Science.gov

Sample records for low-cost inverted microscope

  1. Breaking Barriers to Low-Cost Modular Inverter Production & Use

    SciTech Connect

    Bogdan Borowy; Leo Casey; Jerry Foshage; Steve Nichols; Jim Perkinson

    2005-05-31

    The goal of this cost share contract is to advance key technologies to reduce size, weight and cost while enhancing performance and reliability of Modular Inverter Product for Distributed Energy Resources (DER). Efforts address technology development to meet technical needs of DER market protection, isolation, reliability, and quality. Program activities build on SatCon Technology Corporation inverter experience (e.g., AIPM, Starsine, PowerGate) for Photovoltaic, Fuel Cell, Energy Storage applications. Efforts focused four technical areas, Capacitors, Cooling, Voltage Sensing and Control of Parallel Inverters. Capacitor efforts developed a hybrid capacitor approach for conditioning SatCon's AIPM unit supply voltages by incorporating several types and sizes to store energy and filter at high, medium and low frequencies while minimizing parasitics (ESR and ESL). Cooling efforts converted the liquid cooled AIPM module to an air-cooled unit using augmented fin, impingement flow cooling. Voltage sensing efforts successfully modified the existing AIPM sensor board to allow several, application dependent configurations and enabling voltage sensor galvanic isolation. Parallel inverter control efforts realized a reliable technique to control individual inverters, connected in a parallel configuration, without a communication link. Individual inverter currents, AC and DC, were balanced in the paralleled modules by introducing a delay to the individual PWM gate pulses. The load current sharing is robust and independent of load types (i.e., linear and nonlinear, resistive and/or inductive). It is a simple yet powerful method for paralleling both individual devices dramatically improves reliability and fault tolerance of parallel inverter power systems. A patent application has been made based on this control technology.

  2. Low-cost photovoltaic inverters incorporating application-specific integrated circuits

    SciTech Connect

    O`Sullivan, G.A.; O`Sullivan, J.A.

    1993-10-01

    The positive impact of designing a power conditioner control system for photovoltaic applications with an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) as the main control element was demonstrated with detailed computer simulations in Phase I of a two phase Small Business Innovative Research Grant issued by the US Department of Energy. Completion of the design, building and testing of three prototypes using different power semiconductors was successfully accomplished in Phase II. The power rating for the residential utility intertied Sunverters Model 753-4-200 is 5 kW. A stand-alone inverter suitable for operation from a photovoltaic array with or without a battery for energy storage was also developed in this effort. A much needed intermediate power level 50-kW three-phase power conditioner, Sunverter Model 759-4-200, was the third product to evolve from the research and development. All designs take advantage of the ASIC and a complementary microprocessor sampled-data control system. The ASIC-controlled power conditioners provide the high reliability, high efficiency, and low cost needed for photovoltaic applications. They cover the power range from the residential level to utility-sized installations.

  3. Portable, battery-operated, low-cost, bright field and fluorescence microscope.

    PubMed

    Miller, Andrew R; Davis, Gregory L; Oden, Z Maria; Razavi, Mohamad Reza; Fateh, Abolfazl; Ghazanfari, Morteza; Abdolrahimi, Farid; Poorazar, Shahin; Sakhaie, Fatemeh; Olsen, Randall J; Bahrmand, Ahmad Reza; Pierce, Mark C; Graviss, Edward A; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the design and evaluation of a portable bright-field and fluorescence microscope that can be manufactured for $240 USD. The microscope uses a battery-operated LED-based flashlight as the light source and achieves a resolution of 0.8 microm at 1000x magnification in fluorescence mode. We tested the diagnostic capability of this new instrument to identify infections caused by the human pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Sixty-four direct, decontaminated, and serially diluted smears were prepared from sputa obtained from 19 patients suspected to have M. tuberculosis infection. Slides were stained with auramine orange and evaluated as being positive or negative for M. tuberculosis with both the new portable fluorescence microscope and a laboratory grade fluorescence microscope. Concordant results were obtained in 98.4% of cases. This highly portable, low cost, fluorescence microscope may be a useful diagnostic tool to expand the availability of M. tuberculosis testing at the point-of-care in low resource settings. PMID:20694194

  4. A Simple low-cost device enables four epi-illumination techniques on standard light microscopes

    PubMed Central

    Ishmukhametov, Robert R.; Russell, Aidan N.; Wheeler, Richard J.; Nord, Ashley L.; Berry, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    Back-scattering darkfield (BSDF), epi-fluorescence (EF), interference reflection contrast (IRC), and darkfield surface reflection (DFSR) are advanced but expensive light microscopy techniques with limited availability. Here we show a simple optical design that combines these four techniques in a simple low-cost miniature epi-illuminator, which inserts into the differential interference-contrast (DIC) slider bay of a commercial microscope, without further additions required. We demonstrate with this device: 1) BSDF-based detection of Malarial parasites inside unstained human erythrocytes; 2) EF imaging with and without dichroic components, including detection of DAPI-stained Leishmania parasite without using excitation or emission filters; 3) RIC of black lipid membranes and other thin films, and 4) DFSR of patterned opaque and transparent surfaces. We believe that our design can expand the functionality of commercial bright field microscopes, provide easy field detection of parasites and be of interest to many users of light microscopy. PMID:26853732

  5. A Simple low-cost device enables four epi-illumination techniques on standard light microscopes.

    PubMed

    Ishmukhametov, Robert R; Russell, Aidan N; Wheeler, Richard J; Nord, Ashley L; Berry, Richard M

    2016-01-01

    Back-scattering darkfield (BSDF), epi-fluorescence (EF), interference reflection contrast (IRC), and darkfield surface reflection (DFSR) are advanced but expensive light microscopy techniques with limited availability. Here we show a simple optical design that combines these four techniques in a simple low-cost miniature epi-illuminator, which inserts into the differential interference-contrast (DIC) slider bay of a commercial microscope, without further additions required. We demonstrate with this device: 1) BSDF-based detection of Malarial parasites inside unstained human erythrocytes; 2) EF imaging with and without dichroic components, including detection of DAPI-stained Leishmania parasite without using excitation or emission filters; 3) RIC of black lipid membranes and other thin films, and 4) DFSR of patterned opaque and transparent surfaces. We believe that our design can expand the functionality of commercial bright field microscopes, provide easy field detection of parasites and be of interest to many users of light microscopy. PMID:26853732

  6. A Simple low-cost device enables four epi-illumination techniques on standard light microscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishmukhametov, Robert R.; Russell, Aidan N.; Wheeler, Richard J.; Nord, Ashley L.; Berry, Richard M.

    2016-02-01

    Back-scattering darkfield (BSDF), epi-fluorescence (EF), interference reflection contrast (IRC), and darkfield surface reflection (DFSR) are advanced but expensive light microscopy techniques with limited availability. Here we show a simple optical design that combines these four techniques in a simple low-cost miniature epi-illuminator, which inserts into the differential interference-contrast (DIC) slider bay of a commercial microscope, without further additions required. We demonstrate with this device: 1) BSDF-based detection of Malarial parasites inside unstained human erythrocytes; 2) EF imaging with and without dichroic components, including detection of DAPI-stained Leishmania parasite without using excitation or emission filters; 3) RIC of black lipid membranes and other thin films, and 4) DFSR of patterned opaque and transparent surfaces. We believe that our design can expand the functionality of commercial bright field microscopes, provide easy field detection of parasites and be of interest to many users of light microscopy.

  7. Holographic microscope using conventional low-cost liquid crystal display in transmissive setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Andreas; Ortega Clavero, Valentin; Schröder, Werner

    2011-05-01

    The microscopic three-dimensional imaging of cells is a key method in biological and medical research. Conventional high-resolution scanning methods e.g. laser scanning microscopes are limited or require some form of compensation in monitoring of living cells. The proposed method uses a low-cost twisted nematic liquid crystal display (TN-LCD) which is used as phase modulating electrically addressed spatial light modulator (EASLM) to holographically generate a reference wave which can be translated and shift in phase. Wavefront distortions caused by aberrations are determined by scanning the system with the EASLM, approximating them with Zernike polynomials and calculating a phase correction function which can be superposed with the hologram. The interference pattern of the object and shifted reference wave is captured with a CMOS camera and subsequently the object wave is reconstructed from the taken images. With this procedure it was already possible to reconstruct a diatom in different layers.

  8. ezAFM: A low cost Atomic Force Microscope(AFM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celik, Umit; Celik, Kubra; Aslan, Husnu; Kehribar, Ihsan; Dede, Munir; Ozgur Ozer, H.; Oral, Ahmet

    2012-02-01

    A low cost AFM, ezAFM is developed for educational purposes as well as research. Optical beam deflection method is used to measure the deflection of cantilever. ezAFM scanner is built using voice coil motors (VCM) with ˜50x50x6 μm scan area. The microscope uses alignment free cantilevers, which minimizes setup times. FPGA based AFM feedback Control electronics is developed. FPGA technology allows us to drive all peripherals in parallel. ezAFM Controller is connected to PC by USB 2.0 interface as well as Wi-Fi. We have achieved <5nm lateral and ˜0.01nm vertical resolution. ezAFM can image single atomic steps in HOPG and mica. An optical microscope with <3 μm resolution is also integrated into the system. ezAFM supports different AFM operation modes such as dynamic mode, contact mode, lateral force microscopy. Advanced modes like magnetic force microscopy and electric force microscopy will be implemented later on. The new ezAFM system provides, short learning times for student labs, quick setup and easy to transport for portable applications with the best price/performance ratio. The cost of the system starts from 15,000, with system performance comparable with the traditional AFM systems.

  9. A maskless photolithographic prototyping system using a low-cost consumer projector and a microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musgraves, J. David; Close, Brett T.; Tanenbaum, David M.

    2005-10-01

    Lithographic processing has been the key technology responsible for the rapid advances in microelectronics, but is typically not accessible to undergraduates. We have developed a maskless photolithographic system that can be assembled from a consumer projector and a trinocular microscope. This system allows students to design and print custom patterns into photoresist in less than 30 min, without using a clean room, a mask facility, or a chrome-etch bath. Students can create and evaluate patterns, make changes to their design, or add additional layers of aligned patterns in a single laboratory session. The rapid turnaround time and low cost of ownership is useful for low-resolution (˜10 μm) prototyping. Photoresist is spun in a modified food processor and baked on a standard hot plate. Mating pieces were machined from aluminum. Only the digital light processing projector and food processor are modified, so the microscope, camera, and computer need not be dedicated to the system. The entire system can be assembled for less than 5000.

  10. A new low-cost, fully fault-protected PWM-VSI inverter with true phase-current information

    SciTech Connect

    Blaabjerg, F.; Pedersen, J.K.

    1997-01-01

    This paper proposes a new topology for a low-cost three-phase pulse width modulation (PWM) VSI inverter where a true phase current information exists with the use of only one current sensor in the dc link. The topology also has the benefits of full protection of the inverter such as short circuits in the dc link, output phase faults, and output earth faults. Previously suggested methods have problems at low speed in detecting the phase current, but by the use of space vector modulation in a double-sided implementation, the PWM-pulses are adjusted so true information about the phase current exists even at very low speed. The dc link current is sampled twice during one switching period, and it is proposed to sample in the center of the PWM-pulses to obtain a real average phase current. The effects of blanking-time and overmodulation are also discussed. The strategy is implemented in a 16-b microcontroller, and the test results show the technique is useful in the whole speed range. It is concluded by the use of the proposed topology that only one current sensor will be necessary in the future for PWM-VSI inverters.

  11. Multiphoton adaptation of a commercial low-cost confocal microscope for live tissue imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancuso, James J.; Larson, Adam M.; Wensel, Theodore G.; Saggau, Peter

    2009-05-01

    The Nikon C1 confocal laser scanning microscope is a relatively inexpensive and user-friendly instrument. We describe a straightforward method to convert the C1 for multiphoton microscopy utilizing direct coupling of a femtosecond near-infrared laser into the scan head and fiber optic transmission of emission light to the three-channel detector box. Our adapted system can be rapidly switched between confocal and multiphoton mode, requires no modification to the original system, and uses only a few custom-made parts. The entire system, including scan mirrors and detector box, remain under the control of the user-friendly Nikon EZ-C1 software without modification.

  12. Openstage: A Low-Cost Motorized Microscope Stage with Sub-Micron Positioning Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Robert A. A.; Eifert, Robert W.; Turner, Glenn C.

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress in intracellular calcium sensors and other fluorophores has promoted the widespread adoption of functional optical imaging in the life sciences. Home-built multiphoton microscopes are easy to build, highly customizable, and cost effective. For many imaging applications a 3-axis motorized stage is critical, but commercially available motorization hardware (motorized translators, controller boxes, etc) are often very expensive. Furthermore, the firmware on commercial motor controllers cannot easily be altered and is not usually designed with a microscope stage in mind. Here we describe an open-source motorization solution that is simple to construct, yet far cheaper and more customizable than commercial offerings. The cost of the controller and motorization hardware are under $1000. Hardware costs are kept low by replacing linear actuators with high quality stepper motors. Electronics are assembled from commonly available hobby components, which are easy to work with. Here we describe assembly of the system and quantify the positioning accuracy of all three axes. We obtain positioning repeatability of the order of in X/Y and in Z. A hand-held control-pad allows the user to direct stage motion precisely over a wide range of speeds ( to ), rapidly store and return to different locations, and execute “jumps” of a fixed size. In addition, the system can be controlled from a PC serial port. Our “OpenStage” controller is sufficiently flexible that it could be used to drive other devices, such as micro-manipulators, with minimal modifications. PMID:24586468

  13. OpenStage: a low-cost motorized microscope stage with sub-micron positioning accuracy.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Robert A A; Eifert, Robert W; Turner, Glenn C

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress in intracellular calcium sensors and other fluorophores has promoted the widespread adoption of functional optical imaging in the life sciences. Home-built multiphoton microscopes are easy to build, highly customizable, and cost effective. For many imaging applications a 3-axis motorized stage is critical, but commercially available motorization hardware (motorized translators, controller boxes, etc) are often very expensive. Furthermore, the firmware on commercial motor controllers cannot easily be altered and is not usually designed with a microscope stage in mind. Here we describe an open-source motorization solution that is simple to construct, yet far cheaper and more customizable than commercial offerings. The cost of the controller and motorization hardware are under $1000. Hardware costs are kept low by replacing linear actuators with high quality stepper motors. Electronics are assembled from commonly available hobby components, which are easy to work with. Here we describe assembly of the system and quantify the positioning accuracy of all three axes. We obtain positioning repeatability of the order of 1 μm in X/Y and 0.1 μm in Z. A hand-held control-pad allows the user to direct stage motion precisely over a wide range of speeds (10(-1) to 10(2) μm·s(-1)), rapidly store and return to different locations, and execute "jumps" of a fixed size. In addition, the system can be controlled from a PC serial port. Our "OpenStage" controller is sufficiently flexible that it could be used to drive other devices, such as micro-manipulators, with minimal modifications. PMID:24586468

  14. Device, Interface, Process and Electrode Engineering Towards Low Cost and High Efficiency Polymer Solar Cells in Inverted Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Jingyu

    As a promising technology for economically viable alternative energy source, polymer solar cells (PSCs) have attracted substantial interests and made significant progress in the past few years, due the advantages of being potentially easily solution processed into large areas, flexible, light weight, and have the versatility of material design. In this dissertation, an integrated approach is taken to improve the overall performance of polymer solar cells by the development of new polymer materials, device architectures, interface engineering of the contacts between layers, and new transparent electrodes. First, several new classes of polymers are explored as potential light harvesting materials for solar cells. Processing has been optimized and efficiency as high as 6.24% has been demonstrated. Then, with the development of inverted device structure, which has better air stability by utilizing more air stable, high work function metals, newly developed high efficiency polymers have been integrated into inverted structure device with integrated engineering approach. A comprehensive characterization and optical modeling based on conventional and inverted devices have been performed to understand the effect of device geometry on photovoltaic performance based on a newly developed high performance polymer poly(indacenodithiophene-co-phananthrene-quinoxaline) (PIDT-PhanQ). By modifying anode with a bilayer combining graphene oxide (GO) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxylenethiophene):poly(styrenesulfonic acid) (PEDOT:PSS) as hole transporter/electron blocker, it further improved device performance of inverted structured to 6.38%. A novel processing method of sequentially bilayer deposition for active layer has been conducted based on a low band-gap polymer poly[2, 6-(4, 4-bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-4 H-cyclopenta [2,1-b;3,4-b‧] dithiophene)- alt-4,7-(2, 1, 3- fluorobenzothiadiazole)] (PCPDT-FBT). Inverted structure devices processed from bilayer deposition shows even higher

  15. Quantification of Estrogen Receptor-Alpha Expression in Human Breast Carcinomas With a Miniaturized, Low-Cost Digital Microscope: A Comparison with a High-End Whole Slide-Scanner

    PubMed Central

    Holmström, Oscar; Linder, Nina; Lundin, Mikael; Moilanen, Hannu; Suutala, Antti; Turkki, Riku; Joensuu, Heikki; Isola, Jorma; Diwan, Vinod; Lundin, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction A significant barrier to medical diagnostics in low-resource environments is the lack of medical care and equipment. Here we present a low-cost, cloud-connected digital microscope for applications at the point-of-care. We evaluate the performance of the device in the digital assessment of estrogen receptor-alpha (ER) expression in breast cancer samples. Studies suggest computer-assisted analysis of tumor samples digitized with whole slide-scanners may be comparable to manual scoring, here we study whether similar results can be obtained with the device presented. Materials and Methods A total of 170 samples of human breast carcinoma, immunostained for ER expression, were digitized with a high-end slide-scanner and the point-of-care microscope. Corresponding regions from the samples were extracted, and ER status was determined visually and digitally. Samples were classified as ER negative (<1% ER positivity) or positive, and further into weakly (1–10% positivity) and strongly positive. Interobserver agreement (Cohen’s kappa) was measured and correlation coefficients (Pearson’s product-momentum) were calculated for comparison of the methods. Results Correlation and interobserver agreement (r = 0.98, p < 0.001, kappa = 0.84, CI95% = 0.75–0.94) were strong in the results from both devices. Concordance of the point-of-care microscope and the manual scoring was good (r = 0.94, p < 0.001, kappa = 0.71, CI95% = 0.61–0.80), and comparable to the concordance between the slide scanner and manual scoring (r = 0.93, p < 0.001, kappa = 0.69, CI95% = 0.60–0.78). Fourteen (8%) discrepant cases between manual and device-based scoring were present with the slide scanner, and 16 (9%) with the point-of-care microscope, all representing samples of low ER expression. Conclusions Tumor ER status can be accurately quantified with a low-cost imaging device and digital image-analysis, with results comparable to conventional computer-assisted or manual scoring. This

  16. Micro-spectroscopy system based on common inverted microscope to measure UV-VIS spectra of a micro-area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ailing; Zhang, Jinliang; Ren, Weiwei; Tang, Mingming

    2009-05-01

    For measuring UV-VIS spectra of a micro-area, an upright triocular UV microscope has to be generally used and reequipped by the user. This greatly increased the cost of the experimental system and might make the microscope lose the function of taking a photograph. In this paper, a new micro-spectroscopy system is established for measuring fluorescence of a micro-area. This system includes in a reflective microscope objective(RMO), a fiber cable, a microlens, a 3D adjustable fiber-microlens-microscope adaptor(FMMA), a fluorescence meter and a common inverted fluorescence microscope(IFM). The cheap and common IFM replaced an expensive UV upright microscope and no need to rebuild the microscope itself. Except for the FMMA, all the other elements are standard products. All elements are easily integrated into a whole, so the cost of the system is greatly decreased. The space resolution of this system is 2μm. This system can be used to localize a micro-area, excite it with a monochromatic light, take a photograph of it, collect wake fluorescence of it and measure its UV-VIS spectra. This system is stable and has a high sensitivity. It is promising to measure the fluorescence of a mineral grain, the organic matters in a micro-fracture, or a single fluid inclusion. Because it used an IFM, it can also to be used to the biology samples, such as cell or bio-inclusion. We used this system to measure the UVVIS spectrum of oils in a single micro-fracture of a mineral slice and the spectra of a single mineral grain in a mineral slice.

  17. Low Cost, Durable Seal

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, George; Parsons, Jason; Friedman, Jake

    2010-12-17

    Seal durability is critical to achieving the 2010 DOE operational life goals for both stationary and transportation PEM fuel cell stacks. The seal material must be chemically and mechanically stable in an environment consisting of aggressive operating temperatures, humidified gases, and acidic membranes. The seal must also be producible at low cost. Currentlyused seal materials do not meet all these requirements. This project developed and demonstrated a high consistency hydrocarbon rubber seal material that was able to meet the DOE technical and cost targets. Significant emphasis was placed on characterization of the material and full scale molding demonstrations.

  18. Optical mapping by low-cost instrumentation and disposable chemically induced nanochannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, Philip J. R.; Cheung, Maurice C.; Beitel, Lenore; Trifiro, Mark A.; Chodavarapu, Vamsy P.; Kirk, Andrew G.

    2012-03-01

    The cost of fabrication and instrumentation presents a significant barrier to uptake of optical mapping as a tool for genomic investigation. Here a low cost optical instrumentation system to perform optical genomic mapping of DNA fragment restriction digestion by nanochannel confinement is presented. Specifically, the system is used for the detection of YOYO-1 labeled DNA within chemically formed nanochannels on a polystyrene chip. The formation of nanochannels on the polystyrene chip is achieved by solvent swelling of an injection moulded polystyrene substrate. The inverted microscope based system is compact and of low-cost but offers the sensitivity to detect individual fragments ranging from 0.56Kb to 9.4Kb of the λ-phage genome within a channels. Conformation of DNA within nanochannels driven by capillary flow is most consistent with modeled polymer extension in nanoslit.

  19. Low cost paths to binary optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Arthur; Domash, Lawrence

    1993-01-01

    Application of binary optics has been limited to a few major laboratories because of the limited availability of fabrication facilities such as e-beam machines and the lack of standardized design software. Foster-Miller has attempted to identify low cost approaches to medium-resolution binary optics using readily available computer and fabrication tools, primarily for the use of students and experimenters in optical computing. An early version of our system, MacBEEP, made use of an optimized laser film recorder from the commercial typesetting industry with 10 micron resolution. This report is an update on our current efforts to design and build a second generation MacBEEP, which aims at 1 micron resolution and multiple phase levels. Trails included a low cost scanning electron microscope in microlithography mode, and alternative laser inscribers or photomask generators. Our current software approach is based on Mathematica and PostScript compatibility.

  20. Low-cost ladar imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasile, S.; Lipson, J.

    2008-04-01

    We have developed low-cost LADAR imagers using photon-counting Geiger avalanche photodiode (GPD) arrays, signal amplification and conditioning interface with integrated active quenching circuits (AQCs) and readout integrated circuit (ROIC) arrays for time to digital conversion (TDC) implemented in FPGA. Our goal is to develop a compact, low-cost LADAR receiver that could be operated with room temperature Si-GPD arrays and cooled InGaAs GPD arrays. We report on architecture selection criteria, integration issues of the GPD, AQC and TDC, gating and programmable features for flexible and low-cost re-configuration, as well as on timing resolution, precision and accuracy of our latest LADAR designs.

  1. Low Cost Graphics. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinker, Robert F.

    This manual describes the CALM TV graphics interface, a low-cost means of producing quality graphics on an ordinary TV. The system permits the output of data in graphic as well as alphanumeric form and the input of data from the face of the TV using a light pen. The integrated circuits required in the interface can be obtained from standard…

  2. Low Cost Sensor Calibration Options

    EPA Science Inventory

    Low-cost sensors ($1 D0-500) represent a unique class of air monitoring devices that may provide for more ubiquitous pollutant monitoring. They vary widely in design and measure pollutants, ranging from ozone, particulate matter, to volatile organic compounds. Many of these senso...

  3. Low-cost commercial transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcpherson, J.

    1991-01-01

    The topics presented are covered in viewgraph form. The objectives are to develop and validate technology, design tools and methodologies to enable the low cost commercial development and operational uses of hydrogen and hydrocarbon fueled liquid engines, low pressure booster engines and hybrid engines.

  4. Compact plane illumination plugin device to enable light sheet fluorescence imaging of multi-cellular organisms on an inverted wide-field microscope

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Zeyi; Lee, Juhyun; Jiang, Hao; Dong, Siyan; Jen, Nelson; Hsiai, Tzung; Ho, Chih-Ming; Fei, Peng

    2015-01-01

    We developed a compact plane illumination plugin (PIP) device which enabled plane illumination and light sheet fluorescence imaging on a conventional inverted microscope. The PIP device allowed the integration of microscope with tunable laser sheet profile, fast image acquisition, and 3-D scanning. The device is both compact, measuring approximately 15 by 5 by 5 cm, and cost-effective, since we employed consumer electronics and an inexpensive device molding method. We demonstrated that PIP provided significant contrast and resolution enhancement to conventional microscopy through imaging different multi-cellular fluorescent structures, including 3-D branched cells in vitro and live zebrafish embryos. Imaging with the integration of PIP greatly reduced out-of-focus contamination and generated sharper contrast in acquired 2-D plane images when compared with the stand-alone inverted microscope. As a result, the dynamic fluid domain of the beating zebrafish heart was clearly segmented and the functional monitoring of the heart was achieved. Furthermore, the enhanced axial resolution established by thin plane illumination of PIP enabled the 3-D reconstruction of the branched cellular structures, which leads to the improvement on the functionality of the wide field microscopy. PMID:26819828

  5. Low-cost microsensors program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, John S.; Bradley, Daryl; Chen, Chungte W.; Chin, Richard; Jurgelewicz, K.; Radford, William A.; Kennedy, Adam; Murphy, Daniel F.; Ray, Michael; Wyles, Richard; Brown, James C.; Newsome, Gwendolyn W.

    2001-10-01

    The objectives of the Low Cost Microsensors (LCMS) Program are twofold. The first is to develop and deliver a long-range infrared (IR) sensor built upon an uncooled vanadium oxide (VOx) 640 X 512 format focal plane array (FPA) engine. The second is to develop an expendable microsensor built upon a VOx 160 X 128 format FPA engine. The 640 X 480 sensor is applicable to long-range surveillance and targeting missions and is a reusable asset. The 160 X 120 sensor is designed for applications where miniaturization is required as well as low cost and low power. The 160 X 120 is also intended for expendable military applications. The intent of this DUS&T effort is to further reduce the cost, weight, and power of uncooled IR sensors, and to increase the capability of these sensors, thereby expanding their applicability to military and commercial markets never before addressed by thermal imaging.

