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Sample records for low-enthalpy mineral waters

  1. Low-Enthalpy Geothermal Potential of the Czech Republic with Particular Focus on Waters of Metalliferous Mining Districts in Crystalline Structures of the Bohemian Massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stibitz, M.; Jirakova, H.; Frydrych, V.

    2012-04-01

    Nowadays, numerous underground mines in the Czech Republic are mostly left to spontaneous natural flooding with water. These huges volumes and favourable water temperature represent promissing source of thermal energy. The primary temperature of the mine waters is given by the rock massif temeprature, i.e. by the heat flux which is in the moldanubikum region around 50 - 60 mWm-2 (Michálek et al., 2007). Higher heat flux has been observed in several mountainous regions throughout the country. The real water temperature results form the depth of mines, geothermal gradient and the water circulation in the mine. Temperature measurements suggest a distinct temperature depth stratification. Several metalliferous mining districts in Crystalline Structures with the water outflow exceeding 1 Ls-1 have been subject of investigation. The temperature was not the only determining factoras it is relatively stable in mines all year round. The data on yield, temperatures, etc. prepared for further mathematical modeling were primarily measured in uranium and oremines in Příbram mining district, Jáchymov, Zlaté Hory and Rožná. Water of about 18°C and radioactivity make favourable condition for the Jáchymov spa purposes. The average yield reaches 20 Ls-1. The entire outflow for the Jáchymov mines before its decommissioning reached 136 Ls-1.The entire heat capacity of mine waters is supposed to be around 1.150 kW. Severa l galleries in Zlaté Hory region could be used for thermal purposes. The yield around 60 Ls-1 and temeperature around 7°C was observed in the main drainage gallery. Measurements were accompanied by chemical analysis of water having both a huge pH range from 3 to 9 and huge mineralization range from 135 to 6 500 mgL-1. The Rožná and Příbram conditions are quite similar with the outflow from 20 - 45 Ls-1 and temperatures from 11 - 18°C. Possible temperature decrease originates from the fact that colder shallow groundwater will inflow into mine spaces

  2. Study of Shallow Low-Enthalpy Geothermal Resources Using Integrated Geophysical Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgi, Lara De; Leucci, Giovanni

    2015-02-01

    The paper is focused on low enthalpy geothermal exploration performed in south Italy and provides an integrated presentation of geological, hydrogeological, and geophysical surveys carried out in the area of municipality of Lecce. Geological and hydrogeological models were performed using the stratigraphical data from 51 wells. A ground-water flow (direction and velocity) model was obtained. Using the same wells data, the ground-water annual temperature was modeled. Furthermore, the ground surface temperature records from ten meteorological stations were studied. This allowed us to obtain a model related to the variations of the temperature at different depths in the subsoil. Integrated geophysical surveys were carried out in order to explore the low-enthalpy geothermal fluids and to evaluate the results of the model. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and self-potential (SP) methods were used. The results obtained upon integrating the geophysical data with the models show a low-enthalpy geothermal resource constituted by a shallow ground-water system

  3. Study of shallow low-enthalpy geothermal resources using integrated geophysical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Giorgi, Lara; Leucci, Giovanni

    2014-11-01

    The paper is focused on low enthalpy geothermal exploration performed in south Italy and provides an integrated presentation of geological, hydrogeological, and geophysical surveys carried out in the area of municipality of Lecce. Geological and hydrogeological models were performed using the stratigraphical data from 51 wells. A ground-water flow (direction and velocity) model was obtained. Using the same wells data, the ground-water annual temperature was modeled. Furthermore, the ground surface temperature records from ten meteorological stations were studied. This allowed us to obtain a model related to the variations of the temperature at different depths in the subsoil. Integrated geophysical surveys were carried out in order to explore the low-enthalpy geothermal fluids and to evaluate the results of the model. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and self-potential (SP) methods were used. The results obtained upon integrating the geophysical data with the models show a low-enthalpy geothermal resource constituted by a shallow ground-water system.

  4. [Mineral water as a cure].

    PubMed

    Nocco, Priska Binz

    2008-01-01

    The treatment of diseases with mineral spring water belongs to the oldest medical therapies. The "remedy" mineral water is therefore of importance also within the pharmacy. The present pharmacy historical work examines the impact of the use of mineral waters, as well as of their dried components, as therapeutic agents in the 19th and early 20th centuries, i.e. from approx. 1810 to 1930, as well as the contributions given by pharmacists in the development and analysis of mineral water springs. Beside these aspects, the aim here is also to describe the role played by pharmacists in the production of artificial mineral water as well as in the sale and wholesale of natural and artificial mineral water. In the first part of this work the situation in Switzerland and its surrounding countries, such as Germany, France, Italy and Austria, is discussed. The second part contains a case-study of the particular situation in the Canton Tessin. It is known from the scientific literature published at that time that information on mineral water was frequently reported. Starting from the beginning of the 19th century the number of such publications increased tremendously. The major part of them were publications in scientific journals or contributions to medical and pharmaceutical manuals and reference books. In particular the spa-related literature, such as spa-guides, was of growing interest to a broad public. The inclusion of monographs into the Swiss, the Cantonal as well the foreign pharmacopoeias granted a legal frame for the mineral waters and their dried components. These works are of major importance from a pharmacy historical standpoint and represent a unique proof of historical evidence of the old medicinal drug heritage. The most frequently used therapies based on mineral waters were drinking and bath cures. Several diseases, particularly those of a chronic character, were treated with mineral waters. The positive influence of these cures on the recovery of the patients

  5. Mineral/Water Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    An x-ray fluorescence spectrometer developed for the Viking Landers by Martin Marietta was modified for geological exploration, water quality monitoring, and aircraft engine maintenance. The aerospace system was highly miniaturized and used very little power. It irradiates the sample causing it to emit x-rays at various energies, then measures the energy levels for sample composition analysis. It was used in oceanographic applications and modified to identify element concentrations in ore samples, on site. The instrument can also analyze the chemical content of water, and detect the sudden development of excessive engine wear.

  6. Case studies for utilizing groundwater-source and low-enthalpy geothermal resources in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.-H.; Shin, J.; Lee, K.-K.; Lee, T. J.

    2012-04-01

    As one of the top 10 oil-consuming countries in the world, Korea recently has had a great interest in extending the ways to utilize renewable energy. In this regard, geothermal energy resource is attracting more concerns from both of the government and the research field. Korea has neither active volcanic sites nor areas with abnormally higher heat flow. In spite of these natural conditions, many efforts have been exerted to utilize geothermal energy. Here, we introduce two case studies of using groundwater-source geothermal energy with relatively low-enthalpy: One is a riverbank filtration facility, which has been using some of its riverbank filtrate water for the indoor air-conditioning. The other is the first EGS plant planning site, where a few fault-related artesian wells reaching 70C were discovered lately. Numerical simulations to predict the temperature evolution of the two sites, which is dominated by several hydrogeologic factors, were carried out and compared. Simulation of temperature profile of riverbank filtrate water using HydroGeoSphere shows that the primary factor in determining filtrate water temperature is the pumping rate. It also shows that maintaining the facility operation with present pumping rate for the next 30 years will not cause any significant change of water temperature. However, following the new plan of the facility to install additional 37 wells with 6 times higher pumping rate than the current rate might cause about 2C decrease in filtrate water temperature in 10 years after the extension. Simulation for the temperature evolution in a faulted geothermal reservoir in EGS planning site under the supposed injection-extraction operating conditions were carried out using TOUGH2. A MINC model including a hydraulic discontinuity, which reflected the analysis from several geophysical explorations, was generated. Temperature distribution calculated from the simulation shows a rise of relatively hot geothermal water along the fault plane

  7. Quality assessment of Romanian bottled mineral water and tap water.

    PubMed

    M Carstea, Elfrida; Levei, Erika A; Hoaghia, Maria-Alexandra; Savastru, Roxana

    2016-09-01

    This study reports the evaluation of bottled mineral water characteristics using fluorescence spectroscopy (synchronous fluorescence scans and emission spectra) and physico-chemical analyses. Samples from 14 still mineral water brands were compared to 11 tap waters collected from two Romanian cities. Correlation and factor analyses were undertaken to understand the relationships between the individual components. The concentration of major and minor ions showed great variation between the bottled mineral water samples highlighting the diversity of the water intakes, while in the case of tap water the chemical composition was relatively similar for samples collected in the same city. Fluorescence data showed that the mineral water contained low quantities of organic matter. The humic fraction was dominant in all samples, while the microbial fraction was low in most samples. Synchronous fluorescence scans provided more information, regarding the composition of organic matter, compared to emission spectra. The study evidenced the correlation between fluorescence parameters and major elements and highlighted the potential of using fluorescence for qualitative evaluation of the bottled mineral water quality, as a screening method before undertaking complex analyses. PMID:27526046

  8. Natural mineral waters, curative-medical waters and their protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, M.

    1993-10-01

    In Europe different types of water are marketed, each strictly defined by EC Directive 80/777 (Natural Mineral Water, Spring and Table Water) or 80/778 (Drinking Water). In Germany, an additional type of water is common in the market: curative/medical water. Product quality and safety, registration as medicine, and pharmaceutical control are defined by the German Federal Medicine Act. A medical water is treated as any other medicine and may be sold only in pharmacies. The use of any water in Germany is controlled and strictly regulated by the Federal Water Act (Fricke 1981). The following requirements are set by the act: (1) No water use without a permit, which is limited in time and quantity. (2) No single or juristic person may own water. (3) Water resources of public interest and their recharge areas are to be protected by the definition of water protection zones. (Natural mineral water is not of public interest and therefore is not required to be protected by the definition of water protection zones, although it represents a market value of more than US2 billion. Medical water is of public interest). The definition of water protection zones impacts private property rights and has to be handled carefully. In order to protect water resources, sometimes the economic basis of a traditional industrial and/or agricultural infrastructure is destroyed. The concerns and needs all citizens, including industry, must be considered in analyzing the adequacy of water protection zones.

  9. IRETHERM: Research and Exploration Challenges in Assessing Ireland's Deep Low-Enthalpy Geothermal Energy Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, M. R.; Jones, A. G.; Fullea, J.; Yeomans, C. M.; Loewer, M.; Reay, D.

    2012-04-01

    IRETHERM (www.iretherm.ie) is a new academic-government-industry collaborative research project, funded by Science Foundation Ireland, initiated in 2011, with the overarching objective of developing a holistic understanding of Ireland's low-enthalpy geothermal energy potential through integrated modelling of new and existing geophysical and geological data. All historic geothermal energy research that took place in the 1980s focused on Ireland's three major exposed radiogenic granite intrusions. These granites were found to be characterised by elevated radiogenic heat production (2-7µW/m3) and surface heat-flow (65-85mW/m2), but impetus in assessing their potential stalled at the end of the oil-crisis and remains poorly defined. The accuracy of predictions of temperatures in the depth range of 3000-6000m is limited by the sparse, clustered database provided by relatively shallow industry boreholes - only two boreholes drilled to date exceed 2,500m. While a significant regional trend in surface heat-flow is purported from these borehole data, from ~40mW/m2 in the south of Ireland to >80mW/m2 in the north with thermal gradients in the range 8-32°C/km, the source of the heat variation (whether crustal and/or lithospheric-mantle in origin) is unknown. Except for Permo-Triassic basins in Northern Ireland, which host known geothermal aquifers of promising but currently poorly defined potential, sedimentary rocks with high primary porosity have not been identified elsewhere. Whether any of the shear zones and faults that traverse the country might host geothermal aquifers at depth is also unknown, although the occurrence of warm-spring clusters close to two major fault zones is promising. Our paper discusses the approaches and strategies that IRETHERM has adopted to meet the challenges of exploring for unknown deep geothermal resources (either aquifers or hot, dry rock) starting from a limited knowledge-base. The objectives of the project over a four-year period are to

  10. Hydrogeochemical tracing of mineral water in Jingyu County, Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Baizhong; Xiao, Changlai; Liang, Xiujuan; Wu, Shili

    2016-02-01

    The east Jilin Province in China, Jingyu County has been explored as a potential for enriching mineral water. In order to assess the water quality and quantity, it is of crucial importance to investigate the origin of the mineral water and its flow paths. In this study, eighteen mineral springs were sampled in May and September of 2012, May and September of 2013, and May 2014 and the environment, evolvement, and reaction mechanism of mineral water formation were analysed by hydrochemical data analysis, geochemical modelling and multivariate statistical analysis. The results showed that the investigated mineral water was rich in calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, bicarbonate, chloride, sulphate, fluoride, nitrate, total iron, silicate, and strontium, and mineral water ages ranged from 11.0 to more than 61.0 years. The U-shape contours of the mineral ages indicate a local and discrete recharge. The mineral compositions of the rocks were olivine, potassium feldspar, pyroxene, albite, and anorthite and were under-saturated in the mineral water. The origin of mineral water was from the hydrolysis of basalt minerals under a neutral to slightly alkaline and CO2-rich environment. PMID:26040975

  11. 43 CFR 3594.5 - Minerals soluble in water; brines; minerals taken in solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Minerals soluble in water; brines; minerals taken in solution. 3594.5 Section 3594.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000)...

  12. 43 CFR 3594.5 - Minerals soluble in water; brines; minerals taken in solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minerals soluble in water; brines; minerals taken in solution. 3594.5 Section 3594.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000)...

  13. 43 CFR 3594.5 - Minerals soluble in water; brines; minerals taken in solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Minerals soluble in water; brines; minerals taken in solution. 3594.5 Section 3594.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000)...

  14. 43 CFR 3594.5 - Minerals soluble in water; brines; minerals taken in solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Minerals soluble in water; brines; minerals taken in solution. 3594.5 Section 3594.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000)...

  15. Stable isotopic composition of bottled mineral waters from Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bădăluţă, Carmen; Nagavciuc, Viorica; Perșoiu, Aurel

    2015-04-01

    Romania has a high potential of mineral waters resources, featuring one of the largest mineral resources at European and global level. In the last decade, due to increased in consumption of bottled water, numerous brands have appeared on the market, with equally numerous and variable sources of provenance. In this study we have analyzed the isotopic composition of bottled mineral waters from Romania in order to determine their source and authenticity. We have analysed 32 carbonated and 24 non-carbonated mineral waters from Romania. and the results were analysed in comparison with stable isotope data from precipitation and river waters. Generally, the isotopic values of the mineral waters follow those in precipitation; however, differences occur in former volcanic regions (due to deep circulation of meteoric waters and increased exchange with host rock and volcanic CO2), as well as in mountainous regions, where high-altitude recharge occurs.

  16. Ground Thermal Diffusivity Calculation by Direct Soil Temperature Measurement. Application to very Low Enthalpy Geothermal Energy Systems.

    PubMed

    Andújar Márquez, José Manuel; Martínez Bohórquez, Miguel Ángel; Gómez Melgar, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology and instrumentation system for the indirect measurement of the thermal diffusivity of a soil at a given depth from measuring its temperature at that depth. The development has been carried out considering its application to the design and sizing of very low enthalpy geothermal energy (VLEGE) systems, but it can has many other applications, for example in construction, agriculture or biology. The methodology is simple and inexpensive because it can take advantage of the prescriptive geotechnical drilling prior to the construction of a house or building, to take at the same time temperature measurements that will allow get the actual temperature and ground thermal diffusivity to the depth of interest. The methodology and developed system have been tested and used in the design of a VLEGE facility for a chalet with basement at the outskirts of Huelva (a city in the southwest of Spain). Experimental results validate the proposed approach. PMID:26938534

  17. Ground Thermal Diffusivity Calculation by Direct Soil Temperature Measurement. Application to very Low Enthalpy Geothermal Energy Systems

    PubMed Central

    Andújar Márquez, José Manuel; Martínez Bohórquez, Miguel Ángel; Gómez Melgar, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology and instrumentation system for the indirect measurement of the thermal diffusivity of a soil at a given depth from measuring its temperature at that depth. The development has been carried out considering its application to the design and sizing of very low enthalpy geothermal energy (VLEGE) systems, but it can has many other applications, for example in construction, agriculture or biology. The methodology is simple and inexpensive because it can take advantage of the prescriptive geotechnical drilling prior to the construction of a house or building, to take at the same time temperature measurements that will allow get the actual temperature and ground thermal diffusivity to the depth of interest. The methodology and developed system have been tested and used in the design of a VLEGE facility for a chalet with basement at the outskirts of Huelva (a city in the southwest of Spain). Experimental results validate the proposed approach. PMID:26938534

  18. Evaluation of minerals content of drinking water in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Azlan, Azrina; Khoo, Hock Eng; Idris, Mohd Aizat; Ismail, Amin; Razman, Muhammad Rizal

    2012-01-01

    The drinking and mineral water samples obtained from different geographical locations had concentrations of the selected minerals lower than the standard limits, except for manganese, arsenic, and fluoride. The concentrations of manganese and arsenic in two mineral water samples were slightly higher than the standard international recommended limits. One mineral water sample had a fluoride concentration higher than the standard limits, whereas manganese was not detected in nine drinking and mineral water samples. Most of the selected minerals found in the tap water samples were below the international standard limits, except for iron and manganese. The concentrations of iron and manganese in the tap water samples were higher than the standard limits, which were obtained from one and three of the studied locations, respectively. The potable water obtained from various manufacturers and locations in Peninsular Malaysia is safe for consumption, as the minerals concentrations were below the standard limits prescribed by the Malaysian Food Regulations of 1985. The data obtained may also provide important information related to daily intake of these minerals from drinking water. PMID:22649292

  19. The mineral content of tap water in United States households

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The composition of tap water contributes to dietary intake of minerals. The USDA’s Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) conducted a study of the mineral content of residential tap water, to generate current data for the USDA National Nutrient Database. Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, copper...

  20. Some physicochemical aspects of water-soluble mineral flotation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhijian; Wang, Xuming; Liu, Haining; Zhang, Huifang; Miller, Jan D

    2016-09-01

    Some physicochemical aspects of water-soluble mineral flotation including hydration phenomena, associations and interactions between collectors, air bubbles, and water-soluble mineral particles are presented. Flotation carried out in saturated salt solutions, and a wide range of collector concentrations for effective flotation of different salts are two basic aspects of water-soluble mineral flotation. Hydration of salt ions, mineral particle surfaces, collector molecules or ions, and collector aggregates play an important role in water-soluble mineral flotation. The adsorption of collectors onto bubble surfaces is suggested to be the precondition for the association of mineral particles with bubbles. The association of collectors with water-soluble minerals is a complicated process, which may include the adsorption of collector molecules or ions onto such surfaces, and/or the attachment of collector precipitates or crystals onto the mineral surfaces. The interactions between the collectors and the minerals include electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions, hydrogen bonding, and specific interactions, with electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions being the common mechanisms. For the association of ionic collectors with minerals with an opposite charge, electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions could have a synergistic effect, with the hydrophobic interactions between the hydrophobic groups of the previously associated collectors and the hydrophobic groups of oncoming collectors being an important attractive force. Association between solid particles and air bubbles is the key to froth flotation, which is affected by hydrophobicity of the mineral particle surfaces, surface charges of mineral particles and bubbles, mineral particle size and shape, temperature, bubble size, etc. The use of a collector together with a frother and the use of mixed surfactants as collectors are suggested to improve flotation. PMID:27346329

  1. Distribution of Water in Nominally Anhydrous Minerals during Metamorphic Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Lankvelt, A.; Seaman, S. J.; Williams, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    Nominally anhydrous minerals are a reservoir for water in otherwise dry rocks. This water may play a role in facilitating metamorphic reactions and enhancing deformation. In this study, we examined orthopyroxene-bearing granites from the Athabasca Granulite terrane in northern Saskatchewan. These rocks intruded the lower crust (pressures of 1 GPa) at circa 2.6 Ga at temperatures of > 900 ºC and were subsequently metamorphosed at granulite facies conditions (700 ºC and 1 GPa) in the Paleoproterozoic (Williams et al., 2000). One of the primary reactions recorded by these rocks is locally known as the "Mary" reaction and involves the anhydrous reaction: orthopyroxene + Ca-plagioclase = clinopyroxene + garnet + Na-plagioclase. Measurements of water concentrations in both product and reactant assemblages were performed using a Bruker Vertex 70 Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and revealed that there is a slight excess of water in product minerals over reactant minerals. There are two possible explanations for this. The first is that water was derived from an external source, possibly hydrous, likely contemporaneous, mafic dikes. This interpretation is supported by higher concentrations of K, which is essentially absent from the reactant minerals, in the Na-rich rims of plagioclase. However, only modest amounts of external fluids could have been introduced, or amphiboles would have been stabilized at the expense of clinopyroxene (Moore & Carmichael, 1998). An alternative interpretation is that slightly more water-rich minerals reacted more readily, releasing water that was then incorporated into their products, whereas the water-poorer minerals failed to react. Support for this interpretation comes from very low water concentrations in orthopyroxene and plagioclase from an unreacted and undeformed sample. This interpretation suggests that water in anhydrous minerals may catalyze metamorphic reactions, and a lack of water may be critical for preserving metastable

  2. Minerals leached into drinking water from rubber stoppers

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, B.W.; Beal, T.S. )

    1991-06-01

    Drinking water and its delivery system are potential sources of variation in animal research. Concern arose that rubber stoppers used to cork water bottles might be a source of some nutritionally required minerals which could leach into drinking water. Six types of stoppers, each having different compositions, were cleaned with stainless-steel sipper tubes inserted into them and attached to polypropylene bottles filled with either deionized water (pH 4.5) or acidified-deionized water (pH 2.5). After six days of contact, water levels of copper, magnesium, iron, manganese, zinc, chromium, and selenium were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Additionally, three of the stopper types were analyzed for mineral content. Minerals were present in both stoppers and drinking water. Acidified-deionized water generally leached minerals from the stoppers than did deionized water. The black stopper which is commonly used in animal facilities contained and leached measurable levels of some minerals, but it still can be recommended for typical animal husbandry uses, although other types of stoppers would be more suitable for specific nutritional and toxicologic studies.

  3. Evaluation of the Aggressiveness of Slovak Mineral Water Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrablíková, Dana; Porubská, Diana; Fendeková, Miriam; Božíková, Jarmila; Kókaiová, Denisa

    2014-07-01

    The aggressive properties of natural waters arise due to their specific physical properties and chemical composition. The latest analyses of certified natural and healing mineral water sources according to Act No. 538/2005 were used for the evaluation. A total of 53 sources in 26 localities were evaluated; they comprised 25 sources of bottled natural mineral and healing waters and 28 sources of natural healing waters in 9 spas. The aggressiveness of the water against concrete was weak (17 sources), medium (17 sources), or none (19 sources). The aggressiveness was mostly caused by low pH values and/or increased SO42- content. Their corrosiveness to metal was mostly very high. The results showed that the disintegration of concrete building constructions, well casings and pipelines could occur in most of the evaluated localities in the case of mineral water contacting them. Therefore, preventive measures are necessary.

  4. Minerals

    MedlinePlus

    Minerals are important for your body to stay healthy. Your body uses minerals for many different jobs, including building bones, making ... regulating your heartbeat. There are two kinds of minerals: macrominerals and trace minerals. Macrominerals are minerals your ...

  5. Ground-water conditions in Whisky Flat, Mineral County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eakin, T.E.; Robinson, T.W.

    1950-01-01

    As a part of the State-wide cooperative program between the Office of the State Engineer of Nevada and the U.S. Geological Survey, the Ground Water Branch of the Geological Survey made a reconnaissance study of ground-water conditions in Whisky Flat, Mineral County, Nevada.

  6. Numerical modeling and strontium isotopic signal to assess the arsenic distribution in a low-enthalpy hydrothermal system: the case study of Viterbo geothermal area (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battistel, M.; Barbieri, M.

    2013-12-01

    Several studies on the groundwater geochemistry of the hydrothermal area west of Viterbo, highlight the presence of arsenic and other trace elements. The groundwater of Viterbo area was used as source of drinking water by about 150,000 local inhabitants, until 2010, when it was prohibited the use by EU due to the high level of arsenic. The hydrogeological setting highlights the presence of a shallow volcanic aquifer (composed by alkaline-potassic volcanics), characterized by fresh waters, limited at its base by the semiconfining marly-calcareous-arenaceous complex and low-permeability clays. To the west of Viterbo, vertical upflows of hot waters (with a temperature between 50 and 64°C), are due to the locally uplifted of evaporitic reservoir, the reduced thickness of the semiconfining layer and the high local geothermal gradient. Current study is focused on news geochemical approaches to defining the conditions which control arsenic mobility in groundwater in the low- enthalpy thermal area of Viterbo, related to the interaction between the volcanic aquifer and the geothermal reservoir. In addition to determinate chemical components and chemical-physical properties (T, pH, electrical conductivity) the study provided the isotopic values of 87Sr/86Sr of Viterbo geothermal area. Geochemical modelling is conducted using Phreeqc. The program monitors the significant species and calculates equilibrium concentrations and the pCO2 at desired temperatures. Investigations were undertaken in the area exhibiting thermal manifestations and in the immediate surroundings. On the basis of major ions and temperature, it is possible to subdivide the waters sampled into three main groups: the thermal waters with a sulphate -alkaline-earth facies, the fresh waters with a biocarbonate-alkaline facies, and a group of mixing waters with a undefined facies. The values of strontium isotopic ratio 87Sr/86Sr marks out the different circuits of groundwater. Values lower than 0.70800 are

  7. Understanding hydrothermal circulation patterns at a low-enthalpy thermal spring using audio-magnetotelluric data: A case study from Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Sarah; Henry, Tiernan; Muller, Mark R.; Jones, Alan G.; Moore, John Paul; Murray, John; Campanyà, Joan; Vozar, Jan; Walsh, John; Rath, Volker

    2016-09-01

    re-circulation of meteoric waters within this structurally controlled hydrothermal circulation system. This paper illustrates how AMT may be useful in a multi-disciplinary investigation of an intermediate-depth (100-1000 m), low-enthalpy, geothermal target, and shows how the different strands of inquiry from a multi-disciplinary investigation may be woven together to gain a deeper understanding of a complex hydrothermal system.

  8. Water in Nominally Anhydrous Minerals from Nakhlites and Shergottites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peslier, Anne H.

    2013-01-01

    Estimating the amount of water in the interior of terrestrial planets has tremendous implications on our understanding of solar nebula evolution, planet formation and geological history, and extraterrestrial volcanism. Mars has been a recent focus of such enquiry with complementary datasets from spacecrafts, rovers and martian meteorite studies. In planetary interiors, water can be dissolved in fluids or melts and hydrous phases, but can also be locked as protons attached to structural oxygen in lattice defects in nominally anhydrous minerals (NAM) such as olivine, pyroxene, or feldspar [1-3]. Measuring water in Martian meteorite NAM is challenging because the minerals are fragile and riddled with fractures from impact processes that makes them break apart during sample processing. Moreover, curing the sample in epoxy causes problems for the two main water analysis techniques, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) and secondary ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS). Measurements to date have resulted in a heated debate on how much water the mantle of Mars contains. SIMS studies of NAM [4], amphiboles [5], and apatites [6-8] from Martian meteorites report finding enough water in these phases to infer that the martian mantle is as hydrous as that of the Earth. On the other hand, a SIMS study of glass in olivine melt inclusions from shergottites concludes that the Martian mantle is much drier [9]. The latter interpretation is also supported by the fact that most martian hydrous minerals generally have the relevant sites filled with Cl and F instead of H [10,11]. As for experimental results, martian basalt compositions can be reproduced using water as well as Cl in the parent melts [12,13]. Here FTIR is used to measure water in martian meteorite minerals in order to constrain the origin of the distribution of water in martian meteorite phases.

  9. Water confined between sheets of mackinawite FeS minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittekindt, Carsten; Marx, Dominik

    2012-08-01

    Wet iron-sulfur minerals have been shown to be ideal environments to allow for simple chemical reactions to occur in nature, for instance, in the framework of prebiotic chemistry. Yet, not much is known about such water/mineral interfaces beyond those involving pyrite, FeS2, which is, however, chemically rather inert. In contrast, mackinawite is chemically reactive and consists of a layered crystal structure comprising FeS sheets that can be easily cleaved. Here, the properties of water confined between such sheets in lamella-like setups is investigated in the spirit of surface science model systems. The properties of this intercalated water are found to depend significantly on the interlayer distance and change from "arrested water" (in the limit of small interlayer distances) to liquid-like behavior.

  10. [Mineral oil drinking water pollution accident in Slavonski Brod, Croatia].

    PubMed

    Medverec Knežević, Zvonimira; Nadih, Martina; Josipović, Renata; Grgić, Ivanka; Cvitković, Ante

    2011-12-01

    On 21 September 2008, heavy oil penetrated the drinking water supply in Slavonski Brod, Croatia. The accident was caused by the damage of heat exchange units in hot water supply. The system was polluted until the beginning of November, when the pipeline was treated with BIS O 2700 detergent and rinsed with water. Meanwhile, water samples were taken for chemical analysis using spectrometric and titrimetric methods and for microbiological analysis using membrane filtration and total plate count. Mineral oils were determined with infrared spectroscopy. Of the 192 samples taken for mineral oil analysis, 55 were above the maximally allowed concentration (MAC). Five samples were taken for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene analysis (BTEX), but none was above MAC. Epidemiologists conducted a survey about health symptoms among the residents affected by the accident. Thirty-six complained of symptoms such as diarrhoea, stomach cramps, vomiting, rash, eye burning, chills, and gastric disorders.This is the first reported case of drinking water pollution with mineral oil in Slavonski Brod and the accident has raised a number of issues, starting from poor water supply maintenance to glitches in the management of emergencies such as this. PMID:22202469

  11. Criticality of Water: Aligning Water and Mineral Resources Assessment.

    PubMed

    Sonderegger, Thomas; Pfister, Stephan; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2015-10-20

    The concept of criticality has been used to assess whether a resource may become a limiting factor to economic activities. It has been primarily applied to nonrenewable resources, in particular to metals. However, renewable resources such as water may also be overused and become a limiting factor. In this paper, we therefore developed a water criticality method that allows for a new, user-oriented assessment of water availability and accessibility. Comparability of criticality across resources is desirable, which is why the presented adaptation of the criticality approach to water is based on a metal criticality method, whose basic structure is maintained. With respect to the necessary adaptations to the water context, a transparent water criticality framework is proposed that may pave the way for future integrated criticality assessment of metals, water, and other resources. Water criticality scores were calculated for 159 countries subdivided into 512 geographic units for the year 2000. Results allow for a detailed analysis of criticality profiles, revealing locally specific characteristics of water criticality. This is useful for the screening of sites and their related water criticality, for indication of water related problems and possible mitigation options and water policies, and for future water scenario analysis. PMID:26392153

  12. Kinetic theory of oxygen isotopic exchange between minerals and water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Criss, R.E.; Gregory, R.T.; Taylor, H.P., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Kinetic and mass conservation equations are used to describe oxygen isotopic exchange between minerals and water in "closed" and open hydrothermal systems. In cases where n coexisting mineral phases having different reaction rates are present, the exchange process is described by a system of n + 1 simultaneous differential equations consisting of n pseudo first-order rate equations and a conservation of mass equation. The simultaneous solutions to these equations generate curved exchange trajectories on ??-?? plots. Families of such trajectories generated under conditions allowing for different fluid mole fractions, different fluid isotopic compositions, or different fluid flow rates are connected by positive-sloped isochronous lines. These isochrons reproduce the effects observed in hydrothermally exchanged mineral pairs including 1) steep positive slopes, 2) common reversals in the measured fractionation factors (??), and 3) measured fractionations that are highly variable over short distances where no thermal gradient can be geologically demonstrated. ?? 1987.

  13. Interactions of Water with Mineral Dust Aerosol: Water Adsorption, Hygroscopicity, Cloud Condensation, and Ice Nucleation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Mingjin; Cziczo, Daniel J; Grassian, Vicki H

    2016-04-13

    Mineral dust aerosol is one of the major types of aerosol present in the troposphere. The molecular level interactions of water vapor with mineral dust are of global significance. Hygroscopicity, light scattering and absorption, heterogneous reactivity and the ability to form clouds are all related to water-dust interactions. In this review article, experimental techniques to probe water interactions with dust and theoretical frameworks to understand these interactions are discussed. A comprehensive overview of laboratory studies of water adsorption, hygroscopicity, cloud condensation, and ice nucleation of fresh and atmspherically aged mineral dust particles is provided. Finally, we relate laboratory studies and theoretical simulations that provide fundemental insights into these processes on the molecular level with field measurements that illustrate the atmospheric significance of these processes. Overall, the details of water interactions with mineral dust are covered from multiple perspectives in this review article. PMID:27015126

  14. A microbiological study of bottled mineral water marketed in Ludhiana.

    PubMed

    Lal, M; Kaur, H

    2006-01-01

    The microbiological quality of bottled mineral water marketed in Ludhiana was examined, Twenty three brands were analyzed for presumptive coliform count by multiple tube tests, and E. coli count was confirmed by Eijkman test. Bacterial and fungal loads were tested by membrane filtration test. Out of 23 only one sample (4.4%) showed the presumptive coliform count to be 460 most probable number (MPN)l 1 00ml,and 1 was found to be positive when tested by Eijkman test for Ecoli. In the membrane filtration test three samples (13%) showed more than two types of bacteria. Different types of bacteria isolated included Bacillus sp (19/23). Pseudomonas spp (13123), Ecoli, Klebsiella sp and S.albus one each Fungi was isolated from five of twenty three. (22%) samples. Only one brand of mineral water was unfit for human consumption. The rest of the samples were contaminated with non pathogenic flora. PMID:17193757

  15. Radionuclides in hot mineral spring waters in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Saqan, S A; Kullab, M K; Ismail, A M

    2001-01-01

    Hot mineral springs in Jordan are very attractive to people who seek physical healing but they are unaware of natural radioactive elements that may be contained in the hot mineral water. The activities of the natural radioactive isotopes were measured and the concentrations of the parents of their natural radioactive series were calculated. The measured radionuclides were 234Th, 226Ra, 214Pb, 214Bi, 228Ac, 228Th, 212Pb, 212Bi and 208Tl. In addition the activities of 235U and 40K were measured. The activities ranged from 0.14 to 34.8 Bq/l, while the concentrations of parent uranium and thorium isotopes ranged from 3.0 x 10(-3) to 0.59 mg/l. The results were compared with those for drinking water. PMID:11202689

  16. [Study of ozonization effects on mineral water components].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y; Yang, L; Chen, Y; Sha, X

    1998-03-01

    The disinfection effects of ozonization and its influences on chemical components of mineral water were investigated. The results showed that ozone at the level of 0.5 mg/L and with the exposure time of 5 minutes effectively destroyed bacteria in mineral water. High level ozone showed no strong influences on some beneficial components, such as strontium and metasilicate and on some main components, such as bicarbonate, hardness and alkalinity, but slightly elevated pH value. Ozonization reduced the contents of total dissolved solids and oxygen demand, and decomposed some reductive contaminants such as ammonia, cyanide and phenols. Ozonization will convert part of the bromide into hypobromite and bromate. PMID:10682614

  17. [The use of the natural mineral saponite for water decontamination].

    PubMed

    Hyrin, V M; Boĭko, I I; Rudychenko, V F

    1999-01-01

    Sorption properties were studied of natural and activated specimens of saponite with respect to poliomyelitis virus, Coxsackie B 1 and B 6 viruses as well as to Enterobacteriaceae group bacteria. With the purpose of comparing the processes of sorption of microorganisms, other minerals were also used, such as bentonite, alunite, glauconite, ceolite. The natural saponite adsorptive properties were found out to undergo changes during the process of thermoactivation. Mechanisms are discussed of a decontaminating effect of thermoactivated saponite in water. PMID:10423991

  18. Radium Adsorption to Iron Bearing Minerals in Variable Salinity Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, M.; Kocar, B. D.

    2014-12-01

    Radium is a common, naturally occurring radioactive metal found in many subsurface environments. Radium isotopes are a product of natural uranium and thorium decay, and are particularly abundant within groundwaters where minimal flux leads to accumulation within porewaters. Radium has been used as a natural tracer to estimate submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) [1], where the ratios of various radium isotopes are used to estimate total groundwater flux to and from the ocean [2]. Further, it represents a substantial hazard in waste water produced after hydraulic fracturing for natural gas extraction [3], resulting in a significant risk of environmental release and increased cost for water treatment or disposal. Adsorption to mineral surfaces represents a primary pathway of radium retention within subsurface environments. For SGD studies, it is important to understand adsorption processes to correctly estimate GW fluxes, while in hydraulic fracturing, radium adsorption to aquifer solids will mediate the activities of radium within produced water. While some studies of radium adsorption to various minerals have been performed [4], there is a limited understanding of the surface chemistry of radium adsorption, particularly to iron-bearing minerals such as pyrite, goethite and ferrihydrite. Accordingly, we present the results of sorption experiments of radium to a suite of iron-bearing minerals representative of those found within deep saline and near-surface (freshwater) aquifers, and evaluate impacts of varying salinity solutions through the use of artificial groundwater, seawater, and shale formation brine. Further, we explore the impacts of pyrite oxidation and ferrihydrite transformation to other iron-bearing secondary minerals on the retention of radium. This work lays the groundwork for further study of radium use as a tracer for SGD, as well as understanding mechanisms of radium retention and release from deep aquifer materials following hydraulic fracturing

  19. [The balneotherapeutic components of sulfide-containing mineral waters].

    PubMed

    Khutoryansky, V A; Gorshkov, A G

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested in an early study that sulfanes may serve as a source of sulfur contained in hydrogen sulfide sources. We have performed derivatization of sulfanes, known to be present in the "Novonukutskaya" mineral water. The presence of polysulfanes in balneotherapeutic sulfide waters was confirmed by the HPLC-UV and chromato-mass spectrometric techniques. Derivatization of inorganic polysulfides was achieved by using the reaction with methyl iodide. It was shown that polysulfanes contained in the examined samples were metastable and disintegrated into So and H2S. Almost all molecular zero-valent sulfur was present in the form of S8. The application of HPLC allowed to determine the equilibrium concentration of molecular sulfur. The presence of the above compounds in therapeutic sulfide waters raises the question of the mechanism of their curative action. The authors hypothesize that it may be related to the high therapeutic potency of the substances obtained by steam distillation from the "Novonukutskaya" mineral water. PMID:26841531

  20. Minerals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fish require the same minerals or inorganic elements as terrestrial animals for tissue formation, osmoregulation and various metabolic functions. Those required in large quantities are termed macro- or major minerals and those required in small quantities are called micro- or trace minerals. Fish ca...

  1. Mineral carbonation in water-unsaturated porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, A. L.; Dipple, G. M.; Mayer, K. U.; Power, I. M.

    2014-12-01

    Ultramafic mine tailings have an untapped capacity to sequester CO2 directly from air or CO2-rich gas streams via carbonation of tailings minerals [1]. The CO2 sequestration capacity of these sites could be exploited simply by increasing the supply of CO2 into tailings, such as through circulation of air or flue gas from mine site power plants [1,2]. Mine tailings storage facilities typically have heterogeneously distributed pore water [1], affecting both the reactive capacity of the porous medium and the exposure of reactive phases to CO2 [3]. We examine the physical reaction processes that govern carbonation efficiency in variably saturated porous media using meter-scale column experiments containing the tailings mineral, brucite [Mg(OH)2], that were supplied with 10% CO2 gas streams. The experiments were instrumented with water content and gas phase CO2 sensors to track changes in water saturation and CO2concentration with time. The precipitation of hydrated Mg-carbonates as rinds encasing brucite particles resulted in passivation of brucite surfaces and an abrupt shut down of the reaction prior to completion. Moreover, the extent of reaction was further limited at low water saturation due to the lack of water available to form hydrated Mg-carbonates, which incorporate water into their crystal structures. Reactive transport modeling using MIN3P-DUSTY [4] revealed that the instantaneous reaction rate was not strongly affected by water saturation, but the reactive capacity was reduced significantly. Surface passivation and water-limited reaction resulted in a highly non-geometric evolution of reactive surface area. The extent of reaction was also limited at high water content because viscous fingering of the gas streams injected at the base of the columns resulted in narrow zones of highly carbonated material, but left a large proportion of brucite unreacted. The implication is that carbonation efficiency in mine tailings could be maximized by targeting an

  2. The Mineral Content of U.S. Drinking and Municipal Water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: The mineral composition of tap water may contribute significant amounts of some minerals to dietary intake. The USDA’s Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) conducted a study of the mineral content of residential tap water, to generate new current data for the USDA National Nutrient Database. ...

  3. Iron oxide mineral-water interface reactions studied by AFM

    SciTech Connect

    Hawley, M.E.; Rogers, P.S.Z.

    1994-07-01

    Natural iron mineral surfaces have been examined in air by atomic force (AFM) and scanning tunneling (STM) microscopies. A number of different surface features were found to be characteristic of the native surface. Even surfaces freshly exposed by crushing larger crystals were found to have a pebbly surface texture caused by the presence of thin coatings of what might be surface precipitates. This finding is interpreted as evidence for previous exposure to water, probably through an extensive network of microfractures. Surface reactions on the goethite crystals were studied by AFM at size resolutions ranging from microns to atomic resolution before, during, and after reaction with distilled water and 0.lN HCl. Immediate and extensive surface reconfiguration occurred on contact with water. In one case, after equilibration with water for 3 days, surface reprecipitation, etching and pitting were observed. Atomic resolution images taken under water were found to be disordered. The result of surface reaction was generally to increase the surface area substantially through the extension of surface platelet arrays, present prior to reaction. This work is being done in support of the site characterization project at Yucca Mountain.

  4. Mineral concentration of livestock water varies from surface to ground sources in Eastern Montana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mineral content of water drank by livestock grazing native rangelands can be an important source of minerals affecting health and drinkability. To estimate water intake contribution, fifteen indicators of water quality were measured at 98 livestock water sites in May 2009 at the 22,257 ha USDA-ARS F...

  5. Mineral concentration of livestock water varies from surfaceto ground sources in Eastern Montana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mineral content of water drank by livestock grazing native rangelands can be an important source of minerals affecting health and drinkability. To estimate water intake contribution, fifteen indicators of water quality were measured at 98 livestock water sites in May 2009 at the 22,257 ha USDA-ARS F...

  6. Minerals

    MedlinePlus

    ... your body needs in larger amounts. They include calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride and sulfur. Your body needs just small amounts of trace minerals. These include iron, manganese, copper, iodine, zinc, cobalt, fluoride and selenium. The best way to ...

  7. IMMOBILIZATION OF HEAVY METALS IN SOILS AND WATER BY A MANGANESE MINERAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A synthesized Mn mineral used in study on adsorption of heavy metals from water has shown a great adsorption capability for Pb, Cu, Cd, Co, Ni and Zn on this mineral over a pH range from 2 to 8. The retention of Pb on this mineral was as high as 10% of its weight. Application of ...

  8. Evaluation of Water-Mineral Interaction Using Microfluidic Tests with Thin Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Y. S.; Ryu, J. H.; Koh, Y. K.; Jo, H. Y.

    2014-12-01

    For the geological disposal of radioactive wastes, geological settings and groundwater conditions are significantly important because of their effects on a radionuclide migration. One of the preferred host rocks for the radioactive waste disposal is crystalline rock. Fractures in crystalline rocks are main fluid pathways. Groundwater reacts with fracture filling minerals in fracture zones, resulting in physicochemical changes in the minerals and groundwater. In this study, fracture filling mineral-groundwater interactions were investigated by conducting microfluidic tests using thin sections at various conditions (i.e., fluid chemistry and flow rate). Groundwater and rock core samples collected from the KAERI Underground Research Tunnel (KURT) located in the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) were used in this study. Dominant bedrock is two-mica granite, which contains both biotite and muscovite. Secondary minerals (e.g., chlorite, calcite and clay minerals) occur in fracture and alteration zones. In nature, water-mineral interactions generally take long time. Microfluidic tests were conducted to simulate water-mineral interactions in shorter time with smaller scale. Thin sections of fracture filling minerals, minerals from alteration zones, and natural and synthetic groundwater samples were used for the microfluidic tests. Results showed that water-mineral interactions at various conditions caused changes in groundwater chemistry, dissolution of minerals, precipitation of secondary minerals, and formation of colloids, which can affect radionuclide migration. In addition, the fluid chemistry and flow rate affected characteristics of water-rock interactions.

  9. Multi-disciplinary study for the exploration of deep low enthalpy geothermal reservoirs, Neuchâtel, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauri, G.; Abdelfettah, Y.; Negro, F.; Schill, E.; Vuataz, F.

    2011-12-01

    different DEM resolution ranging from a very high resolution (0.5 m pixel in the vicinity of each station) toward a lower resolution (25 m for the distal areas as far as 110 km away from each station). The bathymetry of the Lake of Neuchâtel (218 km2) has been used to correct gravity effects from the large volume of water along the Lake shore of Neuchâtel. The combination of 3D geological models with a high resolution gravity survey allows to better constrain the geometry of the Triassic formation, just above the detachment layer, as well to quantify the karstic processes, which could affect the three deep aquifers.

  10. Deep ocean mineral water accelerates recovery from physical fatigue

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Deep oceans have been suggested as a possible site where the origin of life occurred. Along with this theoretical lineage, experiments using components from deep ocean water to recreate life is underway. Here, we propose that if terrestrial organisms indeed evolved from deep oceans, supply of deep ocean mineral water (DOM) to humans, as a land creature, may replenish loss of molecular complexity associated with evolutionary sea-to-land migration. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover human study to evaluate the effect of DOM, taken from a depth of 662 meters off the coast of Hualien, Taiwan, on time of recovery from a fatiguing exercise conducted at 30°C. Results The fatiguing exercise protocol caused a protracted reduction in aerobic power (reduced VO2max) for 48 h. However, DOM supplementation resulted in complete recovery of aerobic power within 4 h (P < 0.05). Muscle power was also elevated above placebo levels within 24 h of recovery (P < 0.05). Increased circulating creatine kinase (CK) and myoglobin, indicatives of exercise-induced muscle damage, were completely eliminated by DOM (P < 0.05) in parallel with attenuated oxidative damage (P < 0.05). Conclusion Our results provide compelling evidence that DOM contains soluble elements, which can increase human recovery following an exhaustive physical challenge. PMID:23402436

  11. [Influence of the ozonation on the elimination of arsenic from natural mineral water intended for bottling].

    PubMed

    Drobnik, Michał; Latour, Teresa

    2006-01-01

    Mineral water--hydrogen carbonat-calcium naturally sparkling water--containing arsenic in concentration above 0.01 mg/dm3 was ozonated. There was experimentally determined the optimal ozonation parameters: ozone dose, a duration of the process and of the contact between ozone and water, concentration of dissolved ozon in water. There was, moreover, determined an exceeding of ozone residual permissible in the obligatory regulations for bottled mineral waters. PMID:17193745

  12. Hypolipidemic Activity of a Natural Mineral Water Rich in Calcium, Magnesium, and Bicarbonate in Hyperlipidemic Adults

    PubMed Central

    Aslanabadi, Naser; Habibi Asl, Bohlool; Bakhshalizadeh, Babak; Ghaderi, Faranak; Nemati, Mahboob

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study compared the effects of a mineral water rich in calcium, magnesium, bicarbonate, and sulfate and a marketed mineral water with a composition similar to that of urban water on the lipid profile of dyslipidemic adults. Methods: In a randomized controlled trial, 32 adults received one liter of "rich mineral water" daily for one month, and 37 adults drank the same amount of normal mineral water for the same period. Changes in lipid profiles were compared separately in each studied group at the end of one month. Results: Results showed that mean cholesterol and low density lipoprotein LDL levels were significantly decreased in both studied groups after one month of drinking mineral water (P<0.05); however, no significant differences in high density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglyceride (TG) levels were seen in either group one month after drinking. There were no statistically significant differences between the "rich mineral water" and the normal mineral water groups in any of the above-mentioned lipid levels ( P>0.05). Conclusion: A one-month intake of mineral water rich in calcium, magnesium bicarbonate, and sulfate decreased cholesterol and LDL levels but not TG or HDL levels in dyslipidemic adults. PMID:24754016

  13. An Intervention with Mineral Water Decreases Cardiometabolic Risk Biomarkers. A Crossover, Randomised, Controlled Trial with Two Mineral Waters in Moderately Hypercholesterolaemic Adults.

    PubMed

    Toxqui, Laura; Vaquero, M Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Water intake is essential for health maintenance and disease prevention. The effects of an intervention with two mineral waters, sodium-bicarbonated mineral water (BW) or control mineral water low in mineral content (CW), on cardiometabolic risk biomarkers were studied. In a randomised-controlled crossover-trial, sixty-four moderately hypercholesterolaemic adults were randomly assigned to consume 1 L/day of either BW (sodium, 1 g/L; bicarbonate, 2 g/L) or CW with the main meals for eight weeks, separated by an eight-week washout period. Blood lipids, lipid oxidation, glucose, insulin, aldosterone, urine pH, urinary electrolytes, blood pressure, body weight, fluid intake, energy, and nutrients from total diet and beverages were determined. Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and glucose decreased (p < 0.01), oxidised LDL tended to decrease (p = 0.073), and apolipoprotein B increased during the intervention, without water type effect. Energy and carbohydrates from beverages decreased since soft drinks and fruit juice consumptions decreased throughout the trial. BW increased urinary pH (p = 0.006) and reduced calcium/creatinine excretion (p = 0.011). Urinary potassium/creatinine decreased with both waters. Consumption of 1 L/day of mineral water with the main meals reduces cardiometabolic risk biomarkers, likely to be attributed to a replacement of soft drinks by water. In addition, BW does not affect blood pressure and exerts a moderate alkalizing effect in the body. PMID:27367723

  14. An Intervention with Mineral Water Decreases Cardiometabolic Risk Biomarkers. A Crossover, Randomised, Controlled Trial with Two Mineral Waters in Moderately Hypercholesterolaemic Adults

    PubMed Central

    Toxqui, Laura; Vaquero, M. Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Water intake is essential for health maintenance and disease prevention. The effects of an intervention with two mineral waters, sodium-bicarbonated mineral water (BW) or control mineral water low in mineral content (CW), on cardiometabolic risk biomarkers were studied. In a randomised-controlled crossover-trial, sixty-four moderately hypercholesterolaemic adults were randomly assigned to consume 1 L/day of either BW (sodium, 1 g/L; bicarbonate, 2 g/L) or CW with the main meals for eight weeks, separated by an eight-week washout period. Blood lipids, lipid oxidation, glucose, insulin, aldosterone, urine pH, urinary electrolytes, blood pressure, body weight, fluid intake, energy, and nutrients from total diet and beverages were determined. Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and glucose decreased (p < 0.01), oxidised LDL tended to decrease (p = 0.073), and apolipoprotein B increased during the intervention, without water type effect. Energy and carbohydrates from beverages decreased since soft drinks and fruit juice consumptions decreased throughout the trial. BW increased urinary pH (p = 0.006) and reduced calcium/creatinine excretion (p = 0.011). Urinary potassium/creatinine decreased with both waters. Consumption of 1 L/day of mineral water with the main meals reduces cardiometabolic risk biomarkers, likely to be attributed to a replacement of soft drinks by water. In addition, BW does not affect blood pressure and exerts a moderate alkalizing effect in the body. PMID:27367723

  15. Water-bearing minerals on mars: source of observed mid-latitude water?

    SciTech Connect

    Bish, D. L.; Carey, J. W.; Fialips, C. I.

    2003-01-01

    The Odyssey spacecraft documented the existence of heterogeneously distributed hydrogen at martian mid-latitudes, suggesting that large areas of the near-equatorial highlands contain near-surface deposits of 'chemically and/or physically bound H20 and/or OH' in amounts up to 3 .8% equivalent H20. Shallow occurrences of water ice are not stable near the martian equator, making the hydrogen deposits at these latitudes somewhat enigmatic. Clay minerals and zeolites have both been proposed as possible water-bearing constituents on Mars, and both are common terrestrial alteration products of hydrovolcanic basaltic ashes and palagonitic material comparable to those that may be widespread on Mars. Smectites within martian meteorites, attributed to hydrous alteration on Mars rather than on Earth, provide direct evidence of clay minerals from Mars. In addition, new thermal emission spectrometer (TES) data provide good evidence for unspecified zeolites in martian surface dust [6] . The nature of the hydrogen-containing material observed in the equatorial martian regolith is of particular importance to the question of whether hydrous minerals have formed in the past on Mars. Also, whether these minerals exist in a hydrated (i .e., containing H2O molecules in their structures) or dehydrated state is a crucial question . The existence of hydrous minerals is also important in connection with their possible role in affecting the diurnal variation of the martian atmosphere, in their potential role in unraveling the paleohydrology and paleobiology of Mars, and in their possible use as a water resource to support exploration of the martian mid-latitudes.

  16. Links between climate change, water-table depth, and water chemistry in a mineralized mountain watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manning, Andrew H.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Caine; Todd, Andrew S.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that climate change is causing rising solute concentrations in mountain lakes and streams. These changes may be more pronounced in mineralized watersheds due to the sensitivity of sulfide weathering to changes in subsurface oxygen transport. Specific causal mechanisms linking climate change and accelerated weathering rates have been proposed, but in general remain entirely hypothetical. For mineralized watersheds, a favored hypothesis is that falling water tables caused by declining recharge rates allow an increasing volume of sulfide-bearing rock to become exposed to air, thus oxygen. Here, we test the hypothesis that falling water tables are the primary cause of an increase in metals and SO4 (100-400%) observed since 1980 in the Upper Snake River (USR), Colorado. The USR drains an alpine watershed geologically and climatologically representative of many others in mineralized areas of the western U.S. Hydrologic and chemical data collected from 2005 to 2011 in a deep monitoring well (WP1) at the top of the USR watershed are utilized. During this period, both water table depths and groundwater SO4 concentrations have generally increased in the well. A numerical model was constructed using TOUGHREACT that simulates pyrite oxidation near WP1, including groundwater flow and oxygen transport in both saturated and unsaturated zones. The modeling suggests that a falling water table could produce an increase in metals and SO4 of a magnitude similar to that observed in the USR (up to 300%). Future water table declines may produce limited increases in sulfide weathering high in the watershed because of the water table dropping below the depth of oxygen penetration, but may continue to enhance sulfide weathering lower in the watershed where water tables are shallower. Advective air (oxygen) transport in the unsaturated zone caused by seasonally variable recharge and associated water table fluctuations was found to have little influence on pyrite

  17. Do rock fragments participate to plant water and mineral nutrition?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korboulewsky, Nathalie; Tétégan, Marion; Besnault, Adeline; Cousin, Isabelle

    2010-05-01

    Rock fragments modify soil properties, and can be a potential reservoir of water. Besides, recent studies showed that this coarse soil fraction is chemically active, release nutrients, and could therefore be involved in biogeochemical nutrient cycles. However, these studies carried out on rock fragments, crushed pebbles or mineral particles do not answer the question whether the coarse soil fraction has significant nutritive functions. Only a couple of studies were conducted on plants, one on grass and the other on coniferous seedlings. This present work attempted to assess if pebbles may act as water and nutrient sources for poplar saplings, a deciduous species. Remoulded soils were set up in 5 L-pots with three percentages of pebbles: 0, 20, and 40% in volume. We used, as substrate either fine earth or sand (quartz), and as rock fragments either calcareous or inert pebbles (quartz). Additional modalities were settled with sand mixed with 20 and 40% pebbles enriched with nutrients. Both fine earth and calcareous pebbles were collected from the Ap horizon of a calcareous lacustrine limestone silty soil located in the central region of France. After cleaning, all pebbles were mixed to reach a bulk density in pots of 1.1 g/cm3 for the fine earth and 1.5 g/cm3 for the sand. Ten replicates were settled per modality, and one cutting of Populus robusta was planted in each. The experiment was conducted under controlled conditions. All pots were saturated at the beginning of the experiment, then irrigated by capillarity and controlled to maintain a moderate water stress. Growth and evapotranspiration were followed regularly, while water stress status was measured by stomatal conductivity every day during two drying periods of 10 days. After three months, plants were collected, separated in below- and above-ground parts for biomass and cation analysis (Ca, Mg, K). Results showed that pebbles can participate to plant nutrition, but no reduction of water stress was observed

  18. Particle Size Controls on Water Adsorption and Condensation Regimes at Mineral Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Yeşilbaş, Merve; Boily, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric water vapour interacting with hydrophilic mineral surfaces can produce water films of various thicknesses and structures. In this work we show that mineral particle size controls water loadings achieved by water vapour deposition on 21 contrasting mineral samples exposed to atmospheres of up to ~16 Torr water (70% relative humidity at 25 °C). Submicrometer-sized particles hosted up to ~5 monolayers of water, while micrometer-sized particles up to several thousand monolayers. All films exhibited vibrational spectroscopic signals akin to liquid water, yet with a disrupted network of hydrogen bonds. Water adsorption isotherms were predicted using models (1- or 2- term Freundlich and Do-Do models) describing an adsorption and a condensation regime, respectively pertaining to the binding of water onto mineral surfaces and water film growth by water-water interactions. The Hygroscopic Growth Theory could also account for the particle size dependence on condensable water loadings under the premise that larger particles have a greater propensity of exhibiting of surface regions and interparticle spacings facilitating water condensation reactions. Our work should impact our ability to predict water film formation at mineral surfaces of contrasting particle sizes, and should thus contribute to our understanding of water adsorption and condensation reactions occuring in nature. PMID:27561325

  19. Particle Size Controls on Water Adsorption and Condensation Regimes at Mineral Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Yeşilbaş, Merve; Boily, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric water vapour interacting with hydrophilic mineral surfaces can produce water films of various thicknesses and structures. In this work we show that mineral particle size controls water loadings achieved by water vapour deposition on 21 contrasting mineral samples exposed to atmospheres of up to ~16 Torr water (70% relative humidity at 25 °C). Submicrometer-sized particles hosted up to ~5 monolayers of water, while micrometer-sized particles up to several thousand monolayers. All films exhibited vibrational spectroscopic signals akin to liquid water, yet with a disrupted network of hydrogen bonds. Water adsorption isotherms were predicted using models (1- or 2- term Freundlich and Do-Do models) describing an adsorption and a condensation regime, respectively pertaining to the binding of water onto mineral surfaces and water film growth by water-water interactions. The Hygroscopic Growth Theory could also account for the particle size dependence on condensable water loadings under the premise that larger particles have a greater propensity of exhibiting of surface regions and interparticle spacings facilitating water condensation reactions. Our work should impact our ability to predict water film formation at mineral surfaces of contrasting particle sizes, and should thus contribute to our understanding of water adsorption and condensation reactions occuring in nature. PMID:27561325

  20. [Pay attention to the human health risk of drinking low mineral water].

    PubMed

    Shu, Weiqun

    2015-10-01

    The consumption of low mineral drinking water has been increasing around the world with the shortage of water resources and the development of advanced water treatment technologies. Evidences from systematic document reviews, ecological epidemiological observations, and experimental drinking water intervention studies indicate that lack of minerals in drinking water may cause direct or indirect harm to human health, among which, the associations of magnesium in water with cardiovascular disease, as well as calcium in water with osteoporosis, are well proved by sufficient evidence. This article points out that it is urgent to pay more attention to the issues about establishment of health risk evaluation system on susceptible consuming population, establishment of lab evaluation system on water quality and health effect for non-traditional drinking water, and program of safety mineralization for demineralized or desalinated water and so on. PMID:26813714

  1. Mineralization of biogenic materials in the water masses of the South Atlantic Ocean. II: Stoichiometric ratios and mineralization rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvarez-Salgado, X. A.; Álvarez, M.; Brea, S.; Mèmery, L.; Messias, M. J.

    2014-04-01

    The variability of nitrate (N), phosphate (P), silicate (Si) and Apparent Oxygen Utilization (AOU) due to water mass mixing was objectively separated from the variability due to mineralization of biogenic materials in the western and eastern South Atlantic Ocean on basis of the constrained Optimum MultiParameter (OMP) analysis implemented in the companion manuscript. Using a consensus linear regression model, AOU/N/P/Si mineralization ratios and the corresponding oxygen utilisation rates (OURs) were obtained for the realm of each water mass defined after the OMP analysis. Combining these results with a stoichiometric model, the organic carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratios and the biochemical composition (carbohydrates + lipids, proteins and phosphorus compounds) of the mineralized material, were derived. The vertical variability of the AOU/N, AOU/P and AOU/C mineralization ratios pointed to a significant fractionation during the mineralization of sinking organic matter. This fractionation was confirmed by preferential consumption of organic phosphorous compounds and proteins in shallower levels, which produced an increase of the C/N ratio of the mineralised materials of 0.5 ± 0.2 mol C mol N-1 every 1000 dbar. OURs in the twilight zone decreased quadratically with the C/N molar ratio of the mineralised material and exponentially with pressure (p, in 103 dbar) according to the following regression equation: Ln (OUR) = 6.2(±1.2) - 2.0(±0.7) * Ln (C/N) - 0.6(±0.2) * p (r2 = 0.87, p < 0.006, n = 8). This variability in the rates and stoichiometric ratios of the biogenic material mineralization compromises our capacity to predict the ocean biogeochemistry response to global change, including the CO2 uptake and storage and the corresponding feedback mechanisms.

