012-01-01

84

Do You Prefer to Have the Text or a Sheet with Your Physics Exams?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many high school and introductory college physics instructors ponder the choice between "open text" exams versus "facts and formulae sheet" exams. Other alternatives are closed book/closed notes exams or an instructor-prepared sheet of facts and relevant formulas. There is no agreement on merit. Rehfuss strongly opposes allowing students to use…

Hamed, Kastro M.

2008-01-01

85

The Wicked Old Witch Is Dead: Getting Rid of a Flawed Writing Exam.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on the myriad difficulties in getting rid of an unsatisfactory writing examination in place at Western Washington University. First, the paper provides background information on how and why the exam (the Junior Writing Exam) came to be adopted in the 1980s (as a diagnostic test only) and explains what the exam was meant to…

Werder, Carmen M.

86

Assessing Conceptual and Algorithmic Knowledge in General Chemistry with ACS Exams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2005, the ACS Examinations Institute released an exam for first-term general chemistry in which items are intentionally paired with one conceptual and one traditional item. A second-term, paired-questions exam was released in 2007. This paper presents an empirical study of student performances on these two exams based on national samples of…

Holme, Thomas; Murphy, Kristen

2011-01-01

87

Effects of the Implementation of State-Wide Exit Exams on Students' Self-Regulated Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whereas several studies investigated the effects of implementation of state-wide exit exams on student achievement, there is still little known about the impacts of the exams on students' self-regulated learning. This paper examines the question as to whether the implementation of state-wide high school exit exams is associated with a change in…

Merki, Katharina Maag

2011-01-01

88

State High School Exit Exams: Trends in Test Programs, Alternate Pathways, and Pass Rates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The report draws from Center on Education Policy's eight-year study of high school exit exams to identify long-term trends in state policies and student performance. It highlights a growing trend among states to establish alternate pathways to graduation for students who are struggling to pass exit exams. The report also analyzes exit exam pass…

Zhang, Ying

2009-01-01

89

The Elite Illusion: Achievement Effects at Boston and New York Exam Schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Talented students compete fiercely for seats at Boston and New York exam schools. These schools are characterized by high levels of peer achievement and a demanding curriculum tailored to each district's highest achievers. While exam school students do very well in school, the question of whether an exam school education adds value relative to a regular public education remains open.

Atila Abdulkadiro?lu; Joshua D. Angrist; Parag A. Pathak

2011-01-01

90

How Does Student Performance on Formative Assessments Relate to Learning Assessed by Exams?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A retrospective analysis examines the relationships between formative assessments and exam grades in two undergraduate geoscience courses. Pair and group-work grades correlate weakly with individual exam grades. Exam performance correlates to individual, weekly online assessments. Student attendance and use of assessment feedback are also…

Smith, Gary

2007-01-01

91

Combined online and in?class pretesting improves exam performance in general psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effect of distributed questioning on learning and retention in a college lecture course. A total of 48 question pairs were presented over four exams. The 16 question pairs associated with each of the three blocks of the course appeared on the block exams, and all 48 appeared on the final exam. The two questions in each

Arnold Lewis Glass; Gary Brill; Margaret Ingate

2008-01-01

92

Combined Online and In-Class Pretesting Improves Exam Performance in General Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effect of distributed questioning on learning and retention in a college lecture course. A total of 48 question pairs were presented over four exams. The 16 question pairs associated with each of the three blocks of the course appeared on the block exams, and all 48 appeared on the final exam. The two questions in each pair…

Glass, Arnold Lewis; Brill, Gary; Ingate, Margaret

2008-01-01

93

Managing Exam Stress Using UMTS Phones: The advantage of Portable Audio\\/Video Support  

Microsoft Academic Search

Test-taking anxiety or stress is very common among university students. It can be very distressing and sometimes debilitating. Exam anxiety involves physical components and emotional components that may be taken into account for managing and reducing anxiety. An approach to control exam anxiety is to learn how to regulate emotions. To help students in managing exam stress we developed a

Giuseppe RIVA; Alessandra GRASSI; Daniela VILLANI; Andrea Gaggioli; Alessandra PREZIOSA

2007-01-01

94

Faculty Forum--Introductory Psychology Student Performance: Weekly Quizzes Followed by a Cumulative Final Exam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students in an introductory psychology course took a quiz a week over each textbook chapter, followed by a cumulative final exam. Students missing a quiz in class could make up a quiz at any time during the semester, and answers to quiz items were available to students prior to the cumulative final exam. The cumulative final exam consisted of half…

Landrum, R. Eric

2007-01-01

95

Effects of information and coping instructions on prepubertal children's reactions to gynecological exams  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been common pediatric practice for uncooperative children who are in need of a gynecological exam, to be sedated or rescheduled to receive the exam under general anesthesia. This investigation explored whether psychological preparation would be a viable alternative to reducing children's distress during gynecological exams.Thirty children, suspected victims of sexual abuse, between the ages of 5 to 10

Deborah Morrison Thevenin

1989-01-01

96

An objective structured clinical exam in a multisite obstetrics and gynecology clerkship  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Objective Structured Clinical Exam (OSCE) was developed to test students completing a multiple site clinical clerkship. Common ambulatory problems were emphasized. The exam was given in the outpatient department where 60 students rotated through approximately 10 short problem stations. Gynecologic teaching associates, clinical staff, and others served as simulated patients. The specific stations, exam logistics, and expenses are explained.

William W. Young; Joan C. Barthold; Debra Birenbaum; Phyllis Long; Michele Dion; Lewis A. Hamilton

1995-01-01

97

Multiple-Choice and Short-Answer Exam Performance in a College Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors experimentally investigated the effects of multiple-choice and short-answer format exam items on exam performance in a college classroom. They randomly assigned 50 students to take a 10-item short-answer pretest or posttest on two 50-item multiple-choice exams in an introduction to personality course. Students performed significantly…

Funk, Steven C.; Dickson, K. Laurie

2011-01-01

98

Teaching about substance abuse with objective structured clinical exams  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although residents commonly manage substance abuse disorders, optimal approaches to teaching these specialized interviewing\\u000a and intervention skills are unknown.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a OBJECTIVE: We developed a Substance Abuse Objective Structured Clinical Exam (OSCE) to teach addiction medicine competencies using immediate\\u000a feedback. In this study we evaluated OSCE performance, examined associations between performance and self-assessed interest\\u000a and competence in substance abuse, and assessed

Sharon J. Parish; Megha Ramaswamy; Melissa R. Stein; Elizabeth K. Kachur; Julia H. Arnsten

2006-01-01

99

Investigating the Variables in a Mock Exam Study Session Designed to Improve Student Exam Performance in an Undergraduate Behavior Modification and Therapy Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to identify components of an optional mock exam review session (e.g. requiring students to write answers, providing students grading keys for questions) responsible for improvements in student performance on application-based short-essay exams in an undergraduate behavior modification course. Both…

Dotson, Wesley H.

2010-01-01

100

Advanced Ultrasonic Diagnosis of Extremity Trauma: The Faster Exam  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ultrasound is of prO)len accuracy in abdominal and thoracic trauma and may be useful to diagnose extremity injury in situations where radiography is not available such as military and space applications. We prospectively evaluated the utility of extremity , ultrasound performed by trained, non-physician personnel in patients with extremity trauma, to simulate remote aerospace or military applications . Methods: Patients with extremity trauma were identified by history, physical examination, and radiographic studies. Ultrasound examination was performed bilaterally by nonphysician personnel with a portable ultrasound device using a 10-5 MHz linear probe, Images were video-recorded for later analysis against radiography by Fisher's exact test. The average time of examination was 4 minutes. Ultrasound accurately diagnosed extremity, injury in 94% of patients with no false positive exams; accuracy was greater in mid-shaft locations and least in the metacarpa/metatarsals. Soft tissue/tendon injury was readily visualized . Extremity ultrasound can be performed quickly and accurately by nonphysician personnel with excellent accuracy. Blinded verification of the utility of ultrasound in patients with extremity injury should be done to determine if Extremity and Respiratory evaluation should be added to the FAST examination (the FASTER exam) and verify the technique in remote locations such as military and aerospace applications.

Dulchavsky, S. A.; Henry, S. E.; Moed, B. R.; Diebel, L. N.; Marshburn, T.; Hamilton, D. R.; Logan, J.; Kirkpatrick, A. W.; Williams, D. R.

2002-01-01

101

How chemistry students study for an exam: A phenomenographic analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this research was to understand the different ways that students in a second-semester general chemistry course studied for an exam. I conducted this research using a qualitative methodology based on phenomenography (Marton, Hounsell & Entwistle, 1997). I conducted interviews before and after the first exam in CHM 116. I analyzed these interviews to describe students' studying styles. I analyzed the data from four students and presented this data as case studies. I completed a cross-case analysis that included data from five additional students. My results describe three different studying styles that were found: visual, self-regulated, and quantitative. Each studying style included a description of the characteristics associated with students who use the style, including epistemological beliefs, specific study behaviors, and affective response to learning chemistry. My implications discuss the relationship between this study and learning styles research, as well as other phenomenographic research. Suggestions are made for how to adapt teaching methods to take into account the different studying styles.

Lowrey, Kirsten Andrea

2002-08-01

102

Emergency medicine residents' attitudes and opinions of in-training exam preparation  

PubMed Central

Purpose Emergency Medicine (EM) residents take the American Board of Emergency Medicine (ABEM) in-training exam, and performance on this exam has been shown to correlate to performance on the ABEM qualifying exam. Though many residencies have in-training exam preparation activities, there is little data on the effectiveness of these efforts. This study aimed to elicit resident perspectives about the exam and exam preparation in order to generate hypotheses and better inform future preparation efforts. Methods Second- and third-year EM residents at a single institution were interviewed using a semi-structured format. Qualitative methodology was used to analyze the data. Results Thirteen EM residents participated in the study. Eight major themes and 18 sub-themes were identified. These were further characterized as relating to the exam itself or to exam preparation. Residents generally value the in-training exam. Sixty-nine percent noted that it provided an assessment of their current knowledge and deficiencies. Thirty-eight percent noted that it improved familiarity with the qualifying exam. Regarding exam preparation, residents stated that a question format was preferred, especially when accompanying explanations were of high quality. Additionally, practical considerations, such as portability, impacted resident selection of study tools. Conclusion Residents value the in-training exam as a marker of their academic progress and for their ability to gain familiarity with the qualifying exam. They prefer question-based preparation over text-based learning, as long as there is a detailed explanation of each answer. Educators creating structured in-training review may want to focus on question-based material with detailed explanations.

Eastin, Travis R; Bernard, Aaron W

2013-01-01

103

Developing, deploying, and analyzing exam wrappers in a large introductory physics class  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a typical semester, approximately 2000 students are registered into a calculus based introductory physics course at Georgia Tech. In each course, approximately 75 percent of a student's final grade is based on exam performance. Our goal was to encourage students into the feedback cycle of self-regulated learning by asking them to complete exam wrappers; post examination assignments that ask student to reflect on their study habits and errors made during an exam. We cluster students into groups based on how they partitioned their study time. We analyze exam and overall course performance for each group. In addition, we compare the performance of students who completed exam wrappers with those that did not. We find that exam wrappers are useful tool for both the instructor and student.

Greco, Edwin

2012-03-01

104

Opening up in the classroom: effects of expressive writing on graduate school entrance exam performance.  

PubMed

Our study sought to determine whether experimental disclosure could improve exam performance and psychological health in students taking a graduate school entrance exam. Students preparing for the GRE, MCAT, LSAT, or PCAT were randomly assigned to write expressively about their upcoming exam or to a neutral writing condition. Participants completed measures of depressive symptoms and test anxiety before and after writing, and exam scores were collected. The experimental disclosure group had significantly higher test scores and significantly lower pre-exam depressive symptoms than the neutral writing group. Although benefits for depressive symptoms were found in expressive writers regardless of exam type, the advantage of expressive writing for test performance was only observed in students taking the MCAT or LSAT. PMID:21517162

Frattaroli, Joanne; Thomas, Michael; Lyubomirsky, Sonja

2011-06-01

105

Epistemic Games Analysis of Common Exam Questions Across Course Formats  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study investigates differences in problem-solving performance between three different introductory physics course formats at Florida International University. The course formatsâlecture+laboratory (LL), inquiry-based (IQB), and lecture+laboratory+recitation (LLR)âall incorporated two Advanced Placement (AP) questions into their final exams. Studentsâ written responses were evaluated via an AP scoring rubric, and during this scoring, we observed marked differences in solution behavior between the three course formats. To further investigate these differences, we used the framework of epistemic games to analyze student responses. To apply this framework to written work, an epistemic game rubric was created. Application of this rubric yielded game profiles for each of the course formats, allowing us to highlight and compare course characteristics. These profiles of epistemic game distributions were then examined via chi-squared tests to quantify differences in the tools and strategies students used in their solutions.

Mahadeo, Jonathan V.; Traxler, Adrienne; Brewe, Eric

2014-02-01

106

How compliant is compliant? Evaluating adherence with breast self-exam positions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined compliance with the three recommended breast self-examination (BSE) positions over a 6-month follow-up period. An ongoing behavioral measure that provided information about the type of exam performed during each BSE occasion was employed. Results indicated that adherence to all three position types was obtained in only 40% of the exams. Forty-two percent of exams were comprised

Vivian M. Stevens; Joseph W. Hatcher; Barbara K. Bruce

1994-01-01

107

Protein and lipid oxidative damage in healthy students during and after exam stress.  

PubMed

Oxidative damage at cellular level is thought to be one of the mechanisms in the pathogenesis of psychological stress (anxiety). The aim of this study was to investigate lipid and protein oxidative damage in exam anxiety conditions. Blood samples were collected in two stages (during the exam period and post vacation) from 51 healthy female students after responding to Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and test anxiety questionnaire. Protein carbonyl, total thiol and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were determined in serum. Participants reported significantly higher levels of subjective anxiety during the exam period than post vacation. Also the level of total thiol was significantly lower during the exam period compared with post vacation (p<0.001). Meanwhile, protein carbonyl and MDA levels during the exams were significantly higher than those in post-exam period (p<0.01). During the exam period, there was a negative correlation between serum total thiol levels and the severity of anxiety (r=-0.45, p<0.01). A significant positive correlation between the changes in serum protein carbonyl and MDA levels, also between those markers and anxiety score was found during the exam period. The high level of protein carbonyl and MDA, also low level of total thiol during the exam period demonstrated an oxidative damage to proteins and lipids in stress conditions. Our results suggest that oxidative damage to cellular compounds may be one of the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of anxiety. PMID:23688949

Nakhaee, Alireza; Shahabizadeh, Fatemeh; Erfani, Mozhgan

2013-06-13

108

IRT Modeling of Tutor Performance to Predict End-of-Year Exam Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interest in end-of-year accountability exams has increased dramatically since the passing of the No Child Left Behind Act in 2001. With this increased interest comes a desire to use student data collected throughout the year to estimate student proficiency and predict how well they will perform on end-of-year exams. This article uses student…

Ayers, Elizabeth; Junker, Brian

2008-01-01

109

Training Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders to Be Compliant with a Physical Exam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to train children with autism spectrum disorders to be compliant with a 10-component physical examination. After a physician assistant administered an exam pretest, noncompliance on steps of the exam were considered with respect to a skill deficit and escape from aversive stimuli. A package of training procedures was…

Cuvo, Anthony J.; Reagan, Amanda Law; Ackerlund, Julie; Huckfeldt, Rachel; Kelly, Cheri

2010-01-01

110

The ACT of Enrollment: The College Enrollment Effects of State-Required College Entrance Exam Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 2001 Colorado, Illinois, and Maine have all enacted policies that require high school juniors to take college entrance exams--the SAT or the ACT. One goal of these policies was to increase college enrollment based on the belief that requiring students to take these exams would make students more likely to consider college as a viable option.…

Klasik, Daniel

2013-01-01

111

Changes in Student Attributions Due to the Implementation of Central Exit Exams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The central aim of standardized exit exams is to motivate students and teachers to work harder on critical subject matters and thus increase student achievement. However, the effects of the implementation of central exams on student motivation have not been analyzed in a longitudinal section until now. In the present study, the consequences of…

Oerke, Britta; Maag Merki, Katharina; Holmeier, Monika; Jager, Daniela J.

2011-01-01

112

Improving the Efficiency and Effectiveness of Performing the Diabetic Foot Exam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microvascular complications of diabetes can result in peripheral neuropathy and impaired sensation in the feet. These issues can significantly affect morbidity and quality of life. Regular foot exams play a major role in early detection of foot problems and may help prevent amputations. An initial review found that a comprehensive diabetic foot exam (CDFE) was documented 13.5% of the time.

Theodore A. Praxel; Trina J. Ford; Ellen W. Vanderboom

2011-01-01

113

Use of a Consumer-Grade Digital Camera to Archive Written Exams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The use of a photocopier to archive exams consumes photocopier resources and generates a large amount of waste. As an alternative, one instructor uses a consumer-grade digital camera to document exams in an upper-division biology course. The approach is inexpensive and offers a number of advantages over photocopies.

Maduro, Morris

2006-01-01

114

Skipping Class in College and Exam Performance: Evidence from a Regression Discontinuity Classroom Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we estimate the effect of class attendance on exam performance by implementing a policy in three large economics classes that required students scoring below the median on the midterm exam to attend class. This policy generated a large discontinuity in the rate of post-midterm attendance at the median of the midterm score. We…

Dobkin, Carlos; Gil, Ricard; Marion, Justin

2010-01-01

115

The Impact of Assessment Policy on Learning: Replacement Exams or Grade Dropping  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Instructors often debate the merits of alternate grading policies such as dropping the lowest exam or offering an additional exam to replace the lowest score. To date, there has been little research conducted on the impact of these policies on performance. In this study, the author investigates student performance in intermediate macroeconomics…

MacDermott, Raymond J.

2013-01-01

116

Cheating on Multiple-Choice Exams: Monitoring, Assessment, and an Optional Assignment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Academic dishonesty is unethical. Exam cheating is viewed as more serious than most other forms (Pincus and Schmelkin 2003). The authors review the general cheating problem, introduce a program to conservatively identify likely cheaters on multiple-choice exams, and offer a procedure for handling likely cheaters. Feedback from students who confess…

Nath, Leda; Lovaglia, Michael

2009-01-01

117

Multiple-Choice Exam Question Order Influences on Student Performance, Completion Time, and Perceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We conducted 2 studies to investigate undergraduate performance, perceptions, and time required in completing sequentially ordered, randomly ordered, or reverse ordered exams in introductory psychology classes. Study 1 compared the outcomes and perceptions of students (N = 66) on 3 non-comprehensive multiple-choice exams which were sequentially,…

Pettijohn, Terry F., II; Sacco, Matthew F.

2007-01-01

118

Exam Analysis Procedure. Loma Linda University School of Nursing Learning Assistance Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An exam analysis procedure was developed at Loma Linda University School of Nursing to help students who do poorly on tests identify problem areas. Using the student's exam paper, the student and instructor discuss each incorrectly answered question, and record the problem on a check sheet. The procedure makes it possible to identify how many…

Condon, Vaneta M.

119

Providing the Answers Does Not Improve Performance on a College Final Exam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the context of an upper-level psychology course, even when students were given an opportunity to refer to text containing the answers and change their exam responses in order to improve their exam scores, their performance on these questions improved slightly or not at all. Four experiments evaluated competing explanations for the students'…

Glass, Arnold Lewis; Sinha, Neha

2013-01-01

120

Design and implementation to intelligent online exam system for course Information Resource Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared with the traditional exam, online examination system can greatly enhance the evaluation capacities, reduce the human input and improve the work efficiencies. So it has considerable economical efficiency and broad prospect. Examination is used in course Information Resource Management in order to solve the problems in evaluating. An intelligent online exam system is developed and the examination library of

Ming Xiao; Liyang He

2010-01-01

121

Student Participation and Performance on Advanced Placement Exams: Do State-Sponsored Incentives Make a Difference?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many states provide incentives to students, teachers, and schools for the participation and success of students on Advanced Placement (AP) examinations administered by the College Board. The purpose of this article is to examine whether these incentives help students enroll and succeed in AP exams. An analysis of nationally representative AP exam

Jeong, Dong Wook

2009-01-01

122

Predictors of Success for the Texas ExCET Exam in a Predominantly Hispanic University Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated predictors of success on the Texas ExCET (Examination for the Certification of Educators in Texas), highlighting the social studies ExCET components of the Elementary Comprehensive and Elementary Bilingual ExCET exams and noting the relationship of students' social studies coursework preparation, demographics, standardized exams, and…

Pisani, Jana S.; Pisani, Michael J.; Anderson, Roland J.

2002-01-01

123

Democracy in the Israeli Education System: The Case of the English Matriculation Exam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research investigates the extent to which indices of social justice and democratic rights are expressed in Israel in the crucial national English matriculation exam, as perceived by Palestinian Arab high school pupils studying for these exams and their English teachers. The research employed Critical Theory as a paradigm, case study as a…

Zaher, Rana

2012-01-01

124

Knowledge Assessment of Food Safety Managers in Utah and Its Implications on the Exam and Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Food Safety Manager's Certification is offered through a state-local Extension partnership in Utah using an online course management system. Exams and course materials were created by an Extension Specialist at Utah State Univ. Extension Agents provide exam and curriculum facilitation in each county. This form of distance education enables access…

Nummer, Brian A.; Guy, Stanley M.; Bentley, Joanne P. H.

2010-01-01

125

Pick-N Multiple Choice-Exams: A Comparison of Scoring Algorithms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To compare different scoring algorithms for Pick-N multiple correct answer multiple-choice (MC) exams regarding test reliability, student performance, total item discrimination and item difficulty. Data from six 3rd year medical students' end of term exams in internal medicine from 2005 to 2008 at Munich University were analysed (1,255 students,…

Bauer, Daniel; Holzer, Matthias; Kopp, Veronika; Fischer, Martin R.

2011-01-01

126

AK State Profile. Alaska: Alaska High School Graduation Qualifying Exam (HSGOE)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides information about Alaska High School Graduation Qualifying Exam (HSGQE), a comprehensive standards-based exam. Its purpose is to meet a state mandate. A bill to remove the HSGQE as a graduation requirement by July 1, 2011 was presented to the state legislature as SB 109. However, it did not pass both houses of the legislature.…

Center on Education Policy, 2010

2010-01-01

127

Student Grade Motivation as a Determinant of Performance on the Business Major Field ETS Exam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the determinants of performance on the business major field achievement ETS exam with a focus on the impact of applying ETS exam scores to part of the capstone course grade as a performance incentive. The sample consists of 150 students at a midsized regional institution located in the Southwestern region of the United States.…

Terry, Neil; Mills, LaVelle; Sollosy, Marc

2008-01-01

128

Systematically designed license exams in non-native countries to accelerate globalizing pace  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is important for a technician to get the vocational licenses. The system of the vocational license exam is highly appreciated by many countries. Therefore, it is helpful to globalization to have a systematically designed license exams related to internationalization. We propose the vocational licenses can be classified as globalizing type (GT) and domestic type (DT). For example, interpreters, bartenders,

Bing-Yuh Lu; Ming-Li Tung; Mau-Yuan Wang; Hao-Li Liu; Tzu-Ching Shih

2004-01-01

129

Effects of Online Testing on Student Exam Performance and Test Anxiety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increased use of course management software to administer course exams online for face-to-face classes raises the question of how well test anxiety and other emotions generalize from the classroom to an online setting. We hypothesized that administering regular course exams in an online format would reduce test anxiety experienced at the time of…

Stowell, Jeffrey R.; Bennett, Dan

2010-01-01

130

The Influence of a Pre-Reading Strategy on College Exam Scores: An Action Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

(Purpose) This study attempted to determine the effectiveness of an exam pre-reading strategy. (Methodology) It is an action research study that arose from a need in a particular class. A graduate class' scores on the first exam of the semester were unusually low. An instructor implemented a pre-reading strategy to determine if the scores would…

Womack, Sid T.; Hanna, Shellie L.

2010-01-01

131

Using the First Exam for Student Placement in Beginning Chemistry Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first exam in a typical first-semester general chemistry course is used to identify students at risk of failing the course. The performance at Hunter College of 667 students on the first exam in general chemistry in seven different classes between fall 2000 and fall 2005 was correlated with the students' final score in the course. The…

Mills, Pamela; Sweeney, William; Bonner, Sarah M.

2009-01-01

132

Autonomy Suspended: Using Female Patients to Teach Intimate Exams without their Consent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent reports of medical students performing pelvic exams for training purposes on anesthetized women without their consent have produced a firestorm of controversy. Peter Ubel and colleagues found that 90% of medical students performed such exams during their obstetrics\\/gynecology rotations. A series of 2003 reports focused a white-hot spotlight on this teaching practice and resulted in Federal Trade Commission and

Robin Fretwell Wilson

2006-01-01

133

Sensitivity in detecting free intraperitoneal fluid with the pelvic views of the FAST exam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The multiple-view focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) exam is an integral tool in the assessment of blunt abdominal trauma. A prospective observational study was performed to compute the average minimum volume of detectable intraperitoneal fluid with the pelvic views of the FAST exam. All adult patients from October 1999 to May 2001, who presented to the ED with

Dietrich Von Kuenssberg Jehle; Greg Stiller; David Wagner

2003-01-01

134

A Multi-Year Analysis of Asian Gender Differences on Advanced Placement Exams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The performance of Asian boys and girls on Advanced Placement (AP) exam overall scores across the United States for the past 14 years was analyzed. For each of the 14 years of data analyzed, Asian boys had statistically significant higher percentages of overall AP exam scores of 5 than did Asian girls. In addition, the gap between the mean…

Moore, George; Slate, John R.

2011-01-01

135

High School Exit Exams and Dropout in an Era of Increased Accountability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A key form of student-level accountability is the requirement for students to pass high school exit exams (HSEEs) in order to receive a diploma. In this paper, we examine the impact of HSEEs on dropout during a period when these exams became more common and rigorous. Further, we study whether offering alternate pathways to graduation for students…

Hemelt, Steven W.; Marcotte, Dave E.

2013-01-01

136

A Large-Scale, Asynchronous, Web-Based MSW Comprehensive Exam Administration: Outcomes and Lessons Learned  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is the administration and outcomes of an asynchronous, Web-based, comprehensive exam covering MSW foundation curriculum. Over a 48-hour period of test availability, 198 students completed the 4-hour-long exam composed of 100 randomly generated questions. Significant differences in student performance across college locations were found.…

Patterson, David A.

2006-01-01

137

Training Metacognition in the Classroom: The Influence of Incentives and Feedback on Exam Predictions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In two semester-long studies, we examined whether college students could improve their ability to accurately predict their own exam performance across multiple exams. We tested whether providing concrete feedback and incentives (i.e., extra credit) for accuracy would improve predictions by improving students' metacognition, or awareness of their…

Miller, Tyler M.; Geraci, Lisa

2011-01-01

138

Predicting early academic success: HESI Admissions Assessment Exam.  

PubMed

Student retention is a major challenge for undergraduate nursing programs, with the highest attrition occurring in the first year of the nursing curriculum. Admission criteria have been studied extensively but usually as related to end-of-program outcomes such as National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses success. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between HESI Admission Assessment (A(2)) scores and academic performance in the 2 first-semester nursing courses of an associate degree program, Nursing-1 and Nursing-2. Findings indicated that the composite A(2) scores were strongly correlated with both Nursing-1 and Nursing-2 final course grades. Of the scores on the 4 component A(2) exams completed by the sample students (basic math skills, reading comprehension, vocabulary/general knowledge, and grammar), vocabulary/general knowledge scores had the strongest relationship to final course grades in both nursing courses. The authors concluded that A(2) scores facilitated evidence-based admission decisions. PMID:23566503

Knauss, Parry J; Willson, Pamela

2013-01-01

139

Seamless insertion of real pulmonary nodules in chest CT exams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The availability of large medical image datasets is critical in many applications such as training and testing of computer aided diagnosis (CAD) systems, evaluation of segmentation algorithms, and conducting perceptual studies. However, collection of large repositories of clinical images is hindered by the high cost and difficulties associated with both the accumulation of data and establishment of the ground truth. To address this problem, we are developing an image blending tool that allows users to modify or supplement existing datasets by seamlessly inserting a real lesion extracted from a source image into a different location on a target image. In this study we focus on the application of this tool to pulmonary nodules in chest CT exams. We minimize the impact of user skill on the perceived quality of the blended image by limiting user involvement to two simple steps: the user first draws a casual boundary around the nodule of interest in the source, and then selects the center of desired insertion area in the target. We demonstrate examples of the performance of the proposed system on samples taken from the Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) dataset, and compare the noise power spectrum (NPS) of blended nodules versus that of native nodules in simulated phantoms.

Pezeshk, Aria; Sahiner, Berkman; Zeng, Rongping; Wunderlich, Adam; Chen, Weijie; Petrick, Nicholas

2014-03-01

140

Using the First Exam for Student Placement in Beginning Chemistry Courses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first exam in a typical first-semester general chemistry course is used to identify students at risk of failing the course. The performance at Hunter College of 667 students on the first exam in general chemistry in seven different classes between fall 2000 and fall 2005 was correlated with the students' final score in the course. The correlation between the first exam score and the final course performance exclusive of the first exam was 0.73, a correlation coefficient (Pearson r value) higher than any commercially available diagnostic test. Logistic regression was performed on the same data set to generate a probability of success metric. Such an analysis can be used for student advising or placement. Similar results were found for eight first-semester general chemistry classes run at three other CUNY four-year colleges and at a large midwestern university, demonstrating the robustness of the correlation between the first exam and final course performance.

Mills, Pamela; Sweeney, William; Bonner, Sarah M.

2009-06-01

141

The use of formative online quizzes to enhance class preparation and scores on summative exams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Online quizzes were introduced into an undergraduate Exercise Physiology course to encourage students to read ahead and think critically about the course material before coming to class. The purpose of the study was to determine if the use of the online quizzes was associated with improvements in summative exam scores and if the online quizzes were valid predictors of summative exam performance. A retrospective analysis was performed on the course scores from three different groups of Exercise Physiology students. Students in group 1 completed the original version of the course, those in group 2 completed an updated version of the course that included more rigorous exam questions, and those in group 3 completed the same updated version of the course but with the addition of 10 required online quizzes. Results showed that the overall mean summative exam score from group 3 was significantly higher than that from group 2 (81.79 ñ 8.26 and 78.72 ñ 9.61, respectively). A significant positive correlation (r = 0.50) was also found between individual mean online quiz scores and individual mean exam scores for those students in group 3. It was concluded that the formative online quizzes did enhance summative exam performance and that the online quizzes were valid predictors of exam performance.

2008-12-01

142

The use of low-osmolar water-soluble contrast in videofluoroscopic swallowing exams.  

PubMed

The selection of the contrast agent used during fluoroscopic exams is an important clinical decision. The purpose of this article is to document the usage of a nonionic, water-soluble contrast (iohexol) and barium contrast in adult patients undergoing fluoroscopic exams of the pharynx and/or esophagus and provide clinical indications for the use of each. For 1 year, data were collected on the use of iohexol and barium during fluoroscopic exams. The contrast agent used was selected by the speech language pathologist (SLP) or the radiologist based on the exam's indications. A total of 1,978 fluoroscopic exams were completed in the 12-month period of documentation. Of these exams, 60.6 % were completed for medical reasons and 39.4 % for surgical reasons. Fifty-five percent of the exams were performed jointly by a SLP and a radiologist and 45 % were performed by a radiologist alone. Aspiration was present in 22 % of the exams, vestibular penetration occurred in 38 %, extraluminal leakage of contrast was observed in 4.6 %, and both aspiration and leakage were seen in 1 % of the exams. In cases with aspiration, iohexol was used alone in 8 %, iohexol and barium were both used in 45 %, and barium was used alone in 47 %. In cases with extraluminal leakage, iohexol was used alone in 58 %, iohexol and barium were both used in 31 %, and barium was used alone in 11 %. No adverse effects were seen with the use of iohexol. When barium was used in cases of aspiration and extraluminal leakage, the amount of aspirated barium was small and the extraluminal barium in the instances of leakage was small. Iohexol is a useful screening contrast agent and can safely provide information, and its use reduces the risk of aspiration and the chance of leakage of large amounts of barium. PMID:23529533

Harris, Julie A; Bartelt, Detlef; Campion, Molly; Gayler, Bob W; Jones, Bronwyn; Hayes, Andrea; Haynos, Judith; Herbick, Seanne; Kling, Therese; Lingaraj, Arpana; Singer, Michele; Starmer, Heather; Smith, Christine; Webster, Kim

2013-12-01

143

The Elite Illusion: Achievement Effects at Boston and New York Exam Schools. NBER Working Paper No. 17264  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Talented students compete fiercely for seats at Boston and New York exam schools. These schools are characterized by high levels of peer achievement and a demanding curriculum tailored to each district's highest achievers. While exam school students clearly do very well in school, the question of whether an exam school education adds value…

Abdulkadiroglu, Atila; Angrist, Joshua D.; Pathak, Parag A.

2011-01-01

144

Assessment of Validity, Reliability and Difficulty Indices for Teacher-Built Physics Exam Questions in First Year High School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the research is to determine high school teachers' skill rate in designing exam questions in physics subject. The statistical population was all of physics exam shits for two semesters in one school year from which a sample of 364 exam shits was drawn using multistage cluster sampling. Two experts assessed the shits and by using…

Jandaghi, Gholamreza

2010-01-01

145

Integrity of disposable nitrile exam gloves exposed to simulated movement.  

PubMed

Every year, millions of health care, first responder, and industry workers are exposed to chemical and biological hazards. Disposable nitrile gloves are a common choice as both a chemical and physical barrier to these hazards, especially as an alternative to natural latex gloves. However, glove selection is complicated by the availability of several types or formulations of nitrile gloves, such as low-modulus, medical grade, low filler, and cleanroom products. This study evaluated the influence of simulated movement on the physical integrity (i.e., holes) of different nitrile exam glove brands and types. Thirty glove products were evaluated out-of-box and after exposure to simulated whole-glove movement for 2 hr. In lieu of the traditional 1 L water-leak test, a modified water-leak test, standardized to detect a 0.15 ± 0.05 mm hole in different regions of the glove, was developed. A specialized air inflation method simulated bidirectional stretching and whole-glove movement. A worst-case scenario with maximum stretching was evaluated. On average, movement did not have a significant effect on glove integrity (chi-square; p=0.068). The average effect was less than 1% between no movement (1.5%) and movement (2.1%) exposures. However, there was significant variability in glove integrity between different glove types (p?0.05). Cleanroom gloves, on average, had the highest percentage of leaks, and 50% failed the water-leak test. Low-modulus and medical grade gloves had the lowest percentages of leaks, and no products failed the water-leak test. Variability in polymer formulation was suspected to account for the observed discrepancies, as well as the inability of the traditional 1 L water-leak test to detect holes in finger/thumb regions. Unexpectedly, greater than 80% of the glove defects were observed in the finger and thumb regions. It is recommended that existing water-leak tests be re-evaluated and standardized to account for product variability. PMID:21476169

Phalen, Robert N; Wong, Weng Kee

2011-05-01

146

Most Women Don't Need Regular Pelvic Exams, New Guidelines State  

MedlinePLUS

... Most Women Don't Need Regular Pelvic Exams, New Guidelines State Review found no evidence they benefit ... a routine part of women's health care, but new guidelines say there's no good reason for it. ...

147

[A retrospective study analysis of urinary hippuric acid levels in occupational toxicology exams].  

PubMed

Hippuric acid is the primary metabolite of toluene, a solvent widely used in industrial processes with considerable toxic effects, a fact which justifies regularly monitoring individuals with occupational exposure to this solvent. This work aims at evaluating urinary hippuric acid levels found in workers subject to biological monitoring. A retrospective study was carried out with data referring from 2002 to 2005, in which exams results and employment status were analyzed (periodic, post-employment, and pre-employment exams). Results indicate a significant reduction in hippuric acid levels for 2005. Periodic exams presented higher results than pre-employment and post-employment exams. No significant difference was found in individuals grouped according to their status in each of the established intervals, their reference numbers, and maximum biological levels allowed. Hippuric acid levels detected indicate low risk of toluene exposure for the population under evaluation, probably due to a growing concern with the deployment of measures regarding occupational hygiene. PMID:20640325

Gonzalez, Kelly Cristina; Sagebin, Fernando Rodrigues; Oliveira, Paola Garcia; Glock, Luiz; Thiesen, Flavia Valladão

2010-06-01

148

The effect of marriage on utilization of colorectal endoscopy exam in the United States  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study examines the association between marriage and colorectal endoscopy exam, and whether this association varies by gender and financial benefits of marriage including improved access to health insurance and pooled family income. Methods Representative survey data of the non-institutionalized United States population were used from the 2000, 2005, and 2008 National Health Interview Survey. Analyses targeted persons 50–85 years of age without a personal history of cancer and with complete information on all study variables (n = 21,760). Multivariate logistic regression was used to model marital status differences in the probability of undergoing a colorectal endoscopy exam with interaction effects used to model variation over time by gender, health insurance, and poverty level. Results Married persons were more likely than unmarried persons to report ever having undergone a colorectal endoscopy exam (odds ratio [OR], 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12–1.29), and the difference between married and unmarried persons in the probability of undergoing a colorectal endoscopy exam remained stable over time. Married persons were more likely than unmarried persons to report having undergone a colorectal endoscopy exam within the past 10 years (OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.15–1.95). For each survey year, married men were significantly more likely than women and unmarried men to report having undergone a colorectal endoscopy exam. For example, in 2008, 56% of married men reported having undergone a colorectal endoscopy exam, compared to 49% of unmarried men, 52% of married women, and 50% of unmarried women. Among persons with health insurance, married persons were significantly more likely than unmarried persons to have undergone a colorectal endoscopy exam. Among persons who were poor, there was no difference by marital status in the likelihood of having undergone a colorectal endoscopy exam. However, among persons who were not poor, married persons were more likely than unmarried persons to have undergone a colorectal endoscopy exam. Conclusion Given that colorectal endoscopy exams are a potentially life-saving procedure, persistently higher uptake of colorectal endoscopy for married persons over time may be an important health promoting benefit of marriage. Therefore, clinicians and policy makers should focus on improving the use of cancer prevention services among unmarried persons.