  6. Low-cost microsensors program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, John S.; Bradley, Daryl; Chen, Chungte W.; Chin, Richard; Hegg, Ronald G.; Kennedy, Adam; Murphy, Daniel F.; Ray, Michael; Wyles, Richard; Brown, James C.; Newsome, Gwendolyn W.

    2002-07-01

    The Low Cost Microsensors (LCMS) Program recently demonstrated state-of-the-art imagery in a long-range infrared (IR) sensor built upon an uncooled vanadium oxide (VOx) 640 X 480 format focal plane array (FPA) engine. The 640 X 480 sensor is applicable to long-range surveillance and targeting missions. The intent of this DUS&T effort is to further reduce the cost, weight, and power of uncooled IR sensors, and to increase the capability of these sensors, thereby expanding their applicability to military and commercial markets never before addressed by thermal imaging.

  7. Low Cost Digital Vibration Meter

    PubMed Central

    Payne, W. Vance; Geist, Jon

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the development of a low cost, digital Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) vibration meter that reports an approximation to the RMS acceleration of the vibration to which the vibration meter is subjected. The major mechanical element of this vibration meter is a cantilever beam, which is on the order of 500 µm in length, with a piezoresistor deposited at its base. Vibration of the device in the plane perpendicular to the cantilever beam causes it to bend, which produces a measurable change in the resistance of a piezoresistor. These changes in resistance along with a unique signal-processing scheme are used to determine an approximation to the RMS acceleration sensed by the device. PMID:27110459

  8. Finding Low-Cost Medical Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... costs and insurance requirements before you get care. Free and Low-Cost Clinics and Health Centers If ... in school), you may be able to find free or low-cost health clinics in your neighborhood. ...

  9. Quantitative low-cost webcam-based microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parikesit, Gea Oswah Fatah; Darmawan, Marten; Faisal, Amir

    2010-11-01

    Digital web cameras (popularly known as webcams) have recently gained a significant increase of relevance in the field of optical microscopy, in particular to allow for quick and do-it-yourself methods in developing low-cost and portable microscopes suitable for life sciences and engineering applications in low-resource areas. Unfortunately, these methods were published without any systematic explanation and quantitative assessment of the imaging performances. We reproduce these do-it-yourself methods, discuss the optical considerations that are relevant for them, and quantitatively compare their imaging performances to a commercial digital microscope in order to clarify both the advantages and disadvantages of the webcam-based microscopes.

  10. Low cost Earth Attitude Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberati, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Giorgio; Verzegnassi, Fulvia

    2004-06-01

    A patent-pending, low-cost, moderate performance, Earth Attitude Sensor for LEO satellites is described in this paper. The paper deals with the system concepts, the technology adopted and the simulation results. The sensor comprises three or four narrow field of view mini telescopes pointed towards the Earth edge to detect and measure the variation of the off-nadir angle of the Earth-to-black sky transition using thermopile detectors suitably placed in the foci of the optical min telescopes. The system's innovation consists in the opto-mechanical configuration adopted that is sturdy and has no moving parts being, thus, inherently reliable. In addition, with a view to reducing production costs, the sensor does without hi-rel and is instead mainly based on COTS parts suitably chosen. Besides it is flexible and can be adapted to perform attitude measurement onboard spacecraft flying in orbits other than LEO with a minimum of modifications to the basic design. At present the sensor is under development by IMT and OptoService.

  11. Low-Cost Motility Tracking System (LOCOMOTIS) for Time-Lapse Microscopy Applications and Cell Visualisation

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Adam E.; Triajianto, Junian; Routledge, Edwin

    2014-01-01

    Direct visualisation of cells for the purpose of studying their motility has typically required expensive microscopy equipment. However, recent advances in digital sensors mean that it is now possible to image cells for a fraction of the price of a standard microscope. Along with low-cost imaging there has also been a large increase in the availability of high quality, open-source analysis programs. In this study we describe the development and performance of an expandable cell motility system employing inexpensive, commercially available digital USB microscopes to image various cell types using time-lapse and perform tracking assays in proof-of-concept experiments. With this system we were able to measure and record three separate assays simultaneously on one personal computer using identical microscopes, and obtained tracking results comparable in quality to those from other studies that used standard, more expensive, equipment. The microscopes used in our system were capable of a maximum magnification of 413.6×. Although resolution was lower than that of a standard inverted microscope we found this difference to be indistinguishable at the magnification chosen for cell tracking experiments (206.8×). In preliminary cell culture experiments using our system, velocities (mean µm/min ± SE) of 0.81±0.01 (Biomphalaria glabrata hemocytes on uncoated plates), 1.17±0.004 (MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells), 1.24±0.006 (SC5 mouse Sertoli cells) and 2.21±0.01 (B. glabrata hemocytes on Poly-L-Lysine coated plates), were measured and are consistent with previous reports. We believe that this system, coupled with open-source analysis software, demonstrates that higher throughput time-lapse imaging of cells for the purpose of studying motility can be an affordable option for all researchers. PMID:25121722

  12. Low Cost Mission to Deimos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quantius, Dominik; Püsler, H.; Braukhane, A.; Gülzow, P.; Bauer, W.; Vollhardt, A.; Romberg, O.; Scheibe, K.; Hoffmann, H.; Bürner, A.

    The German non-profit amateur satellite organisation AMSAT-Deutschland successfully de-signed, built and launched four HEO satellites in the last three decades. Now they are going to build a satellite to leave the Earth orbit based on their flight-proven P3-D satellite design. Due to energetic constraints the most suitable launch date for the planned P5-A satellite to Mars will be in 2018. To efficiently use the relatively long time gap until launch a possible prior Moon mission came into mind. In co-operation with the DLR-Institute of Space Systems in Bremen, Germany, two studies on systems level for a first P5 satellite towards Moon and a following one towards Mars have been performed. By using the DLR's Concurrent Engineering Facility (CEF) two consistent satellite concepts were designed including mission analysis, configuration, propulsion, subsystem dimensioning, payload selection, budgeting and cost. The present paper gives an insight in the accomplished design process and the results of the performed study towards Mars. The developed Mars orbiter is designed to carry the following four main instruments besides flexible communication abilities: • multispectral line scanner for Martian cloud investigations and Deimos (and Phobos) stereo pictures during close flybys • Deimos framing camera for high resolution pictures of Deimos (and Phobos) including video mode • sensor imaging infrared spectrometer for mineralogy of Martian (also Deimos and Phobos) silicates and surface temperature measurements • radio science for research of Deimos ( Phobos) gravity, profiling of Mars ionosphere, occurrence of third meteoritic ionosphere layer; sounding of neutral atmosphere; solar corona activity This study presents a non-industrial satellite concept that could be launched as piggyback load on Ariane 5 into GTO. It promises a low cost mission into a Mars orbit that allows close approaches to Deimos and Phobos.

  13. Low-cost periodontal therapy.

    PubMed

    Slots, Jørgen

    2012-10-01

    Periodontitis is a complex infectious disease that affects low-income individuals disproportionately. Periodontitis is associated with specific bacterial species and herpesviruses, and successful prevention and treatment of the disease is contingent upon effective control of these pathogens. This article presents an efficacious, highly safe, minimally invasive, practical and low-cost periodontal therapy that involves professional and patient-administered mechanical therapy and antimicrobial agents. The major components are scaling for calculus removal, periodontal pocket irrigation with potent antiseptics, and treatment with systemic antibiotics for advanced disease. Povidone-iodine and sodium hypochlorite have all the characteristics for becoming the first-choice antiseptics in the management of periodontal diseases. Both agents show excellent antibacterial and antiviral properties, are readily available throughout the world, have been safely used in periodontal therapy for decades, offer significant benefits for individuals with very limited financial resources, and are well accepted by most dental professionals and patients. Four per cent chlorhexidine applied with a toothbrush to the most posterior part to the tongue dorsum can markedly reduce or eliminate halitosis in most individuals. Systemic antibiotics are used to treat periodontopathic bacteria that are not readily reached by topical therapy, such as pathogens within gingival tissue, within furcation defects, at the base of periodontal pockets, and on the tongue, tonsils and buccal mucosae. Valuable antibiotic therapies are amoxicillin-metronidazole (250 mg of amoxicillin and 250 mg of metronidazole, three times daily for 8 days) for young and middle-aged patients, and ciprofloxacin-metronidazole (500 mg of each, twice daily for 8 days) for elderly patients and for patients in developing countries who frequently harbor enteric rods subgingivally. Scaling to remove dental calculus and the prudent

  14. Low Cost Large Space Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chmielewski, Artur B.; Freeland, Robert

    1997-01-01

    The mobile communication community could significantly benefit from the availability of low-cost, large space-deployable antennas. A new class of space structures, called inflatable deployable structures, will become an option for this industry in the near future. This new technology recently made significant progress with respect to reducing the risk of flying large inflatable structures in space. This progress can be attributed to the successful space flight of the Inflatable Antenna Experiment in May of 1996, which prompted the initiation of the NASA portion of the joint NASA/DOD coordinated Space Inflatables Program, which will develop the technology to be used in future mobile communications antennas along with other users. The NASA/DOD coordinated Space Inflatables Program was initiated in 1997 as a direct result of the Inflatable Antenna Experiment. The program adds a new NASA initiative to a substantial DOD program that involves developing a series of ground test hardware, starting with 3 meter diameter units and advancing the manufacturing techniques to fabricate a 25 meter ground demonstrator unit with surface accuracy exceeding the requirements for mobile communication applications. Simultaneously, the program will be advancing the state of the art in several important inflatable technology areas, such as developing rigidizable materials for struts and tori and investigating thin film technology issues, such as application of coatings, property measurement and materials processing and assembly techniques. A very important technology area being addressed by the program is deployment control techniques. The program will sponsor activities that will lead to understanding the effects of material strain energy release, residual air in the stowed structure, and the design of the launch restraint and release system needed to control deployment dynamics. Other technology areas directly applicable to developing inflatable mobile communication antennas in the near

  15. Low cost attitude control system scanwheel development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bialke, William; Selby, Vaughn

    1991-01-01

    In order to satisfy a growing demand for low cost attitude control systems for small spacecraft, development of low cost scanning horizon sensor coupled to a low cost/low power consumption Reaction Wheel Assembly was initiated. This report addresses the details of the versatile design resulting from this effort. Tradeoff analyses for each of the major components are included, as well as test data from an engineering prototype of the hardware.

  16. Low Cost Hydrogen Production Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy M. Aaron, Jerome T. Jankowiak

    2009-10-16

    conducted to identify any potential design deficiency related to the concept. The analysis showed that no fundamental design flaw existed with the concept, but additional simulations and prototypes would be required to verify the design prior to fabricating a production unit. These identified risks were addressed in detail during Phase II of the development program. Along with the models of the high temperature components, a detailed process and 3D design model of the remainder of system, including PSA, compression, controls, water treatment and instrumentation was developed and evaluated. Also, in Phase II of the program, laboratory/fullscale testing of the high temperature components was completed and stable operation/control of the system was verified. The overall design specifications and test results were then used to develop accurate hydrogen costs for the optimized system. Praxair continued development and testing of the system beyond the Phase II funding provided by the DOE through the end of 2008. This additional testing is not documented in this report, but did provide significant additional data for development of a prototype system as detailed in the Phase III proposal. The estimated hydrogen product costs were developed (2007 basis) for the 4.8 kg/h system at production rates of 1, 5, 10, 100 and 1,000 units built per year. With the low cost SMR approach, the product hydrogen costs for the 4.8 kg/h units at 50 units produced per year were approximately $3.02 per kg. With increasing the volume production to 1,000 units per year, the hydrogen costs are reduced by about 12% to $2.67 per kg. The cost reduction of only 12% is a result of significant design and fabrication efficiencies being realized in all levels of production runs through utilizing the DFMA principles. A simplified and easily manufactured design does not require large production volumes to show significant cost benefits. These costs represent a significant improvement and a new benchmark in the

  17. Low Cost Thin Film Building-Integrated Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Subhendu Guha; Dr. Jeff Yang

    2012-05-25

    The goal of the program is to develop 'LOW COST THIN FILM BUILDING-INTEGRATED PV SYSTEMS'. Major focus was on developing low cost solution for the commercial BIPV and rooftop PV market and meet DOE LCOE goal for the commercial market segment of 9-12 cents/kWh for 2010 and 6-8 cents/kWh for 2015. We achieved the 2010 goal and were on track to achieve the 2015 goal. The program consists of five major tasks: (1) modules; (2) inverters and BOS; (3) systems engineering and integration; (4) deployment; and (5) project management and TPP collaborative activities. We successfully crossed all stage gates and surpassed all milestones. We proudly achieved world record stable efficiencies in small area cells (12.56% for 1cm2) and large area encapsulated modules (11.3% for 800 cm2) using a triple-junction amorphous silicon/nanocrystalline silicon/nanocrystalline silicon structure, confirmed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. We collaborated with two inverter companies, Solectria and PV Powered, and significantly reduced inverter cost. We collaborated with three universities (Syracuse University, University of Oregon, and Colorado School of Mines) and National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and improved understanding on nanocrystalline material properties and light trapping techniques. We jointly published 50 technical papers in peer-reviewed journals and International Conference Proceedings. We installed two 75kW roof-top systems, one in Florida and another in New Jersey demonstrating innovative designs. The systems performed satisfactorily meeting/exceeding estimated kWh/kW performance. The 50/50 cost shared program was a great success and received excellent comments from DOE Manager and Technical Monitor in the Final Review.

  18. Thermoplastic rubberlike material produced at low cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendel, F. J.

    1966-01-01

    Thermoplastic rubberlike material is prepared by blending a copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate with asphalt and a petroleum distillate. This low cost material is easily molded or extruded and is compatible with a variety of fillers.

  19. Change Detection Experiments Using Low Cost UAVs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, Michael J.; Vranas, Thomas L.; Motter, Mark; Hines, Glenn D.; Rahman, Zia-ur

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the progress in the development of a low-cost change-detection system. This system is being developed to provide users with the ability to use a low-cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and image processing system that can detect changes in specific fixed ground locations using video provided by an autonomous UAV. The results of field experiments conducted with the US Army at Ft. A.P.Hill are presented.

  20. A Low Cost TDRSS Compatible Transmitter Option

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, Don

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Space-based Telemetry and Range Safety (STARS) program has developed and tested a low cost Ku-Band transmitter alternative for TDRSS applications based on an existing IRIG shaped offset quaternary phase shift keying (SOQPSK) transmitter. This paper presents information related to the implementation of this low cost system, as well as performance measurements of the alternative TDRSS transmitter system compared with an existing QPSK TDRSS transmitter.

  1. Microscopic Investigations into the Effect of Surface Treatment of Cathode and Electron Transport Layer on the Performance of Inverted Organic Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shailendra Kumar; Jindal, Rajeev; Garg, Ashish

    2015-08-01

    Surface treatments of various layers in organic solar cells play a vital role in determining device characteristics. In this manuscript, we report on the influence of surface treatment of indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode and electron transport layer (ETL), ZnO, on the photovoltaic performance of inverted organic solar cells (IOSC) and their correlation with the surface chemistry and surface potential as studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM), using the device structure glass/ITO/ZnO/P3HT: PCBM/MoO3/(Au or Ag) (P3HT, poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl), and PCBM, phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester). Our results show that although ozonization of ITO leads to an improvement in the device power conversion efficiency, the ozonization of a subsequent ZnO layer results in a decreased performance mainly because of a decrease in the fill factor (FF). However, subsequent methanol (CH3OH) treatment of ZnO layer on an ozonized ITO electrode shows substantial improvement with device efficiencies exceeding ∼4% along with superior reproducibility of the devices. Furthermore, a detailed analysis of the surface wettability, chemistry, and surface potential using contact angle measurements, XPS, and KPFM attribute the improvements to the elimination of surface defects and the changes in the surface potential. Finally, impedance analysis suggests that methanol treatment of the ZnO layers leads to the development of a favorable nanophase structure with higher conductivity, which is otherwise indiscernible using microscopic methods. PMID:26158508

  2. Construction of a low-cost luximeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedroso, L. S.; de Macedo, J. A.; de Araújo, M. S. T.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2016-04-01

    This paper proposes the construction of an electronic instrument called digital luximeter, combining simplicity and low cost, making it simpler and cheaper than those on the market. Its construction tends to facilitate dissemination and access to this type of measuring instrument between high school teachers and educational institutions, making it ideal to be a science lab.

  3. Low-cost inertial measurement unit.

    SciTech Connect

    Deyle, Travis Jay

    2005-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories performs many expensive tests using inertial measurement units (IMUs)--systems that use accelerometers, gyroscopes, and other sensors to measure flight dynamics in three dimensions. For the purpose of this report, the metrics used to evaluate an IMU are cost, size, performance, resolution, upgradeability and testing. The cost of a precision IMU is very high and can cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. Thus the goals and results of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the data flow in an IMU and determine a generic IMU design. (2) Discuss a high cost IMU implementation and its theoretically achievable results. (3) Discuss design modifications that would save money for suited applications. (4) Design and implement a low cost IMU and discuss its theoretically achievable results. (5) Test the low cost IMU and compare theoretical results with empirical results. (6) Construct a more streamlined printed circuit board design reducing noise, increasing capabilities, and constructing a self-contained unit. Using these results, we can compare a high cost IMU versus a low cost IMU using the metrics from above. Further, we can examine and suggest situations where a low cost IMU could be used instead of a high cost IMU for saving cost, size, or both.

  4. Low-cost Solar Array (LSA) project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Progress made by the Low-Cost Silicon Solar Array Project during the period January through March 1978 is reported. It includes task reports on silicon material processing, large-area silicon sheet development, encapsulation materials testing and development, project engineering and operations, and manufacturing techniques, plus the steps taken to integrate these efforts.

  5. Low cost techniques for fabricating lobed bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuller, F. T.

    1968-01-01

    New low cost technique utilizes shims to create the lobes in bearing. Conventional methods of manufacture require accurate off-center grinding of the inside diameter of a bearing in a housing at various arc lengths depending on the number of lobes required.

  6. Low cost silicon solar cell array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartels, F. T. C.

    1974-01-01

    The technological options available for producing low cost silicon solar cell arrays were examined. A project value of approximately $250/sq m and $2/watt is projected, based on mass production capacity demand. Recommendations are included for the most promising cost reduction options.

  7. Low-Cost Aqueous Coal Desulfurization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Vasilakos, N.; Corcoran, W. H.; Grohmann, K.; Rohatgi, N. K.

    1982-01-01

    Water-based process for desulfurizing coal not only eliminates need for costly organic solvent but removes sulfur more effectively than an earlier solvent-based process. New process could provide low-cost commercial method for converting high-sulfur coal into environmentally acceptable fuel.

  8. Testing low cost anaerobic digestion (AD) systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate the potential for low technology and low cost digesters for small dairies, BARC and researchers from the University of Maryland installed six modified Taiwanese-model field-scale (FS) digesters near the original dairy manure digester. The FS units receive the same post-separated liquid ...

  9. Low-cost image analysis system

    SciTech Connect

    Lassahn, G.D.

    1995-01-01

    The author has developed an Automatic Target Recognition system based on parallel processing using transputers. This approach gives a powerful, fast image processing system at relatively low cost. This system scans multi-sensor (e.g., several infrared bands) image data to find any identifiable target, such as physical object or a type of vegetation.

  10. Sport for All. Low Cost Sports Halls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France).

    This report of the conference on low-cost sports halls, sponsored by the Council of Europe, is divided into two sections: technical studies and conclusions. The introduction to the report provides an overview of the long-term program of the Council of Europe with regard to sport for all and a discussion of multipurpose sports halls. Sociocultural,…

  11. Strategies to fight low-cost rivals.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Nirmalya

    2006-12-01

    Companies find it challenging and yet strangely reassuring to take on opponents whose strategies, strengths, and weaknesses resemble their own. Their obsession with familiar rivals, however, has blinded them to threats from disruptive, low-cost competitors. Successful price warriors, such as the German retailer Aldi, are changing the nature of competition by employing several tactics: focusing on just one or a few consumer segments, delivering the basic product or providing one benefit better than rivals do, and backing low prices with superefficient operations. Ignoring cutprice rivals is a mistake because they eventually force companies to vacate entire market segments. Price wars are not the answer, either: Slashing prices usually lowers profits for incumbents without driving the low-cost entrants out of business. Companies take various approaches to competing against cut-price players. Some differentiate their products--a strategy that works only in certain circumstances. Others launch low-cost businesses of their own, as many airlines did in the 1990s--a so-called dual strategy that succeeds only if companies can generate synergies between the existing businesses and the new ventures, as the financial service providers HSBC and ING did. Without synergies, corporations are better off trying to transform themselves into low-cost players, a difficult feat that Ryanair accomplished in the 1990s, or into solution providers. There will always be room for both low-cost and value-added players. How much room each will have depends not only on the industry and customers' preferences, but also on the strategies traditional businesses deploy. PMID:17183797

  12. Low-cost laser diode array

    DOEpatents

    Freitas, Barry L.; Skidmore, Jay A.

    1999-01-01

    A substrate is used to fabricate a low-cost laser diode array. A substrate is machined from an electrically insulative material that is thermally conductive, or two substrates can be bonded together in which the top substrate is electrically as well as thermally conductive. The substrate thickness is slightly longer than the cavity length, and the width of the groove is wide enough to contain a bar and spring (which secures the laser bar firmly along one face of the groove). The spring also provides electrical continuity from the backside of the bar to the adjacent metalization layer on the laser bar substrate. Arrays containing one or more bars can be formed by creating many grooves at various spacings. Along the groove, many bars can be adjoined at the edges to provide parallel electrical conduction. This architecture allows precise and predictable registration of an array of laser bars to a self-aligned microlens array at low cost.

  13. Low-cost laser diode array

    DOEpatents

    Freitas, B.L.; Skidmore, J.A.

    1999-06-01

    A substrate is used to fabricate a low-cost laser diode array. A substrate is machined from an electrically insulative material that is thermally conductive, or two substrates can be bonded together in which the top substrate is electrically as well as thermally conductive. The substrate thickness is slightly longer than the cavity length, and the width of the groove is wide enough to contain a bar and spring (which secures the laser bar firmly along one face of the groove). The spring also provides electrical continuity from the backside of the bar to the adjacent metalization layer on the laser bar substrate. Arrays containing one or more bars can be formed by creating many grooves at various spacings. Along the groove, many bars can be adjoined at the edges to provide parallel electrical conduction. This architecture allows precise and predictable registration of an array of laser bars to a self-aligned microlens array at low cost. 19 figs.

  14. Experience with low cost jet engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cummings, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    A summary is given of the results of a NASA program for reducing the cost of turbojet and turbofan engines. The design, construction, and testing of a simple turbojet, designed for use in missiles, is described. Low cost axial stage fabrication, the design of a fan jet engine suitable for propulsion of light aircraft, and application of such engines to provide higher flight speeds, are discussed.

  15. Low cost sonoluminescence experiment in pressurized water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernal, L.; Insabella, M.; Bilbao, L.

    2012-06-01

    We present a low cost design for demostration and mesurements of light emmision from a sonoluminescence experiment. Using presurized water introduced in an acrylic cylinder and one piezoelectric from an ultrasonic cleaner, we are able to generate cavitacion zones with emission of light. The use of argon to pressurize the water improves the emission an the light can be seen at naked eye in a softlit ambient.

  16. Low Cost Processing of Commingled Thermoplastic Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiasson, Matthew Lee

    A low cost vacuum consolidation process has been investigated for use with commingled thermoplastic matrix composites. In particular, the vacuum consolidation behaviour of commingled polypropylene/glass fibre and commingled nylon/carbon fibre precursors were studied. Laminates were consolidated in a convection oven under vacuum pressure. During processing, the consolidation of the laminate packs was measured by use of non-contact eddy current sensors. The consolidation curves are then used to tune an empirical consolidation model. The overall quality of the resulting laminates is also discussed. Dynamic mechanical analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and mechanical tensile testing were also performed in order to determine the effects of varying processing parameters on the physical and mechanical properties of the laminates. Through this analysis, it was determined that the nylon/carbon fibre blend was not suitable for vacuum consolidation, while the polypropylene/glass fibre blend is a viable option for vacuum consolidation. The ultimate goal of this work is to provide a foundation from which low cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) components can be designed and manufactured from thermoplastic matrix composites using a low cost processing technique as an alternative to traditional thermoset composite materials.

  17. Low-cost Flexible Memristor Fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirilyuk, Inna; Gergel-Hackett, Nadine

    2014-03-01

    Memristors are two-terminal electronic devices that exhibit unique electrical characteristics, including nonvolatile electrical switching between resistive states. These unique electrical characteristics may enable the use of memristors as logic and/or memory components in novel computer architectures. Flexible memristors have been shown to not only exhibit the electrical characteristics unique to the devices, but are also operable after 4,000 flexes, require voltages less than 10 V, show on:off ratios >10,000:1, are nonvolatile for up to 14 days, and are fabricated at room-temperature with sol-gel solution processing. To increase accessibility to the technology and decrease production costs, we are developing methods of flexible memristor fabrication that are low-cost compared to current conventional fabrication. This low-cost fabrication includes exploring alternative materials and processes for device contacts, synthesizing and storing titanium dioxide sol-gel using standard wet chemistry tools without the use of a glove box, and using a low-cost spinner to spin sol-gel onto devices. The fabrication is performed entirely in an undergraduate lab setting by undergraduate students. Research funded in part by the Mary Baldwin College Summer Research Fellows Program and the Virginia Foundation for Independent Colleges.

  18. Low-Cost Spectral Sensor Development Description.

    SciTech Connect

    Armijo, Kenneth Miguel; Yellowhair, Julius

    2014-11-01

    Solar spectral data for all parts of the US is limited due in part to the high cost of commercial spectrometers. Solar spectral information is necessary for accurate photovoltaic (PV) performance forecasting, especially for large utility-scale PV installations. A low-cost solar spectral sensor would address the obstacles and needs. In this report, a novel low-cost, discrete- band sensor device, comprised of five narrow-band sensors, is described. The hardware is comprised of commercial-off-the-shelf components to keep the cost low. Data processing algorithms were developed and are being refined for robustness. PV module short-circuit current ( I sc ) prediction methods were developed based on interaction-terms regression methodology and spectrum reconstruction methodology for computing I sc . The results suggest the computed spectrum using the reconstruction method agreed well with the measured spectrum from the wide-band spectrometer (RMS error of 38.2 W/m 2 -nm). Further analysis of computed I sc found a close correspondence of 0.05 A RMS error. The goal is for ubiquitous adoption of the low-cost spectral sensor in solar PV and other applications such as weather forecasting.