  2. Multi-Generational Drinking of Bottled Low Mineral Water Impairs Bone Quality in Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Hui; Wang, Lingqiao; Wang, Dahua; Luo, Jiaohua; Zhang, Liang; Huang, Yujing; Chen, Ji-an; Shu, Weiqun

    2015-01-01

    Background Because of reproductions and hormone changes, females are more sensitive to bone mineral loss during their lifetime. Bottled water has become more popular in recent years, and a large number of products are low mineral water. However, research on the effects of drinking bottled low mineral water on bone health is sparse. Objective To elucidate the skeletal effects of multi-generational bottled water drinking in female rats. Methods Rats continuously drank tap water (TW), bottled natural water (bNW), bottled mineralized water (bMW), or bottled purified water (bPW) for three generations. Results The maximum deflection, elastic deflection, and ultimate strain of the femoral diaphysis in the bNW, bMW, and bPW groups and the fracture strain in the bNW and bMW groups were significantly decreased. The tibiae calcium levels in both the bNW and bPW groups were significantly lower than that in the TW group. The tibiae and teeth magnesium levels in both the bNW and bPW groups were significantly lower than those in the TW group. The collagen turnover markers PICP (in both bNW and bPW groups) were significantly lower than that in the TW group. In all three low mineral water groups, the 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D levels were significantly lower than those in the TW group. Conclusion Long-term drinking of low mineral water may disturb bone metabolism and biochemical properties and therefore weaken biomechanical bone properties in females. Drinking tap water, which contains adequate minerals, was found to be better for bone health. To our knowledge, this is the first report on drinking bottled low mineral water and female bone quality on three generation model. PMID:25803851

  3. An assessment of the quality of various bottled mineral water marketed in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Baba, A; Ereeş, F S; Hiçsönmez, U; Cam, S; Ozdilek, H G

    2008-04-01

    Fifteen bottled mineral waters purchased at random all over Turkey were analyzed for their chemical composition by OPTIMA-2000 ICP-AES Perkin Elmer techniques. Results show a wide spread in the chemical specification of these mineral waters, with differences in chemical composition observed in the regions being due to the geological environment and the majority of bottled mineral waters exceeding the pH limit of Turkish drinking water standards. When the concentrations of elements are evaluated, it can readily be seen that generally there are three types of mineral water in Turkey. The concentrations of Al, B, Ba, Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn Pb and Zn in mineral water were compared with the limits established by the Turkish Standard for Natural Mineral Waters (Turkish Official Gazette 2004); water standards prepared by World Health Organization (2006) and the United States of America Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) drinking water standards (1993). Such a comparison shows that, except for Ba and Mn, the concentrations of the other heavy metals are lower than the limit of the US. EPA in Turkey. Some parameters examined were found to comprise strong correlations pair-wise. PMID:17577674

  4. Hydrogenous mineral neoformations in Tomsk water intake facility from underground sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutova, E.; Vologdina, I.; Pokrovsky, D.; Nalivaiko, N.; Kuzevanov, K.; Pokrovsky, V.

    2016-03-01

    The article considers study outcomes of hydrogenous mineral neoformations precipitated on deferrization filters of Tomsk water intake facility from underground sources. Compositionally, these precipitations are colloform and polymineral including ferrous, carbonate and aluminosilicate mineral phases. Ferrous phase predominates and embraces ferric hydroxides (ferrihydrate, goethite, hematite and lepidocrocite) and ferrous hydrophosphates (vivianite, strengite, strunzite and rockbridgeit). Carbonate and aluminosilicate minerals are calcite and kaolinite-group, respectively.

  5. Cavitation pitting and erosion of Al 6061-T6 in mineral oil and water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    The authors are currently carrying out a study of the cavitation erosion of different bearing metals and alloys in mineral oils were studied. The variations of weight loss, the pit diameter and depth due to cavitation erosion on Al 6061-T6 in mineral oil and water are presented.

  6. Investigation of the water sorption properties of Mars-relevant micro- and mesoporous minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jänchen, Jochen; Bish, David L.; Möhlmann, Diedrich T. F.; Stach, Helmut

    2006-02-01

    Encouraged by recent results of the Mars Odyssey spacecraft mission and the OMEGA team (Mars Express) concerning water in equatorial latitudes between ±45° on Mars and the possible existence of hydrated minerals, we have investigated the water sorption properties of natural zeolites and clay minerals close to martian atmospheric surface conditions as well as the properties of Mg-sulfates and gypsum. To quantify the stability of hydrous minerals on the martian surface and their interaction with the martian atmosphere, the water adsorption and desorption properties of nontronite, montmorillonite, chabazite and clinoptilolite have been investigated using adsorption isotherms at low equilibrium water vapor pressures and temperatures, modeling of the adsorption equilibrium data, thermogravimetry (TG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and proton magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance measurements ( 1H MAS NMR). Mg-sulfate hydrates were also analyzed using TG/DSC methods to compare with clay mineral and zeolites. Our data show that these microporous minerals can remain hydrated under present martian atmospheric conditions and hold up to 2.5-25 wt% of water in their void volumes at a partial water vapor pressure of 0.001 mbar in a temperature range of 333-193 K. Results of the 1H MAS NMR measurements suggest that parts of the adsorbed water are liquid-like water and that the mobility of the adsorbed water might be of importance for adsorption-water-triggered chemistry and hypothetical exobiological activity on Mars.

  7. [Development of salt concentrates for mineralization of recycled water aboard the space station].

    PubMed

    Skliar, E F; Amiragov, M S; Bobe, L S; Gavrilov, L I; Kurochkin, M G; Solntseva, D P; Krasnov, M S; Skuratov, V M

    2006-01-01

    Recycled water can be brought up to the potable grade by adding minimal quantities of three soluble concentrates with the maximal content of inorganic salts. The authors present results of 3-year storage of potable water mineralized with makeup concentrates and analysis of potable water prepared with the use of the salt concentrates stored over this period of time. A water mineralization unit has been designed based on the principle of cyclic duty to produce physiologically healthy potable water with a preset salt content. PMID:17193977

  8. Thermal behavior of water confined in micro porous of clay mineral at additional pressure.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Y.; Takemura, T.; Fujimori, H.; Nagoe, A.; Sugimoto, T.

    2014-12-01

    Water is the most familiar substance. However water has specific properties that has a crystal structure of a dozen and density of that is maximum at 277.15 K. Therefore it understands various natural phenomena to study physical properties of water. Oodo et al study physical properties of water confined in silica gel [1]. They indicate that melting point of water confined in silica gel decrease with decreasing pore size of silica gel. Also in case that pore size is less than 2 nm, water confined in silica gel is unfreezing water at low temperature. It is considered that effect of pore size prevent crystal growth of water. Therefore we are interested in water confined in clay minerals. Clay minerals have a number of water conditions. Also it is thought that water confined in clay minerals show different physical behavior to exist the domain where change with various effect. Therefore we studied a thermal properties and phase behavior of absorption water in clay minerals. In addition, we analyzed the changes in the thermal behavior of absorption water due to the effect of earth pressure that was an environmental factor in the ground. [1] Oodo & Fujimori, J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 357 (2011) 683.

  9. CADMIUM AND ENDRIN TOXICITY TO FISH IN WATERS CONTAINING MINERAL FIBERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Taconite tailings and their component asbestiform minerals in Lake Superior water had no demonstrable effect on the chronic toxicity of cadmium to the flagfish, Jordanella floridae. Maximum acceptable toxicant concentrations determined in life cycle tests, where effects on surviv...

  10. Cavitation pitting and erosion of aluminum 6061-T6 in mineral oil water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    Cavitation erosion studies of aluminum 6061-T6 in mineral oil and in ordinary tap water are presented. The maximum erosion rate (MDPR, or mean depth of penetration rate) in mineral oil was about four times that in water. The MDPR in mineral oil decreased continuously with time, but the MDPR in water remained approximately constant. The cavitation pits in mineral oil were of smaller diameter and depth than the pits in water. Treating the pits as spherical segments, we computed the radius r of the sphere. The logarithm of h/a, where h is the pit depth and 2a is the top width of the pit, was linear when plotted against the logarithm of 2r/h - 1.

  11. [Contribution of natural mineral water to the iodine supply of the population].

    PubMed

    Kirchner, S; Stelz, A; Muskat, E

    1996-10-01

    Most parts of Germany are iodine deficiency areas. Daily iodine intake may be increased by food with high iodine content. Therefore determination of iodine in different foodstuffs is of importance. Aim of our work was to develop a method for mineral waters. Besides, we wanted to find out to what extent natural mineral waters can contribute to the iodine supply of the population. The method is based on the reaction of the halogenids iodide and bromide with ethylene oxide in a sulfuric acid medium while converting into 2-iodo- and 2-bromoethanol. After extraction, the reaction products are determined by capillary gas chromatography with an electron capture detector. The method was modified for mineral waters. Single results were confirmed by ICP-MS. For mineral waters the limits of determination are 3 micrograms/L for iodide and 42 micrograms/L for bromide. The investigation of mineral waters from Hessen showed, that only few sources contain iodide in remarkable amounts. Therefore a considerable improvement of iodide intake is possible only with single mineral waters. PMID:9123969

  12. Carbonate-mineral/water interactions in sulfide-rich mine tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al, Tom A.; Martin, Chris J.; Blowes, David W.

    2000-12-01

    The chemical composition and mineralogy of coatings on carbonate minerals from mine tailings have been studied using aqueous geochemical methods, Time-of-Flight Laser-Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TOF-LIMS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The goal is to study major and trace element partitioning between the aqueous and solid phase, and to infer mechanisms that control the concentrations of elements in the pore water of sulfide-rich mine tailings. Pore-water samples and carbonate-mineral grains were collected from four geochemically distinct zones within the tailings. Oxidation of sulfide minerals near the surface results in a large range in pore-water pH (3.85 to 6.98) and aqueous concentrations of metals and sulfate. With increasing depth in the tailings, mineral-water interactions lead to increasing pH, and decreasing concentrations of metals and sulfate. Calculated mineral saturation indices, trends in the abundance of Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn in TOF-LIMS profiles through the secondary coatings, and electron diffraction patterns obtained from the coatings, suggest that precipitation/dissolution of jarosite-group minerals, gypsum, goethite, akaganéite, amorphous Fe oxyhydroxides and siderite control the aqueous Ca, Fe, Na, K and SO 4 concentrations. The occurrence of secondary coatings on primary minerals is widespread, and reactions with the secondary minerals, rather than the primary mineral substrate, probably represent the principal controls on trace-element distributions in the pore water. The data indicate that adsorption, surface-complexation and co-precipitation reactions are important controls on the concentrations of trace elements in the pore water. The occurrence of siderite coatings on the surface of ankerite grains suggests that Fe-bearing dolomite-structure carbonate minerals dissolve incongruently. This corroborates inferences made by previous workers that solubility differences between calcite and siderite lead to calcite dissolution and

  13. Authigenic Mineralization of Silicates at the Organic-water Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEvoy, B.; Wallace, A. F.

    2015-12-01

    It is relatively common for some fraction of organic material to be preserved in the sedimentary rock record as disseminated molecular fragments. The survival of wholly coherent tissues from primarily soft-bodied organisms is far more unusual. However, the literature is now well- populated with spectacular examples of soft-tissue preservation ranging from a 2,600 year old human brain to the tissues of the Ediacaran biota that have survived ~600 million years. Some of the most exceptional examples of soft tissue preservation are from the Proterozoic-Cambrian transition, however, nearly all modes of fossil preservation during this time are debated. Clay mineral templates have been implicated as playing a role in several types of soft tissue preservation, including Burgess Shale and Beecher's Trilobite-type preservation, and more recently, Bitter Springs-type silicification. Yet, there is still much debate over whether these clay mineral coatings form during early stage burial and diagenesis, or later stage metamorphism. This research addresses this question by using in situ fluid cell Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to investigate the nucleation and growth of silicate minerals on model biological surfaces. Herein we present preliminary results on the deposition of hydrous magnesium silicates on self-assembled monolayers (-OH, -COOH, -CH3, and -H2PO3 terminated surfaces) at ambient conditions.

  14. Mineral-water reactions in metamorphism and volcanism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, I.

    1985-01-01

    Low-temperature (120??C and less) metamorphism of graywacke, granite and andesite yields zeolites and precursor gels by reaction with fresh water but low-greenschist facies by reaction with salt (sea)water. ?? 1985.

  15. Water geochemistry of the Lucero Uplift, New Mexico: geothermal investigation of low-temperature mineralized fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, F.; McCormick, T.; Gardner, J.N.; Trujillo, P.E.; Counce, D.; Vidale, R.; Charles, R.

    1983-04-01

    A detailed geochemical investigation of 27 waters of the Lucero uplift, central New Mexico, was performed to determine if the fluids originate from a high-temperature geothermal system along the Rio Grande rift. Two types of mineralized water issue from the Lucero region: a relatively saline (high-Cl, high-SO/sub 4/) type and a relatively dilute (low-Cl, high-SO/sub 4/) type. Emergence temperatures of both types range from 12 to 26/sup 0/C. Chemical data and thermodynamic and geothermometer calculations all indicate that both water types are in equilibrium with carbonate and evaporite minerals found in local Colorado Plateau rocks at surface temperatures or slightly higher. Stable isotope data do not indicate high-temperature rock-water interaction. Although evidence is seen for mixing between mineralized waters and dilute surface waters, no evidence for mixing of a deep hot fluid and surface waters is seen. Dilute mineral waters, which issue from a large area of Chinle Formation on the west side of the Lucero uplift, may be useful for low-temperature geothermal applications with appropriate design of equipment. Saline mineral waters, which leak from a zone of faulted and folded rocks along the Comanche fault zone, do not appear to have much, if any, geothermal potential due to their low-temperature, restricted distribution, and high concentration of dissolved solids. No evidence that saline mineral waters are associated with Quaternary faults of the Rio Grande rift or Quaternary basaltic volcanism within the immediate area is seen.

  16. Radiochemical characterization of mineral waters in the Eastern Black Sea Region, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kobya, Yasar; Damla, Nevzat; Cevik, Ugur; Kobya, Ali Ihsan

    2011-11-01

    This study has evaluated the levels of natural radionuclides and chemical components of mineral waters in the Eastern Black Sea Region (Turkey). The mean activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th, (137)Cs, (40)K, gross alpha and gross beta were found as 129, 33, 28, 714, 125 and 170 mBq L(-1), respectively. Due to consumption of mineral waters, the radiological impact of them on the inhabitants was calculated by taking the annual intake into account through ingestion of aforementioned radionuclides. The estimated effective doses from mineral water were found to be 13.20 μSv year(-1) ((226)Ra), 2.74 μSv year(-1) ((232)Th), 0.13 μSv year(-1) ((137)Cs) and 1.62 μSv year(-1) ((40)K). The overall contribution of these radionuclides to the committed effective dose from a year's consumption of mineral water in the region is therefore estimated to be only 17.69%, which is in concordance with the recommended WHO value (100 μSv year(-1)). The chemical analysis results showed that these waters contain Na, Al, P, Cl, K, Ca, V, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn elements. These values were evaluated and compared with the internationally verified values. This study provides important information for consumers and authorities because of their internal radiochemical exposure risk from mineral water intake. PMID:21327484

  17. Mineral content of sorghum genotypes and the influence of water stress.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Caroline Liboreiro; Queiroz, Valéria Aparecida Vieira; Simeone, Maria Lúcia Ferreira; Schaffert, Robert Eugene; de Oliveira, Antônio Carlos; da Silva, Camila Santana

    2017-01-01

    Sorghum is a source of several minerals whose content may vary depending on the genotype and the production environment. The objective of this study was to screen sorghum genotypes for mineral content and to investigate the effect of water stress on it. A large variability was observed in the mineral content of 100 sorghum genotypes grown in environments without (WoWS) and with water stress (WthWS). The water stress decreased Mn, P, Mg and S contents in 100, 96, 93 and 56% of genotypes, respectively. The genotypes and other factors seemed to have more impact than water stress on K, Ca, Cu, Fe and Zn levels. In 100 sorghum genotypes, 2 were classified as excellent sources of Fe and 25 of Zn, in both environments. The best two genotypes to Fe content were SC21 and SC655 and to Zn were SC320 and SHAN-QUI-RED which showed great potential for use in biofortification. PMID:27507491

  18. The spectral reflectance of water-mineral mixtures at low temperatures. [observed on natural satellites and other solar system objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, R. N.

    1981-01-01

    Laboratory reflectance spectra in the 0.325-2.5 micron region of bound water, water-mineral mixtures, mineral grains on frost, and frost on minerals are presented. The materials used in this study are montmorillonite, kaolinite, beryl, Mauna Kea red cinder, and black charcoal. It is found that the wavelengths of bound water and bound OH absorptions do not shift appreciably with temperature and can be detected when large amounts of free water ice are present. The decrease in the visible reflectance seen in many planetary reflectance spectra containing strong water ice absorptions can be explained by water-mineral mixtures, mineral grains on frost, or frost on mineral grains. Mineral grains on frost are detectable in very small quantities (fractional areal coverage less than approximately 0.005) depending on the mineral reflectance features, while it takes a thick layer of frost (greater than approximately 1 mm) to mask a mineral below 1.4 microns, again depending on the mineral reflectance. Frost on a very dark surface (albedo about 6%) is easily seen; however, a dark mineral mixed with water could completely mask the water absorptions (shortward of 2.5 microns).

  19. Adsorption mechanisms of microcystin variant conformations at water-mineral interfaces: A molecular modeling investigation.

    PubMed

    Pochodylo, Amy L; Aoki, Thalia G; Aristilde, Ludmilla

    2016-10-15

    Microcystins (MCs) are potent toxins released during cyanobacterial blooms. Clay minerals are implicated in trapping MCs within soil particles in surface waters and sediments. In the absence of molecular characterization, the relevance of previously proposed adsorption mechanisms is lacking. Towards obtaining this characterization, we conducted Monte Carlo simulations combined with molecular dynamics relaxation of two MC variants, MC-leucine-arginine (MC-LR) and MC-leucine-alanine (MC-LA), adsorbed on hydrated montmorillonite with different electrolytes. The resulting adsorbate structures revealed how MC conformations and aqueous conditions dictate binding interactions at the mineral surface. Electrostatic coupling between the arginine residue and a carboxylate in MC-LR excluded the participation of arginine in mediating adsorption on montmorillonite in a NaCl solution. However, in a CaCl2 solution, the complexation of Ca by two carboxylate moieties in MC-LR changed the MC conformation, which allowed arginine to mediate electrostatic interaction with the mineral. By contrast, due to the lack of arginine in MC-LA, complexation of Ca by only one carboxylate in MC-LA was required to favor Ca-bridging interaction with the mineral. Multiple water-bridged H-bonding interactions were also important in anchoring MCs at the mineral surface. Our modeling results offer molecular insights into the structural and chemical factors that can control the fate of MCs at water-mineral interfaces. PMID:27433998

  20. Therapeutic Effects and Immunomodulation of Suanbo Mineral Water Therapy in a Murine Model of Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoon Jung; Lee, Hye Jin; Lee, Do Hyun; Woo, So Youn; Lee, Kyung Ho; Yun, Seong Taek; Kim, Jong Moon; Kim, Hong Jig

    2013-01-01

    Background Balneotherapy is widely used as an alternative treatment modality for AD. Although the clinical benefit of some mineral waters has been established, their mechanisms of action in alleviating AD are only partly understood. Objective The clinical modification and immunomodulatory or anti-inflammatory effects of mineral water from the Suanbo hot springs on the differentiation and cytokine production of Th1, Th2, and regulatory T cells (Treg) were investigated using spleen, skin tissue, and serum from NC/Nga mice. Methods The therapeutic effects of bathing in mineral water in a Dermatophagoides farinae body extract ointment (Dfb ointment)-induced AD mouse model were assessed by measuring the modified Scoring atopic dermatitis (SCORAD) index scores, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), histological and immunohistochemical changes of the skin lesion, serum levels of interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5 and immunoglobulin E, mRNA expression of IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-5 of dorsal skin, and helper T cell differentiation in the spleen. Results Bathing in mineral water significantly reduced the modified SCORAD index scores, TEWL, epidermal hyperplasia, and inflammatory cell infiltration. IL-4 production and Th2 cell differentiation showed a decreasing tendency with mineral water bathing, but the Th1 cells did not. On the contrary, differentiation to Treg cells was promoted with mineral water bathing. Conclusion Balneotherapy not only has anti-inflammatory activity, but also shows positive effects on cutaneous barrier homeostasis. These results suggest that the favorable effects of balneotherapy may be mediated by modifying the Th2 response, and possibly in part by inducing Treg cell differentiation. PMID:24371394

  1. Mineral-Coated Polymer Membranes with Superhydrophilicity and Underwater Superoleophobicity for Effective Oil/Water Separation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peng-Cheng; Xu, Zhi-Kang

    2013-01-01

    Oil-polluted water is a worldwide problem due to the increasing industrial oily wastewater and the frequent oil spill accidents. Here, we report a novel kind of superhydrophilic hybrid membranes for effective oil/water separation. They were prepared by depositing CaCO3-based mineral coating on PAA-grafted polypropylene microfiltration membranes. The rigid mineral-coating traps abundant water in aqueous environment and forms a robust hydrated layer on the membrane pore surface, thus endowing the membranes with underwater superoleophobicity. Under the drive of either gravity or external pressure, the hybrid membranes separate a range of oil/water mixtures effectively with high water flux (>2000 L m−2 h−1), perfect oil/water separation efficiency (>99%), high oil breakthrough pressure (>140 kPa) and low oil fouling. The oil/water mixtures include not only free mixtures but also oil-in-water emulsions. Therefore, the mineral-coated membrane enables an efficient and energy-saving separation for various oil/water mixtures, showing attractive potential for practical oil/water separation. PMID:24072204

  2. Mineral-coated polymer membranes with superhydrophilicity and underwater superoleophobicity for effective oil/water separation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peng-Cheng; Xu, Zhi-Kang

    2013-01-01

    Oil-polluted water is a worldwide problem due to the increasing industrial oily wastewater and the frequent oil spill accidents. Here, we report a novel kind of superhydrophilic hybrid membranes for effective oil/water separation. They were prepared by depositing CaCO3-based mineral coating on PAA-grafted polypropylene microfiltration membranes. The rigid mineral-coating traps abundant water in aqueous environment and forms a robust hydrated layer on the membrane pore surface, thus endowing the membranes with underwater superoleophobicity. Under the drive of either gravity or external pressure, the hybrid membranes separate a range of oil/water mixtures effectively with high water flux (>2000 L m(-2) h(-1)), perfect oil/water separation efficiency (>99%), high oil breakthrough pressure (>140 kPa) and low oil fouling. The oil/water mixtures include not only free mixtures but also oil-in-water emulsions. Therefore, the mineral-coated membrane enables an efficient and energy-saving separation for various oil/water mixtures, showing attractive potential for practical oil/water separation. PMID:24072204

  3. Study of mineral water resources from the Eastern Carpathians using stable isotopes.

    PubMed

    Magdas, Dana A; Cuna, Stela M; Berdea, Petre; Balas, Gabriela; Cuna, Cornel; Dordai, Edina; Falub, Mihaela C

    2009-08-30

    The Eastern Carpathians contain many mineral water springs that feed famous Romanian health resorts such as Borsec, Biborteni and Vatra Dornei. These waters have been used for their different therapeutic effects. In this work, mineral and spring waters from these Romanian regions were investigated by means of chemical and isotopic (deltaD and delta(18)O) analyses in order to understand the recharge mechanisms and also to determine their origins. Most of the investigated springs are of meteoric origin, having the average deuterium content of the local meteoric water. The higher (18)O content with respect to the Meteoric Water Line (MWL) indicated an exchange reaction with crystalline igneous rocks at depth and with other rocks that the water encounters on its journey back to the surface. PMID:19603457

  4. Application of Membrane Crystallization for Minerals' Recovery from Produced Water.

    PubMed

    Ali, Aamer; Quist-Jensen, Cejna Anna; Macedonio, Francesca; Drioli, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Produced water represents the largest wastewater stream from oil and gas production. Generally, its high salinity level restricts the treatment options. Membrane crystallization (MCr) is an emerging membrane process with the capability to extract simultaneously fresh water and valuable components from various streams. In the current study, the potential of MCr for produced water treatment and salt recovery was demonstrated. The experiments were carried out in lab scale and semi-pilot scale. The effect of thermal and hydrodynamic conditions on process performance and crystal characteristics were explored. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses confirmed that the recovered crystals are sodium chloride with very high purity (>99.9%), also indicated by the cubic structure observed by microscopy and SEM (scanning electron microscopy) analysis. It was demonstrated experimentally that at recovery factor of 37%, 16.4 kg NaCl per cubic meter of produced water can be recovered. Anti-scaling surface morphological features of membranes were also identified. In general, the study provides a new perspective of isolation of valuable constituents from produced water that, otherwise, is considered as a nuisance. PMID:26610581

  5. [Study of combined application of mineral water and medicinal plants as regulators of gastric secretion].

    PubMed

    Gridneva, V I; Mamonova, N V; Zadorozhnaia, N A

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this work was to study the impact of the concurrent application of mineral water from the lake of Shira (Khakassia) and phytotherapeutic preparations on the secretory and excretory stomach functions. Mineral water from the lake of Shira belongs to highly mineralized (18.4 g/l) hydrocarbonate sodium-magnesium waters with alkaline reaction (pH 8.9). Phytotherapeutic preparations included the following herbs: common St. John's wort--4 parts (6.0 g per liter), bay willow--5 parts (7.5 g), peppermint: 5 parts (7.5 g), quinquelobate motherwort--3 parts (4.5 g), and shelf fungus--3 parts (4.5 g). PMID:15065539

  6. Geochemical Insight from Nonlinear Optical Studies of Mineral-Water Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covert, Paul A.; Hore, Dennis K.

    2016-05-01

    The physics and chemistry of mineral-water interfaces are complex, even in idealized systems. Our need to understand this complexity is driven by both pure and applied sciences, that is, by the need for basic understanding of earth systems and for the knowledge to mitigate our influences upon them. The second-order nonlinear optical techniques of second-harmonic generation and sum-frequency generation spectroscopy have proven adept at probing these types of interfaces. This review focuses on the contributions to geochemistry made by nonlinear optical methods. The types of questions probed have included a basic description of the structure adopted by water molecules at the mineral interface, how flow and porosity affect this structure, adsorption of trace metal and organic species, and dissolution mechanisms. We also discuss directions and challenges that lie ahead and the outlook for the continued use of nonlinear optical methods for studies of mineral-water boundaries.

  7. Influence of mineral weathering reactions on the chemical composition of soil water, springs, and ground water, Catoctin Mountains, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katz, B.G.

    1989-01-01

    During 1983 and 1984, wet precipitation was primarily a solution of dilute sulphuric acid, whereas calcium and bicarbonate were the major ions in springs and ground water in two small watersheds with a deciduous forest cover in central Maryland. Dominant ions in soil water were calcium, magnesium, and sulphate. The relative importance of mineral weathering reactions on the chemical composition of these subsurface waters was compared to the contribution from wet precipitation, biological processes, and road deicing salts. -from Author

  8. Trace metal contamination of mineral spring water in an historical mining area in regional Victoria, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Rachael; Dowling, Kim

    2013-11-01

    Significant global consumption of spring and mineral water is fuelled by perceived therapeutic and medicinal qualities, cultural habits and taste. The Central Victorian Mineral Springs Region, Australia comprises approximately 100 naturally effervescent, cold, high CO2 content springs with distinctive tastes linked to a specific spring or pump. The area has a rich settlement history. It was first settled by miners in the 1840s closely followed by the first commercial operations of a health resort 1895. The landscape is clearly affected by gold mining with geographically proximal mine waste, mullock heaps or tailings. Repeated mineral springs sampling since 1985 has revealed elevated arsenic concentrations. In 1985 an arsenic concentration five times the current Australian Drinking Water Guideline was recorded at a popular tourist spring site. Recent sampling and analyses have confirmed elevated levels of heavy metals/metalloids, with higher concentrations occurring during periods of low rainfall. Despite the elevated levels, mineral water source points remain accessible to the public with some springs actively promoting the therapeutic benefits of the waters. In light of our analysis, the risk to consumers (some of whom are likely to be negatively health-affected or health-compromised) needs to be considered with a view to appropriate and verified analyses made available to the public.

  9. Erosion of aluminum 6061-T6 under cavitation attack in mineral oil and water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    Studies of the erosion of aluminum 6061-T6 under cavitation attack in distilled water, ordinary tap water and a viscous mineral oil are presented. The mean depth of penetration for the mineral oil was about 40 percent of that for water at the end of a 40 min test. The mean depth of penetration and its rate did not differ significantly for distilled and tap water. The mean depth of penetration rate for both distilled and tap water increased to a maximum and then decreased with test duration, while that for mineral oil had a maximum during the initial period. The ratio h/2a of the pit depth h to the pit diameter 2a varied from 0.04 to 0.13 in water and from 0.06 to 0.20 in mineral oil. Scanning electron microscopy indicates that the pits are initially formed over the grain boundaries and precipitates while the surface grains are deformed under cavitation attack.

  10. Offstream water and trace mineral salt as management strategies for improved cattle distribution.

    PubMed

    Porath, M L; Momont, P A; DelCurto, T; Rimbey, N R; Tanaka, J A; McInnis, M

    2002-02-01

    The objective of this study was to test the combined effect of offstream water and trace mineral salt on cattle distribution in a riparian meadow and its adjacent uplands. From July 15 to August 26, 1996 and 1997, three treatments were each randomly assigned to one pasture in each of three blocks. Sixty cow/calf pairs were then randomly allotted to the grazed pastures. The treatments included 1) stream access and access to offstream water and trace-mineral salt (off-stream), 2) stream access and no access to offstream water or trace-mineral salt (no-offstream), and 3) ungrazed control. The response of cattle was measured through visual observations of cattle distribution, grazing activity and travel distance, cow/calf performance, and fecal deposit distribution. Distribution patterns of the cattle, measured as the distance of cattle from the stream, was characterized by a time of day x treatment x time in grazing period x year interaction (P < 0.05). No-offstream cattle began the day further from the stream than offstream cattle but consistently moved closer to the stream after the morning grazing period (0600 to 0900). Differences in distribution patterns between the two treatments were more pronounced early in the grazing period than late in the grazing period. Grazing activity, fecal deposit distribution, and travel distance of cattle were not affected by the presence of offstream water and trace-mineral salt. Cows and calves with offstream water and trace-mineral salt gained 11.5 kg and 0.14 kg/d more, respectively, than no-offstream cows and calves averaged across years (P < 0.05). Overall, cattle distribution patterns and cow/calf performance were influenced by the presence of offstream water and trace-mineral salt. Changes in distribution were most pronounced early in the grazing season. PMID:11881924

  11. Crystallographic controls on the frictional behavior of dry and water-saturated sheet structure minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Diane E.; Lockner, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    We compare the frictional strengths of 17 sheet structure mineral powders, measured under dry and water-saturated conditions, to identify the factors that cause many of them to be relatively weak. The dry coefficient of friction ?? ranges upward from 0.2 for graphite, leveling off at 0.8 for margarite, clintonite, gibbsite, kaolinite, and lizardite. The values of ?? (dry) correlate directly with calculated (001) interlayer bond strengths of the minerals. This correlation occurs because shear becomes localized along boundary and Riedel shears and the platy minerals in them rotate into alignment with the shear planes. For those gouges with ?? (dry) < 0.8, shear occurs by breaking the interlayer bonds to form new cleavage surfaces. Where ?? (dry) = 0.8, consistent with Byerlee's law, the interlayer bonds are sufficiently strong that other frictional processes dominate. The transition in dry friction mechanisms corresponds to calculated surface energies of 2-3 J/m2. Adding water causes ?? to decrease for every mineral tested except graphite. If the minerals are separated into groups with similar crystal structures, ?? (wet) increases with increasing interlayer bond strength within each group. This relationship also holds for the swelling clay montmorillonite, whose water-saturated strength is consistent with the strengths of nonswelling clays of similar crystal structure. Water in the saturated gouges forms thin, structured films between the plate surfaces. The polar water molecules are bonded to the plate surfaces in proportion to the mineral's surface energy, and ?? (wet) reflects the stresses required to shear through the water films. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  12. ABSORPTION OF LEAD FROM DRINKING WATER WITH VARYING MINERAL CONTENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lead (Pb) (200 ppm) was administered via drinking water to rats for nine weeks. In addition, the rats were grouped so that they received 75, 100, 150 and 250% of the minimum daily requirements (MDR) of calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), and magnesium (Mg) as required for normal growth. The...

  13. Effect of a natural mineral-rich water on catechol-O-methyltransferase function.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Pedro; Araújo, João Ricardo; Azevedo, Isabel; Martins, Maria João; Ribeiro, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is a magnesium-dependent, catecholamine-metabolizing enzyme, whose impaired activity has been positively associated with cardiovascular diseases, particularly hypertension. Consumption of some natural mineral-rich waters has been shown to exert protective effects on cardiovascular risk factors, eg. by decreasing arterial blood pressure and blood lipids. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are still poorly understood. So, the aim of this work was to investigate the effect of natural mineral-rich water ingestion upon liver and adrenal glands COMT expression and activity in Wistar Han rats. Over a seven-week period, animals had access to one of the following three drinking solutions: 1) tap water (control group; TW), 2) tap water with added Na(+) (to make the same concentration as in the MW group (TWNaCl group), or 3) natural mineral-rich water [Pedras Salgadas(®), which is very rich in bicarbonate, and with higher sodium, calcium and magnesium content than control tap water (MW group)]. COMT expression and activity were determined by RT-PCR and HPLC-ED, respectively. A higher hepatic COMT activity was found in the MW group compared with the TW and TWNaCl groups. On the other hand, adrenal gland COMT mRNA expression decreased in the MW group compared to TW group. In conclusion, the ability of natural mineral-rich waters to increase hepatic COMT activity may eventually explain the positive cardiovascular effects associated with the consumption of some natural mineral-rich waters. PMID:25560240

  14. Several properties offilament fibers made from recycled bottles of mineral water using melt spinning method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muslim, Ikhwanul; Mardiyati; Basuki, Arif

    2016-01-01

    Waste mineral water bottles made of PET called post-consumer POSTC-PET packaging with recycling code no. 1 can be made into another material other than the bottle by using a mechanical recycling process. In this experiment carried waste recycling process bottled mineral water bottles of PET into filament fibres with the aid of a melt spinning. From the resulting experimental filament fibres diameter of 14-15 microns, obtained the draw ratio is 1/46, 573,5 - 699,8 MPa tensile strength, modulus of elasticity of 2,01 - 2,45GPa, moisture regain of 2,84. Keywords. PET; Bottle; Fiber; Melt; Spinning; Drawing.

  15. Innovative Approaches to Teaching Packaging Design Using the Example of Mineral Water Supply Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lestyánszka Škůrková, Katarína; Bajor, Peter; Trafela, Sabrina

    2013-12-01

    Designing the packaging of a product has many critical factors. In our paper, we present some of them on the example of a simple product: mineral water. In spite of the fact that today not only products, but also supply chains are competing with each other, designers sometimes pay little attention to considering the packaging system not only from the customer and the producer side, but for warehousing and transportation as well. We cover a lot of "what can go wrong" scenarios on the example of mineral water packaging for the purpose of defining the critical points in the supply chain.

  16. Water-soluble organophosphorus reagents for mineralization of heavy metals.

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, K. L.

    1999-02-26

    In this report, we have described the principal stages of a two-step process for the in-situ stabilization of actinide ions in the environment. The combination of cation exchange and mineralization appears likely to provide a long-term solution to environments contaminated with heavy metals. Relying on a naturally occurring sequestering agent has obvious potential advantages from a regulatory standpoint. There are additional aspects of this technology requiring further elucidation, including the demonstration of the effect of these treatment protocols on the geohydrology of soil columns, further examination of the influence of humates and other colloidal species on cation uptake, and microbiological studies of phytate hydrolysis. We have learned during the course of this investigation that phytic acid is potentially available in large quantities. In the US alone, phytic acid is produced at an annual rate of several hundred thousand metric tons as a byproduct of fermentation processes (11). This material presently is not isolated for use. Instead, most of the insoluble phyate (as phytin) is being recycled along with the other solid fermentation residues for animal feed. This material is in fact considered undesirable in animal feed. The details of possible separation processes for phytate from these residues would have to be worked out before this untapped resource would be available for application to heavy metal sequestration. The results described emphasize the behavior of actinide and trivalent lanthanide metal ions, as these species are of primary interest to the Department of Energy for the cleanup of the former nuclear weapons production complex. While the specific demonstration includes this limited selection of metal ions, the technique should be readily applicable to any class of metal ions that form insoluble phosphate compounds under appropriate conditions. Further, though this demonstration has been conducted in the pH 5-8 range, it is conceivable that

  17. Floating bioplato for purification of waste quarry waters from mineral nitrogen compounds in the Arctic.

    PubMed

    Evdokimova, Galina A; Ivanova, Lyubov A; Mozgova, Natalia P; Myazin, Vladimir A; Fokina, Nadezhda V

    2016-08-23

    A bioplato was organized at Kirovogorskiy pond-settling of OLKON Company (the city of Olenegorsk, in Murmansk region) to reduce the content of nitrogen mineral compounds in water which come into the pond with the quarry waters after blasting operations using nitrogen compounds. The assortment of aboriginal plants was selected, a method of fixing and growing them on the water surface was developed, and observations of their vegetation were carried out. The dynamics of nitrogen compounds was determined in the laboratory and with full-scale tests. The coverage area pond by plants for the effective reduction of mineral nitrogen compounds was calculated. The use of floating bioplato helped to reduce content of ammonium and nitrite to maximum permissible levels or even lower in pond water. Also there was a tendency towards reduction of nitrate concentrations in water. The developmental technology can be used in any climatic zone with a specific assortment of plants-ameliorants. PMID:27220259

  18. Mars Gully: No Mineral Trace of Liquid Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This image of the Centauri-Hellas Montes region was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) at 2107 UTC (4:07 p.m. EST) on Jan. 9, 2007, near 38.41 degrees south latitude, 96.81 degrees east longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 20 meters (66 feet) across. The region covered is slightly wider than 10 kilometers (6.2 miles) at its narrowest point.

    Narrow gullies found on hills and crater walls in many mid-latitude regions of Mars have been interpreted previously as cut by geologically 'recent' running water, meaning water that flowed on Mars long after impact cratering, tectonic forces, volcanism or other processes created the underlying landforms. Some gullies even eroded into sand dunes, which would date their formation at thousands to millions of years ago, or less. In fact, Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images showed two of the gullies have bright deposits near their downslope ends - but those deposits were absent in images taken just a few years earlier. The bright deposits must have formed within the period 1999-2004.

    Has there been running water on Mars so recently? To address that question, CRISM and MRO's other instruments observed the bright gully deposits. CRISM's objective was to determine if the bright deposits contained salts left behind from water evaporating into Mars' thin air. The high-resolution imager's (HiRISE's) objective was to determine if the small-scale morphology was consistent with formation by running water.

    This CRISM image of a bright gully deposit was constructed by showing 2.53, 1.50, and 1.08 micrometer light in the red, green, and blue image planes. CRISM can just resolve the deposits (highlighted by arrows in the inset), which are only a few tens of meters (about 150 feet) across. The spectrum of the deposits barely differs from that of the surrounding material, and is just a little brighter. This difference

  19. Chemical and isotopic composition of water from thermal springs and mineral springs of Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mariner, R.H.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, William C.

    1982-01-01

    Water from thermal springs of Washington range in chemical composition from dilute NaHC03, to moderately saline C02-charged NaHC03-Cl waters. St. Martin 's Hot Spring which discharges a slightly saline NaCl water, is the notable exception. Mineral springs generally discharge a moderately saline C02-charged NaHC03-Cl water. The dilute Na-HC03 waters are generally associated with granite. The warm to hot waters charged with C02 issue on or near the large stratovolcanoes and many of the mineral springs also occur near the large volcanoes. The dilute waters have oxygen isotopic compositions which indicate relatively little water-rock exchange. The C02-charged waters are usually more enriched in oxygen-18 due to more extensive water-rock reaction. Carbon-13 in the C02-charged thermal waters is more depleted (-10 to -12 permil) than in the cold C02-charged soda springs (-2 to -8 permil) which are also scattered throughout the Cascades. The hot and cold C02-charged waters are supersaturated with respect to CaC03, but only the hot springs are actively depositing CaC03. Baker, Gamma, Sulphur , and Ohanapecosh seem to be associated with thermal aquifers of more than 100C. (USGS)

  20. Extraction of reusable water from a mineral mining process

    SciTech Connect

    Gleim, W.K.

    1982-01-19

    A method for the treatment of an aqueous effluent slime derived from a tar sand extraction process is disclosed. The effluent slime ph is adjusted to an acidic ph and treated with an anionic surface active agent to create flocculation of solid asphaltic material entrained within the slime. A solvent solution comprising chlorinated hydrocarbon and a solvent therefor is added so that upon centrifuging of the treated slime three physical layers of material comprising (1) water; (2) asphaltics in the solvent solution and (3) clay are formed.

  1. Reduction in cardiovascular risk by sodium-bicarbonated mineral water in moderately hypercholesterolemic young adults.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Granados, Ana M; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Schoppen, Stefanie; Vaquero, M Pilar

    2010-10-01

    The effects of drinking sodium-bicarbonated mineral water on cardiovascular risk in young men and women with moderate cardiovascular risk were studied. Eighteen young volunteers (total cholesterol levels >5.2 mmol/L) without any disease participated. The study consisted of two 8-week intervention periods. Subjects consumed, as supplement to their usual diet, 1 L/day control low mineral water, followed by 1 L/day bicarbonated mineral water (48 mmol/L sodium, 35 mmol/L bicarbonate and 17 mmol/L chloride). Determinations were performed at the end of the control water period and on Weeks 4 and 8 of the bicarbonated water period. Body weight, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, dietary intake, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, apolipoprotein (Apo) A-I, Apo B, triacylgycerols, glucose, insulin, adiponectin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), soluble adhesion molecules [soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM) and soluble vascular adhesion molecule (sVCAM)], sodium and chloride urinary excretion, and urine pH were measured. Dietary intake, body weight and BMI showed no significant variations. Systolic blood pressure decreased significantly after 4 weeks of bicarbonated water consumption, without significant differences between Weeks 4 and 8. After bicarbonated water consumption, significant reductions in total cholesterol (by 6.3%; P=.012), LDL cholesterol (by 10%; P=.001), total/HDL cholesterol (P=.004), LDL/HDL cholesterol (P=.001) and Apo B (P=.017) were observed. Serum triacylglycerol, Apo A-I, sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 and hs-CRP levels did not change. Serum glucose values tended to decrease during the bicarbonated water intervention (P=.056), but insulin levels did not vary. This sodium-bicarbonated mineral water improves lipid profile in moderately hypercholesterolemic young men and women and could therefore be applied in dietary interventions to reduce cardiovascular risk. PMID

  2. Water in the Earth's Mantle: Mineral-specific IR Absorption Coefficients and Radiative Thermal Conductivities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Minor and trace element chemistry, phase relations, rheology, thermal structure and the role of volatiles and their abundance in the deep Earth mantle are still far from fully explored, but fundamental to understanding the processes involved in Earth formation and evolution. Theory and high pressure experiments imply a significant water storage capacity of nominally anhydrous minerals, such as majoritic garnet, olivine, wadsleyite and ringwoodite, composing the Earth's upper mantle and transition zone to a depth of 660 km. Studying the effect of water incorporation on chemical and physical mineral properties is of importance, because the presence of trace amounts of water, incorporated as OH through charge-coupled chemical substitutions into such nominally anhydrous high-pressure silicates, notably influences phase relations, melting behavior, conductivity, elasticity, viscosity and rheology. Knowledge of absolute water contents in nominally anhydrous minerals is essential for modeling the Earth's interior water cycle. One of the most common and sensitive tools for water quantification is IR spectroscopy for which mineral-specific absorption coefficients are required. Such calibration constants can be derived from hydrogen concentrations determined by independent techniques, such as secondary ion mass spectrometry, Raman spectroscopy or proton-proton(pp)-scattering. Here, analytical advances and mineral-specific IR absorption coefficients for the quantification of H2O in major phases of the Earth's mantle will be discussed. Furthermore, new data from optical absorption measurements in resistively heated diamond-anvil cells at high pressures and temperatures up to 1000 K will be presented. Experiments were performed on synthetic single-crystals of olivine, ringwoodite, majoritic garnet, and Al-bearing phase D with varying iron, aluminum and OH contents to calculate radiative thermal conductivities and study their contribution to heat transfer in the Earth's interior

  3. Discrimination of fish oil and mineral oil slicks on sea water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mac Dowall, J.

    1969-01-01

    Fish oil and mineral oil slicks on sea water can be discriminated by their different spreading characteristics and by their reflectivities and color variations over a range of wavelengths. Reflectivities of oil and oil films are determined using a duel beam reflectance apparatus.

  4. Climatic and landscape controls on water transit times and silicate mineral weathering in the critical zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapata-Rios, Xavier; McIntosh, Jennifer; Rademacher, Laura; Troch, Peter A.; Brooks, Paul D.; Rasmussen, Craig; Chorover, Jon

    2015-08-01

    The critical zone (CZ) can be conceptualized as an open system reactor that is continually transforming energy and water fluxes into an internal structural organization and dissipative products. In this study, we test a controlling factor on water transit times (WTT) and mineral weathering called Effective Energy and Mass Transfer (EEMT). We hypothesize that EEMT, quantified based on local climatic variables, can effectively predict WTT within—and mineral weathering products from—the CZ. This study tests whether EEMT or static landscape characteristics are good predictors of WTT, aqueous phase solutes, and silicate weathering products. Our study site is located around Redondo Peak, a rhyolitic volcanic resurgent dome, in northern New Mexico. At Redondo Peak, springs drain slopes along an energy gradient created by differences in terrain aspect. This investigation uses major solute concentrations, the calculated mineral mass undergoing dissolution, and the age tracer tritium and relates them quantitatively to EEMT and landscape characteristics. We found significant correlations between EEMT, WTT, and mineral weathering products. Significant correlations were observed between dissolved weathering products (Na+ and DIC), 3H concentrations, and maximum EEMT. In contrast, landscape characteristics such as contributing area of spring, slope gradient, elevation, and flow path length were not as effective predictive variables of WTT, solute concentrations, and mineral weathering products. These results highlight the interrelationship between landscape, hydrological, and biogeochemical processes and suggest that basic climatic data embodied in EEMT can be used to scale hydrological and hydrochemical responses in other sites.

  5. Formation of water-soluble metal cyanide complexes from solid minerals by Pseudomonas plecoglossicida.

    PubMed

    Faramarzi, Mohammad A; Brandl, Helmut

    2006-06-01

    A few Pseudomonas species are able to form hydrocyanic acid (HCN), particularly when grown under glycine-rich conditions. In the presence of metals, cyanide can form water-soluble metal complexes of high chemical stability. We studied the possibility to mobilize metals as cyanide complexes from solid minerals using HCN-forming microorganisms. Pseudomonas plecoglossicida was cultivated in the presence of copper- and nickel-containing solid minerals. On powdered elemental nickel, fast HCN generation within the first 12 h of incubation was observed and water-soluble tetracyanaonickelate was formed. Cuprite, tenorite, chrysocolla, malachite, bornite, turquoise, millerite, pentlandite as well as shredded electronic scrap was also subjected to a biological treatment. Maximum concentrations of cyanide-complexed copper corresponded to a solubilization of 42% and 27% when P. plecoglossicida was grown in the presence of cuprite or tenorite, respectively. Crystal system, metal oxidation state and mineral hydrophobicity might have a significant influence on metal mobilization. However, it was not possible to allocate metal mobilization to a single mineral property. Cyanide-complexed gold was detected during growth on manually cut circuit boards. Maximum dicyanoaurate concentration corresponded to a 68.5% dissolution of the total gold added. These findings represent a novel type of microbial mobilization of nickel and copper from solid minerals based on the ability of certain microbes to form HCN. PMID:16684101

  6. Urban net-zero water treatment and mineralization: experiments, modeling and design.

    PubMed

    Englehardt, James D; Wu, Tingting; Tchobanoglous, George

    2013-09-01

    Water and wastewater treatment and conveyance account for approximately 4% of US electric consumption, with 80% used for conveyance. Net zero water (NZW) buildings would alleviate demands for a portion of this energy, for water, and for the treatment of drinking water for pesticides and toxic chemical releases in source water. However, domestic wastewater contains nitrogen loads much greater than urban/suburban ecosystems can typically absorb. The purpose of this work was to identify a first design of a denitrifying urban NZW treatment process, operating at ambient temperature and pressure and circum-neutral pH, and providing mineralization of pharmaceuticals (not easily regulated in terms of environmental half-life), based on laboratory tests and mass balance and kinetic modeling. The proposed treatment process is comprised of membrane bioreactor, iron-mediated aeration (IMA, reported previously), vacuum ultrafiltration, and peroxone advanced oxidation, with minor rainwater make-up and H2O2 disinfection residual. Similar to biological systems, minerals accumulate subject to precipitative removal by IMA, salt-free treatment, and minor dilution. Based on laboratory and modeling results, the system can produce potable water with moderate mineral content from commingled domestic wastewater and 10-20% rainwater make-up, under ambient conditions at individual buildings, while denitrifying and reducing chemical oxygen demand to below detection (<3 mg/L). While economics appear competitive, further development and study of steady-state concentrations and sludge management options are needed. PMID:23770482

  7. Redistributed water by saprotrophic fungi triggers carbon mineralization in dry soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guhr, Alexander; Borken, Werner; Matzner, Egbert

    2015-04-01

    Summer droughts are common in temperate forests and especially the upper soil horizons experience soil drought. Drought events can be accompanied by negative effects for forest ecosystems but many plants can reduce drought stress by hydraulic redistribution (HR). Similar processes were recently described for ectomycorrhizal networks but no information is available for mycelia networks of saprotrophic fungi. They strongly contribute to belowground nutrient cycling, C and N mineralization. We hypothesize that redistributed water by saprotrophic fungi triggers mineralization of organic matter in soils under drought conditions. The impact of HR by saprotrophic fungi on mineralization was determined using mesocosms comprising two chambers, separated by a 2 mm air gap to prevent bulk flow of water. After inoculation with fungal cultures and a growth phase, both chambers were desiccated. Subsequently, only chamber I was rewetted while chamber II was treated with 13C labelled plant material. CO2 samples were collected over 7 days after rewetting and analyzed for stable isotope ratio. In addition, enzymatic activity of chitinases and cellobiohydrolases in chamber II was determined after 7 days using the soil zymographie method with fluorogenic 4-Methylumbelliferyl-substrates. A negative control was provided by mesocosms in which hyphal connections between the chambers were severed before rewetting. Intact fungal connections between the chambers led to a strong increase in volumetric water content in chamber II after rewetting of chamber I and the CO2 had a higher enrichment in 13C than in the control mescosms with severed connections. Enrichment started 48 h after rewetting and continued for the rest of the experiment. This resulted in a more than two fold higher total carbon mineralization after 7 days in chamber II of mesocosms with intact hyphal connections. In addition, enzyme activities were also strongly increased compared to controls. In conclusion, mycelia networks

  8. Molecular statics calculations for iron oxide and oxyhydroxide minerals: Toward a flexible model of the reactive mineral-water interface

    SciTech Connect

    Rustad, J.R.; Felmy, A.R.; Hay, B.P.

    1996-05-01

    Molecular statics calculations are used to model the major FeOOH polymorphs and hematite. The potentials were taken from a previous investigation of Fe(III) in aqueous solutions which involved the extrapolation of the gas-phase Fe(III)-OH{sub 2} potential energy surface to the solvated hexaaqua complex. Using this model for the solid phases, lattice parameters for goethite, akaganeite, lepidocrocite, and hematite are generally within 4% of experiment. Internal energies (at 0 K) were computed for each structure; lepidocrocite is energetically the most stable polymorph, followed by akaganeite, with goethite being the least stable. While the model exhibits some variances with experiment, it performs remarkably well, despite the challenges constraint of being consistent with a dissociating molecular dynamics model for water in its gas, aqueous, and solid phases. Because of this consistency, the model allows qualitative theoretical treatment of previously unapproachable problems in mineral-water interface geochemistry. We apply the model to identify surface species on the solvated (110) surface of goethite. 29 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Molecular statics calculations for iron oxide and oxyhydroxide minerals: Toward a flexible model of the reactive mineral-water interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rustad, James R.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Hay, Benjamin P.

    1996-05-01

    Molecular statics calculations are used to model the major FeOOH polymorphs and hematite. The potentials were taken from a previous investigation of Fe(III) in aqueous solutions which involved the extrapolation of the gas-phase Fe(III)-OH 2 potential energy surface to the solvated hexaaqua complex. Using this model for the solid phases, lattice parameters for goethite, akaganeite, lepidocrocite, and hematite are generally within 4% of experiment. Internal energies (at 0 K) were computed for each structure; lepidocrocite is energetically the most stable polymorph, followed by akaganeite, with goethite being the least stable. While the model exhibits some variances with experiment, it performs remarkably well, despite the challenging constraint of being consistent with a dissociating molecular dynamics model for water in its gas, aqueous, and solid phases. Because of this consistency, the model allows qualitative theoretical treatment of previously unapproachable problems in mineral-water interface geochemistry. We apply the model to identify surface species on the solvated (110) surface of goethite.

  10. Geochemistry of summit fumarole vapors and flanking thermal/mineral waters at Popocatepetl Volcano, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, C.; Goff, F.; Janik, C.J.

    1997-06-01

    Popocatepetl Volcano is potentially devastating to populations living in the greater Mexico City area. Systematic monitoring of fumarole gases and flanking thermal/mineral springs began in early 1994 after increased fumarolic and seismic activity were noticed in 1991. These investigations had two major objectives: (1) to determine if changes in magmatic conditions beneath Popocatepetl might be reflected by chemical changes in fumarolic discharges and (2) to determine if thermal/mineral spring waters in the vicinity of Popocatepetl are geochemically related to or influences by the magmatic system. This report summarizes results from these two discrete studies.

  11. Desalination of Ground Water Minerals (Case Study: Kashan Desert in Iran)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahani, S. E.; Esmaeli Mahani, M.; Siavoshi, F.; Jafari, M.

    2009-12-01

    The present study focuses on testing quality and desalination of minerals from ground water that is used as the only source of water supply particularly for drinking in the Kashan Desert in Iran. About 14.2 cubic meter water/year from 59 wells, with the average depth of 120 meter, are used for drinking and personal usage in the selected study area. To test the quality of ground water, in general, salinity of minerals such as: chloride (Cl), sulfate (SO4), carbonate (CO3), bicarbonate (HCO3), potassium (K), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg), as well as PH, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Electric Conductivity (EC), and Temperature (T) are measured. EC and TDS in the deserts and arid areas are usually very high because of lack of rainfall, higher temperature, and high rate of evaporation. If the TDS is greater than 1000 mg/l, ground water needs to be desalinated. The TDS of ground water samples in Kashan Desert is greater than 2500 mg/l, which is higher than international World Health Organization (WHO) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard values. Conventional treatment can not be the only solution for making Kashan Desert ground water that much pure that can be used as fresh water for drinking because EC, Mg, Na, Cl, and SO4 are also higher than standard values. Various techniques such as: Ion Exchange (IX), Microfiltration (MF), Ultra Filtration (UF), Nano Filtration (NF), Electro Dialysis (ED), and Reserve Osmosis (RO) are examined to desalinate above mentioned minerals. Based on molecular weight and diameter of chemical particles which should be removed, in addition to experiences of operational groups in Iran, the RO technique has been selected as the best methodology. The results show that the RO technique could improve the quality of Kashan Desert ground water by comparison with the standard fresh water up to 95% to 99%.

  12. The role of water and mineral-collagen interfacial bonding on microdamage progression in bone.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qing; Leng, Huijie; Wang, Xiaodu; Zhou, Yanheng; Rong, Qiguo

    2014-02-01

    Microdamage would be accumulated in bone due to high-intensity training or even normal daily activity, which may consequently cause fragility fracture or stress fracture. On the other hand, microdamage formation serves as a toughening mechanism in bone. However, the mechanisms that control microdamage initiation and accumulation in bone are still poorly understood. Our previous finite element model indicated that different interfacial properties between mineral and collagen in bone may lead to distinct patterns of microdamage accumulation. Therefore, the current study was designed to examine such prediction and to investigate the role of water and mineral-collagen interactions on microdamage accumulation in bone. To address these issues, 48 mice femurs were divided randomly into four groups. These groups were dehydrated or treated with perfluorotripropylamine (PFTA) or NaF solution to change water distribution and mineral-collagen interfacial bonding in bone. After three-point bending fatigue tests, the types of microdamage (i.e., linear microcracks or diffuse damage) formed in bone were compared between different groups. The results suggested that (1) bone tissues with strong mineral-collagen interfacial bonding facilitate the formation of linear microcraks, and (2) water has little contribution to the growth of microcracks. PMID:24122969

  13. Leaching of antimony from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles into mineral water.

    PubMed

    Keresztes, Szilvia; Tatár, Eniko; Mihucz, Victor G; Virág, István; Majdik, Cornelia; Záray, Gyula

    2009-08-01

    The Sb leaching from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) package material into 10 different brands of still (non-carbonated) and sparkling (carbonated) Hungarian mineral water purchased in supermarkets was investigated by inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SF-MS). The Sb concentration measured in PET package materials varied between 210 and 290 mg/kg. Generally, the Sb concentration of still mineral water was lower than that of sparkling in the case of identical storage time. For modelling improper storage conditions, storage time (10-950 days), temperature (22 degrees C-70 degrees C), illumination (dark vs. 23 W daylight lamp for 116 h) as well as bottle volume (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 L) were taken into consideration. Under certain extreme light and temperature storage conditions, the Sb concentration of some samples exceeded the concentration value of 2 ng/mL. The extent of Sb leaching from the PET recipients of different brands of mineral water can differ by even one order of magnitude in experiments conducted under the same conditions. Thus, the adequate selection of the polymer used for the production of the PET bottle for the solar water disinfection (SODIS) procedure seems to ensure low Sb levels in the water samples. PMID:19467696

  14. Detection of solar wind-produced water in irradiated rims on silicate minerals

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, John P.; Ishii, Hope A.; Gillis-Davis, Jeffrey J.; Ciston, James; Nielsen, Michael H.; Bechtel, Hans A.; Martin, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    The solar wind (SW), composed of predominantly ∼1-keV H+ ions, produces amorphous rims up to ∼150 nm thick on the surfaces of minerals exposed in space. Silicates with amorphous rims are observed on interplanetary dust particles and on lunar and asteroid soil regolith grains. Implanted H+ may react with oxygen in the minerals to form trace amounts of hydroxyl (−OH) and/or water (H2O). Previous studies have detected hydroxyl in lunar soils, but its chemical state, physical location in the soils, and source(s) are debated. If −OH or H2O is generated in rims on silicate grains, there are important implications for the origins of water in the solar system and other astrophysical environments. By exploiting the high spatial resolution of transmission electron microscopy and valence electron energy-loss spectroscopy, we detect water sealed in vesicles within amorphous rims produced by SW irradiation of silicate mineral grains on the exterior surfaces of interplanetary dust particles. Our findings establish that water is a byproduct of SW space weathering. We conclude, on the basis of the pervasiveness of the SW and silicate materials, that the production of radiolytic SW water on airless bodies is a ubiquitous process throughout the solar system. PMID:24449869

  15. Detection of solar wind-produced water in irradiated rims on silicate minerals.

    PubMed

    Bradley, John P; Ishii, Hope A; Gillis-Davis, Jeffrey J; Ciston, James; Nielsen, Michael H; Bechtel, Hans A; Martin, Michael C

    2014-02-01

    The solar wind (SW), composed of predominantly ∼1-keV H(+) ions, produces amorphous rims up to ∼150 nm thick on the surfaces of minerals exposed in space. Silicates with amorphous rims are observed on interplanetary dust particles and on lunar and asteroid soil regolith grains. Implanted H(+) may react with oxygen in the minerals to form trace amounts of hydroxyl (-OH) and/or water (H2O). Previous studies have detected hydroxyl in lunar soils, but its chemical state, physical location in the soils, and source(s) are debated. If -OH or H2O is generated in rims on silicate grains, there are important implications for the origins of water in the solar system and other astrophysical environments. By exploiting the high spatial resolution of transmission electron microscopy and valence electron energy-loss spectroscopy, we detect water sealed in vesicles within amorphous rims produced by SW irradiation of silicate mineral grains on the exterior surfaces of interplanetary dust particles. Our findings establish that water is a byproduct of SW space weathering. We conclude, on the basis of the pervasiveness of the SW and silicate materials, that the production of radiolytic SW water on airless bodies is a ubiquitous process throughout the solar system. PMID:24449869

  16. The Consumption of Bicarbonate-Rich Mineral Water Improves Glycemic Control.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Shinnosuke; Goto, Yasuaki; Ito, Kyo; Hayasaka, Shinya; Kurihara, Shigeo; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Tomita, Masaru; Fukuda, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    Hot spring water and natural mineral water have been therapeutically used to prevent or improve various diseases. Specifically, consumption of bicarbonate-rich mineral water (BMW) has been reported to prevent or improve type 2 diabetes (T2D) in humans. However, the molecular mechanisms of the beneficial effects behind mineral water consumption remain unclear. To elucidate the molecular level effects of BMW consumption on glycemic control, blood metabolome analysis and fecal microbiome analysis were applied to the BMW consumption test. During the study, 19 healthy volunteers drank 500 mL of commercially available tap water (TW) or BMW daily. TW consumption periods and BMW consumption periods lasted for a week each and this cycle was repeated twice. Biochemical tests indicated that serum glycoalbumin levels, one of the indexes of glycemic controls, decreased significantly after BMW consumption. Metabolome analysis of blood samples revealed that 19 metabolites including glycolysis-related metabolites and 3 amino acids were significantly different between TW and BMW consumption periods. Additionally, microbiome analysis demonstrated that composition of lean-inducible bacteria was increased after BMW consumption. Our results suggested that consumption of BMW has the possible potential to prevent and/or improve T2D through the alterations of host metabolism and gut microbiota composition. PMID:26798400

  17. The Consumption of Bicarbonate-Rich Mineral Water Improves Glycemic Control

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Shinnosuke; Goto, Yasuaki; Ito, Kyo; Hayasaka, Shinya; Kurihara, Shigeo; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Tomita, Masaru; Fukuda, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    Hot spring water and natural mineral water have been therapeutically used to prevent or improve various diseases. Specifically, consumption of bicarbonate-rich mineral water (BMW) has been reported to prevent or improve type 2 diabetes (T2D) in humans. However, the molecular mechanisms of the beneficial effects behind mineral water consumption remain unclear. To elucidate the molecular level effects of BMW consumption on glycemic control, blood metabolome analysis and fecal microbiome analysis were applied to the BMW consumption test. During the study, 19 healthy volunteers drank 500 mL of commercially available tap water (TW) or BMW daily. TW consumption periods and BMW consumption periods lasted for a week each and this cycle was repeated twice. Biochemical tests indicated that serum glycoalbumin levels, one of the indexes of glycemic controls, decreased significantly after BMW consumption. Metabolome analysis of blood samples revealed that 19 metabolites including glycolysis-related metabolites and 3 amino acids were significantly different between TW and BMW consumption periods. Additionally, microbiome analysis demonstrated that composition of lean-inducible bacteria was increased after BMW consumption. Our results suggested that consumption of BMW has the possible potential to prevent and/or improve T2D through the alterations of host metabolism and gut microbiota composition. PMID:26798400

  18. Comparative assessment of genotoxicity of mineral water packed in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and glass bottles.