Wilson, Fernando A.; Watanabe-Galloway, Shinobu; Peek, M. Kristen

2012-01-01

149

Realization and Research of Online Exam System Based on S2SH Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

The online exam system which integrates with Struts2, Spring and Hibernate has been researched here. Based on completion of essential function of online exam system, the thought of S2SH (Struts2+Spring+Hibernate) framework has been adopted in our system which separates view tier, control tier, business logic tier and data accessing tier into different components, as well as utilizes MVC pattern (Model

Huang Darong; Huang Huimin

2010-01-01

150

Classification and analysis of multiple sclerosis lesions in spin-echo MR exams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high resolution and excellent soft tissue contrast of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) have enabled direct, non- invasive visualization of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) lesions in vivo. This has allowed quantification of changes in the appearance of lesions in MR exams to be used as a measure of disease state. Nevertheless, accurate quantification techniques are subject to inter- and intra-operator variability, which may hinder monitoring of disease progression. We have developed a computer program to aid an experienced operator in the quantification of MS lesions in spin-echo MR exams. Assisted and manual quantification were used to study inter-operator and intra-operator variability under known conditions in exams of a test phantom, and under clinical conditions in 1.5T and 0.5T exams of an MS patient. Results of the phantom study show that accuracy was improved by assisted quantification. The patient exam results indicate that assisted quantification reduced both inter-operator and intra-operator variability, while quantification in 0.5T exams reduced the variability of manual quantification, but had no significant effect upon assisted quantification. Application of assisted quantification to the analysis and visualization of two large periventricular lesions reveals subtle changes over time in the internal composition of these apparently static lesions.

Mitchell, Ross; Karlik, Stephen J.; Lee, Donald H.; Fenster, Aaron

1994-09-01

151

Examining the Exam: A Critical Look at The California Critical Thinking Skills Test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines the content of The California Critical Thinking Skills Test (1990). This report is not a statistical review. Instead it brings under scrutiny the content of the exam. This content will be of interest to the general reader, because the issues range from logic to ethics to pedagogy, and to questions of evidential and epistemological support. Anyone interested in clear thought and expression will find these issues of significance. Although the exam has a number of strengths and has the clearest instructions of all the presently available Critical Thinking exams, the content of 9 of the exams 34 questions is defective, namely the content of questions 6, 7, 8, 19, 21, 23, 24, 29, and 33. These questions make errors in critical thinking. Hence, no statistical results pertaining to the administration of these questions to students can be acceptable. The remaining questions are acceptable as to content. But until the problems are corrected, those who may use the exam should remove the defective questions from test administration or from data collection and reporting.The scope of the exam also is quite limited, but this may be unavoidable for any instrument designed to be completed in about an hour. Further, the scores resulting from any such testing can be understood only as a measure of minimal competency (below which remediation likely is needed) for the skills tested, but not as an adequate measure of critical thinking.

Fawkes, Don; O'Meara, Bill; Weber, Dave; et al.

152

A comparison of student performance on discipline-specific versus integrated exams in a medical school course.  

PubMed

Curricular reform is a widespread trend among medical schools. Assessing the impact that pedagogical changes have on students is a vital step in review process. This study examined how a shift from discipline-focused instruction and assessment to integrated instruction and assessment affected student performance in a second-year medical school pathology course. We investigated this by comparing pathology exam scores between students exposed to traditional discipline-specific instruction and exams (DSE) versus integrated instruction and exams (IE). Exam content was controlled, and individual questions were evaluated using a modified version of Bloom's taxonomy. Additionally, we compared United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) step 1 scores between DSE and IE groups. Our findings indicate that DSE students performed better than IE students on complete pathology exams. However, when exam content was controlled, exam scores were equivalent between groups. We also discovered that the integrated exams were composed of a significantly greater proportion of questions classified on the higher levels of Bloom's taxonomy and that IE students performed better on these questions overall. USMLE step 1 exam scores were similar between groups. The finding of a significant difference in content complexity between discipline-specific and integrated exams adds to recent literature indicating that there are a number of potential biases related to curricular comparison studies that must be considered. Future investigation involving larger sample sizes and multiple disciplines should be performed to explore this matter further. PMID:24292915

Thompson, Andrew R; Braun, Mark W; O'Loughlin, Valerie D

2013-12-01

153

Accuracy of early stand exam age estimates in the Swan Valley of Western Montana. Forest Service research note  

SciTech Connect

The stand exams conducted in western Montana over 50 years ago provide a valuable source of information on prefire suppression and preharvest condition of the region's forests. Of the early exam estimates of stand origin, 52 percent were within 20 years of estimates taken from stand exams conducted in the 1980's, and 73 percent were within 60 years. There was no significant bias toward either higher or lower age estimates. The early stand exam data can give an accurate estimate of stand age distributions over large areas.

Hart, M.; Lesica, P.

1994-04-01

154

Caught in the Middle: Arizona's English Language Learners and the High School Exit Exam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 2002, the Center on Education Policy (CEP) has been studying state high school exit examinations--tests that students must pass to receive a high school diploma. Each year, a national report has been published with findings about the 26 states that have or will soon implement exit exams. In addition, occasional reports have been published…

Kober, Nancy Ed.

2007-01-01

155

Algorithmic, LOCS and HOCS (Chemistry) Exam Questions: Performance and Attitudes of College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies the performance of freshmen biology and physics-mathematics majors and chemistry majors as well as pre- and in-service chemistry teachers at two Israeli universities on algorithmic (ALG), lower-order cognitive skills (LOCS), and higher-order cognitive skills (HOCS) chemistry exam questions. Finds that students in both universities…

Zoller, Uri

2002-01-01

156

The Application of Generalizability Theory to a College-Level French Placement Exam.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper involves an application of generalizability theory in assessing the dependability of a foreign language placement exam. The French Cloze test was administered to students within five levels of French classes and the results were scored by four different raters. Three specific generalizability coefficients are discussed along with…

Naccarato, Richard W.; Gillmore, Gerald M.

157

Study on exam electromagnetic radiation prediction system of mobile phone shielding devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, many large examinations need to use mobile phone shielding devices. Many students and parents feel concern about the electromagnetic radiation effect of mobile phone shielding devices. This paper considers the comprehensive effect of mobile phone from the electromagnetic radiation intensity, the main radiation direction and the distance with the radiation source. This paper designs the exam electromagnetic radiation prediction

Li Ma; Peng Zou

2011-01-01

158

Today's Students, Tomorrow's Citizens: Pathways for Learning, Mathematics. Alabama High School Graduation Exam.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is designed to assist classroom teachers in preparing students to successfully complete the Alabama High School Graduation Exam (AHSGE). It consists of activities that are correlated with the Alabama Course of Study: Mathematics, Bulletin 1997, No. 4, and Standards and Objectives (Reading Comprehension, Language, Mathematics, and…

Alabama State Dept. of Education, Montgomery. Div. of Instructional Services.

159

Can a picture ruin a thousand words? The effects of visual resources in exam questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background When an exam question is read, a mental representation of the task is formed in each student's mind. This processing can be affected by features such as visual resources (e.g. pictures, diagrams, photographs, tables), which can come to dominate the mental representation due to their salience.Purpose The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of visual resources

Victoria Crisp; Ezekiel Sweiry

2006-01-01

160

Noncredible Effort during Pediatric Neuropsychological Exam: A Case Series and Literature Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuropsychological test interpretation rests upon the assumption that the examinee has exerted full effort. If an individual provides inadequate effort during exam, the resulting data will be invalid and represent an underestimate of the person's true abilities. Although youth have been assumed historically to be less capable of deception than adults, acts of deception in childhood are not uncommon, even

Michael W. Kirkwood; John W. Kirk; Robert Z. Blaha; Pamela Wilson

2010-01-01

161

Managing the tabu list length using a fuzzy inference system: an application to exams timetabling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present an application of Tabu Search (TS) to the exams timetabling problem. One of the drawback of this meta-heuristic is related with some parameter that can afiect the performance of the algorithm and must be tuned. One of such is tabu tenure which is much problem dependent. Our goal is to have a automatic process of

Tiago Cardal Pais; P. Amaral

2008-01-01

162

Verbal Final Exam in Introductory Biology Yields Gains in Student Content Knowledge and Longitudinal Performance  

PubMed Central

We studied gains in student learning over eight semesters in which an introductory biology course curriculum was changed to include optional verbal final exams (VFs). Students could opt to demonstrate their mastery of course material via structured oral exams with the professor. In a quantitative assessment of cell biology content knowledge, students who passed the VF outscored their peers on the medical assessment test (MAT), an exam built with 40 Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT) questions (66.4% [n = 160] and 62% [n = 285], respectively; p < 0.001);. The higher-achieving students performed better on MCAT questions in all topic categories tested; the greatest gain occurred on the topic of cellular respiration. Because the VF focused on a conceptually parallel topic, photosynthesis, there may have been authentic knowledge transfer. In longitudinal tracking studies, passing the VF also correlated with higher performance in a range of upper-level science courses, with greatest significance in physiology, biochemistry, and organic chemistry. Participation had a wide range but not equal representation in academic standing, gender, and ethnicity. Yet students nearly unanimously (92%) valued the option. Our findings suggest oral exams at the introductory level may allow instructors to assess and aid students striving to achieve higher-level learning.

Luckie, Douglas B.; Rivkin, Aaron M.; Aubry, Jacob R.; Marengo, Benjamin J.; Creech, Leah R.; Sweeder, Ryan D.

2013-01-01

163

Operating Characteristics of the Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Exam Using Neuropsychological Assessment as the Criterion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The performance characteristics of the Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Exam (NCSE) (R. Kiernan and others, 1987) was studied with 50 outpatients, most with cognitive dysfunction using comprehensive neuropsychological assessment as the criterion. Results suggest that operating characteristics of the NCSE depend on the nature of the sample assessed…

Karzmark, Peter

1997-01-01

164

Retrieving Essential Material at the End of Lectures Improves Performance on Statistics Exams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the end of each lecture in a statistics for psychology course, students answered a small set of questions that required them to retrieve information from the same day's lecture. These exercises constituted retrieval practice for lecture material subsequently tested on four exams throughout the course. This technique is called the PUREMEM…

Lyle, Keith B.; Crawford, Nicole A.

2011-01-01

165

Student-Centered Pedagogy: Co-Construction of Knowledge through Student-Generated Midterm Exams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using the example of student-generated midterm exams produced during a university classroom exercise, this narrative account examines student-centered pedagogy from both the university faculty and student perspectives. The central question revolved around how to actively engage a community of diverse university students from different academic,…

Ahn, Ruth; Class, Mary

2011-01-01

166

Where to Begin? The Evolving Role of Placement Exams for Students Starting College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For years, colleges have used placement exams to determine whether to deem incoming students "college ready" or assign them to developmental education. But emerging information reveals the tests have little correlation to students' future success, casting doubt on their use even as the high stakes for students of taking remedial courses become…

Burdman, Pamela

2012-01-01

167

High Achievement on Advanced Placement Exams: The Relationship of School-Level Contextual Factors to Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to identify school- and district-level variables that relate to advanced academic achievement, as defined by the ratio of number of scores of 3, 4, or 5 on Advanced Placement exams to school enrollment. The study initially included 46 variables for 339 public high schools in one Midwestern state. Hierarchical linear…

Burney, Virginia H.

2010-01-01

168

Exam Preparation and Grades: A System for Addressing Questions, Challenges and Problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The system presented solves questions, challenges, and problems with preparing exams and grading. It includes detailed instructions, rationales, web pages, examples, and EXCEL spreadsheet templates. Use these components to keep grades, show grade distributions, calculate cumulative grades, make grade predictions based on assumptions of student performance, and inform students

PhD Augustine G DiGiovanna (Salisbury University Biological Sciences)

2004-06-15

169

A Working Model for Assessing Spanish Heritage Language Learners' Language Proficiency through a Placement Exam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Having a clear idea of the knowledge in the heritage language that a student brings to the classroom is essential for a successful language-learning experience; for that reason, research in heritage language education has been focusing increasingly on assessment issues, especially language placement exams. Professionals debate whether assessment…

Fairclough, Marta

2012-01-01

170

Assessment of learning gains associated with independent exam analysis in introductory biology.  

PubMed

This study evaluates the impact of an independent postmidterm question analysis exercise on the ability of students to answer subsequent exam questions on the same topics. It was conducted in three sections (?400 students/section) of introductory biology. Graded midterms were returned electronically, and each student was assigned a subset of questions answered incorrectly by more than 40% of the class to analyze as homework. The majority of questions were at Bloom's application/analysis level; this exercise therefore emphasized learning at these higher levels of cognition. Students in each section answered final exam questions matched by topic to all homework questions, providing a within-class control group for each question. The percentage of students who correctly answered the matched final exam question was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the Topic Analysis versus Control Analysis group for seven of 19 questions. We identified two factors that influenced activity effectiveness: 1) similarity in topic emphasis of the midterm-final exam question pair and 2) quality of the completed analysis homework. Our data suggest that this easy-to-implement exercise will be useful in large-enrollment classes to help students develop self-regulated learning skills. Additional strategies to help introductory students gain a broader understanding of topic areas are discussed. PMID:22135369

Williams, Adrienne E; William, Adrienne E; Aguilar-Roca, Nancy M; Tsai, Michelle; Wong, Matthew; Beaupré, Marin Moravec; O'Dowd, Diane K

2011-01-01

171

VA State Profile. Virginia: Standards of Learning (SOL) End-of-Course Exams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides information about Virginia's Standards of Learning (SOL) End-of-Course Exams. The purpose of the end-of-course assessments is to measure the achievement of students on the Standards of Learning adopted by the Virginia Board of Education for specific high school courses, and to ensure that students graduating from Virginia…

Center on Education Policy, 2010

2010-01-01

172

The Validity Argument of a Web-Based Spanish Listening Exam: Test Usefulness Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes research used for supporting a validity argument for a new Spanish Listening Exam, whose scores are intended to place examinees into appropriate levels of university Spanish classes. This study contributes to the field of argument-based approaches to language assessment by implementing Bachman's (2005) assessment use argument…

Pardo-Ballester, Cristina

2010-01-01

173

Internal Consistency of Medical Students' Scores in General and Baisc Science Exams, Kerman University, Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and purpose: Course-based assessment is a method to gather, analyze, disseminate, and use course data to improve student learning. We assessed the associations between medical students' scores in basic sciences and general courses in a university in Iran and compared these scores with their scores in comprehensive exam. Methods: We collected the scores of medical students in their courses

Haghdoost A; Esmaeili A

2006-01-01

174

The design of exam system on the basis of .net technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the research of domestic and foreign research situation, the paper analyses the importance of examination system in university and puts forward the development of examination that is based on .net technology. The system can set different authorities for different user groups by various university environments. It realizes automatically on paper setting and exam completely. Besides, the system adopts

Nan Yang; Xie Chenguang; Gao Weiwei; Ma Xianmin

2012-01-01

175

The development of a tool for gauging the demands of GCSE and A Level exam questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two techniques from the psychological literature were used to identify demands in exam questions: Edwards' scale of cognitive demand (1981) and Kelly's Repertory Grid technique (1955). These two techniques were used to develop a tool for identifying and gauging the demands made in GCSE and A Level History, Chemistry and Geography questions. This paper reports on three phases of the

Sarah Hughes; Alastair Pollitt; Ayesha Ahmed

1998-01-01

176

Effect of Computer Tutorial Review Lessons on Exam Performance in Introductory College Physics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Computer tutorial review lessons for a one-quarter lecture course in introductory college physics were developed and used by approximately 500 students, on a voluntary basis, over a period of several years. The investigation shows that the exam grades of ...

O. M. Kromhout

1972-01-01

177

Indiana Teachers' Perspectives on Testing Accommodations for Limited English Proficient Students Taking the Graduation Qualifying Exam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative case study examines teachers' perspectives on testing accommodations for Limited English Proficient (LEP) students taking Indiana's Graduation Qualifying Exam (GQE). The Indiana Department of Education (IDOE) states that the purpose of testing accommodations is to "level the playing field" between LEP students and their non-LEP…

Hetler, Angela Dawn

2010-01-01

178

Big Business and School-Exams: "Catching Johnny before He Falls"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper the author discusses the involvement of private corporations in administering educational exams. Specifically described are the company, Pearson Plc, a multi-national publishing and media conglomerate, and owner of Edexcel, one of England's three remaining "unitary awarding bodies." The intensification of the involvement of…

Yarker, Patrick

2005-01-01

179

The TRIPSE: A Process-Oriented Exam for Large Undergraduate Classes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The TRIPSE (tri-partite problem solving exercise), a process-oriented exam that mimics the scientific process, was used previously in small classes (15-25). Provided limited data, students frame explanations and design experimental tests that they later revise with additional information. Our 6-year experience using it with larger numbers…

Nastos, Stash; Rangachari, P. K.

2013-01-01

180

An Analysis of How Proctoring Exams in Online Mathematics Offerings Affects Student Learning and Course Integrity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the results of a study focused on the issue of how proctored testing affects the learning outcomes and integrity in an Intermediate Algebra course setting. The study follows a model of assessment where students in one group have taken two of their five unit exams as proctored tests along with a proctored Comprehensive Final…

Flesch, Michael; Ostler, Elliott

2011-01-01

181

Comparing Intentions to Use University-Provided vs Vendor-Provided Multibiometric Authentication in Online Exams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Concerns for information security in e-learning systems have been raised previously. In the pursuit for better authentication approaches, few schools have implemented students' authentication during online exams beyond passwords. This paper aims to assess e-learners' intention to provide multibiometric data and use of multibiometrics…

Levy, Yair; Ramim, Michelle M.; Furnell, Steven M.; Clarke, Nathan L.

2011-01-01

182

Predictors of the Elementary School Proficiency Exams and Issues of Equality in Educational Facilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purpose of this study is to determine whether school/student, classroom/student, teacher/student ratio, and the Human Development Index (I.G.E.) rates by province predict a province's total 6th and 7th grade Elementary School Proficiency Exam (SBS) scores. To determine the relationships between the province's total 6th and 7th grade SBS…

Erdogan, Irfan; Meseci Giorgetti, Filiz; Cifcili, Vakur

2011-01-01

183

A history and overview of the certification exam for medical dosimetrists  

SciTech Connect

During the last century, the creation and implementation of board certification has had a powerful impact on the medical community. Board certification has helped to shape the scope and practice of medical professionals and the care they provide, as well as to influence the way the health insurance industry sets standards for reimbursement. One profession that offers board certification to its members is medical dosimetry. The Medical Dosimetrist Certification Board exam has been administered since 1988 and its content covers a broad spectrum of information from the radiation therapy sciences. The exam has strict application requirements and is rather difficult to pass. Those who pass the exam can then call themselves Certified Medical Dosimetrists. For data purposes of this study, several members of the dosimetry community were solicited to participate in a survey regarding the exam's content and history, and to provide relevant statistical data. Currently 2,177 medical dosimetrists are board certified, with an additional 1,500 estimated to be working without certification. Although board certification is not currently required to practice medical dosimetry, new legislation known as the CARE Bill could change this. The CARE Bill, if passed, would mandate nationwide compulsory licensure and/or certification for medical dosimetrists and other medical professionals who want to work in radiation-related health care. Health maintenance organizations and other insurance carriers may likewise require certification for reimbursement purposes.

Pusey, Damien [Department of Radiation Oncology, UNC Hospitals, 101 Manning Drive, Chapel Hill, NC 27514 (United States); Smith, Lisette [Department of Radiation Oncology, UNC Hospitals, 101 Manning Drive, Chapel Hill, NC 27514 (United States); Zeman, Elaine M. [UNC School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7512 (United States); Adams, Robert [Department of Radiation Oncology, UNC Hospitals, 101 Manning Drive, Chapel Hill, NC 27514 (United States)]. E-mail: Robert_Adams@med.unc.edu

2005-06-30

184

Examining the Exam: A Critical Look at the California Critical Thinking Skills Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the content of The California Critical Thinking Skills Test (1990). This report is not a statistical review. Instead it brings under scrutiny the content of the exam. This content will be of interest to the general reader, because the issues range from logic to ethics to pedagogy, and to questions of evidential and…

Fawkes, Don; O'meara, Bill; Weber, Dave; Flage, Dan

2005-01-01

185

Spanish Teachers' Sense of Humor and Student Performance on the National Spanish Exams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research suggests that second/foreign language teachers' sense of humor is directly related to many outcomes for teachers and their students. This research investigates the relationship between the perceived sense of humor of in-service Spanish teachers' (n?=?102) and their students' (n?=?5,419) score on the National Spanish Exams

Swanson, Peter B.

2013-01-01

186

Sugestões para o uso do mini-exame do estado mental no Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - Modificações no mini-exame do estado mental (MEM) foram sugeridas anteriormente em nosso meio. Neste artigo relatamos sugestões para aplicação uniforme deste instrumento. Método: Avaliamos 433 indivíduos saudáveis sem queixas de memória através do MEM tendo seu desempenho sido avaliado quanto às variáveis demográficas. As modificações propostas foram detalhadamente descritas. Resultados: A escolaridade foi o principal fator que influenciou

Sonia M. D. Brucki; Ricardo Nitrini; Paulo Caramelli; Paulo H. F. Bertolucci; Ivan H. Okamoto

2003-01-01

187

Practice (Rather than Graded) Quizzes, with Answers, May Increase Introductory Psychology Exam Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors investigated whether practice (or graded) quizzes, with or without provision of correct answers, would be more beneficial for introductory psychology exam performance. In six sections (N = 249) of an introductory psychology class, taught by the same professor, different approaches to quizzes were applied across sections to measure…

Wickline, Virginia B.; Spektor, Valeriya G.

2011-01-01

188

Academic Goals, Goal Process Cognition, and Exam Performance among College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated the nature of and linkages between student-generated academic goals, individual differences in self-regulatory thinking (goal process cognition), and exam performance among college students. In Study 1 (N = 365) and in Study 2 (N = 325), we elicited students' self-ascribed most important academic goals for introductory psychology…

Okun, Morris A.; Fairholme, Chris; Karoly, Paul; Ruehlman, Linda S.; Newton, Craig

2006-01-01

189

Examination of the Classification Accuracy of Music Education Special Aptitude Exams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is critical both for candidates who apply for programs that require special aptitude and the professors who teach in these programs whether those students' scores on placement exams are correctly calculated. Because student's ability profile and the quality of education in these programs may be directly affected by how candidates…

Atar, Hakan Yavuz; Sayin, Ayfer; Atar, Burcu

2013-01-01

190

Physics Exam Problems Reconsidered: Using Logger Pro to Evaluate Student Understanding of Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past few decades, the physics teaching community has witnessed a surge in creative and often effective ways of using technology to improve physics instruction.1-3 Most of these findings suggest how technology can help instructors create interactive learning environments and how interactivity influences the effectiveness of physics learning.4 However, every physics teacher knows that in order for any teaching method to be effective, the exams have to test the skills and concepts addressed by the teacher. Exam content and style sends the clearest message to students about what skills and content are valued by instructors. The mismatch between what we intend to teach and what we effectively test in exams is of great concern to many science teachers. These were our motives for creating data-rich questions to be used in the exams in a large undergraduate first-year physics course at the University of British Columbia. These data-rich questions were developed to support the use of an innovative teaching pedagogy called Interactive Lecture Experiments.3

Milner-Bolotin, Marina; Moll, Rachel

2008-11-01

191

AD Challenge Exams: Two Approaches. Part One: Testing Knowledge and Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students, if they elect to challenge both first-year nursing courses, must take two corresponding series of written and practical tests. Steps in devising the challenge exam system, maintaining high standards, testing format, general education requirements, and evaluation are topics discussed. (MW)

Palmer, Patricia E.; Brown, Sandra K.

1974-01-01

192

Outcomes Assessment: An Examination of the ETS Major Field Test and the Comprehensive Business Exam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is the first to examine student performance differences between the major field test in business (MFTB) and the comprehensive business exam (CBE). Results reveal students performed at a statistically significant 50.8 percentile ranking on the CBE compared to a 38.0 percentile ranking on the MFTB. Additionally, this study finds that…

Hahn, William; Bowlin, Lyle L.; Welch, Timothy

2012-01-01

193

The Relationship of Academic Self-Efficacy to Class Participation and Exam Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship of academic self-efficacy to engagement in class discussion and performance on major course exams among students (N = 165) in an undergraduate human development course. Cluster analysis was used to identify three levels of academic self-efficacy: high (n = 34), medium (n = 91), and low (n = 40). Results…

Galyon, Charles E.; Blondin, Carolyn A.; Yaw, Jared S.; Nalls, Meagan L.; Williams, Robert L.

2012-01-01

194

EFFECTS OF AN EDUCATIONAL INTERVENTION ON THE STRESSS OF A FIRST GYNECOLOGICAL EXAM  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of 132 university women were assigned to one of three variations of an educational program designed to reduce stress levels concerning a first pelvic exam. Although all three treatments significantly reduced levels of stress, the condition that combined a videotape with an oral presentation was the most effective method of reducing anxiety. Asian women demonstrated the highest levels

Robin G. Sawyer; Paul J. Pinciaro; Anne Anderson-Sawyer

1998-01-01

195

Difficult Exams: Cystocele, Rectocele, Stenotic Cervix\\/Cervical Dilatation, Nonsexually Active Women, Elderly Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a There are various anatomical conditions that can affect the performance of the pelvic exam and may lead to modifications of\\u000a your pelvic examination techniques. These conditions include examinations of women who are not sexually active, women with\\u000a cystoceles or rectoceles, women with atrophic vaginitis, and women with cervical stenosis.

Rhina Acevedo

196

A Stimulus Control Intervention in the Gynecological Exam with Sexual Abuse Survivors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of a new examination gown, as a stimulus control intervention designed to reduce distress during the pelvic exam, was investigated in a sample of sexual abuse survivors and women without abuse histories. Sixty-nine participants from a women's health ambulatory center and a private practice in gynecology were randomly assigned to the experimental gown condition or the paper drape

Michelle S. Smith; Michael T. Smith

2000-01-01

197

Alternative Models of Entrance Exams and Access to Higher Education: The Case of the Czech Republic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study compares the potential effects of a university admission exam model based on program-specific knowledge and an alternative model relying on general study aptitude (GSA) in the context of a strongly stratified educational system with considerable excess of demand over supply of university education. Using results of the "Sonda Maturant…

Konecny, Tomas; Basl, Josef; Myslivecek, Jan; Simonova, Natalie

2012-01-01

198

USER MANUAL FOR EXPRESS, THE EXAMS-PRZM EXPOSURE SIMULATION SHELL  

EPA Science Inventory

The Environmental Fate and Effects Division (EFED) of EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs(OPP) uses a suite of ORD simulation models for the exposure analysis portion of regulatory risk assessments. These models (PRZM, EXAMS, AgDisp) are complex, process-based simulation codes tha...

199

Fear of Routine Physical Exams in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Prevalence and Intervention Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have a high prevalence of specific fears, including fear of general medical procedures, but research on the treatment of medical fears has been limited. Two studies are described in this article. The first study involved an assessment of the prevalence of fears associated with physical exams.…

Gillis, Jennifer M.; Hammond Natof, Tammy; Lockshin, Stephanie B.; Romanczyk, Raymond G.

2009-01-01

200

A Critical Analysis of the Validity of the Four Skills Exam.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study evaluated the overall evaluative validity of the Four Skills Exam, a Spanish language proficiency test designed to ensure that bilingual education teachers in New Mexico can meet Spanish language demands in the bilingual education classroom. The test's construct validity was limited for several reasons. In designing a test capturing…

Guerrero, Michael D.

201

An Innovative Excel Application to Improve Exam Reliability in Marketing Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Measures of survey reliability are commonly addressed in marketing courses. One statistic of reliability is "Cronbach's alpha." This paper presents an application of survey reliability as a reflexive application of multiple-choice exam validation. The application provides an interactive decision support system that incorporates survey item…

Keller, Christopher M.; Kros, John F.

2011-01-01

202

Do High-Stakes Placement Exams Predict College Success? CCRC Working Paper No. 41  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Community colleges are typically assumed to be nonselective, open-access institutions. Yet access to college-level courses at such institutions is far from guaranteed: the vast majority of two-year institutions administer high-stakes exams to entering students that determine their placement into either college-level or remedial education. Despite…

Scott-Clayton, Judith

2012-01-01

203

What To Look for in ESL Admission Tests: Cambridge Certificate Exams, IELTS, and TOEFL.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Familiarizes test users with issues to consider when employing assessments for screening and admission purposes. Examines the purpose, content, and scoring methods of three English-as-a-Second-Language admissions tests--the Cambridge certificate exams, International English Language Teaching System, and Test of English as a Foreign…

Chalhoub-Deville, Micheline; Turner, Carolyn E.

2000-01-01

204

Passing the Leadership Test: Strategies for Success on the Leadership Licensure Exam. Second Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Passing the Leadership Test: Strategies for Success on the Leadership Licensure Exam" is a study guide for the School Leaders Licensure Examination (SLLA.) The book presents a comprehensive, practical guide for preparing for the SLLA. It is divided into two sections: basic principles of test preparation and the ISLLC standards with implications…

Jones, Leslie; Kennedy, Eugene

2012-01-01

205

The Use of Formative Online Quizzes to Enhance Class Preparation and Scores on Summative Exams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Online quizzes were introduced into an undergraduate Exercise Physiology course to encourage students to read ahead and think critically about the course material before coming to class. The purpose of the study was to determine if the use of the online quizzes was associated with improvements in summative exam scores and if the online quizzes…

Dobson, John L.

2008-01-01

206

Proposals for Standardizing and Improving the Policy of Adding Points on the Entrance Exam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews policies for adding points on the College Entrance Examination. It analyzes the rationales and specific implementation strategies of various policies for adding points on the entrance exam, as well as their advantages and pitfalls. Based on these observations and analysis, the author also offers policy recommendations on the…

Yuhong, Deng

2013-01-01

207

"It's Different Now:" How Exit Exams Are Affecting Teaching and Learning in Jackson and Austin  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since much of the previous research on exit exams, including CEP's own work, has looked at national patterns of implementation and passing rates, this study aimed to benefit policy and practice by focusing on the local level. Specifically, case studies were conducted in Jackson, MS and Austin, TX that examined how classroom instruction and other…

Zabala, Dalia; Minnici, Angela; Kober, Nancy, Ed.

2007-01-01

208

American Diploma Project (ADP) End-of-Course Exams: 2010 Annual Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To assess the raised expectations of college and career readiness for all students, a group of American Diploma Project (ADP) Network states formed the ADP Assessment Consortium in 2005. The Consortium created Algebra I and II end-of-course exams, based in large part on Achieve's ADP mathematics benchmarks, which would provide an honest assessment…

Achieve, Inc., 2010

2010-01-01

209

Creation of a diagnostic exam for introductory, undergraduate electricity and magnetism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To fill the need for a tool testing introductory, undergraduates' knowledge of basic concepts in electricity and magnetism (EM), the investigator has developed a sixty-six item, multiple-choice diagnostic exam (DEEM). This thesis chronicles the iterative development of the DEEM. The exam is intended to provide physics instructors with a psychometrically sound instrument that serves three general purposes: (1) gauge students' pre-instructional knowledge (baseline assessment), assess students' post- instructional achievement, and provide scores to determine students' conceptual learning gains; (2) yield results that are maximally diagnostic to instructors by highlighting students' most common misconceptions and reveling patterns of responses which are easily interpreted by physics instructors; and (3) provide the physics education research community with a tool to measure the relative effectiveness of various curricula. The exam covers the following basic concepts of EM: forces on charged particles in electric or magnetic fields; properties of electric fields and magnetic fields; properties of electrostatic potential and potential energy; Maxwell's Equations; and induction, with Lenz's Law. Items comprising the DEEM do not require calculus, explicit calculations, or memorization of fundamental constants; are pictorially based; and generally explore high-symmetry scenarios. The most recent field-tested version of the DEEM (Version 3.0) yielded a coefficient alpha of 0.74 (post-test), a significant gain in score from pre-test to post-test, and no significant gender bias. The investigator established the exam's validity by surveying experienced instructors and widely used introductory physics textbooks during development of the DEEM. In addition, over 150 physics educators from around the world reviewed versions of this exam and offered comments and criticism on its content, emphasis, and layout.

Marx, Jeffrey David

210

Payment of Advanced Placement Exam Fees by Virginia Public School Divisions and Its Impact on Advanced Placement Enrollment and Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of Virginia school divisions' policy of paying the fee for students to take Advanced Placement exams on Advanced Placement course enrollment, the number of Advanced Placement exams taken by students, the average scores earned and the percent of students earning qualifying scores of 3, 4, or 5…

Cirillo, Mary Grupe

2010-01-01

211

46 CFR 71.50-3 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, underwater survey, and alternate hull exam...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...examination, internal structural examination, underwater survey, and alternate hull exam intervals...examination, internal structural examination, underwater survey, and alternate hull exam intervals...unless it has been approved to undergo an underwater survey per § 71.50-5 of this...

2013-10-01

212

An enterprise system component based on graph colouring for exam timetabling : A case study in a Tunisian university  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to consider the exam timetabling of the re-sit session in the Faculty of Economics and Management Sciences of Sfax. The objective is to find a timetable which minimizes the number of timeslots for exams required by the enrolled students. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Two heuristic procedures based on graph colouring are developed and tested on real data

Abdelaziz Dammak; Abdelkarim Elloumi; Hichem Kamoun

2007-01-01

213

So Many Choices, So Little Time: Strategies for Understanding and Taking Multiple-Choice Exams in History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning as much as possible about what to expect and how best to select among response choices enables students to improve their scores so as to reflect more fully their knowledge and abilities, whether taking the SAT, ACT, AP history exams, multiple-choice exams in college courses, the GRE, or any other standardized examinations that include…

Blackey, Robert

2009-01-01

214

Cheat Sheet or Open-Book? A Comparison of the Effects of Exam Types on Performance, Retention, and Anxiety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The differences between open-book, cheat sheet, and closed-book exams were examined in two different types of psychology courses. A total of 297 students enrolled in eight sections of Introductory Psychology and 99 students enrolled in four sections of Statistics participated in this study. Exam types were counterbalanced across sections of the…

Gharib, Afshin; Phillips, William; Mathew, Noelle

2012-01-01

215

Deranged Exams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses a triangle of numbers that are related to the derangement numbers. These numbers satisfy a Pascal-like recurrence relation with subtraction instead of addition. We describe how they relate to numbers studied by other authors and use them to generalize Euler's famous recurrence relation for the derangement numbers.

Spivey, Michael Z.

2010-01-01

216

Chaperone use by residents during pelvic, breast, testicular, and rectal exams  

Microsoft Academic Search

We designed a questionnaire survey to study internal medicine residents’ plans to use a chaperone during the pelvic, breast,\\u000a rectal, and testicular examinations. We found chaperone use by male and female residents differed markedly, and neither group\\u000a planned to use chaperones universally. When examining female patients, male residents overall were very likely to use a chaperone\\u000a during a pelvic exam,

Deborah B. Ehrenthal; Neil J. Farber; Virginia U. Collier; Brian M. Aboff

2000-01-01

217

Creation of a Diagnostic Exam for Introductory, Undergraduate Electricity and Magnetism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To fill the need for a tool testing introductory, undergraduatesâ knowledge of basic concepts in electricity and magnetism (EM), the investigator has developed a sixty-six item, multiple-choice diagnostic exam (DEEM). The exam is intended to provide physics instructors with a psychometrically sound instrument that serves three general purposes: (1) gauge students' pre-instructional knowledge (baseline assessment), assess students' post-instructional achievement, and provide scores to determine studentsâ conceptual learning gains; (2) yield results that are maximally diagnostic to instructors by highlighting students' most common misconceptions and reveling patterns of responses which are easily interpreted by physics instructors; and (3) provide the physics education research community with a tool to measure the relative effectiveness of various curricula. The exam covers the following basic concepts of EM: forces on charged particles in electric or magnetic fields; properties of electric fields and magnetic fields; properties of electrostatic potential and potential energy; Maxwellâs Equations; and induction, with Lenzâs Law. Items comprising the DEEM do not require calculus, explicit calculations, or memorization of fundamental constants; are pictorially based; and generally explore high-symmetry scenarios.

Marx, Jeffrey

2006-06-15

218

Assessing high-level scientific reasoning in a physics exam: Pipe-dream or reality?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What do we want students to be able to do when they have finished their introductory physics course? In addition to learning the physics content, we want students to learn to think like physicists. We want students to develop specific scientific reasoning abilities that are the hall-mark of scientific thinking. These include, analyzing and interpreting experimental data, designing an experiment to test different hypotheses, identifying assumptions in a physical model amongst many others. Physics courses such as the Investigative Science Learning Environment (ISLE) have been developed to focus specifically on developing students' scientific reasoning abilities. Research has shown that ISLE is successful in achieving its goal. We would like our assessments to directly reflect our learning goals for our students. In order to measure higher-level scientific reasoning, we can, for example, require students to participate in a laboratory practical exam in which they have to engage in experimental design and analysis. However, this assessment method could become very difficult to administer and grade in a large-enrollment class. Is it possible to assess scientific thinking abilities of students using traditional formats such as paper and pencil exams? In this talk I will present some of our latest ideas about how to re-design traditional exam questions to measure a range of scientific reasoning abilities.

Brookes, David

2012-02-01

219

Do racial and ethnic group differences in performance on the MCAT exam reflect test bias?  

PubMed

The Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) is a standardized examination that assesses fundamental knowledge of scientific concepts, critical reasoning ability, and written communication skills. Medical school admission officers use MCAT scores, along with other measures of academic preparation and personal attributes, to select the applicants they consider the most likely to succeed in medical school. In 2008-2011, the committee charged with conducting a comprehensive review of the MCAT exam examined four issues: (1) whether racial and ethnic groups differ in mean MCAT scores, (2) whether any score differences are due to test bias, (3) how group differences may be explained, and (4) whether the MCAT exam is a barrier to medical school admission for black or Latino applicants. This analysis showed that black and Latino examinees' mean MCAT scores are lower than white examinees', mirroring differences on other standardized admission tests and in the average undergraduate grades of medical school applicants. However, there was no evidence that the MCAT exam is biased against black and Latino applicants as determined by their subsequent performance on selected medical school performance indicators. Among other factors which could contribute to mean differences in MCAT performance, whites, blacks, and Latinos interested in medicine differ with respect to parents' education and income. Admission data indicate that admission committees accept majority and minority applicants at similar rates, which suggests that medical students are selected on the basis of a combination of attributes and competencies rather than on MCAT scores alone. PMID:23478636

Davis, Dwight; Dorsey, J Kevin; Franks, Ronald D; Sackett, Paul R; Searcy, Cynthia A; Zhao, Xiaohui

2013-05-01

220

Advanced Placement[R] Exam-Taking and Performance: Relationships with First-Year Subject Area College Grades. Research Report 2011-4  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Advanced Placement[R] (AP[R]) exam participation and performance on college grades for courses taken in the same subject area as students' AP Exam(s). Students' first-year college subject area grade point averages (SGPAs) were examined in nine subject areas: mathematics, computer science,…

Patterson, Brian F.; Packman, Sheryl; Kobrin, Jennifer L.