  19. Small, Low Cost, Launch Capability Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    A recent explosion in nano-sat, small-sat, and university class payloads has been driven by low cost electronics and sensors, wide component availability, as well as low cost, miniature computational capability and open source code. Increasing numbers of these very small spacecraft are being launched as secondary payloads, dramatically decreasing costs, and allowing greater access to operations and experimentation using actual space flight systems. While manifesting as a secondary payload provides inexpensive rides to orbit, these arrangements also have certain limitations. Small, secondary payloads are typically included with very limited payload accommodations, supported on a non interference basis (to the prime payload), and are delivered to orbital conditions driven by the primary launch customer. Integration of propulsion systems or other hazardous capabilities will further complicate secondary launch arrangements, and accommodation requirements. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Marshall Space Flight Center has begun work on the development of small, low cost launch system concepts that could provide dedicated, affordable launch alternatives to small, high risk university type payloads and spacecraft. These efforts include development of small propulsion systems and highly optimized structural efficiency, utilizing modern advanced manufacturing techniques. This paper outlines the plans and accomplishments of these efforts and investigates opportunities for truly revolutionary reductions in launch and operations costs. Both evolution of existing sounding rocket systems to orbital delivery, and the development of clean sheet, optimized small launch systems are addressed.

  20. Low cost miniature data collection platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The development of the RF elements of a telecommunications package involved detailed study and analysis of concepts and techniques followed by laboratory testing and evaluation of designs. The design goals for a complete telecommunications package excluding antenna were a total weight of 300 grams, in a total volume of 400 cu cm with a capability of unattended operation for a period of six months. Of utmost importance is extremely low cost when produced in lots of 10,000. Early in the program it became apparent that a single Miniature Data Collection Platform would not satisfy all users. A single high efficiency system would not satisfy a user who had available a large battery capacity but required a low cost system. Conversely, the low cost system would not satisfy the end user who had a very limited battery capacity. A system design to satisfy these varied requirements was implemented by designing several versions of the system building blocks and then constructing three systems from these building blocks.

  1. Studies of the Inverted Meniscus Deposition of Silicon on Ceramic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zook, J. D.; Grung, B.; Schuldt, S. B.; Schmit, F. M.; Heaps, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    Controlled temperature profiles essential to production of solar cells. Studies of inverted meniscus process for depositing silicon coatings on ceramic substrates described in new report. When fully developed, processed used to manufacture low-cost solar photovoltaic cells.

  2. Measuring rainfall with low-cost cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allamano, Paola; Cavagnero, Paolo; Croci, Alberto; Laio, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    In Allamano et al. (2015), we propose to retrieve quantitative measures of rainfall intensity by relying on the acquisition and analysis of images captured from professional cameras (SmartRAIN technique in the following). SmartRAIN is based on the fundamentals of camera optics and exploits the intensity changes due to drop passages in a picture. The main steps of the method include: i) drop detection, ii) blur effect removal, iii) estimation of drop velocities, iv) drop positioning in the control volume, and v) rain rate estimation. The method has been applied to real rain events with errors of the order of ±20%. This work aims to bridge the gap between the need of acquiring images via professional cameras and the possibility of exporting the technique to low-cost webcams. We apply the image processing algorithm to frames registered with low-cost cameras both in the lab (i.e., controlled rain intensity) and field conditions. The resulting images are characterized by lower resolutions and significant distortions with respect to professional camera pictures, and are acquired with fixed aperture and a rolling shutter. All these hardware limitations indeed exert relevant effects on the readability of the resulting images, and may affect the quality of the rainfall estimate. We demonstrate that a proper knowledge of the image acquisition hardware allows one to fully explain the artefacts and distortions due to the hardware. We demonstrate that, by correcting these effects before applying the image processing algorithm, quantitative rain intensity measures are obtainable with a good accuracy also with low-cost modules.

  3. Polymeric MST - high precision at low cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elderstig, Håkan; Larsson, Olle

    1997-09-01

    A low-cost production process for fabrication of polymeric microstructures from micromachined silicon is demonstrated in a splice for the splicing of optical fibers and an optical motherboard. Measurements on splices showed less than 0.5 dB insertion losses. The prototype polymeric motherboard concisted of an optical receiver module. The detector that was mounted on the polymeric optical motherboard detected about 70% of the transferred light. Measurements with modulated light indicates an optical bandwidth of 5 GHz at 2 V reverse current on the pin-diode.

  4. A low cost LST pointing control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaese, J. R.; Kennel, H. F.; Nurre, G. S.; Seltzer, S. M.; Shelton, H. L.

    1975-01-01

    Vigorous efforts to reduce costs, coupled with changes in LST guidelines, took place in the Fall of 1974. These events made a new design of the LST and its Pointing and Attitude Control System possible. The major design changes are summarized as: an annular Support Systems Module; removal of image motion compensation; reaction wheels instead of CMG's; a magnetic torquer system to also perform the emergency and backup functions, eliminating the previously required mass expulsion system. Preliminary analysis indicates the Low Cost LST concept can meet the newly defined requirements and results in a significantly reduced development cost.

  5. Low-cost Solar Array (LSA) project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The activities of the Low-Cost Solar Array Project are described for the period April through June 1978. The Project is assigned responsibility for advancing solar array technology while encouraging industry to reduce the price of arrays to a level at which photovoltaic electric power systems will be competitive with more conventional power sources early in the next decade. Set forth are the goals and plans with which the Project intends to accomplish this and the progress that was made during the quarter.

  6. Low-cost microprocessor controlled shadowband radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalsky, J. J.; Lebaron, B. A.; Harrison, L. C.

    1985-06-01

    This paper describes the second phase in the development of a low-cost microprocessor-controlled rotating shadowband radiometer at PNL. The initial work, to develop a solar photometer, resulted in a mechanical design that is adopted for the solar radiometer with only minor changes. The goals of this effort are: (1) to improve the data acquisition system; and (2) to derive corrections for the silicon cell-based pyranometer that would allow measurements of total horizontal, diffuse horizontal, and direct normal solar radiation approaching first-class instrumentation accuracy at a fraction of the cost. Significant progress on temperature, cosine and spectral corrections is achieved.

  7. Low cost subpixel method for vibration measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrer, Belen; Espinosa, Julian; Perez, Jorge; Acevedo, Pablo; Mas, David; Roig, Ana B.

    2014-05-27

    Traditional vibration measurement methods are based on devices that acquire local data by direct contact (accelerometers, GPS) or by laser beams (Doppler vibrometers). Our proposal uses video processing to obtain the vibration frequency directly from the scene, without the need of auxiliary targets or devices. Our video-vibrometer can obtain the vibration frequency at any point in the scene and can be implemented with low-cost devices, such as commercial cameras. Here we present the underlying theory and some experiments that support our technique.

  8. A Low Cost Electrostatically Focused TWT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vancil, Bernard K.; Wintucky, Edwin G.; Williams, W. D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Ring-loop circuits are well known for their simplicity, low cost, compactness, low mass, high gain and efficiency and absence of backward wave oscillations. Peak powers over 20 kw have been achieved. They also have low harmonic output and excellent phase performance. We have developed a double ring-loop circuit that permits electrostatic focusing of an electron beam to at least 0.4 micro pervs. This eliminates the magnet stack and further lowers cost and weight. It permits glass rod fastening of circuit elements as well as gun and collector assemblies, as is done in cathode ray tubes. Using CRT construction techniques, the TWT can be built on automated equipment.

  9. Low cost damage tolerant composite fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, R. J.; Freeman, W. T.

    1988-01-01

    The resin transfer molding (RTM) process applied to composite aircraft parts offers the potential for using low cost resin systems with dry graphite fabrics that can be significantly less expensive than prepreg tape fabricated components. Stitched graphite fabric composites have demonstrated compression after impact failure performance that equals or exceeds that of thermoplastic or tough thermoset matrix composites. This paper reviews methods developed to fabricate complex shape composite parts using stitched graphite fabrics to increase damage tolerance with RTM processes to reduce fabrication cost.

  10. Low cost satellite transportable Ground Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laufman, G. E.; Slivkoff, W. J.

    A low cost Transportable Ground Station (TGS) for satellite tracking, telemetry and control (TTC) applications is described. The initial focus of the TGS is to provide S-band space-ground-link-subsystem TTC services for these satellites with compatible transponders. The TGS also has the capability to be expanded to perform mission control station tasks including telemetry data analysis, command formulation, mission analysis and satellite ephemeris generation. The TGS consists of a shelter and a folded 5-m antenna both of which are mounted on a commercial air ride trailer. The TGS size meets requirements for United States highway transportation. The TGS can also be transported via C-130 aircraft.

  11. Properties Of Low Cost, High Volume Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lind, M. A.; Hartman, J. S.; Buckwalter, C. Q.

    1980-02-01

    The properties of new and weathered samples of low cost, high volume glasses have been studied to determine their usefulness for solar energy applications. Glasses of varying compositions produced by float, drawn, rolled, fusion, and twin ground techniques were examined. Spectral transmittance and reflectance were measured and solar weighted values calculated. Laser raytrace techniques were used to evaluate surface parallelism and bulk homogeneity. Compositional changes were examined with scanning electron microscopy, X-ray fluorescence, and Auger electron spectroscopy. These techniques were used in conjunction with ellipsometry to study the surface effects associated with weathering.

  12. LSA Low-cost Solar Array project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The activities of the Low-Cost Silicon Solar Array Project during the period October through December, 1977 are reported. The LSSA Project is assigned responsibility for advancing silicon solar array technology while encouraging industry to reduce the price of arrays to a level at which photovoltaic electric power systems will be competitive with more conventional power sources early in the next decade. Set forth are the goals and plans with which the Project intends to accomplish this and the progress that was made during the quarter.

  13. Low Cost Mission Operations Workshop. [Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The presentations given at the Low Cost (Space) Mission Operations (LCMO) Workshop are outlined. The LCMO concepts are covered in four introductory sections: Definition of Mission Operations (OPS); Mission Operations (MOS) Elements; The Operations Concept; and Mission Operations for Two Classes of Missions (operationally simple and complex). Individual presentations cover the following topics: Science Data Processing and Analysis; Mis sion Design, Planning, and Sequencing; Data Transport and Delivery, and Mission Coordination and Engineering Analysis. A list of panelists who participated in the conference is included along with a listing of the contact persons for obtaining more information concerning LCMO at JPL. The presentation of this document is in outline and graphic form.

  14. Low cost approach to Mars Pathfinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spear, Anthony J.

    1995-10-01

    Mars Pathfinder, launching in December '96 and landing in July '97, will demo a low cost delivery system to the surface of Mars. Historically, spacecraft that orbit or land on a distant body carry a large amount of fuel for braking. Mars Pathfinder, thrusting only for navigation, enters directly into the Martian atmosphere, aerobrakes with its aeroshell, deploys a parachute at 10 km above the surface and, within 100 m off the surface, ignites solid rockets for final braking prior to deployment of air bags which cushion touchdown. After landing, petals open to upright the lander, exposing solar panels to the sun. Even though the lander and rover are expected to last longer, the major objectives of Mars Pathfinder, demonstrating EDL (Entry, Descent, Landing) and lander-rover surface operations, will occur within the first few days, at which time panoramic images of the surface will be transmitted and the rover will be deployed to conduct both mobility tests and rock composition measurements. While Mars Pathfinder is primarily an engineering demo, it accomplishes a focused, exciting set of science investigations with a stereo, multi-color lander imager; atmospheric instrumentation, used as a weather station after landing; and the rover with cameras and the APXS (Alpha Proton X-ray Spectrometer). This paper features Mars Pathfinder's approach to innovative and cost effective mission accomplishment, under a development cost cap. Mars Pathfinder is pathfinding a new way of doing business at NASA and JPL for small, low cost, Discovery class missions.

  15. Low-cost photomask inspection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharpure, Damayanti C.; David, Sunil K.

    1995-12-01

    The competitive demand for increased production rates and tighter quality control in manufacturing integrated circuits requires inspection at higher speeds, finer resolution and at various stages during fabrication, all at an affordable cost. Manual inspection is tedious and entails a degree of concentration that is difficult to maintain over long periods of time. This paper presents a simple, low cost photo mask inspection system based on an IBM compatible PC. Both the reference comparison as well as feature extraction approaches have been implemented for guaranteed defect detection. The defects are further analyzed to obtain details regarding the location, dimension, and type of defect. The system also generates a diagnostic report providing detailed information regarding each defect, that has been detected, for use in on line mask repair. The paper describes configuration of the system along with the image processing algorithms used. The paper also discusses the results obtained, the specifications and over all performance of the system.

  16. A complete low cost radon detection system.

    PubMed

    Bayrak, A; Barlas, E; Emirhan, E; Kutlu, Ç; Ozben, C S

    2013-08-01

    Monitoring the (222)Rn activity through the 1200 km long Northern Anatolian fault line, for the purpose of earthquake precursory, requires large number of cost effective radon detectors. We have designed, produced and successfully tested a low cost radon detection system (a radon monitor). In the detector circuit of this monitor, First Sensor PS100-7-CER-2 windowless PIN photodiode and a custom made transempedence/shaping amplifier were used. In order to collect the naturally ionized radon progeny to the surface of the PIN photodiode, a potential of 3500 V was applied between the conductive hemi-spherical shell and the PIN photodiode. In addition to the count rate of the radon progeny, absolute pressure, humidity and temperature were logged during the measurements. A GSM modem was integrated to the system for transferring the measurements from the remote locations to the data process center. PMID:23583920

  17. Low-cost solar array structure development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, A. H.

    1981-01-01

    Early studies of flat-plate arrays have projected costs on the order of $50/square meter for installed array support structures. This report describes an optimized low-cost frame-truss structure that is estimated to cost below $25/square meter, including all markups, shipping an installation. The structure utilizes a planar frame made of members formed from light-gauge galvanized steel sheet and is supposed in the field by treated-wood trusses that are partially buried in trenches. The buried trusses use the overburden soil to carry uplift wind loads and thus to obviate reinforced-concrete foundations. Details of the concept, including design rationale, fabrication and assembly experience, structural testing and fabrication drawings are included.

  18. High efficiency low cost solar cell power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bekey, I.; Blocker, W.

    1978-01-01

    A concept for generating high-efficiency, low-cost, solar-cell power is outlined with reference to solar cell parameters, optical concentrators, and thermal control procedures. A design for a 12.5-kw power module for space operation is discussed noting the optical system, spectrum splitter, light conversion system, cell cooling, power conditioner, and tracking mechanism. It is found that for an unconcentrated array, efficiency approaches 60% when ten or more bandgaps are used. For a 12-band system, a computer program distributed bandgaps for maximum efficiency and equal cell currents. Rigid materials and thin films have been proposed for optical components and prisms, gratings, and dichroic mirrors have been recommended for spectrum splitting. Various radiator concepts are noted including that of Weatherston and Smith (1960) and Hedgepeth and Knapp (1978). The concept may be suitable for the Solar Power Satellite.

  19. Low-cost access to space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slayton, Donald K.; Daniels, Mark; Grimes, David

    1992-03-01

    The paper discusses the wide range of orbital launch capabilities of the Conestoga series and the suborbital sounding rocket services of the Starfire family. Both launchers are designed with flight-proven components and offer low cost and a high degree of reliability. Current information on the market for small-sized space payloads and the ability of the above launchers to support these requirements are addressed. The Conestoga orbital launch design embodies the concept of achieving payload growth flexibility without the need to change either the basic vehicle design or the operational approach. Low technical, schedule, and cost risk is achieved with the Conestoga design due to the high degree of previously flight-proven hardware utilized. The Conestoga launch vehicle series performance curves are illustrated. The various Starfire configurations and their microgravity performance are shown.

  20. Low Cost Methods to Accomplish Aeronomy Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swenson, G. R.

    2013-12-01

    Accomplishment of aeronomy science using low cost methods involves a number of innovative considerations. These methods will be discussed. They include making broad use of internet to control and operate distributed sensors. Sensor controls should be simple and most important reliable. Imagers are a common sensor for optical systems and include common computer interfaces and menu driven operations which often don't require special software or engineering development. Small, inexpensive but reliable satellite systems are evolving in the Cubesat community. Effective use of students is invaluable, giving them responsibility to operate instrumentation and to routinely archive the data. Management of students is especially important in the early phase of their training to insure quality performance. These ideas will be elaborated on, and most importantly, the science motive is the most important driver for what is done.

  1. Low-cost flight test telemetry systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogliani, Mario Noriega

    A traditional Flight Test Telemetry system is based on a peer-to-peer architecture where a system of antennae enables a signal to be transmitted between an aircraft and a receiving ground station. Said system generally requires costly infrastructures on the ground and complex antennae components to be installed on the aircraft. Newer approaches may use satellite communications, but the available spectrum is being encroached by commercial wireless networks such as mobile broadband. Given the very fast growth that the mobile broadband technology is experiencing, it might be feasible to utilize this ever-expanding new infrastructure as a low-cost alternative to conventional flight test telemetry systems. This Thesis Work will research on the feasibility and performance of the commercial mobile data networks when employed on-board a small aircraft such as a Cessna 172 for telemetry purposes.

  2. Technology for low cost solid rocket boosters.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciepluch, C.

    1971-01-01

    A review of low cost large solid rocket motors developed at the Lewis Research Center is given. An estimate is made of the total cost reduction obtainable by incorporating this new technology package into the rocket motor design. The propellant, case material, insulation, nozzle ablatives, and thrust vector control are discussed. The effect of the new technology on motor cost is calculated for a typical expandable 260-in. booster application. Included in the cost analysis is the influence of motor performance variations due to specific impulse and weight changes. It is found for this application that motor costs may be reduced by up to 30% and that the economic attractiveness of future large solid rocket motors will be improved when the new technology is implemented.

  3. Low cost attitude sensors for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auer, S.; Von Bun, F. O.

    1990-01-01

    A review is presented of two-low cost attitude sensors developed with existing technology, but with emphasis directed to reducing the unit costs without compromising reliability or quality. The solar aspect sensor was developed to determine the angle of the sun with respect to the optical axis of the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV) Experiment Package. Using sensor readings updated every five milliseconds, signal processing electronics determine the location of the center of the sun's image on the array. An earth horizon sensor was developed to measure the nadir angle with respect to the optical axis of the SSBUV Experiment Package to an accuracy of + or - 0.5 deg. Operation of each of the sensors is described along with flight results obtained when flown onboard Atlantis as part of the SSBUV Experiment Package.

  4. Low Cost Large Core Vehicle Structures Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, Steven E.

    1998-01-01

    Boeing Information, Space, and Defense Systems executed a Low Cost Large Core Vehicle Structures Assessment (LCLCVSA) under contract to NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) between November 1997 and March 1998. NASA is interested in a low-cost launch vehicle, code named Magnum, to place heavy payloads into low earth orbit for missions such as a manned mission to Mars, a Next Generation Space Telescope, a lunar-based telescope, the Air Force's proposed space based laser, and large commercial satellites. In this study, structural concepts with the potential to reduce fabrication costs were evaluated in application to the Magnum Launch Vehicle (MLV) and the Liquid Fly Back Booster (LFBB) shuttle upgrade program. Seventeen concepts were qualitatively evaluated to select four concepts for more in-depth study. The four structural concepts selected were: an aluminum-lithium monocoque structure, an aluminum-lithium machined isogrid structure, a unitized composite sandwich structure, and a unitized composite grid structure. These were compared against a baseline concept based on the Space Shuttle External Tank (ET) construction. It was found that unitized composite structures offer significant cost and weight benefits to MLV structures. The limited study of application to LFBB structures indicated lower, but still significant benefits. Technology and facilities development roadmaps to prepare the approaches studied for application to MLV and LFBB were constructed. It was found that the cost and schedule to develop these approaches were in line with both MLV and LFBB development schedules. Current Government and Boeing programs which address elements of the development of the technologies identified are underway. It is recommended that NASA devote resources in a timely fashion to address the specific elements related to MLV and LFBB structures.

  5. Low-cost remote chemical sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, Stephen Keith

    The intentional or accidental release of a hazardous chemical, such as a chemical warfare agent (CWA) or a toxic industrial chemical (TIC), could endanger many lives. In domestic chemical release situations, a rapid response, which is critical for casualty minimization, requires that primary and first responders have the ability to rapidly probe the threatened area from a safe distance. First responders require sensors that are portable, remote (stand-off), sensitive, robust, and cost effective. While a number of remote chemical sensors are being developed, none meet the requirements of the first responder community due to their cost, complexity, and size. This work proposes a unique approach to hazardous chemical detection based on low-cost, low-energy, uncooled pyroelectric infrared detectors fitted with narrow bandpass filters. Prototype remote differential absorption radiometers (DARs) based on low-cost pyroelectric detectors fitted with relatively broad (30 cm-1) bandpass filters for sensitivity to hazardous chemical simulants, including methanol, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), and diisopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP), were developed and tested. A methanol detection limit of 0.014 atm cm was demonstrated with the prototype sensor. This is well below military prescribed detection limits and demonstrates that sensors based on uncooled pyroelectric detectors can achieve sensitivities exceeding military requirements. Once chemical sensitivity was demonstrated, a prototype multi-spectral sensor comprised of 8 pyroelectric detectors. The measured methanol detection limit for this sensor was 0.033 atm cm. This prototype exhibited a unique response to three hazardous chemical simulants which could be used to detect and to identify the chemical reliably. To improve chemical sensitivity in realistic sensing environments, correction for background effects, such as temperature variations and spectral emissivity characteristics, is required. A simple background

  6. Synthesis and characterization of low cost magnetorheological (MR) fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhwani, V. K.; Hirani, H.

    2007-04-01

    Magnetorheological fluids have great potential for engineering applications due to their variable rheological behavior. These fluids find applications in dampers, brakes, shock absorbers, and engine mounts. However their relatively high cost (approximately US600 per liter) limits their wide usage. Most commonly used magnetic material "Carbonyl iron" cost more than 90% of the MR fluid cost. Therefore for commercial viability of these fluids there is need of alternative economical magnetic material. In the present work synthesis of MR fluid has been attempted with objective to produce low cost MR fluid with high sedimentation stability and greater yield stress. In order to reduce the cost, economical electrolytic Iron powder (US 10 per Kg) has been used. Iron powder of relatively larger size (300 Mesh) has been ball milled to reduce their size to few microns (1 to 10 microns). Three different compositions have been prepared and compared for MR effect produced and stability. All have same base fluid (Synthetic oil) and same magnetic phase i.e. Iron particles but they have different additives. First preparation involves organic additives Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and Stearic acid. Other two preparations involve use of two environmental friendly low-priced green additives guar gum (US 2 per Kg) and xanthan gum (US 12 per Kg) respectively. Magnetic properties of Iron particles have been measured by Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). Morphology of Iron particles and additives guar gum and xanthan gum has been examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Particles Size Distribution (PSD) has been determined using Particle size analyzer. Microscopic images of particles, MH plots and stability of synthesized MR fluids have been reported. The prepared low cost MR fluids showed promising performance and can be effectively used for engineering applications demanding controllability in operations.

  7. Low-cost color LCD helmet display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinenwever, Roger; Best, Leonard G.; Ericksen, Bryce J.

    1992-10-01

    The goal of this helmet-mounted display (HMD) project was development and demonstration of a low-cost color display incorporating see-through optics. A full field-of-regard visual presentation was to be provided through the use of a head-tracker system and the HMD was to be suitable for use with low-cost cockpit trainers. The color imaging devices selected for the project are commercially available liquid crystal display (LCD) panels. The LCDs are 3.0 inch (diagonal) thin film transistor (TFT) types using a delta format for the red, green, blue (RGB) matrix. Fiber optic light panels mounted behind the LCDs provide a cool light source of greater than 3400 foot-lamberts (ft-L). Approximately 3 percent of the applied light source is emitted by the LCD image source. The video displayed is in a 3:4 format representing a 30 degree(s) vertical by 40 degree(s) horizontal biocular instantaneous field-of-view (IFOV) visual image from a graphic image generation system and is controlled in a full field of regard based on positional information from a head-tracker system. The optical elements of the HMD are designed as an exit pupil forming, see-through system and require the eye to be in a 15 mm volume for viewing the scene. The beam splitting function of the optics allows the user to see through the optics for reading cockpit instrumentation, while viewing outside the cockpit reveals the out-the-window (OTW) scene. The optic design allows for the IFOV to be displayed through a set of field lens, relay lens, folding mirror, beam splitter and spherical mirror system. The beam splitters and spherical mirrors for both optical paths are coated for approximately 50 percent transmission and reflectance. This approach, combined with the losses through the rest of the optical path, provides a theoretical maximum of 10.9 percent of the LCD image source intensity arriving at the eye. Initial tests of image intensity at the eye for a full white scene have measured at approximately 11 ft-L.

  8. Performance of several low-cost accelerometers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, J.R.; Allen, R.M.; Chung, A. I.; Cochran, E.S.; Guy, R.; Hellweg, M.; Lawrence, J. F.

    2014-01-01

    Several groups are implementing low‐cost host‐operated systems of strong‐motion accelerographs to support the somewhat divergent needs of seismologists and earthquake engineers. The Advanced National Seismic System Technical Implementation Committee (ANSS TIC, 2002), managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with other network operators, is exploring the efficacy of such systems if used in ANSS networks. To this end, ANSS convened a working group to explore available Class C strong‐motion accelerometers (defined later), and to consider operational and quality control issues, and the means of annotating, storing, and using such data in ANSS networks. The working group members are largely coincident with our author list, and this report informs instrument‐performance matters in the working group’s report to ANSS. Present examples of operational networks of such devices are the Community Seismic Network (CSN; csn.caltech.edu), operated by the California Institute of Technology, and Quake‐Catcher Network (QCN; Cochran et al., 2009; qcn.stanford.edu; November 2013), jointly operated by Stanford University and the USGS. Several similar efforts are in development at other institutions. The overarching goals of such efforts are to add spatial density to existing Class‐A and Class‐B (see next paragraph) networks at low cost, and to include many additional people so they become invested in the issues of earthquakes, their measurement, and the damage they cause.

  9. A low cost MRI permanent magnet prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esparza-Coss, Emilio; Cole, David M.

    1998-08-01

    Here we present the proceedings in designing and constructing a low cost, friendly use, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) prototype magnet; 55 cm×45 cm×30 cm in size scaleable to full body; with a C-shaped assembly to provide open access to the 10 cm C-gap; operational at 0.22 Tesla where the low field increments the tissue contrast; structured with methodically selected and strategically positioned permanent magnets to reach the required field homogeneity as well as to be practically free of maintenance; and having iron flux return to leave an extremely low fringe field. The magnetic flux is funneled through the iron and focused by carefully designed and finely machined iron pole faces of 8.9 cm radius to create a homogeneity of less than 20 parts per million (PPM), without shimming, in a roughly 1.3 cm by 2 cm main axes oval region. An image of an okra plant was taken to test its performance.