    PubMed

    Ceretti, Elisabetta; Zani, Claudia; Zerbini, Ilaria; Guzzella, Licia; Scaglia, Mauro; Berna, Vanda; Donato, Francesco; Monarca, Silvano; Feretti, Donatella

    2010-03-01

    The potential migration of genotoxic compounds into mineral water stored in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles was evaluated by an integrated chemical/biological approach using short-term toxicity/genotoxicity tests and chemical analysis. Six commercial brands of still and carbonated mineral water bottled in PET and in glass were stored at 40 degrees C for 10 days in a stove according to the standard EEC total migration test (82/711/EEC), or at room temperature in the dark. After treatment, the samples were analysed using gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to detect volatile and non-volatile compounds, the Microtox test to evaluate potential toxicity of the samples, and three mutagenicity tests -Tradescantia and Allium cepa micronucleus tests and the Comet assay on human leukocytes - to detect their genotoxic activity. GC/MS analysis did not detect phthalates or acetaldehyde in the water samples. The Microtox test found no toxic effects. Mutagenicity tests detected genotoxic properties of some samples in both PET and glass bottles. Statistical analyses showed a positive association between mineral content and mutagenicity (micronuclei in A. cepa and DNA damage in human leukocytes). No clear effect of treatment and PET bottle was found. These results suggest the absence of toxic compounds migrating from PET regardless of time and conditions of storage. In conclusion, bottle material and stove treatment were not associated with the genotoxic properties of the water; the genotoxic effects detected in bottled water may be related to the characteristics of the water (minerals and CO(2) content). PMID:19913274

  19. Dynamic Response of Forest Litter and Mineral Soil to Pulsed Water Additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boot, C. M.; Schaeffer, S. M.; Carbone, M. S.; Still, C. J.; Schimel, J.

    2010-12-01

    Quantifying microbial responses to drought and moisture pulses are essential to understanding terrestrial C cycling in a changing climate. Using laboratory incubations we sought to determine if water added in multiple consecutive pulses to pine forest litter and mineral soil resulted in different C dynamics than water added in a single event. Soils were collected from two sites on Santa Cruz Island located in Channel Islands National Park 40 km southwest of Santa Barbara, CA. Both sites are dominated by Bishop pine (Pinus muricata) mixed with chaparral shrubs, with a ~3-10 cm thick litter layer. The sites differ, however, in the frequency and amount of precipitation received. Following water additions as either one or three pulses (equal total volume) we measured respiration, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) over twenty-two days after the first water addition. Three days after the initial water addition in the litter samples the DOC and MBC for both treatments were not different; however, the temporal dynamics varied by site with the high precipitation site responding more quickly and with a higher magnitude than the low precipitation site. In both the litter and mineral soil respiration rate correlated with soil moisture (r2=0.91 and 0.84 respectively). Our results suggest that the water history and other site-specific characteristics were more important in the response to pulsed water additions than how the water was introduced to the system.

  20. Effects of land use on fresh waters: Agriculture, forestry, mineral exploitation, urbanisation

    SciTech Connect

    Solbe, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    This book offers a broad consideration of the effects of land use on fresh waters above and below ground. Experts address a wide range of issues in relation to the four major uses of land. Taken from an international conference held at the University of Stirling in 1985, coverage includes sewerage and waste-water treatment, long-term contamination of aquifers below cities, mineral exploitation, use of water in food production, wood production and more. Remedies and areas requiring further study are outlined.

  1. The importance of water transit time and mineral dissolution kinetics for the flux of weathering products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlandsson, Martin; Bishop, Kevin; Köhler, Stephan; Amvrosiadi, Nino

    2016-04-01

    Soil mineral weathering is one of the major sources of base cations (BC), which play a dual role for a forest ecosystem; they function both as plant nutrients, and for buffering against acidification of catchment runoff. On a long-term basis, the soil weathering rates will determine the highest sustainable forest productivity without causing acidification. It is believed that the hydrologic residence time play a key role in determining weathering rates on a landscape scale. In this study, we investigate the significance of the water transit residence time (WTT) distribution for the transport of base cations to catchment runoff. By modelling hillslope flowpaths with different transit times, using the geochemical computing code PHREEQC, we demonstrate how in-stream dynamics as exemplified by elemental ratios can be explained by mineral dissolution kinetics and equilibria. Specifically, we hypothesize that equilibrium of plagioclase regulates the delivery of base cations and silica to catchment runoff. These patters can be seen in field data from 10 years of sampling from a nested-catchment, where the Na+/BC and the Si/BC-ratios vary systematically with WTT on both a temporal and a spatial scale. This behavior has implications for the total transport of products from mineral dissolution to catchment runoff. As the water entering the stream is a mixture of water with different transit times, the composition of stream water will not only be dependent on the average WTT, but also on the shape of the WTT distribution. For the base cations associated with minerals that becomes supersaturated or with precipitating secondary phases within the range of WTT, i.e. Na+ and K+, the tails of "old water" of the WRT-distribution will not contribute to any extra transport of these elements. Finally, we use the derived relationships to estimate the transport of weathering products from a forested hillslope, given the modelled WRT distribution.

  2. Molecular Dynamics Simulation and Analysis of Interfacial Water at Selected Sulfide Mineral Surfaces under Anaerobic Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Jiaqi; Miller, Jan D.; Dang, Liem X.

    2014-04-10

    In this paper, we report on a molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) study of the behavior of interfacial water at selected sulfide mineral surfaces under anaerobic conditions. The study revealed the interfacial water structure and wetting characteristics of the pyrite (100) surface, galena (100) surface, chalcopyrite (012) surface, sphalerite (110) surface, and molybdenite surfaces (i.e., the face, armchair-edge, and zigzag-edge surfaces), including simulated contact angles, relative number density profiles, water dipole orientations, hydrogen-bonding, and residence times. For force fields of the metal and sulfur atoms in selected sulfide minerals used in the MDS, we used the universal force field (UFF) and another set of force fields optimized by quantum chemical calculations for interactions with interfacial water molecules at selected sulfide mineral surfaces. Simulation results for the structural and dynamic properties of interfacial water molecules indicate the natural hydrophobic character for the selected sulfide mineral surfaces under anaerobic conditions as well as the relatively weak hydrophobicity for the sphalerite (110) surface and two molybdenite edge surfaces. Part of the financial support for this study was provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under Basic Science Grant No. DE-FG-03-93ER14315. The Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES), of the DOE, funded work performed by Liem X. Dang. Battelle operates Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for DOE. The calculations were carried out using computer resources provided by BES. The authors are grateful to Professor Tsun-Mei Chang for valuable discussions.

  3. Mineralization of a Malaysian crude oil by Pseudomonas sp. and Achromabacter sp. isolated from coastal waters

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, J.; Ahmad, M.F.

    1995-12-31

    Regarded as being a potentially effective tool to combat oil pollution, bioremediation involves mineralization, i.e., the conversion of complex hydrocarbons into harmless CO{sub 2} and water by action of microorganisms. Therefore, in achieving optimum effectiveness from the application of these products on crude oil in local environments, the capability of the bacteria to mineralize hydrocarbons was evaluated. The microbial laboratory testing of mineralization on local oil degraders involved, first, isolation of bacteria found at a port located on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Subsequently, these bacteria were identified by means of Biomereux`s API 20E and 20 NE systems and later screened by their growth on a Malaysian crude oil. Selected strains of Pseudomonas sp. and Achromabacter sp. were then exposed individually to a similar crude oil in a mineralization unit and monitored for 16 days for release of CO{sub 2}. Pseudomonas paucimobilis was found to produce more CO{sub 2} than Achromobacter sp. When tested under similar conditions, mixed populations of these two taxa produced more CO{sub 2} than that produced by any individual strain. Effective bioremediation of local crude in Malaysian waters can therefore be achieved from biochemically developed Pseudomonas sp. strains.

  4. Redistribution of soil water by a saprotrophic fungus enhances carbon mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Guhr, Alexander; Borken, Werner; Spohn, Marie; Matzner, Egbert

    2015-01-01

    The desiccation of upper soil horizons is a common phenomenon, leading to a decrease in soil microbial activity and mineralization. Recent studies have shown that fungal communities and fungal-based food webs are less sensitive and better adapted to soil desiccation than bacterial-based food webs. One reason for a better fungal adaptation to soil desiccation may be hydraulic redistribution of water by mycelia networks. Here we show that a saprotrophic fungus (Agaricus bisporus) redistributes water from moist (–0.03 MPa) into dry (–9.5 MPa) soil at about 0.3 cm⋅min−1 in single hyphae, resulting in an increase in soil water potential after 72 h. The increase in soil moisture by hydraulic redistribution significantly enhanced carbon mineralization by 2,800% and enzymatic activity by 250–350% in the previously dry soil compartment within 168 h. Our results demonstrate that hydraulic redistribution can partly compensate water deficiency if water is available in other zones of the mycelia network. Hydraulic redistribution is likely one of the mechanisms behind higher drought resistance of soil fungi compared with bacteria. Moreover, hydraulic redistribution by saprotrophic fungi is an underrated pathway of water transport in soils and may lead to a transfer of water to zones of high fungal activity. PMID:26554004

  5. Dissolved gas composition of groundwater in the natural spa complex "Choygan mineral waters" (East Tuva)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopylova, Y.; Guseva, N.; Shestakova, A.; Khvaschevskaya, A.; Arakchaa, K.

    2014-08-01

    The natural spa complex "Choygan mineral waters", a unique deposit of natural carbon dioxide mineral waters in Siberia, is located in the Eastern Sayan Mountains. There are 33 springs discharge in this area. Spring waters are mainly HCO3-Na-Ca type. TDS varies from 300 mg/L to 2600 mg/L and temperature ranges from 7 °C (in spring 33) to 39 °C (in spring 12), pH varies from 5.9 to 8.3, and the value of the oxidation-reduction potential is from - 170 mV to 236 mV. All studied waters were divided into two groups according to their temperature and geochemical conditions: cold fresh water with oxidizing conditions and warm slightly brackish water with reductive conditions. The gas composition of the studied waters is represented by nitrogen (28-75 vol.%), carbon dioxide (6-65 vol.%), oxygen (7-19 vol.%), radon (4-948 Bq/l). The studied gases differ not only by the content but by the different sources.

  6. Redistribution of soil water by a saprotrophic fungus enhances carbon mineralization.

    PubMed

    Guhr, Alexander; Borken, Werner; Spohn, Marie; Matzner, Egbert

    2015-11-24

    The desiccation of upper soil horizons is a common phenomenon, leading to a decrease in soil microbial activity and mineralization. Recent studies have shown that fungal communities and fungal-based food webs are less sensitive and better adapted to soil desiccation than bacterial-based food webs. One reason for a better fungal adaptation to soil desiccation may be hydraulic redistribution of water by mycelia networks. Here we show that a saprotrophic fungus (Agaricus bisporus) redistributes water from moist (-0.03 MPa) into dry (-9.5 MPa) soil at about 0.3 cm ⋅ min(-1) in single hyphae, resulting in an increase in soil water potential after 72 h. The increase in soil moisture by hydraulic redistribution significantly enhanced carbon mineralization by 2,800% and enzymatic activity by 250-350% in the previously dry soil compartment within 168 h. Our results demonstrate that hydraulic redistribution can partly compensate water deficiency if water is available in other zones of the mycelia network. Hydraulic redistribution is likely one of the mechanisms behind higher drought resistance of soil fungi compared with bacteria. Moreover, hydraulic redistribution by saprotrophic fungi is an underrated pathway of water transport in soils and may lead to a transfer of water to zones of high fungal activity. PMID:26554004

  7. IR-based Water Quantification in Nominally Anhydrous High-Pressure Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch-Müller, Monika; Rhede, Dieter

    2010-05-01

    Infrared spectroscopy is a powerful tool to determine traces of OH and H2O in minerals and glasses. The application is based on the Beer Lambert law A = ɛ*c*t, where A is the absorbance, ɛ the absorption coefficient, e.g. in L mol H2O-1 cm-2, c the concentration in mol/L and t the thickness in cm. It has been shown in numerous experimental and theoretical studies, i.e. Paterson (1982) and Libowitzky and Rossman (1997) that ɛ generally increases with decreasing wavenumbers. However, this general trend seems to be valid only for hydrous minerals and glasses and should not be applied to water quantification in nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs) which incorporate traces of water in their structures (e.g. Rossman 2006, Thomas et al. 2009). For example, Bell et al. (2003) showed that if the general IR calibration of Paterson (1982) is adopted, the water concentration of olivine is underestimated by about 25 %. A similar result has been obtained by Deon et al. (2010) for Mg-wadsleyite. Thomas et al. (2009) evidenced using a large variety of analytical methods that not using mineral-specific IR-calibrations for the OH quantification in NAMs (e.g. SiO2 polymorphs and olivine) leads to either underestimation as for olivine or overestimation of the water content as for stishovite and coesite. Thus, to quantify the water content of NAMs mineral specific absorption coefficients are needed but unfortunately only for a few minerals available. In this study we propose that within a polymorphic mineral series of the same composition ɛ positively correlates with the density and negatively with the molar volume of the respective mineral phase. To prove this hypothesis we determined ɛ-values for synthetic hydrous ringwoodite samples ranging in composition from xMg = 0.0 to 0.6 by combining results of FTIR-spectroscopy with those of Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry. The ɛ-values plot well below the general calibration curves of Paterson (1982) and Libowitzky and Rossman (1997

  8. Mineral water discharges at the Azores archipelago (Portugal): hydrogeological setting, chemical composition and mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire, P.; Cruz, J.; Coutinho, R.; Costa, A.; Antunes, P.

    2009-04-01

    The geological setting of the Azores archipelago, located in the North Atlantic ocean, about 1500 km form Portugal mainland and made of 9 islands of volcanic origin, enhances the multiplicity of surface hydrothermal manifestations. Therefore, a field survey made possible to identify 101 mineral water discharges in the Azores, mainly of CO2-rich cold waters and thermal waters, spread along São Miguel (75%), Terceira (6%), Graciosa (7%), Pico (2%), Faial (3%), São Jorge (5%) and Flores ( 2%) islands, as well as fumarolic grounds. Furnas and Fogo central volcanoes, two of the three composite active volcanoes that dominates the geology of São Miguel, the largest island of the archipelago, represent respectively about 41% and 24% of the discharges from the Azores. Discharges are mainly from fissured aquifers, made of basaltic or trachitic lava flows. Instead, discharges from porous aquifers, made of pyroclastic deposits, mainly of pumice type, are less common, and are more frequent at São Miguel island. The studied discharges correspond mainly to springs (75), and also to boiling pools (10), at fumarolic grounds, 14 drilled wells and 2 large-diameter wells. The boiling pools are only observable at São Miguel island, while drilled wells were made at São Miguel, Terceira and Graciosa. Groundwater at Azores occurs in two major aquifers systems: (1) the basal aquifer system, which corresponds to fresh-water lenses floating on underlying salt water, and (2) in perched-water bodies. The basal aquifer system is in the coastal area, presenting generally a very low hydraulic gradient. From the 14 drilled wells only two are in perched-water bodies. Considering mineral springs, the majority discharge from perched-water bodies (77%), while all the boiling pools also discharge in altitude, also from perched -water bodies. During the field survey an extensive campaign of sample collection was made in all islands, in order to characterize the chemical composition of these waters

  9. Drinking water supply and mineralized groundwaters in the Aquitaine Basin (SW France): hydrodynamic and geochemical processes of acquisition of the mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malcuit, E.; Atteia, O.; Franceschi, M.; Negrel, P. J.; Petelet-Giraud, E.

    2012-12-01

    One of the main resources for drinking water in the sedimentary Aquitaine Basin (SW France) is the Eocene aquifer including several geological layers, which have different lithological, mineralogical and hydrodynamic properties. In this aquifer, mostly confined, a large area has been identified with high salinity and with anomalous levels of critical elements, such as sulfates and fluorides. This led to difficulties for the resource exploitation for drinking water supply of the population. Since the 1900's, many boreholes in the area for drinking water supply have locally modified the natural water flows of the system. This work has allowed i) understanding the origin of the mineralization of the waters, geochemical and isotopic characterization of groundwaters showed a common origin of the mineralization in all the study area; ii) identifying exactly the location of the minerals bearing sulfates and fluorides (gypsum, fluorite) within the layer defined as the Eocene aquifer; iii) constraint the geochemical and hydrodynamic processes. Finally, it allows defining and improving for the way for a sustainable management for drinking water resource in South-West of France. To understand the acquisition of the groundwaters' geochemistry, it is necessary to consider the lateral and vertical variations in facies and mineralogy, geochemical processes (mineral dissolution and/or precipitation, phenomenon of diffusion in contact with low permeability and mineralized layers) and local fluid mixing processes within the borehole and its immediate surroundings. Our investigation also showed the need for a precise and detailed knowledge of the vertical distribution of the hydrodynamic and geochemical properties of each layer. Indeed, the average concentration in the borehole water depends on the 10-3 to 1 meter scale variation of water fluxes and concentrations. Geochemical models, presented here, fully explain the composition of groundwaters across the study area and improve the

  10. Measurement of natural radionuclides in Malaysian bottled mineral water and consequent health risk estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priharti, W.; Samat, S. B.; Yasir, M. S.

    2015-09-01

    The radionuclides of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were measured in ten mineral water samples, of which from the radioactivity obtained, the ingestion doses for infants, children and adults were calculated and the cancer risk for the adult was estimated. Results showed that the calculated ingestion doses for the three age categories are much lower than the average worldwide ingestion exposure of 0.29 mSv/y and the estimated cancer risk is much lower than the cancer risk of 8.40 × 10-3 (estimated from the total natural radiation dose of 2.40 mSv/y). The present study concludes that the bottled mineral water produced in Malaysia is safe for daily human consumption.

  11. Measurement of natural radionuclides in Malaysian bottled mineral water and consequent health risk estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Priharti, W.; Samat, S. B.; Yasir, M. S.

    2015-09-25

    The radionuclides of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K were measured in ten mineral water samples, of which from the radioactivity obtained, the ingestion doses for infants, children and adults were calculated and the cancer risk for the adult was estimated. Results showed that the calculated ingestion doses for the three age categories are much lower than the average worldwide ingestion exposure of 0.29 mSv/y and the estimated cancer risk is much lower than the cancer risk of 8.40 × 10{sup −3} (estimated from the total natural radiation dose of 2.40 mSv/y). The present study concludes that the bottled mineral water produced in Malaysia is safe for daily human consumption.

  12. The prediction of borate mineral equilibria in natural waters: Application to Searles Lake, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felmy, Andrew R.; Weare, John H.

    1986-12-01

    The chemical equilibrium model of HARVIEet al. (1984) has been extended to include borate species. The model is based upon the semi-empirical equations of PITZER (1973) and coworkers and is valid to high ionic strength (≈14 m) and high borate concentration. Excellent agreement with the existing emf, isopiestic and solubility data in the system (Na-K-Ca-Mg-H-Cl-SO4-CO2-B(OH)4-H2O) is obtained. Calculated mineral solubilities are in general within 10% of their experimental values, even at high ionic strengths. The model was applied to the multicomponent, high ionic strength (I ~ 10) and high borate concentration (BT ~ 0.5 m) Searles Lake evaporite deposit. Utilizing the chemical composition of the interstitial brine, the model predicts equilibrium between the brine and only those minerals which are known to be in contact with the brine. These calculations clearly demonstrate the applicability of the model to high ionic strength, high borate concentration natural waters. The model was also utilized to calculate the mineral sequences which should result from evaporation of the major source of water for Searles Lake, the Owens River. The geochemical conditions necessary for the formation of the most recent mud and saline units are examined. The final results indicate that the mineral sequences found in the most recent saline unit in Searles Lake can be produced by evaporation of a water close in composition to present Owens River water, provided primary dolomite formation is delayed and back reaction between the Parting Mud and the Upper Salt is inhibited.

  13. [The cellular mechanisms of the physiological action of iodobromide mineral waters].

    PubMed

    Serov, S I; Tereshin, S Iu

    1990-01-01

    The experiments on edible frogs have revealed the relationship between the effect of sodium chloride, skin potential difference and micro-components iodide and bromide present in the solution. The results obtained furnish the additional information on the synergistic action of mineral water iodide and bromide on the body. Iodide ions were found to act mainly through inhibition of sodium channels of cellular membranes, while bromide ions are likely to affect Na, K-ATPase. PMID:2336825

  14. Influence of minerals on the taste of bottled and tap water: a chemometric approach.

    PubMed

    Platikanov, Stefan; Garcia, Veronica; Fonseca, Ignacio; Rullán, Elena; Devesa, Ricard; Tauler, Roma

    2013-02-01

    Chemometric analysis was performed on two sets of sensory data obtained from two separate studies. Twenty commercially-available bottled mineral water samples (from the first study) and twenty-five drinking tap and bottled water samples (from the second study) were blind tasted by trained panelists. The panelists expressed their overall liking of the water samples by rating from 0 (worst flavor) to 10 (best flavor). The mean overall score was compared to the physicochemical properties of the samples. Thirteen different physicochemical parameters were considered in both studies and, additionally, residual chlorine levels were assessed in the second study. Principal component analysis performed on the physicochemical parameters and the panelists' mean scores generated models that explain most of the total data variance. Moreover, partial least squares regression of the panelists' sensory evaluations of the physicochemical data helped elucidate the main features underlying the panelists' ratings. The preferred bottled and tap water samples were associated with moderate (relatively to the parameters mean values) contents of total dissolved solids and with relatively high concentrations of HCO₃⁻, SO₄²⁻, Ca²⁺ and Mg²⁺ as well as with relatively high pH values. High concentrations of Na⁺, K⁺ and Cl⁻ were scored low by many of the panelists, while residual chlorine did not affect the ratings, but did enable the panel to distinguish between bottled mineral water and tap water samples. PMID:23200507

  15. Concentration of Ra-226 in Malaysian Drinking and Bottled Mineral Water

    SciTech Connect

    Amin, Y. B. Mohd; Jemangin, M. H.; Mahat, R. H.

    2010-07-07

    The concentration of the radionuclide {sup 226}Ra was determined in the drinking water which was taken from various sources. It was found that the concentration varies from non-detectable (ND) to highest value of 0.30 Bq per liter. The concentration was found to be high in mineral water as compare with surface water such as domestic pipe water. Some of these values have exceeded the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) of America regulations. The activity concentrations obtained are compared with data from other countries. The estimated annual effective doses from drinking the water are determined. The values obtained range from 0.02 mSv to about 0.06 mSv per year.

  16. Determination of dimethyl selenide and dimethyl sulphide compounds causing off-flavours in bottled mineral waters.

    PubMed

    Guadayol, Marta; Cortina, Montserrat; Guadayol, Josep M; Caixach, Josep

    2016-04-01

    Sales of bottled drinking water have shown a large growth during the last two decades due to the general belief that this kind of water is healthier, its flavour is better and its consumption risk is lower than that of tap water. Due to the previous points, consumers are more demanding with bottled mineral water, especially when dealing with its organoleptic properties, like taste and odour. This work studies the compounds that can generate obnoxious smells, and that consumers have described like swampy, rotten eggs, sulphurous, cooked vegetable or cabbage. Closed loop stripping analysis (CLSA) has been used as a pre-concentration method for the analysis of off-flavour compounds in water followed by identification and quantification by means of GC-MS. Several bottled water with the aforementioned smells showed the presence of volatile dimethyl selenides and dimethyl sulphides, whose concentrations ranged, respectively, from 4 to 20 ng/L and from 1 to 63 ng/L. The low odour threshold concentrations (OTCs) of both organic selenide and sulphide derivatives prove that several objectionable odours in bottled waters arise from them. Microbial loads inherent to water sources, along with some critical conditions in water processing, could contribute to the formation of these compounds. There are few studies about volatile organic compounds in bottled drinking water and, at the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the presence of dimethyl selenides and dimethyl sulphides causing odour problems in bottled waters. PMID:26852288

  17. Hydrogeochemical and stable isotopic investigations on CO2-rich mineral waters from Harghita Mts. (Eastern Carpathians, Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kis, Boglárka-Mercedesz; Baciu, Călin; Kármán, Krisztina; Kékedy-Nagy, Ladislau; Francesco, Italiano

    2013-04-01

    There is a worldwide interest on geothermal, mineral and groundwater as a resource for energy, drinking water supply and therapeutic needs. The increasing trend in replacing tap water with commercial bottled mineral water for drinking purposes has become an economic, hydrogeologic and medical concern in the last decades. Several investigations have been carried out worldwide on different topics related to geothermal and mineral waters, dealing with mineral water quality assessment, origin of geothermal and mineral waters, geochemical processes that influence water chemistry and water-rock interaction In Romania, the Călimani-Gurghiu-Harghita Neogene to Quaternary volcanic chain (Eastern Carpathians) is one of the most important areas from the point of view of CO2-rich mineral waters. These mineral water springs occur within other post-volcanic phenomena like dry CO2 emissions, moffettes, bubbling pools, H2S gas emissions etc. Mineral waters from this area are used for bottling, local spas and drinking purposes for local people. The number of springs, around 2000 according to literature data, shows that there is still a significant unexploited potential for good quality drinking water in this area. Within the youngest segment of the volcanic chain, the Harghita Mts., its volcaniclastic aprons and its boundary with the Transylvanian Basin, we have carried out an investigation on 23 CO2-rich mineral water springs from a hydrogeochemical and stable isotopic point of view. The mineral waters are Ca-Mg-HCO3 to Na-Cl type. Sometimes mixing between the two types can be observed. We have detected a great influence of water-rock interaction on the stable isotopic composition of the mineral waters, shown by isotopic shifts to the heavier oxygen isotope, mixing processes between shallow and deeper aquifers and local thermal anomalies. Acknowledgements: The present work was financially supported by the Romanian National Research Council, Project PN-II-ID-PCE-2011-3-0537 and by

  18. Linear adsorption of nonionic organic compounds from water onto hydrophilic minerals: Silica and alumina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Su, Y.-H.; Zhu, Y.-G.; Sheng, G.; Chiou, C.T.

    2006-01-01

    To characterize the linear adsorption phenomena in aqueous nonionic organic solute-mineral systems, the adsorption isotherms of some low-molecular- weightnonpolar nonionic solutes (1,2,3-trichlorobenzene, lindane, phenanthrene, and pyrene) and polar nonionic solutes (1,3-dinitrobenzene and 2,4-dinitrotoluene) from single-and binary-solute solutions on hydrophilic silica and alumina were established. Toward this objective, the influences of temperature, ionic strength, and pH on adsorption were also determined. It is found that linear adsorption exhibits low exothermic heats and practically no adsorptive competition. The solute-solid configuration and the adsorptive force consistent with these effects were hypothesized. For nonpolar solutes, the adsorption occurs presumably by London (dispersion) forces onto a water film above the mineral surface. For polar solutes, the adsorption is also assisted by polar-group interactions. The reduced adsorptive forces of solutes with hydrophilic minerals due to physical separation by the water film and the low fractions of the water-film surface covered by solutes offer a theoretical basis for linear solute adsorption, low exothermic heats, and no adsorptive competition. The postulated adsorptive forces are supported by observations that ionic strength or pH poses no effect on the adsorption of nonpolar solutes while it exhibits a significant effect on the uptake of polar solutes. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  19. Efficient artificial mineralization route to decontaminate Arsenic(III) polluted water - the Tooeleite Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malakar, Arindam; Das, Bidisa; Islam, Samirul; Meneghini, Carlo; de Giudici, Giovanni; Merlini, Marco; Kolen’Ko, Yury V.; Iadecola, Antonella; Aquilanti, Giuliana; Acharya, Somobrata; Ray, Sugata

    2016-05-01

    Increasing exposure to arsenic (As) contaminated ground water is a great threat to humanity. Suitable technology for As immobilization and removal from water, especially for As(III) than As(V), is not available yet. However, it is known that As(III) is more toxic than As(V) and most groundwater aquifers, particularly the Gangetic basin in India, is alarmingly contaminated with it. In search of a viable solution here, we took a cue from the natural mineralization of Tooeleite, a mineral containing Fe(III) and As(III)ions, grown under acidic condition, in presence of SO42‑ ions. Complying to this natural process, we could grow and separate Tooeleite-like templates from Fe(III) and As(III) containing water at overall circumneutral pH and in absence of SO42‑ ions by using highly polar Zn-only ends of wurtzite ZnS nanorods as insoluble nano-acidic-surfaces. The central idea here is to exploit these insoluble nano-acidic-surfaces (called as INAS in the manuscript) as nucleation centres for Tooeleite growth while keeping the overall pH of the aqueous media neutral. Therefore, we propose a novel method of artificial mineralization of As(III) by mimicking a natural process at nanoscale.

  20. Efficient artificial mineralization route to decontaminate Arsenic(III) polluted water - the Tooeleite Way

    PubMed Central

    Malakar, Arindam; Das, Bidisa; Islam, Samirul; Meneghini, Carlo; De Giudici, Giovanni; Merlini, Marco; Kolen’ko, Yury V.; Iadecola, Antonella; Aquilanti, Giuliana; Acharya, Somobrata; Ray, Sugata

    2016-01-01

    Increasing exposure to arsenic (As) contaminated ground water is a great threat to humanity. Suitable technology for As immobilization and removal from water, especially for As(III) than As(V), is not available yet. However, it is known that As(III) is more toxic than As(V) and most groundwater aquifers, particularly the Gangetic basin in India, is alarmingly contaminated with it. In search of a viable solution here, we took a cue from the natural mineralization of Tooeleite, a mineral containing Fe(III) and As(III)ions, grown under acidic condition, in presence of SO42− ions. Complying to this natural process, we could grow and separate Tooeleite-like templates from Fe(III) and As(III) containing water at overall circumneutral pH and in absence of SO42− ions by using highly polar Zn-only ends of wurtzite ZnS nanorods as insoluble nano-acidic-surfaces. The central idea here is to exploit these insoluble nano-acidic-surfaces (called as INAS in the manuscript) as nucleation centres for Tooeleite growth while keeping the overall pH of the aqueous media neutral. Therefore, we propose a novel method of artificial mineralization of As(III) by mimicking a natural process at nanoscale. PMID:27189251

  1. Efficient artificial mineralization route to decontaminate Arsenic(III) polluted water - the Tooeleite Way.

    PubMed

    Malakar, Arindam; Das, Bidisa; Islam, Samirul; Meneghini, Carlo; De Giudici, Giovanni; Merlini, Marco; Kolen'ko, Yury V; Iadecola, Antonella; Aquilanti, Giuliana; Acharya, Somobrata; Ray, Sugata

    2016-01-01

    Increasing exposure to arsenic (As) contaminated ground water is a great threat to humanity. Suitable technology for As immobilization and removal from water, especially for As(III) than As(V), is not available yet. However, it is known that As(III) is more toxic than As(V) and most groundwater aquifers, particularly the Gangetic basin in India, is alarmingly contaminated with it. In search of a viable solution here, we took a cue from the natural mineralization of Tooeleite, a mineral containing Fe(III) and As(III)ions, grown under acidic condition, in presence of SO4(2-) ions. Complying to this natural process, we could grow and separate Tooeleite-like templates from Fe(III) and As(III) containing water at overall circumneutral pH and in absence of SO4(2-) ions by using highly polar Zn-only ends of wurtzite ZnS nanorods as insoluble nano-acidic-surfaces. The central idea here is to exploit these insoluble nano-acidic-surfaces (called as INAS in the manuscript) as nucleation centres for Tooeleite growth while keeping the overall pH of the aqueous media neutral. Therefore, we propose a novel method of artificial mineralization of As(III) by mimicking a natural process at nanoscale. PMID:27189251

  2. [Antibacterial nature of medicinal ointments, based on Georgian mineral waters in treatment of generalized periodontitis].

    PubMed

    Gasviani, E N; Chikviladze, D P; Iverieli, M V; Iavich, P A; Mikeladze, M L

    2007-04-01

    The goal of the work was to determine antibacterial nature of the medicinal ointments (N1 - "Achtala"; N2 - "Sairme", N3 - "Tschaltubo", N4 "Amagleba") based on Georgian mineral waters and containing bio-active extracts. The goal of the work was to determine antibacterial nature of the medicinal ointments (N1 - "Achtala"; N2 - "Sairme", N3 - "Tschaltubo", N4 "Amagleba") based on Georgian mineral waters and containing bio-active extracts. The investigation was done in purpose to determine microbial structure of oral cavity of the 80 patients with chronic generalized periodontitis, as a result was confirmed, that microbial structure of these patients was rather heterogeneous and is presented by different aerobe, microaerophil and anaerobe microbial flora. The sensitivity, resistance, of isolated microorganisms, was studied to modern groups of antibiotics. Results of investigations are: high antibacterial activities of ointments, prepared on mineral waters of Georgia. So, it can be recommended for usage in treatment schedule for patients with chronic generalized periodontitis. PMID:17525497

  3. A compilation of rate parameters of water-mineral interaction kinetics for application to geochemical modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palandri, James L.; Kharaka, Yousif K.

    2004-01-01

    Geochemical reaction path modeling is useful for rapidly assessing the extent of water-aqueous-gas interactions both in natural systems and in industrial processes. Modeling of some systems, such as those at low temperature with relatively high hydrologic flow rates, or those perturbed by the subsurface injection of industrial waste such as CO2 or H2S, must account for the relatively slow kinetics of mineral-gas-water interactions. We have therefore compiled parameters conforming to a general Arrhenius-type rate equation, for over 70 minerals, including phases from all the major classes of silicates, most carbonates, and many other non-silicates. The compiled dissolution rate constants range from -0.21 log moles m-2 s-1 for halite, to -17.44 log moles m-2 s-1 for kyanite, for conditions far from equilibrium, at 25 ?C, and pH near neutral. These data have been added to a computer code that simulates an infinitely well-stirred batch reactor, allowing computation of mass transfer as a function of time. Actual equilibration rates are expected to be much slower than those predicted by the selected computer code, primarily because actual geochemical processes commonly involve flow through porous or fractured media, wherein the development of concentration gradients in the aqueous phase near mineral surfaces, which results in decreased absolute chemical affinity and slower reaction rates. Further differences between observed and computed reaction rates may occur because of variables beyond the scope of most geochemical simulators, such as variation in grain size, aquifer heterogeneity, preferred fluid flow paths, primary and secondary mineral coatings, and secondary minerals that may lead to decreased porosity and clogged pore throats.

  4. Study on the leaching of phthalates from polyethylene terephthalate bottles into mineral water.

    PubMed

    Keresztes, Szilvia; Tatár, Enikő; Czégény, Zsuzsanna; Záray, Gyula; Mihucz, Victor G

    2013-08-01

    Carbonated and non-carbonated mineral water samples bottled in 0.5-L, 1.5-L and 2.0-L polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers belonging to three different water brands commercialized in Hungary were studied in order to determine their phthalate content by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Among the six investigated phthalates, diisobutyl phthalate, di-n-butyl-phthalate, benzyl-butyl phthalate and di(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were determined in non-carbonated samples as follows: <3.0 ng L(-1)-0.2 μg L(-1), <6.6 ng L(-1)-0.8 μg L(-1), <6.0 ng L(-1)-0.1 μg L(-1) and <16.0 ng L(-1)-1.7 μg L(-1), respectively. Any of the above-mentioned phthalate esters could be detected in carbonated mineral water samples. DEHP was the most abundant phthalate in the investigated samples. It could be detected after 44 days of storage at 22 °C and its leaching was the most pronounced when samples were stored over 1200 days. Mineral water purchased in PET bottles of 0.5L had the highest phthalate concentrations compared to those obtained for waters of the identical brand bottled in 1.5-L or 2.0-L PET containers due to the higher surface/volume ratio. No clear trend could be established for phthalate leaching when water samples were kept at higher temperatures (max. 60 °C) showing improper storage conditions. Phthalate determination by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometric measurements in the plastic material as well as in the aqueous phase proved the importance of the quality of PET raw material used for the production of the pre-form (virgin vs. polymer containing recycled PET). PMID:23688967

  5. Influence of Water Content on the Mechanical Behaviour of Limestone: Role of the Clay Minerals Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherblanc, F.; Berthonneau, J.; Bromblet, P.; Huon, V.

    2016-06-01

    The mechanical characteristics of various sedimentary stones significantly depend on the water content, where 70 % loss of their mechanical strengths can be observed when saturated by water. Furthermore, the clay fraction has been shown to be a key factor of their hydro-mechanical behaviour since it governs for instance the hydric dilation. This work aims at investigating the correlations between the clay mineral content and the mechanical weakening experienced by limestones when interacting with water. The experimental characterization focuses on five different limestones that exhibit very different micro-structures. For each of them, we present the determination of clay mineral composition, the sorption isotherm curve and the dependences of tensile and compressive strengths on the water content. It emerges from these results that, first, the sorption behaviour is mainly governed by the amount of smectite layers which exhibit the larger specific area and, second, the rate of mechanical strength loss depends linearly on the sorption capacity. Indeed, the clay fraction plays the role of a retardation factor that delays the appearance of capillary bridges as well as the mechanical weakening of stones. However, no correlation was evidenced between the clay content and the amplitude of weakening. Since the mechanisms whereby the strength decreases with water content are not clearly established, these results would help to discriminate between various hypothesis proposed in the literature.

  6. Inelastic neutron scattering and molecular simulation of the dynamics of interlayer water in smectite clay minerals

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cygan, Randall T.; Daemen, Luke L.; Ilgen, Anastasia G.; Krumhansl, James L.; Nenoff, Tina M.

    2015-11-16

    The study of mineral–water interfaces is of great importance to a variety of applications including oil and gas extraction, gas subsurface storage, environmental contaminant treatment, and nuclear waste repositories. Understanding the fundamentals of that interface is key to the success of those applications. Confinement of water in the interlayer of smectite clay minerals provides a unique environment to examine the interactions among water molecules, interlayer cations, and clay mineral surfaces. Smectite minerals are characterized by a relatively low layer charge that allows the clay to swell with increasing water content. Montmorillonite and beidellite varieties of smectite were investigated to comparemore » the impact of the location of layer charge on the interlayer structure and dynamics. Inelastic neutron scattering of hydrated and dehydrated cation-exchanged smectites was used to probe the dynamics of the interlayer water (200–900 cm–1 spectral region) and identify the shift in the librational edge as a function of the interlayer cation. Molecular dynamics simulations of equivalent phases and power spectra, derived from the resulting molecular trajectories, indicate a general shift in the librational behavior with interlayer cation that is generally consistent with the neutron scattering results for the monolayer hydrates. Both neutron scattering and power spectra exhibit librational structures affected by the location of layer charge and by the charge of the interlayer cation. Furthermore, divalent cations (Ba2+ and Mg2+) characterized by large hydration enthalpies typically exhibit multiple broad librational peaks compared to monovalent cations (Cs+ and Na+), which have relatively small hydration enthalpies.« less

  7. Mineral composition and heavy metal contamination of sediments originating from radium rich formation water.

    PubMed

    Bzowski, Zbigniew; Michalik, Bogusław

    2015-03-01

    Radium rich formation water is often associated with fossil fuels as crude oil, natural gas and hard coal. As a result of fossil fuels exploitation high amount of such water is released into environment. In spite of the high radium content such waters create a serious radiation risk neither to humans nor biota directly. First and foremost due to very high mineralization they are not drinkable at all. But after discharge chemical and physical conditions are substantially changed and sediments which additionally concentrated radium are arising. Due to features of technological processes such phenomenon is very intensive in underground coal mining where huge volume of such water must be pumped into surface in order to keep underground galleries dry. Slightly different situation occurs in oil rigs, but finally also huge volume of so called process water is pumped into environment. Regardless their origin arising sediments often contain activity concentration of radium isotopes exceeding the clearance levels set for naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) (Council Directive, 2013). The analysis of metals and minerals content showed that besides radioactivity such sediments contain high amount of metals geochemically similar to radium as barium, strontium and lead. Correlation analysis proved that main mechanism leading to sediment creation is co-precipitation radium with these metals as a sulfate. The absorption on clay minerals is negligible even when barium is not present in significant quantities. Owing to very low solubility of sulfates radium accumulated in this way should not migrate into environment in the neighborhood of a site where such sediment were deposited. PMID:25434264

  8. Inelastic neutron scattering and molecular simulation of the dynamics of interlayer water in smectite clay minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Cygan, Randall T.; Daemen, Luke L.; Ilgen, Anastasia G.; Krumhansl, James L.; Nenoff, Tina M.

    2015-11-16

    The study of mineral–water interfaces is of great importance to a variety of applications including oil and gas extraction, gas subsurface storage, environmental contaminant treatment, and nuclear waste repositories. Understanding the fundamentals of that interface is key to the success of those applications. Confinement of water in the interlayer of smectite clay minerals provides a unique environment to examine the interactions among water molecules, interlayer cations, and clay mineral surfaces. Smectite minerals are characterized by a relatively low layer charge that allows the clay to swell with increasing water content. Montmorillonite and beidellite varieties of smectite were investigated to compare the impact of the location of layer charge on the interlayer structure and dynamics. Inelastic neutron scattering of hydrated and dehydrated cation-exchanged smectites was used to probe the dynamics of the interlayer water (200–900 cm–1 spectral region) and identify the shift in the librational edge as a function of the interlayer cation. Molecular dynamics simulations of equivalent phases and power spectra, derived from the resulting molecular trajectories, indicate a general shift in the librational behavior with interlayer cation that is generally consistent with the neutron scattering results for the monolayer hydrates. Both neutron scattering and power spectra exhibit librational structures affected by the location of layer charge and by the charge of the interlayer cation. Furthermore, divalent cations (Ba2+ and Mg2+) characterized by large hydration enthalpies typically exhibit multiple broad librational peaks compared to monovalent cations (Cs+ and Na+), which have relatively small hydration enthalpies.

  9. Water of Hydration Dynamics in Minerals Gypsum and Bassanite: Ultrafast 2D IR Spectroscopy of Rocks.

    PubMed

    Yan, Chang; Nishida, Jun; Yuan, Rongfeng; Fayer, Michael D

    2016-08-01

    Water of hydration plays an important role in minerals, determining their crystal structures and physical properties. Here ultrafast nonlinear infrared (IR) techniques, two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) and polarization selective pump-probe (PSPP) spectroscopies, were used to measure the dynamics and disorder of water of hydration in two minerals, gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) and bassanite (CaSO4·0.5H2O). 2D IR spectra revealed that water arrangement in freshly precipitated gypsum contained a small amount of inhomogeneity. Following annealing at 348 K, water molecules became highly ordered; the 2D IR spectrum became homogeneously broadened (motional narrowed). PSPP measurements observed only inertial orientational relaxation. In contrast, water in bassanite's tubular channels is dynamically disordered. 2D IR spectra showed a significant amount of inhomogeneous broadening caused by a range of water configurations. At 298 K, water dynamics cause spectral diffusion that sampled a portion of the inhomogeneous line width on the time scale of ∼30 ps, while the rest of inhomogeneity is static on the time scale of the measurements. At higher temperature, the dynamics become faster. Spectral diffusion accelerates, and a portion of the lower temperature spectral diffusion became motionally narrowed. At sufficiently high temperature, all of the dynamics that produced spectral diffusion at lower temperatures became motionally narrowed, and only homogeneous broadening and static inhomogeneity were observed. Water angular motions in bassanite exhibit temperature-dependent diffusive orientational relaxation in a restricted cone of angles. The experiments were made possible by eliminating the vast amount of scattered light produced by the granulated powder samples using phase cycling methods. PMID:27385320

  10. Mineralogy and geochemistry of efflorescent minerals on mine tailings and their potential impact on water chemistry.

    PubMed

    Grover, B P C; Johnson, R H; Billing, D G; Weiersbye, I M G; Tutu, H

    2016-04-01

    In the gold mining Witwatersrand Basin of South Africa, efflorescent mineral crusts are a common occurrence on and nearby tailings dumps during the dry season. The crusts are readily soluble and generate acidic, metal- and sulphate-rich solutions on dissolution. In this study, the metal content of efflorescent crusts at an abandoned gold mine tailings dump was used to characterise surface and groundwater discharges from the site. Geochemical modelling of the pH of the solution resulting from the dissolution of the crusts was used to better understand the crusts' potential impact on water chemistry. The study involved two approaches: (i) conducting leaching experiments on oxidised and unoxidised tailings using artificial rainwater and dilute sulphuric acid and correlating the composition of crusts to these leachates and (ii) modelling the dissolution of the crusts in order to gain insight into their mineralogy and their potential impact on receiving waters. The findings suggested that there were two chemically distinct discharges from the site, namely an aluminium- and magnesium-rich surface water plume and an iron-rich groundwater plume. The first plume was observed to originate from the oxidised tailings following leaching with rainwater while the second plume originated from the underlying unoxidised tailings with leaching by sulphuric acid. Both groups of minerals forming from the respective plumes were found to significantly lower the pH of the receiving water with simulations of their dissolution found to be within 0.2 pH units of experimental values. It was observed that metals in a low abundance within the crust (for example, iron) had a stronger influence on the pH of the resulting solutions than metals in a greater abundance (aluminium or magnesium). Techniques such as powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and in situ mineral determination techniques such as remote sensing can effectively determine the dominant mineralogy. However, the minerals or metals

  11. [Physicochemical quality of drinking water in Southern Algeria: study of excess mineral salts].

    PubMed

    Djellouli, H M; Taleb, S; Harrache-Chettouh, D; Djaroud, S

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the physicochemical composition of water intended for human consumption in several regions of Southern Algeria. Excess minerals in drinking water, including magnesium, calcium, sulfates and fluorides play a fundamental role in the prevention of urinary calculi, which are formed mainly from calcium oxalate. The ever-increasingly prevalence of this disorder and its recurrence make it a real public health problem in Algeria. The most elementary preventive treatment, recommended to all subjects with lithiasis, is to drink 2 to 3 L water distributed throughout the (24-hour) day. This study began by conducting a physicochemical analysis of the principal components of water from several sources. We will subsequently test it to examine the effects of its mineral salts on the crystallization kinetics of the principal component of calculi (calcium oxalate). The results indicate that 77.5 % of the samples had magnesium concentrations ([Mg 2+] > 50 mg/L), 95 % were sulfated, with sulfate ion concentrations exceeding the standard recommended by WHO ([SO4 2-] > 250 mg/L). Moreover, 57.5 % had excess fluoride levels, [F-] > 1.5 mg/L, and 65 % excessive calcium concentrations, with Ca 2+ > 150 mg/L. PMID:16061448

  12. Minerals consumption by Acetobacter xylinum on cultivation medium on coconut water

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Denise Milleo; Prestes, Rosilene Aparecida; da Fonseca, Adriel Ferreira; Woiciechowski, Adenise L.; Wosiacki, Gilvan

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work is to verifying the consume of the minerals K, Na, Fe, Mg, P, S-SO4−2, B, N Total Kjedahl (NTK), NO3−-N, and NH4+-N in the production of bacterial cellulose by Acetobacter xylinum, according to the medium and the manner of cultivation. The fermentative process was in ripe and green coconut water. K and Na were determined by flame emission photometry, Mg and Fe by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, P by molecular absorption spectrophotometry, S-SO4−2 by barium sulphate turbidimetry, B by Azomethin-H method, NTK by Kjeldahl method, N-NO3− and N-NH4+ by vapor distillation with magnesium oxide and Devarda’s alloy, respectively. In Fermentation of ripe coconut water there were higher consumption of K (69%), Fe (84,3%), P (97,4%), S-SO2−2 (64,9%), B (56,1%), N-NO3− (94,7%) and N-NH4+ (95,2%), whereas coconut water of green fruit the most consumed ions were Na (94,5%), Mg (67,7%) and NTK (56,6%). The cultivation under agitation showed higher mineral consumption. The higher bacterial cellulose production, 6 g.L−1, was verified in the coconut water fermentative in ripe fruit, added KH2PO4, FeSO4 and NaH2PO4 kept under agitation. PMID:24159306

  13. The Geysers-Clear Lake area, California: thermal waters, mineralization, volcanism, and geothermal potential

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donnelly-Nolan, J. M.; Burns, M.G.; Goff, F.E.; Peters, E.K.; Thompson, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Manifestations of a major thermal anomaly in the Geysers-Clear Lake area of northern California include the late Pliocene to Holocene Clear Lake Volcanics, The Geysers geothermal field, abundant thermal springs, and epithermal mercury and gold mineralization. The epithermal mineralization and thermal springs typically occur along high-angle faults within the broad San Andreas transform fault system that forms the western boundary of the North American plate in this area. The young volcanic rocks overlie Mesozoic marine rocks of the Great Valley sequence which have been thrust above the coeval Franciscan Complex and penecontemporaneously dropped back down along low-angle detachment faults. Geothermal power production has peaked at The Geysers and pressure declines indicate significant depletion of the fluid resource. It is proposed that recently discovered, isotopically shifted steam in the northwest Geysers area indicates the presence not of deep connate water but rather of boiled-down, boron-rich Franciscan evolved meteoric water. This water is likely to be present in limited quantities and will not provide a significant hot water resource for geothermal power production at The Geysers field or from the main Clear Lake volcanic field. -from Authors

  14. Maxwell-Wagner relaxation in common minerals and a desert soil at low water contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcone, Steven A.; Boitnott, Ginger E.

    2012-06-01

    Penetration of 100- to 1000-MHz ground-penetrating radar (GPR) signals is virtually non-existent in arid and desert soils despite their low water content and moderate conductivity, the latter of which cannot explain the loss. Under the hypothesis that strong dielectric relaxation supplements DC conductivity to cause high intrinsic attenuation rates, we compared the complex permittivity of a desert soil sample with that of controlled samples of quartz, feldspars, calcite, coarse and crystallite gypsum, kaolinite and montmorillonite. The soil had 80% quartz, 10% feldspars and 10% gypsum by weight, with the latter composed of crystallites and crustations. All samples had 4-7% volumetric water content. We measured permittivity most accurately from 1.6 MHz to 4 GHz with Fourier Transform time domain reflectometry, and used grain sizes less than 53 μm. All samples show low-frequency dispersion with the soil, gypsum crystallites and montmorillonite having the strongest below 100 MHz, the highest attenuation rates, and conductivity values unable to account for these rates. The soil rate exceeded 100 dB m- 1 by 1 GHz. Through modeling we find that a broadened relaxation centered from 2 to 16 MHz sufficiently supplements losses caused by conductivity and free water relaxation to account for loss rates in all our samples, and accounts for low-frequency dispersion below 1 GHz. We interpret the relaxation to be of the Maxwell-Wagner (MW) type because of the 2- to 16-MHz values, relaxation broadening, the lack of salt, clay and magnetic minerals, and insufficient surface area to support adsorbed water. The likely MW dipolar soil inclusions within the predominantly quartz matrix were gypsum particles coated with water containing ions dissolved from the gypsum, and the conducting water layers themselves. The inclusions for the monomineralic soils were likely ionized partially or completely water-filled interstices, and partially filled galleries for the montmorillonite. The low

  15. Influences of pH and CO2 on the formation of Metasilicate mineral water in Changbai Mountain, Northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Baizhong; Xiao, Changlai; Liang, Xiujuan; Wu, Shili

    2015-07-01

    Mineral dissolution reactions actively participate in controlling the composition of mineral water. In this study, water soluble, acidic-alkaline and carbonated solution experiments were designed, and mineral reaction mechanisms were researched using chemical kinetics and the minimum free-energy method. The results showed that the release of metasilicate was controlled by pH, CO2, and rock characteristics. In the water soluble experiment, the release process of metasilicate in powdered rocks reached equilibrium after 40 days, while metasilicate in solid rocks took 170 days. The release process of metasilicate in solid rocks satisfied an asymptotic model, while in powdered rocks it accorded with the Stanford reaction kinetic model. In the acidic-alkaline experiment, metasilicate was released earlier under acidic conditions (2.46 < pH < 7) than under alkaline conditions (7 < pH < 10.61). The release process of metasilicate under acidic conditions reached equilibrium in 40 days, compared with 60 days for alkaline conditions. The addition of CO2 to the water solution was beneficial to the formation of metasilicate. Under neutral pH conditions, the reaction barely occurred. Under alkaline conditions, metasilicate was produced by the hydrolysis of metasilicate minerals. Under acidic and additional CO2 conditions, metasilicate formation was mainly via the reaction of H+, CO2, and metasilicate minerals. From these results, we concluded that the metasilicate mineral water from the Changbai Mountains, Jingyu County, is generated by a combination of the hydrolysis of metasilicate minerals and the reaction of H+, CO2, and metasilicate minerals. These results can contribute to a better development and protection of the mineral water resources in the Changbai Mountains.

  16. Water Solubility in Lower Mantle Minerals and the Role of Peridotite and Basalt in Water Storage in the Lower Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litasov, K.; Ohtani, E.

    2002-12-01

    Recent experimental and theoretical studies suggest water plays a key role in the geodynamics of the Earth's interior. Experimental data on water solubility in minerals of the Earth's mantle suggest that upper mantle, transition zone and lower mantle could have different potential to store water. Transition zone should be an important water reservoir due to significant water solubility in wadsleyite and ringwoodite (Mg,Fe)2SiO4. However, water storage capacity of lower mantle is still very controversial. Meade et al. (1994) reported results of in situ FTIR measurement of water solubility in MgSiO3-perovskite and suggest water content of 60 ppm. Bolfan-Casanova et al. (2000; 2002) showed absence of water (<1 ppm H2O) in MgSiO3-perovskite and 20 ppm H2O in magnesiowustite. In the contrary Murakami et al., 2002 measured 0.1-0.4 wt% H2O in peridotite-related Al-Fe-Mg-perovskite, 0.3-0.4 wt% H2O in Ca-perovskite and about 0.2 wt% H2O in magnesiowustite. Recently, we obtained data on phase relation in hydrous MORB at 20-26 GPa (Litasov and Ohtani, 2002) and found, that stability field of Al-Fe-Mg-perovskite shifts to the lower pressure. This fact suggests that these perovskites of exotic Fe-rich composition may also accommodate water. Our new FTIR data on water solubility in lower mantle minerals at 25 GPa and 1200-1600°C suggest water content in pure MgSiO3-perovskite is <90 ppm (bands at 3397, 3423, 3448, and 3482 cm-1). Water content in Al-Fe-Mg-perovskite (Al2O3=13-17 wt%; Mg#=58-61) observed in MORB is <100 ppm (bands at 3397 and 3423 cm-1). Water content in Al-Fe-Mg-perovskite (Al2O3=5-6 wt.%; Mg#=88-90) observed in peridotite is 1400-1800 ppm (band at 3397 cm-1). Water content in magnesiowustite (Mg0.8Fe0.2O) is 20-60 ppm (band at 3320 cm-1). Therefore, we confirmed that peridotite-related Mg-perovskite is a major water reservoir in the lower mantle; however role of Ca-perovskite and magnesiowustite is not clear. Using data on water solubility in Mg

  17. Subsurface water and clay mineral formation during the early history of Mars.

    PubMed

    Ehlmann, Bethany L; Mustard, John F; Murchie, Scott L; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Meunier, Alain; Fraeman, Abigail A; Langevin, Yves

    2011-11-01

    Clay minerals, recently discovered to be widespread in Mars's Noachian terrains, indicate long-duration interaction between water and rock over 3.7 billion years ago. Analysis of how they formed should indicate what environmental conditions prevailed on early Mars. If clays formed near the surface by weathering, as is common on Earth, their presence would indicate past surface conditions warmer and wetter than at present. However, available data instead indicate substantial Martian clay formation by hydrothermal groundwater circulation and a Noachian rock record dominated by evidence of subsurface waters. Cold, arid conditions with only transient surface water may have characterized Mars's surface for over 4 billion years, since the early-Noachian period, and the longest-duration aqueous, potentially habitable environments may have been in the subsurface. PMID:22051674

  18. Hydrogen and oxygen isotope exchange reactions between clay minerals and water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Neil, J.R.; Kharaka, Y.K.

    1976-01-01

    The extent of hydrogen and oxygen isotope exchange between clay minerals and water has been measured in the temperature range 100-350?? for bomb runs of up to almost 2 years. Hydrogen isotope exchange between water and the clays was demonstrable at 100??. Exchange rates were 3-5 times greater for montmorillonite than for kaolinite or illite and this is attributed to the presence of interlayer water in the montmorillonite structure. Negligible oxygen isotope exchange occurred at these low temperatures. The great disparity in D and O18 exchange rates observed in every experiment demonstrates that hydrogen isotope exchange occurred by a mechanism of proton exchange independent of the slower process of O18 exchange. At 350?? kaolinite reacted to form pyrophyllite and diaspore. This was accompanied by essentially complete D exchange but minor O18 exchange and implies that intact structural units in the pyrophyllite were inherited from the kaolinite precursor. ?? 1976.

  19. Anisotropy on the collective dynamics of water confined in swelling clay minerals.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Ruiz, M; Ferrage, E; Delville, A; Michot, L J

    2012-03-15

    Collective excitations of water confined in the interlayer space of swelling clay minerals were studied by means of inelastic neutron scattering. The effect of bidimensional confinement on the dynamics of the interlayer water was investigated by using a synthetic Na-saponite sample with a general formula of Si(7.3)Al(0.7)Mg(6)O(20)(OH)(4)Na(0.7) in a bilayer hydration state. Experimental results reveal two inelastic signals, different from those described for bulk water with a clear anisotropy on the low-energy excitation of the collective dynamics of interlayer water, this difference being stronger in the perpendicular direction. Results obtained for the parallel direction follow the same trend as bulk water, and the effect of the confinement is mainly manifested from the fact that clay interlayer water is more structured than bulk water. Data obtained in the perpendicular direction display a nondispersive behavior below a cutoff wavenumber value, Q(c), indicating a nonpropagative excitation below that value. Molecular dynamics simulations results agree qualitatively with the experimental results. PMID:22324768

  20. Removal of organic pollutants in model water and thermal wastewater using clay minerals.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Emese; Vajda, Krisztina; Veréb, Gábor; Dombi, András; Mogyorósi, Károly; Ábrahám, Imre; Májer, Marcell

    2011-01-01

    Water treatment method was developed for the removal of different anionic dyes such as methyl orange and indigo carmine, and also for thymol applying sodium bentonite and cationic surfactant - hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HTAB) - or polyelectrolytes (polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride, poly-DADMAC and poly-amines). The removal efficiency of these model substrates was examined in model water using UV-Vis spectrophotometry, HPLC and TOC analysis. The clay mineral and HTAB were added in one step to the polluted model water in Jar-test experiments. The influence of the cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the applied clay mineral and the presence of polyaluminium chloride coagulant (BOPAC) were also tested for the water treatment process. The structures of the in situ produced and pre-prepared organoclay composites were compared by XRD analysis. The rapid formation of organoclay adsorbents provided very efficient removal of the dyes (65-90 % in 3-10 mg/L TOC(0) range) with 200 mg/L sodium bentonite dose, however thymol was less efficiently separated. Adsorption efficiencies of the composites were compared at different levels of ion exchange such as at 40, 60 and 100 %. In the case of thymol, the elimination of inorganic carbon from the model water before the TOC analysis resulted in some loss of the analysed volatile compound therefore the HPLC analysis was found to be the most suitable tool for the evaluation of the process. This one-step adsorption method using in situ formed organoclay was better performing than the conventional process in which the montmorillonite-surfactant composite is pre-preapared and subsequently added to the polluted water. The purification performance of this method was also evaluated on raw and artificially polluted thermal wastewater samples containing added thymol. PMID:21929471

  1. Submarine weathering of silicate minerals and the extent of pore water freshening at active continental margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, Florian; Hensen, Christian; Schmidt, Mark; Geersen, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate how submarine weathering processes may affect the water balance of sediments at convergent plate margins, six sediment cores were retrieved off Central Chile at water depth between ˜800 and 4000 m. The sediment solid phase was analyzed for its major element composition and the pore fluids were analyzed for dissolved sulfate, sulfide, total alkalinity, major cations, chloride, bromide, iodide, hydrocarbons as well as the carbon isotopic composition of methane. Because of negligible weathering on land, surface sediments off Central Chile are rich in reactive silicate minerals and have a bulk composition similar to volcanic rocks in the adjacent Andes. Deep-sourced fluxes of alkalinity, cations and chloride indicate that silicate minerals are subject to weathering in the forearc during burial. Comparison of deep-sourced signals with data from nearby Ocean Drilling Program Sites reveals two different types of weathering processes: In shallow (tens of meters), methanic sediments of slope basins with high organic carbon burial rates, reactive silicate minerals undergo incongruent dissolution through reaction with CO2 from methanogenesis. At greater burial depth (hundreds of meters), silicate weathering is dominated by authigenic smectite formation. This process is accompanied by uptake of water into the clay interlayers thus leading to elevated salinities in the surrounding pore water. Deep-seated smectite formation is more widespread than shallow silicate dissolution, as it is independent from the availability of CO2 from methanogenesis. Although solute transport is not focused enough to form cold seeps in the proper sense, tectonically induced, diffuse fluid flow transfers the deep-seated signal of smectite formation into the shallow sediments. The temperature-controlled conversion of smectite to illite is considered the most important dehydration process in marine forearc environments (depth of kilometers). However, in agreement with other

  2. Analysis of phthalate migration from plastic containers to packaged cooking oil and mineral water.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qian; Yin, Xueyan; Wang, Min; Wang, Haifeng; Zhang, Niping; Shen, Yanyan; Xu, Shi; Zhang, Ling; Gu, Zhongze

    2010-11-10

    The migration of phthalates (PAEs), a class of typical environmental estrogen contaminants in food, from food packaging to packaged food attracts more and more attention worldwide. Many factors will affect the migration processes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate PAE migration from plastic containers to cooking oil and mineral water packed in authentic commercial packaging and stored under various conditions (different storage temperatures, contact times, and storage states (static or dynamic state)) and to identify a potential relationship between the amount and type of PAEs migrated and the lipophilic character of the food matrix. The samples were analyzed by a novel method of liquid chromatography combined with solid-phase extraction by an electrospun nylon 6 nanofibers mat, with PAE detection limits of 0.001 μg/L in mineral water and 0.020 μg/L in cooking oil, respectively. The results demonstrated that the cooking oil was a more suitable medium for the migration of PAEs from packages into foodstuffs than mineral water. Scilicet, the migration potential of the PAEs into foodstuffs, depends on the lipophilic characteristics of the food matrix. The results also demonstrated that migrations were more significant at higher temperature, longer contact time, and higher dynamic frequency; thus, the migration tests should be evaluated with consideration of different storage temperatures and contact times. Mathematical models with good logarithmic relationships were established to demonstrate the relationship between the PAE migration and food/packaging contact time for different storage temperatures. These established mathematical models would be expected to become a set of practical tools for the prediction of PAE migration. PMID:20949921

  3. Can hydrous minerals account for the observed mid-latitude water on Mars?

    SciTech Connect

    Bish, D. L.; Vaniman, D. T.; Fialips, C. I.; Carey, J. W.; Feldman, W. C.