2011-01-01

221

Re-engineering of multiple-choice exam-form production tools: Cost-effective and quality-assurance approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: This study aims at designing and implementing an exam-form generation software tool (named ExPro) for multiple-choice-based (MCB) exams. The study is motivated by the fact that student number in Jordanian universities is continuously growing at high rate. This growth is not accompanied by an equivalent growth of educational resources (instructors, labs, ...etc). A result of this situation is having

Sulieman Bani-Ahmad; Ahmad Audeh

2010-01-01

222

Social class and access to higher education in Greece: supportive preparation lessons and success in national exams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Participation in the national exams is a very difficult task for Greek lyceum students as their access to higher education is highly dependent on their performance in them. This paper focuses on the students' preparation for the national exams and especially their resort to out?of?school supportive lessons in relation to their socio?economic background. The study examines whether the widening of

2008-01-01

223

The DosS-DosT/DosR Mycobacterial Sensor System  

PubMed Central

DosS/DosR is a two-component regulatory system in which DosS, a heme-containing sensor also known as DevS, under certain conditions undergoes autophosphorylation and then transfers the phosphate to DosR, a DNA-binding protein that controls the entry of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other mycobacteria into a latent, dormant state. DosT, a second sensor closely related to DosS, is present in M. tuberculosis and participates in the control of the dormancy response mediated by DosR. The binding of phosphorylated DosR to DNA initiates the expression of approximately fifty dormancy-linked genes. DosT is accepted to be a gas sensor that is activated in the ferrous state by the absence of an oxygen ligand or by the binding of NO or CO. DosS functions in a similar fashion as a gas sensor, but contradictory evidence has led to the suggestion that it also functions as a redox state sensor. This review focuses on the structure, biophysical properties, and function of the DosS/DosT heme sensors.

Sivaramakrishnan, Santhosh; de Montellano, Paul R. Ortiz

2014-01-01

224

Evaluation and management of outlet obstruction in women without anatomical abnormalities on physical exam or cystoscopy.  

PubMed

Bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) in women can be either anatomic or functional. Anatomic causes for BOO are often readily apparent by history and physical exam. On the other hand, causes for functional obstruction, including dysfunctional voiding, primary bladder neck obstruction, and detrusor-external sphincter dyssynergia, are more difficult to establish. Because the appropriate treatment for functional obstruction drastically varies according to etiology, making an accurate diagnosis is paramount. Videourodynamics, interpreted in the context of individual clinical symptoms, remains the diagnostic gold standard in women with functional obstruction. PMID:22872500

Hickling, Duane; Aponte, Margarita; Nitti, Victor

2012-10-01

225

A novel approach to teaching the pelvic organ prolapse quantification (POP-Q) exam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction and hypothesis  The purpose of this study is to develop an inexpensive, feasible, and useful 3-D model for teaching and performing the pelvic\\u000a organ prolapse quantification (POP-Q) exam.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We constructed POP-Q models using socks and cardboard tubing. During lectures at two residency programs, residents completed\\u000a a self-assessment before and after using the model. We dichotomized learners into “beginner learners” (PGY-1-2s)

Brent A. Parnell; Gena C. Dunivan; Elizabeth J. Geller; AnnaMarie Connolly

2011-01-01

226

The Effect of Seat Location on Exam Grades and Student Perceptions in an Introductory Biology Class  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The effect of seat location on learning has received surprisingly little attention in education literature (Weinstein 1979). Classroom experience and education literature suggest that students who sit in the front of a lecture hall are more likely to get As than students in the back (Benedict and Hoag 2004; Holliman and Anderson 1986; Pedersen 1994). The explanation may seem obvious--front-row students get better grades because they are better students. An experiment shows that sitting in the back of a lecture hall rather than the front does not have a detrimental effect on student performance on exams.

Taper, Mark L.; Kalinowki, Steven

2007-01-01

227

DICOM structured report to track patient's radiation dose to organs from abdominal CT exam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dramatic increase of diagnostic imaging capabilities over the past decade has contributed to increased radiation exposure to patient populations. Several factors have contributed to the increase in imaging procedures: wider availability of imaging modalities, increase in technical capabilities, rise in demand by patients and clinicians, favorable reimbursement, and lack of guidelines to control utilization. The primary focus of this research is to provide in depth information about radiation doses that patients receive as a result of CT exams, with the initial investigation involving abdominal CT exams. Current dose measurement methods (i.e. CTDIvol Computed Tomography Dose Index) do not provide direct information about a patient's organ dose. We have developed a method to determine CTDIvol normalized organ doses using a set of organ specific exponential regression equations. These exponential equations along with measured CTDIvol are used to calculate organ dose estimates from abdominal CT scans for eight different patient models. For each patient, organ dose and CTDIvol were estimated for an abdominal CT scan. We then modified the DICOM Radiation Dose Structured Report (RDSR) to store the pertinent patient information on radiation dose to their abdominal organs.

Morioka, Craig; Turner, Adam; McNitt-Gray, Michael; Zankl, Maria; Meng, Frank; El-Saden, Suzie

2011-03-01

228

Blooms' separation of the final exam of Engineering Mathematics II: Item reliability using Rasch measurement model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In engineering studies and researches, Mathematics is one of the main elements which express physical, chemical and engineering laws. Therefore, it is essential for engineering students to have a strong knowledge in the fundamental of mathematics in order to apply the knowledge to real life issues. However, based on the previous results of Mathematics Pre-Test, it shows that the engineering students lack the fundamental knowledge in certain topics in mathematics. Due to this, apart from making improvements in the methods of teaching and learning, studies on the construction of questions (items) should also be emphasized. The purpose of this study is to assist lecturers in the process of item development and to monitor the separation of items based on Blooms' Taxonomy and to measure the reliability of the items itself usingRasch Measurement Model as a tool. By using Rasch Measurement Model, the final exam questions of Engineering Mathematics II (Linear Algebra) for semester 2 sessions 2012/2013 were analysed and the results will provide the details onthe extent to which the content of the item providesuseful information about students' ability. This study reveals that the items used in Engineering Mathematics II (Linear Algebra) final exam are well constructed but the separation of the items raises concern as it is argued that it needs further attention, as there is abig gap between items at several levels of Blooms' cognitive skill.

Fuaad, Norain Farhana Ahmad; Nopiah, Zulkifli Mohd; Tawil, Norgainy Mohd; Othman, Haliza; Asshaari, Izamarlina; Osman, Mohd Hanif; Ismail, Nur Arzilah

2014-06-01

229

Improving the National Board of Medical Examiners Internal Medicine Subject Exam for Use in Clerkship Evaluation  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To provide a consensus opinion on modifying the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) Medicine Subject Exam (Shelf) to: 1) reflect the internal medicine clerkship curriculum, developed by the Society of General Internal Medicine (SGIM) and the Clerkship Directors in Internal Medicine (CDIM); 2) emphasize knowledge important for a clerkship student; and 3) obtain feedback about students' performances on the Shelf. DESIGN Two-round Delphi technique. PARTICIPANTS The CDIM Research and Evaluation Committee and CDIM members on NBME Step 2 Committees. MEASUREMENTS Using 1–5 Likert scales (5 = highest ratings), the group rated test question content for relevance to the SGIM–CDIM Curriculum Guide and importance for clerkship students' knowledge. The Shelf content is organized into 4 physician tasks and into 11 sections that are generally organ system based. Each iteration of the Shelf has 100 questions. Participants indicated a desired distribution of questions by physician task and section, topics critical for inclusion on each exam, and new topics to include. They specified the types of feedback clerkship directors desired on students' performances. Following the first round, participants viewed pooled results prior to submitting their second-round responses. RESULTS Of 15 individuals contacted, 12 (80%) participated in each round. The desired distribution by physician task was: diagnosis (43), treatment (23), mechanism of disease (20), and health maintenance (15). The sections with the most questions requested were the cardiovascular (17), respiratory (15), and gastroenterology (12) sections. The fewest were requested in aging/ethics (4) and neurology, dermatology, and immunology (5 each). Examples of low-rated content were Wilson's Disease, chancroid and tracheal rupture (all <2.0). Health maintenance in type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease all received 5.0 ratings. Participants desired feedback by: section (4.6) and physician task (3.9), on performances of the entire class (4.0), and for individual students (3.8). CONCLUSION Clerkship directors identified test content that was relevant to the curricular content and important for clerkship students to know, and they indicated a desired question distribution. They would most like feedback on their students' performance by organ system–based sections for the complete academic year. This collaborative effort could serve as a model for aligning national exams with course goals.

Elnicki, D Michael; Lescisin, Dianne A; Case, Susan

2002-01-01

230

Evaluation of undergraduate geologists' problem solving and cognition during field exams using a mixed methods approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding how geologists conduct fieldwork through analysis of problem solving has significant potential impact on field instruction methods. Recent progress has been made in this area but the problem solving behaviors displayed by geologists during fieldwork and the associated underlying cognition remains poorly understood. We present research showing how geology students initiate and develop geologic models as part of the problem solving process. We qualitatively analyzed field notes and interview data from 36 undergraduate geoscientists engaged in field exams while enrolled in a six-week advanced field camp. Eight cognitive frameworks grouped in two broad categories emerged from the data that show how students develop geologic models. Students employ both single and multiple model approaches with varying degrees of success and frequency. The success of any given approach is dependent on the level of students' geologic situational awareness. The development of multiple geologic models leads to a higher rate of success in general, because of the inherent flexibility to accommodate newly collected data. Instructors should continue to teach a multiple model approach until students have the proper geologic skills to ensure a high level of situational awareness and exhibit expert characteristics in the field. In addition, we collected GPS navigation data from students during these field exams in order to understand the relationship between navigation, cognition, and performance. From the analysis of this data we found that over half of all stops are 1-4 minutes long, while very few of students' stops are longer than 9 minutes as the frequency of stops decreases as the duration increases. Regardless of performance or framework, there is an increase in shorter stops and decrease in longer stops from exam one to three, indicating that students changed the way they investigated as the field course progressed. Temporal signatures categorized by performance only show slight differences, but do indicate that there is an increase in very short and longer stops with declining performance. In contrast, higher performance is linked to an increase in short and medium length stops, suggesting that stops 4-14 minutes long are a "sweet spot" for investigation. We speculate that a high percentage of very short stops involve basic field tasks such as locating or data collection and that the decreasing frequency of long stops indicates that there is a relationship between the length of the stop and the complexity of the activities performed during that stop. Students increased experience leads to more efficient stops as they become more competent with field tasks and more versed in the regional geology. The GPS data we collected from these students while they took these notes allowing us to connect the duration of a stop to the types of notes produced during that stop. Note taking species occurred in various frequencies with the most common type being those that focused on lithologic, or lithologic & structural data collection. Stops that produced geologic models, specifically structural models, were much less frequent. The more frequent data collection stops are very short in length (typically 1-4 minutes), while the more complex stops tend to be longer in duration as the note taking gets more complex. Poor performing students had a high proportion of stops where they only collect lithologic data or stops where they don't generate any hypotheses. In contrast, successful students have more structural data and hypothesis generation in their notes. From this analysis we conclude that too much effort spent on stops with only basic data collection leaves less time for the cognitive effort required for model development, eventually leading to poor exam performance. Specifically, a higher frequency of lithologic data stops and lack of structural data leads to the development of incomplete geologic models or lack of comprehensive models altogether. Field instructors often educate their students on good note taking practices and cr

Balliet, Russell N.

231

Transition from partial to full PACS at a 450,000 exams/year hospital  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this paper is to describe the transition of a 1,100 beds tertiary hospital from 50 percent softcopy operation to full PACS operation. For the past 2 years, radiologists and clinicians have been using PACS to provide softcopy services to the outpatient clinics and inpatient wards of orthopedics surgery, neurosurgery and neurology as well as emergency room, surgical intensive care unit, medical intensive unit, pediatrics intensive care unit and neonatal intensive care unit. The examinations requested by these departments account for about 50 percent of hospital's radiological exams. In September 1996, we began the second phase of PACS implementation and installed additional workstations in the remaining wards and clinics, interfaced to PACS additional imaging modalities, and increased the capacity of both the image server and optical juke boxes. As of January 1997, we are in the final phase of moving away from conventional film system to full PACS operation.

Ro, Duk-Woo; Byun, Hong Sik; Choo, In W.; Kim, Bo K.; Lim, Jae H.

1997-05-01

232

The TRIPSE: a process-oriented exam for large undergraduate classes.  

PubMed

The TRIPSE (tri-partite problem solving exercise), a process-oriented exam that mimics the scientific process, was used previously in small classes (15-25). Provided limited data, students frame explanations and design experimental tests that they later revise with additional information. Our 6-year experience using it with larger numbers (155-204) in a freshman biology course, suggests that it could provide a means of assessing individual student performance. Students rated the learning value of this experience to be significantly higher than a standard MCQ on a 10-point scale (TRIPSEs 8.2, CI 8.1/8.4 vs. MCQs 4.9, CI 4.8/5.1, n = 712). Additionally, we tested one cohort (n = 146) with a group TRIPSE (groups of 6), and found that this variant also provided a valuable learning experience (8.0, CI 7.7/8.3). PMID:23649941

Nastos, Stash; Rangachari, P K

2013-01-01

233

Perceptions and practices of U.S. dental schools regarding curriculum integrated format and traditional format licensure exams.  

PubMed

The dental licensure exam in the United States has evolved over the past ten years, and two formats-the traditional format and curriculum integrated format-are now available for students to satisfy licensure requirements. The objective of this study was to examine the differences and relative merits of the two formats. A twenty-five-question survey was distributed to the fifty-seven U.S. dental schools at the time. The survey included both quantitative and discrete variables and followed a strategic sequential order. The first set of questions sought to determine what type of board preparatory/mock exam each dental school offered, and the next set of questions asked which licensure exam each school formally offered. The final questions were qualitative in nature and aimed to determine the school representatives' opinions about the curriculum integrated format versus traditional format. Of the fifty-seven schools contacted, thirty-seven agreed to participate (response rate=64.9 percent). Fourteen schools reported that they administer the traditional format only and twelve administer the curriculum integrated format only, while eleven offer both. Thirty-two schools offered mock board exams to their graduating students, and twenty-four of those said their mock exams were identical in format to the actual qualifying clinical exams offered at their institution. The respondents reported no significant advantage to preparing for the curriculum integrated format examination as compared to the traditional format examination with regards to number of clock hours taken from regular curriculum time. In reporting on this study, this article provides an overview of the relative advantages and disadvantages of the two examination formats used for the dental licensure process in the United States. PMID:23929575

Desai, Shamik; Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Donoff, R Bruce; Howell, T Howard; Karimbux, Nadeem Y

2013-08-01

234

How emotions affect logical reasoning: evidence from experiments with mood-manipulated participants, spider phobics, and people with exam anxiety  

PubMed Central

Recent experimental studies show that emotions can have a significant effect on the way we think, decide, and solve problems. This paper presents a series of four experiments on how emotions affect logical reasoning. In two experiments different groups of participants first had to pass a manipulated intelligence test. Their emotional state was altered by giving them feedback, that they performed excellent, poor or on average. Then they completed a set of logical inference problems (with if p, then q statements) either in a Wason selection task paradigm or problems from the logical propositional calculus. Problem content also had either a positive, negative or neutral emotional value. Results showed a clear effect of emotions on reasoning performance. Participants in negative mood performed worse than participants in positive mood, but both groups were outperformed by the neutral mood reasoners. Problem content also had an effect on reasoning performance. In a second set of experiments, participants with exam or spider phobia solved logical problems with contents that were related to their anxiety disorder (spiders or exams). Spider phobic participants' performance was lowered by the spider-content, while exam anxious participants were not affected by the exam-related problem content. Overall, unlike some previous studies, no evidence was found that performance is improved when emotion and content are congruent. These results have consequences for cognitive reasoning research and also for cognitively oriented psychotherapy and the treatment of disorders like depression and anxiety.

Jung, Nadine; Wranke, Christina; Hamburger, Kai; Knauff, Markus

2014-01-01

235

Determinants of Success on the ETS Business Major Field Exam for Students in an Undergraduate Multisite Regional University Business Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Extending previous studies, the authors examined a larger set of variables to identify predictors of student performance on the Educational Testing Service Major Field Exam in Business, which has been shown to be an externally valid measure of student learning outcomes. Significant predictors include gender, whether students took the SAT, and…

Bagamery, Bruce D.; Lasik, John J.; Nixon, Don R.

2005-01-01

236

Effect of Computer Tutorial Review Lessons on Exam Performance In Introductory College Physics. Tech Memo Number 64.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computer tutorial review lessons for a one-quarter lecture course in introductory college physics have been developed and used by approximately 500 students, on a voluntary basis, over a period of several years. The investigation reported here shows that the exam grades of students who used the computer materials are significantly higher (.01…

Kromhout, Ora M.

237

Both multiple-choice and short-answer quizzes enhance later exam performance in middle and high school classes.  

PubMed

Practicing retrieval of recently studied information enhances the likelihood of the learner retrieving that information in the future. We examined whether short-answer and multiple-choice classroom quizzing could enhance retention of information on classroom exams taken for a grade. In seventh-grade science and high school history classes, students took intermittent quizzes (short-answer or multiple-choice, both with correct-answer feedback) on some information, whereas other information was not initially quizzed but received equivalent coverage in all other classroom activities. On the unit exams and on an end-of-semester exam, students performed better for information that had been quizzed than that not quizzed. An unanticipated and key finding is that the format of the quiz (multiple-choice or short-answer) did not need to match the format of the criterial test (e.g., unit exam) for this benefit to emerge. Further, intermittent quizzing cannot be attributed to intermittent reexposure to the target facts: A restudy condition produced less enhancement of later test performance than did quizzing with feedback. Frequent classroom quizzing with feedback improves student learning and retention, and multiple-choice quizzing is as effective as short-answer quizzing for this purpose. PMID:24274234

McDermott, Kathleen B; Agarwal, Pooja K; D'Antonio, Laura; Roediger, Henry L; McDaniel, Mark A

2014-03-01

238

The Potential Use of the Discouraging Random Guessing (DRG) Approach in Multiple-Choice Exams in Medical Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Test performances of sophomore medical students on a pretest and final exam (under guessing and no-guessing instructions) were compared. Discouraging random guessing produced test information with improved test reliability and less distortion of item difficulty. More able examinees were less compliant than less able examinees. (Author/RH)

Friedman, Miriam; And Others

1987-01-01

239

Exam Preparation: The Influence of Action Control, Procrastination and Examination Experience on Students' Goal Intention and Implementation Intention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: In the framework of the intention-behavior-gap analysis in relation to exam preparation I examined whether intention--subdivided into goal and implementation intention--is influenced directly by the determinants action control, procrastination and examination experience which is consistent with the Theory of Planned Behavior and…

Sommer, Lutz

2013-01-01

240

Some of the Reasons Why Preparing for Exams Is So Hard: What Can Be Done to Make It Easier?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why it is so difficult to prepare for academic exams is reviewed with respect to recent research. Textbooks, teaching, and information processing characteristics of students all contribute to undermining effective learning and review. Recommendations are made about how instructors can make it easier for students to review and appraise their test readiness, as well as about how students can make

Michael Pressley; Linda Yokoi; Peggy van Meter; Shawn Van Etten; Geoffrey Freebern

1997-01-01

241

Improving College Performance and Retention the Easy Way: Unpacking the ACT Exam. NBER Working Paper No. 17119  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Colleges rely on the ACT exam in their admission decisions to increase their ability to differentiate between students likely to succeed and those that have a high risk of under-performing and dropping out. We show that two of the four sub tests of the ACT, English and Mathematics, are highly predictive of positive college outcomes while the other…

Bettinger, Eric P.; Evans, Brent J.; Pope, Devin G.

2011-01-01

242

Correlation among High School Senior Students' Test Anxiety, Academic Performance and Points of University Entrance Exam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Test anxiety seems like a benign problem to some people, but it can be potentially serious when it leads to high levels of distress and academic failure. The aim of this study is to define the correlation among high school senior students' test anxiety, academic performance (GPA) and points of university entrance exam (UEE). The study group…

Karatas, Hakan; Alci, Bulent; Aydin, Hasan

2013-01-01

243

Fathers' Characteristics and Their Children's Scores on College Entrance Exams: A Comparison of Intact and Divorced Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the impact of noncustodial fathers' postdivorce behavior on children's performance. For intact families, fathers' ethnicity and income were related to college entrance exam (CEE) scores; for students with divorced parents, however, these and other father variables are not statistically related to CEE performance. Offers a "social capital"…

Furr, L. Allen

1998-01-01

244

A Framework for Process Reengineering in Higher Education: A Case Study of Distance Learning Exam Scheduling and Distribution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we propose a conceptual and operational framework for process reengineering (PR) in higher education (HE) institutions. Using a case study aimed at streamlining exam scheduling and distribution in a distance learning (DL) unit, we outline a sequential and non-linear four-step framework designed to reengineer processes. The first two…

Abdous, M'hammed; He, Wu

2008-01-01

245

An integrator final exam at the end of the engineering degrees to evaluate the acquired competences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last decade strong changes in the design of university degrees have occurred in Spain, affecting real competences acquired by graduates. The new degrees often provide students greater freedom in shaping their curriculum which results in many cases in a problem for their training. In engineering degrees of Spain, the final project, that allows to know the integrated skills of the students in engineering subjects, is not compulsory anymore; it can be substituted for other specific types of work that often do not involve skills valued by the companies of the industrial sector. This situation may create doubts about the real competences of the graduates. In the present study, a final exam (voluntary) has been carried out during three years to assess competences in engineering students in the last course of the degree in agricultural engineering (diploma of five years) and agricultural technical engineering (diploma of three years) at the Polytechnic University of Madrid (Spain). They took part 132 students in the years 2006, 2007 and 2008. The exam had a common format, with three parts assessing skills in construction, machinery and electrical installations. The results showed the evolution in the training of students, and the relationship between skills acquired and late differences in the learning process. The most important conclusions were that the attainment levels was lower than expected, but generally consistent with the training received by each group of students. In particular, the low number of hours of subjects in electrical installations in certain groups of students was evident when evaluating the skills acquired. The results indicated that they aim to increase the number of hours in certain subjects and groups of students, if a graduate is to get qualified. The authors recommend an examination similar to the raised, integrator type, in all programs that do not have any overall final assessment in order to conduct a quality control of graduates; this approach has the advantage that graduates may also obtain an additional final certificate with their level of competences towards their future professional work.

Perdigones, A.; Sánchez, E.; Valiño, V.; Tarquis, A. M.

2010-05-01

246

Tracking delays in report availability caused by incorrect exam status with Web-based issue tracking: a quality initiative.  

PubMed

Many radiology information systems (RIS) cannot accept a final report from a dictation reporting system before the exam has been completed in the RIS by a technologist. A radiologist can still render a report in a reporting system once images are available, but the RIS and ancillary systems may not get the results because of the study's uncompleted status. This delay in completing the study caused an alarming number of delayed reports and was undetected by conventional RIS reporting techniques. We developed a Web-based reporting tool to monitor uncompleted exams and automatically page section supervisors when a report was being delayed by its incomplete status in the RIS. Institutional Review Board exemption was obtained. At four imaging centers, a Python script was developed to poll the dictation system every 10 min for exams in five different modalities that were signed by the radiologist but could not be sent to the RIS. This script logged the exams into an existing Web-based tracking tool using PHP and a MySQL database. The script also text-paged the modality supervisor. The script logged the time at which the report was finally sent, and statistics were aggregated onto a separate Web-based reporting tool. Over a 1-year period, the average number of uncompleted exams per month and time to problem resolution decreased at every imaging center and in almost every imaging modality. Automated feedback provides a vital link in improving technologist performance and patient care without assigning a human resource to manage report queues. PMID:20798973

Awan, Omer Abdulrehman; van Wagenberg, Frans; Daly, Mark; Safdar, Nabile; Nagy, Paul

2011-04-01

247

Dual Credit and Exam-Based Courses in U.S. Public High Schools: 2010-11. First Look. NCES 2013-001  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides nationally representative data on the prevalence and characteristics of dual credit and exam-based courses in public high schools. For this survey, dual credit is defined as a course or program where high school students can earn both high school and postsecondary credits for the same courses; exam-based courses are Advanced…

Thomas, Nina; Marken, Stephanie; Gray, Lucinda; Lewis, Laurie

2013-01-01

248

Protocol for 18F-FDG quantification in pet-CT whole-body exams.  

PubMed

The aim of the present work is to propose a protocol for quantification of (18)F-FDG activities at organ level through whole body exams with Positron Emission Tomography. They were selected patients with normal uptake or a single tumor. In the period 2004-2005, 745 patients were studied. Among then, it was selected 97 adults for the normal uptake control group. The main studies were: intestine; colon, rectum, lung, lymphoma and melanoma, liver, esophagus, gonads and breasts. For "prospective screening", it were selected 20 patients with the identical physical characteristics of the control group. For internal dosimetry, the main organs should be elected according the kinetics of (18)F-FDG, either considering normal uptake or pathologies. Absorbed doses due to Computed Tomography and F-FDG uptake were estimated. Comparisons between internal and external exposures, for the same organ, point out higher doses due to external irradiation, except for bladder and kidneys. For individual dose estimation, parameters such the effective half-life should be known and this information may be achieved by an adaptation of the routine protocol. PMID:20525459

Velasques De Oliveira, S M; Carlos, M T; Carneiro, M P; Da Silva, J W E; Kasai, E P; Oliveira, A R N; Boasquevisque, E M

2010-01-01

249

Comparing Pairwise and Simultaneous Joint Registrations of Decorrelating Interval Exams using Entropic Graphs  

PubMed Central

The interest in registering a set of images has quickly risen in the field of medical image analysis. Mutual information (MI) based methods are well-established for pairwise registration but their extension to higher dimensions (multiple images) has encountered practical implementation difficulties. We extend the use of alpha mutual information (?MI) as the similarity measure to simultaneously register multiple images. ?MI of a set of images can be directly estimated using entropic graphs spanning feature vectors extracted from the images, which is demonstrated to be practically feasible for joint registration. In this paper we are specifically interested in monitoring malignant tumor changes using simultaneous registration of multiple interval MR or CT scans. Tumor scans are typically a decorrelating sequence due to the cycles of heterogeneous cell death and growth. The accuracy of joint and pairwise registration using entropic graph methods is evaluated by registering several sets of interval exams. We show that for the parameters we investigated simultaneous joint registration method yields lower average registration errors compared to pairwise. Different degrees of decorrelation in the serial scans are studied and registration performance suggests that an appropriate scanning interval can be determined for efficiently monitoring lesion changes. Different levels of observation noise are added to the image sequences and the experimental results show that entropic graph based methods are robust and can be used reliably for multiple image registration.

Ma, B.; Narayanan, R.; Park, H.; Hero, A. O.; Bland, P. H.; Meyer, C. R.

2009-01-01

250

Estimating radiation dose to organs of patients undergoing conventional and novel multidetector CT exams using Monte Carlo simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in Computed Tomography (CT) technology have led to an increase in the modality's diagnostic capabilities and therefore its utilization, which has in turn led to an increase in radiation exposure to the patient population. As a result, CT imaging currently constitutes approximately half of the collective exposure to ionizing radiation from medical procedures. In order to understand the radiation risk, it is necessary to estimate the radiation doses absorbed by patients undergoing CT imaging. The most widely accepted risk models are based on radiosensitive organ dose as opposed to whole body dose. In this research, radiosensitive organ dose was estimated using Monte Carlo based simulations incorporating detailed multidetector CT (MDCT) scanner models, specific scan protocols, and using patient models based on accurate patient anatomy and representing a range of patient sizes. Organ dose estimates were estimated for clinical MDCT exam protocols which pose a specific concern for radiosensitive organs or regions. These dose estimates include estimation of fetal dose for pregnant patients undergoing abdomen pelvis CT exams or undergoing exams to diagnose pulmonary embolism and venous thromboembolism. Breast and lung dose were estimated for patients undergoing coronary CTA imaging, conventional fixed tube current chest CT, and conventional tube current modulated (TCM) chest CT exams. The correlation of organ dose with patient size was quantified for pregnant patients undergoing abdomen/pelvis exams and for all breast and lung dose estimates presented. Novel dose reduction techniques were developed that incorporate organ location and are specifically designed to reduce close to radiosensitive organs during CT acquisition. A generalizable model was created for simulating conventional and novel attenuation-based TCM algorithms which can be used in simulations estimating organ dose for any patient model. The generalizable model is a significant contribution of this work as it lays the foundation for the future of simulating TCM using Monte Carlo methods. As a result of this research organ dose can be estimated for individual patients undergoing specific conventional MDCT exams. This research also brings understanding to conventional and novel close reduction techniques in CT and their effect on organ dose.

Angel, Erin

251

The Effect of Enrollment in Middle School Challenge Courses on Advanced Placement Exams in Social Studies and Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Educators seek to guide students through appropriate programs and courses that prepare them for future success, in more advanced coursework and in other challenges of life. Some middle schools offer Challenge, or honors, courses for students who have demonstrated high ability. High schools often offer Advanced Placement (AP) courses, which are taught at the college level. This study examined the correlation between enrollment in middle school Challenge courses and subsequent AP exam category scores in social studies and science in a suburban school district. The independent variables were the number of years of enrollment in middle school social studies or science Challenge courses. The dependent variables were the AP exam category scores in the eight social studies AP courses or the six science AP courses. The sample sizes were limited to the number of students who took an AP social studies or science exam and also attended the middle school of study. The null hypothesis was that there was no relationship between the two variables. This study included eight social studies AP courses and six science AP courses. A significant positive correlation was indicated in only two of the courses, U.S. Government and Comparative Government, supporting the claim that enrollment in middle school Challenge social studies was correlated with success, at least on these two AP exams. In the remaining 12 courses, there was not enough evidence to reject the null hypothesis. Therefore, enrollment in middle school Challenge science and social studies courses generally did not seem to correlate with AP exam category scores. Results of this study call into question the validity of the claim by the district that enrollment in Challenge courses helps prepare students for rigorous coursework in high school. Several factors, including student readiness, teacher training, familiarity with course content, and previous AP experience may contribute more to a student's AP exam category score. Results also suggest that the district may need to revisit the effectiveness of the Challenge curriculum and the policy of limiting enrollment in Challenge courses.

Glaude-Bolte, Katherine

252

Temporal stability of objective structured clinical exams: a longitudinal study employing item response theory  

PubMed Central

Background The objective structure clinical examination (OSCE) has been used since the early 1970s for assessing clinical competence. There are very few studies that have examined the psychometric stability of the stations that are used repeatedly with different samples. The purpose of the present study was to assess the stability of objective structured clinical exams (OSCEs) employing the same stations used over time but with a different sample of candidates, SPs, and examiners. Methods At Time 1, 191 candidates and at Time 2 (one year apart), 236 candidates participated in a 10-station OSCE; 6 of the same stations were used in both years. Generalizability analyses (Ep2) were conducted. Employing item response analyses, test characteristic curves (TCC) were derived for each of the 6 stations for a 2-parameter model. The TCCs were compared across the two years, Time 1 and 2. Results The Ep2 of the OSCEs exceeded.70. Standardized thetas (?) and discriminations were equivalent for the same station across the two year period indicating equivalent TCCs for a 2-parameter model. Conclusion The 6 OSCE stations used by the AIMG program over two years have adequate internal consistency reliability, stable generalizability (Ep2) and equivalent test characteristics. The process of assessment employed for IMG’s are stable OSCE stations that may be used several times over without compromising psychometric properties. With careful security, high-stakes OSCEs may use the same stations that have high internal consistency and generalizability repeatedly as the psychometric properties are stable over several years with different samples of candidates.

2012-01-01

253

Open and hidden agendas of "asymptomatic" patients who request check-up exams  

PubMed Central

Background Current guidelines for a check-up recommend routine screening not triggered by specific symptoms for some known risk factors and diseases in the general population. Patients' perceptions and expectations regarding a check-up exam may differ from these principles. However, quantitative and qualitative data about the discrepancy between patient- and provider expectations for this type of clinic consultation is lacking. Methods For a year, we prospectively enrolled 66 patients who explicitly requested a "check-up" at our medical outpatient division. All patients actively denied upon prompting having any symptoms or specific health concerns at the time they made their appointment. All consultations were videotaped and analysed for information about spontaneously mentioned symptoms and reasons for the clinic consultation ("open agendas") and for cues to hidden patient agendas using the Roter interaction analysis system (RIAS). Results All patients initially declared to be asymptomatic but this was ultimately the case in only 7 out of 66 patients. The remaining 59 patients spontaneously mentioned a mean of 4.2 ± 3.3 symptoms during their first consultation. In 23 patients a total of 31 hidden agendas were revealed. The primary categories for hidden agendas were health concerns, psychosocial concerns and the patient's concept of disease. Conclusions The majority of patients requesting a general check-up tend to be motivated by specific symptoms and health concerns and are not "asymptomatic" patients who primarily come for preventive issues. Furthermore, physicians must be alert for possible hidden agendas, as one in three patients have one or more hidden reasons for requesting a check-up.

2011-01-01

254

FDA moves to permit oral contraceptive prescriptions without initial pelvic exam.  

PubMed

The Planned Parenthood Federation of America (PPFA) submitted recommendations to the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Fertility and Maternal Health Drugs Advisory Committee. The PPFA wanted the FDA to remove requirements for a pelvic examination and blood tests before an oral contraceptive (OC) is prescribed. Two representatives of the Family Planning Council of Southeastern Pennsylvania told the FDA advisory committee about the evaluation results of its Smart Start program. 23% of teenagers wanting to use OCs opted to delay the pelvic examination, and 40% opted to delay the blood tests. 83% of these same teenagers were already sexually active. 69% returned for pelvic exams at 3 months. Increased education and counseling over several sessions probably explained why more study participants used condoms and fewer of them became pregnant during the 6-month study. Physicians from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the American Fertility Society also attended the committee hearing and supported PPFA's recommendations. The National Women's Health Network wanted to delay the discussion until the committee could also address the sale of OCs over-the-counter. The statements convinced the committee to allow physicians to defer to full physical examination as long as there are no contraindications. This May 20, 1993 approval emphasized the need for physicians to continue taking a complete medical history and conducting other tests that may uncover contraindications (e.g. pregnancy and blood pressure). FDA staff now must write the exact language needed for the OC labeling change to be approved by the FDA commissioner. PMID:12286460

1993-05-28

255

Patterns of missing mini mental status exam (MMSE) in radiation therapy oncology group (RTOG) brain cancer trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mini Mental Status Exam (MMSE) instrument has been commonly used in the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) to assess\\u000a mental status in brain cancer patients. Evaluating patient factors in relation to patterns of incomplete MMSE assessments\\u000a can provide insight into predictors of missingness and optimal MMSE collection schedules in brain cancer clinical trials.\\u000a This study examined eight RTOG brain

K. Bae; D. W. Bruner; S. Baek; B. Movsas; B. W. Corn; J. J. Dignam

256

A Discussion of Open-book and Closed-book Exams on Student Achievement in an Introductory Statistics Course  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of open-book tests, closed-book tests, and notecards on tests in an introductory statistics course is described. A review of the literature shows that open-book assessments are universally recognized to reduce anxiety. The literature is mixed however on whether deeper learning or better preparation occurs with open-book exams. This paper reviews the Math 300 Statistics course testing policy which

Robert M. Block

2011-01-01

257

Can Fem Exam card use facilitate bacterial vaginosis diagnosis on day of abortion to prevent postabortion endometritis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: 1) To compare a self-collected vaginal swab FemExam test card result to Nugent Gram stain scoring of the same specimen, and 2) To test the hypothesis that treatment of bacterial vaginosis (BV) begun on the day of an elective abortion will reduce postabortion endometritis in the women treated.Methods: Women seeking first- or second-trimester abortion, testing +\\/+ on the pH

Leslie Miller

2001-01-01

258

The impact of self-hypnosis and Johrei on lymphocyte subpopulations at exam time: a controlled study.  

PubMed

In a prospective randomised controlled trial, 48 students were randomly assigned to stress reduction training before exams with self-hypnosis, Johrei or a mock neurofeedback relaxation control. Peripheral blood lymphocyte subpopulations and self-reported stress (Perceived Stress Scale) were measured before training and 1-2 months later as exams approached. Absolute number and percentages of CD3(+)CD4(+) and CD3(+)CD8(+) T lymphocytes, CD3(-)CD56(+) Natural Killer cells (NK cells) and NK cell cytotoxic activity was measured from venous blood. Stressed participants showed small but significant declines in both CD3(-)CD56(+) NK cell percentages and NK cell cytotoxic activity levels while CD3(+)CD4(+) T cell percentages increased, changes supported by correlations with perceived stress. The effects of stress were moderated in those who learned Johrei at exam time; 11/12 showed increases in CD3(-)CD56(+) NK cell percentages with decreased percentages of CD3(+)CD4(+) T cells, effects not seen in the relaxation control group. Stress was also buffered in those who learned and practised self-hypnosis in whom CD3(-)CD56(+) NK cell and CD3(+)CD4(+) T cell levels were maintained, and whose CD3(+)CD8(+) T cell percentages, shown previously to decline with exams, increased. The results compliment beneficial effects on mood of self-hypnosis and Johrei. The results are in keeping with beneficial influences of self-hypnosis and provide the first evidence of the suggestive value of the Japanese Johrei procedure for stress reduction, which clearly warrants further investigation. PMID:14698357

Naito, Akira; Laidlaw, Tannis M; Henderson, Don C; Farahani, Linda; Dwivedi, Prabudha; Gruzelier, John H

2003-12-30

259

Use of a pretest strategy for physical therapist assistant programs to predict success rate on the national physical therapy exam.  

PubMed

This study investigated a pretest strategy that identified physical therapist assistant (PTA) students who were at risk of failure on the National Physical Therapy Examination (NPTE). Program assessment data from five cohorts of PTA students (2005-2009) were used to develop a stepwise multiple regression formula that predicted first-time NPTE licensure scores. Data used included the Nelson-Denny Reading Test, grades from eight core courses, grade point average upon admission to the program, and scores from three mock NPTE exams given during the program. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated between each of the 15 variables and NPTE scores. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed using data collected at the ends of the first, second, and third (final) semesters of the program. Data from the class of 2010 were then used to validate the formula. The end-of-program formula accounted for the greatest variance (57%) in predicted scores. Those students scoring below a predicted scaled score of 620 were identified to be at risk of failure of the licensure exam. These students were counseled, and a remedial plan was developed based on regression predictions prior to them sitting for the licensure exam. PMID:23752234

Sloas, Stacey B; Keith, Becky; Whitehead, Malcolm T

2013-01-01

260

Different roles of DosS and DosT in the hypoxic adaptation of Mycobacteria.  