  10. A low cost MRI permanent magnet prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Esparza-Coss, Emilio; Cole, David M.

    1998-08-28

    Here we present the proceedings in designing and constructing a low cost, friendly use, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) prototype magnet; 55 cmx45 cmx30 cm in size scaleable to full body; with a C-shaped assembly to provide open access to the 10 cm C-gap; operational at 0.22 Tesla where the low field increments the tissue contrast; structured with methodically selected and strategically positioned permanent magnets to reach the required field homogeneity as well as to be practically free of maintenance; and having iron flux return to leave an extremely low fringe field. The magnetic flux is funneled through the iron and focused by carefully designed and finely machined iron pole faces of 8.9 cm radius to create a homogeneity of less than 20 parts per million (PPM), without shimming, in a roughly 1.3 cm by 2 cm main axes oval region. An image of an okra plant was taken to test its performance.

  11. LOTUS: a low-cost, ultraviolet spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, I. A.; Marchant, J. M.; Jermak, H. E.; Barnsley, R. M.; Bates, S. D.; Clay, N. R.; Fitzsimmons, A.; Jehin, E.; Jones, G.; Mottram, C. J.; Smith, R. J.; Snodgrass, C.; de Val-Borro, M.

    2016-08-01

    We describe the design, construction and commissioning of LOTUS; a simple, low-cost long-slit spectrograph for the Liverpool Telescope. The design is optimized for near-UV and visible wavelengths and uses all transmitting optics. It exploits the instrument focal plane field curvature to partially correct axial chromatic aberration. A stepped slit provides narrow (2.5x95 arcsec) and wide (5x25 arcsec) options that are optimized for spectral resolution and flux calibration respectively. On sky testing shows a wavelength range of 3200-6300 Angstroms with a peak system throughput (including detector quantum efficiency) of 15 per cent and wavelength dependant spectral resolution of R=225-430. By repeated observations of the symbiotic emission line star AG Peg we demonstrate the wavelength stability of the system is less than 2 Angstroms rms and is limited by the positioning of the object in the slit. The spectrograph is now in routine operation monitoring the activity of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko during its current post-perihelion apparition.

  12. Low cost PC based scanning Kelvin probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baikie, I. D.; Estrup, P. J.

    1998-11-01

    We have developed a novel, low cost, scanning Kelvin probe (SKP) system that can measure work function (wf) and surface potential (sp) topographies to within 1 meV energy resolution. The control and measurement subcomponents are PC based and incorporate a flexible user interface, permitting software control of major parameters and allowing easy user implementation via automatic setup and scanning procedures. We review the mode of operation and design features of the SKP including the digital oscillator, the compact ambient voice-coil head-stage, and signal processing techniques. This system offers unique tip-to-sample spacing control (to within 40 nm) which provides a method of simultaneously imaging sample height topographies and is essential to avoid spurious or "apparent" wf changes due to scanning-induced spacing changes. We illustrate SKP operation in generating high resolution wf/sp profiles of metal interfaces (as a tip characterization procedure) and operational electronic devices. The SKP potentially has a very wide range of applications ranging from semiconductor quality control thin film and surface analyses to corrosion and biopotential imaging.

  13. Low Cost RF Amplifier for Community TV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ch, Syafaruddin; Sasongko, Sudi Mariyanto Al; Made Budi Suksmadana, I.; Mustiko Okta Muvianto, Cahyo; Ariessaputra, Suthami

    2016-01-01

    he capability of television to deliver audio video makes this media become the most effective method to spread information. This paper presents an experiment of RF amplifier design having low-cost design and providing sufficient RF power particularly for community television. The RF amplifier consists of two stages of amplifier. The first stage amplifier was used to leverage output of TV modulator from 11dBm to enable to drive next stage amplifier. CAD simulation and fabrication were run to reach optimum RF amplifier design circuit. The associated circuit was made by determining stability circle, stability gain, and matching impedance. Hence, the average power of first stage RF amplifier was 24.68dBm achieved. The second stage used RF modules which was ready match to 50 ohm for both input and output port. The experiment results show that the RF amplifier may operate at frequency ranging from 174 to 230MHz. The average output power of the 2nd stage amplifier was 33.38 Watt with the overall gain of 20.54dB. The proposed RF amplifier is a cheap way to have a stable RF amplifier for community TV. The total budget for the designed RF amplifier is only a 1/5 compared to local design of final TV amplifier.

  14. LOTUS: A low cost, ultraviolet spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, I. A.; Marchant, J. M.; Jermak, H. E.; Barnsley, R. M.; Bates, S. D.; Clay, N. R.; Fitzsimmons, A.; Jehin, E.; Jones, G.; Mottram, C. J.; Smith, R. J.; Snodgrass, C.; de Val-Borro, M.

    2016-05-01

    We describe the design, construction and commissioning of LOTUS; a simple, low-cost long-slit spectrograph for the Liverpool Telescope. The design is optimized for near-UV and visible wavelengths and uses all transmitting optics. It exploits the instrument focal plane field curvature to partially correct axial chromatic aberration. A stepped slit provides narrow (2.5 × 95 arcsec) and wide (5 × 25 arcsec) options that are optimized for spectral resolution and flux calibration respectively. On sky testing shows a wavelength range of 3200-6300 Å with a peak system throughput (including detector quantum efficiency) of 15 per cent and wavelength dependant spectral resolution of R = 225 - 430. By repeated observations of the symbiotic emission line star AG Peg we demonstrate the wavelength stability of the system is <2 Å rms and is limited by the positioning of the object in the slit. The spectrograph is now in routine operation monitoring the activity of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko during its current post-perihelion apparition.

  15. Low cost way to recover logging residues

    SciTech Connect

    Hassler, C.C.; Sinclair, S.A.; Blinn, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    Integration of a residue harvesting component into a traditional harvest system can offer a reasonable alternative to whole-tree chipping of existing natural stands in supplying wood to energy conversion facilitites. Initial attempts at integration should focus on a low cost, incremental expansion that minimizes the impact on productivity for the traditional harvest component, is easily adapted into a traditional harvest system, and has application to a wide range of harvesting firms in practice. Two traditional systems are analyzed - three-person and four-person systems - where chainsaws are used to fell, limb, top, and buck and rubber-tired cable skidders move the wood. Residue recovery is introduced through the addition of a 120-horsepower mobile chipper with self-mounted knuckleboom loader and two used chip vans. The productivity and cost of the residue recovery component is analyzed over a range of stand types and factors affecting productivity and costs. In general, residue recovery for a three-person system is economical only in stands of large sized timber while the four-person system becomes economical in medium sized lumber. (Refs. 12).

  16. LOTUS: a low-cost, ultraviolet spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, I. A.; Marchant, J. M.; Jermak, H. E.; Barnsley, R. M.; Bates, S. D.; Clay, N. R.; Fitzsimmons, A.; Jehin, E.; Jones, G.; Mottram, C. J.; Smith, R. J.; Snodgrass, C.; de Val-Borro, M.

    2016-08-01

    We describe the design, construction and commissioning of a simple, low-cost long-slit spectrograph for the Liverpool Telescope. The design is optimized for near-UV and visible wavelengths and uses all transmitting optics. It exploits the instrument focal plane field curvature to partially correct axial chromatic aberration. A stepped slit provides narrow (2.5 × 95 arcsec) and wide (5 × 25 arcsec) options that are optimized for spectral resolution and flux calibration, respectively. On sky testing shows a wavelength range of 3200-6300 Å with a peak system throughput (including detector quantum efficiency) of 15 per cent and wavelength dependent spectral resolution of R = 225-430. By repeated observations of the symbiotic emission line star AG Peg, we demonstrate the wavelength stability of the system is <2 Å rms and is limited by the positioning of the object in the slit. The spectrograph is now in routine operation monitoring the activity of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko during its current post-perihelion apparition.

  17. Prototype of a low cost multiparameter probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koski, K.; Schwingle, R.; Pullin, M.

    2010-12-01

    Commercial multi-parameter probes provide accurate, high-resolution temporal data collection of a variety of water quality parameters, but their cost (>5,000) prohibits more than a few sampling locations. We present a design and prototype for a low cost (<250) probe. The cost of the probe is ~5% of commercially available probes, allowing for data collection from ~20 times more sampling points in a field location. The probe is constructed from a single-board microcontroller, a commercially available temperature sensor, a conductivity sensor, and a fabricated optical rhodamine sensor. Using a secure digital (SD) memory card, the probe can record over a month of data at a user specified interval. Construction, calibration, field deployment and data retrieval can be accomplished by a skilled undergraduate. Initial deployment will take place as part of a tracer test in the Valles Caldera National Preserve in northern New Mexico. Future work includes: addition of commercial ion selective electrodes (pH, bromide, nitrate, and others); construction of optically based sensors (chlorophyll, dissolved oxygen, and others); wireless networking between the sensors; and reduction of biofouling.

  18. Preparation and properties of low-cost graphene counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qishuang; Shen, Yue; Wang, Qiandi; Gu, Feng; Cao, Meng; Wang, Linjun

    2013-12-01

    With the advantages of excellent electrical properties, high catalytic activity and low-cost preparation, Graphene is one of the most expected carbon materials to replace the expensive Pt as counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In this paper, graphene counter electrodes were obtained by simple doctor-blade coating method on fluorine tin oxides (FTOs). The samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Then the low-cost graphene electrodes were applied in typical sandwich-type DSSCs with TiO2 or ZnO as photoanodes, and their photoelectric conversion efficiency (η) were about 4.34% and 2.28%, respectively, which were a little lower than those of Pt electrodes but much higher than those of graphite electrodes. This law was consistent with the test results of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Low-cost graphene electrodes can be applied in DSSCs by process optimization.

  19. Integrated elastic microscope device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, W. M.; Wright, D.; Watkins, R.; Cen, Zi

    2015-03-01

    The growing power of imaging and computing power of smartphones is creating the possibility of converting your smartphone into a high power pocket microscopy system. High quality miniature microscopy lenses attached to smartphone are typically made with glass or plastics that can only be produce at low cost with high volume. To revise the paradigm of microscope lenses, we devised a simple droplet lens fabrication technique that which produces low cost and high performance lens. Each lens is integrated into thin 3-D printed holder with complimentary light emitted diode (LEDs) that clips onto majority of smartphones. The integrated device converts a smartphone into a high power optical microscope/dermatoscope at around $2. This low cost device has wide application in a multitude of practical uses such as material inspection, dermascope and educational microscope.

  20. Low-cost metaphase finder system.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Akira; Minamihisamatsu, Masako; Hayata, Isamu

    2010-02-01

    In counting chromosome aberrations at low-dose radiation exposure in biological dosimetry, an automation technique has been required to process a large number of sample preparations. The metaphase finder is an automated optical microscope system, which automatically scans and finds metaphase cells on the slide glass in low magnification and relocates metaphase cells to the center of the field of view of the microscope to observe chromosomes in high magnification. The authors have constructed a cost-effective metaphase finder system by assembling commercially-available components, such as microscopes, motorized sample stages, personal computers and general-purpose image analysis software, instead of purchasing one dedicated system. The new system has high cost-effectiveness and high flexibility in adapting to the new staining methods. Mathematical morphology-based image processing to the algorithm was used to find metaphase cells. In particular, the morphology for the gray-image was used for the newest version. The performance of this metaphase finder system was tested. The new machines were distributed to six institutes of the Chromosome Network for Biodosimetry in Japan for testing the new algorithm for practical use. The scanning speed was 14.5 to 18.1 min cm2. The system was slower than several commercial metaphase finders, but there were few false positives. This system is economical and satisfactory for practical use. PMID:20065693

  1. Fast Paced, Low Cost Projects at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson-Morgan, Lisa; Clinton, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    What does an orbiting microsatellite, a robotic lander and a ruggedized camera and telescope have in common? They are all fast paced, low cost projects managed by Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) teamed with successful industry partners. MSFC has long been synonymous with human space flight large propulsion programs, engineering acumen and risk intolerance. However, there is a growing portfolio/product line within MSFC that focuses on these smaller, fast paced projects. While launching anything into space is expensive, using a managed risk posture, holding to schedule and keeping costs low by stopping at egood enough f were key elements to their success. Risk is defined as the possibility of loss or failure per Merriam Webster. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) defines risk using procedural requirement 8705.4 and establishes eclasses f to discern the acceptable risk per a project. It states a Class D risk has a medium to significant risk of not achieving mission success. MSFC, along with industry partners, has created a niche in Class D efforts. How did the big, cautious MSFC succeed on these projects that embodied the antithesis of its heritage in human space flight? A key factor toward these successful projects was innovative industry partners such as Dynetics Corporation, University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAHuntsville), Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU APL), Teledyne Brown Engineering (TBE), Von Braun Center for Science and Innovation (VCSI), SAIC, and Jacobs. Fast Affordable Satellite Technology (FastSat HSV01) is a low earth orbit microsatellite that houses six instruments with the primary scientific objective of earth observation and technology demonstration. The team was comprised of Dynetics, UAHuntsvile, SAIC, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and VCSI with the United States Air Force Space Test Program as the customer. The team completed design, development, manufacturing, environmental test and integration in

  2. Low-cost sustainable wall construction system

    SciTech Connect

    Vohra, A.; Rosenfeld, A.H.

    1998-07-01

    Houses with no wall cavities, such as those made of adobe, stone, brick, or block, have poor thermal properties but are rarely insulated because of the cost and difficulty of providing wall insulation. A simple, low-cost technique using loose-fill indigenous materials has been demonstrated for the construction of highly insulated walls or the retrofit of existing walls in such buildings. Locally available pumice, in sandbags stacked along the exterior wall of an adobe house in New Mexico, added a thermal resistance (R) of 16 F{sm{underscore}bullet}ft{sup 2}{sm{underscore}bullet}h/Btu (2.8 m{sup 2}{sm{underscore}bullet}K/W). The total cost of the sandbag insulation wall retrofit was $3.76 per square foot ($40.50/m{sup 2}). Computer simulations of the adobe house using DOE 2.1E show savings of $275 per year, corresponding to 50% reduction in heating energy consumption. The savings-to-investment ratio ranges from 1.1 to 3.2, so the cost of conserved energy is lower than the price of propane, natural gas and electric heat, making the system cost-effective. Prototype stand-alone walls were also constructed using fly ash and sawdust blown into continuous polypropylene tubing, which was folded between corner posts as it was filled to form the shape of the wall. Other materials could also be used. The inexpensive technique solves the problem of insulating solid-wall hours and constructing new houses without specialized equipment and skills, thereby saving energy, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and improving comfort for people in many countries. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has filed patent applications on this technology, which is part of a DOE initiative on sustainable building envelope materials and systems.

  3. MPEG-1 low-cost encoder solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grueger, Klaus; Schirrmeister, Frank; Filor, Lutz; von Reventlow, Christian; Schneider, Ulrich; Mueller, Gerriet; Sefzik, Nicolai; Fiedrich, Sven

    1995-02-01

    A solution for real-time compression of digital YCRCB video data to an MPEG-1 video data stream has been developed. As an additional option, motion JPEG and video telephone streams (H.261) can be generated. For MPEG-1, up to two bidirectional predicted images are supported. The required computational power for motion estimation and DCT/IDCT, memory size and memory bandwidth have been the main challenges. The design uses fast-page-mode memory accesses and requires only one single 80 ns EDO-DRAM with 256 X 16 organization for video encoding. This can be achieved only by using adequate access and coding strategies. The architecture consists of an input processing and filter unit, a memory interface, a motion estimation unit, a motion compensation unit, a DCT unit, a quantization control, a VLC unit and a bus interface. For using the available memory bandwidth by the processing tasks, a fixed schedule for memory accesses has been applied, that can be interrupted for asynchronous events. The motion estimation unit implements a highly sophisticated hierarchical search strategy based on block matching. The DCT unit uses a separated fast-DCT flowgraph realized by a switchable hardware unit for both DCT and IDCT operation. By appropriate multiplexing, only one multiplier is required for: DCT, quantization, inverse quantization, and IDCT. The VLC unit generates the video-stream up to the video sequence layer and is directly coupled with an intelligent bus-interface. Thus, the assembly of video, audio and system data can easily be performed by the host computer. Having a relatively low complexity and only small requirements for DRAM circuits, the developed solution can be applied to low-cost encoding products for consumer electronics.

  4. Low Cost Precision Lander for Lunar Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoppa, G. V.; Head, J. N.; Gardner, T. G.; Seybold, K. G.

    2004-12-01

    For 60 years the US Defense Department has invested heavily in producing small, low mass, precision-guided vehicles. The technologies matured under these programs include terrain-aided navigation, closed loop terminal guidance algorithms, robust autopilots, high thrust-to-weight propulsion, autonomous mission management software, sensors, and data fusion. These technologies will aid NASA in addressing New Millennium Science and Technology goals as well as the requirements flowing from the Moon to Mars vision articulated in January 2004. Establishing and resupplying a long-term lunar presence will require automated landing precision not yet demonstrated. Precision landing will increase safety and assure mission success. In our lander design, science instruments amount to 10 kg, 16% of the lander vehicle mass. This compares favorably with 7% for Mars Pathfinder and less than 15% for Surveyor. The mission design relies on a cruise stage for navigation and TCMs for the lander's flight to the moon. The landing sequence begins with a solid motor burn to reduce the vehicle speed to 300-450 m/s. At this point the lander is about 2 minutes from touchdown and has 600 to 700 m/s delta-v capability. This allows for about 10 km of vehicle divert during terminal descent. This concept of operations closely mimics missile operational protocol used for decades: the vehicle remains inert, then must execute its mission flawlessly on a moment's notice. The vehicle design uses a propulsion system derived from heritage MDA programs. A redesigned truss provides hard points for landing gear, electronics, power supply, and science instruments. A radar altimeter and a Digital Scene Matching Area Correlator (DSMAC) provide data for the terminal guidance algorithms. This approach leverages the billions of dollars DoD has invested in these technologies, to land useful science payloads precisely on the lunar surface at relatively low cost.

  5. Low-cost respiratory motion tracking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goryawala, Mohammed; Del Valle, Misael; Wang, Jiali; Byrne, James; Franquiz, Juan; McGoron, Anthony

    2008-03-01

    Lung cancer is the cause of more than 150,000 deaths annually in the United States. Early and accurate detection of lung tumors with Positron Emission Tomography has enhanced lung tumor diagnosis. However, respiratory motion during the imaging period of PET results in the reduction of accuracy of detection due to blurring of the images. Chest motion can serve as a surrogate for tracking the motion of the tumor. For tracking chest motion, an optical laser system was designed which tracks the motion of a patterned card placed on the chest by illuminating the pattern with two structured light sources, generating 8 positional markers. The position of markers is used to determine the vertical, translational, and rotational motion of the card. Information from the markers is used to decide whether the patient's breath is abnormal compared to their normal breathing pattern. The system is developed with an inexpensive web-camera and two low-cost laser pointers. The experiments were carried out using a dynamic phantom developed in-house, to simulate chest movement with different amplitudes and breathing periods. Motion of the phantom was tracked by the system developed and also by a pressure transducer for comparison. The studies showed a correlation of 96.6% between the respiratory tracking waveforms by the two systems, demonstrating the capability of the system. Unlike the pressure transducer method, the new system tracks motion in 3 dimensions. The developed system also demonstrates the ability to track a sliding motion of the patient in the direction parallel to the bed and provides the potential to stop the PET scan in case of such motion.

  6. Manufacturing Large Membrane Mirrors at Low Cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Relatively inexpensive processes have been developed for manufacturing lightweight, wide-aperture mirrors that consist mainly of reflectively coated, edge-supported polyimide membranes. The polyimide and other materials in these mirrors can withstand the environment of outer space, and the mirrors have other characteristics that make them attractive for use on Earth as well as in outer space: With respect to the smoothness of their surfaces and the accuracy with which they retain their shapes, these mirrors approach the optical quality of heavier, more expensive conventional mirrors. Unlike conventional mirrors, these mirrors can be stowed compactly and later deployed to their full sizes. In typical cases, deployment would be effected by inflation. Potential terrestrial and outer-space applications for these mirrors include large astronomical telescopes, solar concentrators for generating electric power and thermal power, and microwave reflectors for communication, radar, and short-distance transmission of electric power. The relatively low cost of manufacturing these mirrors stems, in part, from the use of inexpensive tooling. Unlike in the manufacture of conventional mirrors, there is no need for mandrels or molds that have highly precise surface figures and highly polished surfaces. The surface smoothness is an inherent property of a polyimide film. The shaped area of the film is never placed in contact with a mold or mandrel surface: Instead the shape of a mirror is determined by a combination of (1) the shape of a fixture that holds the film around its edge and (2) control of manufacturing- process parameters. In a demonstration of this manufacturing concept, spherical mirrors having aperture diameters of 0.5 and 1.0 m were fabricated from polyimide films having thicknesses ranging from <20 m to 150 m. These mirrors have been found to maintain their preformed shapes following deployment.

  7. Use of Low-Cost Videomicroscopy versus Standard Videodermatoscopy in Trichoscopy: A Controlled, Blinded Noninferiority Trial.

    PubMed

    Verzì, Anna Elisa; Lacarrubba, Francesco; Micali, Giuseppe

    2016-05-01

    Affordable (USD ∼30) handheld USB digital microscopes, or videomicroscopes (VMs), that provide ×10-200 magnification are available on the web for nonmedical uses such as in botany, entomology, microelectronics or, recently, for hair/scalp evaluation. The aim of this study was to compare the reliability of low-cost VMs versus standard, medically marketed videodermatoscopes (VDs) in trichoscopy. Twenty-five patients affected by different types of hair loss were enrolled in a controlled, blinded noninferiority trial. All patients underwent examination by two low-cost VMs as well as by standard VD in order to evaluate any variability in the detection of common trichoscopic features. At the end of the study, the two low-cost VMs enabled a correct identification of all hair shaft alterations; as regards follicular and/or perifollicular examination, black dots were easily recognized by both equipments, but other follicular features, such as yellow dots, white dots and perifollicular scales, were not always adequately visualized because of low color quality and/or reduced brightness and/or resolution. In conclusion, our study suggests that the potential accuracy of low-cost VMs in the evaluation of hair loss may have some pitfalls. Therefore, a low-cost VM should not be routinely used for reliable scalp trichoscopy, unless supported by individual controlled noninferiority trials. PMID:27386460

  8. Use of Low-Cost Videomicroscopy versus Standard Videodermatoscopy in Trichoscopy: A Controlled, Blinded Noninferiority Trial

    PubMed Central

    Verzì, Anna Elisa; Lacarrubba, Francesco; Micali, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Affordable (USD ∼30) handheld USB digital microscopes, or videomicroscopes (VMs), that provide ×10-200 magnification are available on the web for nonmedical uses such as in botany, entomology, microelectronics or, recently, for hair/scalp evaluation. The aim of this study was to compare the reliability of low-cost VMs versus standard, medically marketed videodermatoscopes (VDs) in trichoscopy. Twenty-five patients affected by different types of hair loss were enrolled in a controlled, blinded noninferiority trial. All patients underwent examination by two low-cost VMs as well as by standard VD in order to evaluate any variability in the detection of common trichoscopic features. At the end of the study, the two low-cost VMs enabled a correct identification of all hair shaft alterations; as regards follicular and/or perifollicular examination, black dots were easily recognized by both equipments, but other follicular features, such as yellow dots, white dots and perifollicular scales, were not always adequately visualized because of low color quality and/or reduced brightness and/or resolution. In conclusion, our study suggests that the potential accuracy of low-cost VMs in the evaluation of hair loss may have some pitfalls. Therefore, a low-cost VM should not be routinely used for reliable scalp trichoscopy, unless supported by individual controlled noninferiority trials. PMID:27386460

  9. Fabricating low cost and high performance elastomer lenses using hanging droplets

    PubMed Central

    Lee, W. M.; Upadhya, A.; Reece, P. J.; Phan, Tri Giang

    2014-01-01

    Existing methods for low cost lenses using parallel mold stamping and high temperature reflow requires complex engineering controls to produce high quality lenses. These manufacturing techniques rely on expensive equipment. In this paper, we propose a low cost (< $ 0.01 per pc) flexible moldless lens fabrication method based on curing a hanging transparent polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer droplet on a curved substrate. Additional deposition of hanging droplets in the same manner led to a substantial increase in the lens curvature and concomitant decrease in the focal length of the PDMS lenses down to ~2 mm. The shortest focal length lenses were shown to collimate light from a bare light emitting diode (LED) and image microscopic structures down to around 4 µm with 160x magnification. Our hanging droplet lens fabrication technique heralds a new paradigm in the manufacture of low cost, high performance optical lenses for the masses. Using these lenses, we were able to transform an ordinary commercial smartphone camera into a low-cost digital dermascope (60x magnification) that can readily visualize microscopic structures on skin such as sweat pores. PMID:24877020

  10. Very-Low-Cost, Rugged Vacuum System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kline-Schoder, Robert; Sorensen, Paul; Passow, Christian; Bilski, Steve

    2013-01-01

    NASA, DoD, DHS, and commercial industry have a need for miniaturized, rugged, low-cost vacuum systems. Recent advances in sensor technology have led to the development of very small mass spectrometer detectors as well as other miniature analytical instruments. However, the vacuum systems to support these sensors remain large, heavy, and power-hungry. To meet this need, a miniaturized vacuum system was created based on a very small, rugged, and inexpensive- to-manufacture molecular drag pump (MDP). The MDP is enabled by the development of a miniature, veryhigh- speed, rugged, low-power, brushless DC motor optimized for wide temperature operation and long life. Such a pump represents an order-of-magnitude reduction in mass, volume, and cost over current, commercially available, state-ofthe- art vacuum pumps. The vacuum system consists of the MDP coupled to a ruggedized rough pump (for terrestrial applications or for planets with substantial atmospheres). The rotor in the MDP consists of a simple smooth cylinder of aluminum spinning at approximately 200,000 RPM inside an outer stator housing. The pump stator comprises a cylindrical aluminum housing with one or more specially designed grooves that serve as flow channels. To minimize the length of the pump, the gas is forced down the flow channels of the outer stator to the base of the pump. The gas is then turned and pulled toward the top through a second set of channels cut into an inner stator housing that surrounds the motor. The compressed gas then flows down channels in the motor housing to the exhaust port of the pump. The exhaust port of the pump is connected to a diaphragm or scroll pump. This pump delivers very high performance in a very small envelope. The design was simplified so that a smaller compression ratio, easier manufacturing process, and enhanced ruggedness can be achieved at the lowest possible cost. The machining of the rotor and stators is very simple compared to that necessary to fabricate TMP

  11. Low-Cost Illumination-Grade LEDs

    SciTech Connect

    Epler, John

    2013-08-31

    technology was commercialized in our LUXEON Q product in Sept., 2013. Also, the retention of the sapphire increased the robustness of the device, enabling sales of low-cost submount-free chips to lighting manufacturers. Thus, blue LED die sales were initiated in the form of a PSS-FC in February, 2013.