    2003-01-01

    Great interest was generated with the discovery by the Odyssey spacecraft OC heterogeneously distributed hydrogcn at martian mid-latitudes, suggesting that large areas of the near-equatorial highlands contain near-surface deposits of 'chemically and/or physically bound 1120 and/or OH' in amounts up to 3.8% equivalent H20. More recent interpretations of the Odyssey data using new calibrations suggest that some near-equatorial areas, such as Arabia Terra, contain up to 8.5f I .3% water-equivalent hydrogen. Such shallow occurrences (minerals and zeolites, have been proposed as possible M20-bearing constituents on Mars, and both groups of minerals are common terrestrial alteration products of hydrovolcanic basaltic ashes and palagonitic material comparable io those that may be widespread on Mars. Smectites within martian meteorites, attributed to hydrous alteration on Mars rather than on Earth, provide direct evidence of clay minerals from Mars. In addition, new thermal emission spectrometer (TES) data provide evidence for unspecified zeolites in martian surface dust, and concluded that spectral deconvolution of MGS TES and Mariner 9 IRIS data is consistent with the presence of zeolite in the martian surface dust.

  4. Correction methods of medicinal properties of mineral waters in Pyatigorsk resort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reps, Valentina; Potapov, Evgeniy; Abramtsova, Anna; Kotova, Margarita

    2016-04-01

    Mineral Water (MW) of Pyatigorsk deposit (PD) is united in five genetic groups (operational stocks of 2809,8 m3/day): carbonic and hydrosulphuric, carbonic, carbonic chloride-hydrocarbonate sodium (salt and alkaline), radonic low carbonate, nitrogen-carbonic terms. A variety of MW types is explained by peculiarities of geological structure and hydrogeological conditions of PD. Here on the sites of the development of deep semi-ring splits there are overflows and a mixture of various complexes. Unloading of deep water strikes happens not only on the earth surface in the form of springs but also at the depth in its edging crumbling rocks of Palaeocene and quarternary deposits. As a result of mixture processes of water and its subsequent metamorphization, various types of mineral water of this deposit are formed. Pyatigorsk resort is in a special protected ecologo-resort region which mode allows to keep stability of structure and ecological purity of MW. Nevertheless, MW variability, compositional differences and MW mineralization determining the level of its biological effect demand studying of action mechanisms of both natural MW, and possibility of its modification for range expansion of rehabilitation action. There have been examined biological effects of the course drinking reception In experiment on 80 rats males of the Wistar line biological effects of the course drinking reception of two MW types: "Krasnoarmeyskaya new" (MW1) of sulphate-hydrocarbonate-chloride calcium-sodium structure with the raised contents of iron (3-5 mg/dm3), mineralization of 5,0-5,2 g/dm3, CO2 of 1,3-2,2 g/dm3, daily flow of 10-86 m3/day, temperature from 14 to 370C on the mouth of the well and spring №2 (MW2) low sulphate, low carbonate sulphate-hydrocarbonate-chloride calcium-sodium, mineralization of 5,0 g/l, CO2 of 0,7 g/dm3, H2 of S 0,01 g/dm3. There has been shown an ability of the drinking course MW1 to influence on endocrine and metabolic continium - cortisol level increased

  5. Trace Element Speciation and Distribution Study at Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 Biofilm/Mineral/Water Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelabert, A.; Wang, Y.; Gescher, J.; Ha, J.; Cordova, C. D.; Singer, D. M.; Spormann, A. M.; Trainor, T. P.; Eng, P. J.; Brown, G. E.

    2006-12-01

    Fe- and Al-(oxyhydr)oxides are among the most reactive mineral surfaces contacted by surface and ground waters, and thus they constitute important sorbents for heavy metal and metalloid ions. As microbial biofilms may be present as coatings on these minerals, they are likely to induce major changes in surface charges and sorption capacities for metal(loid) ions compared to biofilm-free mineral surfaces. In addition, the micro- environments in biofilms can be quite different from those in bulk solutions, which can enhance (or inhibit) metal adsorption on mineral surfaces and produce biominerals that are not predicted by equilibrium thermodynamics based on the bulk solution values. In order to provide a more quantitative understanding of these effects, we have carried out a study of the interaction of Zn(II), Pb(II), and As(V) with Shewanella oneidensis (wild type, EPS-deficient mutant, and ppx- and ppk-deficient mutants) grown on highly polished and oriented single crystal surfaces of α-Al2O3 (1-102) and α-Fe2O3 (0001). This gram-negative bacterium commonly found in soil and sediments can use a wide range of electron donors and terminal electron acceptors including Fe(III) and Mn(IV) oxides under anaerobic conditions. In-situ ATR-FTIR analyses and potentiometric titrations of S. oneidensis biofilm collected from a glass bead-filled column inoculated with S. oneidensis were conducted in order to determine the nature of functional groups present on the bacterial surfaces, to quantify the site densities and protonation constants for these groups, and to determine the electrostatic parameters for S. oneidensis surfaces. GI-XAFS analyses performed on BL 11-2 at SSRL, together with macroscopic metal adsorption experiments as a function of pH (2 to 6.5), metal concentration (10-3 to 10-7 M), and ionic strength (10-1 to 10-3 M), were used to determine ion speciation and local coordination environments in the biofilm and to develop a surface complexation model describing

  6. Low water contents in diamond mineral inclusions: Proto-genetic origin in a dry cratonic lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Lawrence A.; Logvinova, Alla M.; Howarth, Geoffrey H.; Liu, Yang; Peslier, Anne H.; Rossman, George R.; Guan, Yunbin; Chen, Yang; Sobolev, Nikolay V.

    2016-01-01

    The mantle is the major reservoir of Earth's water, hosted within Nominally Anhydrous Minerals (NAMs) (e.g., Bell and Rossman, 1992; Peslier et al., 2010; Peslier, 2010; Nestola and Smyth, 2015), in the form of hydrogen bonded to the silicate's structural oxygen. From whence cometh this water? Is the water in these minerals representative of the Earth's primitive upper mantle or did it come from melting events linked to crustal formation or to more recent metasomatic/re-fertilization events? During diamond formation, NAMs are encapsulated at hundreds of kilometers depth within the mantle, thereby possibly shielding and preserving their pristine water contents from re-equilibrating with fluids and melts percolating through the lithospheric mantle. Here we show that the NAMs included in diamonds from six locales on the Siberian Craton contain measurable and variable H2O concentrations from 2 to 34 parts per million by weight (ppmw) in olivine, 7 to 276 ppmw in clinopyroxene, and 11-17 ppmw in garnets. Our results suggest that if the inclusions were in equilibrium with the diamond-forming fluid, the water fugacity would have been unrealistically low. Instead, we consider the H2O contents of the inclusions, shielded by diamonds, as pristine representatives of the residual mantle prior to encapsulation, and indicative of a protogenetic origin for the inclusions. Hydrogen diffusion in the diamond does not appear to have modified these values significantly. The H2O contents of NAMs in mantle xenoliths may represent some later metasomatic event(s), and are not always representative of most of the continental lithospheric mantle. Results from the present study also support the conclusions of Peslier et al. (2010) and Novella et al. (2015) that the dry nature of the SCLM of a craton may provide stabilization of its thickened continental roots.

  7. Influence of Seasonal and Geochemical Changes on the Geomicrobiology of an Iron Carbonate Mineral Water Spring

    PubMed Central

    Hegler, Florian; Lösekann-Behrens, Tina; Hanselmann, Kurt; Behrens, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Fuschna Spring in the Swiss Alps (Engadin region) is a bicarbonate iron(II)-rich, pH-neutral mineral water spring that is dominated visually by dark green microbial mats at the side of the flow channel and orange iron(III) (oxyhydr)oxides in the flow channel. Gradients of O2, dissolved iron(II), and bicarbonate establish in the water. Our goals were to identify the dominating biogeochemical processes and to determine to which extent changing geochemical conditions along the flow path and seasonal changes influence mineral identity, crystallinity, and microbial diversity. Geochemical analysis showed microoxic water at the spring outlet which became fully oxygenated within 2.3 m downstream. X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy revealed calcite (CaCO3) and ferrihydrite [Fe(OH)3] to be the dominant minerals which increased in crystallinity with increasing distance from the spring outlet. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis banding pattern cluster analysis revealed that the microbial community composition shifted mainly with seasons and to a lesser extent along the flow path. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that microbial communities differ between the flow channel and the flanking microbial mat. Microbial community analysis in combination with most-probable-number analyses and quantitative PCR (qPCR) showed that the mat was dominated by cyanobacteria and the channel was dominated by microaerophilic Fe(II) oxidizers (1.97 × 107 ± 4.36 × 106 16S rRNA gene copies g−1 using Gallionella-specific qPCR primers), while high numbers of Fe(III) reducers (109 cells/g) were identified in both the mat and the flow channel. Phototrophic and nitrate-reducing Fe(II) oxidizers were present as well, although in lower numbers (103 to 104 cells/g). In summary, our data suggest that mainly seasonal changes caused microbial community shifts, while geochemical gradients along the flow path influenced mineral crystallinity. PMID:22865064

  8. Calcium phosphate growth beneath a polycationic monolayer at the air-water interface: effects of oscillating surface pressure on mineralization.

    PubMed

    Junginger, Mathias; Bleek, Katrin; Kita-Tokarczyk, Katarzyna; Reiche, Jürgen; Shkilnyy, Andriy; Schacher, Felix; Müller, Axel H E; Taubert, Andreas

    2010-11-01

    The self-assembly of the amphiphilic block copolymer poly(butadiene)-block-poly[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate] at the air-water interface and the mineralization of the monolayers with calcium phosphate was investigated at different pH values. As expected for polyelectrolytes, the subphase pH strongly affects the monolayer properties. The focus of the current study, however, is on the effect of an oscillating (instead of a static) polymer monolayer on calcium phosphate mineralization. Monitoring of the surface pressure vs. mineralization time shows that the monolayer is quite stable if the mineralization is performed at pH 8. In contrast, the monolayer at pH 5 shows a measurable decrease of the surface pressure already after ca. 2 h of mineralization. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that mineralization at low pH under constant oscillation leads to small particles, which are arranged in circular features and larger entities with holes of ca. 200 nm. The larger features with the holes disappear as the mineralization is continued in favor of the smaller particles. These grow with time and form necklace-like architectures of spherical particles with a uniform diameter. In contrast, mineralization at pH 8 leads to very uniform particle morphologies already after 2 h. The mineralization products consist of a circular feature with a dark dot in the center. The increasing contrast of the precipitates in the electron micrographs with mineralization time indicates an increasing degree of mineralization vs. reaction time. The study therefore shows that mechanical effects on mineralization at interfaces are quite complex. PMID:20835481

  9. Calcium phosphate growth beneath a polycationic monolayer at the air-water interface: effects of oscillating surface pressure on mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junginger, Mathias; Bleek, Katrin; Kita-Tokarczyk, Katarzyna; Reiche, Jürgen; Shkilnyy, Andriy; Schacher, Felix; Müller, Axel H. E.; Taubert, Andreas

    2010-11-01

    The self-assembly of the amphiphilic block copolymer poly(butadiene)-block-poly[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate] at the air-water interface and the mineralization of the monolayers with calcium phosphate was investigated at different pH values. As expected for polyelectrolytes, the subphase pH strongly affects the monolayer properties. The focus of the current study, however, is on the effect of an oscillating (instead of a static) polymer monolayer on calcium phosphate mineralization. Monitoring of the surface pressure vs. mineralization time shows that the monolayer is quite stable if the mineralization is performed at pH 8. In contrast, the monolayer at pH 5 shows a measurable decrease of the surface pressure already after ca. 2 h of mineralization. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that mineralization at low pH under constant oscillation leads to small particles, which are arranged in circular features and larger entities with holes of ca. 200 nm. The larger features with the holes disappear as the mineralization is continued in favor of the smaller particles. These grow with time and form necklace-like architectures of spherical particles with a uniform diameter. In contrast, mineralization at pH 8 leads to very uniform particle morphologies already after 2 h. The mineralization products consist of a circular feature with a dark dot in the center. The increasing contrast of the precipitates in the electron micrographs with mineralization time indicates an increasing degree of mineralization vs. reaction time. The study therefore shows that mechanical effects on mineralization at interfaces are quite complex.

  10. Peroxone mineralization of chemical oxygen demand for direct potable water reuse: Kinetics and process control.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tingting; Englehardt, James D

    2015-04-15

    Mineralization of organics in secondary effluent by the peroxone process was studied at a direct potable water reuse research treatment system serving an occupied four-bedroom, four bath university residence hall apartment. Organic concentrations were measured as chemical oxygen demand (COD) and kinetic runs were monitored at varying O3/H2O2 dosages and ratios. COD degradation could be accurately described as the parallel pseudo-1st order decay of rapidly and slowly-oxidizable fractions, and effluent COD was reduced to below the detection limit (<0.7 mg/L). At dosages ≥4.6 mg L(-1) h(-1), an O3/H2O2 mass ratio of 3.4-3.8, and initial COD <20 mg/L, a simple first order decay was indicated for both single-passed treated wastewater and recycled mineral water, and a relationship is proposed and demonstrated to estimate the pseudo-first order rate constant for design purposes. At this O3/H2O2 mass ratio, ORP and dissolved ozone were found to be useful process control indicators for monitoring COD mineralization in secondary effluent. Moreover, an average second order rate constant for OH oxidation of secondary effluent organics (measured as MCOD) was found to be 1.24 × 10(7) ± 0.64 × 10(7) M(-1) S(-1). The electric energy demand of the peroxone process is estimated at 1.73-2.49 kW h electric energy for removal of one log COD in 1 m(3) secondary effluent, comparable to the energy required for desalination of medium strength seawater. Advantages/disadvantages of the two processes for municipal wastewater reuse are discussed. PMID:25704155

  11. Common and specific responses to availability of mineral nutrients and water.

    PubMed

    Kudoyarova, Guzel R; Dodd, Ian C; Veselov, Dmitry S; Rothwell, Shane A; Veselov, Stanislav Yu

    2015-04-01

    Changes in resource (mineral nutrients and water) availability, due to their heterogeneous distribution in space and time, affect plant development. Plants need to sense these changes to optimize growth and biomass allocation by integrating root and shoot growth. Since a limited supply of water or nutrients can elicit similar physiological responses (the relative activation of root growth at the expense of shoot growth), similar underlying mechanisms may affect perception and acquisition of either nutrients or water. This review compares root and shoot responses to availability of different macronutrients and water. Attention is given to the roles of root-to-shoot signalling and shoot-to-root signalling, with regard to coordinating changes in root and shoot growth and development. Involvement of plant hormones in regulating physiological responses such as stomatal and hydraulic conductance is revealed by measuring the effects of resource availability on phytohormone concentrations in roots and shoots, and their flow between roots and shoots in xylem and phloem saps. More specific evidence can be obtained by measuring the physiological responses of genotypes with altered hormone responses or concentrations. We discuss the similarity and diversity of changes in shoot growth, allocation to root growth, and root architecture under changes in water, nitrate, and phosphorus availability, and the possible involvement of abscisic acid, indole-acetic acid, and cytokinin in their regulation. A better understanding of these mechanisms may contribute to better crop management for efficient use of these resources and to selecting crops for improved performance under suboptimal soil conditions. PMID:25697793

  12. Characterization of the bacterial flora in mineral waters in upstreaming fluids of deep igneous rock aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, C.; Mau, M.; SchlöMann, M.; Heinicke, J.; Koch, U.

    2007-03-01

    The bacterial community of the mineral spring Wettinquelle in the Vogtland/NW Bohemian region (German-Czech border) was characterized by sequence analysis of amplified small subunit ribosomal RNA genes. The acidulous spring water consists mostly of old groundwater from deep aquifers, which is mixed with 15-20% young water from upper groundwater horizons. The spring water contains high concentrations of iron, Ca2+ and SO42- ions. A remarkable attribute is the high radon activity of 27 kBq L-1 water. Free escaping spring gas consists mainly of CO2 originating from the mantle, N2 (1.2%) and traces of other gases, like methane and helium. Close relatives of Gallionella ferruginea, a micro-aerobic oxidizer of ferrous iron, contributed most to the clone library. Clones with sequences related to Thiobacillus aquaesulis, members of the Sulfuricurvum-cluster and members of several branches of the OP11 group were present in significantly lower numbers but still with some microdiversity. These bacterial groups, which contributed strongly to the clone library and have known physiology, obviously depend on the oxygen in the younger water and reduced compounds from the below.

  13. The history of water on Mars: Evidence from minerals, morphology (and rovers).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Philip

    2004-05-01

    A wealth of recent orbital and surface measurements of the mineralogy, elemental abundance, and morphology of the martian surface have greatly improved our view of the history of water on Mars. Mineralogic data from orbital spectroscopy reveal a dry, volcanic planet that lacks extensive aqueous weathering or carbonate formation. However, there are local regions, such as the remarkable example of the Opportunity Rover landing site, where orbital and in situ observations suggest a lake once existed that produced significant localized aqueous mineralization. Mid- to high-latitude hydrogen abundances and unusual morphologies suggest that there are extensive accumulations of near-surface water ice that can melt during climate oscillations to form modern gullies. Overall, the upper surface of Mars appears to have an extensive water inventory, but this water may have existed in a frozen state throughout much of martian history.Can these disparate views of a "dry Mars",, a"wet Mars, and an "icy Mars" be reconciled into a coherent picture of the evolution of the climate and the state of water on this planet?

  14. Mineral-Water Interface Processes Affecting Uranium Fate in Contaminated Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalano, J. G.

    2011-12-01

    Widespread uranium contamination of soil, sediments, and groundwater systems has resulted from mining activities, nuclear weapon production, and energy generation. The fate and transport of uranium in such systems is strongly affected by geochemical processes occurring at mineral-water interfaces. I will present a summary of the mineral-water interface processes found to affect uranium fate in example contaminated sediments at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford sites and in related model systems. Processes occurring under oxic conditions will be the primary focus of this talk as under these conditions uranium is most mobile and thus presents the greatest hazard. Three dominant solid-phase uranium species are observed in contaminated soil and sediments at the Hanford site: uranyl silicates, uranyl phosphates, and uranyl adsorbed to clays and iron oxides. In deep sediments, uranyl silicates are found in microfractures in feldspar grains, likely because slow diffusion in such fractures maintains a high silicate activity. Such silicates are also found in waste-impacted shallow sediments and soil; waste fluids or evaporative processes may have generated the silicate activity needed to produce such phases. Uranyl phosphates are less abundant, occurring primarily in shallow sediments exposed to P-bearing waste fluids. However, remediation approaches under consideration may produce substantial quantities of uranyl phosphates in the future. Adsorbed uranyl is dispersed throughout contaminated soils and shallow sediments and likely has the greatest potential for remobilization. Analogue studies show that precipitation of uranyl phosphates is rapid when such phases are supersaturated and that both homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation may occur. Specific adsorption of uranyl to minerals is strongly affected by the presence of complexation anions. Carbonate suppresses uranyl adsorption but also forms uranyl-carbonate ternary surface complexes. At conditions below

  15. The maximum water storage capacities in nominally anhydrous minerals in the mantle transition zone and lower mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, T.; Yurimoto, H.

    2012-12-01

    Water is the most important volatile component in the Earth, and affects the physicochemical properties of mantle minerals, e.g. density, elastic property, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, rheological property, melting temperature, melt composition, element partitioning, etc. So many high pressure experiments have been conducted so far to determine the effect of water on mantle minerals. To clarify the maximum water storage capacity in nominally anhydrous mantle minerals in the mantle transition zone and lower mantle is an important issue to discuss the possibility of the existence of water reservoir in the Earth mantle. So we have been clarifying the maximum water storage capacity in mantle minerals using MA-8 type (KAWAI-type) high pressure apparatus and SIMS (secondary ion mass spectroscopy). Upper mantle mineral, olivine can contain ~0.9 wt% H2O in the condition just above 410 km discontinuity in maximum (e.g. Chen et al., 2002; Smyth et al., 2006). On the other hand, mantle transition zone mineral, wadsleyite and ringwoodite can contain significant amount (about 2-3 wt.%) of H2O (e.g. Inoue et al., 1995, 1998, 2010; Kawamoto et al., 1996; Ohtani et al., 2000). But the lower mantle mineral, perovskite can not contain significant amount of H2O, less than ~0.1 wt% (e.g. Murakami et al., 2002; Inoue et al., 2010). In addition, garnet and stishovite also can not contain significant amount of H2O (e.g. Katayama et al., 2003; Mookherjee and Karato, 2010; Litasov et al., 2007). On the other hand, the water storage capacities of mantle minerals are supposed to be significantly coupled with Al by a substitution with Mg2+, Si4+ or Mg2+ + Si4+, because Al3+ is the trivalent cation, and H+ is the monovalent cation. To clarify the degree of the substitution, the water contents and the chemical compositions of Al-bearing minerals in the mantle transition zone and the lower mantle were also determined in the Al-bearing systems with H2O. We will introduce the

  16. Maxwell Wagner Relaxation in Common Minerals and a Desert Soil at Low Water Contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcone, S. A.

    2010-12-01

    Maxwell-Wagner type dielectric permittivity relaxation in soils is caused by macro-dipolar inclusions, usually of grain size dimensions, and generally within a more dielectric matrix. We discuss laboratory measurements of the complex permittivity of quartz, feldspars, calcite, two forms of gypsum and a simple desert soil at 4-7 percent volumetric water content, and in which we interpret Maxwell-Wagner processes to have dominated. We used Fourier Transform time domain reflectometry, measured from 1 MHz to 6 GHz, and used small samples with grain sizes less than 53 microns. Using XRD and SEM, we found the soil contained quartz, gypsum and feldspars at 80, 10 and 10 percent by weight, respectively, with the gypsum appearing as crystallites and crustations on the quartz particles. All samples show low conductivity, and low-frequency dispersion. The montmorillonite, gypsum crystallites, and desert soil exhibit unusually strong and broad low-frequency dispersion, and strong attenuation rates above 100 MHz. The one-way attenuation rates of the soil exceed those of its constituents, are similar to that of montmorillonite, and exceed 100 dB/m by 1 GHz. Through modeling using the CRIM approach, we attribute all permittivity behavior to a combination of Maxwell-Wagner and free water relaxations, with the former dominant and able to contribute significantly to attenuation rates into the GHz range because of Cole-Cole broadened relaxation frequencies centered from 1-20 MHz, while the latter is centered at 20 GHz. The lack of sufficient surface area to support adsorbed water relaxation, the lack of salts, clay and magnetic minerals, and the inadequacy of measured conductivity values to explain the high loss further justify our Maxwell-Wagner interpretation. The polarized inclusions within the soil are likely to have been conductive wet gypsum particles, whereby films of water that coated the particles polarized. The source of the charge was likely to have been ions dissolved

  17. Sealing ability of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) combined with distilled water, chlorhexidine, and doxycycline.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Roberta A A; Cunha, Rodrigo S; Miguita, Kenner B; Silveira, Cláudia F M; De Martin, Alexandre S; Pinheiro, Sérgio L; Rocha, Daniel G P; Bueno, Carlos E S

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the sealing ability of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA Bio) combined with different mixing agents (distilled water, chlorhexidine, doxycycline), used as an apical root-end filling material. Forty-two extracted human teeth were divided into three groups (n = 12); six teeth were used as controls. Root-ends were resected at 90 degrees, 3 mm from the apex. Root-end cavities were prepared using ultrasonic tips and filled with MTA Bio plus distilled water, 2% chlorhexidine solution, or 10% doxycycline solution. Apical sealing was assessed by microleakage of 50% silver nitrate solution. Roots were longitudinally sectioned in a buccolingual plane and analyzed using an operating microscope (20× magnification). Depth of dye leakage into the dentinal walls was measured in millimeters. Results were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test (P = 0.05). MTA Bio plus distilled water showed significantly higher mean leakage results (1.06 mm) when compared with MTA Bio plus doxycycline (0.61 mm), and higher, although not significant, results when compared with MTA Bio plus chlorhexidine (0.79 mm). In conclusion, replacing distilled water with two biologically active mixing agents (doxycycline and chlorhexidine) did not alter the sealing properties of MTABio. The antimicrobial properties of these combinations should be further investigated. PMID:23047034

  18. Chemical and isotopic compositions of minerals and waters from the Campi Flegrei volcanic system, Naples, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentino, G. M.; Cortecci, G.; Franco, E.; Stanzione, D.

    1999-08-01

    Based on their δ 34S signature, sulfate minerals and native sulfur around fumaroles and hot water pools from the Campi Flegrei volcanic area derive from supergenic oxidation of volcanic H 2S. Their mean δ 34S value (-0.2±1.7‰) matches with that of fumarolic H 2S at Solfatara (-0.3±0.3‰), as well as with the δ 34S of +1.4‰ obtained for total sulfur in fresh trachyte from the area. All δ 34S values indicate a mostly deep-seated origin for sulfur. Thermal waters were analysed for major and minor chemistry and for oxygen, hydrogen and sulfur isotope compositions. Pools at Pisciarelli are filled with evaporated meteoric water heated by rising (magmatic) gases. The water δ 18O (+3.8±1.3‰) and δ 2H (+6.5±2.2‰) values in these steam-heated waters are controlled by mixing and evaporation effects, and the δ 34S value of dissolved sulfate (-1.3±0.3‰) basically agrees with supergenic oxidation of deep-seated H 2S as the major source of sulfur. Instead, water from thermal springs and wells elsewhere in the Campi Flegrei appears to be a mixture between dilute meteoric and saline marine components. The latter may be local seawater from the bay of Pozzuoli. The δ 18O and δ 2H values of waters sampled during 1993-1994 range from -5.6 to +0.3‰ and from -33 to -3.4‰, respectively. The δ 34S values of dissolved sulfate range between -0.1 and +19.5‰. In general, sulfate is probably derived essentially from two sources, both within the volcanic cover, i.e., oxidation/dissolution of pyrite and anhydrite, and marine water. An occasional source of water and sulfate is represented by (magmatic) gases, which directly interact with shallow meteoric water as in the case of the Hotel Tennis well yielding steam-heated water with δ 18O=-1.5±0.2‰, δ 2H=-17±1‰ and δ 34S=-0.1‰.

  19. [The use of potassium-magnesium-sodium chloride-sulfate mineral water and direct current (experimental research)].

    PubMed

    Mishchuk, A V; Gereliuk, I P

    1989-01-01

    To evaluate a therapeutic potential of a test treatment of chronic hepatitis with mineral water followed by hepatic galvanization, the authors have conducted an experimental study on 38 rats. The animals were divided into 4 experimental and 4 control groups. Experimental animals of groups 1 and 2 underwent galvanization of the liver 1 hour after the intake of mineral water in combination with 22Na-labelled sodium chloride, of group 3 in combination with 35S-labelled sodium sulfate, of group 4--with labelled rubidium. Control animals were treated according to the same schedule but galvanization. The study of the hepatic tissue of the sacrificed rats evidenced that oral administration of mineral water followed in an hour by hepatic galvanization results in a significant elevation of hepatic content of labelled sulphur and rubidium, whereas the level of labelled sodium remained unchanged. The data obtained by the authors need to be confirmed in further clinical trials. PMID:2800438

  20. Geologic and mineral and water resources investigations in western Colorado, using Skylab EREP data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, K. (Principal Investigator); Prost, G. L.; Knepper, D. H.; Sawatzky, D. L.; Huntley, D.; Weimer, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Skylab photographs are superior to ERTS images for photogeologic interpretation, primarily because of improved resolution. Lithologic contacts can be detected consistently better on Skylab S190A photos than on ERTS images. Color photos are best; red and green band photos are somewhat better than color-infrared photos; infrared band photos are worst. All major geologic structures can be recognized on Skylab imagery. Large folds, even those with very gentle flexures, can be mapped accurately and with confidence. Bedding attitudes of only a few degrees are recognized; vertical exaggeration factor is about 2.5X. Mineral deposits in central Colorado may be indicated on Skylab photos by lineaments and color anomalies, but positive identification of these features is not possible. S190A stereo color photography is adequate for defining drainage divides that in turn define the boundaries and distribution of ground water recharge and discharge areas within a basin.

  1. Preliminary bounds on the water composition and secondary mineral development that may influence the near-field environment

    SciTech Connect

    Whitbeck, M.; Glassley, W.

    1998-02-01

    The evolution of the water chemistry and secondary mineral development in the vicinity of the near-field of a potential Yucca Mountain high level nuclear waste repository will be controlled by temperature, and interaction of water with rock over time. This report describes initial bounds on water composition and secondary mineral development, as a function of time, temperature, and rock type (devitrified, welded tuff and vitrophyre). The code EQ3/6 was used in the calculations, with explicit use of transition state theory models for mineral dissolution rates for the framework minerals of the tuff. Simulations were run for time durations sufficient to achieve steady state conditions. Uncertainty in the calculations, due to uncertainty in the measured dissolution rates, was considered by comparing results in simulations in which rates were varied within the range of known uncertainties for dissolution rate constants. The results demonstrate that the steady state mineralogy and water compositions are relatively insensitive to the rock unit modeled, which is consistent with the fact that the compositions of the rock units in the vicinity if the potential repository are similar, and will tend toward similar thermodynamic free energy minima, for similar rock:water ratios. Significant differences are observed, however, for large differences in rock: water ratios. The rates at which this end point condition are approached are a function of the rate parameters used, and can vary by orders of magnitude.

  2. Bioremediating oil spills in nutrient poor ocean waters using fertilized clay mineral flakes: some experimental constraints.

    PubMed

    Warr, Laurence N; Friese, André; Schwarz, Florian; Schauer, Frieder; Portier, Ralph J; Basirico, Laura M; Olson, Gregory M

    2013-01-01

    Much oil spill research has focused on fertilizing hydrocarbon oxidising bacteria, but a primary limitation is the rapid dilution of additives in open waters. A new technique is presented for bioremediation by adding nutrient amendments to the oil spill using thin filmed minerals comprised largely of Fullers Earth clay. Together with adsorbed N and P fertilizers, filming additives, and organoclay, clay flakes can be engineered to float on seawater, attach to the oil, and slowly release contained nutrients. Our laboratory experiments of microbial activity on weathered source oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill in the Gulf of Mexico show fertilized clay treatment significantly enhanced bacterial respiration and consumption of alkanes compared to untreated oil-in-water conditions and reacted faster than straight fertilization. Whereas a major portion (up to 98%) of the alkane content was removed during the 1 month period of experimentation by fertilized clay flake interaction; the reduced concentration of polyaromatic hydrocarbons was not significantly different from the non-clay bearing samples. Such clay flake treatment could offer a way to more effectively apply the fertilizer to the spill in open nutrient poor waters and thus significantly reduce the extent and duration of marine oil spills, but this method is not expected to impact hydrocarbon toxicity. PMID:23864952

  3. Flow cytometric determination of bacterial populations in bottled natural mineral waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beisker, Wolfgang; Meier, H.

    1998-04-01

    In order to enhance the quality and safety of bottled natural mineral waters, new methodologies besides classical bacteriology have been evaluated. Multi laser flow cytometry has been used to identify bacterial populations based on their DNA content, physiological activity and phylogeny from in situ hybridization with rRNA targeted DNA probes. Due to the low content of organic material in these waters, the bacterial population are under conditions (low ribosome content, low activity, etc.) which makes it hard to detect them flow cytometrically. The numbers of bacteria are in the range between 1000 and 100,000 per ml (for uncarbonated waters). Filtration techniques to enrich the bacterial population have been developed in combination with specific staining and hybridization protocols. First results on some selected brands show, that most bacteria belong to the beta subclass of proteobacteria. If the DNA containing cells (DAPI staining) are counted as 100%, 84% could be stained with a eubacteria probe. From these 84% 68% belong to the beta subclass, 8.2% to the alpha and 0.3% to the gamma subclass of roteobacteria. 8.5% could be identified as cytophaga flexibacter. By optimizing DNA staining with cyanine dyes and enhancing the sensitivity of light scatter detection, the detection limit could be considerably lowered.

  4. Removal of cyanobacteria and microcystin by natural plant-mineral combinations in eutrophic waters.

    PubMed

    Kim, Baik-Ho; Lee, Ju-Hwan; Hwang, Soon-Jin

    2013-02-01

    The removal or mitigation of cyanobacterial bloom and cyanotoxins is a necessity to ensure safe drinking water and recreational water. As a feasible agent to control cyanobacterial bloom, a novel plant-mineral composite (PMC) was developed and optimized through laboratory and field testing over the past 3 years. Based on previous studies, we treated cyanobacterial bloom water (mainly Microcystis and Synechocystis) with 0.05 mg/L PMC at the small eutrophic reservoir; 2 h later, we collected samples and analyzed them in the laboratory. The intra-cellular (c-MC) and dissolved microcystin-LR (d-MC) were measured using an ELISA method. The PMC exhibited a remarkable removal of both c-MC (47.3 %) and d-MC (95.8 %) within 2 days. In addition, notable decreases (on average, 78 % of the control) in the chlorophyll-a, suspended solids, total phosphorus and biochemical oxygen demand values, in zooplankton and in the phytoplankton density (83.9 %) were verified after 48 h. These results indicate that the PMC is more effective in controlling d-MC than c-MC, suggesting a possible method to mitigate such hazardous chemicals as agrochemicals and endocrine disrupters in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:23196372

  5. Microbial diversity and dynamics of a groundwater and a still bottled natural mineral water.

    PubMed

    França, Luís; Lopéz-Lopéz, Arantxa; Rosselló-Móra, Ramon; da Costa, Milton S

    2015-03-01

    The microbial abundance and diversity at source, after bottling and through 6 months of storage of a commercial still natural mineral water were assessed by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. The results revealed clear shifts of the dominant communities present in the three different stages. The borehole waters displayed low cell densities that increased 1.5-fold upon bottling and storage, reaching a maximum (6.2 × 10(8)  cells l(-1) ) within 15 days after bottling, but experienced a significant decrease in diversity. In all cases, communities were largely dominated by Bacteria. The culturable heterotrophic community was characterized by recovering 3626 isolates, which were primarily affiliated with the Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria. This study indicates that bottling and storage induce quantitative and qualitative changes in the microbial assemblages that seem to be similar as revealed by the two sample batches collected on 2 consecutive years. To our knowledge, this is the first study combining culture-independent with culture-dependent methods, and repeated tests to reveal the microbial dynamics occurring from source to stored bottled water. PMID:24612305

  6. Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation. 13. Mineral Microscopy and Chemistry of Mined and Unmined Porphyry Molybdenum Mineralization Along the Red River, New Mexico: Implications for Ground- and Surface-Water Quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plumlee, Geoff; Lowers, Heather; Ludington, Steve; Koenig, Alan; Briggs, Paul

    2005-01-01

    This report is one in a series presenting results of an interdisciplinary U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) study of ground-water quality in the lower Red River watershed prior to open-pit and underground molybdenite mining at Molycorp's Questa mine. The stretch of the Red River watershed that extends from just upstream of the town of Red River to just above the town of Questa includes several mineralized areas in addition to the one mined by Molycorp. Natural erosion and weathering of pyrite-rich rocks in the mineralized areas has created a series of erosional scars along this stretch of the Red River that contribute acidic waters, as well as mineralized alluvial material and sediments, to the river. The overall goal of the USGS study is to infer the pre-mining ground-water quality at the Molycorp mine site. An integrated geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical model for ground water in the mineralized but unmined Straight Creek drainage is being used as an analogue for the geologic, geochemical, and hydrologic conditions that influenced ground-water quality and quantity at the mine site prior to mining. This report summarizes results of reconnaissance mineralogical and chemical characterization studies of rock samples collected from the various scars and the Molycorp open pit, and of drill cuttings or drill core from bedrock beneath the scars and adjacent debris fans.

  7. Deep mineral water accelerates recovery after dehydrating aerobic exercise: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The effect of deep mineral water (DMW) with moderate mineralization on the recovery of physical performance after prolonged dehydrating aerobic exercise in the heat was studied in nine healthy, physically active (VO2max = 45.8 ± 8.4 mL kg−1 min−1) women aged 24.0 ± 3.7 years. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover human study to evaluate the effect of ingestion of natural mineral water extracted from a depth of 689 m on recovery from prolonged fatiguing aerobic running conducted at 30°C. Results Mean body weight decreased by 2.6–2.8% following dehydrating exercise. VO2max was 9% higher after 4 h of recovery after rehydrating with DMW compared with plain water. Leg muscle power recovered better during the slow phase of recovery and was significantly higher after 48 h of recovery after rehydrating with DMW compared with plain water. Conclusions DMW with moderate mineralization was more effective in inducing recovery of aerobic capacity and leg muscle power compared with plain water following prolonged dehydrating aerobic running exercise. PMID:25002835

  8. Between chemistry, medicine and leisure: Antonio Casares and the study of mineral waters and Spanish spas in the nineteenth century.

    PubMed

    Suay-Matallana, Ignacio

    2016-07-01

    This article considers how chemical analyses were employed not only to study and describe mineral waters, but also to promote new spas, and to reinforce the scientific authority of experts. Scientists, jointly with bath owners, visitors and local authorities, created a significant spa market by transforming rural spaces into social and economic sites. The paper analyses the role developed by the chemist Antonio Casares in the commodification of mineral water in mid-19(th) century Spain. His scientific publications and water analyses put a new economic value on some Spanish mineral waters and rural springs. First the paper explores the relationship between geographic factors, regulation, and spa development in 19(th) century Spain, and considers how scientific work improved the economy of some rural areas. Then the transformation of numerous country springs into spas, and the commodification of baths as places between science and leisure is examined. Finally the location of spas across the borders of medicine and chemistry is shown, together with the complex field operations required to study mineral waters. This paper reveals an intense circulation of knowledge between the field, laboratories and scientific publications, as well as the essential role developed by experts like Casares, who not only contributed to the study of rural springs but also to their economic transformation. PMID:26650132

  9. Migration of antimony from polyethylene terephthalate used in mineral water bottles.

    PubMed

    Carneado, S; Hernández-Nataren, E; López-Sánchez, J F; Sahuquillo, A

    2015-01-01

    The influence of storage time and temperature on Sb migration from PET bottles into mineral water was studied in short-term tests lasting up to 15 days and long-term studies lasting up to 220 days. Samples purchased were stored in three different coloured bottles: clear (CL), light blue (LB) and dark blue (DB). Sb migration was assayed by HG-AFS for total determination and HPLC-ICP-MS for speciation analysis. Migration studies showed that waters stored at 4 and 20 °C were not subject to Sb migration. At 40 °C there was a significant increase in Sb concentration, although the maximum limit established by the European Union (5.0 μgL(-)(1)) was not exceeded, whereas at 60 °C samples were subject to considerable Sb migration after 30 days of storage. In this case, the maximum limit established by the European Union was exceeded and both Sb (V) and Sb (III) were detected. PMID:25053092

  10. Natural radionuclides in Austrian mineral water and their sequential measurement by fast methods.

    PubMed

    Wallner, Gabriele; Wagner, Rosmarie; Katzlberger, Christian

    2008-07-01

    Ten samples of Austrian mineral water were investigated with regard to the natural radionuclides (228)Ra, (226)Ra, (210)Pb, (210)Po, (238)U and (234)U. The radium isotopes as well as (210)Pb were measured by liquid scintillation counting (LSC) after separation on a membrane loaded with element-selective particles (Empore Radium Disks) and (210)Po was determined by alpha-spectroscopy after spontaneous deposition onto a copper planchette. Uranium was determined by ICP-MS as well as by alpha-spectroscopy after ion separation and microprecipitation with NdF(3). From the measured activity concentrations the committed effective doses for adults and babies were calculated and compared to the total indicative dose of 0.1 mSv/a given in the EC Drinking Water Directive as a maximum dose. The dominant portion of the committed effective dose was due to the radium isotopes; the dose from (228)Ra in most samples clearly exceeded the dose from (226)Ra. PMID:18243442

  11. A comparison of pre- and post-remediation water quality, Mineral Creek, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runkel, R.L.; Bencala, K.E.; Kimball, B.A.; Walton-Day, K.; Verplanck, P.L.

    2009-01-01

    Pre- and post-remediation data sets are used herein to assess the effectiveness of remedial measures implemented in the headwaters of the Mineral Creek watershed, where contamination from hard rock mining has led to elevated metal concentrations and acidic pH. Collection of pre- and post-remediation data sets generally followed the synoptic mass balance approach, in which numerous stream and inflow locations are sampled for the constituents of interest and estimates of streamflow are determined by tracer dilution. The comparison of pre- and post-remediation data sets is confounded by hydrologic effects and the effects of temporal variation. Hydrologic effects arise due to the relatively wet conditions that preceded the collection of pre-remediation data, and the relatively dry conditions associated with the post-remediation data set. This difference leads to a dilution effect in the upper part of the study reach, where pre-remediation concentrations were diluted by rainfall, and a source area effect in the lower part of the study reach, where a smaller portion of the watershed may have been contributing constituent mass during the drier post-remediation period. A second confounding factor, temporal variability, violates the steady-state assumption that underlies the synoptic mass balance approach, leading to false identification of constituent sources and sinks. Despite these complications, remedial actions completed in the Mineral Creek headwaters appear to have led to improvements in stream water quality, as post-remediation profiles of instream load are consistently lower than the pre-remediation profiles over the entire study reach for six of the eight constituents considered (aluminium, arsenic, cadmium, copper, iron, and zinc). Concentrations of aluminium, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc remain above chronic aquatic-life standards, however, and additional remedial actions may be needed. Future implementations of the synoptic mass balance approach should be

  12. Wine Valley Inn: A mineral water spa in Calistoga, California. Geothermal-energy-system conceptual design and economic feasibility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-26

    The purpose of this study is to determine the engineering and economic feasibility for utilizing geothermal energy for air conditioning and service water heating at the Wine Valley Inn, a mineral water spa in Calistoga, California. The study evaluates heating, ventilating, air conditioning and water heating systems suitable for direct heat geothermal application. Due to the excellent geothermal temperatures available at this site, the mechanics and economics of a geothermally powered chilled water cooling system are evaluated. The Wine Valley Inn has the resource potential to have one of the few totally geothermal powered air conditioning and water heating systems in the world. This total concept is completely developed. A water plan was prepared to determine the quantity of water required for fresh water well development based on the special requirements of the project. An economic evaluation of the system is included to justify the added capital investment needed to build the geothermally powered mineral spa. Energy payback calculations are presented. A thermal cascade system is proposed to direct the geothermal water through the energy system to first power the chiller, then the space heating system, domestic hot water, the two spas and finally to heat the swimming pool. The Energy Management strategy required to automatically control this cascade process using industrial quality micro-processor equipment is described. Energy Management controls are selected to keep equipment sizing at a minimum, pump only the amount of geothermal water needed and be self balancing.

  13. Magnesium-rich minerals in sediment and suspended particulates of South Florida water bodies: implications for turbidity.

    PubMed

    Harris, W G; Fisher, M M; Cao, X; Osborne, T; Ellis, L

    2007-01-01

    Fine sediments in shallow water bodies such as Lake Okeechobee are prone to resuspension. Predominantly inorganic "mud" sediment that covers approximately 670 km2 of the lake has been recognized as a persistent source of turbidity. The objective of this study was to determine if mineral components of sediments in Lake Okeechobee and water conveyances of the northern Everglades also occur as suspended sediment and hence constitute a potential abiotic contributor to turbidity. Sediment samples were collected from nine stations within the lake and eight locations north of Water Conservation Area 2A in the Everglades. Water samples were also collected at selected locations. The silt and clay mineralogy of sediment and suspended particles was determined using X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry, scanning-electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray elemental microanalysis, and high-resolution transmission-electron microscopy. Clay fractions of the lake sediment contained the Mg silicate minerals sepiolite and palygorskite, along with smectite, dolomite, calcite, and kaolinite. Sediment silt fractions were dominated by carbonates and/or quartz, with smaller amounts of Ca phosphates and sepiolite. Mineralogy of the mud sediment was similar to that reported for geologic phosphate deposits. This suggests that the mud sediment might have accumulated by stream transport of minerals from these deposits. Suspended solids and mud-sediment mineralogy were similar, except that smectite was more abundant in suspended solids. Everglade samples also contained Mg-rich minerals. The small size, low density, and fibrous or platy nature of the prevalent mud sediment minerals make them an abiotic, hydrodynamically sensitive source of persistent turbidity in a shallow lake. Mitigation efforts focused exclusively on P-induced biogeochemical processes do not address the origin or effects of these minerals. Ecological management issues such as turbidity control, P retention, geologic P input

  14. Carbonate mineral dissolution and the impacts of flood water exchange between conduit and matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spellman, P.; Screaton, E.; Gulley, J. D.; Martin, J. B.

    2012-12-01

    permeabilities, which allows for both greater volumes of water exchange and greater mineral surface area. Quantitative comparisons of the dissolution in eogenetic and telogenetic karst aquifers have not hitherto been made. We present the results of modeling experiments that compare the magnitude amount of dissolution that would occur as a result of spring reversals in telogenetic and eogenetic settings. Water fluxes and residence times were calculated using MODFLOW and Conduit Flow Processes (CFP) and dissolution was estimated using PHREEQC geochemical modeling software. Maximum aquifer residence times of allogenic runoff were twice as long in telogenetic aquifers , but because most water was restricted to the conduit, dissolution was limited. Volumes of exchange and dissolution in eogenetic settings were orders of magnitude higher.

  15. Areal extent of a plume of mineralized water from a flowing artesian well in Dade County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waller, Bradley G.

    1982-01-01

    A flowing artesian well that taps the Floridan aquifer at Chekika Hammock State Park is contaminating the overlying Biscayne aquifer with saline water. The plume of mineralized water extends approximately 7 miles southeast of the well and ranges in width from 1 to 2 miles. The areal extent of contamination in the primary plume is approximately 12 square miles. The principal ions contaminating the Biscayne aquifer are chloride, sodium, and sulfate. (USGS)

  16. Influence of changing water sources and mineral chemistry on the everglades ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, P.V.; Harvey, J.W.; Crawford, E.S.

    2011-01-01

    Human influences during the previous century increased mineral inputs to the Florida Everglades by changing the sources and chemistry of surface inflows. Biogeochemical responses to this enrichment include changes in the availability of key limiting nutrients such as P, the potential for increased turnover of nutrient pools due to accelerated plant decomposition, and increased rates of mercury methylation associated with sulfate enrichment. Mineral enrichment has also been linked to the loss of sensitive macrophyte species, although dominant Everglades species appear tolerant of a broad range of mineral chemistry. Shifts in periphyton community composition and function provide an especially sensitive indicator of mineral enrichment. Understanding the influence of mineral chemistry on Everglades processes and biota may improve predictions of ecosystem responses to ongoing hydrologic restoration efforts and provide guidelines for protecting remaining mineral-poor areas of this peatland. Copyright ?? 2011 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  17. In situ observations of nanoparticle early development kinetics at mineral-water interfaces.

    SciTech Connect

    Jun, Y. S.; Lee, B.; Waychunas, G. A.

    2010-10-08

    The early development of nanoparticles at mineral?water interfaces exerts crucial influences on the sequestration and transport of aqueous toxic species originating from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation often occur simultaneously, making it difficult to sort out whether toxic species are transported as free species, sorbed on nanoparticle surfaces, or trapped between aggregated nanoparticles. Here, using a newly developed X-ray scattering setup, we show how homogeneous nucleation and growth can be quantitatively separated from heterogeneous processes under aqueous conditions in real-time. Under conditions found in acid-mine-drainage (at pH 3.6 and [Fe{sup 3+}] = 10{sup -4} M), heterogeneous nucleation of iron oxide nanoparticles on quartz dominated homogeneous nucleation by a factor of 192 (by particle volume). The smallest heterogeneously formed nanoparticles had radii of 1.7 {+-} 0.5 nm, significantly smaller than the size estimated using classical nucleation theory (CNT). Based on the data, the dominant nucleation and growth mechanisms of iron oxide nanoparticles depending on ionic strength were presented. Our findings have implications for the formation and transport of nanoparticles, and thus toxins, in both environmental and biological systems.

  18. In situ mid-infrared spectroscopic titration of forsterite with water in supercritical CO2: Dependence of mineral carbonation on quantitative water speciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loring, J. S.; Thompson, C. J.; Wang, Z.; Schaef, H. T.; Martin, P.; Qafoku, O.; Felmy, A. R.; Rosso, K. M.

    2011-12-01

    Geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide holds promise for helping mitigate CO2 emissions generated from the burning of fossil fuels. Supercritical CO2 (scCO2) plumes containing variable water concentrations (wet scCO2) will displace aqueous solution and dominate the pore space adjacent to caprocks. It is important to understand possible mineral reactions with wet scCO2 to better predict long-term caprock integrity. We introduce novel in situ instrumentation that enables quantitative titrations of reactant minerals with water in scCO2 at temperatures and pressures relevant to target geologic reservoirs. The system includes both transmission and attenuated total reflection mid-infrared optics. Transmission infrared spectroscopy is used to measure concentrations of water dissolved in the scCO2, adsorbed on mineral surfaces, and incorporated into precipitated carbonates. Single-reflection attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy is used to monitor water adsorption, mineral dissolution, and carbonate precipitation reactions. Results are presented for the infrared spectroscopic titration of forsterite (Mg2SiO4), a model divalent metal silicate, with water in scCO2 at 100 bar and at both 50 and 75°C. The spectral data demonstrate that the quantitative speciation of water as either dissolved or adsorbed is important for understanding the types, growth rates, and amounts of carbonate precipitates formed. Relationships between dissolved/adsorbed water, water concentrations, and the role of liquid-like adsorbed water are discussed. Our results unify previous in situ studies from our laboratory based on infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction.

  19. Geochemistry of thermal/mineral waters in the Clear Lake region, California, and implications for hot dry rock geothermal development

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, F.; Adams, A.I.; Trujillo, P.E.; Counce, D.; Mansfield, J.

    1993-02-01

    Thermal/mineral waters of the Clear Lake region are broadly classified as thermal meteoric and connote types based on chemical and isotopic criteria. Ratios of conservative components such as B/Cl are extremely different among all thermal/mineral waters of the Clear Lake region except for clusters of waters emerging from specific areas such as the Wilbur Springs district and the Agricultural Park area south of Mt. Konocti. In contrast, ratios of conservative components in large, homogeneous geothermal reservoirs are constant. Stable isotope values of Clear Lake region waters show a mixing trend between thermal meteoric and connote end-members. The latter end-member has enriched [delta]D as well as enriched d[sup l8]O, very different from typical high-temperature geothermal reservoir waters. Tritium data and modeling of ages indicate most Clear Lake region waters are 500 to > 10,000 yr., although mixing of old and young components is implied by the data. The age of end-member connate water is probably > 10,000 yr. Subsurface equilibration temperature of most thermal/mineral waters of the Clear Lake region is [le] 150[degrees]C based on chemical geothermometers but it is recognized that Clear Lake region waters are not typical geothermal fluids and that they violate rules of application of many geothermometers. The combined data indicate that no large geothermal reservoir underlies the Clear Lake region and that small localized reservoirs have equilibration temperatures [le] 150[degrees]C (except for Sulphur Bank Mine). Hot dry rock technologies are the best way to commercially exploit the known high temperatures existing beneath the Clear Lake region, particularly within the main Clear Lake volcanic field.

  20. Ground water regimes containing country rock minerals in Southern Kuzbass (case study: Narysk-Ostashkin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domrocheva, E.; Lepokurova, O.

    2016-03-01

    The paper describes the calculation results revealing groundwater in equilibrium to carbonates and aluminosilicate minerals of country rocks in Narysk-Ostashkinsk area. It was proved that groundwater is in nonequilibrium to primary (endogenous) minerals in which they dissolve, however are in equilibrium to clays and carbonates which precipitate in the groundwater. The groundwater composition varies.

  1. 3-D Numerical Modeling as a Tool for Managing Mineral Water Extraction from a Complex Groundwater Basin in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanini, A.; Tanda, M.

    2007-12-01

    The groundwater in Italy plays an important role as drinking water; in fact it covers about the 30% of the national demand (70% in Northern Italy). The mineral water distribution in Italy is an important business with an increasing demand from abroad countries. The mineral water Companies have a great interest in order to increase the water extraction, but for the delicate and complex geology of the subsoil, where such very high quality waters are contained, a particular attention must be paid in order to avoid an excessive lowering of the groundwater reservoirs or great changes in the groundwater flow directions. A big water Company asked our University to set up a numerical model of the groundwater basin, in order to obtain a useful tool which allows to evaluate the strength of the aquifer and to design new extraction wells. The study area is located along Appennini Mountains and it covers a surface of about 18 km2; the topography ranges from 200 to 600 m a.s.l.. In ancient times only a spring with naturally sparkling water was known in the area, but at present the mineral water is extracted from deep pumping wells. The area is characterized by a very complex geology: the subsoil structure is described by a sequence of layers of silt-clay, marl-clay, travertine and alluvial deposit. Different groundwater layers are present and the one with best quality flows in the travertine layer; the natural flow rate seems to be not subjected to seasonal variations. The water age analysis revealed a very old water which means that the mineral aquifers are not directly connected with the meteoric recharge. The Geologists of the Company suggest that the water supply of the mineral aquifers comes from a carbonated unit located in the deep layers of the mountains bordering the spring area. The valley is crossed by a river that does not present connections to the mineral aquifers. Inside the area there are about 30 pumping wells that extract water at different depths. We built a 3

  2. Electronic structure calculations of mercury mobilization from mineral phases and photocatalytic removal from water and the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Da Pieve, Fabiana; Stankowski, Martin; Hogan, Conor

    2014-09-15

    Mercury is a hazardous environmental pollutant mobilized from natural sources, and anthropogenically contaminated and disturbed areas. Current methods to assess mobility and environmental impact are mainly based on field measurements, soil monitoring, and kinetic modelling. In order to understand in detail the extent to which different mineral sources can give rise to mercury release it is necessary to investigate the complexity at the microscopic level and the possible degradation/dissolution processes. In this work, we investigated the potential for mobilization of mercury structurally trapped in three relevant minerals occurring in hot spring environments and mining areas, namely, cinnabar (α-HgS), corderoite (α-Hg3S2Cl2), and mercuric chloride (HgCl2). Quantum chemical methods based on density functional theory as well as more sophisticated approaches are used to assess the possibility of a) direct photoreduction and formation of elemental Hg at the surface of the minerals, providing a path for ready release in the environment; and b) reductive dissolution of the minerals in the presence of solutions containing halogens. Furthermore, we study the use of TiO2 as a potential photocatalyst for decontamination of polluted waters (mainly Hg(2+)-containing species) and air (atmospheric Hg(0)). Our results partially explain the observed pathways of Hg mobilization from relevant minerals and the microscopic mechanisms behind photocatalytic removal of Hg-based pollutants. Possible sources of disagreement with observations are discussed and further improvements to our approach are suggested. PMID:24982025

  3. The interaction between decomposition, net N and P mineralization and their mobilization to the surface water in fens.

    PubMed

    Geurts, Jeroen J M; Smolders, Alfons J P; Banach, Artur M; van de Graaf, Jan P M; Roelofs, Jan G M; Lamers, Leon P M

    2010-06-01

    Worldwide, fens and peat lakes that used to be peat-forming systems have become a significant source of C, N and P due to increased peat decomposition. To test the hypothesis that net nutrient mineralization rates may be uncoupled from decomposition rates, we investigated decomposition and net mineralization rates of nutrients in relation to sediment and pore water characteristics. We incubated 28 non-calcareous peat sediments and floating fen soils under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. We also tried to find a simple indicator to estimate the potential nutrient mobilization rates from peat sediments to the water layer by studying their relation with sediment and pore water characteristics in 44 Dutch non-calcareous peat lakes and ditches. Decomposition rates were primarily determined by the organic matter content, and were higher under aerobic conditions. However, highly decomposed peat sediments with low C:P and C:N ratios still showed high net nutrient mineralization rates. At Fe:PO(4) ratios below 1molmol(-1), PO(4) mobilization from the sediment to the water layer was considerable and linearly related to the pore water PO(4) concentration. At higher ratios, there was a strong linear correlation between the Fe:PO(4) ratio and PO(4) mobilization. Hence, measuring Fe and PO(4) in anaerobic sediment pore water provides a powerful tool for a quick assessment of internal PO(4) fluxes. Mobilization of mineral N was largely determined by diffusion. Total sediment Fe:S ratios gave an important indication of the amount of Fe that is available to immobilize PO(4). Pore water Fe concentrations decreased at ratios <1molmol(-1), whereas pore water PO(4) concentrations and PO(4) mobilization to the water layer increased. As PO(4) mobilization rates from the sediment to the water layer contribute to almost half of the total P load in Dutch peat lakes and fens, it is of pivotal importance to examine the magnitude of internal fluxes. Dredging of the nutrient-rich upper

  4. Oxygen isotope fractionation effects in soil water via interaction with cations (Mg, Ca, K, Na) adsorbed to phyllosilicate clay minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oerter, Erik; Finstad, Kari; Schaefer, Justin; Goldsmith, Gregory R.; Dawson, Todd; Amundson, Ronald

    2014-07-01

    In isotope-enabled hydrology, soil and vadose zone sediments have been generally considered to be isotopically inert with respect to the water they host. This is inconsistent with knowledge that clay particles possessing an electronegative surface charge and resulting cation exchange capacity (CEC) interact with a wide range of solutes which, in the absence of clays, have been shown to exhibit δ18O isotope effects that vary in relation to the ionic strength of the solutions. To investigate the isotope effects caused by high CEC clays in mineral-water systems, we created a series of monominerallic-water mixtures at gravimetric water contents ranging from 5% to 32%, consisting of pure deionized water of known isotopic composition with homoionic (Mg, Ca, Na, K) montmorillonite. Similar mixtures were also created with quartz to determine the isotope effect of non-, or very minimally-, charged mineral surfaces. The δ18O value of the water in these monominerallic soil analogs was then measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) after direct headspace CO2 equilibration. Mg- and Ca-exchanged homoionic montmorillonite depleted measured δ18O values up to 1.55‰ relative to pure water at 5% water content, declining to 0.49‰ depletion at 30% water content. K-montmorillonite enriched measured δ18O values up to 0.86‰ at 5% water content, declining to 0.11‰ enrichment at 30% water. Na-montmorillonite produces no measureable isotope effect. The isotope effects observed in these experiments may be present in natural, high-clay soils and sediments. These findings have relevance to the interpretation of results of direct CO2-water equilibration approaches to the measurement of the δ18O value of soil water. The adsorbed cation isotope effect may bear consideration in studies of pedogenic carbonate, plant-soil water use and soil-atmosphere interaction. Finally, the observed isotope effects may prove useful as molecular scale probes of the nature of mineral-water

  5. Mobilities of heavy metals in surface waters: A field study of Mineral Branch, Tri-State Mining District

    SciTech Connect

    Piechowski, M.F.; Carroll, S.A. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    A field study of the mobilities of heavy metals was done in the Tri-State Mining District near Joplin, Missouri. The processing of ores left many large tailings piles in this region which are predominantly chert, but contain minor amounts of carbonate and sulfide minerals. The residual sphalerite, galena, marcasite, and pyrite readily dissolve when exposed to surface waters, increasing the acidity and concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Cd in the streams of the region. Mineral Branch is a local stream that originates in and flows through a tailings field. Water and sediment (bed and suspended load) samples were collected and analyzed by ICP and XRD methods in order to determine trace and major element concentrations and mineral compositions, respectively. The solids are primarily chert and carbonates, with small amounts of crystalline and amorphous iron hydroxides and oxyhydroxides. Over the two mile study area, pH increases steadily downstream. As the pH rises, the dissolved heavy metal concentrations fall, some by an order of magnitude or more. It was also found that over 99% of the Pb, Zn,and Cd in the system is presents in the solids. Precipitation of carbonates or hydroxides does not adequately explain the concentration changes seen in the system. The adsorption of the metal species onto the carbonates and iron oxyhydroxides of the stream sediments as a function of pH is an additional controlling factor in the Mineral Branch.

  6. Use of fracture filling mineral assemblages for characterizing water-rock interactions during exhumation of an accretionary complex: An example from the Shimanto Belt, southern Kyushu Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Takuya; Yoshida, Hidekazu; Metcalfe, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Various fracture filling minerals and secondary minerals in fracture walls were formed by fluid-rock interaction during the exhumation of the Palaeogene Shimanto Belt of Kyushu, Japan, which is located in an accretionary complex. Each mineral formed under favourable geological conditions and can be used to estimate the conditions of accretion and formation of the related rock sequences. Petrographic observations, mineralogical and geochemical analyses were made on fracture filling minerals and secondary minerals from boreholes of ca. 140 m depth, drilled in the Shimanto Belt. Results reveal that the secondary minerals were formed in three major stages distinguished by the sequential textural relationships of the minerals and the interpreted environment of mineral formation. Filling mineral assemblages show that the studied rock formation has been subducted to a depth of several km and the temperature reached was ca. 200-300 °C. After the subduction, the rock formation was uplifted and surface acidic water penetrated up to 80 m beneath the present ground surface. The acid water dissolved calcite fracture filling minerals to form the present groundwater flow-paths, which allowed recent wall rock alteration to occur. The results shown here imply that filling mineral assemblages can be an effective tool to evaluate the environmental changes during exhumation of an accretionary complex.

  7. Effect of chemical environment on the dynamics of water confined in calcium silicate minerals: natural and synthetic tobermorite.

    PubMed

    Monasterio, Manuel; Gaitero, Juan J; Manzano, Hegoi; Dolado, Jorge S; Cerveny, Silvina

    2015-05-01

    Confined water in the slit mesopores of the mineral tobermorite provides an excellent model system for analyzing the dynamic properties of water confined in cement-like materials. In this work, we use broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS) to analyze the dynamic of water entrapped in this crystalline material. Two samples, one natural and one synthetic, were analyzed, and despite their similar structure, the motion of confined water in their zeolitic cavity displays considerably different behavior. The water dynamics splits into two different behaviors depending on the chemical nature of the otherwise identical structural environment: water molecules located in areas where the primary building units are SiO4 relax slowly compared to water molecules located in cavities built with both AlO4 and SiO4. Compared to water confined in regular porous systems, water restricted in tobermorite is slower, indicating that the mesopore structure induces high disorder in the water structure. A comparison with water confined in the C-S-H gel is also discussed in this work. The strong dynamical changes in water due to the presence of aluminum might have important implications in the chemical transport of ions within hydrated calcium silicates, a process that governs the leaching and chemical degradation of cement. PMID:25867059

  8. Can Hydrous Minerals Account for the Observed Mid-Latitude Water on Mars?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bish, D. L.; Vaniman, D. T.; Fialips, C.; Carey, J. W.; Feldman, W. C.