PubMed

The DosS (DevS) and DosT histidine kinases form a two-component system together with the DosR (DevR) response regulator in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. DosS and DosT, which have high sequence similarity to each other over the length of their amino acid sequences, contain two GAF domains (GAF-A and GAF-B) in their N-terminal sensory domains. Complementation tests in conjunction with phylogenetic analysis showed that DevS of Mycobacterium smegmatis is more closely related to DosT than DosS. We also demonstrated in vivo that DosS and DosT of M. tuberculosis play a differential role in hypoxic adaptation. DosT responds to a decrease in oxygen tension more sensitively and strongly than DosS, which might be attributable to their different autooxidation rates. The different responsiveness of DosS and DosT to hypoxia is due to the difference in their GAF-A domains accommodating the hemes. Multiple alignment analysis of the GAF-A domains of mycobacterial DosS (DosT) homologs and subsequent site-directed mutagenesis revealed that just one substitution of E87, D90, H97, L118, or T169 of DosS with the corresponding residue of DosT is sufficient to convert DosS to DosT with regard to the responsiveness to changes in oxygen tension. PMID:20675480

Kim, Min-Ju; Park, Kwang-Jin; Ko, In-Jeong; Kim, Young Min; Oh, Jeong-Il

2010-10-01

261

Developing a Geoscience Literacy Exam: Pushing Geoscience Literacy Assessment to New Levels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

InTeGrate is a community effort aimed at improving geoscience literacy and building a workforce that can use geoscience to solve societal issues. As part of this work we have developed a geoscience literacy assessment instrument to measure students' higher order thinking. This assessment is an important part of the development of curricula designed to increase geoscience literacy for all undergraduate students. To this end, we developed the Geoscience Literacy Exam (GLE) as one of the tools to quantify the effectiveness of these materials on students' understandings of geoscience literacy. The InTeGrate project is a 5-year, NSF-funded STEP Center grant in its first year of funding. Details concerning the project are found at http://serc.carleton.edu/integrate/index.html. The GLE instrument addresses content and concepts in the Earth, Climate, and Ocean Science literacy documents. The testing schema is organized into three levels of increasing complexity. Level 1 questions are single answer, understanding- or application-level multiple choice questions. For example, selecting which type of energy transfer is most responsible for the movement of tectonic plates. They are designed such that most introductory level students should be able to correctly answer after taking an introductory geoscience course. Level 2 questions are more advanced multiple answer/matching questions, at the understanding- through analysis-level. Students might be asked to determine the types of earth-atmosphere interactions that could result in changes to global temperatures in the event of a major volcanic eruption. Because the answers are more complicated, some introductory students and most advanced students should be able to respond correctly. Level 3 questions are analyzing- to evaluating-level short essays, such as describe the ways in which the atmosphere sustains life on Earth. These questions are designed such that introductory students could probably formulate a rudimentary response. We anticipate the detail and sophistication of the response will increase as students progress through the InTeGrate curriculum. A team of 14 community members and assessment experts were assembled to develop the questions and complete validity and reliability testing. An initial set of questions was vetted, revised by the assessment team, and sent for external review. Students can score one point for correct Level 1 answers. For Level 2 questions, students can score from zero to two points, depending on the number of correct answers selected. Rubrics are under development for Level 3 essay questions using a 3 point scale that assigns points based both on the accuracy of the response and the quality of the written response. The final instrument will be used to measure geoscience literacy from introductory, non-science students to upper-level geoscience majors. In addition to covering geoscience content knowledge and understanding, GLE+ is also intended to probe InTeGrate students' ability and motivation to use their geoscience expertise to address problems of environmental sustainability. This final instrument will be made available to the geoscience education community as an assessment to be used in conjunction with InTeGrate teaching materials or as a stand-alone tool for departments to measure student learning gains across the major.

Iverson, E. A.; Steer, D. N.; Manduca, C. A.

2012-12-01

262

Career Excess Mortality Risk from Diagnostic Radiological Exams Required for Crewmembers Participating in Long Duration Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA requires astronauts to undergo diagnostic x-ray examinations as a condition for their employment. The purpose of these procedures is to assess the astronaut s overall health and to diagnose conditions that could jeopardize the success of long duration space missions. These include exams for acceptance into the astronaut corps, routine periodic exams, as well as evaluations taken pre and post missions. Issues: According to NASA policy these medical examinations are considered occupational radiological exposures, and thus, are included when computing the astronaut s overall radiation dose and associated excess cancer mortality risk. As such, astronauts and administrators are concerned about the amount of radiation received from these procedures due to the possibility that these additional doses may cause astronauts to exceed NASA s administrative limits, thus disqualifying them from future flights. Methods: Radiation doses and cancer mortality risks following required medical radiation exposures are presented herein for representative male and female astronaut careers. Calculation of the excess cancer mortality risk was performed by adapting NASA s operational risk assessment model. Averages for astronaut height, weight, number of space missions and age at selection into the astronaut corps were used as inputs to the NASA risk model. Conclusion: The results show that the level of excess cancer mortality imposed by all required medical procedures over an entire astronaut s career is approximately the same as that resulting from a single short duration space flight (i.e. space shuttle mission). In short the summation of all medical procedures involving ionizing radiation should have no impact on the number of missions an astronaut can fly over their career. Learning Objectives: 1. The types of diagnostic medical exams which astronauts are subjected to will be presented. 2. The level of radiation dose and excess mortality risk to the average male and female astronaut will be presented.

Dodge, C. W.; Gonzalez, S. M.; Picco, C. E.; Johnston, S. L.; Shavers, M. R.; VanBaalen, M.

2008-01-01

263

Unique Roles of DosT and DosS in DosR Regulon Induction and Mycobacterium tuberculosis Dormancy ? †  

PubMed Central

In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the sensor kinases DosT and DosS activate the transcriptional regulator DosR, resulting in the induction of the DosR regulon, which is important for anaerobic survival and perhaps latent infection. The individual and collective roles of these sensors have been postulated biochemically, but their roles in vivo have remained unclear. This work demonstrates distinct and additive roles for each sensor during anaerobic dormancy. Both sensors are necessary for wild-type levels of DosR regulon induction, and concomitantly, full induction of the regulon is required for wild-type anaerobic survival. In the anaerobic model, DosT plays an early role, responding to hypoxia. DosT then induces the regulon and with it DosS, which sustains and further induces the regulon. DosT then loses its functionality as oxygen becomes limited, and DosS alone maintains induction of the genes from that point forward. Thus, M. tuberculosis has evolved a system whereby it responds to hypoxic conditions in a stepwise fashion as it enters an anaerobic state.

Honaker, Ryan W.; Leistikow, Rachel L.; Bartek, Iona L.; Voskuil, Martin I.

2009-01-01

264

Unique roles of DosT and DosS in DosR regulon induction and Mycobacterium tuberculosis dormancy.  

PubMed

In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the sensor kinases DosT and DosS activate the transcriptional regulator DosR, resulting in the induction of the DosR regulon, which is important for anaerobic survival and perhaps latent infection. The individual and collective roles of these sensors have been postulated biochemically, but their roles in vivo have remained unclear. This work demonstrates distinct and additive roles for each sensor during anaerobic dormancy. Both sensors are necessary for wild-type levels of DosR regulon induction, and concomitantly, full induction of the regulon is required for wild-type anaerobic survival. In the anaerobic model, DosT plays an early role, responding to hypoxia. DosT then induces the regulon and with it DosS, which sustains and further induces the regulon. DosT then loses its functionality as oxygen becomes limited, and DosS alone maintains induction of the genes from that point forward. Thus, M. tuberculosis has evolved a system whereby it responds to hypoxic conditions in a stepwise fashion as it enters an anaerobic state. PMID:19487478

Honaker, Ryan W; Leistikow, Rachel L; Bartek, Iona L; Voskuil, Martin I

2009-08-01

265

How to Test DoS Defenses  

Microsoft Academic Search

DoS defense evaluation methods influence how well test results predict performance in real deployment. This paper surveys existing approaches and criticizes their simplicity and the lack of realism. We summarize our work on improving DoS evaluation via development of standardized benchmarks and performance metrics. We end with guidelines on efficiently improving DoS evaluation, in the short and in the long

Jelena Mirkovic; Sonia Fahmy; P. Reiher; R. K. Thomas

2009-01-01

266

Situational restriction: using your physical exam to differentiate pulley abnormalities from other vertical deviations secondary to restrictive conditions.  

PubMed

The description of the orbital pulley system has changed the way we understand eye movements and ocular motility disorders. The presence of abnormalities in the orbital pulley system can complicate the assessment of vertical restrictive conditions. The standard tests for restriction are reviewed. These include version and duction testing, assessing saccades, differential intraocular pressure measurements, forced duction testing, and forced generation testing. We introduce the concept of situational restriction and how to look for it during your physical exam. Situational restriction is a limitation of ocular rotation that is dependent on the path that is taken to try to arrive at a tertiary position of ocular rotation. Specifically, it shows noncommutative movement that breaks Listing's Law. The presence of situational restriction denotes that a pulley abnormality is present. PMID:22069845

Rosenberg, Steven E; Shippman, Sara

2011-01-01

267

The effect of the Advanced Placement Training and Incentive Program on increasing enrollment and performance on Advanced Placement science exams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of the National Math and Science Initiative's Advanced Placement Training and Incentive Program (APTIP) on the number of students taking AP science courses and their performance. The study evaluated 39 schools over a six-year period in six states that participate in the APTIP. The National Math and Science Initiative provided data for cohort I. A general linear model for repeated measures was used to evaluate the data. Data was evaluated three years prior to the intervention and three years during the intervention, which will actually continue for two more years (2012 and 2013) since cohort I schools were awarded five years of support. Students in APTIP schools enrolled in more AP science exams (AP Biology, AP Chemistry, AP Environmental Science, and AP Physics-B) over the course of the intervention. The quantity of students earning qualifying scores increased during the intervention years. APTIP is a multi-tiered program that includes seven days of teacher training, three six-hour student prep sessions, school equipment, reduced exam fees, and monetary incentives for students and teachers. This program positively impacted the quantity of enrollment and qualifying scores during the three years evaluated in this study. Increases in the number of female and African American students' test takers their and qualifying scores were seen in all three years of the APTIP intervention. This study supports the premise that the first step to increasing the Science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) pipeline is giving access to advanced courses to more students in high schools.

Ramsey, Susan Brady

268

The Effect of Music on the Test Scores of the Students in Limits and Derivatives Subject in the Mathematics Exams Done with Music  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the exams based on limits and derivatives, in this study, it was tried to determine that if there was any difference in students' test scores according to the type of music listened to and environment without music. For this purpose, the achievement test including limits and derivatives and whose reliability coefficient of Cronbach Alpha is…

Kesan, Cenk; Ozkalkan, Zuhal; Iric, Hamdullah; Kaya, Deniz

2012-01-01

269

The Relationship between Post Reach Exit Exam (E[superscript 2]) Failure Remediation and NCLEX-RN Success of Graduates of Baccalaureate Nursing Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An ex post facto study was conducted to determine whether any relationship exists between remediation post Reach Exit Exam (E[superscript 2]) failure and NCLEX-RN success of graduates of baccalaureate nursing programs. Data was gathered from responses to the seventh annual validity study (V7S) offered to deans and directors of nursing programs by…

Allen, Patricia Gale

2009-01-01

270

The feasibility of a regional CTDI{sub vol} to estimate organ dose from tube current modulated CT exams  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In AAPM Task Group 204, the size-specific dose estimate (SSDE) was developed by providing size adjustment factors which are applied to the Computed Tomography (CT) standardized dose metric, CTDI{sub vol}. However, that work focused on fixed tube current scans and did not specifically address tube current modulation (TCM) scans, which are currently the majority of clinical scans performed. The purpose of this study was to extend the SSDE concept to account for TCM by investigating the feasibility of using anatomic and organ specific regions of scanner output to improve accuracy of dose estimates. Methods: Thirty-nine adult abdomen/pelvis and 32 chest scans from clinically indicated CT exams acquired on a multidetector CT using TCM were obtained with Institutional Review Board approval for generating voxelized models. Along with image data, raw projection data were obtained to extract TCM functions for use in Monte Carlo simulations. Patient size was calculated using the effective diameter described in TG 204. In addition, the scanner-reported CTDI{sub vol} (CTDI{sub vol,global}) was obtained for each patient, which is based on the average tube current across the entire scan. For the abdomen/pelvis scans, liver, spleen, and kidneys were manually segmented from the patient datasets; for the chest scans, lungs and for female models only, glandular breast tissue were segmented. For each patient organ doses were estimated using Monte Carlo Methods. To investigate the utility of regional measures of scanner output, regional and organ anatomic boundaries were identified from image data and used to calculate regional and organ-specific average tube current values. From these regional and organ-specific averages, CTDI{sub vol} values, referred to as regional and organ-specific CTDI{sub vol}, were calculated for each patient. Using an approach similar to TG 204, all CTDI{sub vol} values were used to normalize simulated organ doses; and the ability of each normalized dose to correlate with patient size was investigated. Results: For all five organs, the correlations with patient size increased when organ doses were normalized by regional and organ-specific CTDI{sub vol} values. For example, when estimating dose to the liver, CTDI{sub vol,global} yielded a R{sup 2} value of 0.26, which improved to 0.77 and 0.86, when using the regional and organ-specific CTDI{sub vol} for abdomen and liver, respectively. For breast dose, the global CTDI{sub vol} yielded a R{sup 2} value of 0.08, which improved to 0.58 and 0.83, when using the regional and organ-specific CTDI{sub vol} for chest and breasts, respectively. The R{sup 2} values also increased once the thoracic models were separated for the analysis into females and males, indicating differences between genders in this region not explained by a simple measure of effective diameter. Conclusions: This work demonstrated the utility of regional and organ-specific CTDI{sub vol} as normalization factors when using TCM. It was demonstrated that CTDI{sub vol,global} is not an effective normalization factor in TCM exams where attenuation (and therefore tube current) varies considerably throughout the scan, such as abdomen/pelvis and even thorax. These exams can be more accurately assessed for dose using regional CTDI{sub vol} descriptors that account for local variations in scanner output present when TCM is employed.

Khatonabadi, Maryam; Kim, Hyun J.; Lu, Peiyun; McMillan, Kyle L.; Cagnon, Chris H.; McNitt-Gray, Michael F. [Department of Biomedical Physics and Department of Radiology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90024 (United States); DeMarco, John J. [Department of Biomedical Physics and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

2013-05-15

271

A DOS Primer for Librarians: Part II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an introduction to DOS commands and strategies for the effective organization and use of hard disks. Functions discussed include the creation of directories and subdirectories, enhanced copying, the assignment of disk drives, and backing up the hard disk. (CLB)

Beecher, Henry

1990-01-01

272

From Syllabus To Diagnostic Exam: Learnings from the New Faculty Workshop Applied In the Intro Physics Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kalamazoo College offers a ``one-size-fits-all'' concept-based introductory physics sequence. The widely varying demographic composition of the class --- including majors in biology, chemistry, pre-med, physics, and math, along with occasional humanities majors --- adds obvious challenges to the successful learning experience. As such, educational techniques that apply across the demographic are required. Several ideas presented at the Fall 2005 New Faculty Workshop apply to the needs of this broad range of students at Kalamazoo College, including an ``organic'' course syllabus that has been allowed to grow to whatever extent necessary to address recurring student concerns and misunderstandings about course expectations, policies, and guidelines, and to provide advice on recurring themes; peer instruction for maximizing classroom value; and hiring teaching assistants with first hand experience in the course and the labs. Details on implementing these techniques, including developing a syllabus with unusual section headings such as ``Attendance and Homework Dramas'' and ``Introductory Physics Survival Requirements,'' will be presented. Success of the techniques, as evidenced by performance on diagnostic exams, class attendance, and comments from course evaluations, will be discussed.

Tanoff, Michael

2009-03-01

273

Change in the mini-mental state exam in Alzheimer's disease over 2 years: the experience of a dementia clinic.  

PubMed

The decline in the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) over 2 years was assessed in males with Alzheimer's disease (AD; N = 136) seen in a dementia clinic. The average initial MMSE was 21.0 (SD+/-3.9; range 14--29) and declined 2.8 points (+/-4.7; range -17 to +6) over 2 years. The mode for change on the MMSE was 0 (N = 22) while the median fell between 2 and 3 points lost. Fifty-five of 136 patients (39.7%) had unchanged or better scores. There was no significant correlation between the initial MMSE and rate of change (r = -0.16; p = 0.06). While the progression of AD is quite variable from patient to patient, our data indicate that in most it is associated with little if any change in the MMSE even over 2 years. The MMSE is not an adequate tool to monitor change in the individual patient with AD. PMID:15004323

McCarten, J Riley; Rottunda, Susan J; Kuskowski, Michael A

2004-02-01

274

Causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exams and college attendance: random assignment in Seoul high schools.  

PubMed

Despite the voluminous literature on the potentials of single-sex schools, there is no consensus on the effects of single-sex schools because of student selection of school types. We exploit a unique feature of schooling in Seoul-the random assignment of students into single-sex versus coeducational high schools-to assess causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exam scores and college attendance. Our validation of the random assignment shows comparable socioeconomic backgrounds and prior academic achievement of students attending single-sex schools and coeducational schools, which increases the credibility of our causal estimates of single-sex school effects. The three-level hierarchical model shows that attending all-boys schools or all-girls schools, rather than coeducational schools, is significantly associated with higher average scores on Korean and English test scores. Applying the school district fixed-effects models, we find that single-sex schools produce a higher percentage of graduates who attended four-year colleges and a lower percentage of graduates who attended two-year junior colleges than do coeducational schools. The positive effects of single-sex schools remain substantial, even after we take into account various school-level variables, such as teacher quality, the student-teacher ratio, the proportion of students receiving lunch support, and whether the schools are public or private. PMID:23073751

Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R; Choi, Jaesung

2013-04-01

275

Impact of Two Types of Internet-based Information on Medical Students' Performance in an Objective Structured Clinical Exam (OSCE)  

PubMed Central

Objectives Internet-based information has potential to impact physician-patient relationships. This study examined medical students’ interpretation and response to such information presented during an objective clinical examination. Method Ninety three medical students who had received training for a patient centered response to inquiries about alternative treatments completed a comprehensive examination in their third year. In one of twelve objective structured clinical exams, a SP presented internet-based information on l-theanine – an amino acid available as a supplement. In Condition A, materials were from commercial websites; in Condition B, materials were from the PubMed website. Results Analyses revealed no significant differences between Conditions in student performance or patient (SP) satisfaction. Students in Condition A rated the information less compelling than students in Condition B (z = ?1.78, p = .037), and attributed less of the treatment’s action to real vs. placebo effects (z = ?1.61, p = .053). Conclusions Students trained in a patient centered response to inquiries about alternative treatment perceived the credibility of the two types of internet-based information differently but were able to respond to the patient without jeopardizing patient satisfaction. Approach to information was superficial. Training in information evaluation may be warranted.

Elder, William G.; Dassow, Paul L.; Bruckner, Geza G.; Stratton, Terry D.

2009-01-01

276

Causal Effects of Single-Sex Schools on College Entrance Exams and College Attendance: Random Assignment in Seoul High Schools  

PubMed Central

Despite the voluminous literature on the potentials of single-sex schools, there is no consensus on the effects of single-sex schools because of student selection of school types. We exploit a unique feature of schooling in Seoul—the random assignment of students into single-sex versus coeducational high schools—to assess causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exam scores and college attendance. Our validation of the random assignment shows comparable socioeconomic backgrounds and prior academic achievement of students attending single-sex schools and coeducational schools, which increases the credibility of our causal estimates of single-sex school effects. The three-level hierarchical model shows that attending all-boys schools or all-girls schools, rather than coeducational schools, is significantly associated with higher average scores on Korean and English test scores. Applying the school district fixed-effects models, we find that single-sex schools produce a higher percentage of graduates who attended four-year colleges and a lower percentage of graduates who attended two-year junior colleges than do coeducational schools. The positive effects of single-sex schools remain substantial, even after we take into account various school-level variables, such as teacher quality, the student-teacher ratio, the proportion of students receiving lunch support, and whether the schools are public or private.

Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R.; Choi, Jaesung

2012-01-01

277

Exam Question Exchange.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Acceptable answers are provided for two chemistry questions. The first question is related to the prediction of the appearance of non-first-order proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. The second question is related to extraterrestrial kinetic theory of gases. (JN)

Alexander, John J., Ed.

1983-01-01

278

[Hands cutaneous exam].  

PubMed

There are four different areas to consider: palms, back of the hands, fingers, periungual folds (and nails). Palmoplantar keratodermas are a group of inherited or acquired disorders. Dysidrosis is a peculiar form of eczema on the palms and lateral aspects of the fingers. SAPHO syndrome (Synovitis - Acne - Pustulosis - Hyperostosis - Osteomyelitis) presents pustules on palms. Photo-ageing is frequently noticed on the back of the hands. Paraneoplastic acrokeratosis (Bazex syndrome) affects the nose, ears, and periungual folds of fingers and toes. Spontaneous blue finger syndrome can be a benign process that resolves rapidly. PMID:24157184

Lorette, Gérard; Samimi, Mahtab

2013-12-01

279

Digital Rectal Exam (DRE)  

MedlinePLUS

... and lower belly, including: Prostate cancer in men Rectal cancer or cancer in the lower colon of men and women Uterine or ovarian cancer in women (in association with a vaginal examination) A DRE may be done as ... such as rectal bleeding, a change in bowel habits, urethral discharge ...

280

Oral Cancer Exam  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes HIV/AIDS Order Free Publications English and Spanish brochures available free of charge. ... early—when it can be treated more successfully. Publications For Health Professionals Detecting Oral Cancer: A Guide ...

281

Exam Question Exchange.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents background information and a problem on "escape velocity," which applies the gas laws to atmospheric and meteorological phenomena. Also, a problem is presented which requires an understanding of the principles of operation of pressure gauges. (CS)

Alexander, John J., Ed.

1980-01-01

282

The Prostate Exam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To help students, residents, and general practitioners to improve the technique, skills, and reproducibility of their prostate examination. Methods: We developed a comprehensive guideline outlining prostate anatomy, indications, patient preparation, positioning, technique, findings, and limitations of this ancient art of urological…

Romero, Frederico R.; Romero, Antonio W.; Filho, Thadeu Brenny; Kulysz, David; Oliveira, Fernando C., Jr.; Filho, Renato Tambara

2012-01-01

283

[Value of real-time elastography to guide the systematic prostate biopsy in men with normal digital rectal exam].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate whether real-time elastography-guided biopsy in comparison to grey-scale ultrasound improves prostate cancer detection in patients with an unremarkable digital rectal exam.A total of 231 patients suspicious for prostate cancer were prospectively randomised to transrectal real-time elastography- (126) or grey-scale ultrasound (105)-guided biopsy. The peripheral zone was divided into 6 sectors from base, mid-gland to apex. Lesions with reduced elasticity during real-time elastography and hypoechoic areas during grey-scale ultrasound were defined as suspicious for prostate cancer. Prostate biopsy was guided by real-time elastography (RTE) or grey-scale ultrasound (GSU) using a systematic 10-core approach. Suspicious lesions on RTE or GSU in the corresponding randomised group were targeted within each sector. Accuracy of cancer prediction and histopathological cancer detection rates were evaluated and compared between the 2 imaging modalitiesBaseline characteristics of patients undergoing real-time elastography and grey-scale ultrasound, including age, prostate-specific antigen and prostate volume were not significantly different statistically (p>0.05). Overall, prostate cancer was detected in 76 of 231 cases (32.9%). The cancer detection rate was significantly higher (p=0.007) in patients who underwent a biopsy using real-time elastography (40.5%) compared to the grey-scale-guided group of men (23.8%). Sensitivity and specificity to detect prostate cancer in 1 386 prostate sectors was 53.5% and 70.5% for real-time elastography vs. 11.7% and 93.7% for grey-scale ultrasound, respectively.Compared to conventional grey-scale ultrasound, accuracy to detect prostate cancer using a systematic 10-core biopsy approach was significantly improved under the guidance of real-time elastography. PMID:23325671

Brock, M; Eggert, T; Löppenberg, B; Braun, K; Roghmann, F; Palisaar, R J; Noldus, J; von Bodman, C

2013-01-01

284

Temporal Structure of First-year Courses and Success at Course Exams: Comparison of Traditional Continual and Block Delivery of Anatomy and Chemistry Courses  

PubMed Central

Aim To evaluate students’ academic success at the Anatomy and Chemistry courses delivered in a traditional continual course, spread over the two semesters, or in alternating course blocks, in which 1 group of students attended first the Anatomy and then the Chemistry course and vice versa. Method We analyzed the data on exam grades for Anatomy and Chemistry courses in the first year of the curriculum for academic year 2001/02, with the traditional continual delivery of the courses (n?=?253 for chemistry and n?=?243 for anatomy course), and academic year 2003/04, with block delivery of the courses (n?=?255 for chemistry and n?=?260 for anatomy course). The content of the courses and the teachers were similar in both academic years. Grades from the final examination were analyzed only for students who sat the exam at the first available exam term and passed the course. For the Anatomy block course, grades at 2 interim written tests and 2 parts of the final exam (practical stage exam and oral exam) in each block were analyzed for students who passed all interim tests and the final exam. Results There were no differences between the two types of course delivery in the number of students passing the final examination at first attempt. There was a decrease in passing percentage for the two Anatomy block course student groups in 2003/04 (56% passing students in block 1 vs 40% in block 2, P?=?0.014). There were no differences in the final examination grade between the 2 blocks for both the Anatomy and Chemistry course, but there was an increase in the average grades from 2001/02 to 2003/04 academic year due to an increase in Chemistry grades (F1,399?=?18.4, P?exam being significantly lower than grades on 2 interim tests that came at the beginning of the block (P?

Salopek, Daniela; Lovric, Jasna; Hren, Darko; Marusic, Ana

2009-01-01

285

Computer-Based Internet-Hosted Assessment of L2 Literacy: Computerizing and Administering of the Oxford Quick Placement Test in ExamView and Moodle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sorting of Korean English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) university students by Second Language (L2) aptitude allocates students to classes of compatible ability level, and was here used to screen candidates for interview. Paper-and-pen versions of the Oxford Quick Placement Test were adapted to computer-based testing via online hosting using FSCreations ExamView. Problems with their online hosting site led to conversion to the popular

Robert C. Meurant

2009-01-01

286

Xenon spallation systematics in Angra DOS Reis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Literature Xe data for the Angra dos Reis meteorite have been resolved into constituent spallation, fission and trapped components. The spallation Xe compositions vary over a range wider than observed in any other samples, including lunar samples. These variations are due to the mixing of spallation Xe from Ba and rare earth element targets. It is possible to infer the Ba and rare earth spallation Xe compositions. Angra dos Reis spallation Xe compositions are systematically different from those observed in lunar samples, possibly because of differences in the irradiation conditions (geometry and shielding). Thus the Angra dos Reis data appear to be superior to lunar data for predicting spallation Xe compositions in other meteorites.

Hohenberg, C. M.; Hudson, B.; Kennedy, B. M.; Podosek, F. A.

1981-10-01

287

"DOS for Managers." Management Training Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A plan is provided for a lesson on disk operating systems (DOS) for managers. Twenty-five lesson objectives are listed, followed by suggestions for learning activities and special resources. In the presentation section, key points and content are provided for 25 instructional topics that correspond to the 25 lesson objectives. The topics are as…

Marion County Schools, Fairmont, WV.

288

DOS: the discrete-ordinates system. [LMFBR  

SciTech Connect

The Discrete Ordinates System determines the flux of neutrons or photons due either to fixed sources specified by the user or to sources generated by particle interaction with the problem materials. It also determines numerous secondary results which depend upon flux. Criticality searches can be performed. Numerous input, output, and file manipulation facilities are provided. The DOS driver program reads the problem specification from an input file and calls various program modules into execution as specified by the input file.

Rhoades, W. A.; Emmett, M. B.

1982-09-01

289

Piloting a Geoscience Literacy Exam for Assessing Students' Understanding of Earth, Climate, Atmospheric and Ocean Science Concepts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research seeks to develop valid and reliable questions that faculty can use to assess geoscience literacy across the curriculum. We are particularly interested on effects of curricula developed to teach Earth, Climate, Atmospheric, and Ocean Science concepts in the context of societal issues across the disciplines. This effort is part of the InTeGrate project designed to create a population of college graduates who are poised to use geoscience knowledge in developing solutions to current and future environmental and resource challenges. Details concerning the project are found at http://serc.carleton.edu/integrate/index.html. The Geoscience Literacy Exam (GLE) under development presently includes 90 questions. Each big idea from each literacy document can be probed using one or more of three independent questions: 1) a single answer, multiple choice question aimed at basic understanding or application of key concepts, 2) a multiple correct answer, multiple choice question targeting the analyzing to analysis levels and 3) a short essay question that tests analysis or evaluation cognitive levels. We anticipate multiple-choice scores and the detail and sophistication of essay responses will increase as students engage with the curriculum. As part of the field testing of InTeGrate curricula, faculty collected student responses from classes that involved over 700 students. These responses included eight pre- and post-test multiple-choice questions that covered various concepts across the four literacies. Discrimination indices calculated from the data suggest that the eight tested questions provide a valid measure of literacy within the scope of the concepts covered. Student normalized gains across an academic term with limited InTeGrate exposure (typically two or fewer weeks of InTeGrate curriculum out of 14 weeks) were found to average 16% gain. A small set of control data (250 students in classes from one institution where no InTeGrate curricula were used) was also collected from a larger bank of test questions. Discrimination indices across the full bank showed variation and additional work is underway to refine and field test in other settings these questions in the absence of InTeGrate curricula. When complete, faculty will be able to assemble sets of questions to track progress toward meeting literacy goals. In addition to covering geoscience content knowledge and understanding, a complementary attitudinal pre/post survey was also developed with the intent to probe InTeGrate students' ability and motivation to use their geoscience expertise to address problems of environmental sustainability. The final instruments will be made available to the geoscience education community as an assessment to be used in conjunction with InTeGrate teaching materials or as a stand-alone tool for departments to measure student learning and attitudinal gains across the major.

Steer, D. N.; Iverson, E. A.; Manduca, C. A.

2013-12-01

290

Improving the exam experience: Testing test procedures in introductory physical science courses at a two-year college  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bergen Community College (BCC) is a two-year college in the New York City metropolitan area with a diverse student body and total enrollment of approximately 17,000. Most students have a gen-ed requirement of two lab science courses which employ numerous methods of assessment, including tests. Traditionally, students take tests individually and often, once they get back the graded tests, glance over the results and file the tests away. In addition to individual test-taking, we have begun using and comparing two types of procedures to see how their understanding of the material may improve in introductory-level geology and physics classes. The first procedure explored the benefit of group work to reinforce concepts, worth 20% of the overall test grade. Conceptual and algebra-based physics classes took short group tests, consisting of open-ended challenge questions, preceding their traditional, individual exam. We found the group testing significantly helped the physics students; in some cases, counting for more than 20% of their overall test grade. Because those problems were done at the beginning of the test, it helped many students reinforce their understanding of the physics concepts through intense group discussion, which allowed them to be more relaxed and confident when they did their individual problems. In geology, the students re-did the T/F, MC, and fill-in questions that they answered independently first. By consulting with their fellow students, they were able to talk over the concepts and correct their answers if they felt they were initially wrong. Overall, when the questions were re-done during the group testing, the median improvement in correct answers was 16-24%. Moreover, students generally felt either confident in their answers or, if they changed them, understood the concepts better. For the second type of test procedure, students in a geology class were able to make corrections to the T/F, MC, and fill-in questions that they got wrong. If they gave the correct answer and gave an explanation for that answer, they earned half the points they missed for each. The points earned back varied greatly, as the number of possible points depended on how well the students did initially, but the median increases were 4.5-7.5 points (out of 100). On the downside, only 43-57% of students elected to submitted corrections, with some of those who did being among those who would have most benefitted from doing so, and some submitted corrections without explanations, thus rendering their efforts moot. Overall, giving students an opportunity to improve their test scores and gain a better understanding of the material justifies these efforts. When comparing the relative pros and cons of each method, including extra grading time, we found group testing to work best in our situations and plan to continue to use it going forward.

Marton, F.; McCrary, M.

2013-12-01

291

Computer-Based Internet-Hosted Assessment of L2 Literacy: Computerizing and Administering of the Oxford Quick Placement Test in ExamView and Moodle  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Sorting of Korean English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) university students by Second Language (L2) aptitude allocates students\\u000a to classes of compatible ability level, and was here used to screen candidates for interview. Paper-and-pen versions of the\\u000a Oxford Quick Placement Test were adapted to computer-based testing via online hosting using FSCreations ExamView. Problems\\u000a with their online hosting site led to conversion to the popular

Robert C. Meurant

292

Strains of the East Asian (W/Beijing) Lineage of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Are DosS/DosT-DosR Two-Component Regulatory System Natural Mutants? †  

PubMed Central

As part of our ongoing efforts to uncover the phenotypic consequences of genetic variability among clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates, we previously reported that isolates of the “East Asian” or “W/Beijing” lineage constitutively overexpress the coordinately regulated transcriptional program known as the DosR regulon under standard in vitro conditions. This phenotype distinguishes the W/Beijing lineage from all other M. tuberculosis lineages, which normally induce expression of this regulon only once exposed to low oxygen or nitric oxide, both of which result in inhibition of bacterial respiration and replication. Transcription of the DosR regulon is controlled through a two-component regulatory system comprising the transcription factor DosR and two possible cognate histidine sensor kinases, DosS and DosT. Through sequence analysis of a carefully selected set of isolates representing each of the major M. tuberculosis lineages, we describe herein a naturally occurring frameshift mutation in the gene encoding the DosT sensor kinase for isolates of the most recently evolved W/Beijing sublineages. Intriguingly, the occurrence of the frameshift mutation correlates precisely with the appearance of the constitutive DosR regulon phenotype displayed by the same “modern” W/Beijing strains. However, complementation studies have revealed that the mutation in dosT alone is not directly responsible for the constitutive DosR regulon phenotype. Our data serve to highlight the evolutionary pressure that exists among distinct M. tuberculosis lineages to maintain tight control over DosR regulon expression.

Fallow, Ashley; Domenech, Pilar; Reed, Michael B.

2010-01-01

293

Disk Operating System--DOS. Teacher Packet. Learning Activity Packets.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Learning Activity Packets (LAPs) contained in this manual are designed to assist the beginning user in understanding DOS (Disk Operating System). LAPs will not work with any version below DOS Version 3.0 and do not address the enhanced features of versions 4.0 or higher. These elementary activities cover only the DOS commands necessary to…

Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

294

The Dos Bocas dam in Puerto Rico.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Dos Bocas dam in Puerto Rico was constructed in 1942 to generate hydroelectric power. Dams in this region prevent the migration of shrimp and fish to areas upstream of the dam. As a result, compared to similar reaches of undammed streams, areas that are upstream of dammed rivers have higher amounts of organic and inorganic nutrients as well as altered invertebrate populations. Loss of migratory shrimp and fish upstream from dams alters basal resources and assemblages of invertebrate competitors and prey. This photograph originally appeared on the cover of Ecological Applications (16:1) in February of 2006.

Klemow, Kenneth

2010-02-11

295

[Forensic procedures for interview physical exam and evidence collection in children and young people victims of physical and/or sexual abuse].  

PubMed

The public nature of child abuse crime (domestic violence, maltreatment and sexual crimes) implies the opening of a criminal enquiry as soon as facts likely to be considered as such are known. Professionals who suspect of these cases are considered mandatory reporters as is the case of health care professionals. The work with abused children and youth involves several courses of action between institutions, namely as to the starting procedures to follow in case triage, reporting of suspicion, diagnosis and preservation of evidence for penal purposes, as well as to the protection of the victim(s), all of which still lack a clear definition in Portugal. Several professionals often take part simultaneously in these early procedures and it is crucial that their own personal intervention be articulated with one another's. With the aim of promoting that adequate articulation between the professionals and the acting services, technical orientations to be followed have to be established, namely as far as the articulation between the medicolegal services and the health care services are concerned. These orientations should aim at: ruling the reporting of the occurrence in good time; guarantee an appropriate collection of evidence; guarantee good medical procedures in medical exams and evidence collection; avoid repetition of exams of the victims, preventing secondary victimisation and cross-contamination of child report. Based on the internationally accepted rules for the matter and taking into consideration the Portuguese reality, namely in legal terms, the authors made a proposition concerning the procedures for the intervention in such cases that are herewith presented and were approved as General Recommendations for the Examination in Cases of Suspicion of Domestic Violence, Maltreatment or Sexual Crime Against Children by the National Institute of Legal Medicine, in January 2010. These were later confirmed by the Specialty College of Legal Medicine of the Medical Board Association. PMID:22011608

Magalhães, Teresa; Ribeiro, Cristina Silveira; Jardim, Patrícia; Vieira, Duarte Nuno

2011-01-01

296

DosS responds to a reduced electron transport system to induce the Mycobacterium tuberculosis DosR regulon.  

PubMed

The DosR regulon in Mycobacterium tuberculosis is involved in respiration-limiting conditions, its induction is controlled by two histidine kinases, DosS and DosT, and recent experimental evidence indicates DosS senses either molecular oxygen or a redox change. Under aerobic conditions, induction of the DosR regulon by DosS, but not DosT, was observed after the addition of ascorbate, a powerful cytochrome c reductant, demonstrating that DosS responds to a redox signal even in the presence of high oxygen tension. During hypoxic conditions, regulon induction was attenuated by treatment with compounds that occluded electron flow into the menaquinone pool or decreased the size of the menaquinone pool itself. Increased regulon expression during hypoxia was observed when exogenous menaquinone was added, demonstrating that the menaquinone pool is a limiting factor in regulon induction. Taken together, these data demonstrate that a reduced menaquinone pool directly or indirectly triggers induction of the DosR regulon via DosS. Biochemical analysis of menaquinones upon entry into hypoxic/anaerobic conditions demonstrated the disappearance of the unsaturated species and low-level maintenance of the mono-saturated menaquinone. Relative to the unsaturated form, an analog of the saturated form is better able to induce signaling via DosS and rescue inhibition of menaquinone synthesis and is less toxic. The menaquinone pool is central to the electron transport system (ETS) and therefore provides a mechanistic link between the respiratory state of the bacilli and DosS signaling. Although this report demonstrates that DosS responds to a reduced ETS, it does not rule out a role for oxygen in silencing signaling. PMID:20952575

Honaker, Ryan W; Dhiman, Rakesh K; Narayanasamy, Prabagaran; Crick, Dean C; Voskuil, Martin I

2010-12-01

297

DosS Responds to a Reduced Electron Transport System To Induce the Mycobacterium tuberculosis DosR Regulon?  