  12. Potential contribution of low cost materials in clean technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smail, Heman A.; Shareef, Kafia M.; Ramli, Zainab

    2016-03-01

    As the world's population approaches more than 9 billion, the strain on the planet's resources is steadily increasing. This demand can only be met by improving production methods to reduce the use of chemicals and the amount of chemical waste. Zeolites are among the least-known products for environmental pollution control, separation science and technology. This study investigates whether the use of geological sources as low-cost materials are suitable for zeolite synthesis and future applications. In this investigation natural montmorillonite clay, locally available in Erbil-Kurdistan, was used as raw material. The experiments were carried out in the presence of ultrasound 30KHz at 60°C and for different crystallization times (5, 10 &15 hours) and the results were compared with those obtained by performing conventional alkaline hydrothermal static syntheses under similar conditions and crystallization time of (90 hours). The raw material as well as the products was analyzed using; Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FT-IR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The experimental data were ascertained the formation of Zeolite successfully. Crystallization by ultrasound has been demonstrated to offer the possibilities of increasing the nucleation and crystallization rates of zeolites, improving the yield and directing the synthesis towards different crystal phases.

  13. Low Cost Cryocoolers for High Temperature Superconductor Communication Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Davina

    1998-01-01

    This final report describes the work performed by a consortium of Industry and Government to develop low cost cryocoolers. The specific application was for low cost commercial based high temperature superconductor communication filters. This program was initiated in January 1995 and resulted in the successful demonstration of an HTS filter dewar cooled by a low cost pulse tube cryocooler. Further development of this cryocooler technology is proceeding through various contracts underway and proposed at this time.

  14. Low Cost Precision Lander for Lunar Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, J. N.; Gardner, T. G.; Hoppa, G. V.; Seybold, K. G.

    2004-12-01

    ) provide data for the terminal guidance algorithms. DSMAC acquires high-resolution images for real-time correlation with a reference map. This system provides ownship position with a resolution comparable to the map. Since the DSMAC can sample at 1.5 mrad, any imaging acquired below 70 km altitude will surpass the resolution available from previous missions. DSMAC has a mode where image data are compressed and downlinked. This capability could be used to downlink live images during terminal guidance. Approximately 500 kbitps telemetry would be required to provide the first live descent imaging sequence since Ranger. This would provide unique geologic context imaging for the landing site. The development path to produce such a vehicle is that used to develop missiles. First, a pathfinder vehicle is designed and built as a test bed for hardware integration including science instruments. Second, a hover test vehicle would be built. Equipped with mass mockups for the science payload, the vehicle would otherwise be an exact copy of the flight vehicle. The hover vehicle would be flown on earth to demonstrate the proper function and integration of the propulsion system, autopilots, navigation algorithms, and guidance sensors. There is sufficient delta-v in the proposed design to take off from the ground, fly a ballistic arc to over 100 m altitude, then guide to a precision soft landing. Once the vehicle has flown safely on earth, then the validated design would be used to produce the flight vehicle. Since this leverages the billions of dollars DOD has invested in these technologies, it should be possible to land useful science payloads precisely on the lunar surface at relatively low cost.

  15. Automated digital image analysis of islet cell mass using Nikon's inverted eclipse Ti microscope and software to improve engraftment may help to advance the therapeutic efficacy and accessibility of islet transplantation across centers.

    PubMed

    Gmyr, Valery; Bonner, Caroline; Lukowiak, Bruno; Pawlowski, Valerie; Dellaleau, Nathalie; Belaich, Sandrine; Aluka, Isanga; Moermann, Ericka; Thevenet, Julien; Ezzouaoui, Rimed; Queniat, Gurvan; Pattou, Francois; Kerr-Conte, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Reliable assessment of islet viability, mass, and purity must be met prior to transplanting an islet preparation into patients with type 1 diabetes. The standard method for quantifying human islet preparations is by direct microscopic analysis of dithizone-stained islet samples, but this technique may be susceptible to inter-/intraobserver variability, which may induce false positive/negative islet counts. Here we describe a simple, reliable, automated digital image analysis (ADIA) technique for accurately quantifying islets into total islet number, islet equivalent number (IEQ), and islet purity before islet transplantation. Islets were isolated and purified from n = 42 human pancreata according to the automated method of Ricordi et al. For each preparation, three islet samples were stained with dithizone and expressed as IEQ number. Islets were analyzed manually by microscopy or automatically quantified using Nikon's inverted Eclipse Ti microscope with built-in NIS-Elements Advanced Research (AR) software. The AIDA method significantly enhanced the number of islet preparations eligible for engraftment compared to the standard manual method (p < 0.001). Comparisons of individual methods showed good correlations between mean values of IEQ number (r(2) = 0.91) and total islet number (r(2) = 0.88) and thus increased to r(2) = 0.93 when islet surface area was estimated comparatively with IEQ number. The ADIA method showed very high intraobserver reproducibility compared to the standard manual method (p < 0.001). However, islet purity was routinely estimated as significantly higher with the manual method versus the ADIA method (p < 0.001). The ADIA method also detected small islets between 10 and 50 µm in size. Automated digital image analysis utilizing the Nikon Instruments software is an unbiased, simple, and reliable teaching tool to comprehensively assess the individual size of each islet cell preparation prior to transplantation. Implementation of this

  16. Low cost attitude control system reaction wheel development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bialke, William

    1991-01-01

    In order to satisfy a growing demand for low cost attitude control systems for small spacecraft, development of a low power and low cost Reaction Wheel Assembly was initiated. The details of the versatile design resulting from this effort are addressed. Tradeoff analyses for each of the major components are included, as well as test data from an engineering prototype of the hardware.

  17. Low cost airborne microwave landing system receiver, task 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hager, J. B.; Vancleave, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    Work performed on the low cost airborne Microwave Landing System (MLS) receiver is summarized. A detailed description of the prototype low cost MLS receiver is presented. This detail includes block diagrams, schematics, board assembly drawings, photographs of subassemblies, mechanical construction, parts lists, and microprocessor software. Test procedures are described and results are presented.

  18. Portable, battery-operated, fluorescence field microscope for the developing world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Andrew R.; Davis, Gregory; Pierce, Mark; Oden, Z. Maria; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2010-02-01

    In many areas of the world, current methods for diagnosis of infectious diseases such as malaria and tuberculosis involve microscopic evaluation of a patient specimen. Advances in fluorescence microscopy can improve diagnostic sensitivity and reduce time and expertise necessary to interpret diagnostic results. However, modern research-grade microscopes are neither available nor appropriate for use in many settings in the developing world. To address this need, we designed, fabricated, and tested a portable, battery-powered, bright field and fluorescence inverted field microscope, optimized for infrastructural constraints of the developing world. We characterized an initial prototype constructed with rapidprototyping techniques, which utilized low-cost, over-the-counter components such as a battery-powered LED flashlight as the light source. The microscope exhibited suitable spatial resolution (0.8 μm) in fluorescence mode to resolve M. tuberculosis bacilli. In bright field mode, malaria parasites were resolvable at 1000x magnification. The initial prototype cost 480 USD and we estimate that the microscope can be manufactured for 230 USD. While future studies are planned to evaluate ease-of-use and reliability, our current system serves as a proof of concept that combined fluorescence and bright field microscopy is possible in a low-cost and portable system.

  19. A low-cost compact metric adaptive optics system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansell, Justin D.; Henderson, Brian; Wiesner, Brennen; Praus, Robert; Coy, Steve

    2007-09-01

    The application of adaptive optics has been hindered by the cost, size, and complexity of the systems. We describe here progress we have made toward creating low-cost compact turn-key adaptive optics systems. We describe our new low-cost deformable mirror technology developed using polymer membranes, the associated USB interface drive electronics, and different ways that this technology can be configured into a low-cost compact adaptive optics system. We also present results of a parametric study of the stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) control algorithm.

  20. Surface imaging microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogala, Eric W.; Bankman, Isaac N.

    2008-04-01

    The three-dimensional shapes of microscopic objects are becoming increasingly important for battlespace CBRNE sensing. Potential applications of microscopic 3D shape observations include characterization of biological weapon particles and manufacturing of micromechanical components. Aerosol signatures of stand-off lidar systems, using elastic backscatter or polarization, are dictated by the aerosol particle shapes and sizes that must be well characterized in the lab. A low-cost, fast instrument for 3D surface shape microscopy will be a valuable point sensor for biological particle sensing applications. Both the cost and imaging durations of traditional techniques such as confocal microscopes, atomic force microscopes, and electron scanning microscopes are too high. We investigated the feasibility of a low-cost, fast interferometric technique for imaging the 3D surface shape of microscopic objects at frame rates limited only by the camera in the system. The system operates at two laser wavelengths producing two fringe images collected simultaneously by a digital camera, and a specialized algorithm we developed reconstructs the surface map of the microscopic object. The current implementation assembled to test the concept and develop the new 3D reconstruction algorithm has 0.25 micron resolution in the x and y directions, and about 0.1 micron accuracy in the z direction, as tested on a microscopic glass test object manufactured with etching techniques. We describe the interferometric instrument, present the reconstruction algorithm, and discuss further development.

  1. A Simple, Low-Cost Platform for Real-Time Isothermal Nucleic Acid Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Craw, Pascal; Mackay, Ruth E.; Naveenathayalan, Angel; Hudson, Chris; Branavan, Manoharanehru; Sadiq, S. Tariq; Balachandran, Wamadeva

    2015-01-01

    Advances in microfluidics and the introduction of isothermal nucleic acid amplification assays have resulted in a range of solutions for nucleic acid amplification tests suited for point of care and field use. However, miniaturisation of instrumentation for such assays has not seen such rapid advances and fluorescence based assays still depend on complex, bulky and expensive optics such as fluorescence microscopes, photomultiplier tubes and sensitive lens assemblies. In this work we demonstrate a robust, low cost platform for isothermal nucleic acid amplification on a microfluidic device. Using easily obtainable materials and commercial off-the-shelf components, we show real time fluorescence detection using a low cost photodiode and operational amplifier without need for lenses. Temperature regulation on the device is achieved using a heater fabricated with standard printed circuit board fabrication methods. These facile construction methods allow fabrications at a cost compatible with widespread deployment to resource poor settings. PMID:26389913

  2. A Simple, Low-Cost Platform for Real-Time Isothermal Nucleic Acid Amplification.

    PubMed

    Craw, Pascal; Mackay, Ruth E; Naveenathayalan, Angel; Hudson, Chris; Branavan, Manoharanehru; Sadiq, S Tariq; Balachandran, Wamadeva

    2015-01-01

    Advances in microfluidics and the introduction of isothermal nucleic acid amplification assays have resulted in a range of solutions for nucleic acid amplification tests suited for point of care and field use. However, miniaturisation of instrumentation for such assays has not seen such rapid advances and fluorescence based assays still depend on complex, bulky and expensive optics such as fluorescence microscopes, photomultiplier tubes and sensitive lens assemblies. In this work we demonstrate a robust, low cost platform for isothermal nucleic acid amplification on a microfluidic device. Using easily obtainable materials and commercial off-the-shelf components, we show real time fluorescence detection using a low cost photodiode and operational amplifier without need for lenses. Temperature regulation on the device is achieved using a heater fabricated with standard printed circuit board fabrication methods. These facile construction methods allow fabrications at a cost compatible with widespread deployment to resource poor settings. PMID:26389913

  3. Low-cost orbiting grinder for cutting ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, E. J.

    1970-01-01

    Low-cost, portable machine cuts ducts made from heat-treated alloys. An abrasive wheel, powered by a high-speed air motor mounted on an expandible plug against the inner wall of the duct, gives precise cutting.

  4. Proceedings of the Low-Cost Solar Array Wafering Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, A. D.

    1982-01-01

    The technology and economics of silicon ingot wafering for low cost solar arrays were discussed. Fixed and free abrasive sawing wire, ID, and multiblade sawing, materials, mechanisms, characterization, and innovative concepts were considered.

  5. A Low-Cost Electronic Solar Energy Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blade, Richard A.; Small, Charles T.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the design of a low-cost electronic circuit to serve as a differential thermostat, to control the operation of a solar heating system. It uses inexpensive diodes for sensoring temperature, and a mechanical relay for a switch. (GA)

  6. Low cost voice compression for mobile digital radios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omura, J. K.

    1985-01-01

    A new technique for low cost rubust voice compression at 4800 bits per second was studied. The approach was based on using a cascade of digital biquad adaptive filters with simplified multipulse excitation followed by simple bit sequence compression.

  7. Low-cost exterior insulation process and structure

    DOEpatents

    Vohra, A.

    1999-03-02

    A low-cost exterior insulation process of stacking bags of insulating material against a wall and covering them with wire mesh and stucco provides a durable structure with good insulating value. 2 figs.

  8. A Low-Cost, Precision Hydrometer for Classroom Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Michael D.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a low cost hydrometer which can be assembled by students using stock laboratory items with a total retail cost of 17 cents. Includes list of required materials (with supplies) and experimental results on the instrument's accuracy. (JM)

  9. Composite hubs for low cost gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.

    1977-01-01

    A detailed stress analysis was performed using NASTRAN to demonstrate theoretically the adequacy of composite hubs for low cost turbine engine applications. Composite hubs are adequate for this application from the steady state stress view point.

  10. A Low-Cost and High-Performance Conductivity Meter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    da Rocha, Rogerio T.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes an apparatus that is stable and accurate enough for quantitative conductivity experiments but maintains the simplicity of construction and use as well as low cost. Discusses principles and implementation and the performance of the assembled apparatus. (JRH)

  11. Low-cost optical instrumentation for biomedical measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostov, Yordan; Rao, Govind

    2000-12-01

    Low-cost instruments for measurement in medicine, biotechnology, and environmental monitoring are presented. Recent developments in optoelectronic technology enable practical compact designs. This article presents the available types of light emitters, detectors, and wavelength selection components that are used in low-cost instruments. The main spectroscopic techniques (absorption, reflectance, luminescence intensity, lifetime, and polarization, evanescent wave and surface plasmon resonance) that are used with these instruments are described. Numerous examples of devices for a broad variety of biomedical measurements are presented.

  12. The REFSAT approach to low-cost GPS terminals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sennott, J. W.; Choudhury, A. K.; Taylor, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    A concept utilizing a geostationary reference satellite (REFSAT) that broadcasts navigation aiding signals to low cost civil user terminals which employ the constellation of 24 NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites for position determination is described. The signal acquisition, tracking and position fixing properties of such low cost, dual channel, L-band, civil user receiver designed to receive both GPS navigation and REFSAT navigation aiding signals is presented. REFSAT reduces the cost of user equipment.

  13. Cost Modeling for low-cost planetary missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwan, Eric; Habib-Agahi, Hamid; Rosenberg, Leigh

    2005-01-01

    This presentation will provide an overview of the JPL parametric cost models used to estimate flight science spacecrafts and instruments. This material will emphasize the cost model approaches to estimate low-cost flight hardware, sensors, and instrumentation, and to perform cost-risk assessments. This presentation will also discuss JPL approaches to perform cost modeling and the methodologies and analyses used to capture low-cost vs. key cost drivers.

  14. Low-cost inkjet antennas for RFID applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çiftçi, T.; Karaosmanoğlu, B.; Ergül, Ö.

    2016-03-01

    We present paper-based inkjet antennas that are fabricated by using silver-based cartridges in standard printers. In addition to their low costs, the produced antennas are flexible, environmentally friendly, and suitable for radio-frequency identification (RFID) applications. Among alternative choices, hybrid structures involving loop and parasitic meander parts are preferred and successfully combined with passive RFID chips. We also discuss main challenges in the design and fabrication of low-cost inkjet antennas and the related RFID tags.

  15. Automated Digital Image Analysis of islet cell mass using Nikon's inverted Eclipse Ti microscope and software to improve engraftment may help to advance the therapeutic efficacy and accessibility of islet transplantation across centers.

    PubMed

    Gmyr, Valery; Bonner, Caroline; Lukowiak, Bruno; Pawlowski, Valerie; Dellaleau, Nathalie; Belaich, Sandrine; Aluka, Isanga; Moermann, Ericka; Thevenet, Julien; Ezzouaoui, Rimed; Queniat, Gurvan; Pattou, Francois; Kerr-Conte, Julie

    2013-04-29

    Reliable assessment of islet viability, mass and purity must be met prior to transplanting an islet preparation into patients with type 1 diabetes. The standard method for quantifying human islet preparations is by direct microscopic analysis of dithizone-stained islet samples,but this technique may be susceptible to inter / intra observer variability, which may induce false positive / negative islet counts. Here we describe a simple, reliable, automated digitalimage analysis (ADIA) technique, for accurately quantifying islets into total islet number,islet equivalent number (IEQ), and islet purity before islet transplantation.Islets were isolated and purified from n=42 human pancreata according to the automated method of Ricordi et al. For each preparation, three islet samples were stained with dithizone,and expressed as IEQ number. Islets were analyzed manually by microscopy, or automaticallyquantified using Nikon's inverted Eclipse Ti microscope, with built in NIS-ElementsAdvanced Research (AR) software.The AIDA method significantly enhanced the number of islet preparations eligible forengraftment compared to the standard manual method (P<0.001). Comparisons of individual methods showed good correlations between mean values of IEQ number (r(sup)2(/sup)≤0.91), and total islet number (r(sup)2(/sup)=0.88), and thus, increased to (r(sup)2(/sup)=0.93) when islet surface area was estimated comparatively with IEQ number. The ADIA method showed very high intra-observer reproducibility compared to the standard manual method (P<0.001). However, islet purity was routinely estimated as significantly higher with the manual method vs. the ADIA method(p<0.001). The ADIA method also detected small islets between 10-50 μm in size.Automated digital image analysis utilizing the Nikon Instruments (Nikon) software is anunbiased, simple, and reliable teaching tool to comprehensively assess the individual size ofeach islet cell preparation prior to transplantation. Implementation of

  16. Stream, Inverted

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    27 July 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the inverted, eroded remains of a channel -- now standing as a complex ridge that runs across the middle of this scene -- in dust-mantled terrain west of Sinus Meridiani, Mars. The original channel might have been carved by running water, but too little detail remains today to provide any certainty as to whether water was the culprit.

    Location near: 5.6oN, 7.6oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Northern Spring

  17. Power inverters

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, David H.; Korich, Mark D.; Smith, Gregory S.

    2011-11-15

    Power inverters include a frame and a power module. The frame has a sidewall including an opening and defining a fluid passageway. The power module is coupled to the frame over the opening and includes a substrate, die, and an encasement. The substrate includes a first side, a second side, a center, an outer periphery, and an outer edge, and the first side of the substrate comprises a first outer layer including a metal material. The die are positioned in the substrate center and are coupled to the substrate first side. The encasement is molded over the outer periphery on the substrate first side, the substrate second side, and the substrate outer edge and around the die. The encasement, coupled to the substrate, forms a seal with the metal material. The second side of the substrate is positioned to directly contact a fluid flowing through the fluid passageway.

  18. Low-Cost, Rugged High-Vacuum System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, Paul; Kline-Schoder, Robert

    2012-01-01

    A need exists for miniaturized, rugged, low-cost high-vacuum systems. Recent advances in sensor technology have led to the development of very small mass spectrometer detectors as well as other analytical instruments such as scanning electron microscopes. However, the vacuum systems to support these sensors remain large, heavy, and power-hungry. To meet this need, a miniaturized vacuum system was developed based on a very small, rugged, and inexpensive-to-manufacture molecular drag pump (MDP). The MDP is enabled by a miniature, very-high-speed (200,000 rpm), rugged, low-power, brushless DC motor optimized for wide temperature operation and long life. The key advantages of the pump are reduced cost and improved ruggedness compared to other mechanical hig-hvacuum pumps. The machining of the rotor and stators is very simple compared to that necessary to fabricate rotor and stator blades for other pump designs. Also, the symmetry of the rotor is such that dynamic balancing of the rotor will likely not be necessary. Finally, the number of parts in the unit is cut by nearly a factor of three over competing designs. The new pump forms the heart of a complete vacuum system optimized to support analytical instruments in terrestrial applications and on spacecraft and planetary landers. The MDP achieves high vacuum coupled to a ruggedized diaphragm rough pump. Instead of the relatively complicated rotor and stator blades used in turbomolecular pumps, the rotor in the MDP consists of a simple, smooth cylinder of aluminum. This will turn at approximately 200,000 rpm inside an outer stator housing. The pump stator comprises a cylindrical aluminum housing with one or more specially designed grooves that serve as flow channels. To minimize the length of the pump, the gas is forced down the flow channels of the outer stator to the base of the pump. The gas is then turned and pulled toward the top through a second set of channels cut into an inner stator housing that surrounds the

  19. A low-cost setup for microstructuring experiments using a homemade UV laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, Antje; Jansen, Stephanie; Christoffel, Sebastian; Zimmermann, Alexander; Busch, Kurt; Hofmann, Richard

    2012-03-01

    We present a simple high school and university undergraduate laboratory setup, with which we are able to texture microscopic structures into polymer and dye films using a homemade UV nitrogen laser. We describe both the laser and the microstructuring setup and provide detailed information on the laser and its beam characteristics. Although this is a low-cost setup, we are able to directly write or texture high-quality patterns into thin films, either by manually controlling a positioning stage or by programming a desired sequence for an automated structuring process. We introduce several hands-on experiments for high school and university undergraduate students and present our first results.

  20. Low-Cost Large Aperture Telescopes for Optical Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, Hamid

    2006-01-01

    Low-cost, 0.5-1 meter ground apertures are required for near-Earth laser communications. Low-cost ground apertures with equivalent diameters greater than 10 meters are desired for deep-space communications. This presentation focuses on identifying schemes to lower the cost of constructing networks of large apertures while continuing to meet the requirements for laser communications. The primary emphasis here is on the primary mirror. A slumped glass spherical mirror, along with passive secondary mirror corrector and active adaptive optic corrector show promise as a low-cost alternative to large diameter monolithic apertures. To verify the technical performance and cost estimate, development of a 1.5-meter telescope equipped with gimbal and dome is underway.

  1. Low-cost resilience schemes for the Optical Ethernet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cugini, Filippo; Valcarenghi, Luca; Castoldi, Piero; Guglielmucci, Michele

    2005-12-01

    Optical Ethernet (OE) architectures transport IP packets directly over the optical layer by providing a specific Layer 2 framing. Although the architectures represent a simple and low-cost solution, the limiting factor for their widespread deployment is represented by the lack of some efficient operation, administration, and maintenance (OA&M) features, such as resilience. Optical layer protection represents a low-cost resilience scheme for OE links. We present the experimental results of low-cost protection implementations that are based on different failure detection and failure protection activation schemes for IP-over-OE networks. Specifically, a dedicated span protection scheme and an evolution for shared protection based on generalized multiprotocol label switching (GMPLS) signaling in transparent domains is presented. Experimental results show that recovery times in the millisecond range are achieved.

  2. Gelatin/graphene systems for low cost energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Landi, Giovanni; Fedi, Filippo; Sorrentino, Andrea; Iannace, Salvatore; Neitzert, Heinz C.

    2014-05-15

    In this work, we introduce the possibility to use a low cost, biodegradable material for temporary energy storage devices. Here, we report the use of biologically derived organic electrodes composed of gelatin ad graphene. The graphene was obtained by mild sonication in a mixture of volatile solvents of natural graphite flakes and subsequent centrifugation. The presence of exfoliated graphene sheets was detected by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy. The homogeneous dispersion in gelatin demonstrates a good compatibility between the gelatin molecules and the graphene particles. The electrical characterization of the resulting nanocomposites suggests the possible applications as materials for transient, low cost energy storage device.

  3. Hughes integrated synthetic aperture radar: High performance at low cost

    SciTech Connect

    Bayma, R.W.

    1996-11-01

    This paper describes the background and development of the low cost high-performance Hughes Integrated Synthetic Aperture Radar (HISAR{trademark}) which has a full range of capabilities for real-time reconnaissance, surveillance and earth resource mapping. HISAR uses advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technology to make operationally effective images of near photo quality, day or night and in all weather conditions. This is achieved at low cost by maximizing the use of commercially available radar and signal-processing equipment in the fabrication. Furthermore, HISAR is designed to fit into an executive-class aircraft making it available for a wide range of users. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  4. Development of low cost custom hybrid microcircuit technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, K. L.; Licari, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    Selected potentially low cost, alternate packaging and interconnection techniques were developed and implemented in the manufacture of specific NASA/MSFC hardware, and the actual cost savings achieved by their use. The hardware chosen as the test bed for this evaluation ws the hybrids and modules manufactured by Rockwell International fo the MSFC Flight Accelerometer Safety Cut-Off System (FASCOS). Three potentially low cost packaging and interconnection alternates were selected for evaluation. This study was performed in three phases: hardware fabrication and testing, cost comparison, and reliability evaluation.

  5. Key issues for low-cost FGD installations

    SciTech Connect

    DePriest, W.; Mazurek, J.M.

    1995-12-01

    This paper will discuss various methods for installing low-cost FGD systems. The paper will include a discussion of various types of FGD systems available, both wet and dry, and will compare the relative cost of each type. Important design issues, such as use of spare equipment, materials of construction, etc. will be presented. An overview of various low-cost construction techniques (i.e., modularization) will be included. This paper will draw heavily from Sargent & Lundy`s database of past and current FGD projects together with information we gathered for several Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studies on the subject.

  6. Low cost composite materials for wind energy conversion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weingart, O.

    1980-01-01

    A winding process utilizing a low-cost E-glass fabric called transverse-filament tape for low-cost production of wind turbine generators (WTG) is described. The process can be carried out continuously at high speed to produce large one-piece parts with tapered wall thicknesses on a tapered mandrel. It is being used to manufacture blades for the NASA/DOE 200-ft-diameter MOD-1 WTG and Rockwell/DOE 40-kW small wind energy conversion system (SWECS).