    2003-01-01

    Clays, zeolites, and Mg-sulfates are all phases that could potentially retain H2O in martian regolith. The nature of the hydrogen-containing material observed in the equatorial martian regolith is of particular importance to the question of whether hydrous minerals have formed in the past on Mars. Also, whether these minerals exist in a hydrated (i.e., containing H2O molecules in their structures) or dehydrated state is a crucial question. The purpose of this communication is to estimate the possible magnitude of the H2O reservoir constituted by these H2O-bearing minerals. In other words, can minerals containing H2O and/or OH such clays, zeolites, or Mg-sulfates, reasonably be expected to account for the amounts of near-equatorial H2O-equivalent hydrogen recently documented by Mars Odyssey?

  9. Determination of minerals extracted from several commercial teas (Camellia sinensis) to hot water (infusion).

    PubMed

    Gezgin, Sait; Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Atalay, Emine

    2006-01-01

    Mineral contents of some tea and their infusions drunk in Turkey were established by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The Al, Ca, K, Mg, Mn, P, and S contents were very high in both infusions and tea (i.e., pieces of the tea plant). The As, Cd, Cr, Li, Pb, and Se contents of infusion and tea were found to be very low. The level of K of all samples is higher than those of other minerals. Generally, mineral contents of tea were found to be higher than those of tea infusions. In addition, the health benefits of teas and knowledge of their mineral contents are of great interest and may be useful for further study of enzyme systems and vital biochemical functions. PMID:16579740

  10. [Mineral-based alkaline waters' prescription in France: Patients are the key point for both nephrologists and urologists].

    PubMed

    Citarda, Salvatore; Hanf, William; Vrigneaud, Laurence; Bataille, Stanislas; Gosselin, Morgane; Beaume, Julie; Dariane, Charles; Madec, François-Xavier; Larceneux, Fabrice; Fiard, Gaëlle; Bertocchio, Jean-Philippe

    2016-02-01

    Alkali therapy is frequently used during chronic kidney disease and nephrolithiasis: nephrologists and urologists are the key operators. Very few is known about the underlying conditions of such a prescription: the aim of this study was to delineate those determinants. We conducted a prospective survey where French nephrologists and urologists were involved. Responders were without gender distinction and principally nephrologists. Prescription frequency was associated with gender (women), specialty (nephrologists), indications and perceived efficiency. Urologists prescribe more often during nephrolithiasis and nephrologists during chronic kidney disease. Urologists were more expert (by scoring on mineral-based alkaline waters compositions knowledge). By multivariate analysis, prescription frequency is associated with gender (women), indications and perceived efficiency by prescribers, which is itself influenced by feedback from patients. These results could have been influenced by a huge representation of nephrologists but foster physicians to go on listening to feedback from patients, due to a lack of clinical trials on the efficiency of mineral-based alkaline waters in such a field. Finally, physicians' education (especially young nephrologists) on mineral-based alkaline waters should be intensified. PMID:26563589

  11. Chemical and isotopic compositions of thermal waters in Anatolia, Turkey: A link to fluid-mineral equilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutlu, Halim; Gülec, Nilgün; Hilton, David R.

    2015-04-01

    The complex magmato-tectonic setting of Turkey has resulted in the occurrence of numerous geothermal fields with distinct chemical and isotopic fluid compositions. We evaluate the data on these fluids in terms of water-rock interaction, mineral equilibrium conditions and reservoir temperatures of each geothermal field. The Ca-HCO3 rich nature of most waters is ascribed to derivation from carbonate-type reservoir rocks. SO4-type waters are found in areas where the reservoir is partly comprised of evaporite units. Na-Cl type waters are characteristic for the coastal areas of west Anatolia. Chemical geothermometer applications estimate average reservoir temperatures of 180 °C for the western Anatolian region, 120 °C for the Balıkesir region, 130 °C for the eastern Anatolian region, 140 °C for the North Anatolian Fault Zone and 70 °C for the Eskişehir region. For most of the waters, chalcedony controls the silica solubility and the majority of waters are equilibrated with calcite and chalcedony minerals. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions (-13.5 to -4 permil (VSMOW) and -95.4 to -23 permil (VSMOW), respectively) are generally conformable with Global Meteoric Water Line (GMWL); however, stable isotope systematics of geothermal waters close to the coast are consistent with the Mediterranean Meteoric Water Line (MMWL). Carbon and sulfur isotope compositions (δ13C (VPDB): -17.7 to +5.6 permil and δ34S (VCDT): -5.5 to +45.7 permil) suggest marine carbonates and terrestrial evaporite units as the main source of dissolved carbon and sulfate in the waters.

  12. Thermodynamic simulation of the interaction of the system “water - mineral sediment - organic matter” at the diagenesis stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidkina, E. S.; Rizhenko, B. N.; Cherkasova, E. V.

    2016-03-01

    The current study examines thermodynamic calculations of interaction of the “water - mineral sediment - organic matter” system at temperatures and pressures of diagenesis. In the course of reactions mature kerogen forms in the system, mainly C292H288O12, rarely C128H68O7 including accompanying substances (hydrocarbons, nitrogen compounds). The removal of CO2(g) and N2 (g) from the system promotes the reaction. It is found that the aqueous phase during the formation of kerogen does not change significantly. In general, there occur desalination and changes of pH and Eh, as well as the increase in dissolved CO2 content in water composition.

  13. Interaction among minerals, organics and water in comets: insights from Antarctic micrometeorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagahara, Hiroko; Noguchi, Takaaki; Yabuta, Hikaru; Itoh, Shoichi; Sakamoto, Naoya; Mitsunari, Takuya; Okubo, Aya; Okazaki, Ryuji; Nakamura, Tomoki; Tachibana, Shogo; Terada, Kentaro; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Imae, Naoya; Kimura, Makoto

    2016-04-01

    supplied from organics or carbon dioxide and/or methane ice. Finally, the assemblage of micrometeorites becomes Mg-saponite, magnetite, and carbonates, of which mineral assemblage and chemical compositions are very similar to those of primitive carbonaceous chondrites. Stages I and II should have taken place at ~0 °C and almost instantaneously, probably in hours to days, in order to prevent total aqueous alteration of silicates. Therefore, most plausible process would be transient heat-ing by an impact. On the other hand, Stage III was at a little higher temperature in order to homogenize Mg and Fe in heterogeneous phyllosilicates and/or lasted for a little longer duration. A possible process may be either by a shock or approaching of cometary bodies to the Sun. However, we should evaluate the temperature and dura-tion very carefully, because the Rosetta mission showed us extremely porous nature of comets. It should be noted that the final products of aqueous reactions shown in the present study are the same as those of primitive carbonaceous chondrites. More compact nature of chondrites and probably higher temperature by short-lived radio-isotopes resulted in pervasive water flow in the bodies and through alteration of silicates into phyllosilicates.

  14. Influence of mineral colloids and humic substances on uranium(VI) transport in water-saturated geologic porous media.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Cheng, Tao; Wu, Yang

    2014-12-01

    Mineral colloids and humic substances often co-exist in subsurface environment and substantially influence uranium (U) transport. However, the combined effects of mineral colloids and humic substances on U transport are not clear. This study is aimed at quantifying U transport and elucidating geochemical processes that control U transport when both mineral colloids and humic acid (HA) are present. U-spiked solutions/suspensions were injected into water-saturated sand columns, and U and colloid concentrations in column effluent were monitored. We found that HA promoted U transport via (i) formation of aqueous U-HA complexes, and (ii) competition against aqueous U for surface sites on transport media. Illite colloids had no influence on U transport at pH5 in the absence of HA due to low mobility of the colloids. At pH9, U desorbed from mobile illite and the presence of illite decreased U transport. At pH5, high U transport occurred when both illite colloids and HA were present, which was attributed to enhanced U adsorption to illite colloids via formation of ternary illite-HA-U surface complexes, and enhanced illite transport due to HA attachment to illite and transport media. This study demonstrates that the combined effects of mineral colloids and HA on contaminant transport is different from simple addition of the individual effect. PMID:25444118

  15. Bioelectro-Fenton: A sustainable integrated process for removal of organic pollutants from water: Application to mineralization of metoprolol.

    PubMed

    Olvera-Vargas, Hugo; Cocerva, Tatiana; Oturan, Nihal; Buisson, Didier; Oturan, Mehmet A

    2016-12-01

    The relevant environmental hazard related to the presence of pharmaceuticals in water sources requires the development of high effective and suitable wastewater treatment technologies. In the present work, a hybrid process coupling electro-Fenton (EF) process and aerobic biological treatment (Bio-EF process) was implemented for the efficient and cost-effective mineralization of beta-blocker metoprolol (MPTL) aqueous solutions. Firstly, operating factors influencing EF process were assessed. MTPL solutions were completely mineralized after 4h-electrolysis under optimal operating conditions and BDD anode demonstrated its oxidation superiority. The absolute rate constant of MTPL oxidation byOH (kMTPL) was determined by the competition kinetics method and found to be (1.72±0.04)×10(9)M(-1)s(-1). A reaction pathway for the mineralization of the drug was proposed based on the identification of oxidation by-products. Secondly, EF process was used as pre-treatment. An increase of BOD5/COD ratio from 0.012 to 0.44 was obtained after 1h EF treatment, along with 47% TOC removal and a significant decrease of toxicity, demonstrating the feasibility of a post-biological treatment. Finally, biological treatment successfully oxidized 43% of the total TOC content. An overall 90% mineralization of MPTL solutions was achieved by the Bio-EF process, demonstrating its potentiality for treating wastewater containing pharmaceutical residues. PMID:26707983

  16. State of Water Molecules and Silanol Groups in Opal Minerals: a Near Infrared Spectroscopic Study of Opals from Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobon, Miroslav; Christy, Alfred A.; Kluvanec, Daniel; Illasova, L'udmila

    2011-06-01

    Recently near infrared spectroscopy in combination with double derivative technique has been effectively used by Christy [1] to differentiate between free silanol groups and hydrogen bonded silanol groups on silica gel. The method has given some insight into the type of functionalities and their location in silica gel samples. The inportant information in this respect comes from the overtones of the OH groups of water molecules hydrogen bonded to free silanol groups, and hydrogen bonded silanol groups absorbing in the region 5500- 5100 Cm-1 region. The approach was adapted to study the state of water and silanol functionalities and their locations in opals from Slovakia. Twenty opal samples classified into CT and A classes and one quartz sample were used in this work. The samples were crushed using a hydrolic press and powderised. Each sample was then subjected to evacuation process to remove surface adsorbed water at 200°C and the near infrared spectrum of the sample was measured using a Perkin Elmer NTS near infrared spectrometer equipped with a transflectance accessory. The detailed analysis of the sample was carried out using the second derivative profile of the spectrum. The samples were also heated to 750°C to study the state of water molecules in Opal minerals. The results indicate that the opal samples contain 1) surface adsorbed water 2) free and hydrogen bonded silanol groups on the surface 3) Trapped water in the bulk 4) free and hydrogen bonded silanol groups in the cavity surfaces in the bulk. A part of the water molecules found in the bulk of opal minerals are free molecules and the rest are found in hydrogen bonded state to free and hydrogen bonded silanol groups. [1] A. A. Christy, New insights into the surface functionalities and adsorption evolution of water molecules on silica gel surface: A study by second derivative Near Infrared Spectroscopy, Vib. Spectrosc. 54 (2010) 42-49.

  17. Pore water evolution during sediment burial from isotopic and mineral chemistry of calcite, dolomite and siderite concretions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, C. D.; Coleman, M. L.; Love, L. G.

    1986-10-01

    Coal measures often contain concretions; segregations of diagenetic minerals originally formed within unconsolidated sediments. Three different types (calcite/pyrite, dolomite/pyrite and siderite) occurring spatially quite close together in the Central Pennine Region of England vary widely in carbon isotope composition (+10.35%. > δ13C > -21.49%.) and in major cation chemistry (Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn). Within some siderite concretions, very high Mn/Fe ratios were found in central subsamples; these were also most enriched in 13C. The Fe/Mg ratio decreases systematically from centre to edge (early, shallow to deeper, later precipitation). The calcite/pyrite and dolomite/pyrite concretions developed completely prior to significant burial. Both have high Mn/Fe ratios but negative δ 13C values (calcite -21.49%., dolomite -8.67 to -10.48%.). All of these patterns can be equated precisely with theories of pore water evolution developed on the basis of geochemical investigations of modem sediments. Microbial processes (sulphate reduction, methanogenesis) contributed significantly, as did thermal decarboxylation (to siderite precipitated at considerable burial depth). Mn(IV) and Fe(III) acted differentially as oxidants; producing CO 2 and increasing alkalinity. The interplay of fresh and marine depositional waters is seen most obviously in the presence or absence of sulphate reduction. This controlled mineral type (iron sulphide or carbonate) as well as isotopic and mineral chemistry.

  18. Crystal chemistry of hydroxyl and water in silicate minerals. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Smyth, J.R.

    1998-06-01

    This was a project to investigate the crystal chemistry of OH and H{sub 2}O substitution in silicate minerals by use of X-ray and neutron diffraction methods combined with IR spectroscopy and to interpret and generalize the results using an electrostatic model for these mineral structures. Using these data together with published H position data electrostatic parameters for H sites were calculated from a simple electrostatic model. The data were then used to refine the model for incorporation of H into the wadsleyite structure. This has led to recent work on the synthesis and characterization of hydrous wadsleyites.

  19. Effect of mineral and organic fertilization on grey water footprint in a fertirrigated crop under semiarid conditions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellanos Serrano, María Teresa; Requejo Mariscal, María Isabel; Cartagena Causapé, María Carmen; Arce Martínez, Augusto; Ribas Elcorobarrutia, Francisco; Jesús Cabello Cabello, María; María Tarquis Alfonso, Ana

    2016-04-01

    The concept of "water footprint" (WF) was introduced as an indicator for the total volume of direct and indirect freshwater used, consumed and/or polluted [1]. The WF distinguishes between blue water (volume of surface and groundwater consumed), green water (rain-water consumed), and grey water (volume of freshwater that is required to assimilate the load of pollutants based on existing ambient water quality standards). In semiarid scenarios with low water quality, where the irrigation is necessary to maintain production, green WF is zero because the effective rainfall is negligible. As well as blue WF includes: i) extra consumption or irrigation water that the farmer has to apply to compensate the fail of uniformity on discharge of drips, ii) percolation out of control or salts leaching, which depends on the salt tolerance of the crop, soil and quality of irrigation water, to ensure the fruit yield. The major concern is grey WF, because the irrigation and nitrogen dose have to be adjusted to the crop needs in order to minimize nitrate pollution. This study is focused in assessment mineral and organic fertilization on grey WF in a fertirrigated melon crop under semiarid conditions, which is principally cultivated in the centre of Spain declared vulnerable zone to nitrate pollution by applying the Directive 91/676/CEE. During successive years, a melon crop (Cucumis melo L.) was grown under field conditions. Different doses of ammonium nitrate were used as well as compost derived from the wine-distillery industry which is relevant in this area. Acknowledgements: This project has been supported by INIA-RTA04-111-C3 and INIA-RTA2010-00110-C03. Keywords: Water footprint, nitrogen, fertirrigation, inorganic fertilizers, organic amendments, semiarid conditions. [1] Hoekstra, A.Y. 2003. Virtual water trade. Proceedings of the International Expert Meeting on Virtual Water Trade, Delft, The Netherlands, 12-13 December 2002. Value of Water Research Report Series No. 12

  20. Reverse osmosis desalting of inland brackish water of high gypsum scaling propensity: kinetics and mitigation of membrane mineral scaling.

    PubMed

    Rahardianto, Anditya; McCool, Brian C; Cohen, Yoram

    2008-06-15

    The potential for mineral scaling that may limit the generation of new potable water resources by reverse osmosis (RO), from inland brackish water of high gypsum scaling propensity, was experimentally explored via flux decline measurements and real-time RO membrane surface imaging. Antagonistic gypsum and calcium carbonate scaling kinetics were demonstrated for high-sulfate brackish water desalting. RO scaling studies with brackish water from the California San Joaquin Valley (approximately 10 000 mg/L total dissolved solids) revealed that membrane gypsum scaling was increasingly retarded with rising bicarbonate concentrations. Crystal growth rate, fractional membrane scale coverage, and flux decline decreased by up to about 63, 78, and 73%, respectively, as the bicarbonate concentration increased, at the membrane surface, from < 0.01 to 7.81 mM, for a gypsum saturation index of 2. Inhibition of gypsum crystal growth was attributed to bicarbonate adsorption onto the crystal surfaces, and CaCO3 scaling was undetected even up to a calcite saturation index of approximately 16. Given the suppression of gypsum scaling by bicarbonate, it is essential to considerthis effect in the conventional practice of pH adjustment to suppress CaCO3 scaling. The present results suggest that antagonistic and synergistic mineral crystallization kinetics effects are important for optimizing scale-control strategies (e.g., acid and antiscalants addition to the RO feed). PMID:18605546

  1. Experiment Study on the Removal of Phosphorus in Eutrophic Water Bodies by the Utilization of Mineral Calcite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hong; Zhang, Jing; Gao, Yiming

    For seeking a new method to solve the problem of eutrophication, we have made the experiments of removing phosphorus in eutropic water by use of mineral calcite. The results indicate that the mineral calcite can remove phosphorus from the solution, and that the initial phosphorus concentration may influence the efficiency of phosphorus removal. The dephosphorization rate is high when the initial phosphorus concentration is 5 mg/L, and phosphorus can be removed by 88.48%; the dephosphorization rate may reach 69.94% when the initial phosphorus concentration is 3 mg/L; at 1.2 mg/L initial concentration only 12.68% phosphorus can be removed. Increasing temperature can also raise the efficiency of phosphorus removal. The result of TEM shows that the Ca-P precipitation is not in crystalline state.

  2. Carbonation of Clay Minerals Exposed to scCO2/Water at 200 degrees and 250 degrees C

    SciTech Connect

    Sugama, T.; Ecker, L.; Gill, S.; Butcher, T.; Bour, D.

    2010-11-01

    To clarify the mechanisms of carbonation of clay minerals, such as bentonite, kaolinite, and soft clay, we exposed them to supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2)/water at temperatures of 200 and 250 C and pressures of 1500 and 2000 psi for 72- and 107-hours. Bentonite, comprising three crystalline phases, montmorillonite (MMT), anorthoclase-type albite, and quartz was susceptible to reactions with ionic carbonic acid yielded by the interactions between scCO2 and water, particularly MMT and anorthoclase-type albite phases. For MMT, the cation-exchangeable ions, such as Na+ and Ca2+, present in its basal interplanar space, were replaced by proton, H+, from ionic carbonic acid; thereafter, the cations leaching from MMT directly reacted with CO32- as a counter ion of H+ to form carbonate compounds. Such in-situ carbonation process in basal space caused the shrinkage and breakage of the spacing structure within MMT. In contrast, the wet carbonation of anorthoclase-type albite, categorized as rock minerals, entailed the formation of three amorphous by-products, such as carbonates, kaolinite-like compounds, and silicon dioxide. Together, these two different carbonations caused the disintegration and corruption of bentonite. Kaolinite clay containing the amorphous carbonates and silicon dioxide was inert to wet carbonation. We noted only a gain in weight due to its water uptake, suggesting that kaolinite-like by-products generated by the wet carbonation of rock minerals might remain unchanged even during extended exposure. Soft clay consisting of two crystalline phases, dolomite and silicon dioxide, also was unaltered by wet carbonation, despite the uptake of water.

  3. Water Quality Evaluation of PET Bottled Water by Mineral Balance in the Northeast Asian Region: A Case Study of South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Houri, Daisuke; Koo, Chung Mo

    2015-01-01

    Background The past few years have seen a demand for drinking water in contemporary society with a focus on safety and taste. Mineral water is now marketed as a popular commercial product and, partly due to health concerns, the production. Methods For the study, a comparison was carried out of water samples from 9 types of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottled water sold in South Korea as well as from tap water in the cities of Seoul and Chuncheon. These were compared with samples of Japanese PET bottled water in order to determine shared commonalities and identify individual characteristics. To evaluate water quality objectively, we quantified the elements contained in the water samples. Samples were assessed not with the usual sensory evaluation but with the evaluation approach advocated by Hashimoto et al. which employs the Water Index of Taste and the Water Index of Health. The levels of water quality obtained were compared with the “Prerequisites for Tasty Water” and the “Standards for Tasty Water” devised for city water. Results The PET Bottled water varieties analyzed in this study—Seoksu, Icis, Bong Pyong, Soon Soo 100, Dong Won Saem Mul, GI JANG SOO and DIAMOND—showed the Water Index of Taste ≥ 2.0 and the Water Index of Health ≥ 5.2, which we classified as tasty/healthy water. SamDaSoo and NamiNeral can be classified as tasty water due to their values of the Water Index of Taste ≥ 2.0 and the Water Index of Health < 5.2. Conclusion The South Korean PET bottled water studied here fulfills the “Water Index of Taste,” “Water Index of Health,” “Standard for Tasty Water” and “Prerequisites for Tasty Water” that Japanese people value for city water. We can conclude that bottled water which meets water quality requirements will be considered good-tasting by a majority of people. PMID:26538797

  4. Mineral Specific IR Molar Absorption Coefficients for Routine Water Determination in Olivine, SiO2 polymorphs and Garnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, S.; Koch-Mueller, M.; Reichart, P.; Rhede, D.; Thomas, R.

    2007-12-01

    Conventionally applied Infrared (IR) calibrations [1, 2] for quantitative water analyses in solids are established on hydrous minerals and glasses with several wt% water. These calibrations are based on a negative correlation between the IR molar absorption coefficient (ɛ) for water and the mean wavenumber of the corresponding OH pattern. The correlation reflects the dependence of the OH band position on the appropriate O- H...O distances and thereby the magnitude of the dipole momentum which is proportional to the band intensity. However, it has been observed that these calibrations can not be adopted to nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs) [3].To study the potential dependence of ɛ on structure and chemistry in NAMs we synthesized olivine and SiO2 polymorphs with specific isolated hydroxyl point defects, e.g. quartz, coesite and stishovite with B3++H+=Si4+ and/or Al3++H+=Si4+ substitutions. Experiments were performed with water in excess in piston cylinder and multi-anvil presses. Single crystal IR spectra demonstrate that we successfully managed to seperate generally complex OH patterns as e.g. observed in natural quartz and synthetic coesite. We quantified sample water contents of both natural samples and our run products by applying proton-proton-scattering [4], confocal microRaman spectroscopy [5] and Secondary Ion mass spectrometry. Resulting water concentrations were used to calculate new mineral specific ɛs. For olivine with the mean wavenumber of 3517 cm-1 we determined an ɛ value of 41,000±5,000 lmol-1H2Ocm-2. Quantification of olivine with the mean wavenumber of 3550 cm-1 in contrast resulted in an ɛ value of 47,000±1,000 lmol-1H2Ocm-2. Taking into account previous studies [6, 7] there is evidence to suggest a linear wavenumber dependent correlation for olivine, where ɛ increases with decreasing wavenumber. In case of the SiO2 system it turns out that the magnitude of ɛ within one structure type is independent of the liable OH point defect and

  5. Self-assembled biomimetic superhydrophobic CaCO3 coating inspired from fouling mineralization in geothermal water.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gong G; Zhu, Li Q; Liu, Hui C; Li, Wei P

    2011-10-18

    Inspired from fouling self-mineralization in geothermal water, a novel biomimetic cactuslike CaCO(3) coating with superhydrophobic features is reported in this letter. The structure, morphologies, and phases of the CaCO(3) coating were characterized by X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and infrared spectrophotometry. After prenucleation treatment, a continuous cactuslike CaCO(3) coating with hierarchical nano- and microstructures was self-assembled on stainless steel surfaces after immersion in simulated geothermal water at 50 °C for 48 h. After being modified with a low-surface-energy monolayer of sodium stearate, the as-prepared coating exhibited superhydrophobic properties with a water contact angle of 158.9° and a sliding angle of 2°. Therefore, this work might open up a new application field of geothermal resources and provide insight into designing multidimensional structures with functional applications, including superhydrophobic surfaces. PMID:21919516

  6. Major element chemistry of surface- and ground waters in basaltic terrain, N-Iceland.: I. primary mineral saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnórsson, Stefán; Gunnarsson, Ingvi; Stefánsson, Andri; Andrésdóttir, Audur; Sveinbjörnsdóttir, Árny E.

    2002-12-01

    This contribution describes primary basalt mineral saturation in surface- and up to 90°C ground waters in a tholeiite flood basalt region in northern Iceland. It is based on data on 253 water samples and the mineralogical composition of the associated basalts. Surface waters are significantly under-saturated with plagioclase and olivine of the compositions occurring in the study area, saturation index (SI) values ranging from -1 to -10 and -5 to -20, respectively. With few exceptions these waters are also significantly under-saturated with pigeonite and augite of all compositions (SI = -1 to -7) and with ilmenite (SI = -0.5 to -6). The surface waters are generally over-saturated with respect to the titano-magnetite of the compositions occurring in the basalts of the study area, the range in SI being from -2 to +10. For crystalline OH-apatite, SI values in surface waters range from strong under-saturation (-10) to strong over-saturation (+5) but for crystalline F-apatite they lie in the range 0 to 15. Systematic under-saturation is, on the other hand, observed for "amorphous apatite," i.e. an apatite of the kind Clark (1955) prepared by mixing Ca(OH) 2 and H 3PO 4 solutions. Like surface waters, ground waters are under-saturated with plagioclase and olivine, its degree increasing with increasing Ca content of the plagioclase and increasing Fe content of the olivine, the SI values being -2 to -7 and 0 to -4 for the Ca-richest and Ca-poorest plagioclase, respectively, and about -3 to -18 and 0 to -15 for forsterite and fayalite, respectively. Ground waters are generally close to saturation with pigeonite and augite of all compositions. However, some non-thermal ground waters in highland areas are strongly under-saturated. Above 25°C the ground waters are ilmenite under-saturated but generally over-saturated at lower temperatures. These waters are titano-magnetite over-saturated at temperatures below 70°C, the SI values decreasing with increasing temperature from

  7. Deficit irrigation and rootstock: their effects on water relations, vegetative development, yield, fruit quality and mineral nutrition of Clemenules mandarin.

    PubMed

    Romero, P; Navarro, J M; Pérez-Pérez, J; García-Sánchez, F; Gómez-Gómez, A; Porras, I; Martinez, V; Botía, P

    2006-12-01

    Differences between rootstocks, 'Cleopatra' mandarin and 'Carrizo' citrange, in soil-plant water relations and the influence of these factors on vigor, crop yield, fruit quality and mineral nutrition were evaluated in field-grown Clemenules mandarin trees irrigated at 100% of potential seasonal evaporation (ET(c)) (control treatment), or irrigated at 100% ET(c), except during Phases I and III of fruit growth and post-harvest when no irrigation was applied (deficit irrigation (DI) treatment), for 3 years. Differences between rootstocks in plant-soil water relations were the primary cause of differences among trees in vegetative development and fruit yield. After 3 years of DI treatment, trees on 'Cleopatra' showed more efficient soil water extraction than trees on 'Carrizo', and maintained a higher plant water status, a higher gas exchange rate during periods of water stress and achieved faster recovery in gas exchange following irrigation after water stress. The DI treatment reduced vegetative development more in trees on 'Carrizo' than in trees on 'Cleopatra'. Cumulative fruit yield decreased more in DI trees on 'Carrizo' (40%) than on 'Cleopatra' (27%). The yield component most affected by DI in 'Cleopatra' was the number of fruit, whereas in 'Carrizo' it depended on the severity of water stress reached in each phase (severe water stress in Phase I affected mainly the number of fruit, whereas it affected fruit size the most in Phase III). In the third year of DI treatment, water-use efficiency decreased sharply in trees on 'Carrizo' (70%) compared to trees on 'Cleopatra' (30%). Thus, trees on 'Cleopatra' were able to tolerate moderate water stress, whereas trees on 'Carrizo' were more sensitive to changes in soil water content. PMID:17169893

  8. Impact of Coastal Pollution on Microbial and Mineral Profile of Edible Oyster (Crassostrea rivularis) in the Coastal Waters of Andaman.

    PubMed

    Seetharaman, Prabukumar; Sarma, Kamal; George, Grinson; Krishnan, Pandian; Roy, S Dam; Sankar, Kiruba

    2015-11-01

    The impact of coastal pollution was studied using edible oysters, Crassostrea rivularis as an indicator at two sites viz., North Wandoor (NW) and Phoenix Jetty (PJ) in Port Blair, Andaman. The hydrographic parameters showed that nitrite, nitrate and phosphate concentration were less and dissolved oxygen were more at NW compared to PJ. The oysters were collected from the study sites and biochemical, microbial, mineral profiles and ATPase activities were estimated. ATPase activity was inhibited in the gill tissue of oysters (p<0.05) of PJ sample. Total microbial load in the water and oyster, and coliform bacteria (MPN) in the water were significantly (p<0.05) higher at PJ compared to the NW. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the mineral profile of water collected from both the sites. However, calcium and magnesium were more in the oysters collected from NW (p<0.05), and Cu, Zn and Cd were more in PJ samples (p<0.05). PMID:26347459

  9. Influence of Long Time Storage in Mineral Water on RNA Stability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli after Heat Inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Cenciarini, Claire; Courtois, Sophie; Raoult, Didier; La Scola, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    Background Research of RNA viability markers was previously studied for many bacterial species. Few and different targets of each species have been checked and motley results can be found in literature. No research has been done about Pseudomonas aeruginosa in this way. Methodology/Principal Findings Disappearance of 48 transcripts was analyzed by two-steps reverse transcription and real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) after heat-killing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa previously stored in mineral water or not. Differential results were obtained for each target. 16S rRNA, 23S rRNA, groEL, and rpmE were showed as the most persistent transcripts and rplP, rplV, rplE and rpsD were showed as the most labile transcripts after P. aeruginosa death. However, the labile targets appeared more persistent in bacteria previously stored in mineral water than freshly cultivated (non stored). These nine transcripts were also analyzed in Escherichia coli after heat-killing and different to opposite results were obtained, notably for groEL which was the most labile transcript of E. coli. Moreover, opposite results were obtained between mineral water stored and freshly cultivated E. coli. Conclusions and Significance This study highlights four potential viability markers for P. aeruginosa and four highly persistent transcripts. In a near future, these targets could be associated to develop an efficient viability kit. The present study also suggests that it would be difficult to determine universal RNA viability markers for environmental bacteria, since opposite results were obtained depending on the bacterial species and the physiological conditions. PMID:18941615

  10. Geologic and mineral and water resources investigations in western Colorado using ERTS-1 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knepper, D. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Most of the geologic information in ERTS-1 imagery can be extracted from bulk processed black and white transparencies by a skilled interpreter using standard photogeologic techniques. In central and western Colorado, the detectability of lithologic contacts on ERTS-1 imagery is closely related to the time of year the imagery was acquired. Geologic structures are the most readily extractable type of geologic information contained in ERTS images. Major tectonic features and associated minor structures can be rapidly mapped, allowing the geologic setting of a large region to be quickly accessed. Trends of geologic structures in younger sedimentary appear to strongly parallel linear trends in older metamorphic and igneous basement terrain. Linears and color anomalies mapped from ERTS imagery are closely related to loci of known mineralization in the Colorado mineral belt.

  11. Linked reactivity at mineral-water interfaces through bulk crystal conduction.

    PubMed

    Yanina, Svetlana V; Rosso, Kevin M

    2008-04-11

    The semiconducting properties of a wide range of minerals are often ignored in the study of their interfacial geochemical behavior. We show that surface-specific charge density accumulation reactions combined with bulk charge carrier diffusivity create conditions under which interfacial electron transfer reactions at one surface couple with those at another via current flow through the crystal bulk. Specifically, we observed that a chemically induced surface potential gradient across hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) crystals is sufficiently high and the bulk electrical resistivity sufficiently low that dissolution of edge surfaces is linked to simultaneous growth of the crystallographically distinct (001) basal plane. The apparent importance of bulk crystal conduction is likely to be generalizable to a host of naturally abundant semiconducting minerals playing varied key roles in soils, sediments, and the atmosphere. PMID:18323417

  12. Geologic and mineral and water resources investigations in western Colorado using ERTS-1 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knepper, D. H., Jr. (Principal Investigator); Hutchinson, R. M.; Sawatzky, D. L.; Trexler, D. W.; Bruns, D. L.; Nicolais, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Topography was found to be the most important factor defining folds on ERTS-1 imagery of northwestern Colorado; tonal variations caused by rock reflectance and vegetation type and density are the next most important factors. Photo-linears mapped on ERTS-1 imagery of central Colorado correlate well with ground-measured joint and fracture trends. In addition, photo-linears have been successfully used to determine the location and distribution of metallic mineral deposits in the Colorado Mineral Belt. True color composites are best for general geologic analysis and false color composites prepared with positive/negative masks are useful for enhancing local geologic phenomena. During geologic analysis of any given area, ERTS-1 imagery from several different dates should be studied.

  13. Impacts of diffusive transport on carbonate mineral formation from magnesium silicate-CO2-water reactions.

    PubMed

    Giammar, Daniel E; Wang, Fei; Guo, Bin; Surface, J Andrew; Peters, Catherine A; Conradi, Mark S; Hayes, Sophia E

    2014-12-16

    Reactions of CO2 with magnesium silicate minerals to precipitate magnesium carbonates can result in stable carbon sequestration. This process can be employed in ex situ reactors or during geologic carbon sequestration in magnesium-rich formations. The reaction of aqueous CO2 with the magnesium silicate mineral forsterite was studied in systems with transport controlled by diffusion. The approach integrated bench-scale experiments, an in situ spectroscopic technique, and reactive transport modeling. Experiments were performed using a tube packed with forsterite and open at one end to a CO2-rich solution. The location and amounts of carbonate minerals that formed were determined by postexperiment characterization of the solids. Complementing this ex situ characterization, (13)C NMR spectroscopy tracked the inorganic carbon transport and speciation in situ. The data were compared with the output of reactive transport simulations that accounted for diffusive transport processes, aqueous speciation, and the forsterite dissolution rate. All three approaches found that the onset of magnesium carbonate precipitation was spatially localized about 1 cm from the opening of the forsterite bed. Magnesite was the dominant reaction product. Geochemical gradients that developed in the diffusion-limited zones led to locally supersaturated conditions at specific locations even while the volume-averaged properties of the system remained undersaturated. PMID:25420634

  14. In-situ alteration of minerals by acidic ground water resulting from mining activities: Preliminary evaluation of method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lind, Carol J.; Creasey, C.L.; Angeroth, C.

    1999-01-01

    The chemical composition of the Cu-mining-related acidic ground water (pH ~ 3.5 to near neutral) in Pinal Creek Basin, Arizona has been monitored since 1980. In-situ experiments are planned using alluvial sediments placed in the ground-water flow path to measure changes in mineral and chemical composition and changes in dissolution rates of subsurface alluvial sediments. The test results should help refine developed models of predicted chemical changes in ground-water composition and models of streamflow. For the preliminary test, sediment from the depth of the well screen of a newly drilled well was installed in three wells, the source well (pH 4.96) and two up-gradient wells (pHs 4.27 and 4.00). The sediment was placed in woven macrofilters, fastened in series to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes, and hung at the screened level of each well. After interacting with the slowly moving ground water for 48 days, the test sediments were removed for analysis. There was no evidence that any of the materials used were biologically or chemically degraded or that the porosity of the filters was diminished by ferric hydroxide precipitation. These materials included 21-??m-pore (21PEMF) and 67-??m-pore polyester and the 174-??m-pore fluorocarbon Spectra/mesh macrofilters containing the in-situ sediment, the polypropylene (PP) macrofilter support structures, and the Nylon (NY) monofilament line used to attach the samples to the PVC pipe. Based on chemical and mineral composition and on particle-size distribution of the sediment before and after ground-water exposure, the 21PEMF macrofilter was chosen as the most suitable macrofilter for the long-term in-situ experiment. Tests also showed that the PP support structures and the NY monofilament line were sufficiently durable for this experiment.The chemical composition of the Cu-mining-related acidic ground water (pH approx. 3.5 to near neutral) in Pinal Creek Basin, Arizona has been monitored since 1980. In-situ experiments are

  15. Effects of mineralized artesian water on the fresh-water biota of Taylor Slough, Everglades National Park, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolipinski, Milton C.; Higer, Aaron L.

    1969-01-01

    The feasibility of using water from the Floridian aquifer during periods of drought to maintain water levels in the aquatic communities at the Royal Palm Visitor Center in Everglades National Park was tested.

  16. X-RAY DIFFRACTION AND ELECTRON BEAM ANALYSIS OF ASBESTIFORM MINERALS IN LAKE SUPERIOR WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Western Lake Superior water, which is used for municipal water supplies, contains large concentrations of asbestiform amphibole fibers because of a taconite tailings discharge at Silver Bay, Minnesota. Large fluctuations in fiber concentrations are attributable to seasonal and me...

  17. Effects of ionised or chelated water-soluble mineral mixture supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics, meat quality and intestinal microbiota in broilers.

    PubMed

    Upadhaya, S D; Lee, B R; Kim, I H

    2016-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effects of dietary supplementation of water-soluble ionised or chelated mineral mixture on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics, relative organ weight, meat quality and excreta microflora in broilers. A total of 408 Arbor Acres broilers (17 birds in 8 replicate pens) were randomly allocated into one of the following three treatments: (1) Control/basal diet (CON), (2) T1 (basal diet + 0.5% ionised mineral mixture solution, pH 3.0) and (3) T2 (basal diet + 0.5% chelated mineral mixture solution, pH 3.0). The body weight gain was greater and feed conversion ratio was lower in broilers supplemented with ionised or chelated mineral liquid complex compared to CON during the grower and overall phase of the experiment. No significant effect in the concentration of Ca and P in the blood was observed in birds supplemented with ionised or chelated mineral mixture solution. No adverse effects were observed in organ weight and meat quality with ionised or chelated mineral mixture supplementation. Regarding intestinal microbiota counts there was a reduction of Escherichia coli counts in the small intestine in ionised mineral supplemented birds. In the large intestine, E. coli as well as Salmonella populations were reduced in ionised mineral supplemented birds. In conclusion, ionised or chelated minerals have partial positive effects in improving growth performance and reducing pathogenic bacteria load in the gastro-intestinal tract. PMID:27088481

  18. Chemical and isotopic composition of water from thermal and mineral springs of Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Mariner, R.H.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, W.C.

    1982-02-01

    Waters from the thermal springs of Washington range in chemical composition from dilute Na-HCO/sub 3/ to moderately saline CO/sub 2/-charged Na-HCO/sub 3/-Cl type waters. St. Martin's Hot Spring which discharges a slightly saline Na-Cl water, is the notable exception. The dilute Na-HCO/sub 3/ waters are generally associated with granitic intrusions; the warm to hot CO/sub 2/-charged waters issue on or near the large stratovolcanoes. The dilute waters have oxygen-isotopic compositions that indicate relatively little water-rock exchange. The CO/sub 2/-charged waters are usually more enriched in oxygen-18 due to more extensive water-rock reaction. The carbon-13 in the CO/sub 2/-charged thermal waters is more depleted (-10 to -12 %) than in the cold CO/sub 2/-charged soda springs (-2 to -8%) which are also scattered throughout the Cascades. The hot and cold CO/sub 2/-charged waters are supersaturated with respect to CaCO/sub 3/, but only the hot springs are actively depositing CaCO/sub 3/. Baker, Gamma, Sulphur, and Ohanapecosh hot springs seem to be associated with thermal aquifers of more than 100/sup 0/C. As these springs occur as individual springs or in small clusters, the respective aquifers are probably of restricted size.

  19. Authentication potential of 87Sr/86Sr in water - reference of signatures in natural mineral water to regional geology in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, G. D.; Voerkelius, S.

    2009-04-01

    The study presents the investigation of strontium isotope ratios of about 650 different European natural mineral waters as part of the food traceability project "TRACE" funded by the EU. The 87Sr/86Sr analysis is part of a multi-element approach for authen-ticity which also includes 18O, 2H, 3H, main and trace elements as well as 34S. The analysed 87Sr/86Sr cover a wide range of values from 0.7035 to 0.7777 indicating that the natural mineral water samples cover the span from young mantle derived basal-tic rocks to very old silicic continental crust. The results of the large-scale investigation are used to elaborate a novel spatial predic-tion for strontium isotope ratios by combining the measured data with a GIS based geo-logical map of Europe. The resulting map can be used to predict the strontium isotopic composition of ground-water and as such the composition of bioavailable strontium, which can be taken up by plants and further transferred into the food chain. In this study we show, as an example, that the strontium isotopic composition of honey and wheat from specific sample region within the TRACE project correlates well with that of the natural mineral water as pre-dicted by our map. The proof of principle shown is highly relevant for geographical food authentication as it will allow an assessment of the origin of food products without the immediate need for geographically authenticated materials which may not always be available in the first instance. As such, our approach provides a cost effective first instance screening tool. There is an increasing demand for independent analytical methods which can control the geographical origin. The EU project TRACE was started with the aim to develop a gen-eral understanding of the relation between the geo-bio-climatic environment and the isotope and elemental signature in food commodities. As one part of the study detailed isotope maps (e.g. 18O, 87Sr/86Sr) for groundwater will be generated by the isotope re

  20. Hydrogeochemical processes governing the origin, transport and fate of major and trace elements from mine wastes and mineralized rock to surface waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2011-01-01

    Mobility of potential or actual contaminants from mining and mineral processing activities depends on (1) occurrence: is the mineral source of the contaminant actually present? (2) abundance: is the mineral present in sufficient quantity to make a difference? (3) reactivity: what are the energetics, rates, and mechanisms of sorption and mineral dissolution and precipitation relative to the flow rate of the water? and (4) hydrology: what are the main flow paths for contaminated water? Estimates of relative proportions of minerals dissolved and precipitated can be made with mass-balance calculations if minerals and water compositions along a flow path are known. Combined with discharge, these mass-balance estimates quantify the actual weathering rate of pyrite mineralization in the environment and compare reasonably well with laboratory rates of pyrite oxidation except when large quantities of soluble salts and evaporated mine waters have accumulated underground. Quantitative mineralogy with trace-element compositions can substantially improve the identification of source minerals for specific trace elements through mass balances. Post-dissolution sorption and precipitation (attenuation) reactions depend on the chemical behavior of each element, solution composition and pH, aqueous speciation, temperature, and contact-time with mineral surfaces. For example, little metal attenuation occurs in waters of low pH (2, and redox-sensitive oxyanions (As, Sb, Se, Mo, Cr, V). Once dissolved, metal and metalloid concentrations are strongly affected by redox conditions and pH. Iron is the most reactive because it is rapidly oxidized by bacteria and archaea and Fe(III) hydrolyzes and precipitates at low pH (1–3) which is related directly to its first hydrolysis constant, pK1 = 2.2. Several insoluble sulfate minerals precipitate at low pH including anglesite, barite, jarosite, alunite and basaluminite. Aluminum hydrolyzes near pH 5 (pK1 = 5.0) and provides buffering and removal

  1. [Determination of SiO2 in Groundwater and Mineral Water by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Liu, Bing-bing; Han, Mei; Jia, Na; Liu, Sheng-hua

    2015-05-01

    The concentration of silica in groundwater and mineral water was determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). After a more sensitive analytical line of silicon was chosen, the effects of operating conditions of the ICP spectrometer on the analysis results were investigated, at the same time, the impact of coexisting ions on determination results of SiO2 was also considered and eliminated. The transmit power of 1 350 W, observation height of 12 mm, the nebulizer pressure of 0. 20 MPa and the pump speed of analysis of 75 r . min-1 were selected by experimental conditions. Under the optimum analytical conditions of spectrometer, the method was used for the determination of SiO2 in groundwater and mineral water with the detection limit of 0. 017. mg . L-1, recoveries between 94. 10% and 103. 8%, and relative standard deviation (RSD)s≤3. 06%. Compared with the results of silicon molybdenum yellow spectrophotometry, the results were basically consistent with the relative deviation ≤3. 00%. In conclusion, the method is simple and efficient with high precision and accuracy, and can be used for research and routine production. PMID:26415465

  2. Development of an LC-MS/MS method for studying migration characteristics of acetaldehyde in polyethylene terephthalate (PET)-packed mineral water.

    PubMed

    Baumjohann, Nina; Harms, Diedrich

    2015-01-01

    During storage, acetaldehyde migration from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles can affect the quality of mineral water even in the low µg l(-1) range negatively, as it features a fruity or plastic-like off-flavour. For a sensitive and fast analysis of acetaldehyde in mineral water, a new analysis method of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) derivatisation followed by HPLC-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) was developed. Acetaldehyde was directly derivatised in the mineral water sample avoiding extraction and/or pre-concentration steps and then analysed by reversed-phase HPLC-ESI-MS/MS using multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM). Along with method development, the optimum molar excess of DNPH in contrast to acetaldehyde was studied for the mineral water matrix, because no specific and robust data were yet available for this critical parameter. Best results were obtained by using a calibration via the derivatisation reaction. Without any analyte enrichment or extraction, an LOD of 0.5 µg l(-1) and an LOQ of 1.9 µg l(-1) were achieved. Using the developed method, mineral water samples packed in PET bottles from Germany were analysed and the correlation between the acetaldehyde concentration and other characteristics of the samples was evaluated illustrating the applicability of the method. Besides a relationship between bottle size and CO2 content of the mineral water and acetaldehyde migration, a correlation with acetaldehyde migration and the material composition of the bottle, e.g. recycled PET, was noted. Investigating the light influence on the acetaldehyde migration with a newly developed, reproducible light exposure setup, a significant increase of the acetaldehyde concentration in carbonated mineral water samples was observed. PMID:26258902

  3. State of water molecules and silanol groups in opal minerals: a near infrared spectroscopic study of opals from Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boboň, Miroslav; Christy, Alfred A.; Kluvanec, Daniel; Illášová, L'udmila

    2011-12-01

    Recently, near infrared spectroscopy in combination with double derivative technique has been effectively used by Christy (Vib Spectrosc 54:42-49, 2010) to study and differentiate between free and hydrogen bonded silanol groups on silica gel surface. The method has given some insight into the type of functionalities, their location in silica gel samples, and the way the water molecules bind onto the silanol groups. The important information in this respect comes from the overtones of the OH groups of water molecules hydrogen-bonded to free silanol groups, and hydrogen-bonded silanol groups absorbing in the region 5,500-5,100 cm-1. Chemically, opal minerals are hydrated silica and the same approach was adapted to study the state of water molecules, silanol functionalities, and their locations in opal samples from Slovakia. Twenty opal samples classified into CT and A classes and one quartz sample were used in this work. The samples were crushed using a hydraulic press and powderized. Each sample was then subjected to evacuation process to remove surface-adsorbed water at 200°C, and the near infrared spectrum of each sample was measured using a Perkin Elmer NTS FT-NIR spectrometer equipped with a transflectance accessory and a DTGS detector. The samples were also heated to 750°C to remove the hydrogen-bonded silanol groups on the surface to reveal their locality. Second derivative profiles of the near infrared reflectance spectra were obtained using the instrument's software and used in the detailed analysis of the samples. The analysis of the near infrared spectra and their second derivative profiles had the aim in finding relationships between the surface chemical structure and the classification of opal samples. The dry opal samples were also tested for their surface adsorption effectivity toward water molecules. The results indicate that the opal samples contain (1) surface-adsorbed water, (2) free and hydrogen-bonded silanol groups on the surface, (3) trapped

  4. Salinity and Alkaline pH in Irrigation Water Affect Marigold Plants: II. Mineral Ion Relations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scarcity of water of good quality for landscape irrigation is of outmost importance in arid and semiarid regions due to the competition with urban population. This is forcing the use of degraded waters with high levels of salinity and high pH, which may affect plant establishment and growth. The o...

  5. Endocrine disruptors in bottled mineral water: estrogenic activity in the E-Screen.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Martin; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2011-10-01

    Human exposure to endocrine disruptors is well documented by biomonitoring data. However, this information is limited to few chemicals like bisphenol A or phthalate plasticizers. To account for so-far unidentified endocrine disruptors and potential mixture effects we employ bioassays to detect endocrine activity in foodstuff and consequently characterize the integrated exposure to endocrine active compounds. Recently, we reported a broad contamination of commercially available bottled water with estrogenic activity and presented evidence for the plastic packaging being a source of this contamination. In continuation of that work, we here compare different sample preparation methods to extract estrogen-like compounds from bottled water. These data demonstrate that inappropriate extraction methods and sample treatment may lead to false-negative results when testing water extracts in bioassays. Using an optimized sample preparation strategy, we furthermore present data on the estrogenic activity of bottled water from France, Germany, and Italy: eleven of the 18 analyzed water samples (61.1%) induced a significant estrogenic response in a bioassay employing a human carcinoma cell line (MCF7, E-Screen). The relative proliferative effects ranged from 19.8 to 50.2% corresponding to an estrogenic activity of 1.9-12.2 pg estradiol equivalents per liter bottled water. When comparing water of the same spring that is packed in glass or plastic bottles made of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), estrogenic activity is three times higher in water from plastic bottles. These data support the hypothesis that PET packaging materials are a source of estrogen-like compounds. Furthermore, the findings presented here conform to previous studies and indicate that the contamination of bottled water with endocrine disruptors is a transnational phenomenon. PMID:21050888

  6. [Study on the concentration of mineral oil in water by online intelligent detection based on fluorescence spectrum].

    PubMed

    Tang, Yuan-he; Liu, Qing-song; Ivieng, Lei; Liu, Han-chen; Liu, Qian; Li, Cun-xia

    2015-02-01

    In order to monitor the oil pollution of water real time and accurately for the environmental protection, an intelligent online detection system for the mineral oil in water is put forward in the present paper, based on the technology of ultraviolet fluorescence and internet of things (IOT). For this system, the resolution can be improved by using the higher precision asymmetric Czemy-Turner monochromator; the impact of light fluctuations on the results of exploration can be corrected by a bunch reference light; the optical system deviation caused by the instrument vibration can be reduced by optical fiber transmission; the coupling efficiency of fiber and output signal can be increased by a special fiber beam; the real-time measurement, data processing and remote control can be achieved by the control module and wireless communication module. This system has characteristics of high integration, high precision and good stability etc. The concentration of the unknown sample can be accurately calculated by the methods of parallel algorithms of chemometric metrology and the calculation errors caused by different components can be reduced by the theory of chemical correction factor analysis. The fluorescence spectra of three kinds of sample solution, diesel, engine and crude oil in preparative concentration of 10, 25, 50 and 100 mg x L(-1) were measured by this system respectively. The absorption wavelengths of the above-mentioned three oils were measured to be 256, 365 and 397 nm by a grating spectrometer; their absorbances were measured to be 0.028, 0.036 and 0.041 by fluorescence spectrophotometer, respectively. Their fluorescence emission wavelengths are 355, 419 and 457 nm respectively. Finally the concentration detection limits of the mineral oil in water of diesel, engine and crude oil were obtained, i.e., 0.03, 0.04 and 0.06 mg x L(-1) respectively. Their relative errors are 2.1%, 1.0% and 2.8% respectively. PMID:25970905

  7. The role of surface physicochemical properties in determining the distribution of the autochthonous microflora in mineral water bottles.

    PubMed

    Jones, C R; Adams, M R; Zhdan, P A; Chamberlain, A H

    1999-06-01

    Investigation of the distribution of the viable autochthonous microflora in three brands of 1-2-month-old bottled mineral water showed that 1.8 x 10(4) (S.E.M. 8.9 x 10(3), n = 5) to 1.2 x 10(5) (S.E.M. 1.3 x 10(4), n = 5) cfu ml-1 were planktonic cells while 11 (S.E.M. 4, n = 5)-632 (S.E.M. 176, n = 5) cfu cm-2 were found in the biofilm. The biofilm represented between 0.03 and 1.79% of the total viable microbial population in the 1.5 litre bottles studied. Scanning electron microscopy studies showed that the cells adhering to the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles were predominantly rod-shaped, sparsely distributed over the surface. In contrast, the cells adhering to the high density polyethylene (HDPE) caps were found to be mainly clumps of coccoid cells, suggesting that the bottle may provide different microhabitats for different microfloras. Large-scale roughness, such as that observed as lettering inside the cap (average height (z) = 93 microns) was associated with a 46-fold increase in cell numbers. Increased small-scale roughness, as measured by atomic force microscopy on PET and HDPE surfaces (average roughness (Ra) = 5-551 (nm), showed no correlation with adhesion. Investigations of surface hydrophobicity by the sessile drop technique showed that contact angles (theta) were greater on the HDPE caps (theta = 89-96 degrees) than on the PET surfaces (theta = 69-80 degrees). However, no correlation was found between contact angle and attached cell numbers. Measurements of surface electrostatic charge by streaming potential showed that the PET carried an overall negative charge, measuring -15.9 to -16.6 mV in mineral water. No significant change in charge occurred when the monomer composition of the PET was altered. It was concluded that surface roughness, in particular the scale of surface topographical features, is the most important physicochemical surface characteristic determining the distribution of the autochthonous microflora in mineral water

  8. Calculation of pH and mineral equilibria in hydrothermal waters with application to geothermometry and studies of boiling and dilution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Mark; Spycher, Nicolas

    1984-07-01

    Using chemical analyses and 25° pH measurements of quenched high-temperature waters, we calculate in situ pH and distribution of aqueous species at high temperature. This is accomplished by solving simultaneous mass action equations for complexes and redox equilibria and mass balance equations, on all components, including a H + equation with as many as 60 terms (depending on water composition). This calculation provides accurate values for the activities of aqueous ions in a given water at high temperature, which are used to calculate an ion activity product ( Q) for each of more than 100 minerals. The value of log( Q/ K) for each mineral, where K is the equilibrium constant, provides a measure of proximity of the aqueous solution to equilibrium with the mineral. By plotting log Q/ Kvs. T for natural waters, it is possible to determine: a) whether the water was in equilibrium with a host rock mineral assemblage, b) probable minerals in the equilibrium assemblage and c) the temperature of equilibrium. In cases where the fluid departs from equilibrium with a host rock assemblage, it is possible to determine whether this may result from boiling or dilution, and an estimate of amount of lost gas or diluting water can be determined. The calculation is illustrated by application to geothermal waters from Iceland, Broadlands, and Sulphur Bank, hot spring waters from Jemez, Yellowstone and Blackfoot Reservoir (Idaho) and fluid inclusions from the Sunnyside Mine, Colorado. It is shown that most geothermal waters approach equilibrium with a subsurface mineral assemblage at a temperature close to measured temperatures and that some hot springs also approach equilibrium with the host rock at temperatures above outlet temperatures but commonly below the Na-K-Ca temperatures. The log Q/ K plots show that some discrepancies between Na-K-Ca temperatures on spring waters and actual temperatures result from a failure of alkali feldspars to equilibrate with the fluid and with each

  9. Silicate and carbonate mineral weathering in soil profiles developed on Pleistocene glacial drift (Michigan, USA): Mass balances based on soil water geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Lixin; Williams, Erika L.; Szramek, Kathryn J.; Walter, Lynn M.; Hamilton, Stephen K.

    2008-02-01

    Geochemistry of soil, soil water, and soil gas was characterized in representative soil profiles of three Michigan watersheds. Because of differences in source regions, parent materials in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan (the Tahquamenon watershed) contain only silicates, while those in the Lower Peninsula (the Cheboygan and the Huron watersheds) have significant mixtures of silicate and carbonate minerals. These differences in soil mineralogy and climate conditions permit us to examine controls on carbonate and silicate mineral weathering rates and to better define the importance of silicate versus carbonate dissolution in the early stage of soil-water cation acquisition. Soil waters of the Tahquamenon watershed are the most dilute; solutes reflect amphibole and plagioclase dissolution along with significant contributions from atmospheric precipitation sources. Soil waters in the Cheboygan and the Huron watersheds begin their evolution as relatively dilute solutions dominated by silicate weathering in shallow carbonate-free soil horizons. Here, silicate dissolution is rapid and reaction rates dominantly are controlled by mineral abundances. In the deeper soil horizons, silicate dissolution slows down and soil-water chemistry is dominated by calcite and dolomite weathering, where solutions reach equilibrium with carbonate minerals within the soil profile. Thus, carbonate weathering intensities are dominantly controlled by annual precipitation, temperature and soil pCO 2. Results of a conceptual model support these field observations, implying that dolomite and calcite are dissolving at a similar rate, and further dissolution of more soluble dolomite after calcite equilibrium produces higher dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations and a Mg 2+/Ca 2+ ratio of 0.4. Mass balance calculations show that overall, silicate minerals and atmospheric inputs generally contribute <10% of Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ in natural waters. Dolomite dissolution appears to be a major process

  10. About Prospects of Enrichment of Mineral Raw Materials and Chemical Activation of Water Suspensions by Electroexplosive Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordunov, S. V.; Galtseva, O. V.

    2016-01-01

    A series of experiments is conducted on laboratory and pilot-production installation for the application of high-voltage pulsed discharge in the processes of enrichment of goldbearing mineral raw materials with a relatively low energy electrical discharge in the pulse of 120 J. At the same time the conglomerates of clay components are breaking down to micron and submicron sizes completely. Solid minerals such as quartz are simultaneously destroyed by defects and grains and withdrawn from the installation with water, thus increasing degree of enrichment of concentrate. The results of the processing by high-voltage pulsed discharges of building sand from the Ob riverbed are given. Discharge energy is 45 J. Relations of fractions in the original sand and in the sand after electroexplosive process show the uniform crushing of sand particles with splitting off particles with size of less than 0.045 mm. A content of chipped particles is 18%. The results of particle-size and X-ray structural analyses are shown.

  11. The 1.7- to 4.2-micron spectrum of asteroid 1 Ceres - Evidence for structural water in clay minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebofsky, L. A.; Feierberg, M. A.; Larson, H. P.; Johnson, J. R.; Tokunaga, A. T.

    1981-01-01

    A high-resolution Fourier spectrum (1.7-3.5 microns) and medium-resolution spectrophotometry (2.7-4.2 microns) were obtained for Asteroid 1 Ceres. The presence of the 3-micron absorption feature due to water of hydration was confirmed. The 3-micron feature is compared with the 3-micron bands due to water of hydration in clays and salts. It is concluded that the spectrum of Ceres shows a strong absorption at 2.7-2.8 microns due to structural OH groups in clay minerals. The dominant minerals on the surface of Ceres are therefore hydrated clay minerals structurally similar to terrestrial montmorillonites. There is also a narrow absorption feature at 3.1 microns which is attributable to a very small amount of water ice on Ceres. This is the first evidence for ice on the surface of an asteroid.

  12. U.S. Geological Survey Budget Cuts Funds for Minerals, Hazards, and Water Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2008-02-01

    The Bush administration's proposed US$968.5 million budget for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for fiscal year (FY) 2009 is a $38 million decrease from the FY 2008 enacted level. The proposed budget also includes some increases for high-priority programs. Funding includes an $8.2 million net increase for a water census that would be the first U.S.-wide assessment of water availability and human and environmental water use and an increase of $7 million to support the U.S. Department of Interior's Ocean and Coastal Frontiers Initiative, which will acquire key ocean health data while also providing objective scientific data to evaluate U.N. Law of the Sea claims made by other nations.

  13. Stimulation of water injection wells in the Los Angeles basin using sodium hypochlorite and mineral acids

    SciTech Connect

    Clementz, D.M.; Patterson, D.E.; Aseltine, R.J.; Young, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive stimulation program was developed to improve the injectivity and vertical coverage of water injection wells in the East Beverly Hills Hills and San Vicente Fields. In recent years the wells had low to zero injectivity and very limited vertical distribution of injected water as a result of formation damage, sand face plugging, and perforation blockage. A stimulaiton strategy was developed which sequentially removed this damage. It began with redesigning the central water plant to provide clean injection brine. The casing was mechanically cleaned. Near-wellbore solids were dissolved or loosened using hydrochloric acid and/or sodium hypochlorite (bleach); then, removed from the well by reverse circulating and suction washing. Remaining damage was treated with hydrochloric/hydrofluoric acid and bleach using circulation wash and selective squeeze techniques. Two- to three-fold improvements in injectivity after stimulation were common. Vertical distribution was typically improved from an initial 0-30% coverage to 85-95% after stimulation. 10 refs.

  14. Analysis of minerals containing dissolved traces of the fluid phase components water and carbon dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, Friedemann

    1991-01-01

    Substantial progress has been made towards a better understanding of the dissolution of common gas/fluid phase components, notably H2O and CO2, in minerals. It has been shown that the dissolution mechanisms are significantly more complex than currently believed. By judiciously combining various solid state analytical techniques, convincing evidence was obtained that traces of dissolved gas/fluid phase components undergo, at least in part, a redox conversion by which they split into reduced H2 and and reduced C on one hand and oxidized oxygen, O(-), on the other. Analysis for 2 and C as well as for any organic molecules which may form during the process of co-segregation are still impeded by the omnipresent danger of extraneous contamination. However, the presence of O(-), an unusual oxidized form of oxygen, has been proven beyond a reasonable doubt. The presence of O(-) testifies to the fact that a redox reaction must have taken place in the solid state involving the dissolved traces of gas/fluid phase components. Detailed information on the techniques used and the results obtained are given.

  15. Geologic and mineral and water resources investigations in western Colorado, using Skylab EREP data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, K. (Principal Investigator); Hutchinson, R. M.; Prost, G. L.; Sawatzky, D. L.; Spoelhof, R. W.; Thigpen, J. B.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Discovery of three major north-trending, throughgoing faults in the Front Range, previously mapped only as isolated segments, demonstrates the utility of space photography and may lead to reinterpretation of the Front Range tectonic style. Faulting and alteration appear to be the most useful indicators of mineralization in central Colorado. These phenomena appear on Skylab photography as tonal lineaments and color anomalies. Twenty-three lineaments have been mapped in the San Juan Mountains, the longest of which is 156 km long. Twelve lineaments intersect or are tangent to calderas. Intrusive domes are aligned along lineaments, but calderas appear to occur at the intersections of major lineaments. Lineaments can be recognized on some EREP passes but not on other passes over the same area. The difference is attributed to solar elevation effects. Bedding attitudes can be photogeologically estimated down to surprisingly low dips, on the order of + or - 1-2 deg, and attitudes can be subdivided easily into quantitative groups. The primary application of Skylab photography to geologic mapping in montane areas is clearly limited to regional mapping at scales smaller than 1:24,000.