PubMed Central

The DosR regulon in Mycobacterium tuberculosis is involved in respiration-limiting conditions, its induction is controlled by two histidine kinases, DosS and DosT, and recent experimental evidence indicates DosS senses either molecular oxygen or a redox change. Under aerobic conditions, induction of the DosR regulon by DosS, but not DosT, was observed after the addition of ascorbate, a powerful cytochrome c reductant, demonstrating that DosS responds to a redox signal even in the presence of high oxygen tension. During hypoxic conditions, regulon induction was attenuated by treatment with compounds that occluded electron flow into the menaquinone pool or decreased the size of the menaquinone pool itself. Increased regulon expression during hypoxia was observed when exogenous menaquinone was added, demonstrating that the menaquinone pool is a limiting factor in regulon induction. Taken together, these data demonstrate that a reduced menaquinone pool directly or indirectly triggers induction of the DosR regulon via DosS. Biochemical analysis of menaquinones upon entry into hypoxic/anaerobic conditions demonstrated the disappearance of the unsaturated species and low-level maintenance of the mono-saturated menaquinone. Relative to the unsaturated form, an analog of the saturated form is better able to induce signaling via DosS and rescue inhibition of menaquinone synthesis and is less toxic. The menaquinone pool is central to the electron transport system (ETS) and therefore provides a mechanistic link between the respiratory state of the bacilli and DosS signaling. Although this report demonstrates that DosS responds to a reduced ETS, it does not rule out a role for oxygen in silencing signaling.

Honaker, Ryan W.; Dhiman, Rakesh K.; Narayanasamy, Prabagaran; Crick, Dean C.; Voskuil, Martin I.

2010-01-01

298

Fast interrupt platform for extended DOS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Extended DOS offers the unique combination of a simple operating system which allows direct access to the interrupt tables, 32 bit protected mode access to 4096 MByte address space, and the use of industry standard C compilers. The drawback is that fast interrupt handling requires both 32 bit and 16 bit versions of each real-time process interrupt handler to avoid mode switches on the interrupts. A set of tools has been developed which automates the process of transforming the output of a standard 32 bit C compiler to 16 bit interrupt code which directly handles the real mode interrupts. The entire process compiles one set of source code via a make file, which boosts productivity by making the management of the compile-link cycle very simple. The software components are in the form of classes written mostly in C. A foreground process written as a conventional application which can use the standard C libraries can communicate with the background real-time classes via a message passing mechanism. The platform thus enables the integration of high performance real-time processing into a conventional application framework.

Duryea, T. W.

1995-01-01

299

The Thurgood Marshall School of Law Empirical Findings: A Six-Year Study of the First-Time and Ultimate Bar Exam Results of Students According to Law School Admission Council (LSAC) Index  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The following report of descriptive statistics addresses the matriculating class of 2001-2007 according to their Law School Admission Council (LSAC) index. Generally, this report will offer information on the first time bar and ultimate performance on the Bar Exam of TMSL students. In addition, graduating GPA according to the LSAC index will also…

Kadhi, T.; Holley, D.; Beard, J.

2011-01-01

300

Predictors of success: NCLEX-RN passage and pre-nursing GPA, the Net, and HESI exit exam for students in the Associate of Applied Science Degree in Nursing at Tennessee State University  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research was conducted to explore predictors of success of students' first time passing of the NCLEX-RN licensure exam after completion of the Associate of Applied Science (AAS) in Nursing Program at Tennessee State University. The variables studied were focused on four types of variables: demographic variables of age, ethnicity, gender, and marital status; pre-matriculation variables of NET scores and

Sandra Powell Lea

2006-01-01

301

Correlation between Teacher Turnover Rates in the State of Alaska and Standardized Test Scores in the Area of Mathematics on the Standards Based Assessments/High School Qualifying Exam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study utilized bivariate correlations, partial correlations, multivariate analysis including Hotelling-T, and observed power to investigate the possible correlations and connections of teacher turnover in Alaska's public school system to performance on the standards-based assessment of the Alaska High School Qualifying Exam (HSQE). The study…

Roehl, Roy F., II

2010-01-01

302

Teaching Bibliometric Analysis and MS/DOS Commands.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines the steps involved in bibliometric studies, and demonstrates the ability to execute simple studies on microcomputers by downloading files using only the capability of MS/DOS. Detailed illustrations of the MS/DOS commands used are provided. (eight references) (CLB)

Dou, Henri; And Others

1988-01-01

303

The Pico DOS Dias Survey Starburst Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the nature of the galaxies found in the Pico dos Dias Survey (PDS) for young stellar objects. The PDS galaxies were selected from the IRAS Point Source catalog. They have flux density of moderate or high quality at 12, 25, and 60 ?m and spectral indices in the ranges -3.00 <= ?(25, 12) <= + 0.35 and -2.50 <= ?(60, 25) <= +0.85. These criteria allowed the detection of 382 galaxies, which are a mixture of starburst and Seyfert galaxies. Most of the PDS Seyfert galaxies are included in the catalog of warm IRAS sources by de Grijp et al. The remaining galaxies constitute a homogeneous sample of luminous [log F (LB/L?) = 9.9 +/- 0.4] starburst galaxies, 67% of which were not recognized as such before. The starburst nature of the PDS galaxies is established by comparing their LIR/LB ratios and IRAS colors with a sample of emission-line galaxies from the literature already classified as starburst galaxies. The starburst galaxies show an excess of FIR luminosity, and their IRAS colors are significantly different from those of Seyfert galaxies-99% of the starburst galaxies in our sample have a spectral index ?(60, 25) < -1.9. As opposed to Seyfert galaxies, very few PDS starbursts are detected in X-rays. In the infrared, the starburst galaxies form a continuous sequence with normal galaxies. But they generally can be distinguished from normal galaxies by their spectral index ?(60, 25) > -2.5. This color cutoff also marks a change in the dominant morphologies of the galaxies: the normal IRAS galaxies are preferentially late-type spirals (Sb and later), while the starbursts are more numerous among early-type spirals (earlier than Sbc). This preference of starbursts for early-type spirals is not new, but a trait of the massive starburst nucleus galaxies (Coziol et al.). As in other starburst nucleus galaxy samples, the PDS starbursts show no preference for barred galaxies. No difference is found between the starbursts detected in the FIR and those detected on the basis of UV excess. The PDS starburst galaxies represent the FIR luminous branch of the UV-bright starburst nucleus galaxies, with mean FIR luminosity log (LIR/L?) = 10.3 +/- 0.5 and redshifts smaller than 0.1. They form a complete sample limited in flux in the FIR at 2 × 10-10 ergs cm-2 s-1.

Coziol, Roger; Torres, Carlos A. O.; Quast, Germano R.; Contini, Thierry; Davoust, Emmanuel

1998-12-01

304

Computer-Based Internet-Hosted Assessment of L2 Literacy: Computerizing and Administering of the Oxford Quick Placement Test in ExamView and Moodle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sorting of Korean English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) university students by Second Language (L2) aptitude allocates students to classes of compatible ability level, and was here used to screen candidates for interview. Paper-and-pen versions of the Oxford Quick Placement Test were adapted to computer-based testing via online hosting using FSCreations ExamView. Problems with their online hosting site led to conversion to the popular computer-based learning management system Moodle, hosted on www.ninehub.com. 317 sophomores were tested online to encourage L2 digital literacy. Strategies for effective hybrid implementation of Learning Management Systems in L2 tertiary education include computer-based Internet-hosted L2 aptitude tests. These potentially provide a convenient measure of student progress in developing L2 fluency, and offer a more objective and relevant means of teacher- and course-assessment than student evaluations, which tend to confuse entertainment value and teacher popularity with academic credibility and pedagogical effectiveness.

Meurant, Robert C.

305

Image quality in real-time teleultrasound of infant hip exam over low-bandwidth internet links: a transatlantic feasibility study.  

PubMed

Evolution of communication systems, especially internet-based technologies, has probably affected Radiology more than any other medical specialty. Tremendous increase in internet bandwidth has enabled a true revolution in image transmission and easy remote viewing of the static images and real-time video stream. Previous reports of real-time telesonography, such as the ones developed for emergency situations and humanitarian work, rely on high compressions of images utilized by remote sonologist to guide and supervise the unexperienced examiner. We believe that remote sonology could be also utilized in teleultrasound exam of infant hip. We tested feasibility of a low-cost teleultrasound system for infant hip and performed data analysis on the transmitted and original images. Transmission of data was accomplished with Remote Ultrasound (RU), a software package specifically designed for teleultrasound transmission through limited internet bandwidth. While image analysis of image pairs revealed statistically significant loss of information, panel evaluation failed to recognize any clinical difference between the original saved and transmitted still images. PMID:22847913

Martinov, Dobrivoje; Popov, Veljko; Ignjatov, Zoran; Harris, Robert D

2013-04-01

306

Assessment of range of motion and contact zones with commonly performed physical exam manoeuvers for femoroacetabular impingement (FAI): what do these tests mean?  

PubMed

Recognition of the magnitude and location of mechanical conflicts is critical to reliably and reproducibly improve functional range of motion and outcomes after surgical treatment of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). The purpose of this study was to assess the ROM and location of intra-articular and extra-articular mechanical conflict with seven commonly performed physical exam manoeuvers in a cohort of hips with symptomatic FAI. Internal rotation in flexion results in mechanical contact between the anterolateral and anterior femoral head-neck junction with the acetabulum, most commonly at a 1:15 o'clock position. Associated adduction, however, significantly reduces the available internal rotation secondary to contact in the same locations. Straight abduction results in mechanical conflict between the superior femoral head-neck junction and the 12:00 o'clock position of the acetabulum. With external rotation of the hip in various degrees of hip flexion, the potential mechanical impingement is extra-articular between the greater trochanter and ischium or pubic ramus. The zones of proximal femoral and acetabular contact are not intuitive, and may extend significantly more laterally and distally on the femoral head-neck junction than previously appreciated. PMID:23813171

Bedi, Asheesh; Thompson, Matthew; Uliana, Christiano; Magennis, Erin; Kelly, Bryan T

2013-01-01

307

A pilot study exploring the relationship between internists' self-reported sleepiness, performance on multiple-choice exam items and prefrontal cortex activity.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: Studies of resident fatigue and performance have shown mixed results. However, research has not examined daytime sleepiness and performance among attending physicians. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between sleep, performance and prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity. We hypothesized that sleepiness scores would negatively correlate with multiple-choice question (MCQ) performance and would also correlate with PFC activity. Methods: Board-certified physicians completed an Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and then answered MCQs from licensing examinations while in a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scanner. Results: Seventeen board-certified internists completed the study. The mean number of correct responses was 18.5/32. The correlation between the ESS and MCQ score was -0.30, and higher ESS scores were negatively associated with statistically significant changes in medial PFC (mPFC) activity. Conclusions: Attending physicians who reported higher sleepiness scores performed worse on licensing exam questions. Notably, our cohort had normal to mild sleepiness scores. Moreover, higher sleepiness scores were negatively associated with changes in mPFC activity on fMRI, which is consistent with emerging work implicating the PFC in fatigue-related cognitive impairment. Our findings have implications regarding the impact of sleep on physician performance during examinations and potentially on their care of patients. PMID:24593696

Durning, Steven J; Capaldi Ii, Vincent F; Artino, Anthony R; Graner, John; van der Vleuten, Cees; Beckman, Thomas J; Costanzo, Michelle; Holmboe, Eric; Schuwirth, Lambert

2014-05-01

308

Genesis of the Angra dos Reis and other achondritic meteorites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Major, minor, and trace element abundances were determined in seven Angra dos Reis samples, which included whole rocks, fassaite (clinopyroxene), olivine, and whitlockite separates, via sequential instrumental neutron activation analysis. The rare earth element abundance patterns and the trace element abundance patterns of this achondritic meteorite are discussed. A two-stage crystal-liquid fractionation model with source material containing olivine, orthopyroxene, and clinopyroxine is presented for the genesis of Angra dos Reis. Multilinear regression analysis was used to estimate possible composition and properties of the parent magmas. Angra dos Reis was compared with other achondrites, cumulate eucrites and nakhlites in particular. It is thought that the unique Angra dos Reis could not be related to those achondrites by crystal-liquid fractionation of the same parent body.

Ma, M.-S.; Murali, A. V.; Schmitt, R. A.

1977-01-01

309

Towards multisensor data fusion for DoS detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our present work we introduce the use of data fusion in the field of DoS anomaly detection. We present Dempster-Shafer's Theory of Evidence (D-S) as the mathematical foundation for the development of a novel DoS detection engine. Based on a data fusion paradigm, we combine multiple evidence generated from simple heuristics to feed our D-S inference engine and attempt

Christos Siaterlis; Basil S. Maglaris

2004-01-01

310

Access to Common Exams Probed  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A patchwork of testing accommodations is used in the nation's public schools to help students with disabilities and those still learning English show their command of academic content, just as their general education peers do. The list of accommodations--providing extra time, allowing the use of dictionaries, and reading test directions aloud, to…

Maxwell, Lesli A.

2013-01-01

311

Absenteeism and Undergraduate Exam Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the relationship between student absenteeism during a principles of microeconomics course and subsequent performance on examinations. Finds that students who missed class on a given date were significantly more likely to respond incorrectly to questions relating to material covered that day than students who attended class. (RLH)

Marburger, Daniel R.

2001-01-01

312

Slit-lamp exam (image)  

MedlinePLUS

A slit-lamp, which is a specialized magnifying microscope, is used to examine the structures of the eye (including the cornea, iris, vitreous, and retina). The slit-lamp is used to examine, treat (with a laser), ...

313

X-Ray Exam: Wrist  

MedlinePLUS

What It Is A wrist X-ray is a safe and painless test that uses a small amount of radiation to make an image of a person's wrist. During the examination, an X-ray machine sends a beam of radiation through ...

314

X-Ray Exam: Pelvis  

MedlinePLUS

What It Is A pelvis X-ray is a safe and painless test that uses a small amount of radiation to take a picture of the pelvic ... surround the hip area. During the examination, an X-ray machine sends a beam of radiation through ...

315

X-Ray Exam: Ankle  

MedlinePLUS

What It Is An ankle X-ray is a safe and painless test that uses a small amount of radiation to make an image of the ankle. ... back part of the foot (tarsal bones). An X-ray machine sends a beam of radiation through ...

316

A Demonstration on Every Exam.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that inclusion of demonstrations on examinations increases students' ability to observe carefully the physical world around them, translate from observation in terms of models, and make quantitative estimates and physicist-type "back-of-the-envelope" calculations. Presents demonstration ideas covering the following topics: mechanics,…

Julian, Glenn M.

1995-01-01

317

Exam Performance in Special Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents an analysis in text and tables of performance on the 1995 and 1996 General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) examinations by students who attended special educational schools in England. The main conclusions were: (1) nearly 70 percent of English special schools who have students at Year 11 (15 to 16 years old) had no…

Thomas, Gary

318

OptaDOS - a new tool for EELS calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many modern (Scanning) Transmission Electron Microscopes ((S)TEMs) are equipped with an energy loss spectrometer. The Electron Energy Loss (EEL) spectra collected provide an experimental method of probing the bonding within a material. With the extra addition of monochromators, the energy resolution obtainable means that even more information is revealed within the fine structure of the spectra. Interpreting the fine structure can often be aided by simulation. Density-functional theory (DFT) is one method of simulating EEL spectra. DFT allows us to simulate DOS and EEL spectra from different structures. This comparison between simulation and experiment enables us to explore how changes in the spectrum are related to changes within the sample. CASTEP is a pseudopotential DFT code which can simulate both low-loss and core-loss EEL spectra. Recent developments have resulted in a separate analysis tool, OptaDOS. This package computes various spectral properties including DOS, projected DOS, joint DOS, core-loss and low-loss EEL spectra and optical spectra. One of the important aspects of the code is the way in which the DOS is calculated. This is done via linear extrapolation or adaptive smearing, methods which are not currently available within CASTEP (or indeed any other code) and which allow detailed analysis of spectral properties. This paper summarises these developments and what they mean for the interpretation of EEL spectra.

Nicholls, R. J.; Morris, A. J.; Pickard, C. J.; Yates, J. R.

2012-07-01

319

Role of the dosR-dosS Two-Component Regulatory System in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Virulence in Three Animal Models? †  

PubMed Central

The Mycobacterium tuberculosis dosR gene (Rv3133c) is part of an operon, Rv3134c-Rv3132c, and encodes a response regulator that has been shown to be upregulated by hypoxia and other in vitro stress conditions and may be important for bacterial survival within granulomatous lesions found in tuberculosis. DosR is activated in response to hypoxia and nitric oxide by DosS (Rv3132c) or DosT (Rv2027c). We compared the virulence levels of an M. tuberculosis dosR-dosS deletion mutant (?dosR-dosS [?dosR-S]), a dosR-complemented strain, and wild-type H37Rv in rabbits, guinea pigs, and mice infected by the aerosol route and in a mouse hollow-fiber model that may mimic in vivo granulomatous conditions. In the mouse and the guinea pig models, the ?dosR-S mutant exhibited a growth defect. In the rabbit, the ?dosR-S mutant did not replicate more than the wild type. In the hollow-fiber model, the mutant phenotype was not different from that of the wild-type strain. Our analyses reveal that the dosR and dosS genes are required for full virulence and that there may be differences in the patterns of attenuation of this mutant between the animal models studied.

Converse, Paul J.; Karakousis, Petros C.; Klinkenberg, Lee G.; Kesavan, Anup K.; Ly, Lan H.; Allen, Shannon Sedberry; Grosset, Jacques H.; Jain, Sanjay K.; Lamichhane, Gyanu; Manabe, Yukari C.; McMurray, David N.; Nuermberger, Eric L.; Bishai, William R.

2009-01-01

320

Isotopic and chemical investigations on Angra dos Reis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Isotope ratios and chemical abundance measurements for a variety of elements are reported for total meteorite and mineral separates of the Angra dos Reis achondrite. U-Pb, Th-Pb, and Pb-Pb ages are concordant at 4.54 eons for the total meteorite and for high-purity whitlockite, which indicates that Angra dos Reis is an early planetary differentiate that has not been disturbed for these systems since 4.54 eons ago. The implications of different ratios of Sr-87 and Sr-86 found in different components are discussed. Xe isotopic measurements show that Pu-244 was enriched in the whitlockite relative to the pyroxene by a factor of about 18. Chemical enrichment factors between the whitlockite and the fassaitic pyroxene in Angra dos Reis are presented

Wasserburg, G. J.; Tera, F.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Huneke, J. C.

1977-01-01

321

Xenon spallation systematics in Angra dos Reis. [meteoritic evolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Literature Xe data for the Angra dos Reis meteorite have been resolved into constituent spallation, fission and trapped components. The spallation Xe compositions vary over a range wider than observed in any other samples, including lunar samples. These variations are due to the mixing of spallation Xe from Ba and rare earth element targets. It is possible to infer the Ba and rare earth spallation Xe compositions. Angra dos Reis spallation Xe compositions are systematically different from those observed in lunar samples, possibly because of differences in the irradiation conditions (geometry and shielding). Thus the Angra dos Reis data appear to be superior to lunar data for predicting spallation Xe compositions in other meteorites.

Hohenberg, C. M.; Hudson, B.; Kennedy, B. M.; Podosek, F. A.

1981-01-01

322

Reforma do Fundo de Participação dos Estados (FPE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este documento focaliza as opções para a reforma do Fundo de Participação dos Estados (FPE), que constitui uma das principais transferências intergovernamentais no Brasil. Este enfoque se justifica pelo fato de que essa reforma tornou-se uma prioridade política urgente após a decisão do Supremo Tribunal Federal (STF) que declarou a inconstitucionalidade da fórmula atual de distribuição horizontal do FPE e

Teresa Ter-Minassian

2012-01-01

323

When worlds collide - Mac to MS-DOS. [Data transfer to and from Apple Macintosh computers and MS-DOS based personal computers  

SciTech Connect

A number of methods and products, both hardware and software, to allow data exchange between Apple Macintosh computers and MS-DOS based systems. These included serial null modem connections, MS-DOS hardware and/or software emulation, MS-DOS disk-reading hardware and networking.

Busbey, A.B.

1989-04-01

324

Avaliação dos efeitos centrais dos fl orais de Bach em camundongos através de modelos farmacológicos específi cos  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: Os Remédios Florais de Bach (RFB), constituem um método alternativo de tratamento usado largamente na terapêutica de várias patologias em muitos países do mundo. Os RFB são reconhecidos como tratamento natural pela OMS desde 1956. Embora o mecanismo de ação dos RFB ainda não tenha sido elucidado, eles vêm sendo indicados para o tratamento de várias doenças neuropsiquiátricas. O

Márcia M. De-Souza; Milene Garbeloto; Karin Denez; Iriane Eger-Mangrich

325

MODELAGEM MATEMÁTICA DOS NÍVEIS D'ÁGUA NO RIO ARAGUAIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo - Este trabalho é pioneiro para a região Centro-Oeste do Brasil e visa ao aprofundamento da problemática do aproveitamento do Rio Araguaia como via navegável para transportar as safras de grãos das regiões Centro-Norte. O Programa de Desenvolvimento da Hidrovia Tocantins- Araguaia é uma iniciativa do Ministério dos Transportes para estabelecer a navegação fluvial confiável e segura em 2.242

Rone Antônio de Azevedo

326

Ultrafast ligand dynamics in the heme-based GAF sensor domains of the histidine kinases DosS and DosT from Mycobacterium tuberculosis†  

PubMed Central

The transcriptional regulator DosR from M. tuberculosis plays a crucial role in the virulence to dormancy transition of the pathogen. DosR can be activated by DosT and DosS, two histidine kinases with heme-containing sensor GAF domains, capable of diatomic ligand binding, To investigate the initial processes occurring upon ligand dissociation, we performed ultrafast time-resolved absorption spectroscopy of the isolated sensor domains ligated with O2, NO and CO. The results reveal a relatively closed heme pocket for both proteins. For DosT the yield of O2 escape from the heme pocket on the picoseconds timescale upon photodissociation was found to be very low (1.5%), similar to other heme-based oxygen sensor proteins, implying that this sensor acts as an effective O2 trap. Remarkably, this yield is an order of magnitude higher in DosS (18%). For CO, by contrast, the fraction of CO rebinding within the heme pocket is higher in DosS. Experiments with mutant DosT sensor domains and molecular dynamics simulations indicate an important role in ligand discrimination of the distal tyrosine, present in both proteins, which forms a hydrogen bond with heme-bound O2. We conclude that despite their similarity, DosT and DosS display ligand-specific different primary dynamics during the initial phases of intra-protein signaling. The distal tyrosine, present in both proteins, plays an important role in these processes.

Vos, Marten H.; Bouzhir-Sima, Latifa; Lambry, Jean-Christophe; Luo, Hao; Eaton-Rye, Julian J.; Ioanoviciu, Alexandra; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R.; Liebl, Ursula

2011-01-01

327

Ultrafast ligand dynamics in the heme-based GAF sensor domains of the histidine kinases DosS and DosT from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

The transcriptional regulator DosR from M. tuberculosis plays a crucial role in the virulence to dormancy transition of the pathogen. DosR can be activated by DosT and DosS, two histidine kinases with heme-containing sensor GAF domains, capable of diatomic ligand binding. To investigate the initial processes occurring upon ligand dissociation, we performed ultrafast time-resolved absorption spectroscopy of the isolated sensor domains ligated with O(2), NO, and CO. The results reveal a relatively closed heme pocket for both proteins. For DosT the yield of O(2) escape from the heme pocket on the picoseconds time scale upon photodissociation was found to be very low (1.5%), similar to other heme-based oxygen sensor proteins, implying that this sensor acts as an effective O(2) trap. Remarkably, this yield is an order of magnitude higher in DosS (18%). For CO, by contrast, the fraction of CO rebinding within the heme pocket is higher in DosS. Experiments with mutant DosT sensor domains and molecular dynamics simulations indicate an important role in ligand discrimination of the distal tyrosine, present in both proteins, which forms a hydrogen bond with heme-bound O(2). We conclude that despite their similarity, DosT and DosS display ligand-specific different primary dynamics during the initial phases of intraprotein signaling. The distal tyrosine, present in both proteins, plays an important role in these processes. PMID:22142262

Vos, Marten H; Bouzhir-Sima, Latifa; Lambry, Jean-Christophe; Luo, Hao; Eaton-Rye, Julian J; Ioanoviciu, Alexandra; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R; Liebl, Ursula

2012-01-10

328

Structures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DosR and DosR?DNA Complex Involved in Gene Activation during Adaptation to Hypoxic Latency  

SciTech Connect

On encountering low oxygen conditions, DosR activates the transcription of 47 genes, promoting long-term survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a non-replicating state. Here, we report the crystal structures of the DosR C-terminal domain and its complex with a consensus DNA sequence of the hypoxia-induced gene promoter. The DosR C-terminal domain contains four {alpha}-helices and forms tetramers consisting of two dimers with non-intersecting dyads. In the DNA-bound structure, each DosR C-terminal domain in a dimer places its DNA-binding helix deep into the major groove, causing two bends in the DNA. DosR makes numerous protein-DNA base contacts using only three amino acid residues per subunit: Lys179, Lys182, and Asn183. The DosR tetramer is unique among response regulators with known structures.

Wisedchaisri, Goragot; Wu, Meiting; Rice, Adrian E.; Roberts, David M.; Sherman, David R.; Hol, Wim G.J. (UWASH)

2010-07-20

329

Trace Element Distribution Between Olivine and Kirschsteinite in Angra Dos Reis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kirschsteinite occurs interstitially to olivine grains in olivine aggregates in the Angra dos Reis angrite. Trace element abundances in these two phases in Angra dos Reis are similar to trace element abundances in these phases in LEW86010.

Fittipaldo, M. M.; Jones, R. H.; Shearer, C. K.

2003-03-01

330

Research of DoS Intrusion Real-time Detection Based on Danger Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Denial of Service (DoS) attack is one of the most common network attacks on network in the present. Usually DoS attack is often executed in fraudulent way, so they have the characteristic of fraudulence and danger. A new method of DoS intrusion detection based on the immune danger theory is presented in the paper, according to the characteristic of DoS

Chun Xu; Xing-shu Chen; Hui Zhao; Yu-ming Jiang; Nian Liu; Tie-fang Wang

2007-01-01

331

A EXPLORAÇÃO DO ECOSSISTEMA DOS MANGAIS ENQUANTO APROPRIAÇÃO DO ESPAÇO NA CIDADE DE ANGOCHE  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: O artigo apresenta uma reflexão sobre a relação entre a população e os recursos naturais, com enfoque específico no ecossistema dos mangais. Descreve algumas práticas da vida quotidiana e que caracterizam a exploração dos mangais na cidade de Angoche; daí parte para uma reflexão em torno dos processos de produção do espaço: a apropriação do espaço. O artigo revela

Alexandre H. M. Baia

332

Estudio dinámico de un potencial perturbador dependiente de dos parámetros  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

El objeto del presente trabajo consiste en el estudio dinámico de un sistema dinámico caracterizado por la función hamiltoniana correspondiente a un satélite planetario perturbado por la acción del Sol y del achatamiento del planeta madre. Cuando dicha Hamiltoniana se promedia respecto de los términos de corto período, esta queda con dos grados de libertad, y su estudio puede ser realizado con las herramientas clásicas de la dinámica no-lineal. Se tratará de determinar regiones regulares y caóticas de movimiento. En el caso de estas últimas, es de particular interés la determinación de su orígen.

Miloni, O.; Brunini, A.

333

Detection of DoS attacks using intrusion detection sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intrusion detection systems have usually been developed using large host-based components. These components impose an extra load on the system where they run (sometimes even requiring a dedicated system) and are subject to tampering or disabling by an intruder. Additionally, intrusion detection systems have usually obtained information about host behavior through indirect means, such as audit trails or network packet traces. This potentially allows intruders to modify the information before the intrusion detection system obtains it and slows down the detection and prevention of DoS attacks, making it possible for an intruder to hide his activities. In this paper we propose work that will attempt to show that it is possible to perform intrusion detection mechanism of DoS attacks using small sensors embedded in a computer system. These sensors will look for signs of specific intrusions. They will perform target monitoring by observing the behavior of the through an audit trail or other indirect means in real time while the Snort IDS running. Furthermore, by being built into the computer system it could provide a flexible alert sensor which may not impose a considerable extra load on the host they monitor.

Ramakrishna, Pathmenanthan; Maarof, Mohd A.

2002-09-01

334

Dynamic crystallization experiments on the Angra DOS Reis achondritic meteorite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The types of cooling histories necessary to produce the porphyritic texture and the observed mineral assemblage in Angra dos Reis (ADOR) achondritic meteorite, which, on the basis of its trace element characteristics was considered to be a cumulate with a recrystallized texture, while a recent model suggested that ADOR is a porphyry. Dynamic crystallization experiments were conducted with nucleation conditions varied by melting the starting material at different degrees of superheat. The results show that, at low pressure, a volcanic or hypabyssal history of ADOR is possible. The most likely history involved cooling from a slightly subliquidus temperature with a relatively high and irregular nucleation density resulting in a granular texture with the poikilitic fassaite growing late; accumulation of some crystal is tought to be probable.

Lofgren, G. E.; Lanier, A. B.

1992-07-01

335

Urano y sus dos satélites irregulares recientemente descubiertos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hasta hace poco tiempo, Urano era el único de los Planetas Gigantes que no poseía satélites irregulares. Esto lo diferenciaba del resto de los planetas Gigantes, al igual que la peculiar oblicuidad de su eje de spin. La gran inclinación de su eje de rotación se debe probablemente a una colisión que sufrió el planeta con otro embrión planetario al final del proceso de formación. Esta colisión habría desligado satélites exteriores preexistentes del planeta. Recientemente se han descubierto dos satélites irregulares de Urano, lo que introduce algunas nuevas cotas y condiciones en el escenario de la "Hipótesis de la Gran Colisión" . Los satélites irregulares de Urano tuvieron que ser capturados en una etapa posterior a la del escenario de la Gran Colisión, de no ser así, hubieran sido eyectados del sistema por el impulso impartido con ese gran impacto. En este trabajo, se discuten los posibles mecanismos de captura de los satélites irregulares y se presenta un nuevo posible mecanismo para dicha captura.

Parisi, M. G.; Brunini, A.

336

Document image archive transfer from DOS to UNIX  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An R&D division of the National Library of Medicine has developed a prototype system for automated document image delivery as an adjunct to the labor-intensive manual interlibrary loan service of the library. The document image archive is implemented by a PC controlled bank of optical disk drives which use 12 inch WORM platters containing bitmapped images of over 200,000 pages of medical journals. Following three years of routine operation which resulted in serving patrons with articles both by mail and fax, an effort is underway to relocate the storage environment from the DOS-based system to a UNIX-based jukebox whose magneto-optical erasable 5 1/4 inch platters hold the images. This paper describes the deficiencies of the current storage system, the design issues of modifying several modules in the system, the alternatives proposed and the tradeoffs involved.

Hauser, Susan E.; Gill, Michael J.; Thoma, George R.

1994-01-01

337

Dynamic crystallization experiments on the Angra dos Reis achondritic meteorite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The types of cooling histories necessary to produce the porphyritic texture and the observed mineral assemblage in Angra dos Reis (ADOR) achondritic meteorite, which, on the basis of its trace element characteristics was considered to be a cumulate with a recrystallized texture, while a recent model suggested that ADOR is a porphyry. Dynamic crystallization experiments were conducted with nucleation conditions varied by melting the starting material at different degrees of superheat. The results show that, at low pressure, a volcanic or hypabyssal history of ADOR is possible. The most likely history involved cooling from a slightly subliquidus temperature with a relatively high and irregular nucleation density resulting in a granular texture with the poikilitic fassaite growing late; accumulation of some crystal is tought to be probable.

Lofgren, G. E.; Lanier, A. B.

1992-01-01

338

Blockage of the channel to heme by the E87 side chain in the GAF domain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DosS confers the unique sensitivity of DosS to oxygen.  

PubMed

Two sensor kinases, DosS and DosT, are responsible for recognition of hypoxia in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Both proteins are structurally similar to each other, but DosS is a redox sensor while DosT binds oxygen. The primary difference between the two proteins is the channel to the heme present in their GAF domains. DosS has a channel that is blocked by E87 while DosT has an open channel. Absorption spectra of DosS mutants with an open channel show that they bind oxygen as DosT does when they are exposed to air, while DosT G85E mutant is oxidized similarly to DosS without formation of an oxy-ferrous form. This suggests that oxygen accessibility to heme is the primary factor governing the oxygen-binding properties of these proteins. PMID:21536032

Cho, Ha Yeon; Cho, Hyo Je; Kim, Myung Hee; Kang, Beom Sik

2011-06-23

339

The Mycobacterium DosR regulon structure and diversity revealed by comparative genomic analysis.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), which claims approximately two million people annually, remains a global health concern. The non-replicating or dormancy like state of this pathogen which is impervious to anti-tuberculosis drugs is widely recognized as the culprit for this scenario. The dormancy survival regulator (DosR) regulon, composed of 48 co-regulated genes, is held as essential for Mtb persistence. The DosR regulon is regulated by a two-component regulatory system consisting of two sensor kinases-DosS (Rv3132c) and DosT (Rv2027c), and a response regulator DosR (Rv3133c). The underlying regulatory mechanism of DosR regulon expression is very complex. Many factors are involved, particularly the oxygen tension. The DosR regulon enables the pathogen to persist during lengthy hypoxia. Comparative genomic analysis demonstrated that the DosR regulon is widely distributed among the mycobacterial genomes, ranging from the pathogenic strains to the environmental strains. In-depth studies on the DosR response should provide insights into its role in TB latency in vivo and shape new measures to combat this exceeding recalcitrant pathogen. PMID:22833514

Chen, Tian; He, Liming; Deng, Wanyan; Xie, Jianping

2013-01-01

340

Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth following aerobic expression of the DosR regulon.  

PubMed

The Mycobacterium tuberculosis regulator DosR is induced by multiple stimuli including hypoxia, nitric oxide and redox stress. Overlap of these stimuli with conditions thought to promote latency in infected patients fuels a model in which DosR regulon expression is correlated with bacteriostasis in vitro and a proxy for latency in vivo. Here, we find that inducing the DosR regulon to wildtype levels in aerobic, replicating M. tuberculosis does not alter bacterial growth kinetics. We conclude that DosR regulon expression alone is insufficient for bacterial latency, but rather is expressed during a range of growth states in a dynamic environment. PMID:22558276

Minch, Kyle; Rustad, Tige; Sherman, David R

2012-01-01

341

I-121 - CINÉTICA QUÍMICA E FUNDAMENTOS DOS PROCESSOS DE NITRIFICAÇÃO E DENITRIFICAÇÃO BIOLÓGICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO A demanda crescente dos usos das águas naturais tem gerado necessidades crescentes de processos efetivos no tratamentos de efluentes líquidos, e estratégias de gerenciamento dos recursos naturais. As tecnologias disponíveis para o controle do nitrogênio em efluentes industriais e domésticos têm se tornado uma poderosa ferramenta tanto para a correta disposição de efluentes, como para o gerenciamento das águas.

Eduardo S. Ferreira

342

America Inc.: John Dos Passos'"USA" as Professional Writing Textbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While working as a special consultant for General Mills in 1948, John Dos Passos wrote a report explaining the latest scientific research and technological advancements and how the postwar economy was affecting General Mills and the cereal market. General Mills, using a real writer for a corporate freelance, profited from Dos Passos' expertise and…

Di Renzo, Anthony

343

The dormancy regulator DosR controls ribosome stability in hypoxic mycobacteria.  

PubMed

It is thought that during latent infection, Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli are retained within granulomas in a low-oxygen environment. The dormancy survival (Dos) regulon, regulated by the response regulator DosR, appears to be essential for hypoxic survival in M. tuberculosis, but it is not known how the regulon promotes survival. Here we report that mycobacteria, in contrast to enteric bacteria, do not form higher-order structures (e.g. ribosomal dimers) upon entry into stasis. Instead, ribosomes are stabilized in the associated form (70S). Using a strategy incorporating microfluidic, proteomic, and ribosomal profiling techniques to elucidate the fate of mycobacterial ribosomes during hypoxic stasis, we show that the dormancy regulator DosR is required for optimal ribosome stabilization. We present evidence that the majority of this effect is mediated by the DosR-regulated protein MSMEG_3935 (a S30AE domain protein), which is associated with the ribosome under hypoxic conditions. A ?3935 mutant phenocopies the ?dosR mutant during hypoxia, and complementation of ?dosR with the MSMEG_3935 gene leads to complete recovery of dosR mutant phenotypes during hypoxia. We suggest that this protein is named ribosome-associated factor under hypoxia (RafH) and that it is the major factor responsible for DosR-mediated hypoxic survival in mycobacteria. PMID:22544737

Trauner, Andrej; Lougheed, Kathryn E A; Bennett, Mark H; Hingley-Wilson, Suzanne M; Williams, Huw D

2012-07-01

344

33 CFR 105.245 - Declaration of Security (DoS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for requesting a DoS and for handling DoS requests from a vessel. (b) At MARSEC Level 1, a facility receiving a cruise ship or a manned vessel carrying Certain Dangerous Cargo, in bulk, must comply with the following: (1)...

2013-07-01

345

Organic Geochemistry of the Angra dos Reis Marine Sediments: Aliphatic and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Angra dos Reis City, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, is an area of environmental interest due to the great tourist activity, mainly nautical. Also, Angra dos Reis is of economic importance based on its oil terminal, harbor, shipyard, and nuclear power plant. For this reason, the composition and levels of selected organic geochemical markers such as aliphatic hydrocarbons (total and

D. A. Azevedo; M. L. Gonçalves; D. B. Silva

2007-01-01

346

Exam Question Exchange: Potential Energy Surfaces.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents three examination questions, graded in difficulty, that explore the topic of potential energy surfaces using a diagrammatic approach. Provides and discusses acceptable solutions including diagrams. (CW)

Alexander, John J., Ed.