  7. Geowall: Investigations into Low-Cost Stereo Display Technologies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steinwand, Daniel R.; Davis, Brian; Weeks, Nathan

    2003-01-01

    Recently, the combination of new projection technology, fast, low-cost graphics cards, and Linux-powered personal computers has made it possible to provide a stereoprojection and stereoviewing system that is much more affordable than previous commercial solutions. These Geowall systems are low-cost visualization systems built with commodity off-the-shelf components, run on open-source (and other) operating systems, and using open-source applications software. In short, they are ?Beowulf-class? visualization systems that provide a cost-effective way for the U. S. Geological Survey to broaden participation in the visualization community and view stereoimagery and three-dimensional models2.

  8. Low-cost encapsulation materials for terrestrial solar cell modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddihy, E. F.; Baum, B.; Willis, P.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents the findings of material surveys intended to identify low cost materials which could be functional as encapsulants (by 1986) for terrestrial solar cell modules. Economic analyses have indicated that in order to meet the low cost goal of $2.70 per sq m, some or all of the following material technologies must be developed or advanced: (1) UV screening outer covers; (2) elastomeric acrylics; (3) weatherproofing and waterproofing of structural wood and paper products; (4) transparent UV stabilizers for the UV-sensitive transparent pottants; and (5) cost-effective utilization of silicone and fluorocarbon materials.

  9. Regenerative Snubber For GTO-Commutated SCR Inverter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rippel, Wally E.; Edwards, Dean B.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed regenerative snubbing circuit substituted for dissipative snubbing circuit in inverter based on silicon controlled rectifiers (SCR's) commutated by gate-turn-off thyristor (GTO). Intended to reduce loss of power that occurs in dissipative snubber. Principal criteria in design: low cost, simplicity, and reliability.

  10. Modular, Easy-to-Assemble, Low-Cost Zebrafish Facility

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seongcheol; Carlson, Ryan; Zafreen, Lala; Rajpurohit, Surendra Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Abstract We have constructed a standalone, modular, low-cost water recirculation zebrafish facility in our laboratory. This is easy to maintain and will take only approximately $500 and a half a day to build an 80-tank module. The system described here will be useful to even investigators who are new to zebrafish aquaculture. PMID:19694524

  11. Low-Cost Elimination of Plasma Lines in Raman Spectra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behlow, Herbert W., Jr.; Petersen, John D.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a low-cost ($120) device which eliminates plasma lines in Raman spectra. The device consists of two prisms and two mirrors which are held in a symmetrical relationship to one another so that a particular position will allow only one wavelength to pass through on a given axis. (JN)

  12. Leveraging Knowledge: Impact on Low Cost Planetary Mission Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Momjian, Jennifer

    This paper discusses innovations developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) librarians to reduce the information query cycle time for teams planning low-cost, planetary missions. The first section provides background on JPL and its library. The second section addresses the virtual information environment, including issues of access, content,…

  13. Reducing High Absenteeism through Low-Cost Incentives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Chaplik, Barbara D.; Engel, Ross A.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a study of the effects of a low-cost incentive program--including daily, weekly, and monthly reinforcements such as attention, approval, and inexpensive awards--on the absenteeism of high-absence employees in an urban school district's transportation department. A 20-percent reduction in absenteeism was achieved. (TE)

  14. Low-cost point-focus solar concentrator, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, E. V.; Derbidge, T. C.; Erskine, D.; Maraschin, R. A.; Niemeyer, W. A.; Matsushita, M. J.; Overly, P. T.

    1979-01-01

    The results of the preliminary design study for the low cost point focus solar concentrator (LCPFSC) development program are presented. A summary description of the preliminary design is given. The design philosophy used to achieve a cost effective design for mass production is described. The concentrator meets all design requirements specified and is based on practical design solutions in every possible way.

  15. ADVACATE -- LOW-COST PROCESS FOR SO2 CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses sorbent chemistry and process chemistry of the ADVAnced siliCATE (ADVACATE) process, a simple, low-cost add-on technology for S02 control, easily retrofitted on existing utility boilers with minimal disruption. It is considered to be capable of removing 90% of...

  16. Wind turbine generator rotor blade concepts with low cost potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, T. L.; Cahill, T. P.; Griffee, D. G., Jr.; Gewehr, H. W.

    1977-01-01

    Four processed for producing blades are examined. Two use filament winding techniques and two involve filling a mold or form to produce all or part of a blade. The processes are described and a comparison is made of cost, material properties, design and free vibration characteristics. Conclusions are made regarding the feasibility of each process to produce low cost, structurally adequate blades.

  17. Sport for All: Low-Cost Swimming Pools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Cultural Cooperation, Strasbourg (France).

    This report is an outgrowth of discussions held by the Council for Cultural Cooperation (CCC) in Cologne, Germany from September 26-30, 1967 aimed at organizing a systematic exchange of information among European countries for the purpose of providing low-cost sport facilities. Part I deals with fundamental priorities, type, size, and site. The…

  18. Open source data logger for low-cost environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Baker, Ed

    2014-01-01

    The increasing transformation of biodiversity into a data-intensive science has seen numerous independent systems linked and aggregated into the current landscape of biodiversity informatics. This paper outlines how we can move forward with this programme, incorporating real time environmental monitoring into our methodology using low-power and low-cost computing platforms. PMID:24855446

  19. A low-cost propulsion option for small satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellers, Jerry Jon; Meerman, Maarten; Paul, Malcolm; Sweeting, Martin

    1995-03-01

    Low-cost satellites require low-cost propulsion systems. This paper starts with a brief history of the University of Surrey Satellite (UoSAT) missions and the on-going efforts to provide affordable access to space. Future mission options are discussed along with the need for low-cost propulsion to make them possible. Following this introduction, a review of the potential propulsion system options available to the satellite designer is presented along with a discussion of the choices that are currently available off-the-shelf and their potentially high cost. Research into low-cost propulsion options at the University of Surrey are then discussed. The ultimate objective of this research is to develop and operate a small satellite propulsion system for a fraction of the cost of traditional systems. Emphasis is given to a hydrogen peroxide/polyethylene hybrit rocket motor option. This system is currently being tested to characterize combustion parameters and assess its long-term potential as a satellite upper-stage. The current status of this research program is discussed fully including a description of the hardware, preliminary test results and future plans.

  20. Low-cost coding techniques for digital fault diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avizienis, A. A.

    1973-01-01

    Published report discusses fault location properties of arithmetic codes. Criterion for effectiveness of given code is detection probability of local fault by application of checking algorithm to results of entire set of algorithms of processor. Report also presents analysis of arithmetic codes with low-cost check algorithm which possesses partial fault-location properties.

  1. This Confidential, Low-Cost Counseling Cuts Teacher Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grier, Terry B.; Crawford, Sherron G.

    1986-01-01

    Confronted with increasing turnover due to burnout and job-related stress, McDowell County Schools (North Carolina) initiated a confidential, voluntary, and low-cost counseling program for teachers. The program, in its second year, is gaining acceptance and proving its worth. Absenteeism is down, working relationships are improving, and principals…

  2. Low Cost Coherent Doppler Lidar Data Acquisition and Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Bruce W.; Koch, Grady J.

    2003-01-01

    The work described in this paper details the development of a low-cost, short-development time data acquisition and processing system for a coherent Doppler lidar. This was done using common laboratory equipment and a small software investment. This system provides near real-time wind profile measurements. Coding flexibility created a very useful test bed for new techniques.

  3. A Low-Cost, Effective, Fumes Exhaust System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, C. O.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the importance of avoiding welding fumes. The sources of these fumes are presented in a table. Criticizes currently used ventilation systems and reviews the Occupational Safety and Health Act requirements. Describes a low-cost exhaust system developed for agricultural mechanics laboratories. (LRA)

  4. Open source data logger for low-cost environmental monitoring

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The increasing transformation of biodiversity into a data-intensive science has seen numerous independent systems linked and aggregated into the current landscape of biodiversity informatics. This paper outlines how we can move forward with this programme, incorporating real time environmental monitoring into our methodology using low-power and low-cost computing platforms. PMID:24855446

  5. DEMONSTRATION OF LOW COST, LOW BURDEN EXPOSURE MONITORING STRATEGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study is designed to develop and demonstrate relevant, low-cost, low-burden monitoring strategies that could be used in large longitudinal exposure/epidemiological studies, such as the National Children's Study. The focus of this study is on (1) recruiting and retaining p...

  6. Atmospheric corrosion model and monitor for low cost solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaelble, D. H.; Mansfeld, F. B.; Jeanjaquet, S. L.; Kendig, M.

    1981-01-01

    An atmospheric corrosion model and corrosion monitoring system has been developed for low cost solar arrays (LSA). The corrosion model predicts that corrosion rate is the product of the surface condensation probability of water vapor and the diffusion controlled corrosion current. This corrosion model is verified by simultaneous monitoring of weather conditions and corrosion rates at the solar array test site at Mead, Nebraska.

  7. Low-cost flywheel demonstration program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-04-01

    The Applied Physics Laboratory/Department of Energy Low Cost Flywheel Demonstration Program was initiated on 1 October 1977 and was successfully concluded on 31 December 19'9. The total cost of this program was $355,190. All primary objectives were successfully achieved as follows: demonstration of a full-size, 1)kWh flywheel having an estimated cost in large-volume production of approximately $50/kWh; developmeNt of a ball-bearing system having losses comparable to the losses in a totally magnetic suspension system; successful and repeated demonstration of the low-cost flywheel in a complete flywheel energy-storage system based on the use of ordinary house voltage and frequency; and application of the experience gained in the hardware program to project the system design into a complete, full-scale, 30-kWh home-type flywheel energy-storage system.

  8. Use of talc as low-cost clarifier for wastewater.

    PubMed

    Grafia, Ana L; Castillo, Luciana A; Barbosa, Silvia E

    2014-01-01

    Talc is proposed as a low-cost mineral for wastewater clarification. In this sense, adsorption of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions was studied comparatively by using sepiolite (qualified as very good adsorbent) and two talc samples with different particle size and purity degree. The MB adsorption was assessed by determining remnant dye in the supernatant using UV-vis spectroscopy and by detecting dye adsorbed on mineral samples through thermogravimetric analysis and infrared spectroscopy. Both isothermal curves and kinetic studies demonstrate that talc is a good dye adsorbent. Particularly, with dye concentrations similar to those of textile wastewater, talc was demonstrated to adsorb the same dye content of sepiolite at similar times. Natural talc could be employed as a low-cost alternative in wastewater treatment for the removal of cationic dyes. PMID:24552739

  9. Process and assembly plans for low cost commercial fuselage structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willden, Kurtis; Metschan, Stephen; Starkey, Val

    1991-01-01

    Cost and weight reduction for a composite structure is a result of selecting design concepts that can be built using efficient low cost manufacturing and assembly processes. Since design and manufacturing are inherently cost dependent, concurrent engineering in the form of a Design-Build Team (DBT) is essential for low cost designs. Detailed cost analysis from DBT designs and hardware verification must be performed to identify the cost drivers and relationships between design and manufacturing processes. Results from the global evaluation are used to quantitatively rank design, identify cost centers for higher ranking design concepts, define and prioritize a list of technical/economic issues and barriers, and identify parameters that control concept response. These results are then used for final design optimization.

  10. Zero-Net Power, Low-Cost Sensor Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, J.E.

    2005-04-15

    Numerous national studies and working groups have identified very low-power, low-cost sensors as a critical technology for increasing energy efficiency, reducing waste, and optimizing processes. This research addressed that need by developing an ultra low-power, low-cost sensor platform based on microsensor (MS) arrays that includes MS sensors, very low-power electronics, signal processing, and two-way data communications, all integrated into a single package. MSs were developed to measure carbon dioxide and room occupancy. Advances were made in developing a coating for detecting carbon dioxide and sensing thermal energy with MSs with a low power electrical readout. In addition, robust algorithms were developed for communications within buildings over power lines and an integrated platform was realized that included gas sensing, temperature, humidity, and room occupancy with on-board communications.

  11. Low cost fiber optic sensing of sugar solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthuraju, M. E.; Patlolla, Anurag Reddy; Vadakkapattu Canthadai, Badrinath; Pachava, Vengalrao

    2015-03-01

    The demand for highly sensitive and reliable sensors to assess the refractive index of liquid get many applications in chemical and biomedical areas. Indeed, the physical parameters such as concentration, pressure and density, etc., can be found using the refractive index of liquid. In contrast to the conventional refractometer for measurement, optical fiber sensor has several advantages like remote sensing, small in size, low cost, immune to EMI etc., In this paper we have discussed determination of refractive index of sugar solution using optical fiber. An intensity modulated low cost plastic fiber optic refractive index sensor has been designed for the study. The sensor is based on principle of change in angle of reflected light caused by refractive index change of the medium surrounding the fiber. The experimental results obtained for the sugar solution of different refractive indices prove that the fiber optic sensor is cable of measuring the refractive indices as well as the concentrations.

  12. Low-Cost Phase Change Material for Building Envelopes

    SciTech Connect

    Abhari, Ramin

    2015-08-06

    A low-cost PCM process consisting of conversion of fats and oils to PCM-range paraffins, and subsequent “encapsulation” of the paraffin using conventional plastic compounding/pelletizing equipment was demonstrated. The PCM pellets produced were field-tested in a building envelope application. This involved combining the PCM pellets with cellulose insulation, whereby 33% reduction in peak heat flux and 12% reduction in heat gain was observed (average summertime performance). The selling price of the PCM pellets produced according to this low-cost process is expected to be in the $1.50-$3.00/lb range, compared to current encapsulated PCM price of about $7.00/lb. Whole-building simulations using corresponding PCM thermal analysis data suggest a payback time of 8 to 16 years (at current energy prices) for an attic insulation retrofit project in the Phoenix climate area.

  13. High resolution, low cost solar cell contact development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mardesich, N.

    1979-01-01

    The experimental work demonstrating the feasibility of the MIDFILM process as a low cost means of applying solar cell collector metallization as reported. Cell efficiencies of above 14% (AMl, 28 C) were achieved with fritted silver metallization. Environmental tests suggest that the metallization is slightly humidity sensitive and degradation is observed on cells with high series resistance. The major yield loss in the fabrication of cells was due to discontinuous grid lines, resulting in high series resitance. Standard lead-tin solder plated interconnections do not appear compatible with the MIDFILM contact. Copper, nickel and molybdemun base powder were investigated as low cost metallization systems. The copper based powder degraded the cell response. The nickel and molybdenum base powders oxidized when sintered in the oxidizing atmosphere necessary to ash the photoresin.

  14. Novel concepts for low-cost IR security sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddiard, Kevin C.

    2005-05-01

    This paper reviews current IR security sensor technology and considers how new developments could impact on this increasingly important field, with relevance to military, industrial and domestic markets. We consider performance specifications for various applications, and investigate how trades can be made to meet market requirements. We address the definition of 'low cost', and suggest what might be acceptable for the various market segments. The paper discusses novel new patented technology, including the active microbolometer, where the IR detector functions as a transistor, and where arrays and readout are fabricated in the same technology on silicon wafer or other suitable substrates. Methods are discussed for achieving the desired performance for imaging and non-imaging 'smart' sensors in low cost packaging, including sealing at atmospheric pressure. We introduce the concept of mosaic pixel focal plane arrays (MP-FPA).

  15. Low-cost, focused-science Mars mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    The Mars Orbiter Water Mission (MOWM) is discussed as an example of a low-cost, low-risk focused-science Mars mission which might be implemented in the near term within recently imposed fiscal constraints. MOWM is designed to act as a follow-on to the Viking results in the areas of comparative climatology and water, carbon dioxide and dust inventories. The STS-compatible space vehicle would be based on proven earth-orbiting satellite hardware, fulfilling requirements for both spinning and despun components, operation with nonoptimum solar cell orientation, PAM-A upper stage compatibility, and data storage for delayed transmission. Study results have shown the technical and economic feasibility of missions based on any of four submitted designs which meet these requirements, and of low-cost, well-focused science objective Mars missions in general.

  16. Biodiesel production from low cost and renewable feedstock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gude, Veera G.; Grant, Georgene E.; Patil, Prafulla D.; Deng, Shuguang

    2013-12-01

    Sustainable biodiesel production should: a) utilize low cost renewable feedstock; b) utilize energy-efficient, nonconventional heating and mixing techniques; c) increase net energy benefit of the process; and d) utilize renewable feedstock/energy sources where possible. In this paper, we discuss the merits of biodiesel production following these criteria supported by the experimental results obtained from the process optimization studies. Waste cooking oil, non-edible (low-cost) oils (Jatropha curcas and Camelina Sativa) and algae were used as feedstock for biodiesel process optimization. A comparison between conventional and non-conventional methods such as microwaves and ultrasound was reported. Finally, net energy scenarios for different biodiesel feedstock options and algae are presented.

  17. A low cost PSD-based monocular motion capture system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Young Kee; Oh, Choonsuk

    2007-10-01

    This paper describes a monocular PSD-based motion capture sensor to employ with commercial video game systems such as Microsoft's XBOX and Sony's Playstation II. The system is compact, low-cost, and only requires a one-time calibration at the factory. The system includes a PSD(Position Sensitive Detector) and active infrared (IR) LED markers that are placed on the object to be tracked. The PSD sensor is placed in the focal plane of a wide-angle lens. The micro-controller calculates the 3D position of the markers using only the measured intensity and the 2D position on the PSD. A series of experiments were performed to evaluate the performance of our prototype system. From the experimental results we see that the proposed system has the advantages of the compact size, the low cost, the easy installation, and the high frame rates to be suitable for high speed motion tracking in games.

  18. Low-cost digital GPS receiver with software carrier detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, M. H.

    1988-08-01

    The satellite navigation system global positioning system (GPS) will play a major role in the field of navigation. It will be able to compete with all previously existing radio navigation systems. Low-cost receivers will be built for a number of civilian users, such as general aviation, sea and land navigation. To permit production at low cost for the civil market, a new technique for a C/A (course and acquisition) code receiver has been developed. All the signal detecting and processing is carried out with the digital signal processing software in a Texas Instruments TMS 320C10. The advantage of this method is that complex functions can be effected in a computer program instead of in analog or digital circuits. This reduces the costs of the parts used in the receiver and also avoids calibration. Taken together, these two features greatly reduce the price of a navigation set. This paper discusses the underlying principles leading to this new receiver.

  19. Low cost integrating cavity for monitoring of environmental toxins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bixler, Joel N.; Winkler, Chase A.; Mason, John D.; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.

    2015-03-01

    Contamination of the water source and air pollution are two major problems that must be faced in the coming years. The increasing worldwide contamination of freshwater systems with thousands of industrial and natural chemical compounds is one of the key environmental problems facing humanity today. It is estimated that pathogens in water cause more than 2 million deaths annually. Additionally, traditional water quality assessment methods, such as liquid chromatography and mass spectroscopy, are expensive and time consuming from sample collection to analysis. Low cost tools are needed which can provide high sensitivity in sensing, while remaining portable and providing near real time analysis. Here, we present a low cost integrating cavity that can be used for highly sensitive environmental sensing.

  20. Fully automated low-cost setup for fringe projection profilometry.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Ortega, Uriel; Dirckx, Joris; Meneses-Fabian, Cruz

    2015-02-20

    In this paper an alternative low-cost, easy-to-use, and fully automated profilometry setup is proposed. The setup is based on a phase-shifting fringe projection technique with four projected fringe parameters. It uses the well-known triangulation arrangement and low-cost electronic and image acquisition components such as a data acquisition board, a motor controller board, a printer rail, a CMOS webcam, and an LCD projector. The position of the camera, the generation of the fringe pattern, the acquisition of the images, and the calculation of the wrapped and unwrapped phase are all performed in LabVIEW. The setup is portable and can be perfectly adapted to be used in other profilometry techniques such as electronic speckle pattern interferometry and laser scanning profilometry. PMID:25968198

  1. Low-cost hydrogen sensors: Technology maturation progress

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffheins, B.S.; Rogers, J.E.; Lauf, R.J.; Egert, C.M.; Haberman, D.P.

    1998-04-01

    The authors are developing a low-cost, solid-state hydrogen sensor to support the long-term goals of the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program to encourage acceptance and commercialization of renewable energy-based technologies. Development of efficient production, storage, and utilization technologies brings with it the need to detect and pinpoint hydrogen leaks to protect people and equipment. The solid-state hydrogen sensor, developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), is potentially well-suited to meet cost and performance objectives for many of these applications. Under a cooperative research and development Agreement and license agreement, they are teaming with a private company, DCH Technology, Inc., to develop the sensor for specific market applications related to the use of hydrogen as an energy vector. This report describes the current efforts to optimize materials and sensor performance to reach the goals of low-cost fabrication and suitability for relevant application areas.

  2. Lunar Prospector: developing a very low cost planetary mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, G. S.

    Lunar Prospector, the first competitively selected planetary mission in NASA's Discovery Program, is described with emphasis on the lessons learned from managing a very low cost project. Insights into government-industry teaming, project management, contractual arrangements, schedule and budget reserve approach are discussed. The mission is conducting an orbital survey of the Moon's composition and structure. A mission overview and scientific data return is briefly described in the context of low cost mission development. The suite of five instruments is outlined: neutron spectrometer (NS), alpha particle spectrometer (APS), gamma ray spectrometer (GRS), magnetometer (MAG) and an electron reflectometer (ER). Scientific requirements and measurement approaches to detect water ice to a sensitivity of 50 ppm (hydrogen), measure key elemental constituents, detect gas release events and accurately map the Moon's gravitational and magnetic fields are described.

  3. MicroGPS for Low-Cost Orbit Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, S. C.; Bertiger, W. I.; Kuang, D.; Lichten, S. M.; Nandi, S.; Romans, L. J.; Srinivasan, J. M.

    1997-07-01

    This article presents a new technology for satellite orbit determination using a simple Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver (microGPS) with ultra-low cost, power, and mass. The capability of low-cost orbit determination with microGPS for a low Earth-orbiting satellite, Student Nitric Oxide Explorer (SNOE), is demonstrated using actual GPS data from the GPS/Meteorology (MET) satellite. The measurements acquired by the microGPS receiver will be snapshots of carrier Doppler and ambiguous pseudorange. Among the challenges in orbit determination are the resolution of the pseudorange ambiguity; the estimation of the measurement time tag drift, which effects the in-track orbit position solution; and the convergence of the orbit solution from a cold start with essentially no knowledge of the orbit. The effects of data gaps and Doppler data quality are investigated. An efficient data acquisition scenario for SNOE is derived.

  4. Glass as encapsulation for low-cost photovoltaic solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouquet, F. L.

    1981-01-01

    In photovoltaic systems, the encapsulant material that protects the solar cells should be highly transparent and very durable. Glass satisfies these two criteria and is considered a primary candidate for low-cost, photovoltaic encapsulation systems. In this paper, various aspects of glass encapsulation are treated that are important for the designer of photovoltaic systems. Candidate glasses and available information defining the state of the art of glass encapsulation materials and processes for automated, high volume production of terrestrial photovoltaic devices and related applications are presented. The desired characteristics of glass encapsulation are (1) low degradation rates, (2) high transmittance, (3) high reliability, (4) low-cost, and (5) high annual production capacity. The glass design areas treated herein include the types of glass, sources, prices, physical properties and glass modifications, such as antireflection coatings.

  5. Small and Low-Cost GNSS Radio Occultation Receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahoy, K.; Dyrud, L. P.; Fentzke, J. T.; Bishop, R. L.; Straus, P. R.; Lightsey, G.; Humphreys, T. E.; Meehan, T.; Mannucci, A. J.

    2011-12-01

    Several low-cost and small form factor GNSS radio occultation receivers are currently in various stages of development for both hosted payload opportunities like GEOScan onboard Iridium NEXT as well as stand-alone applications such as suborbital platforms and CubeSats. We describe the effects of different receiver designs on the scientific measurements: profiles of electron density in the ionosphere and temperature and pressure in the neutral atmosphere. Trades include different approaches to tracking and onboard processing. We also consider the impact of antenna type, antenna placement, local noise environment, and frequency diversity on the number and quality (signal to noise ratio, vertical extent) of measurements made. We conclude that low-cost and small form factor GNSS radio occultation receivers are well suited to take advantage of hosted payload opportunities and contribute valuable Earth-observing datasets.

  6. Low Cost Vision Based Personal Mobile Mapping System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amami, M. M.; Smith, M. J.; Kokkas, N.

    2014-03-01

    Mobile mapping systems (MMS) can be used for several purposes, such as transportation, highway infrastructure mapping and GIS data collecting. However, the acceptance of these systems is not wide spread and their use is still limited due the high cost and dependency on the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). A low cost vision based personal MMS has been produced with an aim to overcome these limitations. The system has been designed to depend mainly on cameras and use of low cost GNSS and inertial sensors to provide a bundle adjustment solution with initial values. The system has the potential to be used indoor and outdoor. The system has been tested indoors and outdoors with different GPS coverage, surrounded features, and narrow and curvy paths. Tests show that the system is able to work in such environments providing 3D coordinates of better than 10 cm accuracy.

  7. WHITE BOX: LOW COST BOX FOR LAPAROSCOPIC TRAINING

    PubMed Central

    MARTINS, João Maximiliano Pedron; RIBEIRO, Roberto Vanin Pinto; CAVAZZOLA, Leandro Totti

    2015-01-01

    Background: Laparoscopic surgery is a reality in almost all surgical centers. Although with initial greater technical difficulty for surgeons, the rapid return to activities, less postoperative pain and higher quality aesthetic stimulates surgeons to evolve technically in this area. However, unlike open surgery where learning opportunities are more accessible, the laparoscopic training represents a challenge in surgeon formation. Aim: To present a low cost model for laparoscopic training box. Methods: This model is based in easily accessible materials; the equipment can be easily found based on chrome mini jet and passes rubber thread and a webcam attached to an aluminum handle. Results: It can be finalized in two days costing R$ 280,00 (US$ 90). Conclusion: It is possible to stimulate a larger number of surgeons to have self training in laparoscopy at low cost seeking to improve their surgical skills outside the operating room. PMID:26537148

  8. LSSA (Low-cost Silicon Solar Array) project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Methods are explored for economically generating electrical power to meet future requirements. The Low-Cost Silicon Solar Array Project (LSSA) was established to reduce the price of solar arrays by improving manufacturing technology, adapting mass production techniques, and promoting user acceptance. The new manufacturing technology includes the consideration of new silicon refinement processes, silicon sheet growth techniques, encapsulants, and automated assembly production being developed under contract by industries and universities.

  9. Further development of a low cost solar panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, T.; Torok, R.; Erskine, D.; Short, R.