  16. Formation of Carbonate Minerals in Martian Meteorite ALH 84001 from Cool Water Near the Surface of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2011-12-01

    Carbonate minerals in the Allan Hills 84001 meteorite are important because they ought to contain information about the chemistry and temperature of the water they formed in. They are also an important part of testing the idea that the meteorite contains evidence of past life on Mars. Hypotheses for the origin of the carbonates are impressively varied. A key test of the ideas is to determine the temperature at which the carbonates formed. Estimates up to now range from a bit below freezing to 700 oC, too big a range to test anything! To address the problem Itay Halevy, Woodward Fischer, and John Eiler (Caltech) used an approach that involves "clumped" isotope thermometry, which makes comparisons among different isotopic compositions of extracted CO2. This allowed the investigators to use the isotopic abundances of both carbon and oxygen. The results indicate that the carbonates formed at 18 ± 4 oC from a shallow subsurface (upper few meters to tens of meters) pool of water that was gradually evaporating. The wet episode did not last long, leading Halevy and his colleagues to conclude that the environment may have been too transient for life to have emerged here from scratch. On the other hand, if life already existed on the Martian surface this wet near-surface environment would have provided a happy home. An impact blasted the Martian home of ALH 84001, causing a transient heating event, perhaps disturbing the isotopic record...or perhaps not because the event was so short. In any case, the clumped isotope thermometry approach seems to have given a good measurement of the temperature at which the carbonate minerals formed.

  17. Ultra-trace analysis of hormones, pharmaceutical substances, alkylphenols and phthalates in two French natural mineral waters.

    PubMed

    Dévier, Marie-Hélène; Le Menach, Karyn; Viglino, Liza; Di Gioia, Lodovico; Lachassagne, Patrick; Budzinski, Hélène

    2013-01-15

    The aim of this work was to investigate the potential presence of a broad range of organic compounds, such as hormones, alkylphenols, bisphenol A and phthalates, as well as pharmaceutical substances in two brands of bottled natural mineral waters (Evian and Volvic, Danone). The phthalates were determined by solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) and the other compounds by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after solid-phase extraction. The potential migration of alkylphenols, bisphenol A and phthalates from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles was also investigated under standardized test conditions. Evian and Volvic natural mineral waters contain none of the around 120 targeted organic compounds. Traces of 3 pharmaceuticals (ketoprofen, salicylic acid, and caffeine), 3 alkylphenols (4-nonylphenol, 4-t-octylphenol, and 4-nonylphenol diethoxylate), and some phthalates including di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) were detected in the samples, but they were also present in the procedural blanks at similar levels. The additional test procedures demonstrated that the few detected compounds originated from the background laboratory contamination. Analytical procedures have been designed both in the bottling factory and in the laboratory in order to investigate the sources of DEHP and to minimize to the maximum this unavoidable laboratory contamination. It was evidenced that no migration of the targeted compounds from bottles occurred under the test conditions. The results obtained in this study underline the complexity of reaching a reliable measure to qualify the contamination of a sample at ultra-trace level, in the field of very pure matrices. The analytical procedures involving glassware, equipment, hoods, and rooms specifically dedicated to trace analysis allowed us to reach reliable procedural limits of quantification at the ng/L level, by

  18. Analysis of adolescents' beliefs about the outcome of using dental floss and drinking non-sugared mineral water.

    PubMed

    Astrøm, A N; Rise, J

    1996-06-01

    Using an expectancy value approach, personal and normative beliefs about the outcome of using dental floss and drinking non-sugared mineral water were studied in a sample of 970 15-year-old adolescents in the county of Hordaland in Norway. The data stem from a survey performed in October 1992. A detailed analysis of these beliefs provides information about which of them should be targeted in a persuasive communication directed at changing behavior. The adolescents evaluated six outcomes of each behavior in terms of how much they wanted or feared them, and rated the probability of each outcomes happening. The adolescents also rated the probability that four significant referents would approve the performance of each behavior and how much they valued the approval of each referent. Subjects with relatively strong and relatively weak intentions to use dental floss and to drink non-sugared mineral water (intenders and non-intenders) were compared with respect to their scores on each measure. A one-way analysis of variance showed consistent differences between intenders and non-intenders. Intenders were more likely to believe that the specified behaviors would result in positive outcomes and they evaluated these outcomes as more desirable than non-intenders. Intenders believed their referens, in particular dentists and parents, to be more concerned about whether or not to perform the specified behaviors than non-intenders. The most promising candidates for persuasive communication among behavioral beliefs with respect to the specified behaviors appeared to be reduced tooth decay and several non, health beliefs in terms of immediate social and sensory concerns. PMID:8871022

  19. Radioactivity and geochemistry of selected mineral-spring waters in the Western United States; basic data and multivariate statistical analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Felmlee, J.K.; Cadigan, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    Multivariate statistical analyses were performed on data from 156 mineral-spring sites in nine Western States to analyze relationships among the various parameters measured in the spring waters. Correlation analysis and R-mode factor analysis indicate that three major factors affect water composition in the spring systems studied: (1) duration of water circulation, (2) depth of water circulation, and (3) partial pressure of carbon dioxide. An examination of factor scores indicates that several types of hydrogeologic systems were sampled. Most of the samples are (1) older water from deeper circulating systems having relatively high salinity, high temperature, and low Eh or (2) younger water from shallower circulating systems having relatively low salinity, low temperature, and high Eh. The rest of the samples are from more complex systems. Any of the systems can have a relatively high or low content of dissolved carbonate species, resulting in a low or high pH, respectively. Uranium concentrations are commonly higher in waters of relatively low temperature and high Eh, and radium concentrations are commonly higher in waters having a relatively high carbonate content (low pH) and, secondarily, relatively high salinity. Water samples were collected and (or) measurements were taken at 156 of the 171 mineral-spring sites visited. Various samples were analyzed for radium, uranium, radon, helium, and radium-228 as well as major ions and numerous trace elements. On-site measurements for physical properties including temperature, specific conductance, pH, Eh, and dissolved oxygen were made. All constituents and properties show a wide range of values. Radium concentrations range from less than 0.01 to 300 picocuries per liter; they average 1.48 picocuries per liter and have an anomaly threshold value of 171 picocuries per liter for the samples studied. Uranium concentrations range from less than 0.01 to 120 micrograms per liter and average 0.26 micrograms per liter; they

  20. Salinity impact on yield, water use, mineral and essential oil content of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The experimental study was carried out to determine the effects of salinity on water consumption, plant height, fresh and seed yields, biomass production, ion accumulation and essential oil content of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) under greenhouse conditions. The experiment was conducted with a ...

  1. Water pollution in relation to mineral exploration: a case study from Alayi-Ovim area of southeastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ibe, Kalu K; Akaolisa, Casmir C Zanders

    2012-05-01

    Water samples from rivers, streams, springs, and shallow wells in Alayi-Ovim area of southeast Nigeria have been analyzed for Pb, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mg, PO(4), NO(3), CO(3), SO(4), Cl, and pH. The analyses were carried out using atomic absorption spectrometer and Hach Direct Reading Equipment. Results of the analyses from the area conform to the WHO (1995) standards for drinking water. However, the results show relative enrichment of Ca, pH, Mg, CO(3), and Cl. Low values were obtained for Fe, SO(4), and NO(3). While the Cl and Pb enrichment in the area north of Alayi-Ovim axis is attributed to proximity to the lead-zinc and chloride-rich formations of the Turonian Eze-Aku and the Albian Asu River; the Ca, Mg, SO(4), and CO(3) enrichment in Southern part of Alayi-Ovim is due to the limestone-bearing Late Maastrichtian Nsukka Formation. Furthermore, the very low values of less than 5 ppm for these characters in water in the central region correlate well with the relatively clean Maastrichtian quartz arenite Ajali Sandstone Formation. The Pb-Zn and Cl incursions into the water system from the Older Albian Asu River/Turonian Eze-Aku Formations in the northern part of Alayi-Ovim area and the leaching of Mg, and Ca into the water system in the Maastrichtian limestone area in the south thus constitute geochemical indices for chemical pollution and mineral exploration for brine and dolomitic limestone in the area. PMID:21713493

  2. Bone Mineral 31P and Matrix-Bound Water Densities Measured by Solid-State 1H and 31P MRI

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, Alan C.; Li, Cheng; Rajapakse, Chamith S.; Bashoor- Zadeh, Mahdieh; Bhagat, Yusuf A.; Wright, Alexander C.; Zemel, Babette S.; Zavaliangos, Antonios; Wehrli, Felix W.

    2014-01-01

    Bone is a composite material consisting of mineral and hydrated collagen fractions. MRI of bone is challenging due to extremely short transverse relaxation times, but solid-state imaging sequences exist that can acquire the short-lived signal from bone tissue. Previous work to quantify bone density via MRI used powerful experimental scanners. This work seeks to establish the feasibility of MRI-based measurement on clinical scanners of bone mineral and collagen-bound water densities, the latter as a surrogate of matrix density, and to examine the associations of these parameters with porosity and donors’ age. Mineral and matrix-bound water images of reference phantoms and cortical bone from 16 human donors, ages 27-97 years, were acquired by zero-echo-time 31P and 1H MRI on whole body 7T and 3T scanners, respectively. Images were corrected for relaxation and RF inhomogeneity to obtain density maps. Cortical porosity was measured by micro-CT, and apparent mineral density by pQCT. MRI-derived densities were compared to x-ray-based measurements by least-squares regression. Mean bone mineral 31P density was 6.74±1.22 mol/L (corresponding to 1129±204 mg/cc mineral), and mean bound water 1H density was 31.3±4.2 mol/L (corresponding to 28.3±3.7 %v/v). Both 31P and bound water (BW) densities were correlated negatively with porosity (31P: R2 = 0.32, p < 0.005; BW: R2 = 0.63, p < 0.0005) and age (31P: R2 = 0.39, p < 0.05; BW: R2 = 0.70, p < 0.0001), and positively with pQCT density (31P: R2 = 0.46, p < 0.05; BW: R2 = 0.50, p < 0.005). In contrast, the bone mineralization ratio (expressed here as the ratio of 31P density to bound water density), which is proportional to true bone mineralization, was found to be uncorrelated with porosity, age, or pQCT density. This work establishes the feasibility of image-based quantification of bone mineral and bound water densities using clinical hardware. PMID:24846186

  3. Atomic structure and surface defects at mineral-water interfaces probed by in situ atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siretanu, Igor; van den Ende, Dirk; Mugele, Frieder

    2016-04-01

    Atomic scale details of surface structure play a crucial role for solid-liquid interfaces. While macroscopic characterization techniques provide averaged information about bulk and interfaces, high resolution real space imaging reveals unique insights into the role of defects that are believed to dominate many aspects of surface chemistry and physics. Here, we use high resolution dynamic Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to visualize and characterize in ambient water the morphology and atomic scale structure of a variety of nanoparticles of common clay minerals adsorbed to flat solid surfaces. Atomically resolved images of the (001) basal planes are obtained on all materials investigated, namely gibbsite, kaolinite, illite, and Na-montmorillonite of both natural and synthetic origin. Next to regions of perfect crystallinity, we routinely observe extended regions of various types of defects on the surfaces, including vacancies of one or few atoms, vacancy islands, atomic steps, apparently disordered regions, as well as strongly adsorbed seemingly organic and inorganic species. While their exact nature is frequently difficult to identify, our observations clearly highlight the ubiquity of such defects and their relevance for the overall physical and chemical properties of clay nanoparticle-water interfaces.Atomic scale details of surface structure play a crucial role for solid-liquid interfaces. While macroscopic characterization techniques provide averaged information about bulk and interfaces, high resolution real space imaging reveals unique insights into the role of defects that are believed to dominate many aspects of surface chemistry and physics. Here, we use high resolution dynamic Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to visualize and characterize in ambient water the morphology and atomic scale structure of a variety of nanoparticles of common clay minerals adsorbed to flat solid surfaces. Atomically resolved images of the (001) basal planes are obtained on all

  4. Mineral saturation states in natural waters and their sensitivity to thermodynamic and analytic errors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nordstrom, D.K.; Ball, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    Saturation indices computed with WATEQ4F for chemical analyses from a groundwater in crystalline bedrock and a surface water receiving acid mine drainage are frequently at or above saturation with respect to calcite, fluorite, barite, gibbsite and ferrihydrite. A sensitivity analysis has been performed by varying the analytic and thermodynamic parameters for which the saturation indices are most sensitive. For calcite, fluorite and barite, the supersaturation effect appears to be real because it is only slightly decreased by sources of uncertainty. Apparent supersaturation for gibbsite is most likely caused by the degree of crystallinity on solubility behavior. Apparent supersaturation for ferric hydroxide is likely caused by small colloidal particles (<0.1 ??m) in the water sample that cannot be removed by standard field filtration, although several other possible explanations cannot be easily excluded. -from Authors

  5. Ion adsorption-induced wetting transition in oil-water-mineral systems

    PubMed Central

    Mugele, Frieder; Bera, Bijoyendra; Cavalli, Andrea; Siretanu, Igor; Maestro, Armando; Duits, Michel; Cohen-Stuart, Martien; van den Ende, Dirk; Stocker, Isabella; Collins, Ian

    2015-01-01

    The relative wettability of oil and water on solid surfaces is generally governed by a complex competition of molecular interaction forces acting in such three-phase systems. Herein, we experimentally demonstrate how the adsorption of in nature abundant divalent Ca2+ cations to solid-liquid interfaces induces a macroscopic wetting transition from finite contact angles (≈10°) with to near-zero contact angles without divalent cations. We developed a quantitative model based on DLVO theory to demonstrate that this transition, which is observed on model clay surfaces, mica, but not on silica surfaces nor for monovalent K+ and Na+ cations is driven by charge reversal of the solid-liquid interface. Small amounts of a polar hydrocarbon, stearic acid, added to the ambient decane synergistically enhance the effect and lead to water contact angles up to 70° in the presence of Ca2+. Our results imply that it is the removal of divalent cations that makes reservoir rocks more hydrophilic, suggesting a generalizable strategy to control wettability and an explanation for the success of so-called low salinity water flooding, a recent enhanced oil recovery technology. PMID:26013156

  6. Ion adsorption-induced wetting transition in oil-water-mineral systems.

    PubMed

    Mugele, Frieder; Bera, Bijoyendra; Cavalli, Andrea; Siretanu, Igor; Maestro, Armando; Duits, Michel; Cohen-Stuart, Martien; van den Ende, Dirk; Stocker, Isabella; Collins, Ian

    2015-01-01

    The relative wettability of oil and water on solid surfaces is generally governed by a complex competition of molecular interaction forces acting in such three-phase systems. Herein, we experimentally demonstrate how the adsorption of in nature abundant divalent Ca(2+) cations to solid-liquid interfaces induces a macroscopic wetting transition from finite contact angles (≈ 10°) with to near-zero contact angles without divalent cations. We developed a quantitative model based on DLVO theory to demonstrate that this transition, which is observed on model clay surfaces, mica, but not on silica surfaces nor for monovalent K(+) and Na(+) cations is driven by charge reversal of the solid-liquid interface. Small amounts of a polar hydrocarbon, stearic acid, added to the ambient decane synergistically enhance the effect and lead to water contact angles up to 70° in the presence of Ca(2+). Our results imply that it is the removal of divalent cations that makes reservoir rocks more hydrophilic, suggesting a generalizable strategy to control wettability and an explanation for the success of so-called low salinity water flooding, a recent enhanced oil recovery technology. PMID:26013156

  7. Distribution of metals in water and bed sediment in a mineral-rich watershed, Montana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nagorski, S.A.; Moore, J.N.; Smith, D.B.

    2002-01-01

    We sampled the Blackfoot River (Montana) and its major tributaries from the headwaters of the basin to near its confluence with the Clark Fork River over the course of 5 days in August 1998. We measured streamflow, collected fine-grained (<63 ??m) streambed sediment, and sampled the dissolved (operationally defined as <0.2 ??m) phase of the surface water using clean techniques. Water and sediment collected from near the historic Heddleston mining district contained the highest concentrations of most trace elements in the basin. Many solute trace metals were at their highest several kilometers downstream from the mining district, where the river flows through an unremediated marsh system that has collected mine wastes in the past. Downstream of the headwaters area, water and bed sediment metal concentrations declined sharply. Comparison of sediment samples with those collected by other workers in August 1989 and August 1995 do not show evidence of basin-scale long term changes, despite the onset of remediation efforts in 1993. The area of the proposed McDonald gold deposit near the confluence of the Landers Fork with the Blackfoot River was not contributing anomalous concentrations of naturally-occurring dissolved and bed-sediment metals into the basin. ?? IMWA Springer-Verlag 2002.

  8. Structural Investigation of Alkali Activated Clay Minerals for Application in Water Treatment Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bumanis, G.; Bajare, D.; Dembovska, L.

    2015-11-01

    Alkali activation technology can be applied for a wide range of alumo-silicates to produce innovative materials with various areas of application. Most researches focuse on the application of alumo-silicate materials in building industry as cement binder replacement to produce mortar and concrete [1]. However, alkali activation technology offers high potential also in biotechnologies [2]. In the processes where certain pH level, especially alkaline environment, must be ensured, alkali activated materials can be applied. One of such fields is water treatment systems where high level pH (up to pH 10.5) ensures efficient removal of water pollutants such as manganese [3]. Previous investigations had shown that alkali activation technology can be applied to calcined clay powder and aluminium scrap recycling waste as a foam forming agent to create porous alkali activated materials. This investigation focuses on the structural investigation of calcined kaolin and illite clay alkali activation processes. Chemical and mineralogical composition of both clays were determined and structural investigation of alkali activated materials was made by using XRD, DTA, FTIR analysis; the microstructure of hardened specimens was observed by SEM. Physical properties of the obtained material were determined. Investigation indicates the essential role of chemical composition of the clay used in the alkali activation process, and potential use of the obtained material in water treatment systems.

  9. Evaluation of the migration of mutagens/carcinogens from PET bottles into mineral water by Tradescantia/micronuclei test, Comet assay on leukocytes and GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Biscardi, D; Monarca, S; De Fusco, R; Senatore, F; Poli, P; Buschini, A; Rossi, C; Zani, C

    2003-01-20

    This study monitored the release of mutagenic/carcinogenic compounds into mineral water (natural and carbonated) from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles, using a plant mutagenicity test which reveals micronuclei formation in Tradescantia pollen cells (Trad/MCN test), a DNA damage assay (Comet assay) on human leukocytes and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for the characterisation of migrants. The water samples were collected at a bottling plant and stored in PET bottles for a period ranging from 1 to 12 months. Every month some samples were randomly collected and lyophilised, the residual powders were extracted with organic solvents and then analysed by GC/MS and tested for DNA damage in human leukocytes, or reconstituted with distilled water to obtain concentrates for the exposure of Tradescantia inflorescences. Micronuclei increase in pollen was found only in natural mineral water stored for 2 months. DNA-damaging activity was found in many of the natural and carbonated water samples. Spring water was negative in the plant micronuclei test and the Comet assay, whereas distributed spring water showed DNA-damaging effects, suggesting a possible introduction of genotoxins through the distribution pipelines. GC/MS analysis showed the presence in mineral water of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, a nongenotoxic hepatocarcinogenic plasticizer, after 9 months of storage in PET bottles. PMID:12526902

  10. The effect of pyrite on Escherichia coli in water: proof-of-concept for the elimination of waterborne bacteria by reactive minerals.

    PubMed

    Friedlander, Lonia R; Puri, Neha; Schoonen, Martin A A; Wali Karzai, A

    2015-03-01

    We present proof-of-concept results for the elimination of waterborne bacteria by reactive minerals. We exposed Escherichia coli MG1655 suspended in water to the reactive mineral pyrite (FeS₂) at room temperature and ambient light. This slurry eliminates 99.9% of bacteria in fewer than 4 hours. We also exposed Escherichia coli to pyrite leachate (supernatant liquid from slurry after 24 hours), which eliminates 99.99% of bacteria over the same time-scale. Unlike SOlar water DISinfection (SODIS), our results do not depend on the presence of ultraviolet (UV) light. We confirmed this by testing proposed SODIS additive and known photo-catalyst anatase (TiO₂) for antibacterial properties and found that, in contrast to pyrite, it does not eliminate E. coli under our experimental conditions. Previous investigations of naturally antibiotic minerals have focused on the medical applications of antibiotic clays, and thus have not been conducted under experimental conditions resembling those found in water purification. In our examination of the relevant literature, we have not found previously reported evidence for the use of reactive minerals in water sanitization. The results from this proof-of-concept experiment may have important implications for future directions in household water purification research. PMID:25719464

  11. [The external application of "Plastunskaya" fluoride-containing mineral water in the course of the combined spa and health resort-based treatment of deforming osteoarthrosis].

    PubMed

    Mel'Nichuk, L P; Khodasevich, L S

    2015-01-01

    Mineral waters containing fluorine (fluorinated waters) at a concentration in excess of 1 mg per liter are extensively used in the newly developing spa and health resort areas of the Russian Federation. They have been found in Siberia, Trans-Baikal regions, and the Krasnodar Territory (together with the Greater Sochi). These waters are mainly used for drinking as a component of the balneo- therapeutic treatment. In this context, the study of the therapeutic effects of low-mineralized hydrocarbonate-sodium waters containing fluorine in high concentrations is of paramount importance for the substantiation and facilitation of their external application in the framework of the programs of combined spa and health resort-based treatment of various diseases. We have investigated the possibility of the external application of "Plastunskaya" mineral water characterized above all by the high content of fluorine for the external treatment of osteoarthritis in 187 patients at the age varying from 37 to 63 years in the combination with the sparing regimen of physical activity, therapeutic physical exercises, klimatotherapy of moderate intensity, and a balanced diet. The patients were prescribed to take general "Plastunskaya" mineral water baths with the fluoride concentration of 7.4 mg/l at a temperature of 36 C from 7 to 15 minutes in duration for 2 consecutive days with a break on every third day (the total course consisted of 14-16 baths). It was shown that the combined treatment with the use of fluorine-containing mineral water resulted in the significant improvement of the clinical and biochemical parameters characterizing the health status of the patients suffering from deforming osteoarthrosis. PMID:26841530

  12. Pore water chemistry reveals gradients in mineral transformation across a model basaltic hillslope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohlmann, Michael; Dontsova, Katerina; Root, Robert; Ruiz, Joaquin; Troch, Peter; Chorover, Jon

    2016-06-01

    The extent of weathering incongruency during soil formation from rock controls local carbon and nutrient cycling in ecosystems, as well as the evolution of hydrologic flow paths. Prior studies of basalt weathering, including those that have quantified the dynamics of well-mixed, bench-scale laboratory reactors or characterized the structure and integrated response of field systems, indicate a strong influence of system scale on weathering rate and trajectory. For example, integrated catchment response tends to produce lower weathering rates than do well mixed reactors, but the mechanisms underlying these disparities remain unclear. Here we present pore water geochemistry and physical sensor data gathered during two controlled rainfall-runoff events on a large-scale convergent model hillslope mantled with 1 m uniform depth of granular basaltic porous media. The dense sampler and sensor array (1488 samplers and sensors embedded in 330 m3 of basalt) showed that rainfall-induced dissolution of basaltic glass produced supersaturation of pore waters with respect to multiple secondary solids including allophane, gibbsite, ferrihydrite, birnessite and calcite. The spatial distribution of saturation state was heterogeneous, suggesting an accumulation of solutes leading to precipitation of secondary solids along hydrologic flow paths. Rapid dissolution of primary silicates was widespread throughout the entire hillslope, irrespective of up-gradient flowpath length. However, coherent spatial variations in solution chemistry and saturation indices were observed in depth profiles and between distinct topographic regions of the hillslope. Colloids (110-2000 nm) enriched in iron (Fe), aluminum (Al), and phosphorus (P) were mobile in soil pore waters.

  13. Diagenesis of carbonate sediments: interaction of magnesium in sea water with mineral grains.

    PubMed

    Berner, R A

    1966-07-01

    Samples of natural fine-grained carbonate sediment from Florida Bay, Florida, undergo mole-for-mole cation exchange with aqueous solutions of MgCl(2) and CaCl(2) in the laboratory. The exchange reaction, which involves the surface of the grains of sediment, can be essentially described by a simple mass action-law equation. Enrichment of Mg++ beyond the amounts found within particle interiors should take place on the surface of CaCo(3) sediments immersed in sea water; it may be on both exchangeable and unexchangeable sites. PMID:17831506

  14. Investigating the Effectiveness of Mineral Precipitate as a Tool in the Removal of Heavy Metals from Mine Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abongwa, P. T.; Geyer, C.; Puckette, J.

    2014-12-01

    Mine water from a precious metal mine in Colorado drains into an underground tunnel and flows for about 8 km before being discharged into a series of sequentially connected settling ponds (5) aimed at removing suspended particulate. Our results suggest these ponds also remove heavy metals from solution through adsorption and mineral precipitation. Analyses of the precipitates and water in the settling ponds showed relatively higher metal concentration on the precipitates than in the corresponding aqueous solutions. Speciation modeling showed that the precipitates were mainly travertine, ferrihydrite, fe-oxyhdroxide and gypsum and these are expected to provide surfaces for metal adsorption. Overall, the average concentrations of trace metals were such that, Al concentration was 0.0 mg/L for the aqueous sample and 9.4 mg/L for the precipitate; Fe concentration was 0.04 mg/L for the aqueous sample and 20.1 mg/L for the precipitate; Mn concentration was 0.2 mg/L for the aqueous sample and 10.2 mg/L for the precipitate; Sr concentration was 3 mg/L for the aqueous sample and 8 mg/L for the precipitate; Zn concentration was 0.1 mg/L for the aqueous sample and 1.4 mg/L for the precipitate. Sulfate concentrations in solutions (1346 mg/L) were about seventeen times higher than on the precipitate (80 mg/L). As the water exits the tunnel, its carbon is expected to consistently decrease over space as it moves along the settling ponds while precipitating carbonates. The dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations showed consistent drop from 109 mg/L at the tunnel exit to 96 mg/L at middle pond and 92 mg/L at the exit pond, which corresponds to decreasing pCO2 and removal of carbon from solution through travertine precipitation and CO2 outgassing. This data indicate a strong influence of mineral precipitate as an effective component in the attenuation of metals in mine

  15. Seawater/Saline Agriculture for Energy, Warming, Water, Rainfall, Land, Food and Minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    The combination of the incipient demise of cheap oil and increasing evidence of Global Warming due to anthropogenic fossil carbon release has reinvigorated the need for and efforts on Renewable energy sources, especially for transportation applications. Biomass/Bio-diesel appears to have many benefits compared to Hydrogen, the only other major renewable transportation fuel candidate. Biomass Production is currently limited by available arable land and fresh water. Halophyte Plants and seawater irrigation proffer a wholly new biomass production mantra using wastelands and very plentiful seawater. Such an approach addresses many-to-most of the major emerging Societal Problems including Land, Water, Food, Warming and Energy. For many reasons, including seawater agriculture, portions of the Sahara appear to be viable candidates for future Biomass Production. The apparent nonlinearity between vegetation cover and atmospheric conditions over North Africa necessitates serious coupled boundary layer Meteorology and Global Circulation Modeling to ensure that this form of Terra Forming is Favorable and to avoid adverse Unintended Consequences.

  16. Spectral properties of mixtures of montmorillonite and dark grains - Implications for remote sensing minerals containing chemically and physically adsorbed water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, R. N.

    1983-01-01

    The spectral properties from 0.4 to 3 microns of montmorillonite plus dark carbon grains (called opaques) of various sizes are studied as a function of the weight fraction of opaques present. The reflectance level and band depths of the 1.4-, 1.9-, 2.2-, and 2.8-micron water and/or OH absorption features are analyzed using derived empirical relationships and scattering theory. It is found that the absorption band depths and reflectance level are a very nonlinear function of the weight fraction of opaques present but can be predicted in many cases by simple scattering theory. The 2.8-micron bound water fundamental band is the most difficult absorption feature to suppress. The overtone absorptions are suppressed a greater amount than the fundamental but are still apparent even when 10-20 wt pct opaques are present. The relationships observed and the simple scattering theory presented show that quantitative compositional remote sensing studies are feasible for surfaces containing complex mineral mixtures.

  17. Atomic structure and surface defects at mineral-water interfaces probed by in situ atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Siretanu, Igor; van den Ende, Dirk; Mugele, Frieder

    2016-04-21

    Atomic scale details of surface structure play a crucial role for solid-liquid interfaces. While macroscopic characterization techniques provide averaged information about bulk and interfaces, high resolution real space imaging reveals unique insights into the role of defects that are believed to dominate many aspects of surface chemistry and physics. Here, we use high resolution dynamic Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to visualize and characterize in ambient water the morphology and atomic scale structure of a variety of nanoparticles of common clay minerals adsorbed to flat solid surfaces. Atomically resolved images of the (001) basal planes are obtained on all materials investigated, namely gibbsite, kaolinite, illite, and Na-montmorillonite of both natural and synthetic origin. Next to regions of perfect crystallinity, we routinely observe extended regions of various types of defects on the surfaces, including vacancies of one or few atoms, vacancy islands, atomic steps, apparently disordered regions, as well as strongly adsorbed seemingly organic and inorganic species. While their exact nature is frequently difficult to identify, our observations clearly highlight the ubiquity of such defects and their relevance for the overall physical and chemical properties of clay nanoparticle-water interfaces. PMID:27030282

  18. [Effect of Seasonal Temperature Increasing on Nitrogen Mineralization in Soil of the Water Level Fluctuating Zone of Three Gorge Tributary During the Dry Period].

    PubMed

    Lin, Jun-jie; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Dan; Zhou, Bin; Xiao, Xiao-jun; Ma, Hui-yan; Yu, Zhi-guo

    2016-02-15

    To reveal the effect of seasonal temperature increasing on nitrogen mineralization in soil of the water level fluctuating soil zone of three gorge reservoir areas in the Yangtze river tributary during the dry period, surface soils were collected from the water level fluctuating zone of Pengxi river crossing two hydrological sections, i.e., upstream and downstream and three water level altitudes, 155 m (low), 165 m (middle) and 175 m (high). We incubated the soil at 25 degrees C and 35 degrees C to determine the transformation rates of nitrogen in soil of Pengxi river basin during the dry period. The result showed that TN and NO3- -N contents in the soil of upstream section and higher (175 m) altitude of water level were higher than those in downstream and low (165 m) altitude of water level, whereas the pattern for NH4+ -N was different, with higher NH4+ -N contents in downstream and low water level. The inorganic nitrogen was dominated by NO3- -N, which accounted for up to 57.4%-84.7% of inorganic nitrogen. Generally, soil ammoniation, nitration and net N mineralization increased with the rising water level altitude and stream sections (P < 0.05). In summary, nitration and net N mineralization significantly increased with increasing temperature, (P < 0.05), while ammoniation showed no difference (P > 0.05). PMID:27363162

  19. Mineral resources of the New Water Mountains Wilderness Study Area, La Paz County, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Sherrod, D.R.; Smith, D.B.; Koch, R.D.; Hanna, W.F.; Pitkin, J.A.; Lane, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    The New Water Mountains Wilderness Study Area, situated in La Paz County, west-central Arizona, locally has a moderate resource potential for gold and silver from replacement-type deposits occurring in Paleozoic marble in the western and north-central parts of the area, and a low resource potential for copper, lead, zinc, and manganese localized in fault zones that cut Tertiary volcanic rocks near the eastern edge of the range. Resource potential is low for geothermal energy or oil and gas. There is an unknown resource potential for lime, which could be developed from Paleozoic marble in the north-central part of the area. Sand and gravel occur in the area, but these materials are abundant closer to markets in the region.

  20. Electron transfer at the mineral/water interface: Selenium reduction by ferrous iron sorbed on clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlet, L.; Scheinost, A. C.; Tournassat, C.; Greneche, J. M.; Géhin, A.; Fernández-Martínez, A.; Coudert, S.; Tisserand, D.; Brendle, J.

    2007-12-01

    The mobility and availability of the toxic metalloid selenium in the environment are largely controlled by sorption and redox reactions, which may proceed at temporal scales similar to that of subsurface water movement under saturated or unsaturated conditions. Since such waters are often anaerobic and rich in Fe 2+, we investigated the long-term (⩽1 month) kinetics of selenite (Se(IV)O3-) sorption to montmorillonite in the presence of Fe 2+ under anoxic conditions. A synthetic montmorillonite was used to eliminate the influence of structural Fe. In the absence of aqueous Fe 2+, selenite was sorbed as outer-sphere sorption complex, covering only part of the positive edge sites, as verified by a structure-based MUSIC model and Se K-edge XAS (X-ray absorption spectroscopy). When selenite was added to montmorillonite previously equilibrated with Fe 2+ solution however, slow reduction of Se and formation of a solid phase was observed with Se K-edge XANES (X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy) and EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine-structure) spectroscopy. Iterative transformation factor analysis of XANES and EXAFS spectra suggested that only one Se reaction product formed, which was identified as nano-particulate Se(0). Even after one month, only 75% of the initially sorbed Se(IV) was reduced to this solid species. Mössbauer spectrometry revealed that before and after addition and reduction of Se, 5% of total sorbed Fe occurred as Fe(III) species on edge sites of montmorillonite (≈2 mmol kg -1). The only change observed after addition of Se was the formation of a new Fe(II) species (15%) attributed to the formation of an outer-sphere Fe(II)-Se sorption complex. The combined Mössbauer and XAS results hence clearly suggest that the Se and Fe redox reactions are not directly coupled. Based on the results of a companion paper, we hypothesize that the electrons produced in the absence of Se by oxidation of sorbed Fe(II) are stored, for example by formation of

  1. [Immediate thyrotropic effects of mineral water Naftussya their autonomic relevence and possibility to forecast].

    PubMed

    Koziavkina, N V; Baryliak, L H; Ianchiĭ, O R; Fuchko, O L

    2013-01-01

    Clinical physiological monitoring of 32 men aged 25-60 years with chronic stoneless cholecystitis in the phase of remission found that in 14 patients 75-85 minutes after drinking the bioactive water Naftussya (3 ml/kg, t(0) 18-20 degrees C) the plasma level of total triiodothyronine (T3) was not significantly changed, while in 9 patients it was reduced to 0.26 +/- 0.10 nM/1 (by 11%). In the other 9 patients the level increased to 0.29 +/- 0,04 nM/1 (by 17%). The changes in T3 level correlated negatively with the changes in absolute (r = -0.55) and relative (r = -0.47) power spectral density (PSD) of ultra very low-frequency components of heart rate variability (HRV). These changes correlated positively (r = 0.46) with the changes in relative PSD of low-frequency components of HRV. Subject to a weak correlation with HRV parameter pNN50 (r = -0.21) canonical correlation coefficient (R) between changes in HRV parameters and T3 reaches 0.68 (p = 0.002). On the other hand, the changes in T3 correlated with its initial level (r = -0.46), as well as initial levels of moda (r = -0.40), its amplitude (r = 0.30) and absolute PSD of low-frequency components HRV (r = -0.33), i.e. thyrotropic effects conditionized these parameters by 30% (R = 0.55; p = 0.038). The method ofdiscriminant analysis has identified 14 primary parameters that allowed predicting the thyrotropic effect of Naftussya water with 100% accuracy. PMID:24605595

  2. Screening of endocrine-disrupting phenols, herbicides, steroid estrogens, and estrogenicity in drinking water from the waterworks of 35 Italian cities and from PET-bottled mineral water.

    PubMed

    Maggioni, Silvia; Balaguer, Patrick; Chiozzotto, Claudia; Benfenati, Emilio

    2013-03-01

    We investigated contamination by endocrine-disrupting chemicals in drinking water from 35 major Italian cities and five popular Italian brands of bottled mineral water. The quality of Italian drinking water was assessed by combing chemical analysis with bioassay to quantify specific estrogenic contaminants and to characterize the actual biological effect of the mixture of chemicals present in drinking water including the contribution of not targeted compounds. The selected contaminants were natural and synthetic steroid estrogens, alkylphenols and bisphenol A, linuron, triazine herbicides, and their metabolites. A specific analytical method was developed based on solid phase extraction of 1 L of water and concentration to 100 μL for quantification by electrospray ionization liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, achieving quantification limits of 0.05-0.36 ng/L for herbicides and 0.64-7.70 ng/L for steroids and phenols. No steroid estrogens were detected in any of the samples, while bisphenol A and nonylphenols were detected in the ranges of 0.82-102.00 and 10.30-84.00 ng/L respectively. Herbicides and their degradation products, when present, were found from slightly above the quantification limits up to 49.91 ng/L, mainly from cities in northern Italy. Chemical analyses were complemented by the performance of a bioassay for the determination of the estrogenic activity in the extracts based on the transactivation of estrogen receptor α-transfected reporter HeLa-ERE-Luciferase-Neomycin cell line. Activity was generally low with maximum estrogenicity of 13.6 pg/L estradiol equivalents. PMID:22821279

  3. Metabolic acidosis mimicking diabetic ketoacidosis after use of calorie-free mineral water.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Gry T; Woldseth, Berit; Lindemann, Rolf

    2012-09-01

    A previously healthy boy was admitted with fever, tachycardia, dyspnea, and was vomiting. A blood test showed a severe metabolic acidosis with pH 7.08 and an anion gap of 36 mmol/L. His urine had an odor of acetone. The serum glucose was 5.6 mmol/L, and no glucosuria was found. Diabetic ketoacidosis could therefore be eliminated. Lactate level was normal. Tests for the most common metabolic diseases were negative. Because of herpes stomatitis, the boy had lost appetite and only been drinking Diet Coke and water the last days. Diet Coke or Coca-Cola Light is sweetened with a blend containing cyclamates, aspartame, and acesulfame potassium, all free of calories. The etiology of the metabolic acidosis appeared to be a catabolic situation exaggerated by fasting with no intake of calories. The elevated anion gap was due to a severe starvation ketoacidosis, mimicking a diabetic ketoacidosis. Pediatricians should recommend carbohydrate/calorie-containing fluids for rehydration of children with acute fever, diarrhea, or illness. PMID:22457081

  4. Naturally acidic surface and ground waters draining porphyry-related mineralized areas of the Southern Rocky Mountains, Colorado and New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verplanck, P.L.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Bove, D.J.; Plumlee, G.S.; Runkel, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    Acidic, metal-rich waters produced by the oxidative weathering and resulting leaching of major and trace elements from pyritic rocks can adversely affect water quality in receiving streams and riparian ecosystems. Five study areas in the southern Rocky Mountains with naturally acidic waters associated with porphyry mineralization were studied to document variations in water chemistry and processes that control the chemical variations. Study areas include the Upper Animas River watershed, East Alpine Gulch, Mount Emmons, and Handcart Gulch in Colorado and the Red River in New Mexico. Although host-rock lithologies in all these areas range from Precambrian gneisses to Cretaceous sedimentary units to Tertiary volcanic complexes, the mineralization is Tertiary in age and associated with intermediate to felsic composition, porphyritic plutons. Pyrite is ubiquitous, ranging from ???1 to >5 vol.%. Springs and headwater streams have pH values as low as 2.6, SO4 up to 3700 mg/L and high dissolved metal concentrations (for example: Fe up to 400 mg/L; Cu up to 3.5 mg/L; and Zn up to 14.4 mg/L). Intensity of hydrothermal alteration and presence of sulfides are the primary controls of water chemistry of these naturally acidic waters. Subbasins underlain by intensely hydrothermally altered lithologies are poorly vegetated and quite susceptible to storm-induced surface runoff. Within the Red River study area, results from a storm runoff study documented downstream changes in river chemistry: pH decreased from 7.80 to 4.83, alkalinity decreased from 49.4 to <1 mg/L, SO4 increased from 162 to 314 mg/L, dissolved Fe increased from to 0.011 to 0.596 mg/L, and dissolved Zn increased from 0.056 to 0.607 mg/L. Compared to mine drainage in the same study areas, the chemistry of naturally acidic waters tends to overlap but not reach the extreme concentrations of metals and acidity as some mine waters. The chemistry of waters draining these mineralized but unmined areas can be used to

  5. Environmental geochemistry of shale-hosted Ag-Pb-Zn massive sulfide deposits in northwest Alaska: Natural background concentrations of metals in water from mineralized areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelley, K.D.; Taylor, C.D.

    1997-01-01

    Red Dog, Lik and Drenchwater are shale-hosted stratiform Ag-Pb-Zn massive sulfide deposits in the northwestern Brooks Range. Natural background concentrations of metals in waters from the undisturbed (unmined) Drenchwater prospect and Lik deposit were compared to pre-mining baseline studies conducted at Red Dog. The primary factors affecting water chemistry are the extent of exposure of the deposits, the grade of mineralization, the presence of carbonate reeks in the section, and the proportion of Fe-sulfide in the ore. Surface water samples from the Drenchwater prospect, which has pyrite-dominant mineralization exposed in outcrop, have pH values as low as 2.8 and high dissolved concentrations of metals including as much as 95 mg 1-1 Al, 270 mg 1-1 Fe, 8 ??1-1 Cd, 10 ??1-1 Pb, and 2600 ??1-1 Zn, with As up to 26 ??g1-1. Surface waters from the Red Dog deposit prior to mining were also acidic and metal-rich, however, dissolved metal concentrations in Red Dog waters were many times greater. The higher metal concentrations in Red Dog waters reflect the high Zn grades and the abundant sphalerite, pyrite, and galena that were present in outcrop prior to mining. In contrast, despite significant mineralization at the Lik deposit, carbonate rocks in the section buffer the system, resulting in less acidic, mostly near-neutral pH values with low concentrations of most metals except Zn.

  6. CO2-water-mineral reactions during CO2 leakage into glauconitic sands: geochemical and isotopic monitoring of batch experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humez, P.; Lions, J.; Lagneau, V.; Negrel, Ph.

    2012-04-01

    The assessment of environmental impacts of carbon dioxide geological storage requires the investigation of the potential CO2 leakages into fresh groundwater reserves. The Albian aquifer of the Paris Basin was chosen as a case of study because i) the Paris Basin contains deep saline Jurassic and Triassic aquifers identified as targets by the French national program of CO2 geological storage and ii) the Albian aquifer is a deep freshwater resource of strategic national importance, above the Jurassic and Triassic formations. An experimental and a geochemical modelling approach were carried out in order to better understand the rock-water-CO2 interactions with two main objectives: to assess the evolution of the chemistry of the formation water and of the mineralogy of the solid phase during the interaction and to design a monitoring program for freshwater resources. The main focus is to select and develop suitable indirect indicators of the presence of CO2 in the aquifer. We present here the experimental results, which combines both major and trace elements and isotopic tools, some of them new in the CCS field. Batch reactors with a liquid/solid ratio of 10 made of appropriate materials (PTFE, stainless steel) were equipped with simultaneous controls on several parameters (pH measurement, gas phase composition, pressure, tightness…) after CO2 injection (PCO2= 2 bar; room temperature). Ten reactors were run simultaneously, over pre-determined durations of CO2-water-rock interaction (1, 7, 15 and 30 days). During the batch experiment, we observed major changes in several chemical parameters due to the CO2 injection. A sharp drop in pH from 6.6 to 4.9 was noticeable, immediately after the injection, due to CO2 dissolution in the water phase. Alkalinity varies from 1.3 mmol.L-1 in the initial water to 2.0 mmol.L-1 at the end of the 1-month experiment. Four types of ion behaviors are observed: (1) calcium, silicon and magnesium concentrations increase during the 1-month

  7. New insight into particulate mineral and organic matter in coastal ocean waters through optical inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Stavn, Robert H.; Falster, Alexander U.; Gray, Deric; Gould, Richard W.

    2014-08-01

    Suspended particulate inorganic matter (PIM) and particulate organic matter (POM) often exhibit significant variation both spatially and temporally in coastal oceans. The size distributions and optical properties of these particles are poorly known. Utilizing a newly developed inversion technique from the measured angular scattering pattern, we were able to examine POM and PIM in terms of detailed particle size distributions (PSD) and optical volume scattering functions (VSF), gaining further insights and knowledge of particles that will greatly improve biogeochemical investigations and remote-sensing algorithms. We report the results on two extremes or end-members of possible coastal environments, sediment-laden, turbid Mobile Bay, Alabama, USA and biologically productive, clear water Monterey Bay, California, USA. The optically inferred mass concentrations of PIM and POM, when accounting for the fractal nature of suspended particles, agreed well with the respective gravimetric determinations within the analysis and inversion uncertainty. Despite intra- and inter-site variability, the inferred PSDs in both coastal regions commonly showed an apparent background population of PIM at radii <0.6-1 μm overlaid by POM of radii between 2 and 20 μm. The PSDs also saw increased contribution by PIM at radii >50 μm. The clearly distinctive PSDs between PIM and POM provide evidence to support the Risović two-component model for suspended particulates. The shape of the VSFs, i.e., the scattering phase functions, for POM are similar between the two sites (backscattering ratio ≈ 0.0015), but the PIM in Monterey Bay exhibited a higher backscattering ratio than in Mobile Bay (backscattering ratios 0.012 vs. 0.008, respectively). At both sites, the mass-specific scattering cross section values for PIM (σ[PIM]) are about 70-80% lower than σ[POM], while the mass-specific backscattering cross section values for PIM (σb[PIM]) are 10-25% greater than σb[POM].

  8. Impact of Natural and Man-Made Factors on Mineral Composition of the Ardon River Water and Hydrophytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadim, Ermakov; Elena, Korobova; Alexander, Degtyarev; Nina, Petrunina; Sergey, Tyutikov

    2013-04-01

    The Unal basin located in mountain region of Northern Ossetia (the Caucasus) belongs to Pb-Zn natural province with anthropogenic and natural transformation of the environment leading to risks of ecological damage. Activity of the Misursk Mining Combine and its Arkhon-Khosta tailings caused a significant local increase of Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn content in soils, water and biotic components relative to background values [1-5]. A catastrophic mud flow of 2002 and the later construction of a gas pipeline and a dam for hydroelectric power station changed local landscapes and biota (plants, algae, and amphibia). Biogeochemical studies performed in the area in 2001, 2003 and 2008 showed that in some cases the specified factors might change the structure of landscapes due to enhanced mass migration and the erosion of outcropping rocks which could be followed by corresponding transformation of the chemical composition of draining waters and flood plain soils, and could also change the character of species' invasion. Algae were proved to adapt and to indicate both natural and man-made transformation of the environment [3, 4]. A distinct relation between the particle size of the suspended matter in the Ardon river waters and water mineralization was discovered. However, heavy metals' concentration level in waters of the Ardon river appeared in general to be within the acceptable hygienic standards and therefore ecologically not critical. References 1. Degtyarev V.P., Ermakov V.V. Ecological and geochemical evaluation of the the Ardon river basin (Northern Ossetia). Geokhimiya, 1998, 1, 88-94. 2. Karpova E.A., Krechetova E.V., Degtyarev V.P. Parameters of heavy metal migration in soils of biogeochemical anomalies of the Northern Ossetia. Modern problems of soil contamination, Moscow State University, V. 1, 2007, 106-110. 3. Petrunina N.S., Ermakov V.V., Tuytikov S.F., Karpova E.A., Levkina L.M., Gololobova M.A. Biogeochemical identification of natural and technogenic polymetallic

  9. The role of ground-water recharge processes in the formation of natural acid-rock drainage in mineralized mountain watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, A. H.; Bove, D. J.; Verplanck, P. L.

    2009-12-01

    An understanding of the natural production of low-pH and metal-rich ground and surface water (acid-rock drainage, or ARD) in mineralized watersheds is important for establishing pre-mining conditions in mined locations and for evaluating the potential environmental impacts of future mining in unmined locations. The significance of hydrothermal alteration type and lithology and in ARD production is well established, but the role played by climatic factors remains poorly understood. Ground-water recharge processes (e.g., water table depth, seasonal recharge fluctuations, and unsaturated zone residence time) could exert a major influence because they control features of the unsaturated zone that should in turn directly control the oxidation of sulfide minerals in the subsurface. We are exploring the relative importance of different aspects of ground-water recharge in ARD production by performing a series of numerical geochemical modeling experiments with PHREEQC and examining recently collected geochemical and hydrologic data from Handcart Gulch, a mineralized mountain watershed in the Colorado Front Range. Preliminary results suggest that ground-water residence time in the unsaturated zone is of primary importance. However, sulfide oxidation is probably oxygen-limited in deeper unsaturated zones under mountain ridges, meaning that ARD production may be commonly limited by rates of downward oxygen diffusion. Results of this study should assist in predicting possible future changes in ARD production in mountain watersheds under anticipated climate change scenarios.

  10. Sorption reactivity of mineral surfaces: the model-free conversion of humidity effect on organic vapor sorption to the organic sorbate effect on water-sorbent interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisover, Mikhail

    2013-04-01

    Interaction of water with mineral surfaces is one of the key factors controlling their reactivity towards organic compounds in multiple physical and chemical processes, e.g., in sorption and catalysis. Specifically, water interactions with minerals (as well as with other naturally present sorbents) are of fundamental importance for distribution of organic compounds between different environmental phases. Therefore, it is of basic interest to learn about interrelations between organic sorbate - sorbent and water - sorbent interactions on a local scale, in a microenvironment specific for a given organic sorbate. The understanding of these interrelations can be approached by examining the effect of organic compounds on water - sorbent interactions. However, at environmentally relevant conditions associated with relatively low concentrations of organic compounds, it may be hardly possible to directly measure the effect of sorbed organic molecules on water sorption. This paper reports a thermodynamic approach in which the effect of organic compounds on sorbent-water interactions can be obtained, in a model-free way, from the equilibrium sorption isotherms of organic vapors on a variously hydrated surface (Borisover, M., Adsorption, DOI 10.1007/s10450-012-9446-7). The outcome of this conversion is a "differential" stoichiometry between changes in the amounts of water and organic compounds in the sorbed state. The analysis included the experimental sorption data for various organic vapors on such environmentally important sorbents as quartz, metal oxides, calcite, clay minerals and humic acid. So, based on sorption isotherms of organic compounds obtained at different relative air humidities, the number of water molecules expelled from a sorbent or co-sorbed, per an organic molecule sorbed, may easily be obtained for any humidity range. This "differential" stoichiometry was also examined by means of the Linear Free Energy Relationship (LFER). Based on the LFER analysis

  11. Results of mineral, chemical, and sulfate isotopic analyses of water, soil, rocks, and soil extracts from the Pariette Draw Watershed, Uinta Basin, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrison, Jean M.; Tuttle, Michele L.W.; Fahy, Juli W.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to establish a process-based understanding of salt, Se, and B behavior to address whether these contaminants can be better managed, or if uncontrollable natural processes will overwhelm any attempts to bring Pariette Draw into compliance with respect to recently established total maximum daily limits (TMDLs). We collected data to refine our knowledge about the role of rock weathering and soil formation in the transport and storage of salt in the watershed and to show how salt is cycled under irrigated and natural conditions. Our approach was to sample rock, soils, and sediment on irrigated and natural terrain for mineralogical analysis to determine the residence of salt and associated Se and B, classify minerals as primary (related to rock formation) or secondary weathering products, and characterize mineral dissolution kinetics. Mineral and chemical analyses and selective extractions of rocks and soils provide useful information in understanding solute movement and mineral dissolution/ formation. The resulting data are critical in determining residence of salt, Se, and B in weathered rock and soil and understanding the mobility during water-rock-soil interactions. This report summarizes our methods for sample and data collection and tabulates the mineral, chemical, and isotopic data collected.

  12. The water-soluble matrix fraction from the nacre of Pinctada maxima produces earlier mineralization of MC3T3-E1 mouse pre-osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Marthe; Pereira-Mouriès, Lucilia; Almeida, Maria José; Milet, Christian; Lopez, Evelyne

    2003-05-01

    Nacre or mother of pearl is a calcified structure that forms the lustrous inner layer of some shells. We studied the biological activity of the water-soluble matrix (WSM) extracted from powdered nacre from the shell of the pearl oyster, Pinctada maxima, on the MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblast cell line from mouse calvaria. This cell line has the ability to differentiate into osteoblasts and to mineralize in the presence of beta-glycerophosphate and ascorbic acid. Cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity were measured as markers of osteoblast differentiation, and mineralization was analyzed. These studies revealed that WSM stimulates osteoblast differentiation and mineralization by day 6 instead of the 21-day period required for cells grown in normal mineralizing media. We compared the activity of WSM with that of dexamethasone on this cell line. WSM can inhibit alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the activity of dexamethasone on MC3T3-E1 cells. This study shows that nacre WSM could speed up the differentiation and mineralization of this cell line more effectively than dexamethasone. PMID:12781967

  13. Derivation of the specific optical properties of suspended mineral particles and their contribution to the attenuation of solar irradiance in offshore waters by ocean color remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Catherine; Cunningham, Alex; McKee, David

    2016-01-01

    Two independently derived algorithms which had previously been validated against in situ data were applied to 8 years of MODIS observations of the Irish Sea to obtain (i) concentrations of lithogenic mineral particles (MSSl) in surface waters and (ii) the specific backscattering and absorption coefficients for these particles in the 488 nm waveband (the values obtained were a*MSSl488 = 0.031 m2 g-1 and bb*MSSl488 = 0.010 m2 g-1). This information was used to calculate the mean attenuation coefficient for downward irradiance in the surface mixed layer, and the fraction of this coefficient that was attributable to suspended mineral particles. Mineral particles at relatively low concentrations (<5 g m-3) were the major determinant of values throughout the region in winter, and in the central Irish Sea this influence persisted for much of the spring/autumn primary production period. In the north and south, however, marked short-term increases in due to phytoplankton blooms occurred during periods when MSSl values were relatively low. Seasonally averaged maps of the fractional contribution of MSSl to show strong links to vertical mixing, with sharp contrasts developing in spring at the boundaries between mixed and stratified waters. We conclude that the ocean color processing sequence presented here can reveal spatial and seasonal patterns in the dynamics of lithogenic mineral particles which have potentially valuable applications in ecosystem status assessment, environmental impact monitoring, and the tuning and validation of numerical models of shelf sea ecosystems.

  14. Pseudomonas gessardii sp. nov. and Pseudomonas migulae sp. nov., two new species isolated from natural mineral waters.

    PubMed

    Verhille, S; Baïda, N; Dabboussi, F; Hamze, M; Izard, D; Leclerc, H

    1999-10-01

    Twenty-five non-identified fluorescent Pseudomonas strains isolated from natural mineral waters were previously clustered into three phenotypic subclusters, XIIIb, XVa and XVc. These strains were characterized genotypically in the present study. DNA-DNA hybridization results and DNA base composition analysis revealed that these strains were members of two new species, for which the names Pseudomonas gessardii sp. nov. (type strain CIP 105469T) and Pseudomonas migulae sp. nov. (type strain CIP 105470T) are proposed. P. gessardii included 13 strains from phenotypic subclusters XVa and XVc. P. migulae included 10 strains from phenotypic subcluster XIIIb. The levels of DNA-DNA relatedness ranged from 71 to 100% for P. gessardii and from 74 to 100% for P. migulae. The G + C content of the DNA of each type strain was 58 mol%. DNA similarity levels, measured with 67 reference strains of Pseudomonas species, were below 55%, with delta Tm values of 13 degrees C or more. The two new species presented basic morphological characteristics common to all pseudomonads. Various phenotypic features were found to differentiate them: P. gessardii strains utilized L-arabitol, myo-inositol, adonitol, xylitol and meso-erythritol as carbon sources, whereas P. migulae strains assimilated L-arabinose, D-xylose, D-saccharate, meso-tartrate, tricarballylate, D-glucuronate, D-galacturonate, phenylacetate and histamine. The complete 16S rRNA sequences of each type strain were determined and compared with those of the type strains of Pseudomonas species. Finally, a phylogenetic tree was inferred from sequence analysis and demonstrated that the two new species fell into the 'Pseudomonas fluorescens intrageneric cluster'. To date, their clinical significance is unknown. PMID:10555337

  15. Underground mineral extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    A method was developed for extracting underground minerals such as coal, which avoids the need for sending personnel underground and which enables the mining of steeply pitched seams of the mineral. The method includes the use of a narrow vehicle which moves underground along the mineral seam and which is connected by pipes or hoses to water pumps at the surface of the Earth. The vehicle hydraulically drills pilot holes during its entrances into the seam, and then directs sideward jets at the seam during its withdrawal from each pilot hole to comminute the mineral surrounding the pilot hole and combine it with water into a slurry, so that the slurried mineral can flow to a location where a pump raises the slurry to the surface.

  16. [TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE APPLICATION OF NATURAL HEALING FACTORS (THERAPEUTIC MUDS, MINERAL WATER) IN CHILDREN WITH THE PATHOLOGY OF HEPATOBILIARY SYSTEM RESIDING IN UNFAVORAUBLE ECOLOGICAL CONDITIONS].

    PubMed

    Kochergin, Iu V; Oranskiĭ, L E

    2015-01-01

    Health of children residing in the regions with polluted environment is significantly worse than the health of children not exposed to the emissions of industrial enterprises and motor vehicles. The gastrointestinal tract diseases occupy first places. There is elaborated the comprehensive treatment of the children with hepatobiliary diseases residing in unfavorable ecological conditions. There treatment includes factors possessing sanogenetic (mineral water therapeutic muds) and informative effects (EHF therapy). PMID:26155653

  17. [INDICES OF THE OXIDATIVE STATUS IN CHRONIC ADMINISTRATION OF COLLOID CARBONATE CALCIUM PRAPARATION WITH FAUCET AND LOW-MINERALIZED DRINKING WATER IN RATS].

    PubMed

    Khripach, L V; Mikhaylova, R I; Koganova, Z I; Knyazeva, T D; Alekseeva, A V; Savostikova, O N; Ryzhova, I N; Kruglova, E V; Revzova, T L

    2015-01-01

    There are discussed the changes of an array of indices of the oxidative status in chronic administration of colloidal calcium carbonate preparation with faucet and low-mineralized drinking water to rats. Slight differences between significant effects of administration of 3 and 30 mg/L of preparation permit to suggest that the process of its incoming delivery into organism of rats has a bottleneck in the nature of total capacity of macrophages of intestinal lymphoid tissue to absorption of particles. PMID:26856141

  18. Influence of surface passivation and water content on mineral reactions in unsaturated porous media: Implications for brucite carbonation and CO2 sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Anna L.; Dipple, Gregory M.; Power, Ian M.; Mayer, K. Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of mineral reactive surface area is an important control on the progress of carbon mineralization reactions that sequester anthropogenic CO2. Dry conditions in unsaturated porous media and the passivation of reactive surface area by secondary phase precipitation complicate predictions of reactive surface during carbon mineralization reactions. Unsaturated brucite [Mg(OH)2] bearing column experiments were used to evaluate the effects of water saturation and hydrous Mg-carbonate precipitation on reaction of brucite with 10% CO2 gas streams at ambient conditions. We demonstrate that a lack of available water severely limits reaction progress largely due to the requirement of water as a reactant to form hydrated Mg-carbonates. The precipitation of a poorly crystalline carbonate phase in the early stages of the reaction does not significantly hinder brucite dissolution, as the carbonate coating remains sufficiently permeable. It is postulated that the conversion of this phase to substantially less porous, crystalline nesquehonite [MgCO3·3H2O] results in passivation of the brucite surface. Although a mechanistic model describing the passivating effect of nesquehonite remains elusive, reactive transport modeling using MIN3P-DUSTY confirms that conventional geometric surface area update models do not adequately reproduce observed reaction progress during brucite carbonation, while an empirically based model accounting for surface passivation is able to capture the transient evolution of CO2 uptake. Both water limits and surface passivation effects may limit the efficiency of CO2 sequestration efforts that rely on the conversion of mafic and ultramafic rock to carbonate minerals.

  19. Oxygen-isotope composition of ground water and secondary minerals in Columbia Plateau basalts: implications for the paleohydrology of the Pasco Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hearn, P.P., Jr.; Steinkampf, W.C.; Horton, D.G.; Solomon, G.C.; White, L.D.; Evans, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    Concentrations of 18O and deuterium in ground waters beneath the Hanford Reservation, Washington State, suggest that the meteoric waters recharging the basalt aquifers have been progressively depleted in these isotopes since at least Pleistocene time. This conclusion is supported by oxygen-isotope analyses of low-temperature secondary minerals filling vugs and fractures in the basalts, which are used to approximate the 18O content of ground water at the time the mineral assemblage formed. A fossil profile of ??18O values projected for ground water in a 1500 m vertical section beneath the reservation suggests that the vertical mixing of shallow and deep ground water indicated by present-day hydrochemical data was also occurring during Neogene time. These data also suggest that a unidirectional depletion of 18O and deuterium recorded in Pleistocene ground waters may have extended considerably further back in time. This shift is tentatively attributed to the orographic depletion of 18O associated with the progressive uplift of the Cascade Range since the middle Miocene. -Authors

  20. Oxidation of sulphide minerals-VI Ferrous and ferric iron in the water-soluble oxidation products of iron sulphide minerals.

    PubMed

    Steger, H F

    1979-06-01

    A pseudo-kinetic method has been developed for determining the ferrous and ferric iron in the water-soluble oxidation products of pyrrhotite, pyrite and chalcopyrite, and ores and concentrates containing them. Two determinations are required for each material. In one, the total iron is determined with 1,10-phenanthroline after reduction to Fe(II). In the other, the reduction of Fe(III) is retarded by complexation with fluoride. The difference in the amount of ferrous phenanthranoline complex produced in these two determinations is a function of the original FE(III) concentration and of time. PMID:18962467

  1. Possible uranium mineralization, Mineral Mountains, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, W. Roger; McHugh, John B.; Ficklin, Walter H.

    1979-01-01

    The Mineral Mountains block in west-central Utah is a horst whose core stands structurally high relative to all nearby basin-and-range fault blocks. Rocks of the Mineral Mountains range from Precambrian to Quaternary in age, but mostly consist of Tertiary granitic rocks. The range lies with the Wah Wah-Tusher mineral belt. Lead, silver, gold, and tungsten have been mined commercially. During a geochemical survey conducted in the summer of 1978, 30 water samples and 29 stream-sediment samples were collected from the Mineral Mountains area. The interpretation of simple plots of uranium concentrations and the results of a Q-mode factor analysis indicate that potential exists for uranium mineral deposits within the Mineral Mountains. The most favorable areas are in the granitic pluton near its contacts with sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. The most likely source of the uranium anomalies is uraninite-bearing epigenic veins along faults and fractures within the pluton. Three hypothetical models are proposed to account for the uranium mineralization.