1988-01-01

347

Examining the Master's Oral Exam in Counseling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At Georgia Southern College a study of faculty time expended in the master's oral examination in counseling revealed written tests could save 680 faculty hours at the 89 percent success rate (almost 50 hours per year). The oral could be retained as an option for some students. (Author)

Mabry, Kemp

1976-01-01

348

Radiation Exposure from Medical Exams and Procedures  

MedlinePLUS

... through the body to form pictures on a computer or television monitor, which are viewed by a ... organs and their level of function on a computer monitor. A nuclear medicine physician views these pictures. ...

349

Periodontal Probe Improves Exams, Alleviates Pain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dentists, comedian Bill Cosby memorably mused, tell you not to pick your teeth with any sharp metal object. Then you sit in their chair, and the first thing they grab is an iron hook!" Conventional periodontal probing is indeed invasive, uncomfortable for the patient, and the results can vary greatly between dentists and even for repeated measurements by the same dentist. It is a necessary procedure, though, as periodontal disease is the most common dental disease, involving the loss of teeth by the gradual destruction of ligaments that hold teeth in their sockets in the jawbone. The disease usually results from an increased concentration of bacteria in the pocket, or sulcus, between the gums and teeth. These bacteria produce acids and other byproducts, which enlarge the sulcus by eroding the gums and the periodontal ligaments. The sulcus normally has a depth of 1 to 2 millimeters, but in patients with early stages of periodontal disease, it has a depth of 3 to 5 millimeters. By measuring the depth of the sulcus, periodontists can have a good assessment of the disease s progress. Presently, there are no reliable clinical indicators of periodontal disease activity, and the best available diagnostic aid, periodontal probing, can only measure what has already been lost. A method for detecting small increments of periodontal ligament breakdown would permit earlier diagnosis and intervention with less costly and time-consuming therapy, while overcoming the problems associated with conventional probing. The painful, conventional method for probing may be destined for the archives of dental history, thanks to the development of ultrasound probing technologies. The roots of ultrasound probes are in an ultrasound-based time-of-flight technique routinely used to measure material thickness and length in the Nondestructive Evaluation Sciences Laboratory at Langley Research Center. The primary applications of that technology have been for corrosion detection and bolt tension measurements (Spinoff 2005). This ultrasound measurement system was adapted to the Periodontal Structures Mapping System, invented at Langley by John A. Companion, under the supervision of Dr. Joseph S. Heyman. Support of the research and development that led to this invention was provided by NASA s Technology Applications Engineering Program and by the Naval Institute for Dental and Biomedical Research, in Great Lakes, Illinois.

2008-01-01

350

Theoretical Exam on the Human Trafficking Crime  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human trafficking is a crime against personal liberty, committed by traffickers for exploitation and can involve or not the crossing borders phenomenon as a complex one, consisting of a variety of forms of expression and it allow gradual sanctions, depending on the gravity of the offending statements. Human trafficking is the recruitment, transportation, transfer, housing or receipt of persons, by

Cornel Petre Filip

2010-01-01

351

Fear Won't Boost Exam Scores  

MedlinePLUS

... published online April 15 in the journal School Psychology Quarterly . "Both messages highlight to students the importance ... into the lesson plans," Putwain added. SOURCE: School Psychology Quarterly , news release, April 21, 2014 HealthDay Copyright ( ...

352

Computer-assisted transrectal ultrasound exams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a microcomputer based system with an application specific software package which permits the direct digitization and analysis of transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) images. The system is highly flexible and enables access to a wide range of image analysis tools through relatively simple software modifications which cannot. be implemented using a standard ultrasound instrument. We have demonstrated the capability of the system by an analysis of a number of morphometric parameters and by a correlation of these measurements with the presence of prostatic cancer. We found that the measurement of the ratio of the anterior-posterior axis to transverse axis (ATR) and the presumed circular area ratio (PCAR) were significant predictors of prostatic cancer. The sensitivity of the PCAR measurement was 93 the specificity was 50 the positive predictive value was 57 and the negative predictive value was 91. This system provides researchers with an efficient economical and flexible method to aid in the analysis of ThUS images in a quantitative manner. 1.

Craine, Brian L.; Oldani, Gregory; Engel, John R.; Whitney, Ronald; Wright, David; Craine, Eric R.

1990-07-01

353

Examing Unexpected Challenges Facing Department Chairs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many department chairs encounter unexpected and unforeseen challenges. To attempt to share this hard-earned wisdom with the larger community, we asked PKALÃÂs Faculty for the 21st Century (F21) members who are currently serving as department/program chairs: ÃÂWhat are two things I know now about leading a department/program that I wish I knew when I started?ÃÂ The responses range from the practi cal to the philosophical and they shed light on the complexity of becoming a successful chair.

PKAL (Project Kaleidoscope)

2008-04-24

354

X-Ray Exam: Scoliosis (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

What It Is A scoliosis X-ray is a relatively safe and painless test that uses a small amount of radiation to create detailed images ... recorded on a computer or special film. The scoliosis X-ray includes the thoracic spine (upper back) ...

355

What Is a Comprehensive Dilated Eye Exam?  

MedlinePLUS

... include? A comprehensive eye examination includes: dilation , tonometry , visual field test and visual acuity test . Dilation: Drops are placed ... Elevated pressure is a possible sign of glaucoma. Visual field test: This test measures your side (peripheral) vision. It ...

356

Glioma stem cells: a midterm exam.  

PubMed

Several years ago, the discovery of a highly tumorigenic subpopulation of stem-like cells embedded within fresh surgical isolates of malignant gliomas lent support to a new paradigm in cancer biology--the cancer stem cell hypothesis. At the same time, these "glioma stem cells" seemed to resolve a long-standing conundrum on the cell of origin for primary cancers of the brain. However, central tenets of the cancer stem cell hypothesis have recently been challenged, and the cellular origins of stem-like cells within malignant glioma are still contended. Here, we summarize the issues that are still in play with respect to the cancer stem cell hypothesis, and we revisit the developmental origins of malignant glioma. Do glioma stem cells arise from developmentally stalled neural progenitors or from dedifferentiated astrocytes? Five separate predictions of a neural progenitor cell of origin are put to the test. PMID:18579075

Stiles, Charles D; Rowitch, David H

2008-06-26

357

The Pelvic Exam and Pap Smear  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Although the incidence of cervical cancer has declined in the United States, it remains one of the leading causes of cancer-related\\u000a death in developing countries. Despite advances in cervical cancer screening, there were an estimated 11,150 cases of invasive\\u000a cervical cancer in the USA in 2007 with 3,670 women expected to die of the disease. It is important to utilize

Stephanie Corrado

358

Analysis of SWO Fundamentals Exam Scores.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since August 2008, the newly commissioned Surface Warfare Officer (SWO) has been trained for SWO qualification through the INTRO/ASAT program. Through this program, USNA and NROTC officers check onto their first ship and subsequently attend a five-week in...

J. M. Bradley

2011-01-01

359

The DosR regulon of M. tuberculosis and antibacterial tolerance.  

PubMed

Adaptation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to an anaerobic dormant state that is tolerant to several antibacterials is mediated largely by a set of highly expressed genes controlled by DosR. A DosR mutant was constructed to investigate whether the DosR regulon is involved in antibacterial tolerance. We demonstrate that induction of the regulon is not required for drug tolerance either in vivo during a mouse infection or in vitro during anaerobic dormancy. Thus, drug tolerance observed in these models is due to other mechanisms such as the bacilli simply being in a non-replicating or low metabolic state. Our data also demonstrate that the DosR regulon is not essential for virulence during chronic murine infection. However, decreased lung pathology was observed in the DosR mutant. We also show that the DosR regulon genes are more highly conserved in environmental mycobacteria, than in pathogenic mycobacteria lacking a latent phase or environmental reservoir. It is possible that the DosR regulon could contribute to drug tolerance in human infections; however, it is not the only mechanism and not the primary mechanism for tolerance during a mouse infection. These data suggest that the regulon evolved not for pathogenesis or drug tolerance but for adaptation to anaerobic conditions in the environment and has been adapted by M. tuberculosis for survival during latent infection. PMID:19577518

Bartek, I L; Rutherford, R; Gruppo, V; Morton, R A; Morris, R P; Klein, M R; Visconti, K C; Ryan, G J; Schoolnik, G K; Lenaerts, A; Voskuil, M I

2009-07-01

360

The DosR regulon of M. tuberculosis and antibacterial tolerance  

PubMed Central

Summary Adaptation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to an anaerobic dormant state that is tolerant to several antibacterials is mediated largely by a set of highly expressed genes controlled by DosR. A DosR mutant was constructed to investigate whether the DosR regulon is involved in antibacterial tolerance. We demonstrate that induction of the regulon is not required for drug tolerance either in vivo during a mouse infection or in vitro during anaerobic dormancy. Thus, drug tolerance observed in these models is due to other mechanisms such as the bacilli simply being in a non-replicating or low metabolic state. Our data also demonstrate that the DosR regulon is not essential for virulence during chronic murine infection. However, decreased lung pathology was observed in the DosR mutant. We also show that the DosR regulon genes are more highly conserved in environmental mycobacteria, than in pathogenic mycobacteria lacking a latent phase or environmental reservoir. It is possible that the DosR regulon could contribute to drug tolerance in human infections; however, it is not the only mechanism and not the primary mechanism for tolerance during a mouse infection. These data suggest that the regulon evolved not for pathogenesis or drug tolerance but for adaptation to anaerobic conditions in the environment and has been adapted by M. tuberculosis for survival during latent infection.

Bartek, I.L.; Rutherford, R.; Gruppo, V.; Morton, R.A.; Morris, R.P.; Klein, M.R.; Visconti, K.C.; Ryan, G.J.; Schoolnik, G.K.; Lenaerts, A.; Voskuil, M.I.

2009-01-01

361

Calcium Isotopic Anomalies in the Allende CAIs and the Angrite Angra dos Reis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both negative 48Ca and 50Ti anomalies of the Angrite Angra dos Reis was identified in this study, and the result supported previous study of correlated negative 54Cr and 50Ti anomalies in achondrites.

Chen, H. W.; Chen, J. C.; Lee, T.; Shen, J. J.

2010-03-01

362

DOS 21: PCDOS 2.0 Support Subroutine Package for the IBM Personal Computer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The DOS21 subroutine was developed to provide direct access to selected PCDOS 2.0 system calls from Supersoft FORTRAN. These system calls, which are normally available only from assembly language, allow the programmer greater capability when using Superso...

F. McGirt

1984-01-01

363

Measurements of degree of sensitization (DoS) in aluminum alloys using EMAT ultrasound.  

PubMed

Sensitization in 5XXX aluminum alloys is an insidious problem characterized by the gradual formation and growth of beta phase (Mg(2)Al(3)) at grain boundaries, which increases the susceptibility of alloys to intergranular corrosion (IGC) and intergranular stress-corrosion cracking (IGSCC). The degree of sensitization (DoS) is currently quantified by the ASTM G67 Nitric Acid Mass Loss Test, which is destructive and time consuming. A fast, reliable, and non-destructive method for rapid detection and the assessment of the condition of DoS in AA5XXX aluminum alloys in the field is highly desirable. In this paper, we describe a non-destructive method for measurements of DoS in aluminum alloys with an electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT). AA5083 aluminum alloy samples were sensitized at 100°C with processing times varying from 7days to 30days. The DoS of sensitized samples was first quantified with the ASTM 67 test in the laboratory. Both ultrasonic velocity and attenuation in sensitized specimens were then measured using EMAT and the results were correlated with the DoS data. We found that the longitudinal wave velocity was almost a constant, independent of the sensitization, which suggests that the longitudinal wave can be used to determine the sample thickness. The shear wave velocity and especially the shear wave attenuation are sensitive to DoS. Relationships between DoS and the shear velocity, as well as the shear attenuation have been established. Finally, we performed the data mining to evaluate and improve the accuracy in the measurements of DoS in aluminum alloys with EMAT. PMID:21232777

Li, Fang; Xiang, Dan; Qin, Yexian; Pond, Robert B; Slusarski, Kyle

2011-07-01

364

Performance Sensitivities of Wireless Mesh Networks Under Path-Based DoS Attacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the performance of wireless mesh networks (WMNs) under the impact of path-based denial of service (DoS) attacks. Specifically, we study the factors that are conducive to path-based DoS attacks, while focusing external interferences, medium errors, and physical diversity. We setup a wireless mesh testbed and configure a set of experiments to gather measurements and assess the effects

Avesh Kumar Agarwal; Wenye Wang

2009-01-01

365

Non-invasive tissue temperature measurements based on quantitative diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) of water  

PubMed Central

We describe the development of a non-invasive method for quantitative tissue temperature measurements using Broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS). Our approach is based on well-characterized opposing shifts in near-infrared (NIR) water absorption spectra that appear with temperature and macromolecular binding state. Unlike conventional reflectance methods, DOS is used to generate scattering-corrected tissue water absorption spectra. This allows us to separate the macromolecular bound water contribution from the thermally induced spectral shift using the temperature isosbestic point at 996 nm. The method was validated in intralipid tissue phantoms by correlating DOS with thermistor measurements (R = 0.96) with a difference of 1.1 ± 0.91 °C over a range of 28–48 °C. Once validated, thermal and hemodynamic (i.e. oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentration) changes were measured simultaneously and continuously in human subjects (forearm) during mild cold stress. DOS-measured arm temperatures were consistent with previously reported invasive deep tissue temperature studies. These results suggest that DOS can be used for non-invasive, co-registered measurements of absolute temperature and hemoglobin parameters in thick tissues, a potentially important approach for optimizing thermal diagnostics and therapeutics.

Chung, SH; Cerussi, AE; Merritt, SI; Ruth, J; Tromberg, BJ

2012-01-01

366

Non-invasive tissue temperature measurements based on quantitative diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) of water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the development of a non-invasive method for quantitative tissue temperature measurements using Broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS). Our approach is based on well-characterized opposing shifts in near-infrared (NIR) water absorption spectra that appear with temperature and macromolecular binding state. Unlike conventional reflectance methods, DOS is used to generate scattering-corrected tissue water absorption spectra. This allows us to separate the macromolecular bound water contribution from the thermally induced spectral shift using the temperature isosbestic point at 996 nm. The method was validated in intralipid tissue phantoms by correlating DOS with thermistor measurements (R = 0.96) with a difference of 1.1 ± 0.91 °C over a range of 28-48 °C. Once validated, thermal and hemodynamic (i.e. oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentration) changes were measured simultaneously and continuously in human subjects (forearm) during mild cold stress. DOS-measured arm temperatures were consistent with previously reported invasive deep tissue temperature studies. These results suggest that DOS can be used for non-invasive, co-registered measurements of absolute temperature and hemoglobin parameters in thick tissues, a potentially important approach for optimizing thermal diagnostics and therapeutics.

Chung, S. H.; Cerussi, A. E.; Merritt, S. I.; Ruth, J.; Tromberg, B. J.

2010-07-01

367

Exam Performance as a Function of Exam Completion Time, State Anxiety and Ability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While many researchers have examined the effects of test anxiety on examination completion time and performance, most have not controlled for ability in their studies. In this study, it was hypothesized that, when ability was controlled, college students high in state anxiety would take significantly longer to complete an examination and would…

Chandler, Theodore A.; Mako, Thomas J.

368

A Double Layers Detection for DoS Based on the Danger Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

As one of the most common network attacks, denial of service (DoS) usually uses reasonable service requests to take excessive computing and network resources, thus causes the legitimate users to be unable to obtain the service responses. But now little research has performed within the area. This aim of the paper is to develop a double layers detection system for

Junmin Zhang; Yiwen Liang

2009-01-01

369

Identificação dos vegetais destinados a ornamentação de praças, parques e creches em Campina Grande, PB  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO O Horto Florestal Lauro Pires Xavier, situado às margens do açude de Bodocongó, em Campina Grande-PB é uma importante unidade mantida pela prefeitura no sentido de preservação e conservação de espécies. Através do viveiro, o município tem condição de aumentar as áreas verdes, proporcionando lazer e bem estar à população. Esse trabalho tem como tema à identificação dos vegetais

Mário Luiz Farias Cavalcanti; Ivan Coelho Dantas; Giselle Medeiros da Costa Silva; Luciana de Luna Costa; Maria José Benício Barros; Ronny Soffiantini Lira

370

Model-Checking DoS Amplification for VoIP Session Initiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current techniques for the formal modeling analysis of DoS attacks do not adequately deal with amplication attacks that may tar- get a complex distributed system as a whole rather than a specic server. Such threats have emerged for important applications such as the VoIP Session Initiation Protocol (SIP). We demonstrate a model- checking technique for nding amplication threats using a

Ravinder Shankesi; Musab Alturki; Ralf Sasse; Carl A. Gunter; José Meseguer

2009-01-01

371

Regulação Econômica e a Expansão dos Serviços de Distribuição de Gás Natural Canalizado no Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Esta dissertação trata da questão da regulação do setor de distribuição de gás natural canalizado no Brasil e as implicações que uma política de expansão dos serviços tem na regulação ótima. A primeira parte faz uma análise institucional do setor de distribuição de gás natural, identificando o papel da regulação no mesmo. A segunda parte é uma breve resenha sobre

Pablo Aurélio Lacerda de Almeida

372

Aplicacao das Redes Neuronais Artificiais a Deteccao dos Mercados Euronext Mais Rentaveis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Com este estudo investigasse a possibilidade de utilizacao de uma rede neuronial artificial na deteccao dos mercados de accoes da Euronext que proporcionam a melhor rendibilidade diaria. A rede, treinada com o algoritmo de Levenberg-Marquardt, recomenda a um investidor hipotetico a escolha do Indice de precos representativo do mercado que se preve que maior rendibilidade oferece no dia de negociacao

Paulo Horta; Carlos Mendes

2007-01-01

373

Porting a Complex Machine Tool Error Compensation System from Microsoft DOS to Microsoft Windows NT.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the porting of a manufacturing quality control system from PC-type computers operating on Microsoft DOS, Microsoft Windows 95, and IBM OS/2, to updated PCs operating on Microsoft Windows NT. The changes included adapting the control ...

H. T. Bandy M. A. Domez L. A. Welsch

2001-01-01

374

Infrared and Isotopic Evidence for Diagenesis of Bone Apatite at Dos Pilas, Guatemala: Palaeodietary Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of stable carbon isotopic analysis of bone apatite to reconstruct prehistoric diets is hindered by the possibility of diagenetic alteration of carbonate during burial. We examine apatite preservation in Classic Period Maya skeletal remains from Dos Pilas, Guatemala, using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). We use weight % CO2evolved from apatite, FTIR carbonate\\/phosphate absorbance ratios, phosphate peak splitting

Lori E. Wright; Henry P. Schwarcz

1996-01-01

375

Distillation Codes and Applications to DoS Resistant Multicast Authentication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: We introduce distillation codes, a method for streamingand storing data. Like erasure codes, distillation codesallow information to be decoded from a sufficiently largequorum of symbols. In contrast to erasure codes, distillationcodes are robust against pollution attacks, a powerfulclass of denial of service (DoS) attacks in which adversariesinject invalid symbols during the decoding process.We examine applications of distillation codes to

Chris Karlof; Naveen Sastry; Yaping Li; Adrian Perrig; J. D. Tygar

2004-01-01

376

Influência do óleo de linhaça sobre o desempenho e a qualidade dos ovos de poedeiras semipesadas  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - O experimento foi conduzido para avaliar a influência da adição de óleo de linhaça em substituição ao óleo de soja em rações para poedeiras semipesadas sobre o desempenho e a qualidade interna e externa dos ovos. Utilizaram-se 192 poedeiras da linhagem Bovans Godline com 29 semanas de idade, distribuídas em seis tratamentos, que consistiram de uma dieta controle

Fernando Guilherme Perazzo Costa; Janete Gouveia de Souza; José Humberto Vilar da Silva; Carlos Bôa-Viagem Rabello; Cláudia de Castro Goulart; Raul da Cunha Lima Neto

2008-01-01

377

Sedimentation survey of Lago Dos Bocas, Utuado, Puerto Rico, January 2010  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lago Dos Bocas reservoir was completed in 1942 to provide water for hydroelectric power generation along the northern coast of Puerto Rico. The reservoir had an original storage capacity of 37.50 million cubic meters (Mm3). The dam is located about 9 kilometers (km) northeast of the town of Utuado, immediately downstream of the original confluence of the Río Grande de Arecibo and the Río Caonillas (fig. 1). The Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) owns and operates the Lago Dos Bocas reservoir, and since 1996, the reservoir has become an essential part of the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (PRASA) North Coast Superaqueduct Project. The Superaqueduct is supplied by controlled releases for hydroelectric power generation that replenish the public-supply raw-water intake pool located about 10 km downstream from the Lago Dos Bocas Dam (fig. 1). As of 2005, the Superaqueduct supplies about 4.03 cubic meters per second (m3/s) (348,192 cubic meters per day [m3/d]) of potable water to communities along the northern coast, from Arecibo to the San Juan metropolitan area. Because of the importance of the reservoir to the North Coast Superaqueduct, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with PRASA, conducted a sedimentation survey of Lago Dos Bocas in January 2009. The results of this survey were used to estimate the useful life and the firm yield of the reservoir, and evaluate the need to dredge the reservoir.

Soler-Lopez, Luis R.

2014-01-01

378

Levantamento dos Fatores Limitantes da Produtividade Leiteira na Regi- ão de Anápolis-Go  

Microsoft Academic Search

O presente trabalho foi realizado no município de Anápolis-GO no mês de julho de 1995. Consistiu de uma avaliação da atividade pecuária em fazendas leiteiras com o objetivo de, através da análise dos principais índices zootécnicos, determinar quais os fatores limitantes para o aumento da produtividade. Constou da aplicação de um questionário de levantamento sócio-econômico da produção em uma amostra

EDMUNDO BENEDETTI; RENAN RODRIGUES DE CARVALHO

379

A relação entre escolaridade e ocupação dos jovens no Distrito Federal: Uma análise socioespacial  

Microsoft Academic Search

A ocupação territorial no Distrito Federal (DF) é marcada pela segregação socioespacial. Por conta da segregação, a dinâmica interna de ocupação originou uma organização espacial diferenciada das demais cidades do país, na qual a restrição à população é visível aos olhos, embora não se deixe desvelar totalmente. A concentração dos postos de trabalho no Plano Piloto e a exigência cada

Sílvia Silva; Cavalcante Leite; Karla Christina; Batista de França

380

In silico analysis of DosR regulon proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

One of the challenges faced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) in dormancy is hypoxia. DosR/DevR of M. tuberculosis is a two component dormancy survival response regulator which induces the expression of 48 genes. In this study, we have used DosR regulon proteins of M. tuberculosis H37Rv as the query set and performed a comprehensive homology search against the non-redundant database. Homologs were found in environmental mycobacteria, environmental bacteria and archaebacteria. Analysis of genomic context of DosR regulon revealed that they are distributed as nine blocks in the genome of M. tuberculosis with many transposases and integrases in their vicinity. Further, we classified DosR regulon proteins into eight functional categories. One of the hypothetical proteins Rv1998c could probably be a methylisocitrate lyase or a phosphonomutase. Another hypothetical protein, Rv0572 was found only in mycobacteria. Insights gained in this study can potentially aid in the development of novel therapeutic interventions. PMID:22759512

Selvaraj, Suganya; Sambandam, Vaishnavi; Sardar, Dipasri; Anishetty, Sharmila

2012-09-10

381

33 CFR 104.255 - Declaration of Security (DoS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (b) At MARSEC Level 1, the Master or Vessel Security Officer (VSO), or their designated representative, of any cruise ship or manned vessel carrying Certain Dangerous Cargoes, in bulk, must complete and sign a DoS with the VSO or...

2013-07-01

382

Estado da Arte para Solução dos Problemas Vibroacústica por Métodos Numéricos  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the fundamentals of the numerical methods used in the acoustics and vibration fields as; Finite Elements Methods (FEM), Boundary Element Methods (BEM), Acoustic Rays, and Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA). State of arts and trend for future methods are presented. Some results are presented for practical study cases. RESUMO Neste trabalho serão apresentados os fundamentos dos métodos numéricos

Palestra Convidado; REFERÊNCIA PACS; Samir N. Y. Gerges

383

Sedimentation History of Lago Dos Bocas, Puerto Rico, 1942-2005  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Lago Dos Bocas Dam, located in the municipality of Utuado in north central Puerto Rico, was constructed in 1942 for hydroelectric power generation. The reservoir had an original storage capacity of 37.50 million cubic meters and a drainage area of 440 square kilometers. In 1948, the construction of the Lago Caonillas Dam on the Rio Caonillas branch of Lago Dos Bocas reduced the natural sediment-contributing drainage area to 310 square kilometers; therefore, the Lago Caonillas Dam is considered an effective sediment trap. Sedimentation in Lago Dos Bocas reservoir has reduced the storage capacity from 37.50 million cubic meters in 1942 to 17.26 million cubic meters in 2005, which represents a storage loss of about 54 percent. The long-term annual water-storage capacity loss rate remained nearly constant at about 320,000 cubic meters per year to about 1997. The inter-survey sedimentation rate between 1997 and 1999, however, is higher than the long-term rate at about 1.09 million cubic meters per year. Between 1999 and 2005 the rate is lower than the long-term rate at about 0.13 million cubic meters per year. The Lago Dos Bocas effective sediment-contributing drainage area had an average sediment yield of about 1,400 cubic meters per square kilometer per year between 1942 and 1997. This rate increased substantially by 1999 to about 4,600 cubic meters per square kilometer per year, probably resulting from the historical magnitude floods caused by Hurricane Georges in 1998. Recent data indicate that the Lago Dos Bocas drainage area sediment yield decreased substantially to about 570 cubic meters per square kilometer per year, which is much lower than the 1942-1997 area normalized sedimentation rate of 1,235 cubic meters per square kilometer per year. The impact of Hurricane Georges on the basin sediment yield could have been the cause of this change, since the magnitude of the floods could have nearly depleted the Lago Dos Bocas drainage area of easily erodible and transportable bed sediment. This report summarizes the historical change in water-storage capacity of Lago Dos Bocas between 1942 and 2005.

Soler-Lopez, Luis R.

2007-01-01

384

Análise dos Conceitos Astronômicos Apresentados por Professores de Algumas Escolas Estaduais Brasileiras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A razão para o desenvolvimento deste trabalho baseia-se no fato de que muitos professores da Educação Básica (EB) não lidam com conceitos relacionados à astronomia, e quando o fazem eles simplesmente seguem livros didáticos que podem conter erros conceituais. Como é de conhecimento geral a astronomia é um dos conteúdos a serem ensinados na EB fazendo parte dos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais e das Propostas Curriculares do Estado de São Paulo, mas é um fato, que vários pesquisadores apontam, a existência de muitos problemas no ensino da astronomia. Com o propósito de minimizar algumas dessas deficiências foi realizado um trabalho de pesquisa com a utilização de questionários pré e pós pesquisa, para tanto foi desenvolvido um Curso de Extensão Universitária para professores da Diretoria de Ensino Regional (DE) que abrange Mauá, Ribeirão Pires e Rio Grande da Serra (no Estado de São Paulo) com os seguintes objetivos: levantar concepções alternativas; subsidiar os professores por meio de palestras, debates e workshops, e verificar o sucesso da aprendizagem após o curso, adotando-se como referência, para a análise dos resultados, os dicionários de Língua Portuguesa (FERREIRA, 2004) e Enciclopédico de Astronomia e Astronáutica (MOUR?O, 1995). Portanto, dezesseis questões foram aplicadas antes e após o curso, assim pode-se verificar após a pesquisa que 100,0% dos professores sabiam os nomes das fases da Lua, 97,0% entenderam que o Sistema Solar é composto por oito planetas, 78,1% foram capazes de explicar como ocorre um eclipse lunar, um eclipse solar e um solstício, 72,7% sabiam como explicar a ocorrência das estações do ano; 64,5% explicaram corretamente a ocorrência do equinócio, 89,7% foram capazes de definir adequadamente o termo cometa; 63,6% definiram asteróide, 54,5% meteoro, 58,1% galáxia, e 42,4% planeta. Os resultados obtidos indicam uma aprendizagem significativa por parte dos participantes.

Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Gonzaga, Edson Pereira

2011-12-01

385

Estrutura, Evolucao e Dinamica dos Sistemas Agroalimentares e Cadeias Agroindustriais Analise das estrategias de posicionamento e diferenciacao dos produtos no mercado a partir do caso da empresa Bertin alimentos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Análise das estratégias de posicionamento e diferenciação dos produtos no mercado a partir do caso da empresa Bertin alimentos que é muito competitivo, tanto local, regional, quanto nacional. A proposta do artigo é mostrar como algumas estratégias adotadas pela empresa foram bem sucedidas e diferenciam seus produtos das ofertas concorrentes, adquirindo assim, características desejadas pela maioria dos consumidores. --------------------------------------------------------------- With

Ronney Marcio Faial Silva; Gisleide Lima da Silva; Maria Do Rosario Alves Pereira; Cyntia Meireles de Oliveira; Daniel Ferreira da Silva

2008-01-01

386

First report of White spot syndrome virus in farmed and wild penaeid shrimp from lagoa dos patos estuary, southern brazil  

PubMed Central

In this study, we detected White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in wild Farfantepenaeus paulensis collected in the Lagoa dos Patos estuary and cultivated Litopenaeus vannamei. This is the first report of WSSV in F. paulensis from Lagoa dos Patos and farmed L. vannamei shrimps in Rio Grande do Sul.

Cavalli, Lissandra Souto; Romano, Luis Alberto; Marins, Luis Fernando; Abreu, Paulo Cesar

2011-01-01

387

Effect of modulation frequency bandwidth on measurement accuracy and precision for digital diffuse optical spectroscopy (dDOS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near-infrared (NIR) frequency-domain Diffuse Optical Spectroscopy (DOS) is an emerging technology with a growing number of potential clinical applications. In an effort to reduce DOS system complexity and improve portability, we recently demonstrated a direct digital sampling method that utilizes digital signal generation and detection as a replacement for more traditional analog methods. In our technique, a fast analog-to-digital converter (ADC) samples the detected time-domain radio frequency (RF) waveforms at each modulation frequency in a broad-bandwidth sweep (50- 300MHz). While we have shown this method provides comparable results to other DOS technologies, the process is data intensive as digital samples must be stored and processed for each modulation frequency and wavelength. We explore here the effect of reducing the modulation frequency bandwidth on the accuracy and precision of extracted optical properties. To accomplish this, the performance of the digital DOS (dDOS) system was compared to a gold standard network analyzer based DOS system. With a starting frequency of 50MHz, the input signal of the dDOS system was swept to 100, 150, 250, or 300MHz in 4MHz increments and results were compared to full 50-300MHz networkanalyzer DOS measurements. The average errors in extracted ?a and ?s' with dDOS were lowest for the full 50-300MHz sweep (less than 3%) and were within 3.8% for frequency bandwidths as narrow as 50-150MHz. The errors increased to as much as 9.0% when a bandwidth of 50-100MHz was tested. These results demonstrate the possibility for reduced data collection with dDOS without critical compensation of optical property extraction.

Jung, Justin; Istfan, Raeef; Roblyer, Darren

2014-03-01

388

Determinação de elementos próprios dos asteróides troianos: comparação entre as teorias semi-analítica e sintética  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Além do cálculo semi-analítico de elementos próprios dos asteróides Troianos (Beaugé & Roig 2001, Icarus 153, 391), recentemente foi apresentado um novo conjunto destes elementos próprios determinado através de uma teoria sintética (Knenezevic & Milani 2003, comunicação pessoal). As bases de dados contendo estas determinações estão disponiveis na pagina web do Asteroid Dynamical Site (http://hamilton.dm.unipi.it/cgi-bin/astdys/astibo). Nesta comunicação apresentamos os primeiros resultados de um estudo comparativo entre ambos conjuntos de elementos próprios, analisando suas vantagens e desvantagens, assim como os limites de precisão de cada conjunto. Mostramos que os elementos próprios sintéticos são mais precisos que os smi-analíticos para grandes amplitudes de libração do ângulo s = l-lJup, embora acontece o contrario para os corpos cuja amplitude de libração é muito pequena. Finalmente discutimos a influencia destes erros na determinação de familias de asteroides e da estrutura resonante em torno dos pontos Lagrangeanos L4 e L5.

Roig, F.; Beaugé, C.

2003-08-01

389

Trace Element Distribution Between Olivine and Kirschsteinite in Angra Dos Reis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The angrites are a small and enigmatic group of basaltic achondrites that possess unique mineralogical and chemical properties. The dominant mineralogy of the seven angrite members (Angra dos Reis, LEW 86010, LEW 87051, Asuka 881371, Sahara 99555, D Orbigny, and a new Moroccan member) is fassaite, olivine, and plagioclase. Angrites display a wide range of thermal histories, with Angra dos Reis (AdoR) exhibiting a cooling history different from that of the rapidly cooled members and from LEW86010, a more slowly cooled member. AdoR could represent either a cumulate or a porphyritic igneous rock that was later altered by metamorphism. We are re-examining the thermal history of AdoR in light of the more recently described angrite members. Our emphasis is a trace element study of low-Ca olivine, which we refer to as olivine, and high-Ca olivine, which we refer to as kirschsteinite, in AdoR.

Fittipaldo, M. M.; Jones, R. H.; Shearer, C. K.

2003-01-01

390

An alternate hypothesis for the origin of Angra dos Reis - Porphyry, not cumulate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Angra dos Reis achondrite is a unique meteorite of potentially great importance for understanding the origins of the solar system and of the terrestrial planets. It is proposed that the meteorite, which consists of megacrysts of Al-Ti augite (fassaite) in skeletal or cellular shapes, olivine, and possibly whitlockite in a fine-grained groundmass of the same materials plus spinel, is a porphyritic igneous rock modified by metamorphism. In this interpretation, the megacrysts represent cellular-textured phenocrysts, and the fine-grain groundmass represents crystallized or devitrified magma. Phase equilibria suggest that Angra dos Reis-like compositions could grow phenocrysts of fassaite pyroxene, olivine, and whitlockite. These same compositions could crystallize, without crystal sorting or accumulation, to an almost monomineralic fassaite pyroxenite.

Treiman, A. H.

1989-01-01

391

Protecting Web Services against DoS Attacks: A Case-Based Reasoning Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The real-time detection is a key factor to detect and block DoS attacks within Web services. DoS attacks can be generated for different techniques that take advantage of points vulnerable within Web services. This paper describes a novel proposal based on a real time agent to classify user requests and detect and block malicious SOAP messages. The classification mechanism is based on a Case-Base Reasoning (CBR) model, where the different CBR phases are time bounded. Within the reuse phase of the CBR cycle is incorporated a mixture of experts to choose the most suitable technique of classification depending on the feature of the attack and the available time to solve the classification. A prototype of the architecture was developed and the results obtained are presented in this study.

Pinzón, Cristian; de Paz, Juan F.; Zato, Carolina; Pérez, Javier

392

"Click, Click, Cyclize": A DOS Approach to Sultams Utilizing Vinyl Sulfonamide Linchpins  

PubMed Central

A diversity-oriented synthesis (DOS) strategy termed “Click, Click, Cyclize” is reported. This approach relies on functional group (FG) pairing between a vinyl sulfonamide and an array of functional groups to synthesize skeletally diverse sultams. Several FG pairing pathways on central tertiary vinyl sulfonamide linchpins have been developed including intramolecular Heck, aza-Michael, ring-closing enyne metathesis, Pauson—Khand, and chemoselective oxidation/Baylis—Hillman reactions.

Zhou, Aihua; Rayabarapu, Dinesh; Hanson, Paul R.

2009-01-01

393

Sm-Nd-Pu timepieces in the Angra DOS Reis meteorite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isotope ratios and age estimations are presented for the ultramafic pyroxenite Angra dos Reis meteorite. A pyroxene-phosphate internal isochron age of 4.55 plus or minus 0.04 eons was obtained, in agreement with reported Pb-Pb ages. It is suggested that Sm-146 decay led to an increase in the ratio of Nd-142 to Nd-144 in pyroxene, which is greater than the ratio

G. W. Lugmair; K. Marti

1977-01-01

394

Investigação dos perfís temporais de alta resolução de explosões solares tipo-III decimétricas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Explosões solares tipo-III indicam a presença de feixes de elétrons acelerados durante "flares" solares. Sua investigação fornece informações tanto sobre os processos de aceleração de partículas quanto das características do agente causador e do local de aceleração. Explosões tipo-III decimétricas são geradas por feixes de elétrons viajando através de arcos magnéticos densos da baixa coroa solar. Os perfís temporais destes fenômenos, quando tomados com alta resolução, informam sobre os mecanismos de aceleração de partículas do feixe e o meio de transporte da energia liberada a partir da região de aceleração. Usando o Brazilian Solar Spectroscope (BSS), em operação no INPE, foram registradas dezenas de explosões tipo-III decimétricas, dentro da faixa de 2050-2250 MHz com alta resolução temporal (20 ms), em 13 de setembro de 2001, entre 13:00 e 16:10 UT. Foram selecionadas 10 explosões isoladas para uma investigação estatística detalhada de seus perfís temporais, em todos os cerca de 50 canais de freqüência. Os resultados indicam que cerca de 70% dos perfís temporais são complexos tanto durante a subida quanto descida. Os 30% restantes indicam que os perfís da subida podem ser bem representados, na maioria dos casos, por um processo não-linear e uma parcela significativa por processos lineares. Os perfís temporais da descida são dominados por um decaimento não-linear. Neste trabalho, será efetuada uma análise dos perfís temporais, tanto durante a subida quanto descida do fluxo, para as explosões selecionadas, em termos dos prováveis mecanismos de aceleração e relaxamento. 2

Cecatto, J. R.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Sawant, H. S.; Madsen, F. R. H.

2003-08-01

395

CARACTERIZAÇÃO DOS ASPECTOS E IMPACTOS ECONÔMICOS, SOCIAIS E AMBIENTAIS DO SETOR SUCROALCOOLEIRO PAULISTA  

Microsoft Academic Search

O presente trabalho tem como objetivo a caracterização dos aspectos e impactos econômicos, sociais e ambientais da monocultura da cana-de-açúcar. Isso servirá para que posteriormente se possa fazer um estudo sobre os impactos que a monocultura da cana acarretará a região de Tupã\\/SP. Em sua confecção foram consultados sites governamentais, teses e dissertações como também bibliografia pertinente ao tema. Os

Rafael Pazeto Alvarenga; Timoteo Ramos Queiroz

2008-01-01

396

A Comparison of Three LISP Interpreters for MS-DOS-Based Microcomputers  

PubMed Central

We report a comparison of three commercially available LISP interpreters running on MS-DOS-based microcomputers. Marked differences were found between the different products' memory addressing abilities, error handling and debugging facilities. Editing tools, tutoring environments, windowing, graphic capabilities, operating system and port call facilities are also contrasted. Speed was tested via a group of LISP functions (benchmarks) that attempt to isolate list manipulation, iteration, function calling, recursion and mathematical calculation performance.