    1980-07-01

    A full-scale prototype panel section, with emphasis on the unglazed configuration was fabricated and tested. Design refinement, fabrication of full-scale prototypes by hand and semiautomated equipment, subscale and full-scale structural testing, outdoor performance tests, and an assessment of manufacturing requirements and production costs are included. The Low Cost Solar Panel, the project approach, and the more significant accomplishments of this contract are described in detail.

  10. Low-cost solar flat-plate-collector development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, W. G.

    Cost goals were developed for the collector which led to the rejection of conventional approaches and to the exploration of thin film technology. A thin film solar absorber suited for high speed continous-roll manufacture at low cost was designed. The absorber comprises two sheets of aluminum-foil/polmeric-material laminate bonded together at intervals to form channels with water as the heat transfer fluid. Several flat-plate panels were fabricated and tested.

  11. Low cost silicon-on-ceramic photovoltaic solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koepke, B. G.; Heaps, J. D.; Grung, B. L.; Zook, J. D.; Sibold, J. D.; Leipold, M. H.

    1980-01-01

    A technique has been developed for coating low-cost mullite-based refractory substrates with thin layers of solar cell quality silicon. The technique involves first carbonizing one surface of the ceramic and then contacting it with molten silicon. The silicon wets the carbonized surface and, under the proper thermal conditions, solidifies as a large-grained sheet. Solar cells produced from this composite silicon-on-ceramic material have exhibited total area conversion efficiencies of ten percent.

  12. Low Cost Mars Surface Exploration: The Mars Tumbleweed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antol, Jeffrey; Calhoun, Philip; Flick, John; Hajos, Gregory; Kolacinski, Richard; Minton, David; Owens, Rachel; Parker, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    The "Mars Tumbleweed," a rover concept that would utilize surface winds for mobility, is being examined as a low cost complement to the current Mars exploration efforts. Tumbleweeds carrying microinstruments would be driven across the Martian landscape by wind, searching for areas of scientific interest. These rovers, relatively simple, inexpensive, and deployed in large numbers to maximize coverage of the Martian surface, would provide a broad scouting capability to identify specific sites for exploration by more complex rover and lander missions.

  13. Low-cost trigger circuit for sampling oscilloscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burd, Aleksander; Opalska, Katarzyna

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a low-cost trigger circuit for use in sampling oscilloscope with bandwidth in order of hundreds of MHz. The presented dual-step trigger circuit provides relatively high bandwidth because of significant reduction of possibility of incorrect turning on in trigger circuit flip-flop (caused by circuit instability called tremor or - describing the same phenomenon by other means - its metastability. The paper presents a circuit structure, principle of operation and its physical realization.

  14. Conestoga 2: A low cost commercial space transport system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, R. O.

    1984-01-01

    Conestoga 2 is currently under development. It is capable of inserting 500 Kg satellites into 800 Km circular polar orbits. Conestoga 2 makes maximum use of existing (developed) technology and hardware. Its commercial objective is to fill a need for low cost low Earth orbital transport not efficiently served by Shuttle or larger space transport systems. Low Earth orbit markets, foreign participation, and launch site considerations are discussed along with technical and economic trade-offs.

  15. Low cost, radial flow, solid oxide fuel cell

    SciTech Connect

    Petrik, M.A.

    1993-11-01

    The Interscience Radial Flow (IRF) SOFC is designed to minimize problems in high-temperature operation, and for low-cost fabrication. The cell has planar, non-sintered construction, uses particulate materials to form porous electrodes, and has internal radial flow. This phase was to demonstrate feasibility of multi-cell stack operation. Performance milestone was 15% DC HHV efficiency with hydrogen at > 50 mW/cm{sup 2} over 100 h.

  16. Situational Awareness from a Low-Cost Camera System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freudinger, Lawrence C.; Ward, David; Lesage, John

    2010-01-01

    A method gathers scene information from a low-cost camera system. Existing surveillance systems using sufficient cameras for continuous coverage of a large field necessarily generate enormous amounts of raw data. Digitizing and channeling that data to a central computer and processing it in real time is difficult when using low-cost, commercially available components. A newly developed system is located on a combined power and data wire to form a string-of-lights camera system. Each camera is accessible through this network interface using standard TCP/IP networking protocols. The cameras more closely resemble cell-phone cameras than traditional security camera systems. Processing capabilities are built directly onto the camera backplane, which helps maintain a low cost. The low power requirements of each camera allow the creation of a single imaging system comprising over 100 cameras. Each camera has built-in processing capabilities to detect events and cooperatively share this information with neighboring cameras. The location of the event is reported to the host computer in Cartesian coordinates computed from data correlation across multiple cameras. In this way, events in the field of view can present low-bandwidth information to the host rather than high-bandwidth bitmap data constantly being generated by the cameras. This approach offers greater flexibility than conventional systems, without compromising performance through using many small, low-cost cameras with overlapping fields of view. This means significant increased viewing without ignoring surveillance areas, which can occur when pan, tilt, and zoom cameras look away. Additionally, due to the sharing of a single cable for power and data, the installation costs are lower. The technology is targeted toward 3D scene extraction and automatic target tracking for military and commercial applications. Security systems and environmental/ vehicular monitoring systems are also potential applications.

  17. Securitizing receivables offers low-cost financing option.

    PubMed

    Sen, S; Lawler, J P

    1995-05-01

    Securitization began in the 1980s with mortgage payments, auto loans, and credit card debt being pooled and used as collateral for securities offerings. More recently, healthcare providers have securitized accounts receivables to obtain low-cost, off-balance-sheet financing. As the need to both raise capital and contain costs grows in health care, providers likely will make increased use of this financing method. PMID:10142191

  18. A Flexible, Low Cost, Beam Loss Monitor Evaluation System

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyes, George Garnet; Pimol, Piti; Juthong, Nawin; Attaphibal, Malee

    2007-01-19

    A flexible, low cost, Beam Loss Monitor (BLM) Evaluation System based on Bergoz BLMs has been developed. Monitors can easily be moved to any location for beam loss investigations and/or monitor usefulness evaluations. Different PC pulse counting cards are compared and tested for this application using the display software developed based on LabVIEW. Beam problems uncovered with this system are presented.

  19. A low cost, portable instrument for measuring emittance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, G.

    1977-01-01

    A low cost, portable instrument has been developed with which emittance can be measured by comparison to a standard. A reflector collects infra-red radiation from a heated sample onto a low mass, black detector and the temperature rise of the black detector is measured with a thermocouple and meter. Graphical examples are presented for determination of emittance from measurements made on a sample at any known temperature.

  20. A low cost, portable instrument for measuring emittance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, G.

    1977-01-01

    A low cost, portable instrument was developed with which emittance can be measured by comparison to a standard. A reflector collects infrared radiation from a heated sample onto a low mass, black detector and the temperature rise of the black detector is measured with a thermocouple and meter. Graphical examples are presented for determination of emittance from measurements made on a sample at any known temperature.

  1. Investigation of low cost material processes for liquid rocket engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyentat, Thinh; Kawashige, Chester M.; Scala, James G.; Horn, Ronald M.

    1993-06-01

    The development of low cost material processes is essential to the achievement of economical liquid rocket propulsion systems in the next century. This paper will present the results of the evaluation of some promising material processes including powder metallurgy, vacuum plasma spray, metal spray forming, and bulge forming. The physical and mechanical test results from the samples and subscale hardware fabricated from high strength copper alloys and superalloys will be discussed.

  2. Low-cost gated system for monitoring phosphorescence lifetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostov, Yordan; Rao, Govind

    2003-09-01

    A low-cost, gated system for measurements of phosphorescence lifetimes is presented. An extensive description of the system operating principles and metrological characteristics is given. Remarkably, the system operates without optical filtering of the light emitting diode excitation source. A description of a practical system is also given and its performance is discussed. Because the device effectively suppresses high-level background fluorescence and scattered light, it is expected to find widespread application in bioprocess, environmental, and biomedical fields.

  3. Low cost electrochemical sensor module for measurement of gas concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasinski, Grzegorz; Strzelczyk, Anna; Koscinski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a low cost electrochemical sensor module for gas concentration measurement. A module is universal and can be used for many types of electrochemical gas sensors. Device is based on AVR ATmega8 microcontroller. As signal processing circuit a specialized integrated circuit LMP91000 is used. The proposed equipment will be used as a component of electronic nose system employed for classifying and distinguishing different levels of air contamination.

  4. Low-cost projection-based virtual reality display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pape, Dave; Anstey, Josephine; Dawe, Greg

    2002-05-01

    This paper describes the construction of a single screen, projection-based VR display using commodity, or otherwise low-cost components. The display is based on Linus PCs, and uses polarized stereo. Our aim is to create a system that is accessible to the many museums and schools that do not have large budgets for exploring new technology. In constructing this system we have been evaluating a number of options for the screens, projectors, and computer hardware.

  5. Investigation of low cost material processes for liquid rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyentat, Thinh; Kawashige, Chester M.; Scala, James G.; Horn, Ronald M.

    1993-01-01

    The development of low cost material processes is essential to the achievement of economical liquid rocket propulsion systems in the next century. This paper will present the results of the evaluation of some promising material processes including powder metallurgy, vacuum plasma spray, metal spray forming, and bulge forming. The physical and mechanical test results from the samples and subscale hardware fabricated from high strength copper alloys and superalloys will be discussed.

  6. Human signatures in urban environments using low cost sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winston, Mark; Zong, Lei; Calcutt, Wade; Jones, Barry; Houser, Jeff

    2006-05-01

    McQ has produced a family of small (98 cm 3), inexpensive ($100), unattended ground sensors well suited for urban environments. As a result, a broad range of data has been collected in urban settings. This paper discusses human signatures in urban environments using low cost seismic, infrared, acoustic, and magnetic transducers. Transducer performance and the effects of orientation, building construction, and environmental noise will be focused on. Detection methods used to exploit signatures and resulting performance statistics will also be discussed.

  7. A Novel Approach for a Low-Cost Deployable Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amend, Chris; Nurnberger, Michael; Oppenheimer, Paul; Koss, Steve; Purdy, Bill

    2010-01-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has designed, built, and fully qualified a low cost, low Passive Intermodulation (PIM) 12-foot (3.66-m) diameter deployable ultra high frequency (UHF) antenna for the Tacsat-4 program. The design utilized novel approaches in reflector material and capacitive coupling techniques. This paper discusses major design trades, unique design characteristics, and lessons learned from the development of the Tacsat 4 deployable antenna. This antenna development was sponsored by the Office of Naval Research.

  8. A low-cost rugged solution for solar lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharathwaj, A. N.; Srinivasan, Balaji

    2009-08-01

    We have explored the use of a low-cost, rugged optical system to collect and distribute natural sunlight for daytime lighting purposes. The sunlight collection and delivery is performed using a simple lens system in combination with a plastic optical fiber bundle. Based on such a system, we have demonstrated the ability to provide diffuse lighting over a 100 sq. ft. area. The work included the optimization of the lens and the fiber bundle according to data collected on the spatial distribution of focused sunlight. A key aspect of our work is the use of mirrors which could be easily maneuvered to maintain optimum coupling of light in the fiber throughout the day. An important issue that we addressed in our work is the devising of a low cost tracking mechanism to ensure nearuniform lighting throughout a day. The tracking system is an open loop system that is based on apriori data on the sun's movement and an initial alignment procedure. We have collected such data by tracking a beam of light reflected from a stationary mirror. Our data shows that the mirror needs to be rotated at the rate of 0.25 degrees/minute to maintain a fixed position at the collection plane. We expect to achieve a scalable, modular low cost lighting solution that works in conjunction with a LED array to illuminate common areas of commercial buildings during the daytime.

  9. Low cost composite materials for wind energy conversion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Weingart, O.

    1980-01-01

    Structural Composites Industries, Inc. (SCI) is developing new composite filament winding technology for low cost production of wind turbine generators (WTG). During 1977 the SCI TFT process was used to fabricate a 9072 kg (20,000 lb) filament-wound D-spar for a NASA/DOE 46 m (150 ft) composite wind turbine blade. In 1978 SCI designed a composite blade for the 91 m (300 ft) dia. NASA/DOE MOD-2 WTG. For the past year SCI has been under contract to NASA-Lewis Research Center to design and build two low cost 18 m (60 ft) blades for the 38 m (125 ft) dia. MOD-OA and to assess the applicability of the techniques developed for larger and smaller blades. SCI is also developing and constructing a 4-kW small wind energy conversion system (SWECS) for Rockwell International using low cost composites for the 9 m (31 ft) dia. rotor blades, 15 m (50 ft) tower and nacelle.

  10. Automated Low-Cost Photogrammetry for Flexible Structure Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C. H.; Mills, J. P.; Miller, P. E.

    2012-07-01

    Structural monitoring requires instruments which can provide high precision and accuracy, reliable measurements at good temporal resolution and rapid processing speeds. Long-term campaigns and flexible structures are regarded as two of the most challenging subjects in monitoring engineering structures. Long-term monitoring in civil engineering is generally considered to be labourintensive and financially expensive and it can take significant effort to arrange the necessary human resources, transportation and equipment maintenance. When dealing with flexible structure monitoring, it is of paramount importance that any monitoring equipment used is able to carry out rapid sampling. Low cost, automated, photogrammetric techniques therefore have the potential to become routinely viable for monitoring non-rigid structures. This research aims to provide a photogrammetric solution for long-term flexible structural monitoring purposes. The automated approach was achieved using low-cost imaging devices (mobile phones) to replace traditional image acquisition stations and substantially reduce the equipment costs. A self-programmed software package was developed to deal with the hardware-software integration and system operation. In order to evaluate the performance of this low-cost monitoring system, a shaking table experiment was undertaken. Different network configurations and target sizes were used to determine the best configuration. A large quantity of image data was captured by four DSLR cameras and four mobile phone cameras respectively. These image data were processed using photogrammetric techniques to calculate the final results for the system evaluation.

  11. Low Cost Computer Graphics Simulation of Basic Kinematic Linkages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Donald A.; Jacquot, Raymond G.

    1984-01-01

    Presents algorithms for the simulation and motion display of the three basic kinematic devices: (1) four bar linkages; (2) the slider crank; and (3) the inverted slider crank mechanisms. The algorithms were implemented on a Commodore-VIC 20 microcomputer system with 6500 bytes of available memory. (Author/JN)

  12. A Simplified, Low-Cost Method for Polarized Light Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Maude, Richard J.; Buapetch, Wanchana; Silamut, Kamolrat

    2009-01-01

    Malaria pigment is an intracellular inclusion body that appears in blood and tissue specimens on microscopic examination and can help in establishing the diagnosis of malaria. In simple light microscopy, it can be difficult to discern from cellular background and artifacts. It has long been known that if polarized light microscopy is used, malaria pigment can be much easier to distinguish. However, this technique is rarely used because of the need for a relatively costly polarization microscope. We describe a simple and economical technique to convert any standard light microscope suitable for examination of malaria films into a polarization microscope. PMID:19861611

  13. Low-cost lithography for fabrication of one-dimensional diffraction gratings by using laser diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinghui; Zhu, Xiangwen; Zhou, Qian; Wang, Huanhuan; Ni, Kai

    2015-08-01

    A low-cost lithography technology is presented in this paper for fabrication of sub-micron order one-dimensional diffraction gratings. A Lloyd's mirror interferometer which can generate stable interference fringes is used as fabrication tool. The Lloyd's mirror interferometer is composed of a mirror and a substrate coated by photoresist, which are placed by nighty degrees. A plane wave is projected onto the Lloyd's mirror and divided into two halves, one of which is directly projected onto the substrate and the other one reaches the substrate after being reflected by the mirror. These two beam interfere with each other and generate interference fringes, which are exposed onto the photoresist. After being developed, the exposed photoresist shows a one-dimensional surface-relief grating structures. In conventional lithography system based on the principle mentioned above, gas lasers, such as He-Cd laser are widely employed. The cost and footprint of such laser sources, however, are always high and bulky. A low-cost system by using cost-efficient 405 nm laser diodes is then proposed for solving these problems. A key parameter, coherence length that determines one-dimensional grating width is systematically studied. A fabrication system based on the interference lithography principle and 405 nm laser diodes is constructed for evaluation of the feasibility of using laser didoes as laser source. Gratings with 570 nm pitch are fabricated and evaluated by an atomic force microscope. Experiments results show that low-cost 405 nm laser diode is an effective laser source for one-dimensional grating fabrication.

  14. Contrast in low-cost operational concepts for orbiting satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walyus, Keith D.; Reis, James; Bradley, Arthur J.

    2002-12-01

    Older spacecraft missions, especially those in low Earth orbit with telemetry intensive requirements, required round-the-clock control center staffing. The state of technology relied on control center personnel to continually examine data, make decisions, resolve anomalies, and file reports. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a prime example of this description. Technological advancements in hardware and software over the last decade have yielded increases in productivity and operational efficiency, which result in lower cost. The re-engineering effort of HST, which has recently concluded, utilized emerging technology to reduce cost and increase productivity. New missions, of which NASA's Transition Region and Coronal Explorer Satellite (TRACE) is an example, have benefited from recent technological advancements and are more cost-effective than when HST was first launched. During its launch (1998) and early orbit phase, the TRACE Flight Operations Team (FOT) employed continually staffed operations. Yet once the mission entered its nominal phase, the FOT reduced their staffing to standard weekday business hours. Operations were still conducted at night and during the weekends, but these operations occurred autonomously without compromising their high standards for data collections. For the HST, which launched in 1990, reduced cost operations will employ a different operational concept, when the spacecraft enters its low-cost phase after its final servicing mission in 2004. Primarily due to the spacecraft"s design, the HST Project has determined that single-shift operations will introduce unacceptable risks for the amount of dollars saved. More importantly, significant cost-savings can still be achieved by changing the operational concept for the FOT, while still maintaining round-the-clock staffing. It"s important to note that the low-cost solutions obtained for one satellite may not be applicable for other satellites. This paper will contrast the differences between

  15. Low-Cost Propellant Launch From a Tethered Balloon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian

    2006-01-01

    A document presents a concept for relatively inexpensive delivery of propellant to a large fuel depot in low orbit around the Earth, for use in rockets destined for higher orbits, the Moon, and for remote planets. The propellant is expected to be at least 85 percent of the mass needed in low Earth orbit to support the NASA Exploration Vision. The concept calls for the use of many small ( 10 ton) spin-stabilized, multistage, solid-fuel rockets to each deliver 250 kg of propellant. Each rocket would be winched up to a balloon tethered above most of the atmospheric mass (optimal altitude 26 2 km). There, the rocket would be aimed slightly above the horizon, spun, dropped, and fired at a time chosen so that the rocket would arrive in orbit near the depot. Small thrusters on the payload (powered, for example, by boil-off gases from cryogenic propellants that make up the payload) would precess the spinning rocket, using data from a low-cost inertial sensor to correct for small aerodynamic and solid rocket nozzle misalignment torques on the spinning rocket; would manage the angle of attack and the final orbit insertion burn; and would be fired on command from the depot in response to observations of the trajectory of the payload so as to make small corrections to bring the payload into a rendezvous orbit and despin it for capture by the depot. The system is low-cost because the small rockets can be mass-produced using the same techniques as those to produce automobiles and low-cost munitions, and one or more can be launched from a U.S. territory on the equator (Baker or Jarvis Islands in the mid-Pacific) to the fuel depot on each orbit (every 90 minutes, e.g., any multiple of 6,000 per year).

  16. A low cost thermal infrared hyperspectral imager for small satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crites, S. T.; Lucey, P. G.; Wright, R.; Garbeil, H.; Horton, K. A.

    2011-06-01

    The traditional model for space-based earth observations involves long mission times, high cost, and long development time. Because of the significant time and monetary investment required, riskier instrument development missions or those with very specific scientific goals are unlikely to successfully obtain funding. However, a niche for earth observations exploiting new technologies in focused, short lifetime missions is opening with the growth of the small satellite market and launch opportunities for these satellites. These low-cost, short-lived missions provide an experimental platform for testing new sensor technologies that may transition to larger, more long-lived platforms. The low costs and short lifetimes also increase acceptable risk to sensors, enabling large decreases in cost using commercial off the shelf (COTS) parts and allowing early-career scientists and engineers to gain experience with these projects. We are building a low-cost long-wave infrared spectral sensor, funded by the NASA Experimental Project to Stimulate Competitive Research program (EPSCOR), to demonstrate the ways in which a university's scientific and instrument development programs can fit into this niche. The sensor is a low-mass, power efficient thermal hyperspectral imager with electronics contained in a pressure vessel to enable the use of COTS electronics, and will be compatible with small satellite platforms. The sensor, called Thermal Hyperspectral Imager (THI), is based on a Sagnac interferometer and uses an uncooled 320x256 microbolometer array. The sensor will collect calibrated radiance data at long-wave infrared (LWIR, 8-14 microns) wavelengths in 230-meter pixels with 20 wavenumber spectral resolution from a 400-km orbit.

  17. Low Cost Space Demonstration for a Single-Person Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Brand N.; Dischinger, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a concept for a single-person spacecraft and presents plans for flying a low-cost, robotic demonstration mission. Called FlexCraft, the vehicle integrates propulsion and robotics into a small spacecraft that enables rapid, shirt-sleeve access to space. It can be flown by astronauts or tele-operated and is equipped with interchangeable manipulators used for maintaining the International Space Station (ISS), exploring asteroids, and servicing telescopes or satellites. Most FlexCraft systems are verified using ground facilities; however, a test in the weightless environment is needed to assess propulsion and manipulator performance. For this, a simplified, unmanned, version of FlexCraft is flown on a low-cost launch vehicle to a 350 km circular orbit. After separation from the upper stage, the vehicle returns to a target box mounted on the stage testing the propulsion and control capability. The box is equipped with manipulator test items that are representative of tasks performed on ISS, asteroid missions, or for satellites servicing. Nominal and off-nominal operations are conducted over 3 days then the vehicle re-enters the atmosphere without becoming a debris hazard. From concept to management to operations, the FlexCraft demonstration is designed to be low cost project that is launched within three years. This is possible using a simplified test configuration that eliminates nine systems unique to the operational version and by designing-to-availability. For example, the propulsion system is the same as the Manned Maneuvering Unit because it capable, simple, human-rated and all components or equivalent parts are available. A description of the launch vehicle options, mission operations, configuration, and demonstrator subsystems is presented.

  18. Low cost and compact nonlinear (SHG/TPE) laser scanning endoscope for bio-medical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiayun; Lim, Ken Choong; Li, Hao; Seck, Hon Luen; Yu, Xia; Kok, Shaw Wei; Zhang, Ying

    2015-03-01

    Two-photon fluorescence (TPE) and second harmonic generation (SHG) can been used to extract biological information from tissues at the molecular level, which is blind to traditional microscopes. Through these two image contrast mechanisms, a nonlinear laser scanning endoscope (NLSE) is able to image tissue cells and the extra cellular matrix (ECM) through a special fiber and miniaturized scanner without the requirement of poisonous chemical staining. Therefore, NLSE reserves high potential for in-vivo pathological study and disease diagnosis. However, the high cost and bulky size of a NLSE system has become one of the major issues preventing this technology from practical clinical operation. In this paper, we report a fiber laser based multi-modality NLSE system with compact size and low cost, ideal for in-vivo applications in clinical environments. The demonstration of the developed NLSE nonlinear imaging capability on different bio-structures in liver, retina and skin are also presented.

  19. Development of low cost contacts to silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, D. P.

    1980-01-01

    The results of the second phase of the program of developing low cost contacts to silicon solar cells using copper are presented. Phase 1 yielded the development of a plated Pd-Cr-Cu contact system. This process produced cells with shunting problems when they were heated to 400 C for 5 minutes. Means of stopping the identified copper diffusion which caused the shunting were investigated. A contact heat treatment study was conducted with Pd-Ag, Ci-Ag, Pd-Cu, Cu-Cr, and Ci-Ni-Cu. Nickel is shown to be an effective diffusion barrier to copper.

  20. A simple low-cost single-crystal NMR setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinding, Mads S.; Kessler, Tommy O.; Vosegaard, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    A low-cost single-crystal NMR kit is presented along with a web-based post-processing software. The kit consists of a piezo-crystal motor and a goniometer for the crystal, both embedded in a standard wide-bore NMR probe with a 3D printed scaffold. The NMR pulse program controls the angle setting automatically, and the post-processing software incorporates a range of orientation-angle discrepancies present in the kit and other single-crystal setups. Results with a NaNO3 single-crystal show a high degree of reproducibility and excellent agreement with previous findings for the anisotropic quadrupolar interaction.

  1. High efficiency, low cost thin GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, J. C. C.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of fabricating space-resistant, high efficiency, light-weight, low-cost GaAs shallow-homojunction solar cells for space application is demonstrated. This program addressed the optimal preparation of ultrathin GaAs single-crystal layers by AsCl3-GaAs-H2 and OMCVD process. Considerable progress has been made in both areas. Detailed studies on the AsCl3 process showed high-quality GaAs thin layers can be routinely grown. Later overgrowth of GaAs by OMCVD has been also observed and thin FaAs films were obtained from this process.

  2. A low cost alternative to high performance PCM bit synchronizers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshong, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    The Code Converter/Clock Regenerator (CCCR) provides a low-cost alternative to high-performance Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) bit synchronizers in environments with a large Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR). In many applications, the CCCR can be used in place of PCM bit synchronizers at about one fifth the cost. The CCCR operates at rates from 10 bps to 2.5 Mbps and performs PCM code conversion and clock regeneration. The CCCR has been integrated into a stand-alone system configurable from one to six channels and has also been designed for use in VMEbus compatible systems.

  3. Development of Low Cost Sensors for Hydrogen Safety Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffheins, B.S.; Holmes, W., Jr.; Lauf, R.J.; Maxey, L.C.; Salter, C.; Walker, D.

    1999-04-07

    We are developing rugged and reliable hydrogen safety sensors that can be easily manufactured. Potential applications also require an inexpensive sensor that can be easily deployed. Automotive applications demand low cost, while personnel safety applications emphasize light-weight, battery-operated, and wearable sensors. Our current efforts involve developing and optimizing sensor materials for stability and compatibility with typical thick-film manufacturing processes. We are also tailoring the sensor design and size along with various packaging and communication schemes for optimal acceptance by end users.

  4. Low cost manned Mars mission based on indigenous propellant production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruckner, A. P.; Cinnamon, M.; Hamling, S.; Mahn, K.; Phillips, J.; Westmark, V.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes a low-cost approach to the manned exploration of Mars (which involves an unmanned mission followed two years later by a manned mission) based on near-term technologies and in situ propellant production. Particular attention is given to the basic mission architecture and its major components, including the orbital analysis, the unmanned segment, the Earth Return Vehicle, the aerobrake design, life sciences, guidance, communications, power, propellant production, the surface rovers, and Mars science. Also discussed are the cost per mission over an assumed 8-yr initiative.