  2. Titanium minerals for new materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotova, O.; Ozhogina, E.; Ponaryadov, A.; Golubeva, I.

    2016-04-01

    The mineral composition of titanium minerals of modern coastal-marine placer in Stradbroke Island (Australia) and Pizhma paleoplacer in Middle Timan (Russia) has been presented. The physical features of titanium minerals and their modification methods were shown. Photocatalysts on the basis of the Pizhma leucoxene were developed for water purification.

  3. Chemistry of the solid-water interface: Processes at the mineral-water and particle-water interface in natural systems

    SciTech Connect

    Stumm, W.

    1992-01-01

    The title book covers coordination chemistry of the hydrous oxide-water interface; surface charge and the electric double layer; adsorption; chemical weathering phenomena; homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation and precipitation; particle-particle interaction; carbonate reactivity; redox processes mediated by surfaces; photochemistry; and trace element transport. It can be used as a source book for teaching and for professionals in geochemical and environmental disciplines.

  4. Mineral Chart

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Mineral Chart KidsHealth > For Teens > Mineral Chart Print A A A Text Size en ... sources of calcium. You'll also find this mineral in broccoli and dark green, leafy vegetables. Soy ...

  5. Mineral oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furby, N. W.

    1973-01-01

    The characteristics of lubricants made from mineral oils are discussed. Types and compositions of base stocks are reviewed and the product demands and compositions of typical products are outlined. Processes for commercial production of mineral oils are examined. Tables of data are included to show examples of product types and requirements. A chemical analysis of three types of mineral oils is reported.

  6. Mars residual north polar cap - Earth-based spectroscopic confirmation of water ice as a major constituent and evidence for hydrated minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, R. N.; Mccord, T. B.

    1982-01-01

    A description is presented of new earth-based reflectance spectra of the Martian north residual polar cap. The spectra indicate that the composition is at least mostly water ice plus another component with a 'gray' reflectance. The other minerals in the ice cap appear to be hydrated. The data were obtained with a cooled circular variable filter spectrometer on February 20, 1978, using the 2.2-m telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. It is pointed out that the identification of water ice in the north polar cap alone does not indicate that water makes up all or even most of the bulk of the cap. Kieffer (1970) has shown that a small amount of water will mask the spectral features of CO2.

  7. Increased water salinity applied to tomato plants accelerates the development of the leaf miner Tuta absoluta through bottom-up effects.

    PubMed

    Han, Peng; Wang, Zhi-Jian; Lavoir, Anne-Violette; Michel, Thomas; Seassau, Aurélie; Zheng, Wen-Yan; Niu, Chang-Ying; Desneux, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Variation in resource inputs to plants may trigger bottom-up effects on herbivorous insects. We examined the effects of water input: optimal water vs. limited water; water salinity: with vs. without addition of 100 mM NaCl; and their interactions on tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum), and consequently, the bottom-up effects on the tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta (Meytick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Plant growth was significantly impeded by limited water input and NaCl addition. In terms of leaf chemical defense, the production of tomatidine significantly increased with limited water and NaCl addition, and a similar but non-significant trend was observed for the other glycoalkaloids. Tuta absoluta survival did not vary with the water and salinity treatments, but the treatment "optimal water-high salinity" increased the development rate without lowering pupal mass. Our results suggest that caution should be used in the IPM program against T. absoluta when irrigating tomato crops with saline water. PMID:27619473

  8. Structure and hydrogeochemical functioning of a sparkling natural mineral water system determined using a multidisciplinary approach: a case study from southern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maréchal, J. C.; Lachassagne, P.; Ladouche, B.; Dewandel, B.; Lanini, S.; Le Strat, P.; Petelet-Giraud, E.

    2013-12-01

    Natural mineral waters (NMW), often used to produce bottled water, are of high socio-economic interest and need appropriate management to ensure the sustainability of the resource. A complex sparkling NMW system at La Salvetat, southern France, was investigated using a multidisciplinary approach. Geological and geophysical investigations, pumping test analyses, time-series signal processing, hydrogeochemical and isotopic data (both stable and radiogenic), and numerical modelling provided complementary information on the geometry, hydrodynamic characteristics and functioning of this mineral system. The conceptual model consists of a compartmentalized reservoir characterized by two subvertical, parallel deeply rooted hydraulically independent permeable structures that are fed by deep CO2-rich crustal fluids. The non-mineralized shallow aquifer system corresponds to a fissured layer within the weathered zone that is recharged by leakage from the overlying saprolite. This surficial aquifer responds rapidly to recharge (40-80 days), whereas the deep system's response to recharge is much longer (up to 120 days). This research demonstrates the need for multidisciplinary approaches and modelling (quantity, hydrochemistry) for understanding complex NMW systems. This knowledge is already being applied by the bottling company that manages the resource at La Salvetat, and would be useful for conceptualising other NMW sites.

  9. Infrared spectroscopy of OD vibrators in minerals at natural dilution: hydroxyl groups in talc and kaolinite, and structural water in beryl and emerald.

    PubMed

    de Donato, Philippe; Cheilletz, Alain; Barres, Odile; Yvon, Jacques

    2004-05-01

    An infrared (IR) study of natural deuteration is conducted on minerals containing hydroxyl groups (talc and kaolinite) and channel-water-bearing minerals (beryl and emerald). In talc, the OD valence vibration is located at 2710 cm(-1), corresponding to OD groups surrounded by 3 Mg atoms. In kaolinite, the OD valence vibrations are located at 2671 cm(-1) (inner OD group), 2712, 2706, and 2700 cm(-1) (three inner-surface OD groups). In beryl and emerald, natural deuteration of channel water is observed for the first time by infrared microspectroscopy. In beryl from Minas Gerais (Brazil), the OD profiles are characterized by four bands at 2735, 2686, 2672, and 2641 cm(-1). In emeralds from Colombia and Brazil, the OD profiles are characterized by five or four bands, respectively, at 2816, 2737, 2685, 2673, and 2641 cm(-1) (Colombia) and 2730, 2684, 2672, and 2640 cm(-1) (Brazil). The band at 2816 cm(-1) can be assigned to -OD or OD(-), and bands at 2686-2684, 2673-2672, and 2641-2640 cm(-1) can be assigned to type-I and type-II HOD molecules. The band at 2737-2730 cm(-1) is partially disturbed by combination bands of the mineral. Such OD profiles are different from those obtained by artificial deuteration at higher OD dilution. PMID:15165327

  10. Validation of an Analytical Method for Determination of 13 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mineral water using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Ramezan; Kobarfard, Farzad; Yazdanpanah, Hassan; Eslamizad, Samira; Bayat, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used for the extraction and determination of 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mineral water samples. In this procedure, the suitable combination of extraction solvent (500 µL chloroform) and disperser solvent (1000 µL acetone) were quickly injected into the water sample (10.00 mL) by Hamilton syringe. After centrifugation, 500 µL of the lower organic phase was dried under a gentle stream of nitrogen, re-dissolved in chloroform and injected into GC-MS. Chloroform and acetone were found to be the best extraction and disperser solvent, respectively. Validation of the method was performed using spiked calibration curves. The enrichment factor ranged from 93 to 129 and the recovery ranged from 71 to 90%. The linear ranges for all the PAHs were 0.10-2.80 ngmL(-1). The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of PAHs in water by using anthracene-d10 as internal standard, were in the range of 4-11% for most of the analytes (n = 3). Limit of detection (LOD) for different PAHs were between 0.03 and 0.1 ngmL(-1). The method was successfully applied for the analysis of PAHs in mineral water samples collected from Tehran. PMID:27610156

  11. Validation of an Analytical Method for Determination of 13 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mineral water using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and GC-MS

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Ramezan; Kobarfard, Farzad; Yazdanpanah, Hassan; Eslamizad, Samira; Bayat, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) combined with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) was used for the extraction and determination of 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mineral water samples. In this procedure, the suitable combination of extraction solvent (500 µL chloroform) and disperser solvent (1000 µL acetone) were quickly injected into the water sample (10.00 mL) by Hamilton syringe. After centrifugation, 500 µL of the lower organic phase was dried under a gentle stream of nitrogen, re-dissolved in chloroform and injected into GC-MS. Chloroform and acetone were found to be the best extraction and disperser solvent, respectively. Validation of the method was performed using spiked calibration curves. The enrichment factor ranged from 93 to 129 and the recovery ranged from 71 to 90%. The linear ranges for all the PAHs were 0.10-2.80 ngmL-1. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of PAHs in water by using anthracene-d10 as internal standard, were in the range of 4-11% for most of the analytes (n = 3). Limit of detection (LOD) for different PAHs were between 0.03 and 0.1 ngmL-1. The method was successfully applied for the analysis of PAHs in mineral water samples collected from Tehran. PMID:27610156

  12. Temperature, Water Content and Wet-Dry Cycle Effects on DOC Production and Carbon Mineralization in Agricultural Peat Soils.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of controlled laboratory experiments were utilized to examine factors affecting dissolved organic carbon (DOC) production and C mineralization rates over a range of conditions experienced resulting from agricultural practices in peat soils from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. We conclude...

  13. Human Health Risk Assessment of Artisanal Miners Exposed to Toxic Chemicals in Water and Sediments in the Prestea Huni Valley District of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Obiri, Samuel; Yeboah, Philip O; Osae, Shiloh; Adu-Kumi, Sam; Cobbina, Samuel J; Armah, Frederick A; Ason, Benjamin; Antwi, Edward; Quansah, Reginald

    2016-01-01

    A human health risk assessment of artisanal miners exposed to toxic metals in water bodies and sediments in the PresteaHuni Valley District of Ghana was carried out in this study, in line with US EPA risk assessment guidelines. A total of 70 water and 30 sediment samples were collected from surface water bodies in areas impacted by the operations of artisanal small-scale gold mines in the study area and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters such as pH, TDS, conductivity, turbidity as well as metals and metalloids such as As, Cd, Hg and Pb at CSIR-Water Research Institute using standard methods for the examination of wastewater as outlined by American Water Works Association (AWWA). The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Hg and Pb in water samples ranged from 15 μg/L to 325 μg/L (As), 0.17 μg/L to 340 μg/L (Cd), 0.17 μg/L to 122 μg/L (Pb) and 132 μg/L to 866 μg/L (Hg), respectively. These measured concentrations of arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were used as input parameters to calculate the cancer and non-cancer health risks from exposure to these metals in surface water bodies and sediments based on an occupational exposure scenario using central tendency exposure (CTE) and reasonable maximum exposure (RME) parameters. The results of the non-cancer human health risk assessment for small-scale miners working around river Anikoko expressed in terms of hazard quotients based on CTE parameters are as follows: 0.04 (Cd), 1.45 (Pb), 4.60 (Hg) and 1.98 (As); while cancer health risk faced by ASGM miners in Dumase exposed to As in River Mansi via oral ingestion of water is 3.1 × 10(-3). The hazard quotient results obtained from this study in most cases were above the HQ guidance value of 1.0, furthermore the cancer health risk results were found to be higher than the USEPA guidance value of 1 × 10(-4) to 1 × 10(-6). These findings call for case-control epidemiological studies to establish the relationship between exposure to the

  14. Human Health Risk Assessment of Artisanal Miners Exposed to Toxic Chemicals in Water and Sediments in the Prestea Huni Valley District of Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Obiri, Samuel; Yeboah, Philip O.; Osae, Shiloh; Adu-kumi, Sam; Cobbina, Samuel J.; Armah, Frederick A.; Ason, Benjamin; Antwi, Edward; Quansah, Reginald

    2016-01-01

    A human health risk assessment of artisanal miners exposed to toxic metals in water bodies and sediments in the PresteaHuni Valley District of Ghana was carried out in this study, in line with US EPA risk assessment guidelines. A total of 70 water and 30 sediment samples were collected from surface water bodies in areas impacted by the operations of artisanal small-scale gold mines in the study area and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters such as pH, TDS, conductivity, turbidity as well as metals and metalloids such as As, Cd, Hg and Pb at CSIR—Water Research Institute using standard methods for the examination of wastewater as outlined by American Water Works Association (AWWA). The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Hg and Pb in water samples ranged from 15 μg/L to 325 μg/L (As), 0.17 μg/L to 340 μg/L (Cd), 0.17 μg/L to 122 μg/L (Pb) and 132 μg/L to 866 μg/L (Hg), respectively. These measured concentrations of arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were used as input parameters to calculate the cancer and non-cancer health risks from exposure to these metals in surface water bodies and sediments based on an occupational exposure scenario using central tendency exposure (CTE) and reasonable maximum exposure (RME) parameters. The results of the non-cancer human health risk assessment for small-scale miners working around river Anikoko expressed in terms of hazard quotients based on CTE parameters are as follows: 0.04 (Cd), 1.45 (Pb), 4.60 (Hg) and 1.98 (As); while cancer health risk faced by ASGM miners in Dumase exposed to As in River Mansi via oral ingestion of water is 3.1 × 10−3. The hazard quotient results obtained from this study in most cases were above the HQ guidance value of 1.0, furthermore the cancer health risk results were found to be higher than the USEPA guidance value of 1 × 10−4 to 1 × 10−6. These findings call for case-control epidemiological studies to establish the relationship between exposure to the

  15. Mineralization by Inhibitor Exclusion

    PubMed Central

    Price, Paul A.; Toroian, Damon; Lim, Joo Eun

    2009-01-01

    One of our goals is to understand the mechanisms that deposit mineral within collagen fibrils, and as a first step we recently determined the size exclusion characteristics of the fibril. This study revealed that apatite crystals up to 12 unit cells in size can access the water within the fibril, whereas molecules larger than a 40-kDa protein are excluded. Based on these observations, we proposed a novel mechanism for fibril mineralization: that macromolecular inhibitors of apatite growth favor fibril mineralization by selectively inhibiting crystal growth in the solution outside of the fibril. To test this mechanism, we developed a system in which crystal formation is driven by homogeneous nucleation at high calcium phosphate concentration and the only macromolecule in solution is fetuin, a 48-kDa inhibitor of apatite growth. Our experiments with this system demonstrated that fetuin determines the location of mineral growth; in the presence of fetuin mineral grows exclusively within the fibril, whereas in its absence mineral grows in solution outside the fibril. Additional experiments showed that fetuin is also able to localize calcification to the interior of synthetic matrices that have size exclusion characteristics similar to those of collagen and that it does so by selectively inhibiting mineral growth outside of these matrices. We termed this new calcification mechanism “mineralization by inhibitor exclusion,” the selective mineralization of a matrix using a macromolecular inhibitor of mineral growth that is excluded from that matrix. Future studies will be needed to evaluate the possible role of this mechanism in bone mineralization. PMID:19414589

  16. Occurrence of non-monomeric species of aluminium in undersaturated soil and surface waters: consequences for the determination of mineral saturation indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudot, Jean-Pierre; Maitat, Ouafae; Merlet, Denis; Rouiller, James

    1996-03-01

    The occurrence of a polymeric and/or colloidal Al pool was demonstrated on an experimental basis in various natural acid soil solutions and stream waters, even in the pH range 3.3-4. A number of these waters were found to be undersaturated with respect to various relevant mineral phases (amorphous Al(OH) 3 and AIPO 4, gibbsite, boehmite, variscite, imogolite, kaolinite, halloysite, jurbanite, basaluminite and alunite). Non-monomeric Al species should not occur in undersaturated aqueous systems in equilibrium; therefore the polymeric/colloidal Al pool observed in these undersaturated waters cannot be in equilibrium with monomeric Al. As a consequence, the traditional determination of saturation indices (S!) by model equilibrium calculation using total concentrations of every element is considered to be unreliable, and any valid procedure should involve the determination of monomeric species (or a part of them) by analytical speciation.

  17. Respiration, mineralization, and biochemical properties of the particulate matter in the southern Nansen Basin water column in April 1981

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Packard, T. T.; Codispoti, L. A.

    2007-03-01

    Determinations of the activity of the respiratory electron transport system (ETS), during the FRAM III expedition permit us to estimate oxygen utilization rates ( RO 2) from the surface to 2000 m under the polar pack ice in the Nansen Basin just north of Svalbard (83°N, 7°E) during April 1981. We found RO 2 at in situ temperatures ranging from 20 pM O 2 min -1 just below the ice to 0.2 pM O 2 min -1 at 2000 m. These rates are low compared to most other ocean regions, but they could decrease particulate organic carbon and nitrogen by 76% and 74%, respectively, over a period of ˜6 months. The RO 2 calculations based on measurements made at 0 °C yielded a power function of RO 2 vs. depth ( Z) of RO 2=67 Z-0.5534. When this RO 2 profile was superimposed on a more recent oxygen utilization rate profile made using the 3He- 3H-AOU method (OUR), in the same vicinity of the Nansen Basin during 1987 (OUR=52 Z-0.4058, [Zheng, Y., Schlosser, P., Swift, J.W., Jones, E.P., 1997. Oxygen utilization rates in the Nansen Basin, Arctic Ocean: implications for new production. Deep Sea Research I 44, 1923-1943]), the agreement of the two profiles was close. On one hand, this was to be expected because RO 2 is the biological basis of OUR, on the other hand, it was a surprise because the methodologies are so different. Nitrate mineralization obtained from ETS activities also compared favorably with calculations based on the data of Zheng et al. [1997. Oxygen utilization rates in the Nansen Basin, Arctic Ocean: implications for new production. Deep Sea Research I 44, 1923-1943]. Chlorophyll ranged from 6 ng L -1 at 5 m to 0.06 ng L -1 at 2000 m. Particulate organic carbon (POC) decreased from 0.93 μM C just below the ice to less than 0.4 μM C at 500 m. Particulate organic nitrogen (PON) was not detectable below 70 m, however in the upper 70 m it ranged from 0.16 to 0.04 μM N. The C/N mass ratio over these depths ranged from 5.8 to 11.3. Annual carbon productivity as calculated to

  18. Kingian Co-Evolution of the Water and Mineral/Rock Components for Earth and Mars: Implications for Planetary Habitability (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, V. R.

    2013-12-01

    Planetary habitability may fluctuate episodically against a background provided by the co-evolution of a planet's mineral/rock (geosphere) components and its water (hydrosphere) in relation to its position in a circumstellar system. The water/rock (geosphere/hydrosphere) co-evolution can be inferred from the geological histories of the terrestrial planets of the solar system, particularly from the very extensive understanding of Earth and Mars. Habitability and water/rock co-evolution have components that are tychistic (i.e., driven by chance) and anancastic (i.e., dynamically driven largely by deterministic forces). They also have a final, end-directed (i.e., teleomatic) aspect that operates in accordance with natural laws. This is a larger perspective on the idea of planetary habitability than is generally associated with an astronomical approach, and it incorporates additional insights from a geological perspective on the issue. The geological histories of Mars and Earth are punctuated with critical, short-term epochs of extreme change, which for Earth are known to be associated with major disruptions of its biosphere. These catastrophic epochs can be described as a type of non-Darwinian evolution that was envisioned by the geologist Clarence King. In an 1877 paper King proposed that accelerated evolutionary change occurs during sudden environmental disruptions. Such Kingian disruptions in mineral/rock and water evolution mark the planetary histories of Mars and Earth, including the early formation and condensation of a steam atmosphere, an impacting cataclysm at about 3.9 to 4 Ga, episodes of concentrated volcanism and tectonism, and associated rapid changes in the linked atmosphere and hydrosphere. These disruptions are closely tied to migrations of water between different planetary reservoirs, the nature of planetary accretion, the origin of a physically coupled atmosphere and ocean, the prospects for initiating plate tectonics, and punctuated greenhouse

  19. A Protocol, a standard and a (PULI) database for quantitative micro-FTIR measurements of water in nominally anhydrous minerals: an update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovacs, Istvan; Udvardi, Beatrix; Pintér, Zsanett; Hidas, Károly; Kutassy, Lászlóné; Falus, György; Lendvay, Pál; István, Török; Zelei, Tamás; Fancsik, Tamás; Gál, Tamás; Mihály, Judith; Németh, Csaba; Ingrin, Jannick; Xia, Qunke; Hermann, Jörg; Stalder, Roland; Perucchi, Andrea; Kamarás, Katalin; Szekrényes, Zsolt

    2014-05-01

    'Water' (H2O, OH and H+) in the nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs) of the upper mantle play a key role in determining its geochemical and geophysical properties. Both the concentration and the substitution mechanism of water are important to formulate its effect on material properties. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry can provide both qualitative and quantitative information on the substitution of water into NAMs, therefore, it is a widely used analytical technique. The quantitative evaluation of micro-FTIR mineral spectra, however, seems to be still rather ambiguous. This is because there are several different - sometimes controversial - ways to measure or estimate the total polarized integrated absorbance (Atot). Furthermore, there are mineral-, substitution mechanism- and wavenumber-dependent calibrations factors available to convert Atot to the absolute concentration of water (usually given in ppm wt.%). No wonder that very different absolute water concentrations may be obtained from the very same IR spectrum. Thus, there is certainly a need for an evaluation protocol which would reduce these uncertainties giving clear instructions how Atot should be obtained and what calibrations factors should be used. This will be introduced in our study. Inter laboratory differences were monitored by analysing the some unoriented grains of the Pakistani olivine standard using different brands of infrared microscopes in several different countries and laboratories worldwide. During these measurements optimal measurement settings for the IR analysis of NAMs were constrained. The results show that the inter laboratory deviations are typically less than 10%. To put constraints on the micro-scale (<50 microns) distribution of water in the Pakistani olivine standard high resolution infrared maps were recorded using a synchrotron light source. The hyper spectral images revealed small-scale heterogeneities within the crystals which otherwise could not have been

  20. Calcium-ammonium exchange experiments on clay minerals using a (45)Ca tracer technique in marine pore water.

    PubMed

    Ockert, Charlotte; Wehrmann, Laura M; Kaufhold, Stephan; Ferdelman, Tim G; Teichert, Barbara M A; Gussone, Nikolaus

    2014-01-01

    Understanding cation exchange processes is important for evaluating early diagenetic and synsedimentary processes taking place in marine sediments. To quantify calcium (Ca) exchange and Ca-ammonium exchange in a seawater environment, we performed experiments with a radioactive (45)Ca tracer on clay mineral standards (Fithian illite, montmorillonite and kaolinite) and marine sediments from the North Atlantic Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Site U1306A in artificial seawater (ASW). The results show that equilibrium during the initial attachment of Ca as well as the exchange of Ca by [Formula: see text] is attained in less than 2 min. On average 8-20% of the exchangeable sites of the clay minerals were occupied by Ca in a seawater medium. The conditional selectivity coefficient, describing the [Formula: see text] exchange in ASW is mineral specific and it was determined to be 0.07 for montmorillonite, 0.05 for a natural marine sediment and 0.013 for Fithian illite. PMID:24437731

  1. The effect of water structure and solute hydration on the kinetics of mineral growth and dissolution (Arne Richter Award for Outstanding Young Scientists)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Agudo, E.; Putnis, C. V.; Putnis, A.

    2012-04-01

    Classical crystal growth theory relates growth and dissolution rates to the degree of supersaturation. However, the solution composition may also affect the growth rate of carbonate minerals, via the Ca2+ to CO32- concentration ratio (e.g. Perdikouri et al., 2009; Stack and Grantham, 2010), ionic strength (e.g. Ruiz-Agudo et al. 2010) or the presence of organic matter (Hoch et al., 2000). For this reason, the influence of these parameters on the kinetics of mineral growth and dissolution has generated a considerable amount of research in the last decade. In particular, effects of both inorganic and organic impurities on mineral growth and dissolution have been frequently reported in the literature. Commonly, water in contact with rock forming minerals, contains significant and variable amounts of ions in solution. The effect of such ions on dissolution and growth rates has been traditionally ascribed to changes in solubility. However, experimental studies performed on different minerals have shown that the dependence of growth or dissolution rates on ionic strength is complex, and that the effect of ionic strength is not independent of the ionic species producing it. Here, we report investigations aimed at addressing the basic hypothesis that mineral growth and dissolution is governed by complex interactions between solvent structure, surface hydration and the ion solvation environment induced by the presence of electrolytes. It is proposed that any factor affecting ion solvation should alter growth and dissolution rates. These results have opened the possibility of a new understanding of very diverse phenomena in geochemistry and demonstrate the need for the inclusion of this "hydration effect" in the development of predictive models that describe crystal growth and dissolution in complex systems, such as those found in nature. Furthermore, we can hypothesise that ion-assisted dehydration of trace and minor element ions could occur in biological systems, thus

  2. Industrial Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Lawrence L.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses trends in and factors related to the production of industrial minerals during 1982, indicating that, as 1981 marked a downturn in production of industrial minerals, 1982 continued the trend with temporary and permanent cutbacks in mine and plant production. Includes highlights of several conferences/conference papers in this field.…

  3. Acid extraction of molybdenum, nickel and cobalt from mineral sludge generated by rainfall water at a metal recycling plant.

    PubMed

    Vemic, M; Bordas, F; Guibaud, G; Comte, S; Joussein, E; Lens, P N L; Van Hullebusch, E D

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the leaching yields of Mo, Ni and Co from a mineral sludge of a metal recycling plant generated by rainfalls. The investigated mineral sludge had a complex heterogeneous composition, consisting of particles of settled soil combined with metal-bearing particles (produced by catalysts, metallic oxides and battery recycling). The leaching potential of different leaching reagents (stand-alone strong acids (HNO3 (68%), H2SO4 (98%) and HCl (36%)) and acid mixtures (aqua regia (nitric + hydrochloric (1:3)), nitric + sulphuric (1:1) and nitric + sulphuric + hydrochloric (2:1:1)) was investigated at changing operational parameters (solid-liquid (S/L) ratio, leaching time and temperature), in order to select the leaching reagent which achieves the highest metal leaching yields. Sulphuric acid (98% H2SO4) was found to be the leachant with the highest metal leaching potential. The optimal leaching conditions were a three-stage successive leaching at 80 °C with a leaching time of 2 h and S/L ratio of 0.25 g L(-1). Under these conditions, the achieved mineral sludge sample leaching yields were 85.5%, 40.5% and 93.8% for Mo, Ni and Co, respectively. The higher metal leaching potential of H2SO4 in comparison with the other strong acids/acid mixtures is attributed to the fact that H2SO4 is a diacidic compound, thus it has more H(+) ions, resulting in its stronger oxidizing power and corrosiveness. PMID:26369315

  4. [The combined action of drinking mineral water and low-intensity electromagnetic radiation under the immobilization stress conditions (an experimental study)].

    PubMed

    Korolev, Yu N; Bobrovnitsky, I P; Geniatulina, M S; Mikhailik, L V; Nikulina, L A; Bobkova, A S; Yakovlev, M Yu

    2015-01-01

    The present study carried out on white male rats in experiments with the use of biochemical, radioimmunological, and electron- microscopic methods. It was shown that the combined treatment with potable mineral water (MV) and low-intensity electromagnetic radiation (LIEMR) of ultrahigh frequency (power density less than 1 pW/cm2, the frequency about 1000 MHz) facilitated the activation of metabolic and intracellular regenerative processes in the liver and testes. One of the advantages of the combined application of MV and LIEMR over the single-factor treatment manifested itself as the weakening of stress reactions, the increase in the frequency of the plastic processes, and the more harmonious development of different forms of intracellular regeneration. The results of the study provide a deeper insight ino the mechanisms underlying the combined actions of drinking mineral water and low-intensity electromagnetic radiation; also, they justify the application of these factors for the protection of the reproductive system and the entire body from stress-induced disorders. PMID:26841527

  5. Infiltration of late Palaeozoic evaporative brines in the reelfoot rift: A possible salt source for Illinois Basin formation waters and MVT mineralizing fluids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowan, E.L.; De Marsily, G.

    2001-01-01

    Salinities and homogenization temperatures of fluid inclusions in Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) deposits provide important insights into the regional hydrology of the Illinois basin/Reelfoot rift system in late Palaeozoic time. Although the thermal regime of this basin system has been plausibly explained, the origin of high salinities in the basin fluids remains enigmatic. Topographically driven flow appears to have been essential in forming these MVT districts, as well as many other districts worldwide. However, this type of flow is recharged by fresh water making it difficult to account for the high salinities of the mineralizing fluids over extended time periods. Results of numerical experiments carried out in this study provide a possible solution to the salinity problem presented by the MVT zinc-lead and fluorite districts at the margins of the basin system. Evaporative concentration of surface water and subsequent infiltration into the subsurface are proposed to account for large volumes of brine that are ultimately responsible for mineralization of these districts. This study demonstrates that under a range of geologically reasonable conditions, brine infiltration into an aquifer in the deep subsurface can coexist with topographically driven flow. Infiltration combined with regional flow and local magmatic heat sources in the Reelfoot rift explain the brine concentrations as well as the temperatures observed in the Southern Illinois and Upper Mississippi Valley districts.

  6. Carbon Mineral Ecology: Predicting the Undiscovered Minerals of Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazen, R. M.; Hummer, D. R.; Downs, R. T.; Hystad, G.; Golden, J.

    2015-12-01

    The diversity and distribution of Earth's minerals through deep time reflects key events in our planet's crustal evolution. Studies in mineral ecology exploit mineralogical databases to document diversity-distribution relationships of minerals, which reveal that all carbon-bearing minerals, as well as subsets containing C with O, H, Ca, or Na, conform to Large Number of Rare Events (LNRE) distributions. LNRE models facilitate prediction of total mineral diversity, and thus point to minerals that exist on Earth but have not yet been discovered and described. Our model predicts that at least 548 C minerals exist on Earth today, indicating that at least 145 carbon-bearing mineral species have yet to be discovered. Furthermore, by analyzing subsets of the most common additional elements in carbon-bearing minerals (i.e., 378 C + O species; 282 C + H species; 133 C + Ca species; and 100 C + Na species), we predict that 129 of these missing carbon minerals contain oxygen, 118 contain hydrogen, 52 contain calcium, and more than 60 contain sodium. The majority of these as yet undescribed minerals are predicted to be hydrous carbonates, many of which may have been overlooked because they are colorless, poorly crystalized, and/or water-soluble. We propose the identities of plausible as yet undescribed carbon minerals, as well as search strategies for their discovery. Some of these minerals will be natural examples of known synthetic compounds, including carbides such as calcium carbide (CaC2), crystalline hydrocarbons such as pyrene (C16H10), and numerous oxalates, anhydrous carbonates, and hydrous carbonates. Many other missing carbon minerals will be isomorphs of known carbon minerals, notably of the more than 100 different hydrous carbonate structures. An understanding of Earth's "missing" minerals provides a more complete picture of geochemical processes that influence crustal evolution.

  7. Differentiating atmospheric and mineral sources of sulfur during snowmelt using δ 34S, 35S activity, and δ 18O of sulfate and water as tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanley, J. B.; Mayer, B.; Mitchell, M. J.; Michel, R. L.; Bailey, S.; Kendall, C.

    2003-12-01

    The biogeochemical cycling of sulfur was studied during the 2000 snowmelt at Sleepers River Research Watershed in northeastern Vermont, USA using a combination of isotopic, chemical, and hydrometric measurements. The snowpack and 10 streams of varying size and land use were sampled for sulfate concentrations and isotopic analyses of 35S, δ 34S, and δ 18O of sulfate. Values of δ 18O of water were measured at one of the streams. Apportionment of atmospheric and mineral S sources based on δ 34S was possible at 7 of the 10 streams. Weathering of S-containing minerals was a major contributor to sulfate flux in streamwater, but atmospheric contributions exceeded 50% in several of the streams at peak snowmelt and averaged 41% overall. In contrast, δ 18Osulfate values of streamwater remained significantly lower than those of atmospheric sulfate throughout the melt period, indicating that atmospheric sulfate undergoes microbial redox reactions in the soil that replace the oxygen of atmospheric sulfate with isotopically lighter oxygen from soil water. Streamwater 35S activities were low relative to those of the snowpack; the youngest 35S-ages of the atmospheric S component in each of the 7 streams ranged from 184 to 320 days. Atmospheric S contributions to streamwater, as determined by δ 34S values, co-varied both with 35S activity and new water contributions as determined by δ 18Owater. However, the δ 18Osulfate and 35S ages clearly show that this new water carries very little of the atmospheric sulfate entering with the current snowmelt to the stream. Most incoming atmospheric sulfate first cycles through the organic soil S pool and ultimately reaches the stream as pedogenic sulfate.

  8. Light-induced catalytic transformation of ofloxacin by solar Fenton in various water matrices at a pilot plant: mineralization and characterization of major intermediate products.

    PubMed

    Michael, I; Hapeshi, E; Aceña, J; Perez, S; Petrović, M; Zapata, A; Barceló, D; Malato, S; Fatta-Kassinos, D

    2013-09-01

    This work investigated the application of a solar driven advanced oxidation process (solar Fenton), for the degradation of the antibiotic ofloxacin (OFX) in various environmental matrices at a pilot-scale. All experiments were carried out in a compound parabolic collector pilot plant in the presence of doses of H2O2 (2.5 mg L(-1)) and at an initial Fe(2+) concentration of 2 mg L(-1). The water matrices used for the solar Fenton experiments were: demineralized water (DW), simulated natural freshwater (SW), simulated effluent from municipal wastewater treatment plant (SWW) and pre-treated real effluent from municipal wastewater treatment plant (RE) to which OFX had been spiked at 10 mg L(-1). Dissolved organic carbon removal was found to be dependent on the chemical composition of the water matrix. OFX mineralization was higher in DW (78.1%) than in SW (58.3%) at 12 mg L(-1) of H2O2 consumption, implying the complexation of iron or the scavenging of hydroxyl radicals by the inorganic ions present in SW. On the other hand, the presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in SWW and RE, led to lower mineralization per dose of H2O2 compared to DW and SW. The major transformation products (TPs) formed during the solar Fenton treatment of OFX, were elucidated using liquid chromatography-time of flight-mass spectrometry (LC-ToF-MS). The transformation of OFX proceeded through a defluorination reaction, accompanied by some degree of piperazine and quinolone substituent transformation while a hydroxylation mechanism occurred by attack of the hydroxyl radicals generated during the process leading to the formation of TPs in all the water matrices, seven of which were tentatively identified. The results obtained from the toxicity bioassays indicated that the toxicity originates from the DOM present in RE and its oxidation products formed during the photocatalytic treatment and not from the TPs resulted from the oxidation of OFX. PMID:23712114

  9. Hydrogeochemical and isotopic study of thermal and mineralized waters from the Nevşehir (Kozakli) area, Central Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasvanoğlu, S.; Chandrasekharam, D.

    2011-05-01

    In the Kozakli geothermal province, thermal waters are manifested along a valley 1.5 km long and 200 m in width. Thermal waters utilised by the resort and some other hotels are mostly discharged from bore wells. The issuing temperatures of the thermal waters vary from 40-50 °C in thermal springs and 45-96 °C in bores and open wells. The geochemical and isotopic signatures of the thermal water suggest mixing of thermal waters with formation waters and cold near-surface groundwaters before emerging to the surface, and hence geochemical indicators fail to indicate the near true reservoir temperatures. However, the oxygen and hydrogen isotopic signatures strongly suggest a high temperature reservoir (> 220 °C) in the crystalline basement rocks. Long circulation of meteoric waters within the basement rocks is indicated by low tritium values in the thermal waters. Major involvement of Miocene Marls in modifying the chemical signatures of the thermal waters is inferred from the trace element concentrations.

  10. Mapping minerals, amorphous materials, environmental materials, vegetation, water, ice and snow, and other materials: The USGS tricorder algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Roger N.; Swayze, Gregg A.

    1995-01-01

    One of the challenges of Imaging Spectroscopy is the identification, mapping and abundance determination of materials, whether mineral, vegetable, or liquid, given enough spectral range, spectral resolution, signal to noise, and spatial resolution. Many materials show diagnostic absorption features in the visual and near infrared region (0.4 to 2.5 micrometers) of the spectrum. This region is covered by the modern imaging spectrometers such as AVIRIS. The challenge is to identify the materials from absorption bands in their spectra, and determine what specific analyses must be done to derive particular parameters of interest, ranging from simply identifying its presence to deriving its abundance, or determining specific chemistry of the material. Recently, a new analysis algorithm was developed that uses a digital spectral library of known materials and a fast, modified-least-squares method of determining if a single spectral feature for a given material is present. Clark et al. made another advance in the mapping algorithm: simultaneously mapping multiple minerals using multiple spectral features. This was done by a modified-least-squares fit of spectral features, from data in a digital spectral library, to corresponding spectral features in the image data. This version has now been superseded by a more comprehensive spectral analysis system called Tricorder.

  11. Mineralization of reactive azo dyes present in simulated textile waste water using down flow microaerophilic fixed film bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Balapure, Kshama; Bhatt, Nikhil; Madamwar, Datta

    2015-01-01

    The present research emphasizes on degradation of azo dyes from simulated textile wastewater using down flow microaerophilic fixed film reactor. Degradation of simulated textile wastewater (COD 7200mg/L and dye concentration 300mg/L) was studied in a microaerophilic fixed film reactor using pumice stone as a support material under varying hydraulic retention time (HRT) and organic loading rate (OLR). The intense metabolic activity of the inoculated bacterial consortium in the reactor led to 97.5% COD reduction and 99.5% decolorization of simulated wastewater operated under OLR of 7.2kgCODm(3)/d and 24h of HRT. FTIR, (1)H NMR and GC-MS studies revealed the formation of lower molecular weight aliphatic compounds under 24h of HRT, leading to complete mineralization of simulated wastewater. The detection of oxido-reductive enzyme activities suggested the enzymatic reduction of azo bonds prior to mineralization. Toxicity studies indicated that microbial treatment favors detoxification of simulated wastewater. PMID:25459797

  12. The Growth of Melt Inclusion- and Water-Rich Zones in Clinopyroxene Phenocrysts of the Powai Ankaramite Flow, Deccan Traps, India: Rapid Closed System Oscillatory Mineral Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaman, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Water concentrations were measured and mapped using FTIR spectroscopy in clinopyroxene phenocrysts of the Powai ankaramite flow, located near Mumbai, west of the Western Ghats escarpment of the Deccan province, India. Samples were provided by Dr. Hetu Sheth of the Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai. Chatterjee and Sheth (2015) showed that phenocrysts in the flow were part of a cumulate layer intruded by high-temperature basaltic melt at ~ 6 kb and ~1230oC. Cpx phenocrysts are euhedral and have concentric bands (100 to 200 microns thick) of fine (10-20 micron diameter) melt inclusions. Cpx bands that host melt inclusions have higher concentrations of water than inclusion-free bands. Water concentrations of cpx and ol were used to calculate water concentrations in the melt from which the crystals formed. Water concentrations in the parent magma were between 4.35 and 8.26 wt. % based on water concentrations in cpx, and between 8.24 and 9.41 wt. % based on those in ol. Both Mg and Fe are relatively depleted in the water- and melt inclusion-rich zones in cpx, and Ca is enriched in these zones. We suggest that oscillatory zoning in cpx is a result of repeated growth of cpx in water-richer and water-poorer boundary layers in which water lowered melt viscosity and enhanced diffusion and crystal growth rates. Water-enhanced growth rates may have resulted in preferential capture of melt inclusions preserved in water-rich cpx zones. Mg was preferentially incorporated into the cpx, causing Ca and water to build up in the boundary layer, and Mg and Fe to become relatively depleted in the boundary layer, as discussed for oscillatorially-zoned minerals by Wang and Merino (1993). Application of the equations for growth of oscillatory zones in crystals given by Wang and Merino (1993) to the growth of cpx crystals in the Powai ankaramite indicate that crystal growth occurred relatively quickly, on the order of days, although the width of the boundary zone, which is uncertain

  13. Water Chemistry Impacts on Arsenic Mobilization from Arsenopyrite Dissolution and Secondary Mineral Precipitation: Implications for Managed Aquifer Recharge

    EPA Science Inventory

    Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) is one water reuse technique with the potential to meet growing water demands. However, MAR sites have encountered arsenic remobilization resulting from recharge operations. To combat this challenge, it is important to identify the mechanism of arse...

  14. Use of Industrial Byproducts and Natural Minerals to Filter Nutrients and Pesticides in Golf Green Drainage Water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tile drainage is an essential water management feature of managed turfgrass systems. Drainage water carries soluble nutrients and pesticides to streams. Identifying materials and testing the efficacy of those materials as filtering agents is one proposed solution to mitigate offsite transport. We co...

  15. Mineral Quantification.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Optimal intakes of elements, such as sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, manganese, copper, zinc and iodine, can reduce individual risk factors including those related to cardiovascular diseases among humans and animals. In order to meet the need for vitamins, major minerals, trace minerals, fatty acids and amino acids, it is necessary to include a full spectrum programme that can deliver all of the nutrients in the right ratio. Minerals are required for normal growth, activities of muscles, skeletal development (such as calcium), cellular activity, oxygen transport (copper and iron), chemical reactions in the body, intestinal absorption (magnesium), fluid balance and nerve transmission (sodium and potassium), as well as the regulation of the acid base balance (phosphorus). The chapter discusses the chemical and instrumentation techniques used for estimation of minerals such as N, P, Ca, Mg, K, Na, Fe, Cu, Zn, B and Mb. PMID:26939263

  16. Large-basin ground water circulation and paleo-reconstruction of circulation leading to uranium mineralization in Grand Canyon breccia pipes, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Huntoon, P.W.

    1996-07-01

    Breccia pipes - vertical collapse structures - are common in the Phanerozoic sedimentary section in the Grand Canyon region. Breccias in economically significant pipes are as great as 900 m high and 90 m in diameter. The pipes originated through collapse into paleocaverns in Mississippian carbonates. The large heights of the mineralized pipes is attributed to upward stoping resulting from progressive creation of space within the pipes through dissolution of wall rocks and soluble constituents in the breccia clasts. The paleocaves that served as nucleation sites for the pipes date from Mississippian time. Stoping appears to have been reactivated or accelerated during Triassic time as terrains to the south became uplifted. Uplift cause hydraulic gradients within aquifers in the Paleozoic section to increase significantly which enhanced ground water circulation and attendant dissolution. The most likely source for uranium in the Grand Canyon breccia pipes was eroding volcanic and Precambrian crystalline rocks in the Triassic Mogollon highlands south of the Grand Canyon region. The circulation model proposed herein assumes that uranium-rich waters originating in the highlands recharged through the exposed Redwall Limestone and circulated northward in the artesian Redwall aquifer. On reaching the Grand Canyon region, the water circulated upward into the Phanerozoic section in the breccia pipes which served as permeability pathways through thick confining strata. The pipes concentrated fluid circulation and directed it through reducing environments which caused precipitation of the uranium and associated metals yielding a number of economic uranium ore bodies. The architecture of the circulation systems in the Colorado plateau prior to incision of the Colorado river was such that hydraulic heads decreased within successively shallower aquifers. Consequently, head gradients at any location were upward in the pipes during the mineralizing stages.

  17. Clay Minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Karl T.; Sanders, Rebecca L.; Washton, Nancy M.

    2014-03-14

    Clay minerals are important components of the environment and are involved or implicated in processes such as the uptake of pollutants and the release of nutrients and as potential platforms for a number of chemical reactions. Owing to their small particle sizes (typically, on the order of microns or smaller) and mixing with a variety of other minerals and soil components, advanced characterization methods are needed to study their structures, dynamics, and reactivities. In this article, we describe the use of solid-state NMR methods to characterize the structures and chemistries of clay minerals. Early one-pulse magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR studies of 27Al and 29Si have now been enhanced and extended with new studies utilizing advanced methodologies (such as Multiple Quantum MAS) as well as studies of less-sensitive nuclei. In additional work, the issue of reactivity of clay minerals has been addressed, including studies of reactive surface area in the environment. Utilizations of NMR-sensitive nuclides within the clay minerals themselves, and in molecules that react with specific sites on the clay mineral surfaces, have aided in understanding the reactivity of these complex aluminosilicate systems.

  18. Uptake and distribution of minerals and heavy metals in commonly grown leafy vegetable species irrigated with sewage water.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Sumera; Nawaz, Muhammad Farrakh; Gul, Sadaf; Rizwan, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Kareem, Arshaad

    2016-09-01

    Heavy metal uptake and accumulation behavior in dietary vegetables irrigated with sewage waters is an important issue worldwide. The main objective of this study was to examine and compare the physiological and growth responses of leafy vegetables irrigated with sewage water. A pot experiment was conducted in a wire house with three leafy vegetables, coriander (Coriandrum sativum), mint (Mentha arvensis), and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum), grown under ambient conditions. Plants were irrigated with different concentrations, 0, 50 (T 1), and 100 % (T 2), of sewage water. After harvesting, morphological and physiological parameters of plants were measured. Heavy metal (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) concentrations in the sewage water were found much higher than safer limits. The results revealed that the highest plant biomass and lowest metal contents were observed in control treatments in all studied vegetables. The biomass of all the vegetables were negatively affected when irrigated with sewage water. In T 2, coriander accumulated maximum Cd (μg g(-1) DW) in shoots (4.97) as compared to other vegetables. The maximum Pb and Cu concentrations were accumulated in mint roots (44 and 3.9, respectively) as compared to coriander and fenugreek. Zinc was accumulated in the sequence of leaves > roots > shoots under polluted water irrigation. The concentrations of potassium increased in leaves, shoots, and roots in all vegetables, while phosphorous concentrations varied with species and plant parts with increasing sewage water concentration. It was found that the leafy vegetables grown with sewage water irrigation may cause severe human health problems. PMID:27581008

  19. Assessing human exposure to phthalic acid and phthalate esters from mineral water stored in polyethylene terephthalate and glass bottles.

    PubMed

    Montuori, P; Jover, E; Morgantini, M; Bayona, J M; Triassi, M

    2008-04-01

    Phthalic acid and phthalate esters are of growing interest due to their significant usage and potential toxicity. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and glass are both widely used materials for bottled drinking water. In this study, phthalic acid (PhA), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiisoBP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) were analysed in a large number of Italian bottled water samples. These samples showed different concentrations of phthalates are nearly 20 times higher in samples bottled in PET than those from glass bottles with total levels of phthalates of 3.52 and 0.19 microg l(-1), respectively. However, the observed levels do not represent a significant exposure pathway when considering the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) reference dose (an estimate of a daily oral exposure to the human population, including sensitive subgroups, that is likely to be without an appreciable risk of deleterious effects during a lifetime). In addition, no significant correlation was found between the phthalate concentrations and the physicochemical properties of the different water samples, apart from the still/sparkling water parameter for the PET samples. In this instance, slightly higher concentrations were observed for the PET bottled still water samples than for the sparkling water samples, although no explanation has been found yet. PMID:18348049

  20. Residual water in hydrous minerals as a kinetic factor for omphacite destabilization into symplectite in the eclogites of Vårdalsneset (WGR, Norway)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Céline; Duchêne, Stéphanie

    2015-09-01

    Symplectitic intergrowths of sodic plagioclase + diopside ± amphibole as replacement of omphacite are commonly found in eclogites. These symplectites are interpreted as the exhumation-related decompression of eclogite into the amphibolite facies. The role of aqueous fluid in symplectite development, which would act as a catalyst and favor open-system reaction, has been suggested but not yet clearly established. In the Vårdalsneset outcrop of the Western Gneiss Region (Norway), eclogites that were not amphibolitized either display a primary eclogitic dry paragenesis (garnet + omphacite + rutile ± quartz) or a paragenesis including phengite. In the last case, omphacite is partly transformed into symplectite. The two groups have been further distinguished from a combined petrological, geochemical, and thermochemical study. Group I samples have a fine-grained unaltered microstructure, with medium Al2O3 (14-16 wt.%), high Fe2O3 (13-16 wt.%) and TiO2 (1.4-2.4 wt.%). Group II samples have a coarse-grained microstructure and are characterized by the presence of symplectites and phengite. They display higher Al2O3 (17.5-23 wt.%) and lower Fe2O3 (5.5-8 wt.%) and TIO2 (0.2-0.5 wt.%) contents than Group I. The P-T estimates for samples from both Groups I and II lead to similar conditions for peak eclogite metamorphism: temperatures range from 590 to 720 °C and pressures from 15 to 25 kbar. Perple_X modeling indicates that for Group I eclogites, temperature range is similar to the temperature range of the water saturation curve, whereas for Group II eclogites, due to slightly different chemical composition, the water saturation curve is located at much higher temperatures (770-900 °C), so that OH- remains in residual phengite at peak eclogite temperature. With no residual hydrous phase in the eclogite assemblage, and although some structural water may persist in nominally anhydrous minerals, Group I eclogites were preserved without change during exhumation. In contrast

  1. Estimated intake of the sweeteners, acesulfame-K and aspartame, from soft drinks, soft drinks based on mineral waters and nectars for a group of Portuguese teenage students.

    PubMed

    Lino, C M; Costa, I M; Pena, A; Ferreira, R; Cardoso, S M

    2008-11-01

    In a survey of levels of acesulfame-K and aspartame in soft drinks and in light nectars, the intake of these intense sweeteners was estimated for a group of teenage students. Acesulfame-K was detected in 72% of the soft drinks, with a mean concentration of 72 mg l(-1) and aspartame was found in 92% of the samples with a mean concentration of 89 mg l(-1). When data on the content of these sweeteners in soft drinks were analysed according to flavour, cola drinks had the highest mean levels for both sweeteners with 98 and 103 mg l(-1) for acesulfame-K and aspartame, respectively. For soft drinks based on mineral water, aspartame was found in 62% of the samples, with a mean concentration of 82 mg l(-1) and acesulfame-K was found in 77%, with a mean level of 48 mg l(-1). All samples of nectars contained acesulfame-K, with a mean concentration of 128 mg l(-1) and aspartame was detected in 80% of the samples with a mean concentration of 73 mg l(-1). A frequency questionnaire, designed to identify adolescents having high consumption of these drinks, was completed by a randomly selected sample of teenagers (n = 65) living in the city of Coimbra, in 2007. The estimated daily intakes (EDI) of acesulfame-K and aspartame for the average consumer were below the acceptable daily intakes (ADIs). For acesulfame-K, the EDI was 0.7 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for soft drinks, 0.2 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for soft drinks based on mineral waters, and 0.5 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for nectars, representing 8.0%, 2.2%, and 5.8% of the ADI, respectively. A similar situation was observed for aspartame. In this way, the EDI for soft drinks was 1.1 mg kg(-1) day(-1), representing only 2.9% of the ADI. In respect of nectars, the EDI was 0.2 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1), representing 0.5% of the ADI. Soft drinks based on mineral waters showed the lowest EDI values of 0.3 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1), accounting for 0.7% of the ADI. PMID:19680835

  2. Effects of natural mineral-rich water consumption on the expression of sirtuin 1 and angiogenic factors in the erectile tissue of rats with fructose-induced metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Cidália D; Severo, Milton; Rafael, Luísa; Martins, Maria João; Neves, Delminda

    2014-01-01

    Consuming a high-fructose diet induces metabolic syndrome (MS)-like features, including endothelial dysfunction. Erectile dysfunction is an early manifestation of endothelial dysfunction and systemic vascular disease. Because mineral deficiency intensifies the deleterious effects of fructose consumption and mineral ingestion is protective against MS, we aimed to characterize the effects of 8 weeks of natural mineral-rich water consumption on the structural organization and expression of vascular growth factors and receptors on the corpus cavernosum (CC) in 10% fructose-fed Sprague-Dawley rats (FRUCT). Differences were not observed in the organization of the CC either on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or the components of the angiopoietins/Tie2 system. However, opposing expression patterns were observed for VEGF receptors (an increase and a decrease for VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, respectively) in FRUCT animals, with these patterns being strengthened by mineral-rich water ingestion. Mineral-rich water ingestion (FRUCTMIN) increased the proportion of smooth muscle cells compared with FRUCT rats and induced an upregulatory tendency of sirtuin 1 expression compared with the control and FRUCT groups. Western blot results were consistent with the dual immunofluorescence evaluation. Plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein and plasma testosterone levels were similar among the experimental groups, although a tendency for an increase in the former was observed in the FRUCTMIN group. The mineral-rich water-treated rats presented changes similar to those observed in rats treated with MS-protective polyphenol-rich beverages or subjected to energy restriction, which led us to hypothesize that the effects of mineral-rich water consumption may be more vast than those directly observed in this study. PMID:24625878

  3. Recrystallization and stability of Zn and Pb minerals on their migration to groundwater in soils affected by Acid Mine Drainage under CO2 rich atmospheric waters.

    PubMed

    Goienaga, N; Carrero, J A; Zuazagoitia, D; Baceta, J I; Murelaga, X; Fernández, L A; Madariaga, J M

    2015-01-01

    The extent of vertical contamination is intimately related to the soil solution and surface chemistry of the soil matrix with reference to the metal and waste matrix in question. The present research demonstrated the impact that the dissolved CO2 of the meteoric waters, which acidify the environment with pH values below 4, has in the increase of the metal mobility. Although under the given conditions the Zn remains mainly dissolved, the initial PbS and ZnS have evolved into newly formed secondary carbonates and sulphates (i.e., hydrozincite, gunningite, hydrocerussite) that can be found in the efflorescences. The chemical simulation done on the weathering of the original sulphide ores for the formation of these secondary minerals has proved the transient storage mainly of Pb. Nonetheless, many of the minerals formed inside the galleries will be easily dissolved in the next rains and release in an ionic form to the groundwater. The analytical procedure exposed has been proved to be useful not only for the characterization of AMD but also for the prediction of the mobility of metals. PMID:25180824

  4. Surface water-groundwater interaction and chemistry in a mineral-armored hydrothermal outflow channel, Yellowstone National Park, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitale, M. V.; Gardner, P.; Hinman, N. W.

    2008-11-01

    Small quantities of groundwater interact with hydrothermal surface water to drive in-stream geochemical processes in a silica-armored hot-spring outflow channel in Yellowstone National Park, USA. The objective of this study was to characterize the hydrology and geochemistry of this unique system in order to (1) learn more about the Yellowstone Plateau’s subsurface water mixing between meteoric and hydrothermal waters and (2) learn more about the chemical and physical processes that lead to accumulation of streambed cements, i.e., streambed armor. A combination of hydrological, geochemical, mineralogical, microscopic, and petrographic techniques were used to identify groundwater and surface-water exchange. Interaction could be identified in winter because of differences in surface water and groundwater composition but interaction at other times of the year cannot be ruled out. Dissolved constituents originating from groundwater (e.g., Fe(II) and Mg) were traced downstream until oxidation and/or subsequent precipitation with silica removed them, particularly where high affinity substrates like cyanobacterial surfaces were present. Because the stream lies in a relatively flat drainage basin and is fed mainly by a seasonally relatively stable hot spring, this system allowed study of the chemical processes along a stream without the obscuring effects of sedimentation.

  5. Structure, dynamics and stability of water/scCO2/mineral interfaces from ab initio molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Mal-Soon; Peter McGrail, B.; Rousseau, Roger; Glezakou, Vassiliki-Alexandra

    2015-10-01

    The boundary layer at solid-liquid interfaces is a unique reaction environment that poses significant scientific challenges to characterize and understand by experimentation alone. Using ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) methods, we report on the structure and dynamics of boundary layer formation, cation mobilization and carbonation under geologic carbon sequestration scenarios (T = 323 K and P = 90 bar) on a prototypical anorthite (001) surface. At low coverage, water film formation is enthalpically favored, but entropically hindered. Simulated adsorption isotherms show that a water monolayer will form even at the low water concentrations of water-saturated scCO2. Carbonation reactions readily occur at electron-rich terminal Oxygen sites adjacent to cation vacancies that readily form in the presence of a water monolayer. These results point to a carbonation mechanism that does not require prior carbonic acid formation in the bulk liquid. This work also highlights the modern capabilities of theoretical methods to address structure and reactivity at interfaces of high chemical complexity.

  6. Structure, dynamics and stability of water/scCO2/mineral interfaces from ab initio molecular dynamics simulations

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mal-Soon; Peter McGrail, B.; Rousseau, Roger; Glezakou, Vassiliki-Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    The boundary layer at solid-liquid interfaces is a unique reaction environment that poses significant scientific challenges to characterize and understand by experimentation alone. Using ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) methods, we report on the structure and dynamics of boundary layer formation, cation mobilization and carbonation under geologic carbon sequestration scenarios (T = 323 K and P = 90 bar) on a prototypical anorthite (001) surface. At low coverage, water film formation is enthalpically favored, but entropically hindered. Simulated adsorption isotherms show that a water monolayer will form even at the low water concentrations of water-saturated scCO2. Carbonation reactions readily occur at electron-rich terminal Oxygen sites adjacent to cation vacancies that readily form in the presence of a water monolayer. These results point to a carbonation mechanism that does not require prior carbonic acid formation in the bulk liquid. This work also highlights the modern capabilities of theoretical methods to address structure and reactivity at interfaces of high chemical complexity. PMID:26456362

  7. Geology and ground-water hydrology of the Heart River irrigation project and the Dickinson area, North Dakota, with a section on the mineral quality of waters of the Heart River project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tychsen, Paul C.; Swenson, Herbert A.

    1950-01-01

    The Heart River irrigation project, in southwestern North Dakota, lies in the Missouri Plateau section of the Great Plains physiographic province, which extends from the Missouri escarpment to and beyond the western border of the State. The area ranges in altitude from 1,620 to 2,275 feet and locally has strong relief. The floor of the Heart River Valley is underlain by alluvial deposits of Quaternary age. In the westernmost part of the areas the Fort Union formation of Paleocene (Tertiary) age forms the valley sides, but in a downstream direction the Cannonball and Ludlow formations, here undifferentiated, also of Paleocene age, crop out in the valley sides and underlie progressively broader areas of the upland surface. The Hell Creek formation of Upper Cretaceous age appears above stream level only in the stretch of the valley between the center of T. 136 N., R. 85 W., and the northeastern part of T.. 137 N., R. 84 W. Glacial Drift, which once covered the whole area, now has been almost entirely removed by erosion except for .scattered boulders on the uplands. The Cannonball and Ludlow unit and the Fort Union formation yield, moderate supplies of ground water, and the river alluvium yields more abundant supplies. At the present rate of withdrawal and with normal precipitation there is little danger of seriously depleting the supply. In 1946 the average depth to water in observation wells in the Heart River Valley was 19 feet, whereas the depth to water in observation wells in the upland averaged 30 feet. The Dickinson area is small and is about 45 miles upstream from the Heart River irrigation project. Ground-water levels in the Dickinson municipal well field have declined considerably within recent years, but the impounding of Heart River water is expected to insure a more adequate water supply for the town. Samples of ground water from four wells in the lower Heart River Valley were analyzed to determine the present mineral character of the waters in this

  8. Relevance of a Hypersaline Sodium-Rich Naturally Sparkling Mineral Water to the Protection against Metabolic Syndrome Induction in Fructose-Fed Sprague-Dawley Rats: A Biochemical, Metabolic, and Redox Approach.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Cidália Dionísio; Severo, Milton; Araújo, João Ricardo; Guimarães, João Tiago; Pestana, Diogo; Santos, Alejandro; Ferreira, Rita; Ascensão, António; Magalhães, José; Azevedo, Isabel; Monteiro, Rosário; Martins, Maria João

    2014-01-01

    The Metabolic Syndrome increases the risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Increased fructose consumption and/or mineral deficiency have been associated with Metabolic Syndrome development. This study aimed to investigate the effects of 8 weeks consumption of a hypersaline sodium-rich naturally sparkling mineral water on 10% fructose-fed Sprague-Dawley rats (Metabolic Syndrome animal model). The ingestion of the mineral water (rich in sodium bicarbonate and with higher potassium, calcium, and magnesium content than the tap water used as control) reduced/prevented not only the fructose-induced increase of heart rate, plasma triacylglycerols, insulin and leptin levels, hepatic catalase activity, and organ weight to body weight ratios (for liver and both kidneys) but also the decrease of hepatic glutathione peroxidase activity and oxidized glutathione content. This mineral-rich water seems to have potential to prevent Metabolic Syndrome induction by fructose. We hypothesize that its regular intake in the context of modern diets, which have a general acidic character interfering with mineral homeostasis and are poor in micronutrients, namely potassium, calcium, and magnesium, could add surplus value and attenuate imbalances, thus contributing to metabolic and redox health and, consequently, decreasing the risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. PMID:24672546

  9. [Combined effect of insolation and drinking mineral waters on hormonal and immune status in medium-height mountains.(Experimental study)].

    PubMed

    Polushina, N D; Vasin, V A; Kozhevnikov, S A; Demeshko, N I

    2001-01-01

    80 Wistar male rats were kept for 24 days in moderate altitude conditions of mountain resort Teberda. Before the experiment and after it their blood was examined with enzyme immunoassay for hydrocortisone, T3, T4, TSH, with radioimmunoassay for insulin; glucose levels, dynamics of peripheral blood count, immune status were also measured. It was found that UV radiation has a negative effect on hormonal and immune status of healthy rats in medium-high mountains (hydrocortisone levels fell by 50%, insulin rose 5-6-fold, CIC rose by 24.2%, eosinophils count rose 3-fold, T-cell immunity and lymphocyte phagocyting activity got suppressed, lymphocyte/neutrophil proportion reduced by 35%. Intake of mineral water corrected all the negative effects of insolation but hyperinsulinemia decreased insignificantly. PMID:11530405

  10. Charge Localization in Cation-Sulfate Complexes: Implications for Thermodynamic Surface Complexation Models of the Mineral/Water Interface

    SciTech Connect

    Boily, Jean F

    2007-01-25

    The applicability of separating charges of oxyanions across inner- and outer-Helmholtz planes according to the Charge Distribution model was tested by investigating the theoretical charge distribution in a range of metal-sulphate complexes using the methods of Atoms In Molecules and of the Electron Localisation Function. Density Functional Theory gas-phase geometry optimisation calculations revealed that unbound oxygens of the sulphate molecules contracted to relatively constant S-O bond lengths of 1.432 ± 0.019 (3) Å irrespective of the bond strength with the metal ions. The populations of the valence basins of the unbound oxygens also remained relatively constant, showing that even the strongest complexation induces very little charge distribution across the sulphate molecule. Maps of the Laplacian of the electron density and of the Electron Localisation Function revealed that although charge is relatively localised at oxygen centers there is not necessarily a clear charge separation between the inner- and outer-Helmholtz planes. The Proximity and Smit models are presented as alternative surface complexation schemes to provide a molecularly and electronically consistent depiction of the mineral/solution interface. These models are also presented in their capability in accounting for results from large-scale molecular models. It should nonetheless be emphasized that the Charge Distribution model remains a valuable approach and should have the best applicability at low surface loadings and with molecules with sizes similar to those of the compact layer.