Kahane, Stephen N.; Johannes, Richard S.

1985-01-01

397

DOS NUEVOS SINTÁXONES RUPÍCOLAS BILBILITANOS, REFUGIO DE ENDEMISMOS DE ÁREA RESTRINGIDA  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN: Se describen y caracterizan dos nuevos sintáxones correspondientes a co- munidades rupícolas silicícolas bilbilitanas: Centaureo pinnatae-Dianthetum lusitani ass. nov. (con óptimo en bioclima mesomediterráneo seco-subhúmedo) y Hieracio schmidtii- Dianthetum lusitani biscutelletosum bilbilitanae subass. nov. (con óptimo en bioclima su- pra-oromediterráneo seco-subhúmedo). Se discuten sus afinidades sintaxonómicas y se aportan datos referentes a su importancia como refugio de endemismos de

Manuel B. CRESPO; José Luis SOLANAS; Elena CAMUÑAS

1999-01-01

398

A Influência da Escola e da Mídia na Obtenção dos Conhecimentos Astronômicos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

O universo em que vivemos possui segredos jamais imaginados pelo homem, fruto da pequena proporção que ocupamos diante de um cosmos infinito. A astronomia funciona como um instrumento que sacia a sede humana em desvendar esses segredos, estudando as galáxias, quasares, pulsares além da existência de todos os elementos que preenchem o espaço cósmico, o vácuo, não mais vazio como se pensou em outros tempos. A mídia explora esse campo de forma mística e também científica. A difusão adequada e dentro dos padrões educacionais vigentes, de conceitos astronômicos, se faz necessária, devido sua presença nos conteúdos escolares, centros de ciência e na mídia, de modo geral. A reforma do Currículo Básico da Escola Pública da maioria dos Estados brasileiros introduziu conceitos astronômicos desde a pré-escola até o Ensino Médio. Num estudo realizado com 1.032 alunos do Ensino Médio de seis escolas estaduais, revelou-se através da aplicação de um questionário que abordava conheciment os básicos em astronomia, como estes foram adquiridos e qual era a infra-estrutura oferecida pela escola: para 66,2% dos entrevistados o professor já fez alguma apresentação a respeito de astronomia. O presente estudo revelou também que 44,5% dos alunos entrevistados adquiriram seus conhecimentos astronômicos na escola, 28,1% através da televisão e 27,4% afirmaram que seus conhecimentos foram obtidos através de outros tipos de mídia (internet, filmes e revistas). Embora o estudo revele claramente que há certo equilíbrio na forma em que os alunos obtiveram seus conhecimentos astronômicos, a mídia ainda explora e muitas vezes desperta o interesse pela astronomia com assuntos que não fazem parte de nosso cotidiano como, por exemplo, o homem na Lua, os projetos espaciais e a primeira viagem de um astronauta brasileiro no espaço. Porém, em certos casos, a mídia pode promover conhecimentos incompletos ou mesmo equivocados sobre os conceitos que envolvam a astronomia, como por exemplo a propagação do som no vácuo observado na maioria dos filmes de f icção científica ou da existência das estações do ano em função da distância da Terra ao Sol, em conformidade com o questionário aplicado.

da Cunha, W. S.; Voelzke, M. R.; Amaral, L. H.

2006-08-01

399

Estudo das influencias da implantacao da usina nuclear em Angra dos Reis (Angra-1). (Study of the influences of Angra-1 nuclear power plant construction in Angra dos Reis).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents a comprehensive evaluation of the influence caused by Angra-1 Nuclear Power Plants (Central Nuclear Almirante Alvaro Alberto) construction on the Angra dos Reis City - Rio de Janeiro - Brazil. The analysis performed adopts a multi-dime...

L. Ferreira Netto

1982-01-01

400

Testicular Cancer - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Portuguese (português) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Tagalog ( ... PDF Health Information Translations Return to top Portuguese (português) Testicular Self Exam Auto-exame dos testículos - português ( ...

401

OptaDOS: A tool for obtaining density of states, core-level and optical spectra from electronic structure codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present OptaDOS, a program for calculating core-electron and low-loss electron energy loss spectra (EELS) and optical spectra along with total-, projected- and joint-density of electronic states (DOS) from single-particle eigenenergies and dipole transition coefficients. Energy-loss spectroscopy is an important tool for probing bonding within a material. Interpreting these spectra can be aided by first principles calculations. The spectra are generated from the eigenenergies through integration over the Brillouin zone. An important feature of this code is that this integration is performed using a choice of adaptive or linear extrapolation broadening methods which we show produces higher accuracy spectra than standard fixed-width Gaussian broadening. OptaDOS  may be straightforwardly interfaced to any electronic structure code. OptaDOS  is freely available under the GNU General Public licence from http://www.optados.org.

Morris, Andrew J.; Nicholls, Rebecca J.; Pickard, Chris J.; Yates, Jonathan R.

2014-05-01

402

Using 4DOS Batch Files To Create an Infrastructure That Makes It Easy for Students To Create and Maintain HTML Web Pages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the use of simple 4DOS batch files to automate the creation and maintenance of an infrastructure to assist students in creating and maintaining HTML World Wide Web pages. Background is provided on Web pages, DOS, 4DOS, and batch files. The assumptions made in creating the infrastructure are summarized, and program statements…

Snyder, Robin M.

403

Age and isotopic relationships among the angrites Lewis Cliff 86010 and Angra dos Reis  

SciTech Connect

Results of a wide-ranging isotopic investigation of the unique Antarctican angrite LEW-86010 (LEW) are presented, together with a reassessment of the type angrite Angra dos Reis (ADOR). The principal objectives of this study are to obtain precise radiometric ages, initial Sr isotopic compositions, and to search for the erstwhile presence of the short-lived nuclei {sup 146}Sm and {sup 26}Al via their daughter products. The isotopic compositions of Sm, U, Ca, and Ti were also measured. This allows a detailed appraisal to be made of the relations between, and the genealogy of, these two angrites.

Lugmair, G.W. (Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla (United States)); Galer, S.J.G. (Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla (United States) Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Chemie, Mainz (West Germany))

1992-04-01

404

Studies of Brazilian meteorites. III - Origin and history of the Angra dos Reis achondrite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mineral composition of the Angra dos Reis meteorite, which fell in 1869, is described. This achondrite contains phases reported in a meteorite for the first time. Petrofabric analysis shows that fassaite has a preferred orientation and lineation, which is interpreted as being due to cumulus processes, possibly the effect of post-depositional magmatic current flow or laminar flow of a crystalline mush. The mineral chemistry indicates crystallization from a highly silica-undersaturated melt at low pressure. Several aspects of the mineral composition are discussed with reference to the implications of crystallization conditions.

Prinz, M.; Keil, K.; Hlava, P. F.; Berkley, J. L.; Gomes, C. B.; Curvello, W. S.

1977-01-01

405

Rv3133c/dosR is a transcription factor that mediates the hypoxic response of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Unlike many pathogens that are overtly harmful to their hosts, Mycobacterium tuberculosis can persist for years within humans in a clinically latent state. Latency is often linked to hypoxic conditions within the host. Among M. tuberculosis genes induced by hypoxia is a putative transcription factor, Rv3133c/DosR. We performed targeted disruption of this locus followed by transcriptome analysis of wild-type and mutant bacilli. Nearly all the genes powerfully regulated by hypoxia require Rv3133c/DosR for their induction. Computer analysis identified a consensus motif, a variant of which is located upstream of nearly all M. tuberculosis genes rapidly induced by hypoxia. Further, Rv3133c/DosR binds to the two copies of this motif upstream of the hypoxic response gene alpha-crystallin. Mutations within the binding sites abolish both Rv3133c/DosR binding as well as hypoxic induction of a downstream reporter gene. Also, mutation experiments with Rv3133c/DosR confirmed sequence-based predictions that the C-terminus is responsible for DNA binding and that the aspartate at position 54 is essential for function. Together, these results demonstrate that Rv3133c/DosR is a transcription factor of the two-component response regulator class, and that it is the primary mediator of a hypoxic signal within M. tuberculosis. PMID:12694625

Park, Heui-Dong; Guinn, Kristi M; Harrell, Maria I; Liao, Reiling; Voskuil, Martin I; Tompa, Martin; Schoolnik, Gary K; Sherman, David R

2003-05-01

406

Perfil de temperatura dos funis magnetosféricos de estrelas T Tauri com aquecimento alfvênico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estrelas T Tauri Clássicas são objetos jovens circundados por discos de gás e poeira e que apresentam uma intensa atividade magnética. Seu espectro mostra linhas de emissão alargadas que são razoavelmente reproduzidas nos modelos de acresção magnetosférica. No entanto, o perfil de temperatura dos funis magnéticos é desconhecido. Aquecimento magnético compressional e difusão ambipolar foram considerados para estas estruturas, porém as temperaturas obtidas não são suficientes para explicar as observações. Neste trabalho, examinamos o aquecimento gerado pelo amortecimento de ondas Alfvén através de quatro mecanismos, os amortecimentos não-linear, turbulento, viscoso-resistivo e colisional como função da freqüência da onda. Inicialmente, a temperatura é ajustada para reproduzir as observações e o grau de turbulência requerido para que o mecanismo seja viável é calculado. Os resultados mostram que este é compatível com os dados observacionais. Apresentam-se, também, resultados preliminares do cálculo auto-consistente do perfil de temperatura dos funis, levando-se em conta fontes de aquecimento Alfvênica e fontes de resfriamento.

Vasconcelos, M. J.

2003-08-01

407

Reproductive Dynamics of Sterna hirundinacea Lesson, 1831 in Ilha dos Cardos, Santa Catarina, Brazil  

PubMed Central

In this work, we intend to describe the reproductive dynamics of Sterna hirundinacea in an island from South Brazil. We studied the reproductive biology of this species in its natural environment and provide data on their growth, survival, and reproductive success in Ilha dos Cardos, Santa Catarina, South Brazil. Samplings were carried out daily on the island throughout the reproductive seasons of 2003, 2005, and 2006 and the different stages of development of the chicks were characterized according to age, length of the beak, and plumage characteristics. We provide a basic equation Lm = 167.91?(1 ? e?0.062t?(?0.23)) to determine the approximate age of individuals using their body mass. The main cause of chick mortality on the island was natural (63.17% in 2003, 81.41% in 2005, and 79.96% in 2006), whereas predation contributed to mortality in a proportion of 38.83% in 2003, 18.59% in 2005, and 20.04% in 2006. The absence in the area of the chicks' main predator, Kelp gull (Larus dominicanus), the large number of chicks that reached the final stages of development, and their reproductive success demonstrate that Ilha dos Cardos is an important breeding site for the species in southern Brazil.

Fracasso, Helio Augusto Alves; Branco, Joaquim Olinto; Efe, Marcio Amorim

2014-01-01

408

Crystal Structures of the Response Regulator DosR From Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Suggest a Helix Rearrangement Mechanism for Phosphorylation Activation  

SciTech Connect

The response regulator DosR is essential for promoting long-term survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis under low oxygen conditions in a dormant state and may be responsible for latent tuberculosis in one-third of the world's population. Here, we report crystal structures of full-length unphosphorylated DosR at 2.2 {angstrom} resolution and its C-terminal DNA-binding domain at 1.7 {angstrom} resolution. The full-length DosR structure reveals several features never seen before in other response regulators. The N-terminal domain of the full-length DosR structure has an unexpected ({beta}{alpha}){sub 4} topology instead of the canonical ({beta}{alpha}){sub 5} fold observed in other response regulators. The linker region adopts a unique conformation that contains two helices forming a four-helix bundle with two helices from another subunit, resulting in dimer formation. The C-terminal domain in the full-length DosR structure displays a novel location of helix {alpha}10, which allows Gln199 to interact with the catalytic Asp54 residue of the N-terminal domain. In contrast, the structure of the DosR C-terminal domain alone displays a remarkable unstructured conformation for helix {alpha}10 residues, different from the well-defined helical conformations in all other known structures, indicating considerable flexibility within the C-terminal domain. Our structures suggest a mode of DosR activation by phosphorylation via a helix rearrangement mechanism.

Wisedchaisri, G.; Wu, M.; Sherman, D.R.; Hol, W.G.J.

2009-05-26

409

CRL4-like Clr4 complex in Schizosaccharomyces pombe depends on an exposed surface of Dos1 for heterochromatin silencing.  

PubMed

Repressive histone H3 lysine 9 methylation (H3K9me) and its recognition by HP1 proteins are necessary for pericentromeric heterochromatin formation. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, H3K9me deposition depends on the RNAi pathway. Cryptic loci regulator 4 (Clr4), the only known H3K9 methyltransferase in this organism, is a subunit of the Clr4 methyltransferase complex (CLRC), whose composition is reminiscent of a CRL4 type cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase (CRL) including its cullin Cul4, the RING-box protein Pip1, the DNA damage binding protein 1 homolog Rik1, and the DCAF-like protein delocalization of Swi6 1 (Dos1). Dos2 and Stc1 have been proposed to be part of the complex but do not bear similarity to canonical ubiquitin ligase components. CLRC is an active E3 ligase in vitro, and this activity is necessary for heterochromatin assembly in vivo. The similarity between CLRC and the CRLs suggests that the WD repeat protein Dos1 will act to mediate target recognition and substrate specificity for CLRC. Here, we present a pairwise interaction screen that confirms a CRL4-like subunit arrangement and further identifies Dos2 as a central component of the complex and recruiter of Stc1. We determined the crystal structure of the Dos1 WD repeat domain, revealing an eight-bladed ?-propeller fold. Functional mapping of the putative target-binding surface of Dos1 identifies key residues required for heterochromatic silencing, consistent with Dos1's role as the specificity factor for the E3 ubiquitin ligase. PMID:24449894

Kuscu, Canan; Zaratiegui, Mikel; Kim, Hyun Soo; Wah, David A; Martienssen, Robert A; Schalch, Thomas; Joshua-Tor, Leemor

2014-02-01

410

The Mycobacterium tuberculosis DosR Regulon Assists in Metabolic Homeostasis and Enables Rapid Recovery from Nonrespiring Dormancy ? †  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium tuberculosis survives in latently infected individuals, likely in a nonreplicating or dormancy-like state. The M. tuberculosis DosR regulon is a genetic program induced by conditions that inhibit aerobic respiration and prevent bacillus replication. In this study, we used a mutant incapable of DosR regulon induction to investigate the contribution of this regulon to bacterial metabolism during anaerobic dormancy. Our results confirm that the DosR regulon is essential for M. tuberculosis survival during anaerobic dormancy and demonstrate that it is required for metabolic processes that occur upon entry into and throughout the dormant state. Specifically, we showed that regulon mechanisms shift metabolism away from aerobic respiration in the face of dwindling oxygen availability and are required for maintaining energy levels and redox balance as the culture becomes anaerobic. We also demonstrated that the DosR regulon is crucial for rapid resumption of growth once M. tuberculosis exits an anaerobic or nitric oxide-induced nonrespiring state. In summary, the DosR regulon encodes novel metabolic mechanisms essential for M. tuberculosis to survive in the absence of respiration and to successfully transition rapidly between respiring and nonrespiring conditions without loss of viability.

Leistikow, Rachel L.; Morton, Russell A.; Bartek, Iona L.; Frimpong, Isaac; Wagner, Karleen; Voskuil, Martin I.

2010-01-01

411

The Mycobacterium tuberculosis DosR regulon assists in metabolic homeostasis and enables rapid recovery from nonrespiring dormancy.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium tuberculosis survives in latently infected individuals, likely in a nonreplicating or dormancy-like state. The M. tuberculosis DosR regulon is a genetic program induced by conditions that inhibit aerobic respiration and prevent bacillus replication. In this study, we used a mutant incapable of DosR regulon induction to investigate the contribution of this regulon to bacterial metabolism during anaerobic dormancy. Our results confirm that the DosR regulon is essential for M. tuberculosis survival during anaerobic dormancy and demonstrate that it is required for metabolic processes that occur upon entry into and throughout the dormant state. Specifically, we showed that regulon mechanisms shift metabolism away from aerobic respiration in the face of dwindling oxygen availability and are required for maintaining energy levels and redox balance as the culture becomes anaerobic. We also demonstrated that the DosR regulon is crucial for rapid resumption of growth once M. tuberculosis exits an anaerobic or nitric oxide-induced nonrespiring state. In summary, the DosR regulon encodes novel metabolic mechanisms essential for M. tuberculosis to survive in the absence of respiration and to successfully transition rapidly between respiring and nonrespiring conditions without loss of viability. PMID:20023019

Leistikow, Rachel L; Morton, Russell A; Bartek, Iona L; Frimpong, Isaac; Wagner, Karleen; Voskuil, Martin I

2010-03-01

412

Age and isotopic relationships among the angrites Lewis Cliff 86010 and Angra DOS Reis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents results of a wide-ranging isotopic investigation of the the Antarctic angrite LEW-86010 (LEW), and reassesses the type angrite Angra dos Reis (ADOR) in order to obtain precise radiometric ages and initial Sr isotopic compositions, and to search for the erstwhile presence of the short-lived nuclei Sm-146 and Al-26 via their daughter products. The isotopic compositions of Sm, U, Ca, and Ti were measured to allow a detailed appraisal to be made of the relations between, and the geneology of, these two angrites. LEW proves to be severely contaminated with modern terrestrial Pb, which is shown to result from terrestrial weathering. Concordant Pb-Pb model ages of pyroxene separates are obtained; uranium isotopic compositions are normal within error. Overall, striking age and isotopic similarities between LEW and ADOR were found, suggesting almost simultaneous production on the same asteroid, even though recent experimental studies imply that the two are not comagmatic.

Lugmair, G. W.; Galer, S. J. G.

1992-04-01

413

Sm-Nd-Pu timepieces in the Angra dos Reis meteorite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Isotope ratios and age estimations are presented for the ultramafic pyroxenite Angra dos Reis meteorite. A pyroxene-phosphate internal isochron age of 4.55 plus or minus 0.04 eons was obtained, in agreement with reported Pb-Pb ages. It is suggested that Sm-146 decay led to an increase in the ratio of Nd-142 to Nd-144 in pyroxene, which is greater than the ratio of the Nd isotopes in phosphates. The effect of Pu-244 on the fission xenon components in pyroxene and phosphate is examined. The ratios of Pu-244 to Nd, U-238, and Th-232 are compared for pyroxene and phosphate separates. The exposure age of the meteorite, as obtained by the Kr-81 to Kr-83 method, was found to be 55.5 plus or minus 1.2 million years.

Lugmair, G. W.; Marti, K.

1977-01-01

414

Age and isotopic relationships among the angrites Lewis Cliff 86010 and Angra dos Reis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper presents results of a wide-ranging isotopic investigation of the the Antarctic angrite LEW-86010 (LEW), and reassesses the type angrite Angra dos Reis (ADOR) in order to obtain precise radiometric ages and initial Sr isotopic compositions, and to search for the erstwhile presence of the short-lived nuclei Sm-146 and Al-26 via their daughter products. The isotopic compositions of Sm, U, Ca, and Ti were measured to allow a detailed appraisal to be made of the relations between, and the geneology of, these two angrites. LEW proves to be severely contaminated with modern terrestrial Pb, which is shown to result from terrestrial weathering. Concordant Pb-Pb model ages of pyroxene separates are obtained; uranium isotopic compositions are normal within error. Overall, striking age and isotopic similarities between LEW and ADOR were found, suggesting almost simultaneous production on the same asteroid, even though recent experimental studies imply that the two are not comagmatic.

Lugmair, G. W.; Galer, S. J. G.

1992-01-01

415

Measured oxygen fugacities of the Angra dos Reis achondrite as a function of temperature  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Measurements of the oxygen fugacity (f{hook}O2) as a function of temperature (T) were made on an interior bulk sample of the cumulate achondrite, Angra dos Reis. Data clustered between the f{hook}O2-T relationship of the iron-wu??stite assemblage and 1.2 log atm units above iron-wu??stite. Interpretation of the data indicates that, throughout most of the cooling history of the meteorite, f{hook}O2 values were defined by equilibria involving iron-bearing species at values close to the f{hook}O2 of the assemblage iron-wu??stite. Measured f{hook}O2 data are compatible with crystallization and cooling at pressures greater than 50 bars. ?? 1977.

Brett, R.; Stephen, Huebner, J.; Sato, M.

1977-01-01

416

Measured oxygen fugacities of the Angra dos Reis achondrite as a function of temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements of the oxygen fugacity, f(O2), as a function of temperature, T, were made on an interior bulk sample of the cumulate achondrite, Angra dos Reis. Data clustered between the f(O2)-T relationship of the iron-wustite assemblage and 1.2 log atm units above iron-wustite. Interpretation of the data indicates that, throughout most of the cooling history of the meteorite, f(O2) values were defined by equilibria involving iron-bearing species at values close to the f(O2) of the assemblage iron-wustite. Measured f(O2) data are compatible with crystallization and cooling at pressures greater than 50 bars.

Brett, R.; Huebner, J. S.; Sato, M.

1977-01-01

417

Identification and seasonal variation of atmospheric organic pollutants in Campos dos Goytacazes, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic aerosol samples collected during a 1 year study at three sites in the city of Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were examined by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Samples were acquired using a standard high-volume air sampler (Hi-Vol); extracts prepared and fractionated into aliphatic, aromatic and polar compounds. These compounds were quantified and their seasonal ambient concentration patterns discussed. High winter and low summer concentrations were observed for retene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and total suspended particulate matter (TSP), with a seasonal (winter) peak for all compounds studied. The higher concentrations observable from May to September may result from crop burning processes, which occur in the sugarcane plantations, mainly during this part of the year. The studied sites may be considered unpolluted as concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene and benzene were lower than the regulation lower limits. On the other hand, two sites were considered polluted by TSP determination.

de Almeida Azevedo, Débora; dos Santos, Celeste Yara Moreira; de Aquino Neto, Francisco Radler

418

The Secret List of Dos and Don'ts for Filmmaking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science is a massive black box to billions of people who walk the streets. However, the process of filmmaking can be equally as mystifying. As with the development of many scientific experiments, the process starts on a napkin at a restaurant…but then what? The road to scientific publication is propelled by a canonical list of several dos and don't that fit most situations. An equally useful list exists for up-and-coming producers. The list streamlines efforts, optimizes your use of the tools at your fingertips and enhances impact. Many fundamentals can be learned from books, but during this talk we will project and discuss several examples of best practices, from honing a story, to identifying audience appeal, filming, editing and the secrets of inexpensively acquiring expert help. Whether your goal is a two-minute webisode or a 90 minute documentary, these time-tested practices, with a little awareness, can give life to your films.;

Kramer, N.

2012-12-01

419

The Relationship between Older Drivers' Performance on the Driving Observation Schedule (eDOS) and Cognitive Performance  

PubMed Central

Research question/Objective: The Driving Observation Schedule (eDOS) was developed for use in the Candrive/Ozcandrive five-year prospective study of older drivers to observe the driving behavior of older drivers and monitor changes in driving behaviors over time. The aim of this study is to describe participants’ driving performance during the eDOS driving task and investigate the association between driving performance and cognitive measures. Methods: A subset of Ozcandrive participants (n = 144, 104 male [72%], 40 female [28%], Mean age = 81.49 years, SD = 3.58 years, Range: 76 – 96 years) completed the eDOS driving task. Participants drove to their selected destinations (up to 4 locations), with observations of driving behaviors (both inappropriate and appropriate) recorded for specific driving maneuvers: intersection negotiation, lane-changing, merging, low speed maneuvers and maneuver-free driving. Driving behaviors (e.g. signalling, speed regulation, gap acceptance, lane position, ‘critical errors’) were scored by a trained observer and participants received an overall eDOS driving task score (Maximum = 100 points). Participants also completed a series of cognitive assessments as part of the Year 2 Candrive/Ozcandrive assessment protocols. Results: The overall eDOS driving task score was very high (M = 95.77; SD = 5.15; Range = 65.63 – 100). Detailed analyses of participants’ driving behavior revealed a high level of appropriate driving behavior (96%, n = 5,935 maneuvers), with few errors (4%, n = 252 maneuvers). While most participants’ performance on the cognitive assessments was high, some scores were below the criteria for cogntive impairment (BIC) according to conventional benchmarks: (MoCA: M = 26.56, SD = 2.12, Range = 19 – 30, % BIC = 28%; MMSE: M = 29.10, SD = 1.01, Range = 26–30, %BIC = 0%; Trails B: M = 111.66, SD = 43.53, Range = 50 – 301, %BIC = 6%). There was no significant relationship observed between participants’ overall eDOS driving task scores and age (r (144) = ?0.17, p > 0.05), and performance on various cognitive assessments including: MoCA (r (144) = 0.07, p > 0.1), MMSE (r (144) = 0.03, p > 0.5), Trail Making Test B (r (144) = 0.09, p > 0.1). Implications: Preliminary analyses of the eDOS driving task revealed a high level of appropriate driving behavior among Ozcandrive older drivers. Despite some participants’ cognitive performance suggesting impairment, participants’ overall eDOS driving task scores were not significantly related to cognitive performance. This finding is consistent with previous research suggesting some older drivers are able to compensate well for age-related cognitive impairment.

Koppel, Sjaan; Charlton, Judith; Langford, Jim; Vlahodimitrakou, Zafiroula; Di Stefano, Marilyn; Macdonald, Wendy; Mazer, Barbara; Gelinas, Isabelle; Vrkljan, Brenda; Marshall, Shawn

2013-01-01

420

insURGEnCiA Y REPREsiÓn. ACERCA DE LA TEORÍA DE LOs DOs DEMOniOs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen: La conocida en Argentina como Teoría o tesis de los dos demonios se ha utilizado para, si no justificar, sí al menos querer dar una explica - ción simplista al advenimiento del golpe del gene- ral Videla y la consiguiente dictadura conocida en Argentina como el Proceso. El artículo analiza los discursos e imágenes sobre cada uno de los

José Manuel Barrio Terol

421

Sustainable production of non-timber forest products: Natural dye extraction from El Cruce Dos Aguadas, Petén, Guatemala  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional harvest of non-timber forest products (NTFP) in Petén, Guatemala, provides a model for integrated conservation and development programs. Conservation International and El Cruce a Dos Aguadas (El Cruce). and agricultural community in the Maya Biosphere Reserve in Northern Petén, have created a new NTFP, called Gatherings™ which is a potpourri composed of seeds, flowers and leaves. Gatherings™ is

Kevin Gould; Andrew F Howard; Gustavo Rodriguéz

1998-01-01

422

Reparación laparoscópica de hernia de Morgagni. Reporte de dos casos* Laparoscopic repair of Morgagni hernia. Report of two cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN Presentamos dos pacientes con tratamiento laparoscópico de una hernia de Morgagni. Este es un defecto congénito en el diafragma anterior poco frecuente, que puede ser asintomático o causar síntomas dependiendo del contenido herniario. El tratamiento quirúrgico puede ser a cielo abierto por vía torácica o transabdominal, pero el abordaje laparoscópico también permite su reparación, tanto cuando es simple como

Palma Mallorca

423

Uma Análise Tipológica da Dinâmica dos Arranjos e Sistemas Produtivos e Inovativos Locais (Aspil?S) Do Nordeste do Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

O presente trabalho tem como objetivo apresentar a dinâmica produtiva e inovativa dos Arranjos e Sistemas Produtivos e Inovativos Locais (ASPILs), tendo como foco os ASPILs nordestinos. Para tanto, foi utilizado o arcabouço da teoria evolucionária tendo por base o conceito de Sistema Nacional de Inovação do qual gerou a conceituação de ASPIL. Assim, buscou-se apresentar a dinâmica de arranjos

Diogo Araújo Sampaio

424

ROCK MAGNETIC AND PETROGRAPHIC CHARACTERIZATION OF PREHISTORIC AMERINDIAN CERAMICS FROM THE DOS MOSQUISES ISLAND (LOS ROQUES, VENEZUELA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Preliminary rock magnetic studies of 12 prehistoric Amerin- dian pottery shards (Dos Mosquises Island, Los Roques, Venezu- ela) have been carried out in order to characterize different clay sourcings and pottery manufaacturing techniques. Although these ceramics have been excavated in a single archeological site, sty- listic features sort them out into three distinct groups: standard- ized, heterogeneous and unknown).

Myriam Rada; Vincenzo Costanzo-Álvarez; Milagrosa Aldana; Corina Campos

425

Short and long-lived radium isotopes in surface waters from Ilha Grande bay, Angra dos Reis, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Angra dos Reis nuclear power plant site is located 130km south from Rio de Janeiro city. Seawater is used as cooling water for both units; the cooling water is pumped from Itaorna Bay and discharged into Piraquara de Fora Bay, together with the liquid effluents from the two NPPs. Piraquara de Fora Bay belongs to a large bay system,

F. C. Gomes; J. M. Godoy; Z. L. Carvalho; R. T. Lopes

2009-01-01

426

AVALIAÇÃO DA EFICÁCIA DOS MEIOS DE CONTROLO DAS INFESTANTES DO OLIVAL E SEUS EFEITOS SOBRE ARTRÓPODES DO SOLO  

Microsoft Academic Search

O presente trabalho teve como objectivo avaliar a eficácia dos tratamentos contra as infestantes e os efeitos colaterais sobre os artrópodes existentes no solo. Para este efeito, delinearam-se cinco modalidades: Roundup Ultra, Basta S, mobilização superficial, monda térmica e ainda uma modalidade de referência, não intervencionada (Testemunha). Foram efectuadas contagens e identificação das infestantes e de artrópodes existentes no solo,

Carlos VEIGA; Catarina LOURENÇO; Francisco VIEIRA

427

Spectro-photometry of the HAebe's discovered by the Pico DOS Dias survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have made a statistical study of Herbig Ae/Be stars (HAeBe), a class of intermediate-mass young stellar objects. In our work we intend to increase the number of candidates with confirmed HAeBe nature, as only about a hundred of objects is known. The "Pico dos Dias Survey", a search for T Tauri stars (TT) based on IRAS colors, has revealed several new TT, as well other very interesting objects, like a hundred of probable new HAeBe. These candidates have been classified by their strong H? emission, spectral type earlier than F5 and infrared excess similar to TT. In order to confirm the young nature of these candidates, we have obtained low-resolution spectra and UBVRI photometry for a sample of 30 candidates to study their spectral energy distribution. A model to fit the spectral energy distribution (SED) has been used in order to determine the effective temperature and the luminosity, useful to estimate mass and age, and better classify our candidates. The distribution of the circumstellar material has been also inspected by using our model of SED's fit.

Sartori, M. J.; Gregorio-Hetem, J.

1998-11-01

428

T.D.S. spectroscopic databank for spherical tops: DOS version  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

T.D.S. (Traitement de Donnees Spectroscopiques or Tomsk-Dijon-Spectroscopy project) is a computer package concerned with high resolution spectroscopy of spherical top molecules like CH4, CF4, SiH4, SiF4, SnH4, GeH4, SF6, etc. T.D.S. contains information, fundamental spectroscopic data (energies, transition moments, spectroscopic constants) recovered from comprehensive modeling and simultaneous fitting of experimental spectra, and associated software written in C. The T.D.S. goal is to provide an access to all available information on vibration-rotation molecular states and transitions including various spectroscopic processes (Stark, Raman, etc.) under extended conditions based on extrapolations of laboratory measurements using validated theoretical models. Applications for T.D.S. may include: education/training in molecular physics, quantum chemistry, laser physics; spectroscopic applications (analysis, laser spectroscopy, atmospheric optics, optical standards, spectroscopic atlases); applications to environment studies and atmospheric physics (remote sensing); data supply for specific databases; and to photochemistry (laser excitation, multiphoton processes). The reported DOS-version is designed for IBM and compatible personal computers.

Tyuterev, Vl. G.; Babikov, Yu. L.; Tashkun, S. A.; Perevalov, V. I.; Nikitin, A.; Champion, J.-P.; Wenger, Ch.; Pierre, C.; Pierre, G.; Hilico, J.-C.

1994-10-01

429

Adaptation of reservoir engineering software to a DOS/Linux PC  

SciTech Connect

Recent publications have described the implementation of state-of-the-art reservoir engineering applications based on integrated networks of mainframe, workstation, and desktop computers. These facilities provide excellent resources for geologic and engineering applications, but at the cost of substantial investment in computer hardware, network installation, and systems staffing. This paper describes an adaptation of similar state-of-the-art applications to a desktop platform that minimizes the required hardware and system investment. The platform is an Intel 486 or Pentium-based PC with two hard drives and 32 to 64 MB of memory. One disk is partitioned to a standard DOS/Windows environment. The other disk is partitioned to the Linux operating system. Linux is a freely available clone of Unix for the 80386/80486 CPU, which is supported by a worldwide volunteer effort. A machine of this type can be constructed from components for $4,000 to $8,000, depending on CPU and memory. A number of proprietary modeling codes have been ported over so that the PC can provide much of the capability of the network systems.

Emanuel, A.S.; Jones, R.C.; McWilliams, R.S.; Tsaio, J.C.

1996-04-01

430

Estudio fotométrico y espectroscópico de dos cúmulos abiertos jóvenes del disco con apariencia globular  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Se presentan y discuten resultados obtenidos en el CASLEO y en el Observatorio de Las Campanas de dos cúmulos abiertos compactos con apariencia globular: Westerlund1 (BH197), ubicado en dirección hacia el centro galáctico, y Westerlund2. A partir de espectroscopía CCD integrada de ambos e imágenes CCD en las bandas VI obtenidas para el primero de ellos, se derivan sus parámetros fundamentales y se examinan sus apariencias estructurales. Se encuentra que Westerlund1 es un cúmulo joven (7 ± 3 millones de años), ubicado sobre el plano galáctico a 1.0 ± 0.4 kpc del sol, en una región caracterizada por una absorción excepcionalmente elevada (Av~=13.0 mag), en tanto que Westerlund2 es también un cúmulo joven (4-6 millones de años) ubicado sobre el plano, en una región afectada por una absorción menor (Av~=5.7 mag). Desde el punto de vista estructural, Westerlund 1 se presenta como uno de los pocos cúmulos abiertos jóvenes de la Galaxia con apariencia tipicamente globular, en contraste con los cúmulos azules de las Nubes de Magallanes en los cuales la apariencia globular constituye un fenómeno común. Westerlund2, aunque menos rico en estrellas, puede también ser incluído dentro de esta interesante clase de objetos.

Piatti, A. E.; Clariá, J. J.; Bica, E.

431

ECHARPE: a fiber-fed echelle spectrograph for the Pico dos Dias Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At least during the last ten years, the Brazilian astronomical community has been asking for an echelle spectrograph for the 1.6 m telescope installed at Pico dos Dias Observatory (Brazópolis, MG, Brazil, OPD/MCTI/LNA). Among the scientific cases are topics related to the chemical evolution of the Galaxy, asteroseismology, chemical composition and chromospheric activities of solar type stars and the relations between solar analogues and terrestrial planets. During 2009 the project finally got started. The called ECHARPE spectrograph (Espectrógrafo ECHelle de Alta Resolução para o telescópio Perkin-Elmer) is being projected to offer a spectral resolution of R ~ 50000, in the range 390-900 nm and with a single exposition. It will be a bench spectrograph with two channels: blue and red, fed by two optical fibers (object, sky or calibration) with aperture of 1.5 or 2.0 arcseconds. The instrument will be placed in one of the telescope pillar ramification, in the originals installations of a Coudé spectrograph and in a specially created environment controlled room. In this work we will present the scientific motivations, the conceptual optical design, the expected performance of the spectrograph, and the status of its development. ECHARPE is expected to be delivered to the astronomical community in 2014, fully prepared and optimized for remote operations.

Dominici, Tania P.; Castilho, Bruno; Gneiding, Clemens D.; Delabre, Bernard A.; Macanhan, Vanessa B. P.; de Arruda, Marcio V.; de Oliveira, Antonio C.; Melendez, Jorge; Vaz, Luiz P. R.; Corradi, Wagner J. B.; Franco, Gabriel A. P.; do Nascimento, Jose D.; Quast, Germano R.; Porto de Mello, Gustavo F.

2012-09-01

432

A proposed application of an industrial DOS computer for distribution substation monitoring and control  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the design and implementation of an intelligent controller intended for use in distribution substations to perform monitoring and control duties within the framework of distribution automation needs. The hardware of the developed controller is a DOS based industrial computer running on ECB-BUS. The application software handles all input/output tasks, data collection, manipulation and control decisions with its flexible structure. This embedded controller measures bus voltage, transformer and feeder currents and calculates the real and reactive power, power factor, frequency, and total harmonic distortion of voltage and current. In addition to its local and remote data acquisition and monitoring functions by means of console and SCADA outputs, the system, through its relay outputs, is capable of performing automation tasks such as integrated Volt/Var control, overload and underfrequency detection and load shedding at the substation level. This reliable, high capacity and low cost system is completely programmable so that it can handle new requirements with new configurations easily.

Batur, I. (Electronics Industry Inc., Ankara (Turkey). Aselsan Military); Guven, A.N.; Ozay, N. (Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Electrical Engineering Dept.)

1994-04-01

433

Creating a Global Fiducials Program (GFP) Site: Lago Cachet Dos example in Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The USGS has been acquiring remotely sensed imagery from all over the world, collecting thousands of images at more than 200 sites, and creating Literal Image Derived Products (LIDPs) as part of the Global Fiducials Program (GFP). The GFP program enables scientists to use these images to study our rapidly changing planet at carefully selected locations around the world. New GFP Sites are created and added each year. Researchers at the University of Alaska, for instance, added areas susceptible to coastal erosion for monitoring the long-term effects of high tides and storms. This presentation will guide you through the process of creating a new GFP site for your area of interest. We will describe the components of the GFP and its archive, the Global Fiducials Library. The Global Fiducials Program—Initial Site Proposal form will be presented and we will show you how to complete each component in order to propose a new site. Lago Cachet Dos, a glacier-dammed lake in southern Chile, is currently being proposed as a new GFP site and will be used as the example for this exercise. In addition, USGS web sites will be used to illustrate how a long-term imagery record can tell a story and to demonstrate viewing and downloading the type of data that will be available online and free of charge through the GFP.