  5. Uncertainty in air quality observations using low-cost sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castell, Nuria; Dauge, Franck R.; Dongol, Rozina; Vogt, Matthias; Schneider, Philipp

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution poses a threat to human health, and the WHO has classified air pollution as the world's largest single environmental health risk. In Europe, the majority of the population lives in areas where air quality levels frequently exceed WHO's ambient air quality guidelines. The emergence of low-cost, user-friendly and very compact air pollution platforms allowing observations at high spatial resolution in near real-time, provides us with new opportunities to simultaneously enhance existing monitoring systems as well as enable citizens to engage in more active environmental monitoring (citizen science). However the data sets generated by low-cost sensors show often questionable data quality. For many sensors, neither their error characteristics nor how their measurement capability holds up over time or through a range of environmental conditions, have been evaluated. We have conducted an exhaustive evaluation of the commercial low-cost platform AQMesh (measuring NO, NO2, CO, O3, PM10 and PM2.5) in laboratory and in real-world conditions in the city of Oslo (Norway). Co-locations in field of 24 platforms were conducted over a 6 month period (April to September 2015) allowing to characterize the temporal variability in the performance. Additionally, the field performance included the characterization on different monitoring urban monitoring sites characteristic of both traffic and background conditions. All the evaluations have been conducted against CEN reference method analyzers maintained according to the Norwegian National Reference Laboratory quality system. The results show clearly that a good performance in laboratory does not imply similar performance in real-world outdoor conditions. Moreover, laboratory calibration is not suitable for subsequent measurements in urban environments. In order to reduce the errors, sensors require on-site field calibration. Even after such field calibration, the platforms show a significant variability in the performance

  6. High resolution image processing on low-cost microcomputers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. L.

    1993-01-01

    Recent advances in microcomputer technology have resulted in systems that rival the speed, storage, and display capabilities of traditionally larger machines. Low-cost microcomputers can provide a powerful environment for image processing. A new software program which offers sophisticated image display and analysis on IBM-based systems is presented. Designed specifically for a microcomputer, this program provides a wide-range of functions normally found only on dedicated graphics systems, and therefore can provide most students, universities and research groups with an affordable computer platform for processing digital images. The processing of AVHRR images within this environment is presented as an example.

  7. Low-cost solar collector test and evaluation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, C M

    1983-01-01

    Project was to test and evaluate a highly efficient low cost solar collector and to make this technology available to the average homeowner. The basic collector design was for use in mass production, so approximately forty collector panels were made for testing and to make it simple to be hand built. The collectors performed better than expected and written and visual material was prepared to make construction easier for a first time builder. Publicity was generated to make public aware of benefits with stories by Associated Press and in publications like Popular Science.

  8. High efficiency low cost monolithic module for SARSAT distress beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Wendell C.; Siu, Daniel P.

    1992-01-01

    The program objectives were to develop a highly efficient, low cost RF module for SARSAT beacons; achieve significantly lower battery current drain, amount of heat generated, and size of battery required; utilize MMIC technology to improve efficiency, reliability, packaging, and cost; and provide a technology database for GaAs based UHF RF circuit architectures. Presented in viewgraph form are functional block diagrams of the SARSAT distress beacon and beacon RF module as well as performance goals, schematic diagrams, predicted performances, and measured performances for the phase modulator and power amplifier.

  9. Low cost coherent demodulation for mobile satellite terminals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Santanu; Henely, Steven J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes some low cost approaches to coherent BPSK demodulation for mobile satellite receivers. The specific application is an Inmarsat-C Land Mobile Earth Station (LMES), but the techniques are applicable to any PSK demodulator. The techniques discussed include combined sampling and quadrature downconversion with a single A/D and novel DSP algorithms for carrier acquisition offering both superior performance and economy of DSP resources. The DSP algorithms run at 5.7 MIPS, and the entire DSP subsystem, built with commercially available parts, costs under $60 at quantity-10,000.

  10. Csi-star: a Low-cost CSI Orbital Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edberg, D.

    1992-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: rationale for an on-orbit control-structurs interaction (CSI) test facility; CSI flight experiment objectives; feasibility study objectives; CSI free-flyer solution; feasibility study technical status summary; CSI-Star - a low-cost CSI free flyer; conceptual experiment design - option 2 configuration; Delta 2 - Quickstar Interface clambband capability; open and closed loop response of baselined truss with active struts; experiment weight baseline (option 1) configuration; experiment weight option 2 configuration; experiment power baseline (option 1) configuration; experiment power option 2 configuration; CSI Quickstar capabilities/requirements; and remaining work.

  11. Disposable sensor system: low cost UGS for urban operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calcutt, Wade; Houser, Jeff; Winston, Mark; Brady, Steve; Jones, Barry

    2006-05-01

    McQ has developed a family of low cost unattended ground sensors using conventional technology and manufacturing techniques. Intended for small unit operations in an urban environment, these are tactically useful sensors that can be manufactured in large quantities (1M-10M units/year) for a projected production cost of less than $100 each. Secondary characteristics are small size (98 cm 3), light weight (85 gm), moderate lifetime (40 hrs), and moderate communications ranges (100m). An overview of the DSS system: its features, performance, and scenarios for use in urban warfare, is presented.

  12. Low-cost solar room kit. Final grant report

    SciTech Connect

    1983-01-01

    A low cost solar room kit was developed which would make use of local framing materials, but provide inexperienced builders with a simple joining system and materials - such as glazings - not usually available in local stores. Since solar room applications are proven effective in providing supplementary home heat, a kit would make solar heat more accessible to home owners and tenants. Although a prototype and two working models of the kit were successfully built, commercial development cannot occur until problems in matching the glazing and framing system can be resolved, and more capital to lower production costs on the framing union pieces is available.

  13. Mechanically tunable aspheric lenses via additive manufacture of hanging elastomeric droplets for microscopic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuh, Yiin-Kuen; Chen, Pin-Wen; Lai, Zheng-Hong

    2016-07-01

    Mechanically deformable lenses with dynamically tunable focal lengths have been developed in this work. The fabricated five types of aspheric polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) lenses presented here have an initial focal length of 7.0, 7.8, 9.0, 10.0 and 10.2 mm. Incorporating two modes of operation in biconvex and concave-convex configurations, the focal lengths can be tuned dynamically as 5.2-10.2, 5.5-9.9, 6.6-11.9, 6.1-13.5 and 6.6-13.5 mm respectively. Additive manufacturing was utilized to fabricate these five types of aspheric lenses (APLs) via sequential layering of PDMS materials. Complex structures with three-dimensional features and shorter focal lengths can be successfully produced by repeatedly depositing, inverting and curing controlled PDMS volume onto previously cured PDMS droplets. From our experiments, we empirically found a direct dependence of the focal length of the lenses with the amount (volume) of deposited PDMS droplets. This new mouldless, low-cost, and flexible lens fabrication method is able to transform an ordinary commercial smartphone camera into a low-cost portable microscope. A few microscopic features can be readily visualized, such as wrinkles of ladybird pupa and printed circuit board. The fabrication technique by successively applying hanging droplet and facile mechanical focal-length-tuning set-up can be easily adopted in the development of high-performance optical lenses.

  14. Silicon web process development. [for low cost solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, C. S.; Hopkins, R. H.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Hill, F. E.; Heimlich, M. E.; Driggers, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    Silicon dendritic web, a single crystal ribbon shaped during growth by crystallographic forces and surface tension (rather than dies), is a highly promising base material for efficient low cost solar cells. The form of the product smooth, flexible strips 100 to 200 microns thick, conserves expensive silicon and facilitates automation of crystal growth and the subsequent manufacturing of solar cells. These characteristics, coupled with the highest demonstrated ribbon solar cell efficiency-15.5%-make silicon web a leading candidate to achieve, or better, the 1986 Low Cost Solar Array (LSA) Project cost objective of 50 cents per peak watt of photovoltaic output power. The main objective of the Web Program, technology development to significantly increase web output rate, and to show the feasibility for simultaneous melt replenishment and growth, have largely been accomplished. Recently, web output rates of 23.6 sq cm/min, nearly three times the 8 sq cm/min maximum rate of a year ago, were achieved. Webs 4 cm wide or greater were grown on a number of occassions.

  15. Bamboo composite materials for low-cost housing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagilis, Trevor David

    Investigation into the use of bamboo in composite panels for low-cost housing is presented. Information on the housing situation, the state of the forest resources, and the needs for low-cost housing are given for Ecuador, which is seen as representative of countries with a history of bamboo use, and potential for further development. Specifically bamboo particleboard using Guadua angustifolia, Dendrocalamus strictus, Phyllostachys pubescens, and Bambusa vulgaris manufactured with steam injection pressing is presented. High strength panels including waferboard made from randomly placed and oriented Bambusa vulgaris wafers, bamboo particleboard overlaid with woven bamboo mats, and "picada panels" were developed. Emphasis was given to short press times, low resin contents, and low product densities in comparison with previous technology to ensure economic viability. This investigation is a unique contribution to the science of composite products and has developed a number of panel products that are both technically and economically feasible. A discussion of economic, social and environmental issues surrounding bamboo industrialisation is also presented.

  16. NEW HIGHER PERFORMANCE LOW COST SELECTIVE SOLAR RADIATION CONTROL COATINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy Ellison; Buddie Dotter; David Tsu

    2003-10-28

    Energy Conversion Devices, Inc., ECD, has developed a new high-speed low-cost process for depositing high quality dielectric optical coatings--Microwave Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (MPECVD). This process can deposit SiO{sub x} about 10 times faster than the state-of-the-art conventional technology, magnetron sputtering, at about 1/10th the cost. This process is also being optimized for depositing higher refractive index materials such as Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and TiO{sub 2}. In this program ECD, in collaboration with Southwall Technologies, Inc. (STI), demonstrated that this process can be used to fabricate high performance low cost Selective Solar Radiation Control (SSRC) films for use in the automotive industry. These coatings were produced on thin (2 mil thick) PET substrates in ECD's pilot roll-to-roll pilot MPECVD deposition machine. Such film can be laminated with PVB in a vehicle's windows. This process can also be used to deposit the films directly onto the glass. Such highly selective films, with a visible transmission (T{sub vis}) of > 70% and a shading coefficient of < 60% can significantly reduce the heat entering a car from solar radiation. Consequently, passenger comfort is increased and the energy needed to operate air conditioning (a/c) systems is reduced; consequently smaller a/c systems can be employed resulting in improved vehicle fuel efficiency.

  17. A Low Cost Rokkaku Kite Setup for Aerial Photogrammetric System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, A. F.; Khurshid, K.; Saleh, N.; Yousuf, A. A.

    2015-03-01

    Orthogonally Projected Area (OPA) of a geographical feature has primarily been studied utilizing rather time consuming field based sampling techniques. Remote sensing on the contrary provides the ability to acquire large scale data at a snapshot of time and lets the OPA to be calculated conveniently and with reasonable accuracy. Unfortunately satellite based remote sensing provides data at high cost and limited spatial resolution for scientific studies focused at small areas such as micro lakes micro ecosystems, etc. More importantly, recent satellite data may not be readily available for a particular location. This paper describes a low cost photogrammetric system to measure the OPA of a small scale geographic feature such as a plot of land, micro lake or an archaeological site, etc. Fitted with a consumer grade digital imaging system, a Rokkaku kite aerial platform with stable flight characteristics is designed and fabricated for image acquisition. The data processing procedure involves automatic Ground Control Point (GCP) detection, intelligent target area shape determination with minimal human input. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) is built from scratch in MATLAB to allow the user to conveniently process the acquired data, archive and retrieve the results. Extensive on-field experimentation consists of multiple geographic features including flat land surfaces, buildings, undulating rural areas, and an irregular shaped micro lake, etc. Our results show that the proposed system is not only low cost, but provides a framework that is easy and fast to setup while maintaining the required constraints on the accuracy.

  18. Using a Low Cost Flight Simulation Environment for Interdisciplinary Education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, M. Javed; Rossi, Marcia; ALi, Syed F.

    2004-01-01

    A multi-disciplinary and inter-disciplinary education is increasingly being emphasized for engineering undergraduates. However, often the focus is on interaction between engineering disciplines. This paper discusses the experience at Tuskegee University in providing interdisciplinary research experiences for undergraduate students in both Aerospace Engineering and Psychology through the utilization of a low cost flight simulation environment. The environment, which is pc-based, runs a low-cost of-the-shelf software and is configured for multiple out-of-the-window views and a synthetic heads down display with joystick, rudder and throttle controls. While the environment is being utilized to investigate and evaluate various strategies for training novice pilots, students were involved to provide them with experience in conducting such interdisciplinary research. On the global inter-disciplinary level these experiences included developing experimental designs and research protocols, consideration of human participant ethical issues, and planning and executing the research studies. During the planning phase students were apprised of the limitations of the software in its basic form and the enhancements desired to investigate human factors issues. A number of enhancements to the flight environment were then undertaken, from creating Excel macros for determining the performance of the 'pilots', to interacting with the software to provide various audio/video cues based on the experimental protocol. These enhancements involved understanding the flight model and performance, stability & control issues. Throughout this process, discussions of data analysis included a focus from a human factors perspective as well as an engineering point of view.

  19. LOW COST PRODUCTION OF CARBON FIBERS FROM LIGNIN MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Gallego, Nidia C; Baker, Darren A; Baker, Frederick S

    2009-01-01

    The DOE Vehicle Technologies-funded work at ORNL is directed to the development of processes for the low cost production of carbon fibers. The objective of the project is to develop more energy-efficient, cost-effective processes for production of carbon fibers for use in composite materials for vehicles, which would substantially reduce vehicle weight, increase vehicle fuel economy, and result in lower CO2 emissions. Carbon fibers have the potential for substantial weight saving in vehicles because of their remarkable high strength, high modulus, and low density. However, carbon fibers are currently too expensive for large scale automotive use, which necessitates a large reduction in the cost of commercial grade fiber from about $20/lb to $5-7/lb. Lignin, a renewable resource material, has significant potential as a precursor material for low cost carbon fiber production. In this paper we report on progress to demonstrate the melt-spinning of precursor fibers from various lignin sources, the subsequent processing of the lignin precursor fibers into carbon fibers, and carbon fiber properties.

  20. IQ-Station: A Low Cost Portable Immersive Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Eric Whiting; Patrick O'Leary; William Sherman; Eric Wernert

    2010-11-01

    The emergence of inexpensive 3D TV’s, affordable input and rendering hardware and open-source software has created a yeasty atmosphere for the development of low-cost immersive environments (IE). A low cost IE system, or IQ-station, fashioned from commercial off the shelf technology (COTS), coupled with a targeted immersive application can be a viable laboratory instrument for enhancing scientific workflow for exploration and analysis. The use of an IQ-station in a laboratory setting also has the potential of quickening the adoption of a more sophisticated immersive environment as a critical enabler in modern scientific and engineering workflows. Prior work in immersive environments generally required either a head mounted display (HMD) system or a large projector-based implementation both of which have limitations in terms of cost, usability, or space requirements. The solution presented here provides an alternative platform providing a reasonable immersive experience that addresses those limitations. Our work brings together the needed hardware and software to create a fully integrated immersive display and interface system that can be readily deployed in laboratories and common workspaces. By doing so, it is now feasible for immersive technologies to be included in researchers’ day-to-day workflows. The IQ-Station sets the stage for much wider adoption of immersive environments outside the small communities of virtual reality centers.

  1. A low cost human computer interface based on eye tracking.

    PubMed

    Hiley, Jonathan B; Redekopp, Andrew H; Fazel-Rezai, Reza

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a human computer interface based on eye tracking. Current commercially available systems exist, but have limited use due mainly to their large cost. The system described in this paper was designed to be a low cost and unobtrusive. The technique was video-oculography assisted by corneal reflections. An off-the shelf CCD webcam was used to capture images. The images were analyzed in software to extract key features of the eye. The users gaze point was then calculated based on the relative position of these features. The system is capable of calculating eye-gaze in real-time to provide a responsive interaction. A throughput of eight gaze points per second was achieved. The accuracy of the fixations based on the calculated eye-gazes were within 1 cm of the on-screen gaze location. By developing a low-cost system, this technology is made accessible to a wider range of applications. PMID:17946167

  2. Formed platelets for low cost regeneratively cooled rocket combustion chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkhardt, Wendel M.

    1992-02-01

    The ongoing work performed to demonstrate the fabrication feasibility of a formed platelet regeneratively cooled combustion chamber liner is described. The combustion chambers are fabricated in three or four axial sections from formed platelet stacks joined together. The platelets are etched, stacked, and bonded into flat panels that contain the regen passages. The flat panels are formed into the final contour with a die. The formed platelet approach takes advantage of the inherent low cost, high accuracy, and thin wall capability of photoetched platelet technology to fabricate long life, low cost rocket combustion chambers. Combustion chamber liner sections were fabricated with extremely thin (tw = 0.20 mm (0.008-in.)) hot gas side walls and very high aspect ratio coolant channels (aspect ratio greater than 10:1). Combustion chamber liner sections were formed of both Zr-Cu and stainless steel. The results of both the forming of individual panels and the joining of panels together are discussed. Work performed demonstrating the feasibility of rocket combustion chamber liners from formed platelets is described. A discussion of the benefits of chamber liners so constructed and of a chamber producing 176,000 N (40 Klbf) of thrust currently fabricated is presented. The results of a study examining the forming of large scale platelet panels for an Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Main Combustion Chamber (MCC) liner are included.

  3. Glass for low-cost photovoltaic solar arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Bouquet, F.L.

    1980-02-01

    In photovoltaic systems, the encapsulant material that protects the solar cells should be highly transparent and very durable. Glass satisfies these two criteria and is considered a primary candidate for low-cost, photovoltaic encapsulation systems. In this report, various aspects of glass encapsulation are treated that are important for the designer of photovoltaic systems. Candidate glasses and available information defining the state of the art of glass encapsulation materials and processes for automated, high volume production of terrestrial photovoltaic devices and related applications are presented. The criteria for consideration of the glass encapsulation systems were based on the LSA (Low-cost Solar Array) Project goals for arrays: (a) a low degradation rate, (b) high reliability, (c) an efficiency greater than 10 percent, (d) a total array price less than $500/kW, and (e) a production capacity of 5 x 10/sup 5/ kW/yr. The glass design areas treated herein include the types of glass, sources and costs, physical properties and glass modifications, such as antireflection coatings. 78 references.

  4. Low-cost distributed solar-thermal-electric power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Der Minassians, Artin; Aschenbach, Konrad H.; Sanders, Seth R.

    2004-01-01

    Due to their high relative cost, solar electric energy systems have yet to be exploited on a widespread basis. It is believed in the energy community that a technology similar to photovoltaic (PV), but offered at about $1/W would lead to widespread deployment at residential and commercial sites. This paper addresses the investigation and feasibility study of a low-cost solar thermal electricity generation technology, suitable for distributed deployment. Specifically, we discuss a system based on nonimaging solar concentrators, integrated with free-piston Stirling engine devices incorporating integrated electric generation. We target concentrator-collector operation at moderate temperatures, in the range of 125°C to 150°C. This temperature is consistent with use of optical concentrators with concentration ratios on the order of 1-2. These low ratio concentrators admit wide angles of radiation acceptance and are thus compatible with no diurnal tracking, and no or only a few seasonal adjustments. Thus, costs and reliability hazards associated with tracking hardware systems are avoided. Further, we note that in the intended application, there is no shortage of incident solar energy, but rather it is the capital cost of the solar-electric system that is most precious. Thus, we outline a strategy for exploiting solar resources in a cost constrained manner. The paper outlines design issues, and a specific design for an appropriately dimensioned free-piston Stirling engine. Only standard low-cost materials and manufacturing methods are required to realize such a machine.

  5. A low-cost real color picker based on Arduino.

    PubMed

    Agudo, Juan Enrique; Pardo, Pedro J; Sánchez, Héctor; Pérez, Ángel Luis; Suero, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Color measurements have traditionally been linked to expensive and difficult to handle equipment. The set of mathematical transformations that are needed to transfer a color that we observe in any object that doesn't emit its own light (which is usually called a color-object) so that it can be displayed on a computer screen or printed on paper is not at all trivial. This usually requires a thorough knowledge of color spaces, colorimetric transformations and color management systems. The TCS3414CS color sensor (I2C Sensor Color Grove), a system for capturing, processing and color management that allows the colors of any non-self-luminous object using a low-cost hardware based on Arduino, is presented in this paper. Specific software has been developed in Matlab and a study of the linearity of chromatic channels and accuracy of color measurements for this device has been undertaken. All used scripts (Arduino and Matlab) are attached as supplementary material. The results show acceptable accuracy values that, although obviously do not reach the levels obtained with the other scientific instruments, for the price difference they present a good low cost option. PMID:25004152

  6. Low cost sensing technology for type 2 diabetes monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarswat, Prashant; Free, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Alpha-hydroxybutyrate (2-hydroxybutyrate or α-HB) is becoming more widely recognized as an important metabolic biomarker that has been shown to be highly correlated with prediabetes and other metabolic diseases. In 2012 there were 86 million Americans with prediabetes, many of whom are not aware they have prediabetes, but could be diagnosed and treated to prevent type 2 diabetes if a simple, low-cost, convenient test were available. We have developed new, low-cost, accurate α-HB detection methods that can be used for the detection and monitoring of diseases such as prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, β-cell dysfunction, and early hyperglycemia. The new sensing method utilizes a diol recognition moiety, additives and a photoinitiator to detect α-HB at levels near 1 micro g/l in the presence of serum compounds such as lactic acid, sodium pyruvate, and glucose. The objective of this research is to improve the understanding of the interactions that enhance α-HB detection to enable additional improvements in α-HB detection as well as improvements in other biosensor applications.

  7. Low-cost fiber-optic chemochromic hydrogen detector

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.; Hishmeh, G.; Ciszek, P.; Lee, S.H.

    1998-08-01

    The ability to detect hydrogen gas leaks economically and with inherent safety is an important technology that could facilitate commercial acceptance of hydrogen fuel in various applications. In particular, hydrogen fueled passenger vehicles will require hydrogen leak detectors to signal the activation of safety devices such as shutoff valves, ventilating fans, alarms, etc. Such detectors may be required in several locations within a vehicle--wherever a leak could pose a safety hazard. It is therefore important that the detectors be very economical. This paper reports progress on the development of low-cost fiber-optic hydrogen detectors intended to meet the needs of a hydrogen-fueled passenger vehicle. In the design, the presence of hydrogen in air is sensed by a thin-film coating at the end of a polymer optical fiber. When the coating reacts reversibly with the hydrogen, its optical properties are changed. Light from a central electro-optic control unit is projected down the optical fiber where it is reflected from the sensor coating back to central optical detectors. A change in the reflected intensity indicates the presence of hydrogen. The fiber-optic detector offers inherent safety by removing all electrical power from the leak sites and offers reduced signal processing problems by minimizing electromagnetic interference. Critical detector performance requirements include high selectivity, response speed and durability as well as potential for low-cost production.

  8. Low-Cost Experimentation for the Study of Droplet Microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Bardin, David; Lee, Abraham P.

    2014-01-01

    The continued growth of microfluidics into industry settings in areas such as point-of-care diagnostics and targeted therapeutics necessitates a workforce trained in microfluidic technologies and experimental methods. Laboratory courses for students at the university and high school levels will require cost-effective in-class demonstrations that instruct in chip design, fabrication, and experimentation at the microscale. We present a hand-operated pressure pumping system to form monodisperse picoliter to nanoliter droplet streams at low cost, and a series of exercises aimed at instructing in the specific art of droplet formation. Using this setup, the student is able to generate and observe the modes of droplet formation in flow-focusing devices, and the effect of device dimensions on the characteristics of formed droplets. Lastly, at ultra-low cost we demonstrate large plug formation in a T-junction using coffee stirrers as a master mold substitute. Our method reduces the cost of experimentation to enable intuitive instruction in droplet formation, with additional implications for creating droplets in the field or at point-of-care. PMID:25133595

  9. Remote Spectral Imaging Using a Low Cost Uav System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsouvaltsidis, C.; Salem, N. Zaid Al; Benari, G.; Vrekalic, D.; Quine, B.

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this scientific survey is to support the research being conducted at York University in the field of spectroscopy and nanosatellites using Argus 1000 micro- spectrometer and low cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) system. On the CanX-2 mission, the Argus spectrometer observes reflected infrared solar radiation emitted by Earth surface targets as small as 1.5 km within the 0.9-1.7 μm range. However, limitations in the volume of data due to onboard power constraints and a lack of an onboard camera system make it very difficult to verify these objectives using ground truth. In the last five years that Argus has been in operation, we have made over 200 observations over a series of land and ocean targets. We have recently examined algorithms to improve the geolocation accuracy of the spectrometer payload and began to conduct an analysis of soil health content using Argus spectral data. A field campaign is used to obtain data to assess geolocation accuracy using coastline crossing detection and to obtain airborne bare soil spectra in ground truth form. The payload system used for the field campaign consists of an Argus spectrometer, optical camera, GPS, and attitude sensors, integrated into a low-cost, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), which will be presented along with the experimental procedure and field campaign results.

  10. Designing a Low-Cost Multifunctional Infant Incubator.

    PubMed

    Tran, Kevin; Gibson, Aaron; Wong, Don; Tilahun, Dagmawi; Selock, Nicholas; Good, Theresa; Ram, Geetha; Tolosa, Leah; Tolosa, Michael; Kostov, Yordan; Woo, Hyung Chul; Frizzell, Michael; Fulda, Victor; Gopinath, Ramya; Prasad, J Shashidhara; Sudarshan, Hanumappa; Venkatesan, Arunkumar; Kumar, V Sashi; Shylaja, N; Rao, Govind

    2014-04-01

    Every year, an unacceptably large number of infant deaths occur in developing nations, with premature birth and asphyxia being two of the leading causes. A well-regulated thermal environment is critical for neonatal survival. Advanced incubators currently exist, but they are far too expensive to meet the needs of developing nations. We are developing a thermodynamically advanced low-cost incubator suitable for operation in a low-resource environment. Our design features three innovations: (1) a disposable baby chamber to reduce infant mortality due to nosocomial infections, (2) a passive cooling mechanism using low-cost heat pipes and evaporative cooling from locally found clay pots, and (3) insulated panels and a thermal bank consisting of water that effectively preserve and store heat. We developed a prototype incubator and visited and presented our design to our partnership hospital site in Mysore, India. After obtaining feedback, we have determined realistic, nontrivial design requirements and constraints in order to develop a new prototype incubator for clinical trials in hospitals in India. PMID:24713428