Friesen, B. A.; Nimick, D. A.; Wilson, E. M.

2012-12-01

434

Your First Pelvic Exam: A Guide for Teens  

MedlinePLUS

... may take a thin plastic stick and a special tiny brush (that looks like a broom) and gently wipe away some of the cells from your cervix. This is a Pap test, which senses early changes of the cervix before they become ...

435

Coming Soon to Your Favorite Credential Program: National Exit Exams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an October 22, 2010, speech to teacher educators at Columbia University's Teachers College, Secretary of Education Arne Duncan proclaimed that revolutionary change in the education of teachers is essential if the problems facing U.S. society and U.S. schools are to be solved. Toward the end of his speech, he declared that a standardized…

Berlak, Ann

2010-01-01

436

[Evaluation of the main prenatal routine exams: part 2].  

PubMed

A good quality prenatal assistance is essential to warrant perinatal and maternal health. Nowadays, due to the evolution of diagnostic methods and the change in illness prevalence, such as the increase in diabetes and sexually transmitted diseases, several propedeutic procedures are available. This introduces further difficulty for clinicians to select the most adequate procedures and when to apply them during gestation, assuring the best results for both mother and infant. The present review aimed at evaluating the main prenatal routine tests on the basis of the best scientific evidence presently available. PMID:19838583

Amorim, Melania Maria Ramos; Melo, Adriana Suely de Oliveira

2009-07-01

437

Teaching Quantitative Literacy through a Regression Analysis of Exam Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Quantitative literacy is increasingly essential for both informed citizenship and a variety of careers. Though regression is one of the most common methods in quantitative sociology, it is rarely taught until late in students' college careers. In this article, the author describes a classroom-based activity introducing students to regression…

Lindner, Andrew M.

2012-01-01

438

Investigating Factors that Influence Item Performance on ACS Exams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

General chemistry tests from the Examinations Institute of the Division of Chemical Education of the American Chemical Society have been analyzed to identify factors that may influence how individual test items perform. In this paper, issues of item order (position within a set of items that comprise a test) and answer order (position of correct…

Schroeder, Jacob; Murphy, Kristen L.; Holme, Thomas A.

2012-01-01

439

Assessing Success on the Uniform CPA Exam: A Logit Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A logit model was used to test the likelihood of success of 231 candidates on the Uniform Certified Public Accountants Examination. Significant determinants of success included undergraduate grade point average, age, private accounting experience, and gender. (SK)

Brahmasrene, Tantatape; Whitten, Donna

2001-01-01

440

Year-End Exams Add Urgency to Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Returning from spring vacation, Dowan McNair-Lee's students find their desks in neat rows, facing forward. For the previous seven months, the 8th graders had sat in clusters, facing one another, to facilitate discussion. But janitors used the break to ready the classroom for the year-end tests that are only two weeks away. The new arrangement is…

Gewertz, Catherine

2013-01-01

441

Using Exam Bonus Points as Incentive for Research Participation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the use of an incentive program for motivating students. Offers examination bonus points to students as an incentive to finish their required participation in department-wide research. Finds that the incentive program benefited teachers, students, and researchers. (CMK)

Ferrari, Joseph R.; McGowan, Stephanie

2002-01-01

442

Experts Debate Value of Self-Exam for Testicular Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... abnormalities, but a new study from University of Kansas researchers found that self-examination for testicular cancer ... Ajay Nangia, M.D., professor, urology, University of Kansas, Kansas City; Michael LeFevre, M.D., chair, U.S. ...

443

Performance on multiple-choice diagnostics and complementary exam problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper compares the responses of university physics students on the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) and on open-ended examination questions. The Mechanics Baseline Test (MBT) is another multiple choice test. It contains a greater range of topics than the FCI and is intended for use after instruction.

Steinberg, Richard N.; Sabella, Mel

2005-10-17

444

How to prepare for the biomedical equipment technician certification exam.  

PubMed

A CBET should be well versed in theory, experienced, and skillful. Having an independent study plan that efficiently manages review time is the best way to enhance strengths and improve weaknesses. Benefits of being certified are: Greater confidence in your qualifications Increased knowledge as a result of preparing for the test Better service to offer to patients and to hospitals More professional security. Finally, do not take the test until you feel prepared. If you fail the CBET test, you will have to wait another six months to retake it. The time spent on your initial preparation may be wasted, due to poor recall and the development of new technology. PMID:8850598

Xu, Y

1996-01-01

445

Is It Time to Ditch the Traditional University Exam?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A dominant theme emerging from contemporary university assessment literature is the need to enhance student learning through effective formative feedback and the need to improve current practices. Of particular concern is the traditional university examination. There is a growing body of opinion that the handwritten extended-prose examination is…

Muldoon, Robyn

2012-01-01

446

Attribution as Predictor of Expectancy in Three Component Exams.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tests the hypothesis that student attributions of the causes of success on their examinations (ability, extra help, and extra effort) depends upon the test type (objective, problems, or essay). Findings supported the hypothesis. (AM)

Chandler, Theodore A.; Spies, Carl J.

1981-01-01

447

MINI EXAME DO ESTADO MENTAL E O DIAGN\\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diagnosis of dementia is based on the presence of memory deficits and decline of other cognitive functions. Many scales have been designed to aid the clinician in the assessment of at risk subjects, such as the elderly. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is the most widely used of such scales, although its use as an aid to the diagnosis

OSVALDO P. ALMEIDA

1998-01-01

448

Doppler ultrasound exam of an arm or leg  

MedlinePLUS

This test uses ultrasound to examine the blood flow in the major arteries and veins in the arms and legs. ... The test is done in the ultrasound or radiology department or in a ... gel is placed on a handheld device called a transducer, ...

449

Cardiovascular Screening of Athletes: Focused Exam, Electrocardiograms, and Limited Echocardiograms  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The incidence of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in athletes is estimated to occur at a frequency of 1\\/200,000 athletes per year\\u000a [.1]. It is postulated that intense exercise predisposes the competitive athlete with previously undetected cardiac disease\\u000a to lethal rhythm disturbances, and that the risk can be diminished if the athlete is withheld from sports participation.

Christine E. Lawless

450

EXPOSURE ANALYSIS MODELING SYSTEM (EXAMS): USER MANUAL AND SYSTEM DOCUMENTATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The Exposure Analysis Modeling System, first published in 1982 (EPA-600/3-82-023), provides interactive computer software for formulating aquatic ecosystem models and rapidly evaluating the fate, transport, and exposure concentrations of synthetic organic chemicals - pesticides, ...

451

Advancing Ohio's P-16 Agenda: Exit and Entrance Exam?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tests like the Ohio Graduation Test are part of what has become known as the "standards-based" reform movement in education. Simply put, they allow states to measure whether or not students are learning according to whatever set of standards, benchmarks and indicators are adopted by that state. They also help meet, in part, the reporting…

Rochford, Joseph A.

2004-01-01

452

Civics Exam: Schools of Choice Boost Civic Values  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many supporters of school choice argue that neighborhood assignment to public schools results not in diversity, but in the opposite: schools that are less likely to contain a diverse mix of students and that are more internally segregated along racial lines than are schools of choice. In recent years, a number of empirical studies of the effects…

Wolf, Patrick J.

2007-01-01

453

Overhaul of ESEA Could Drop Option of Alternate Exams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Renewal proposals for the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), the current version of which is the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act, are still being discussed by congressional lawmakers and staff. Capitol Hill aides and U.S. Department of Education officials have suggested that a current federal regulation governing alternate testing for…

Shah, Nirvi

2011-01-01

454

Attendance and Exam Performance at University: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The link between absenteeism and students' academic performance at university is perpetually a hot topic for teaching academics. Most studies suggest the effect is negative, although the strength of this effect is in dispute. The issue is complicated further when researchers draw their inferences from different angles, such as the removal of a…

Allen, David O.; Webber, Don J.

2010-01-01

455

X-Ray Exam: Bone Age Study (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... A bone age study helps doctors estimate the maturity of a child's skeletal system. It's usually done ... Contact Us Print Additional resources Send to a friend Reprint guidelines Share this page using: What are ...

456

[Cesium-157 in milk produced on farms of the Angra dos Reis Region, RJ].  

PubMed

The first Brazilian Nuclear Power Plant is located in the Angra dos Reis county, about 130 km West of Rio de Janeiro. Among the radionuclides that will be released to the environment by the Nuclear Plant, tritium and radioisotopes of Cs, I, Co and Sr are the ones of greatest potential impact on the local population. During the preliminary phase of the pre-operational environmental radiological program, 137Cs resulting from nuclear explosion fallout was detected in milk samples from only one farm, among the ones included in the monitoring program. This finfing seemed odd, leading to believe on the possibility of a soil anomaly on the region, in which 137Cs would be more available for plant uptake than in normal areas, as it has been observed in some areas in various countries. Trying to explain this issue, the Radioisotopes Laboratory of the Biophysics Institute and the Radioecology Laboratory of FURNAS decided to carry on a series of analyses of 137Cs in milk, pasture and soil collected in the four farms of the program. The results demonstrated the non-existence of a soil anomaly in the region regarding the 137Cs behavior Cesium-137 concentrations in milk varied from 0.06 to 0.93 Bq/l but the differences of the average values in the four farms were not statistically significant. In one farm, occasional high peaks of 137Cs concentrations in milk were observed, which seemed to be related to the cattle management. Apparently during certain periods, the cattle grazes in sectors whose 137Cs concentrations in soil and pasture are higher than in other areas of the same farm or the region, due to the influence of micro-climate and erosion of superficial soil. PMID:4062065

De Castro, M B; Penna-Franca, E; Mendes, W; Ramos, S A; Pereira, D J

1985-03-01

457

Geology, hydrology, and water quality of the Tracy-Dos Palos area, San Joaquin, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Tracy-Dos Palos area includes about 1,800 square miles on the northwest side of the San Joaquin Valley. The Tulare Formation of Pliocene and Pleistocene age, terrace deposits of Pleistocene age, and alluvium and flood-basin deposits of Pleistocene and Holocene age constitute the fresh ground-water reservoir Pre-Tertiary and Tertiary sedimentary and crystalline rocks, undifferentiated, underlie the valley and yield saline water. Hydrologically most important, the Tulare Formation is divided into a lower water-bearing zone confined by the Corcoran Clay Member and an upper zone that is confined, semiconfined, and unconfined in different parts of the area. Alluvium and flood-basin deposits are included in the upper zone. Surficial alluvium and flood-basin deposits contain a shallow water-bearing zone. Lower zone wells were flowing in 1908, but subsequent irrigation development caused head declines and land subsidence. Overdraft in both zones ended in 1951 with import of surface water. Bicarbonate water flows into the area from the Sierra Nevada and Diablo Range. Diablo Range water is higher in sulfate, chloride, and dissolved solids. Upper zone water averages between 400 and 1,200 mg/l (milligrams per liter) dissolved solids and water hardness generally exceeds 180 mg/l as calcium carbonate. Nitrate, fluoride, iron, and boron occur in excessive concentrations in water from some wells. Dissolved constituents in lower zone water generally are sodium chloride and sodium sulfate with higher dissolved solids concentration than water from the upper zone. The foothills of the Diablo Range provide favorable conditions for artificial recharge, but shallow water problems plague about 50 percent of the area and artificial recharge is undesirable at this time.

Hotchkiss, W. R.; Balding, G. O.

1971-01-01

458

15-Deoxyspergualin (15DOS) for therapy in an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS): Disease modifying activity on acute and chronic relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the therapeutic effect of 15-DOS in the two models of acute and chronic relapsing EAE in Lewis rats. In the first model adult rats developed an acute severe EAE and by day 16 all animals died. Lewis rats treated with 15-DOS showed a delayed and reduced onset of clinical symptoms and mortality was prevented. In the second model

H. U. Schorlemmer; F. R. Seiler

1991-01-01

459

Efeito do nível de concentrado sobre o peso dos órgãos internos e do conteúdo gastrintestinal de bovinos Nelore não-castrados  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - O efeito de cinco níveis de concentrado na dieta foi avaliado sobre o conteúdo do trato gastrintestinal e o peso dos órgãos internos e dos compartimentos gastrintestinais de bovinos Nelore não-castrados. Vinte e cinco animais com peso médio de 330 kg e idade média de 20 meses foram distribuídos, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em cinco tratamentos com diferentes

Antonia Sherlânea Chaves Véras; Sebastião de Campos Valadares Filho; José Fernando Coelho da Silva; Mário Fonseca Paulino; Paulo Roberto Cecon; Rilene Ferreira Diniz Valadares; Marcelo de Andrade Ferreira; Cristina Maria Sá Fontes

2001-01-01

460

Avaliação da evolução dos valores pagos pelo SIH em Minas Gerais frente à inflação setorial da saúde no período de fevereiro de 1996 a maio de 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo Uma questão atual nas políticas públicas de saúde no Brasil é o financiamento dos prestadores de serviços médico-hospitalares do Sistema Único de Saúde - SUS. Um dos meios de financiamento é o pagamento de procedimentos informados ao Sistema de Informações Hospitalares - SIH, em que o valor pago deriva do número de procedimentos efetuados conforme o valor de cada

Helen Cristiny; Teodoro Couto; Juliana Ferreira Castro; Bruno Pérez Ferreira

461

Sindicalismo e luta por direitos sociais do trabalh o em Juiz de Fora nos conturbados anos dos governos provisório e constitucional de Getúlio Vargas (1930-1937)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: A decretação de um conjunto significativo de leis trabalhistas no início de 1932 fez com que, nos anos seguintes, os dirigentes dos sindicatos re conhecidos desencadeassem variadas ações classistas em Juiz de Fora. Além de procurar forçar o empresar iado local a respeitar essa nova legislação social, reivindicavam das autoridades federais a aplicação efetiva e a ampliação dos benefícios

Luís Eduardo de Oliveira

462

Lack of immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis DosR regulon proteins following Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium bovis BCG is widely used as a vaccine against tuberculosis (TB), despite its variable protective efficacy. Relatively little is known about the immune response profiles following BCG vaccination in relation to protection against TB. Here we tested whether BCG vaccination results in immune responses to DosR (Rv3133c) regulon-encoded proteins. These so-called TB latency antigens are targeted by the immune system during persistent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and have been associated with immunity against latent M. tuberculosis infection. In silico analysis of the DosR regulon in BCG and M. tuberculosis showed at least 97% amino acid sequence homology, with 41 out of 48 genes being identical. Transcriptional profiling of 14 different BCG strains, under hypoxia and nitric oxide exposure in vitro, revealed a functional DosR regulon similar to that observed in M. tuberculosis. Next, we assessed human immune responses to a series of immunodominant TB latency antigens and found that BCG vaccination fails to induce significant responses to latency antigens. Similar results were obtained with BCG-vaccinated BALB/c mice. In contrast, responses to latency antigens were observed in individuals with suspected exposure to TB (as indicated by positive gamma interferon responses to TB-specific antigens ESAT-6 and CFP-10) and in mice vaccinated with plasmid DNA encoding selected latency antigens. Since immune responses to TB latency antigens have been associated with control of latent M. tuberculosis infection, our findings support the development of vaccination strategies incorporating DosR regulon antigens to complement and improve the current BCG vaccine. PMID:17502400

Lin, May Young; Geluk, Annemieke; Smith, Steven G; Stewart, Amanda L; Friggen, Annemieke H; Franken, Kees L M C; Verduyn, Marleen J C; van Meijgaarden, Krista E; Voskuil, Martin I; Dockrell, Hazel M; Huygen, Kris; Ottenhoff, Tom H M; Klein, Michèl R

2007-07-01

463

An Experimental Study of the Performance Impact of Path-Based DoS Attacks in Wireless Mesh Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless mesh networks (WMNs) are considered as cost effective, easily deployable and capable of extending Internet connectivity.\\u000a However, one of the major challenges in deploying reliable WMNs is preventing their nodes from malicious attacks, which is\\u000a of particular concern as attacks can severely degrade network performance. When a DoS attack is targeted over an entire communication\\u000a path, it is called

Avesh Kumar Agarwal; Wenye Wang

2010-01-01

464

Hydrogen sulfide stimulates the catalytic activity of a heme-regulated phosphodiesterase from Escherichia coli (Ec DOS).  

PubMed

Ec DOS, a heme-regulated phosphodiesterase from Escherichia coli, is an oxygen sensor enzyme composed of a heme-bound O(2) sensor domain at the N-terminus and a catalytic domain at the C-terminus. The catalytic activity of Ec DOS is substantially enhanced with the formation of a Fe(II) heme-O(2) complex. The physiological importance of H(2)S as a fourth signaling gas molecule in addition to O(2), CO and NO is an emerging focus of research, since H(2)S participates in various physiological functions. In the present study, we showed that catalysis by Ec DOS is markedly increased by H(2)S under aerobic conditions. Absorption spectral findings suggest that SH(-)-modified heme iron complexes, such as Fe(III)-SH(-) and Fe(II)-O(2) complexes, represent the active species for H(2)S-induced catalysis. We further examined the role of Cys residues in H(2)S-induced catalysis using Cys?Ala mutant enzymes. Based on the collective data, we speculate that H(2)S-induced catalytic enhancement is facilitated by an admixture of Fe(III)-SH(-) and Fe(II)-O(2) complexes formed during catalysis and modification of specific Cys residue(s) in the catalytic domain. PMID:22387619

Takahashi, Hiroto; Sekimoto, Madoka; Tanaka, Masahiro; Tanaka, Atsunari; Igarashi, Jotaro; Shimizu, Toru

2012-04-01

465

(Pu-244)-Xe formation and gas retention age, exposure history, and terrestrial age of angrites LEW86010 and LEW87051 - Comparison with Angra DOS Reis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isotopic abundances of noble gases in two angrites LEW86010 and LEW87051 were investigated and compared with those for the basaltic achondrite Angra dos Reis. An atomic ratio Pu-244/Nd-150 = 0.00136 was calculated for LEW86010, which corresponds to a fission Xe retention age 19 +/-40 Ma younger than that of Angra dos Reis, indicating that LEW86010 formed contemporaneously with Angra dos Reis, for which a formation age of 4550 Ma was previously estimated. The LEW87051 angrite showed the lowest nominal U/Th-(He-4) gas retention age (4 Ma) ever observed for a stone meteorite. The cosmic-ray exposure histories for the three angrites were found to be very different: ages of 17.6 +/-1.0 and 0.2 or greater were calculated for LEW86010 and LEW87051, respectively, compared to a previously reported exposure age of 55.5 for Angra dos Reis.

Eugster, O.; Michel, Th.; Niedermann, S.

1991-10-01

466

Rare earth elements in Angra DOS Reis and Lewis Cliff 86010, two meteorites with similar but distinct magma evolutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data are presented on ion microprobe measurements of REE and selected trace element abundances in individual grains of merrillite, fassaite, olivine, kirschsteinite, and plagioclase of Lewis Cliff 86010 (LEW 86010) meteorite and in merrillite and fassaite grains of Angra dos Reis (ADOR). Results show a close relationship between the two meteorites and support a magmatic origin for LEW 86010. However, the measurements indicate that, despite numerous common characteristics, the two meteorites must have been produced in separate magmatic events involving similar but distinct processes and parent melts.

Crozaz, G.; McKay, G.

1990-03-01

467

Rare earth elements in Angra dos Reis and Lewis Cliff 86010, two meteorites with similar but distinct magma evolutions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data are presented on ion microprobe measurements of REE and selected trace element abundances in individual grains of merrillite, fassaite, olivine, kirschsteinite, and plagioclase of Lewis Cliff 86010 (LEW 86010) meteorite and in merrillite and fassaite grains of Angra dos Reis (ADOR). Results show a close relationship between the two meteorites and support a magmatic origin for LEW 86010. However, the measurements indicate that, despite numerous common characteristics, the two meteorites must have been produced in separate magmatic events involving similar but distinct processes and parent melts.

Crozaz, Ghislaine; Mckay, Gordon

1990-01-01

468

Dor de dente: percepção dos usuários da atenção básica de saúde Pain of tooth: perception of users of basic health care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Key-words A dor é uma experiência privada e qualquer informação sobre ela provém daquele que a sente. Esta pesquisa objetivou analisar a percepção dos usuários atendidos na Atenção Básica de Saúde no município de Campina Grande - PB, quanto à dor de dente. A pesquisa foi do tipo quanti-qualitativa, descritiva e transversal, sendo os dados coletados por entrevista semi-estruturada. Dos

Ermano Batista da Costa; Vanda Sanderana; Macêdo Carneiro; Hugo Leonardo; Oliveira Pedrosa; Gustavo Pina Godoy; Araújo Amorim

469

On the effectiveness of route-based packet filtering for distributed DoS attack prevention in power-law internets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Denial of service (DoS) attack on the Internet has become a pressing problem. In this paper, we describe and evaluate route-based distributed packet filtering (DPF), a novel approach to distributed DoS (DDoS) attack prevention. We show that DPF achieves proactiveness and scalability, and we show that there is an intimate relationship between the effectiveness of DPF at mitigating DDoS attack

Heejo Lee

2001-01-01

470

Supporting Security against SYN Flooding Attack in Distributed DoS Via Measuring IPFIX-Based Traffic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Distributed denial-of-service attacks on public servers after 2000 have become a serious problem. In the distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks often seen recently, multiple distributed nodes concurrently attack a single server. To assure that network services will not be interrupted, faster and more effective defense mechanisms is needed to protect against malicious traffic, especially SYN floods. One problem in detecting SYN flood traffic is that server nodes or firewalls cannot distinguish the SYN packets of normal TCP connections from those of a SYN flood attack. Our method, FDFIX, relies on the use of monitoring and measurement techniques to evaluate the impact of DoS attacks. It uses flow based measurements. Capturing flow information is very important for detecting DoS and also other kinds of attacks. Flow monitoring allows detecting suspicious traffics and in the next step can analyze attacking flows and the results can be used for defense methods. Our method provides required information for many mechanisms that use traffic measurement as their input.

Alipour, H.; Kia, M. Kashefi; Esmaeili, M.

471

Degradability of dimethyl terephthalate by Variovorax paradoxus T4 and Sphingomonas yanoikuyae DOS01 isolated from deep-ocean sediments.  

PubMed

Two strains of bacteria were isolated from deep-ocean sediments of the South China Sea using enrichment culturing technique and they were identified as Sphingomonas yanoikuyae DOS01 (AY878409) and Variovorax paradoxus T4 (AY878410) based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. S. yanoikuyae DOS01 was only capable of transforming dimethyl terephthalate (DMTP) to monomethyl terephthalate (MMTP) without further degradation while V. paradoxus T4 exhibited ability in mineralizing DMTP as the sole source of carbon and energy. The biochemical pathway of DMTP degradation was through MMTP and terephthalic acid (TA) as major detectable degradation intermediates in the culture media by both microorganisms. V. paradoxus T4 utilized DMTP and MMTP via hydrolysis of diester and monoester in the initial steps in degradation as confirmed by total organic carbon analysis of the culture medium and esterase activity assay of the lysed cells and fraction. The specific hydrolysis activity of esterase induced by DMTP or MMTP showed that greater hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl acetate by esterase induced by DMTP-grown cells than that induced by MMTP. Results of this research suggest that the cleavage of the two identical carboxylic ester groups of phthalate diester are carried out by highly specific esterases of the same bacteria in the environment. PMID:16955363

Wang, Yu Ping; Gu, Ji-Dong

2006-08-01

472

Mycobacterium tuberculosis DosR Regulon Gene Rv0079 Encodes a Putative, 'Dormancy Associated Translation Inhibitor (DATIN)'  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a major human pathogen that has evolved survival mechanisms to persist in an immune-competent host under a dormant condition. The regulation of M. tuberculosis metabolism during latent infection is not clearly known. The dormancy survival regulon (DosR regulon) is chiefly responsible for encoding dormancy related functions of M. tuberculosis. We describe functional characterization of an important gene of DosR regulon, Rv0079, which appears to be involved in the regulation of translation through the interaction of its product with bacterial ribosomal subunits. The protein encoded by Rv0079, possibly, has an inhibitory role with respect to protein synthesis, as revealed by our experiments. We performed computational modelling and docking simulation studies involving the protein encoded by Rv0079 followed by in vitro translation and growth curve analysis experiments, involving recombinant E. coli and Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG) strains that overexpressed Rv0079. Our observations concerning the interaction of the protein with the ribosomes are supportive of its role in regulation/inhibition of translation. We propose that the protein encoded by locus Rv0079 is a ‘dormancy associated translation inhibitor’ or DATIN.

Kumar, Ashutosh; Majid, Mohammad; Kunisch, Ralph; Rani, Pittu Sandhya; Qureshi, Insaf A.; Lewin, Astrid; Hasnain, Seyed E.; Ahmed, Niyaz

2012-01-01

473

2.3 A X-ray structure of the heme-bound GAF domain of sensory histidine kinase DosT of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium tuberculosis responds to changes in environmental conditions through a two-component signaling system that detects reduced O(2) tension and NO and CO exposures via the heme-binding GAF domains of two sensory histidine kinases, DosT and DevS, and the transcriptional regulator DosR. We report the first X-ray structure of the DosT heme-bound GAF domain (GAF(DosT)) in both oxy and deoxy forms determined to a resolution of 2.3 A. In GAF(DosT), heme binds in an orientation orthogonal to that in the PAS domains via a highly conserved motif, including invariant H147 as a proximal heme axial ligand. On the distal side, invariant Y169 forms stacking interactions with the heme with its long axis parallel and the plane of the ring orthogonal to the heme plane. In one of the two protein monomers in an asymmetric unit, O(2) binds as a second axial ligand to the heme iron and is stabilized via a H-bond to the OH group of Y169. The structure reveals two small tunnel-connected cavities and a pore on the protein surface that suggest a potential route for the access of O(2) to the sensing pocket. The limited conformational differences observed between differently heme iron-ligated GAF(DosT) monomers in the asymmetric unit may result from crystal lattice limitations since atmospheric oxygen binding likely occurs in the crystal as a result of X-ray-induced Fe(3+) photoreduction during diffraction data collection. Determination of the GAF(DosT) structure sets up a framework in which to address ligand recognition, discrimination, and signal propagation schemes in the heme-based GAF domains of biological sensors. PMID:18980385

Podust, Larissa M; Ioanoviciu, Alexandra; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R

2008-11-25

474

A estabilidade dos PAHS em função da energia da radiação interestelar nas faixas UV e raios-X  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A nebulosa CRL 618, uma proto-nebulosa planetária cuja nuvem molecular espessa envolve uma estrela B0, contém uma grande quantidade de C2H2 e CH4. Estas moléculas são consideradas os tijolos da criação de grandes moléculas carbonadas como os Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos (PAHs). Esta nebulosa, por estar exposta a intensos campos de UV e Raios-X, é uma região de fotodissociação molecular que propicia a formação de novas moléculas, confirmada pela presença de C4H2 e C6H6 (Benzeno), que é a unidade básica dos PAHs. Atribui-se a esta família de moléculas orgânicas duas propriedades fundamentais, a resistência para sobreviver ao campo de radiação UV interestelar e a geração das bandas de emissão não identificadas (UIR) observadas no infravermelho. No entanto, alguns autores questionam a resistência dos PAHs ao campo de radiação UV interestelar. Empregando a técnica de Espectrometria de Massas por Tempo de Vôo, no modo de coincidência fotoelétron-fotoíon, estudamos a ionização e fragmentação das seguintes moléculas: Benzeno, Benzeno deuterado, Naftaleno, Antraceno e Fenantreno. Utilizamos uma fonte de Hélio monocromática em 21,21 eV (584,5 Å) e a radiação Síncroton do Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncroton (LNLS) em diferentes energias nas proximidades da borda do C 1s ( 290 eV). Comprovamos a estabilidade dos PAHs sob ação de UV (21,21 eV), onde eles apresentam um baixo nível de fotodissociação, produzindo fragmentos ionizados com rendimento total na ordem de 5 por cento em relação ao íon molecular pai. Entretanto, em altas energias, na faixa de Raios-X, a quebra destas moléculas torna-se mais intensa, com a produção de muitos fragmentos. Como uma das rotas de fragmentação do Naftaleno é [(C10H8) = > (C6H6+) + (C4H2) + (e-)], e como temos as evidências observacionais da existência do C4H2 e C6H6 na nebulosa CRL 618, sugerimos que este ambiente também possui o Naftaleno.

Pinotti, R.; Costa, R. K.; Boechat-Roberty, H. M.; Lago, A.; Souza, G. B.

2003-08-01

475

Whole genome shotgun sequencing of one Colombian clinical isolate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis reveals DosR regulon gene deletions.  

PubMed

Several genomes of different Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates have been completely sequenced around the world. The genomic information obtained have shown higher diversity than originally thought and specific adaptations to different human populations. Within this work, we sequenced the genome of one Colombian M. tuberculosis virulent isolate. Genomic comparison against the reference genome of H37Rv and other strains showed multiple deletion and insertions that ranged between a few bases to thousands. Excluding PPE and PG-PGRS genes, 430 proteins present changes in at least 1 amino acid. Also, novel positions of the IS6110 mobile element were identified. This isolate is also characterized by a large genomic deletion of 3.6 kb, leading to the loss and modification of the dosR regulon genes, Rv1996 and Rv1997. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the genome sequence of a Latin American M. tuberculosis clinical isolate. PMID:22404577

Isaza, Juan Pablo; Duque, Camilo; Gomez, Verónica; Robledo, Jaime; Barrera, Luis F; Alzate, Juan F

2012-05-01

476

Seismogenic sources and crustal structure near the seismological station of Angra dos Reis (ESAR), southeastern region of Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seismological station of Angra dos Reis (ESAR) is operating since the end of year 2000 located near to the nuclear power plants of Angra dos Reis, in the southern portion of Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil. The main objective of ESAR is defining the level of seismic activity in the area where those plants are installed, using data from a broadband seismograph that operates in a 100 cps continuous format. Epicentral determination of local seismic events is done through the back azimuth calculated with the P wave amplitude in the three component seismograms, and epicentral distance induced from the S-P time difference. Crustal structure for relating the S-P time and epicentral distance was obtained through a seismic refraction experiment using controlled sources, complemented with a detailed study of crustal structure beneath ESAR using teleseimic data and the receiver function method processed in the time domain. Since the beginning of operation ESAR has detected many local and near regional seismic events with magnitude lower than mb 4.0, most of them below mb 2.0, and not included in the Brazilian Seismic Catalogue. Epicenters of those events are spread in both oceanic and continental areas, in some cases forming clusters of different size, some of them, especially those located in the continent could belong to explosions made in stone-quarry, whereas, clusters and isolated epicenters located in the oceanic area could belong to natural earthquakes. Two of these oceanic clusters, located in the continental platform, may belong to seismogenic sources that are active near ESAR, and need further study to define its nature.

Romero, T.; Berrocal, J.; Fernandes, C.; de Lima, M. V.; Dos Reis, E.

2007-05-01

477

Análisis multinivel de cadenas de suministros: dos técnicas de resolución del efecto bullwhip \\/\\/ Supply Chain Multilevel Analysis: Two Bullwhip Dampening Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

El efecto bullwhip es un fenómeno causante de ineficiencias en la gestión de la cadena de suministros. El objetivo del presente artículo es analizar el impacto sobre el rendimiento de una cadena de suministro de dos de las técnicas más comunes de resolución del efecto bullwhip: la regla de pedido (S, R) amortiguada y la adopción de prácticas de colaboración.

Elena Ciancimino; Salvatore Cannella; José David Canca Ortiz; José Manuel Framiñán Torres

2009-01-01

478

Thermospheric Winds and Temperatures Observed by OI 6300 Angstrom Emission at Sao Jose dos Campos, Brazil, during the Second Sundial Campaign.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thermospheric neutral wind and temperature observations measuring OI 6300 angstroms Doppler shift and broadening by means of a Fabry-Perot interferometer were carried out at Sao Jose dos Campos (23.2 deg S, 45.9 deg W), Brazil, during the period September...

Y. Sahai H. Takahashi N. R. Teixeira R. G. Roble

1987-01-01

479

Discovery of the base of the Pinal Schist and the Bear Canyon sequence below it in the eastern Metamorphic terrane of the Dos Cabezas mountains, Cochise County, Arizona  

Microsoft Academic Search

The eastern metamorphic terrane of the Dos Cabezas mountains is underlain by Pinal Schist (PS). Recent detailed mapping along the western edge of this terrane shows that a flat planar regional unconformity (UC) bounds this Pinal body at its western stratigraphic base. Below the UC lies 8 km[sup 2] of greenschist facies metapelites and metafelsites here given the provisional name

1993-01-01

480

Un estudio de los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud indica que dos dosis de vacuna contra los VPH pueden proteger tanto como el tratamiento completo  

Cancer.gov

Dos dosis de Cervarix, la vacuna contra virus del papiloma humano (VPH), fueron tan efectivas como la pauta normal actual de tres dosis después de cuatro años de seguimiento. El estudio de vacuna en Costa Rica, patrocinado por el NCI, fue diseñado para evaluar la eficacia de Cervarix en una población determinada.

481

Ilha de Calor e Segregação Espacial: estudo de caso - sítios da Macrozona Sul do município de São José dos Campos\\/SP  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work is to correlate the urban heat island effect with the residential buildings characteristics in three intra-urban areas, with different social-economic conditions, inside the south region of São José dos Campos city. For this purpose a hyperspectral image was employed. It was acquired in 2006 by the airborne Hyperspectral Scanner System (HSS), sensor operated by Brazilian

Livramento Andrade; Sandra Maria Fonseca Costa; Ruy Morgado de Castro; Romero da Costa Moreira

482

Métodos de coleta de fezes e determinação dos coeficientes de digestibilidade da fração protéica e da energia de alimentos para o pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887)  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - Para melhorar a alimentação do pacu (Piaracatus mesopotamicus), é necessário conhecer o nível de aproveitamento dos ingredientes utilizados em suas dietas. Neste trabalho, inicialmente, foram analisados quatro métodos de coleta de fezes, em função da precisão e da versatilidade (dissecação, extrusão, Guelph e Guelph modificado), e o tempo entre as coletas de fezes nos sistemas de Guelph, por

Eduardo Gianini Abimorad; Dalton José Carneiro

2004-01-01

483

Kinetics and products from reaction of Cl radicals with dioctyl sebacate (DOS) particles in O(2): a model for radical-initiated oxidation of organic aerosols.  

PubMed

The reaction of Cl radicals with bis (2-ethylhexyl) sebacate (also known as dioctyl sebacate, DOS) particles in the presence of O(2) is studied as a model of radical-initiated oxidation of organic aerosols. The uptake coefficient as measured from the rate of loss of DOS is gamma(DOS) = 1.7 (+/-0.3) indicating that a radical chain is operative. It is observed that nearly all of the detected products, accounting for 86% (+/-12%) of the reacted DOS, remain in the particles indicating that they are not efficiently volatilized. Correspondingly, the particles do not decrease in volume even after 60% of the DOS has reacted; upon further reaction the volume does decrease by up to 20%. Additionally, the mass of a DOS film increases with reaction indicating that the density increases. The two primary products identified are the ketone (38 +/- 10% yield) and alcohol (14 +/- 4% yield) resulting from reactions of alkylperoxy radicals originating from DOS oxidation. The fact that the ketone/alcohol ratio is >1 implies that the Russell mechanism, the typical fate of alkylperoxy radicals in liquids whereby both a ketone and an alcohol are generated, is not the only source of ketones. In fact, the ketone yield demonstrates a Langmuir-Hinshelwood type dependence on the O(2) concentration indicating that 44% (+/-8%) of the ketone is created from the reaction of alkoxy radicals with O(2) at the surface of the particles (at 20% O(2)). While this is a common reaction in the gas phase, it is generally not considered to occur in organic solvents. Furthermore, the appearance of gas-phase H(2)O(2) suggests that peroxy radicals react to form two ketones and H(2)O(2)via the Bennett and Summers mechanism. The absence of aldehyde products, both in the gas phase and in the particles, indicates that beta-scission of the alkoxy radicals is not significant. The results of this study suggest that organic aerosols in the troposphere are efficiently oxidized by gas-phase radicals but that their chemical transformation does not lead to their removal through volatilization. PMID:17712459

Hearn, John D; Renbaum, Lindsay H; Wang, Xi; Smith, Geoffrey D

2007-09-14

484

Analysis of the Astronomical Concepts Presented by Teachers of Science, Physics, and Mathematics of São José dos Campos / SP Municipality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work is to conduct a survey of alternative conceptions about the basic concepts of Astronomy from schoolteachers in the City of São José dos Campos. This study covers the the state-run education system and complies with legal documents related to the curriculum of educational systems, such as the Curriculum of São Paulo State and the Parameters of the National Curriculum (PCN). Alternative conceptions, mentioned in Langhi (2009) as very important, were used, because it is believed that if a student can learn these concepts before the methodological intervention, it is possible to prepare contextualized presentations for teachers, and consequently students, to compare what they already know with the new information they obtain in the sessions at the digital mobile planetarium (DMP) of the Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul. Afterwards, they may discuss in a forum, in the form of debate, seeking to draw conclusions relevant to the topic, and transmitting the same to students in Basic Education (EB). This is a case study with a quantitative survey and a qualitative analysis of data on astronomical concepts collected through two questionnaires, one before and one after the intervention, respecting the implementation period of the study,- here called methodological intervention of content presentations at the mobile planetarium - and on respective discussions.

Pereira Gonzaga, Edson; Voelzke, Marcos Rincon

2013-11-01

485

Activation of ATP Binding for the Autophosphorylation of DosS, a Mycobacterium tuberculosis Histidine Kinase Lacking an ATP Lid Motif*  

PubMed Central

The sensor histidine kinases of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, DosS and DosT, are responsible for sensing hypoxic conditions and consist of sensor and kinase cores responsible for accepting signals and phosphorylation activity, respectively. The kinase core contains a dimerization and histidine phosphate-accepting (DHp) domain and an ATP binding domain (ABD). The 13 histidine kinase genes of M. tuberculosis can be grouped based on the presence or absence of the ATP lid motif and F box (elements known to play roles in ATP binding) in their ABDs; DosS and DosT have ABDs lacking both these elements, and the crystal structures of their ABDs indicated that they were unsuitable for ATP binding, as a short loop covers the putative ATP binding site. Although the ABD alone cannot bind ATP, the kinase core is functional in autophosphorylation. Appropriate spatial arrangement of the ABD and DHp domain within the kinase core is required for both autophosphorylation and ATP binding. An ionic in