  11. Fit for purpose validated method for the determination of the strontium isotopic signature in mineral water samples by multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brach-Papa, Christophe; Van Bocxstaele, Marleen; Ponzevera, Emmanuel; Quétel, Christophe R.

    2009-03-01

    A robust method allowing the routine determination of n( 87Sr)/ n( 86Sr) with at least five significant decimal digits for large sets of mineral water samples is described. It is based on 2 consecutive chromatographic separations of Sr associated to multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) measurements. Separations are performed using commercial pre-packed columns filled with "Sr resin" to overcome isobaric interferences affecting the determination of strontium isotope ratios. The careful method validation scheme applied is described. It included investigations on all parameters influencing both chromatographic separations and MC-ICPMS measurements, and also the test on a synthetic sample made of an aliquot of the NIST SRM 987 certified reference material dispersed in a saline matrix to mimic complex samples. Correction for mass discrimination was done internally using the n( 88Sr)/ n( 86Sr) ratio. For comparing mineral waters originating from different geological backgrounds or identifying counterfeits, calculations involved the well known consensus value (1/0.1194) ± 0 as reference. The typical uncertainty budget estimated for these results was 40 'ppm' relative ( k = 2). It increased to 150 'ppm' ( k = 2) for the establishment of stand alone results, taking into account a relative difference of about 126 'ppm' systematically observed between measured and certified values of the NIST SRM 987. In case there was suspicion of a deviation of the n( 88Sr)/ n( 86Sr) ratio (worst case scenario) our proposal was to use the NIST SRM 987 value 8.37861 ± 0.00325 ( k = 2) as reference, and assign a typical relative uncertainty budget of 300 'ppm' ( k = 2). This method is thus fit for purpose and was applied to eleven French samples.

  12. Impact of anthropogenic activities on physico-chemical parameters of water and mineral uptake in Catla catla from river Ravi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Shakir, Abdullah; Chaudhry, Abdul Shakoor; Qazi, Javed Iqbal

    2013-03-01

    The river Ravi, while passing through Lahore, the second largest city of Pakistan, gets highly polluted owning heavy loads of untreated municipal sewage and industrial effluents of diverse kinds. The fish, Catla catla sampled in two different seasons from three downstream polluted sites were compared with the samples of the same fish from an upstream, a less polluted site, for their physico-chemical parameters. The data were statistically analysed to study the effect of sites, seasons and their interaction on the physico-chemical parameters of waters and mineral uptake in fish muscles. Significant differences (P < 0.001) among the sampling sites and seasons were observed. The river appeared to be polluted as indicated by the high values of total suspended solids (909 mg/l) and sulphate (964 mg/l) in comparison to the respective values of 150 and 600 mg/l being suggested as the safer values of drinking water of the National Environmental Quality Standards. Most trace and macro elements in fish muscles were increased with the increasing pollution loads from the upstream to the downstream sites of this river. The remarkable increases in the levels of all the investigated minerals in fish muscles from the polluted sites raise concerns about the long-term health of the river Ravi ecosystem and consequently the fish and its consumer's health. The results contradict the opinion of the local population that the riverine fish are natural, more health-promoting and precious than the pond fish. Therefore, we strongly argue for the utilization of an effect-based monitoring approach to alleviate the detrimental effects of anthropogenic activities on fish and the fish consumers' health. PMID:22791113

  13. Influence of spray equipment and water volume on coverage of citrus and control of citricola scale, Coccus pseudomagnoliarum (Hemiptera: Coccidae) with mineral oil.

    PubMed

    Chueca, P; Grafton-Cardwell, E E; Moltó, E

    2009-02-01

    A trial was conducted in a commercial Citrus sinensis L. variety 'Washington' navel orange orchard to compare the coverage and efficacy against citricola scale Coccus pseudomagnoliarum (Kuwana) (Hemiptera: Coccidae) of 45.5 liters/ha of an nC24 agricultural mineral oil treatment applied by two different methods: a conventional air blast sprayer and a rotary atomizer. Three water volumes (2,340, 4,680, and 7,020 liters/ha) were applied with the air blast sprayer to determine the optimal spray volume for that equipment. A single volume (2,340 liters/ha) was applied with the rotary atomizer to compare its effectiveness with that of the air blast sprayer at this same volume. Results demonstrated that all treatments reduced citricola scale densities. Moreover, all treatments conducted with the air blast sprayer provided significantly greater coverage and significantly reduced citricola scale densities compared with the treatment made with the rotary atomizer. Larger water volume applications with the air blast sprayer did not significantly reduce citricola scale densities, although significantly better coverage was attained in the interior of the tree when spraying with 4,680 and 7,020 liters/ha. As a consequence, this study demonstrated that the increased coverage obtained by applying higher water volume with the air blast sprayer was not required for an optimal treatment in August, when the citricola scale population consisted of nymphs inhabiting the outside leaves of the tree. PMID:19253648

  14. Advancements for continuous miners

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2007-06-15

    Design changes and new technology make the modern continuous miner more user friendly. Two of the major manufacturers, Joy Mining Machinery and DBT, both based near Pittsburgh, PA, USA, have recently acquired other OEMs to offer a greater product line. Joy's biggest development in terms of improving cutting time is the FACEBOSS Control System which has an operator assistance element and Joy Surface Reporting Software (JSRP). Joy's WetHead continuous miners have excellent performance. DBT is researching ways to make the machines more reliable with new drive systems. It has also been experimenting with water sprays to improve dust suppression. 4 photos.

  15. Stimulation of water injection wells, in the Los Angeles basin by using sodium hypochlorite and mineral acids

    SciTech Connect

    Clementz, D.M.; Aseltine, R.J.; Patterson, D.E.; Young, R.E.

    1982-09-01

    A stimulation program was developed to improve injectivity and vertical coverage of water injection wells in the East Beverly Hills and San Vicente fields. Damage materials were removed by stimulating the wells with bleach and acid using a variety of tools and techniques. Two- to three-fold injectivity improvements were common, and vertical distribution was typically improved from an initial coverage of 0 to 30% to 85 to 95% after stimulation.

  16. Industrial Minerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradbury, James C.

    1978-01-01

    The past year is seen as not particularly good for industrial minerals and for industry in general. Environmental concerns continued to trouble the industry with unacceptable asbestos concentrations and chlorofluorocarbon effects on ozone. A halting U.S. economy also affected industrial progress. (MA)

  17. Determination of thorium isotopes in mineral and environmental water and soil samples by alpha-spectrometry and the fate of thorium in water.

    PubMed

    Jia, Guogang; Torri, G; Ocone, R; Di Lullo, A; De Angelis, A; Boschetto, R

    2008-10-01

    A method has been developed for determination of thorium isotopes in water and soil samples by alpha-spectrometry. After fusion with Na(2)CO(3) and Na(2)O(2) at 600 degrees C, soil samples were leached with HNO(3) and HCl. Thorium in water sample or in soil leaching solution was coprecipitated together with iron (III) as hydroxides and/or carbonates at pH 9 with ammonia solution, separated from uranium and other alpha-emitters by a Microthene-TOPO (tri-octyl-phosphine oxide) chromatographic column, electrodeposited on a stainless steel disk, and measured by alpha-spectrometry. The method was checked with two certified reference materials supplied by the IAEA, and reliable results were obtained. The detection limits of the method for water (soil) samples are 0.44 microBq l(-1) (0.070 Bq kg(-1)) for (232)Th, 0.80 microBq l(-1) (0.13 Bq kg(-1)) for (230)Th and 1.0 microBq l(-1) (0.16 Bq kg(-1)) for (228)Th, respectively, if 100 l of water (0.50 g) for each sample are analysed. A variety of water or soil samples were analysed using this procedure and giving average thorium yields of 75.5+/-14.2% for water and 93.4+/-4.5% for soil. The obtained concentrations of thorium isotopes in water samples are in the range of 0.0007-0.0326 mBq l(-1) for (232)Th, water is observed and the fate of thorium isotopes in water was studied. The exposure impact due to intake of thorium in the analysed drinking water was evaluated, showing a negligible amount of dose contribution. The concentrations of (232)Th, (230)Th and (228)Th in the analysed soil samples are in the range of 30.2-48.6, 32.5-60.5 and 31.0-53.0 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The obtained mean ratio is 1.04+/-0.05 for (228)Th/(232)Th and 1.20+/-0.41 for (230)Th/(232)Th. PMID:18499464

  18. Detection of crystalline hematite mineralization on Mars by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer: evidence for near-surface water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, P.R.; Bandfield, J.L.; Clark, R.N.; Edgett, K.S.; Hamilton, V.E.; Hoefen, T.; Kieffer, H.H.; Kuzmin, R.O.; Lane, M.D.; Malin, M.C.; Morris, R.V.; Pearl, J.C.; Pearson, R.; Roush, T.L.; Ruff, S.W.; Smith, M.D.

    2000-01-01

    The Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) instrument on the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) mission has discovered a remarkable accumulation of crystalline hematite (α-Fe2O3) that covers an area with very sharp boundaries approximately 350 by 350–750 km in size centered near 2°S latitude between 0° and 5°W longitude (Sinus Meridiani). Crystalline hematite is uniquely identified by the presence of fundamental vibrational absorption features centered near 300, 450, and >525 cm−1 and by the absence of silicate fundamentals in the 1000 cm−1 region. Spectral features resulting from atmospheric CO2, dust, and water ice were removed using a radiative transfer model. The spectral properties unique to Sinus Meridiani were emphasized by removing the average spectrum of the surrounding region. The depth and shape of the hematite fundamental bands show that the hematite is crystalline and relatively coarse grained (>5–10 μm). Diameters up to and greater than hundreds of micrometers are permitted within the instrumental noise and natural variability of hematite spectra. Hematite particles 30 μm diameter) to 40–60% (10 μm diameter). The hematite in Sinus Meridiani is thus distinct from the fine-grained (diameter <5–10 μm), red, crystalline hematite considered, on the basis of visible, near-IR data, to be a minor spectral component in Martian bright regions like Olympus-Amazonis. Sinus Meridiani hematite is closely associated with a smooth, layered, friable surface that is interpreted to be sedimentary in origin. This material may be the uppermost surface in the region, indicating that it might be a late stage sedimentary unit or a layered portion of the heavily cratered plains units. We consider five possible mechanisms for the formation of coarse-grained, crystalline hematite. These processes fall into two classes depending on whether they require a significant amount of near-surface water: the first is chemical precipitation that includes origin by (1

  19. [A clinico-physiological study of the mechanism of the cholecystokinetic action of medicinal mineral waters of the naftusia type].

    PubMed

    Karpinets, S V

    1992-01-01

    It is stated that the cholecystokinetic action of curative waters of naftusia type is due to the interaction of its organic substances, particularly bitumens, with mucous membrane of gastroduodenal zone by the intramural reflex mechanism with participation of humoral factor. It is indicated by attenuation or suppression of the effect by pharmacons interrupting the work of interchemoreception, N- and M-cholinoreceptors, beta-adrenoreceptors; intensification of the effect by blockade of alpha-adrenoreceptors; its reversion by nonselective stimulation of adrenoreceptors; release of gastrin, glucagon and insulin into blood. PMID:1555734

  20. Search for the OH (X(2)Pi) Meinel band emission in meteors as a tracer of mineral water in comets: detection of N(2)(+) (A-X)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenniskens, Peter; Laux, Christophe O.

    2004-01-01

    We report the discovery of the N(2)(+) A-X Meinel band in the 780-840 nm meteor emission from two Leonid meteoroids that were ejected less than 1000 years ago by comet 55P/Tempel-Tuttle. Our analysis indicates that the N(2)(+) molecule is at least an order of magnitude less abundant than expected, possibly as a result of charge transfer reactions with meteoric metal atoms. This new band was found while searching for rovibrational transitions in the X(2)Pi electronic ground state of OH (the OH Meinel band), a potential tracer of water bound to minerals in cometary matter. The electronic A-X transition of OH has been identified in other Leonid meteors. We did not detect this OH Meinel band, which implies that the excited A state is not populated by thermal excitation but by a mechanism that directly produces OH in low vibrational levels of the excited A(2)Sigma state. Ultraviolet dissociation of atmospheric or meteoric water vapor is such a mechanism, as is the possible combustion of meteoric organics.

  1. Experimental rock-water interactions at temperatures to 300/sup 0/C: implications for fluid flow, solute transport, and silicate mineral zoning in crustal geothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Geothermal reservoirs commonly occur in permeable volcanic rock (rhyolite, andesite, basalt) or sedimentary (sandstone) strata at temperatures below 300/sup 0/C. Knowledge of how these reservoirs develop chemically and physically has been based almost entirely on field studies. Four types of experiments were conducted to supplement available data on the chemistry, mineralogy, and fluid flow aspects of hydrothermal processes occurring in crustal geothermal systems: (1) agitated rock-water experiments; (2) high temperature flow through experiments; (3) low temperature permeability experiments; and (4) corrosion monitoring experiments. Initial experiments reacted rhyolite glass and holocrystalline basalt with water-NaCl solutions at 300/sup 0/C in agitated hydrothermal equipment. Concentrations of components in solution depend on initial salinity, rock type, and particle size. The secondary phases consist of zeolites, clay, and feldspar minerals and the alteration assemblage is dependent on both initial salinity, rock type, and duration of the experiment. A second set of experiments were conducted at 300/sup 0/C using the rhyolite glass in a flow through type of apparatus. Compositions of outlet fluids show a dependence of fluid flow rate and core length.

  2. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: CHEMICAL AND FERTILIZER MINERAL INDUSTRY, STATE-OF-THE-ART

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air and water pollutants are generated during the conversion of naturally occurring minerals into suitable forms for use in chemical and fertilizer production. These minerals are barite, borates, fluorspar, lithium minerals, mineral pigments, phosphate rock, potash, salt, sodium ...

  3. Response of forest seedling/soil microcosms to elevated CO{sub 2} and soil temperature, water, and light: Carbon and nitrogen mineralization and allocation

    SciTech Connect

    Gillham, M.L.; Perry, D.A.

    1995-09-01

    Soils from 500-year-old old-growth Douglas-fir forests in the western Oregon Cascade Mtns. (945m and 1325m sites) were {open_quotes}incubated{close_quotes} for 32 weeks in controlled-environment chambers. Objectives were (1) to determine the interacting effects of soil temperature and atmospheric CO{sub 2} on N availability in soils, growth of Douglas-fir seedlings, and resulting C & N fluxes among trees, soils, and the atmosphere, and (2) to model these interactions with a version of Fregro linked with the GEM soil-decomposition model. The experiment was a split-plot with a factorial treatment combination containing two leves each of atmospheric CO{sub 2} (350/700 ppm), soil temperature (13.8/17.7{degrees}C), soil C & N (1325m soils had 2.3x more C and 1.25x more N than 945m soils), and vegetation (+/-seedlings). Each wholeplot (chamber) treatment (CO{sub 2} x temperature) was replicated three times. Photosynthetic photon flux density, soil temperature, and volume of added water were determined for each pot and analyzed as covariates. Responses measured include differences in soil C & N mineralization and total soil C & N in the presence/absence of seedlings, the extent to which subsequent seedling growth offsets potential {open_quote}system{close_quote} losses of C & N, and allocation of C & N to foliage and fine roots. Previously reported early results (ESA, 1994) suggest that (1) as hypothesized, soil temperatures is the main driver of changes in both N mineralization and biomass production in seedling microcosms, (2) allocation is primarily influenced by atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration, and (3) a soil type x soil temperature x CO{sub 2} interaction influences seedling growth.

  4. Detection of Crystalline Hematite Mineralization on Mars by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer: Evidence for Near-surface Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, P. R.; Bandfield, J. L.; Clark, R. N.; Edgett, K. S.; Hamilton, V. E.; Hoefen, T.; Kieffer, H. H.; Kuzmin, R. O.; Lane, M. D.; Malin, M. C.

    1999-01-01

    The Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) instrument on the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) mission has discovered a remarkable accumulation of crystalline hematite ((alpha-Fe2O3) that covers an area with very sharp boundaries approximately 350 by 350-750 km in size centered near 2 S latitude between 0 and 5 W longitude (Sinus Meridiani). Crystalline hematite is uniquely identified by the presence of fundamental vibrational absorption features centered near 300, 450, and >525/cm, and by the absence of silicate fundamentals in the 1000/cm region. Spectral features resulting from atmospheric CO2, dust, and water ice were removed using a radiative transfer model. The spectral properties unique to Sinus Meridiani were emphasized by removing the average spectrum of the surrounding region. The depth and shape of the hematite fundamental bands show that the hematite is crystalline and relatively coarse grained (>5-10 micron). Diameters up to and greater than 100s of micrometers are permitted within the instrumental noise and natural variability of hematite spectra. Hematite particles <5-10 micron in diameter (either as an unpacked or hard-packed powders) fail to match the TES spectra. The spectrally-derived areal abundance of hematite varies with particle size from approximately 10% for particles >30 micron in diameter to 40-60% for unpacked 10 micron powders. The hematite in Sinus Meridiani is thus distinct from the fine-grained (diameter <5-10 micron), red, crystalline hematite considered, on the basis of visible, near-IR data, to be a minor spectral component in Martian bright regions like Olympus-Amazonis. Sinus Meridiani hematite is closely associated with a smooth, layered, friable surface that is interpreted to be sedimentary in origin. This material may be the uppermost surface in the region, indicating that it could be a late-stage sedimentary unit, or it could be a layered portion of the heavily cratered plains units. We consider five possible mechanisms for the

  5. Determination of Vitamin C in a LC/DAD Method for Analyzing Water Soluble Vitamins in Multi-Vitamin Dietary Supplements Containing Multi-Minerals (Experimental Biology, April, 2007, Washington, D.C.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have recently reported a method for the simultaneous determination of a suite of water soluble vitamins in multi-vitamin/multi-mineral dietary supplements (MV/MM) by liquid chromatography with diode array detection (1). This method provided efficient extraction and separation of the Vitamin C, b...

  6. Determination of Vitamin C in a LC/DAD Method for Analyzing Water Soluble Vitamins in Multi-Vitamin Dietary Supplements Containing Multi-Minerals (AOAC Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, MN, Sept, 2006)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have recently reported a method for the simultaneous determination by liquid chromatography with diode array detection of a suite of water soluble vitamins in multi-vitamin/multi-mineral dietary supplements (MV/MM) (1). In that work, although there was good extraction of vitamin C and good chrom...

  7. Mineral bioprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Torma, A.E.

    1993-05-01

    In the last 25 years, the introduction of biotechnological methods in hydrometallurgy has created new opportunities and challenges for the mineral processing industry. This was especially true for the production of metal values from mining wastes and low-and-complex-grade mineral resources, which were considered economically not amenable for processing by conventional extraction methods. Using bio-assisted heap, dump and in-situ leaching technologies, copper and uranium extractions gained their first industrial applications. The precious metal industries were the next to adopt the bio-preoxidation technique in the extraction of gold from refractory sulfide-bearing ores and concentrates. A variety of other bioleaching opportunities exist for nickel, cobalt, cadmium and zinc sulfide leaching. Recently developed bioremediation methods and biosorption technologies have shown a good potential for industrial applications to remove trace heavy metal and radionuclide concentrations from contaminated soils, and mining and processing effluents.

  8. Microbially mediated mineral carbonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, I. M.; Wilson, S. A.; Dipple, G. M.; Southam, G.

    2010-12-01

    Mineral carbonation involves silicate dissolution and carbonate precipitation, which are both natural processes that microorganisms are able to mediate in near surface environments (Ferris et al., 1994; Eq. 1). (Ca,Mg)SiO3 + 2H2CO3 + H2O → (Ca,Mg)CO3 + H2O + H4SiO4 + O2 (1) Cyanobacteria are photoautotrophs with cell surface characteristics and metabolic processes involving inorganic carbon that can induce carbonate precipitation. This occurs partly by concentrating cations within their net-negative cell envelope and through the alkalinization of their microenvironment (Thompson & Ferris, 1990). Regions with mafic and ultramafic bedrock, such as near Atlin, British Columbia, Canada, represent the best potential sources of feedstocks for mineral carbonation. The hydromagnesite playas near Atlin are a natural biogeochemical model for the carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals (Power et al., 2009). Field-based studies at Atlin and corroborating laboratory experiments demonstrate the ability of a microbial consortium dominated by filamentous cyanobacteria to induce the precipitation of carbonate minerals. Phototrophic microbes, such as cyanobacteria, have been proposed as a means for producing biodiesel and other value added products because of their efficiency as solar collectors and low requirement for valuable, cultivable land in comparison to crops (Dismukes et al., 2008). Carbonate precipitation and biomass production could be facilitated using specifically designed ponds to collect waters rich in dissolved cations (e.g., Mg2+ and Ca2+), which would allow for evapoconcentration and provide an appropriate environment for growth of cyanobacteria. Microbially mediated carbonate precipitation does not require large quantities of energy or chemicals needed for industrial systems that have been proposed for rapid carbon capture and storage via mineral carbonation (e.g., Lackner et al., 1995). Therefore, this biogeochemical approach may represent a readily

  9. A geochemical and geophysical approach to derive a conceptual circulation model of CO2-rich mineral waters: A case study of Vilarelho da Raia, northern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, J. M.; Santos, Monteiro; Graça, R. C.; Castro, R.; Aires-Barros, L.; Mendes Victor, L. A.

    2001-11-01

    The Vilarelho da Raia-Chaves region, located in northern Portugal adjacent to the Spanish border, is characterized by both hot and cold CO2-rich mineral waters issuing from springs and drilled wells. The present paper updates the conceptual circulation model of the Vilarelho da Raia cold CO2-rich mineral waters. Vilarelho da Raia mineral waters, dominated by Na and HCO3 ions, have formed mainly by interaction with CO2 of deep-seated mantle origin. The δ18O, δ2H and 3H values indicate that these waters are the result of meteoric waters infiltrating into Larouco Mountain, NW of Vilarelho da Raia, circulating at shallow depths in granitic rocks and moving into Vilarelho da Raia area. The conceptual geochemical and geophysical circulation model indicates that the hot and cold CO2-rich mineral waters of Chaves (76 °C) and Vilarelho da Raia (17 °C) should be considered manifestations of similar but not the same geohydrological systems. Résumé. La région de Vilarelho da Raia - Chaves, située au Portugal près de la frontière Espagnole, est caractérisée par des eaux carbogazeuses, chaudes et froides, émergeant à des sources et dans des puits. Ce travail constitue une mise au point du modèle conceptuel de circulation des eaux minérales carbogazeuses froides de Vilarelho da Raia. Les eaux minérales de Vilarelho da Raia, dans lesquelles les ions Na and HCO3 sont dominants, résultent principalement d'interactions avec du CO2 d'origine mantellique. Les δ18O, les δ2H, et les teneurs en 3H indiquent que ces eaux proviennent de l'infiltration d'eaux météoriques dans le Mont Larouco au NW de Vilarelho da Raia, circulant à faible profondeur dans les granites en direction de la région de Vilarelho da Raia. Le modèle de circulation géochimique et géophysique conduit à penser que les eaux minérales carbogazeuses chaudes et froides de Chaves (76 °C) et de Vilarelho da Raia (17 °C) doivent être considérées comme des manifestations de systèmes hydrog

  10. Effect of humic acid on pyrene removal from water by polycation-clay mineral composites and activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Radian, Adi; Mishael, Yael

    2012-06-01

    Pyrene removal by polycation-montmorillonite (MMT) composites and granulated activated carbon (GAC) in the presence of humic acid (HA) was examined. Pyrene, HA, and sorbent interactions were characterized by FTIR, fluorescence and zeta measurements, adsorption, and column filtration experiments. Pyrene binding coefficients to the macromolecules were in the order of PVPcoS (poly-4-vinylpiridine-co-styrene) > HA > PDADMAC (poly diallyl-dimethyl-ammonium-chloride), correlating to pyrene-macromolecules compatibility. Electrostatic interactions explained the high adsorption of HA to both composites (∼100%), whereas HA adsorption by GAC was low. Pyrene removal by the composites, unlike GAC, was enhanced in the presence of HA; removal by PDADMAC-MMT increased from ∼50 (k(d) = 2.2 × 10(3) kg/L) to ∼70% (k(d) = 2.4 × 10(3) kg/L) in the presence of HA. This improvement was attributed to the adsorption of pyrene-HA complexes. PVPcoS-MMT was most efficient in removing pyrene (k(d) = 1.1 × 10(4) kg/L, >95% removal) which was explained in terms of specific π donor-π acceptor interactions. Pyrene uptake by column filters of GAC reached ∼50% and decreased to ∼30% in the presence of HA. Pyrene removal by the PVPcoS-MMT filter was significantly higher (100-85% removal), exhibiting only a small decrease in the presence of HA. The utilization of HA as an enhancing agent in pollutant removal is novel and of major importance in water treatment. PMID:22545663

  11. A flow-batch analyzer with piston propulsion applied to automatic preparation of calibration solutions for Mn determination in mineral waters by ET AAS.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Luciano F; Vale, Maria G R; Dessuy, Morgana B; Silva, Márcia M; Lima, Renato S; Santos, Vagner B; Diniz, Paulo H D; Araújo, Mário C U

    2007-10-31

    The increasing development of miniaturized flow systems and the continuous monitoring of chemical processes require dramatically simplified and cheap flow schemes and instrumentation with large potential for miniaturization and consequent portability. For these purposes, the development of systems based on flow and batch technologies may be a good alternative. Flow-batch analyzers (FBA) have been successfully applied to implement analytical procedures, such as: titrations, sample pre-treatment, analyte addition and screening analysis. In spite of its favourable characteristics, the previously proposed FBA uses peristaltic pumps to propel the fluids and this kind of propulsion presents high cost and large dimension, making unfeasible its miniaturization and portability. To overcome these drawbacks, a low cost, robust, compact and non-propelled by peristaltic pump FBA is proposed. It makes use of a lab-made piston coupled to a mixing chamber and a step motor controlled by a microcomputer. The piston-propelled FBA (PFBA) was applied for automatic preparation of calibration solutions for manganese determination in mineral waters by electrothermal atomic-absorption spectrometry (ET AAS). Comparing the results obtained with two sets of calibration curves (five by manual and five by PFBA preparations), no significant statistical differences at a 95% confidence level were observed by applying the paired t-test. The standard deviation of manual and PFBA procedures were always smaller than 0.2 and 0.1mugL(-1), respectively. By using PFBA it was possible to prepare about 80 calibration solutions per hour. PMID:19073119

  12. Effect of sulphurous mineral water in haematological and biochemical markers of muscle damage after an endurance exercise in well-trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Soria, Marisol; González-Haro, Carlos; Esteva, Santiago; Escanero, Jesús F; Pina, José R

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effects of sulphurous mineral water (SMW) after a hydroponic treatment on muscle damage, antioxidant activity and peripheral blood changes induced by submaximal exercise. Thirty well-trained male triathletes were supplemented with SMW or placebo: 3 weeks of placebo, 30 days of wash out and 3 weeks of SMW. After both periods, participants ran for 2 h at 70% maximal aerobic speed. Antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant capacity and blood cell markers were compared between placebo and SMW at pre-exercise (T0), immediately post-exercise (T1), 24 h post-exercise (T2) and 48 h post-exercise (T3). Total thiols decreased until T3 vs. T0 for both placebo and SMW; transient red blood cells, haemoglobin and haematocrit increased were shown at T1 vs. T0 and for leucocytes until T2 vs. T0, only for placebo group. Total thiols increased significantly in SMW vs. placebo at T0; Thiobarbituric acid reactive species was significantly higher at T0, T1, T2 and T3; catalase increased significantly at T1; creatine phosphokinase decreased significantly at T1, T2 and T3, although no significant differences were found at T0. Furthermore, red blood cells, haemoglobin and haematocrit were significantly higher and leucocytes were significantly lower at T0 and T1 in SMW group vs. placebo group. This study suggests that three weeks of SMW supplementation may protect from exercise-induced muscle damage. PMID:24499262

  13. Vitamins and Minerals

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Vitamins and Minerals KidsHealth > For Teens > Vitamins and Minerals Print A ... of a good thing? What Are Vitamins and Minerals? Vitamins and minerals make people's bodies work properly. ...

  14. The influence of Citrosept addition to drinking water and Scutellaria baicalensis root extract on the content of selected mineral elements in the blood plasma of turkey hens.

    PubMed

    Rusinek-Prystupa, Elżbieta; Lechowski, Jerzy; Zukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta; Sobczak, Paweł; Zawiślak, Kazimierz

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research work was to indicate the influence of Citrosept preparation and Scutellaria baicalensis root extract, administered per os to growing turkey hens in 3 different dosages, on the content of selected mineral elements in blood plasma of slaughter turkey hens. An attempt was also made to specify the most effective dosage of the applied preparations with the highest efficiency as regards increased levels of examined macro- and microelements in the birds' blood. The research experiment was conducted on 315 turkey hens randomly divided into seven groups, each consisting of 45 turkey hens. Group K constituted the control group without experimental additions of the above-mentioned preparations. When it comes to turkey hens which belonged to groups II-IV, Citrosept preparation was instilled to water in the following dosages: Group II - 0.011 ml/kg of bm; Group III - 0.021 ml/kg of bm; Group IV - 0.042 ml/kg bm. For birds which belonged to groups V-VII preparation, which was Scutellaria baicalensis root extract, was instilled to water in the following dosages: Group V - 0.009 ml/kg of bm; Group VI - 0.018 ml/kg of bm, Group VII - 0.036 ml/kg bm. In the examined plant extracts and blood plasma of the birds the levels of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn, and Fe were identified. The use of examined extracts influenced the changes in the levels of all tested elements in slaughter turkey hens' blood plasma. An upward tendency was recorded which regarded the level of calcium and magnesium, and a downward tendency of sodium, potassium, copper, zinc, and iron in relation to the results achieved in the control group. PMID:25292136

  15. Fluid inclusion and stable isotope evidence for mixing of magmatically related fluids with ground waters during Keweenawan Cu-Ag fissure-vein mineralization, Mamainse Point, Ontario

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, J.P.; Spooner, E.T.C.

    1985-01-01

    Primary chalcocite (Cc) mineralization at the Coppercorp mine occurs with vuggy Qz and minor calcite (Ct) in hydrothermal breccia veins following normal faults which cut Keweenawan plateau basalts and interflow sediments. Cc is the last and predominant sulfide in a paragenetic sequence of Py-Cp-Bn-Cc-Cu/sup 0/. Hematite (Hm) is found in equilibrium with all sulfides except Py. Fluid inclusion studies of vein Qz reveal a simple mixing trend between high temperature, high salinity brines, and lower temperature, more dilute hybrid fluids. The high end-member fluid temperatures strongly suggest a magmatic association, while the low salinity fluids are probably meteoric ground waters. delta/sup 13/C/sub pdb/ and delta/sup 18/O/sub smow/ values for ten Ct samples associated with sulfides average -4.0 per thousands (s=0.7) and 13.3 per thousands (s=2.1) respectively. These results suggest that the Coppercorp high-temperature ore-fluids were in equilibrium with an intrusion similar to the Jogran porphyry at depth, and that mixing with ground waters at higher levels in fissure veins resulted in sulfide precipitation by cooling, dilution and neutralization. Oxidation of this primary fluid at Coopercorp is also reflected by the ubiquitous presence of Hm with sulfide ores; negative delta/sup 34/S ratios from ten samples of Py, Cp or Cc and positive ratios from two rare baryte samples support this interpretation. Two samples of Py from Jogran give ratios typical of porphyry deposits, and may therefore represent the original undisturbed values of the ore-fluid.

  16. Comparison of Somatic Embryogenesis‐derived Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) Plantlets Regenerated in vitro or ex vitro: Morphological, Mineral and Water Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    BARRY‐ETIENNE, D.; BERTRAND, B.; VASQUEZ, N.; ETIENNE, H.

    2002-01-01

    Coffea arabica L. plantlets obtained ex vitro after sowing somatic embryos produced in a bioreactor in horticultural substrate were compared with those obtained in vitro from the same embryo population under conventional culturing conditions on semi‐solid media. The intensity and quality of aerial and root system development were compared. Shoot emergence was more efficient in vitro but rooting frequencies were low. In contrast, all ex vitro‐regenerated embryos rooted. The cotyledon area of mature embryos produced in a bioreactor positively affected plantlet development when regeneration was carried out ex vitro. Embryos with an intermediate cotyledon area (0·86 cm2) had the highest rates of plant conversion ex vitro (63 %), and also resulted in vigorous plantlets. Mortality was higher in nursery conditions, but better plant development was obtained. The quality of plantlets produced under ex vitro conditions was reflected in better growth of the aerial and root systems, and also by similar morphological, mineral and water status characteristics to seedlings. Unlike roots formed on semi‐solid media, those produced in soil were branched, fine (30–50 % had a diameter of less than 0·5 mm) and they bore root hairs. Leaves of plantlets regenerated ex vitro had a histological structure similar to that of seedling leaves, and a lower stomatal density (100 vs. 233 mm–2). Moreover, they were more turgid, as indicated by higher pressure potential (ψP) (0·91 vs. 0·30 MPa) and relative water content values (97 vs. 93 %). Furthermore, under in vitro conditions, leaves had larger stomata which were abnormally round and raised. Direct sowing of germinated somatic embryos resulted in the rapid production of vigorous plantlets under ex vitro conditions, whilst removing the need for problematical and costly conventional acclimatization procedures. PMID:12125775

  17. Determination of herbicides in mineral and stagnant waters at ng/L levels using capillary electrophoresis and UV detection combined with solid-phase extraction and sample stacking.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Borges, Javier; García-Montelongo, Francisco J; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Rodríguez-Delgado, Miguel Angel

    2005-04-01

    In this work, the combined use of solid-phase extraction (SPE) and on-line preconcentration strategies as normal stacking mode (NSM) and stacking with matrix removal (SWMR) for the ultrasensitive and simultaneous capillary electrophoresis-ultraviolet analysis (CE-UV) of five triazolopyrimidine sulfonanilide pesticides (i.e., diclosulam, cloransulam-methyl, flumetsulam, metosulam and florasulam) in different types of water is investigated. An adequate separation electrolyte for the separation and stacking of these pesticides was obtained, considering also its compatibility with MS detection, which consisted of 24 mM formic acid and 16 mM ammonium carbonate at pH 6.4. It was observed that the use of this running buffer together with the SWMR preconcentration method provided the best results in terms of sensitivity (between 6.54 and 11.9 microg/L) and peak efficiency (up to 550000 theoretical plates per meter, NTP/m). When this on-line preconcentration procedure was combined with an off-line sample preconcentration step as SPE using C18 cartridges, the selected herbicides could be detected in the ng/L range. The optimized SPE-SWMR-CE-UV method was applied to the determination of the selected group of pesticides in spiked and non-spiked mineral and stagnant waters. Recoveries ranged between 55 and 110% and limits of detection between 131 and 342 ng/L. This work shows the great possibilities of the combined use of SPE-SWMR-CE-UV to overcome the sensitivity problems usually linked to CE analysis. PMID:15861801

  18. An open-water electrical geophysical tool for mapping sub-seafloor heavy placer minerals in 3D and migrating hydrocarbon plumes in 4D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wynn, Jefferey C.; Urquhart, Scott; Williamson, Mike; Fleming, John B.

    2011-01-01

    A towed-streamer technology has been developed for mapping placer heavy minerals and dispersed hydrocarbon plumes in the open ocean. The approach uses induced polarization (IP), an electrical measurement that encompasses several different surface-reactive capacitive and electrochemical phenomena, and thus is ideally suited for mapping dispersed or disseminated targets. The application is operated at sea by towing active electrical geophysical streamers behind a ship; a wide area can be covered in three dimensions by folding tow-paths over each other in lawn-mower fashion. This technology has already been proven in laboratory and ocean settings to detect IP-reactive titanium- and rare-earth (REE) minerals such as ilmenite and monazite. By extension, minerals that weather and accumulate/concentrate by a similar mechanism, including gold, platinum, and diamonds, may be rapidly detected and mapped indirectly- even when dispersed and covered with thick, inert sediment. IP is also highly reactive to metal structures such as pipelines and cables. Currently, the only means for mapping an oil-spill plume is to park a large ship in the ocean and drop a sampling string over the side, requiring hours of time per sampling point. The samples must then be chemically analyzed, adding additional time and expense. We believe that an extension of the marine IP technology could also apply to rapidly mapping both seafloor- blanket and disseminated hydrocarbon plumes in the open ocean, as hydrocarbon droplets in conductive seawater are topologically equivalent to a metal-plates-and-dielectric capacitor. Because the effective capacitance would be frequency-dependent on droplet size, the approach we advocate holds the potential to not only map, but also to characterize the evolution and degradation of such a plume over time. In areas where offshore oil field development has been practiced for extended periods, making IP measurements from a towed streamer may be useful for locating buried

  19. Geochemical processes at mineral surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.A.; Hayes, K.F.

    1986-01-01

    This volume includes 32 papers which were presented at a symposium on geochemical processes at mineral-water interfaces in 1985 and which bring to bear on this area a very wide range of expertise. The discontinuities in properties which occur at the mineral-water interface have profound effects on the movement of naturally occurring ions. Weathering and precipitation processes control the concentrations and speciation of ions in natural waters and the movements of these within the hydrosphere; both classes of processes take place at mineral-water interfaces. After an introductory overview, the book is divided into seven major sections, each dealing with one of the aspects of the processes occurring at the mineral-water interface. Five papers deal with the physical properties of the mineral-water interface; these represent a well-balanced mix of experimental and theoretical (mathematical modeling) work. Adsorption phenomena are dealt with in another five papers; these are largely experimental in character. Ion-exchange processes are discussed in four papers, one of which addresses the use of relaxation methods to study ion exchange kinetics at the microscopic level. Spectroscopic techniques (including electron-spin resonance and Moessbauer spectroscopy) are utilized in four papers. Chemical reactions, mainly redox processes, at mineral-water interfaces are treated in four papers, one of which deals with non-biological organic reactions. Solid-solution formation and equilibria are the subjects of another set of four articles, and the last group of papers deals with the processes involved in precipitation and dissolution, including weathering.

  20. Minerals and mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, H.C.; Thomson, B.M.

    2009-09-15

    A review of literature published in 2008 and early 2009 on research related to the production of acid mine drainage and/or in the dissolution of minerals as a result of mining, with special emphasis on the effects of these phenomena on the water quality in the surrounding environment, is presented. This review is divided into six sections: 1) Site Characterization and Assessment, 2) Protection, Prevention, and Restoration, 3) Toxicity Assessment, 4) Environmental Fate and Transport, 5) Biological Characterization, and 6) Treatment Technologies. Because there is much overlap in research areas associated with minerals and mine drainage, many papers presented in this review can be classified into more than one category, and the six sections should not be regarded as being mutually-exclusive, nor should they be thought of as being all-inclusive.

  1. Low-temperature stability of Mg-sulfate minerals in the presence of smectites: Implications for tracing the water cycle of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, S. A.; Bish, D. L.; Vaniman, D. T.; Chipera, S.

    2011-12-01

    Hydrated Mg-sulfate minerals are common near the surface of Mars, where they may be found in association with other hydrated mineral phases such as smectites. The hydration states of Mg-sulfate minerals are strongly dependent on temperature and relative humidity (RH). Thus, detection of particular species of hydrated Mg-sulfate minerals (either remotely, using vibrational spectroscopy, or directly, using the X-ray diffraction capabilities of the upcoming Mars Science Laboratory mission) could potentially be used to understand the effects of RH, temperature, and exchange of H2O between sulfate minerals and their local environment. Exchange of structural H2O and cations occurs between Mg-sulfate minerals and Ca-rich smectites under conditions of varying RH similar to those at the arid surface of Mars. This exchange of Mg for Ca results in the production of a more Mg-rich smectite and precipitation of Ca-sulfate minerals such as gypsum (CaSO4. 2H2O) and bassanite (CaSO4.~0.5H2O). Our experiments show that cation-exchange reactions can take place in the absence of free, liquid H2O and are likely mediated by the presence of thin films of H2O at smectite-sulfate grain boundaries. The ability of Mg-sulfate minerals and smectites to exchange H2O suggests that these minerals may have the capacity to impact one another's hydration state. In order to improve our understanding of the probable behavior of Mg-sulfate minerals within multiphase geological materials, such as the martian regolith and layered deposits of clays and sulfate salts, we have used humidity buffer experiments to assess the stability of hydrated Mg-sulfate minerals in the presence of smectites. A series of long-term microcosm experiments employed ranges of temperature conditions (-25°C to +23°C) and RH conditions (7 to 100%) that more closely emulate martian surface conditions than have been used previously. Our results indicate that Mg-sulfate mineral equilibria, although still sluggish and path

  2. Geology, mineralization, and hydrothermal alteration and relationships to acidic and metal-bearing surface waters in the Palmetto Gulch area, southwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bove, Dana J.; Kurtz, Jeffrey P.; Wright, Winfield G.

    2002-01-01

    The Palmetto Gulch area is affected by low pH and metal-bearing drainage from abandoned mines, and perhaps, from natural weathering around vein zones. To investigate these anthropogenic and potential natural sources of acidity and metals, we mapped the geology, veins, and hydrothermally altered areas; conducted mine dump leachate studies; and collected reconnaissance water quality data. Several small abandoned mines are present in the Palmetto Gulch area that produced small amounts of relatively high-grade silver ore from fault-controlled polymetallic vein deposits. These veins are hosted in lavas, breccias, and related volcaniclastic sediments that ponded within the 28 Ma San Juan-Uncompahgre caldera complex. These rock units generally have conformable contacts and have shallow dips to the northwest. Lava flows of pyroxene andesite, which host the Roy-Pray mine, are massive near their base and typically grade upward into tightly jointed rock with 2-15 cm joint spacing. In general, most hydrothermally altered rock within the Palmetto Gulch area is restricted to envelopes surrounding the mineralized veins and faults. Composite zones of vein-related alteration vary from about 50 to 80 m wide along the high ridgelines and narrow to less than 10 to 15 m beneath an elevation of about 5,462 m. Where unaffected by surficial oxidation, these altered zones contain as much as 7 to 10 volume percent finely-disseminated pyrite. The majority of rocks in the area were affected by regional and vein-related propylitic alteration. These greenish-colored rocks have alteration products consisting of chlorite, illite, and calcite; and feldspars are typically weakly altered. Most of these rocks have detectable amounts of calcite, while as much as 11 percent by weight was detected in samples collected during this study. The Palmetto Gulch area is affected by low pH and metal-bearing drainage from abandoned mines, and perhaps, from natural weathering around vein zones. To investigate

  3. MINERAL WATERS ACROSS THE CHANNEL: MATTER THEORY AND NATURAL HISTORY FROM SAMUEL DUCLOS'S MINERALLOGENESIS TO MARTIN LISTER'S CHYMICAL MAGNETISM, CA. 1666-86.

    PubMed

    Roos, Anna Marie; Boantza, Victor D

    2015-12-20

    Our essay analyses a little-known book, Observations sur les eaux minerales des plusieurs provinces de France (1675), which is a study of French mineral waters, commissioned by and conducted at the French Royal Academy of Science (est. 1666). Its author, Samuel Cottereau Duclos (1598-1685), was a senior founding figure of the Academy, its chief chymist and one of its most influential members. We examine Observations with a focus on the changing attitudes towards chymical knowledge and practice in the French Academy and the Royal Society of London in the period 1666-84. Chymistry was a fundamental analytical tool for seventeenth-century natural historians, and, as the work of Lawrence Principe and William Newman has shown, it is central to understanding the 'long' Scientific Revolution. Much study has also been done on the developing norms of openness in the dissemination and presentation of scientific, and particularly chymical knowledge in the late seventeenth century, norms that were at odds with traditions of secrecy among individual chymists. Between these two standards a tension arose, evidenced by early modern 'vociferous criticisms' of chymical obscurity, with different strategies developed by individual philosophers for negotiating the emergent boundaries between secrecy and openness. Less well studied, however, are the strategies by which not just individuals but also scientific institutions negotiated these boundaries, particularly in the formative years of their public and political reputation in the late seventeenth century. Michael Hunter's recent and welcome study of the 'decline of magic' at the Royal Society has to some extent remedied these omissions. Hunter argues that the Society--as a corporate body--disregarded and avoided studies of magical and alchemical subjects in the late seventeenth century. Our examination problematizes these distinctions and presents a more complex picture. PMID:26665487

  4. Multiphase Sequestration Geochemistry: Model for Mineral Carbonation

    SciTech Connect

    White, Mark D.; McGrail, B. Peter; Schaef, Herbert T.; Hu, Jian Z.; Hoyt, David W.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Wurstner, Signe K.

    2011-04-01

    Carbonation of formation minerals converts low viscosity supercritical CO2 injected into deep saline reservoirs for geologic sequestration into an immobile form. Until recently the scientific focus of mineralization reactions with reservoir rocks has been those that follow an aqueous-mediated dissolution/precipitation mechanism, driven by the sharp reduction in pH that occurs with CO2 partitioning into the aqueous phase. For sedimentary basin formations the kinetics of aqueous-mediated dissolution/precipitation reactions are sufficiently slow to make the role of mineralization trapping insignificant over a century period. For basaltic saline formations aqueous-phase mineralization progresses at a substantially higher rate, making the role of mineralization trapping significant, if not dominant, over a century period. The overlooked mineralization reactions for both sedimentary and basaltic saline formations, however, are those that occur in liquid or supercritical CO2 phase; where, dissolved water appears to play a catalyst role in the formation of carbonate minerals. A model is proposed in this paper that describes mineral carbonation over sequestration reservoir conditions ranging from dissolved CO2 in aqueous brine to dissolved water in supercritical CO2. The model theory is based on a review of recent experiments directed at understanding the role of water in mineral carbonation reactions of interest in geologic sequestration systems occurring under low water contents.

  5. New Minerals and Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, William D.

    1997-01-01

    Defines geodiversity, compares it to biodiversity, and discusses the mineral classification system. Charts the discovery of new minerals in Australia over time and focuses on uses of these minerals in technological advances. (DDR)

  6. Mineral spirits poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Mineral spirits are liquid chemicals used to thin paint and as a degreaser. Mineral spirits poisoning occurs ... be found in: Mineral spirits ( Stoddard solvent ) Some paints Some floor and furniture waxes and polishes Some ...

  7. Rocks and Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides background information on rocks and minerals, including the unique characteristics of each. Teaching activities on rock-hunting and identification, mineral configurations, mystery minerals, and growing crystals are provided. Reproducible worksheets are included for two of the activities. (TW)

  8. Enrichment adsorption of a labile substance to the surface of particular mineral particles in river water as investigated by SEM-EDX and dilute-acid extraction/ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Kyotani, Tomohiro; Koshimizu, Satoshi

    2003-06-01

    The selective enrichment behavior of a labile substance, such as hydroxides, to the surface of particular mineral particles in river water was clarified by scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (SEM-EDX). Individual particles other than diatom collected on a 0.45 microm filter from the Fuji and Sagami rivers, central Japan, were analyzed by SEM-EDX and classified into seventeen groups according to the chemical composition and shape. Phosphorus, sulfur, chlorine, manganese and copper detected in each particle collected on the 0.45 microm filter could be successfully used as effective indicators of labile substance secondarily formed and adsorbed afresh in river water, because the detection frequencies of such elements are quite low, or negligible, in fresh mineral particles derived from igneous rocks. The labile substance adsorbed on mineral particles collected on the 0.45 microm filter was also evaluated by dilute-acid leaching, followed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Almost all parts of the manganese detected in individual particles were those adsorbed afresh as hydroxides together with iron and aluminum. Also, anionic elements, such as phosphorus, sulfur and chlorine, formed complexes with the hydroxides and/or were incorporated in them. Mg and/or Ca-rich aluminosilicate groups were the most effective adsorbers of such labile species. However, Si-rich and Na-, K- and Na-Ca rich aluminosilicates did not significantly adsorb the labile substance. Consequently, the remarkable selectivity was clarified in the adsorption process of labile substance to individual mineral particles in river water. PMID:12834221

  9. Surface-water, ground-water, and sediment geochemistry of epizonal and shear-hosted mineral deposits in the Tintina Gold Province--arsenic and antimony distribution and mobility: Chapter G in Recent U.S. Geological Survey studies in the Tintina Gold Province, Alaska, United States, and Yukon, Canada--results of a 5-year project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, Seth H.; Goldfarb, Richard J.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Trainor, Thomas P.; Sanzolone, Richard F.; Adams, Monique

    2007-01-01

    Epigenetic mineral deposits in the Tintina Gold Province are generally characterized by high concentrations of arsenic and antimony in their mineral assemblage. A total of 347 samples (ground water, surface water, and stream sediment) were collected to investigate the distribution and mobility of arsenic and antimony in the environment near known mineral deposits. Samples were collected from east to west at Keno Hill and Brewery Creek, Yukon, Canada; and Cleary Hill, True North, Scrafford Mine, Fairbanks, Ryan Lode, Stampede Creek, Slate Creek, and Donlin Creek, all in Alaska. Surface- and ground-water samples are all slightly acidic to near-neutral in pH (5-8), have a wide range in specific conductance (surface water 17-2,980 microsiemens per centimeter and ground water 170-2,940 microsiemens per centimeter), and show elevated dissolved arsenic and antimony concentrations (arsenic in surface water is less than 1 to 380 micrograms per liter and in ground water is less than 1 micrograms per liter to 1.5 milligrams per liter; antimony in surface water is less than 2 to 660 micrograms per liter and in ground water is less than 2 to 60 micrograms per liter). Stream sediments downstream from these deposits have high concentrations of arsenic and antimony (arsenic median is 1,670 parts per million, maximum is 10,000 parts per million; antimony median is 192 parts per million, maximum is 7,200 parts per million). The mobility of arsenic and antimony is controlled by the local redox environment, with arsenic being less mobile in oxidized surface waters relative to antimony, and arsenic more mobile in reduced ground water. These factors suggest that both antimony and arsenic may be useful pathfinder elements in water and sediment for targeting similar style deposits elsewhere in the Tintina Gold Province.

  10. Chemical composition, plant secondary metabolites, and minerals of green and black teas and the effect of different tea-to-water ratios during their extraction on the composition of their spent leaves as potential additives for ruminants.

    PubMed

    Ramdani, Diky; Chaudhry, Abdul Shakoor; Seal, Chris J

    2013-05-22

    This study characterized the chemical composition of green and black teas as well as their spent tea leaves (STL) following boiling in water with different tea-to-water ratios. The green and black tea leaves had statistically similar (g/kg dry matter (DM), unless stated otherwise) DM (937 vs 942 g/kg sample), crude protein (240 vs 242), and ash (61.8 vs 61.4), but green tea had significantly higher (g/kg DM) total phenols (231 vs 151), total tannins (204 vs 133), condensed tannins (176 vs 101), and total saponins (276 vs 86.1) and lower neutral detergent fiber (254 vs 323) and acid detergent fiber (211 vs 309) than the black tea leaves. There was no significant difference between the green and black tea leaves for most mineral components except Mn, which was significantly higher in green tea leaves, and Na and Cu, which were significantly higher in black tea leaves. A higher tea-to-water ratio during extraction significantly reduced the loss of soluble compounds into water and hence yielded more nutrient-rich STL. On the basis of these analyses it appears that the green and black tea leaves alongside their STL have the potential for use as sources of protein, fiber, secondary metabolites, and minerals in ruminant diets. The presence of high levels of plant secondary metabolites in either tea leaves or their STL suggests that they may have potential for use as natural additives in ruminant diets. PMID:23621359

  11. Analysis of aquifer mineralization by paleodrainage channels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rubin, H.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    2003-01-01

    Mineralization of groundwater resources is a problem in south-central Kansas, due to the penetration of saline water from Permian bedrock formations into the overlying alluvial aquifer. One of the mechanisms involved in the mineralization involves small bedrock features of high permeability located in places occupied by streams and rivers in past geological eras. These geological features are termed 'paleodrainage channels'. The permeability of the overlying aquifer can be significantly smaller than that of the channel fill material. The comparatively fast migration of saline water through these channels of high permeability is associated with the transfer of minerals into the overlying freshwater aquifer. This study applies a set of boundary layer approaches to quantify the process of mineral transfer from the channels into the aquifer. The methods used in the present study provide quick estimation and evaluation of the dilution of the channel flow, as well as mineral concentration profile changes in the mineralized zone created in the overlying aquifer. More generally, the method can also be useful for the analysis and evaluation of various types of groundwater contamination in heterogeneous aquifers. The application of the method is exemplified by a complete set of calculations characterizing the possible mineralization process at a specific channel in south central Kansas. Sensitivity analyses are performed and provide information about the importance of the various parameters that affect the mineralization process. Some possible scenarios for the aquifer mineralization phenomena are described and evaluated. It is shown that the channel mineralization may create either several stream tubes of the aquifer with high mineral concentration, or many stream tubes mineralized to a lesser extent. Characteristics of these two patterns of aquifer mineralization are quantified and discussed. ?? 2003 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  12. Mineral-Based Amendments for Remediation

    PubMed Central

    O’Day, Peggy A.; Vlassopoulos, Dimitri

    2011-01-01

    Amending soils with mineral-based materials to immobilize contaminants is both old and new. Although mineral amendments have been used for decades in agriculture, new applications with a variety of natural and reprocessed materials are emerging. By sequestering contaminants in or on solid phases and reducing their ability to partition into water or air, amendments can reduce the risk of exposure to humans or biota. A variety of mineral types are commonly used to amend contaminated soils, with different modes of molecular-scale sequestration. Regulatory, social, and economic factors also influence decisions to employ mineral amendments as a treatment technology. PMID:22203887

  13. The leading edge of basement logging science: The detailed in situ volcanic architecture, crustal construction processes, vacancy for water, minerals, and microbes, and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tominaga, M.

    2010-12-01

    either breccias or highly fractured lava flows, inferring that the shipboard stratigraphy with mostly massive flows is inaccurate. The meticulously deciphered lava morphology tie the lava deposition history in Hole 1256D to the East Pacific Rise surface volcanology, and with this, the upper ocean crustal construction processes in the Hole 1256D crust, from the spreading axis to the abyssal plain, can be proposed. Furthermore, the vacancy in the crustal matrix, where water and minerals can be stored and microbes can exist, is determined from the FMS images. The distribution and areas of the surface void calculated by ImageJ image processor reveals that the visible void in the 1256D crust vary 10 to 60 % depending on lithofacies, with the average of 37 %. This downhole distribution of the void areas also shows the positive correlation with previously observed lab-based porosity and 1-D sonic-log based fractional porosity data. Further study is in progress on scaling of the porosity structure from hand-specimen to crustal scales in the Hole 1256D crust: from the lab porosity data, to 1D sonic-log, to the areas of surface void detected observed in the FMS images, and ultimately to the vertical seismic experiments.

  14. TUCS/phosphate mineralization of actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, K.L.

    1997-10-01

    This program has as its objective the development of a new technology that combines cation exchange and mineralization to reduce the concentration of heavy metals (in particular actinides) in groundwaters. The treatment regimen must be compatible with the groundwater and soil, potentially using groundwater/soil components to aid in the immobilization process. The delivery system (probably a water-soluble chelating agent) should first concentrate the radionuclides then release the precipitating anion, which forms thermodynamically stable mineral phases, either with the target metal ions alone or in combination with matrix cations. This approach should generate thermodynamically stable mineral phases resistant to weathering. The chelating agent should decompose spontaneously with time, release the mineralizing agent, and leave a residue that does not interfere with mineral formation. For the actinides, the ideal compound probably will release phosphate, as actinide phosphate mineral phases are among the least soluble species for these metals. The most promising means of delivering the precipitant would be to use a water-soluble, hydrolytically unstable complexant that functions in the initial stages as a cation exchanger to concentrate the metal ions. As it decomposes, the chelating agent releases phosphate to foster formation of crystalline mineral phases. Because it involves only the application of inexpensive reagents, the method of phosphate mineralization promises to be an economical alternative for in situ immobilization of radionuclides (actinides in particular). The method relies on the inherent (thermodynamic) stability of actinide mineral phases.

  15. An open-water electrical geophysical tool for mapping sub-seafloor heavy placer minerals in 3D and migrating hydrocarbon plumes in 4D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wynn, J.; Williamson, M.; Urquhart, S.; Fleming, J.

    2011-01-01

    A towed-streamer technology has been developed for mapping placer heavy minerals and dispersed hydrocarbon plumes in the open ocean. The approach uses induced polarization (IP), an electrical measurement that encompasses several different surface-reactive capacitive and electrochemical phenomena, and thus is ideally suited for mapping dispersed or disseminated targets. The application is operated at sea by towing active electrical geophysical streamers behind a ship; a wide area can be covered in three dimensions by folding tow-paths over each other in lawn-mower fashion. This technology has already been proven in laboratory and ocean settings to detect IP-reactive titanium-and rare-earth (REE) minerals such as ilmenite and monazite. By extension, minerals that weather and accumulate/concentrate by a similar mechanism, including gold, platinum, and diamonds, may be rapidly detected and mapped indirectly even when dispersed and covered with thick, inert sediment. IP is also highly reactive to metal structures such as pipelines and cables. ?? 2011 MTS.

  16. Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  17. CRYSTAL CHEMISTRY OF HYDROUS MINERALS

    SciTech Connect

    Y. ZHAO; ET AL

    2001-02-01

    Hydrogen has long been appreciated for its role in geological processes of the Earth's crust. However, its role in Earth's deep interior has been neglected in most geophysical thinking. Yet it is now believed that most of our planet's hydrogen may be locked up in high pressure phases of hydrous silicate minerals within the Earth's mantle. This rocky interior (approximately 7/8 of Earth's volume) is conjectured to contain 1-2 orders of magnitude more water than the more obvious oceans (the ''hydrosphere'') and atmosphere. This project is aimed at using the capability of neutron scattering from hydrogen to study the crystal chemistry and stability of hydrogen-bearing minerals at high pressures and temperatures. At the most basic level this is a study of the atomic position and hydrogen bond itself. We have conducted experimental runs on hydrous minerals under high pressure and high temperature conditions. The crystallographic structure of hydrous minerals at extreme conditions and its structural stability, and hydrogen bond at high P-T conditions are the fundamental questions to be addressed. The behavior of the hydrous minerals in the deep interior of the Earth has been discussed.

  18. Formation of layered single- and double-metal hydroxide precipitates at the mineral/water interface: A multiple-scattering XAFS analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Scheinost, A.C.; Sparks, D.L.

    2000-03-15

    Spectroscopic and microscopic studies have shown that Ni and Co sorption by clay minerals may proceed via formation of surface precipitates. Several studies employing X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy suggested the formation of turbostratic, a-type metal hydroxides, of layered double hydroxides (LDH) with Al-for-metal substitution, and of 1:1 or 2:1 phyllosilicates. Distinction of these phases is difficult because they have low crystallinity and/or a small mass compared to the sorbents, and because they have similar metal-metal distances in their hydroxide layers/sheets. Distinction of these phases is crucial, however, because they have substantially differing solubilities. In this paper the authors show that an XAFS beat pattern at about 8 {angstrom} {sup {minus}1} can be used as a fingerprint to unequivocally distinguish LDH from the {alpha}-type hydroxides and phyllosilicates. Full multiple-scattering simulations and experimental spectra of model compounds indicate that the beat pattern is due to focused multiple scattering at Me/Al ratios between 1 and 4(Me = Ni,Co). By applying the fingerprint method to new and to already published XAFS data on Ni and Co surface precipitates, the authors found that LDH preferentially forms in the presence of the Al-containing sorbents pyrophyllite, illite, kaolinite, gibbsite, and alumina above pH 7.0. However, {alpha}-type metal hydroxides form in the presence of the Al-free sorbents talc, silica, and rutile, and in the presence of the Al-containing clay minerals montmorillonite and vermiculite. The authors believe, that the high permanent charge of these latter minerals prevents or retards the release of Al. When Al is available, the formation of LDH seems to be thermodynamically and/or kinetically favored over the formation of {alpha}-type hydroxides.

  19. Formation of Layered Single- and Double-Metal Hydroxide Precipitates at the Mineral/Water Interface: A Multiple-Scattering XAFS Analysis.

    PubMed

    Scheinost; Sparks

    2000-03-15

    Spectroscopic and microscopic studies have shown that Ni and Co sorption by clay minerals may proceed via formation of surface precipitates. Several studies employing X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy suggested the formation of turbostratic, alpha-type metal hydroxides, of layered double hydroxides (LDH) with Al-for-metal substitution, and of 1:1 or 2:1 phyllosilicates. Distinction of these phases is difficult because they have low crystallinity and/or a small mass compared to the sorbents, and because they have similar metal-metal distances in their hydroxide layers/sheets. Distinction of these phases is crucial, however, because they have substantially differing solubilities. In this paper we show that an XAFS beat pattern at about 8 Å(-1) can be used as a fingerprint to unequivocally distinguish LDH from the alpha-type hydroxides and phyllosilicates. Full multiple-scattering simulations and experimental spectra of model compounds indicate that the beat pattern is due to focused multiple scattering at Me/Al ratios between 1 and 4 (Me=Ni, Co). By applying the fingerprint method to new and to already published XAFS data on Ni and Co surface precipitates, we found that LDH preferentially forms in the presence of the Al-containing sorbents pyrophyllite, illite, kaolinite, gibbsite, and alumina above pH 7.0. However, alpha-type metal hydroxides form in the presence of the Al-free sorbents talc, silica, and rutile, and in the presence of the Al-containing clay minerals montmorillonite and vermiculite. We believe that the high permanent charge of these latter minerals prevents or retards the release of Al. When Al is available, the formation of LDH seems to be thermodynamically and/or kinetically favored over the formation of alpha-type hydroxides. Copyright 2000 Academic Press. PMID:10700399

  20. Effect of synthetic carbon amino saccharides on the transfer of labeled mineral 45Ca2+ and 32PO 4 3- ions from drinking water to blood serum in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarrete, J. M.; Muller, G.; Martinez, T.; Cabrera, L.; Gracia, I.; Fabila, L.; Urbina, V. M.

    2006-01-01

    The favorable effects of fulvic acids as fertilizers are very well known and they have been used long time ago in their natural state in dead leaves. Their extraction from natural sources is rather expensive, but the production of very similar carbon amino saccharides by sugar oxidation has been industrially applied in Mexico. Good properties of this commercial product as fertilizer have been proved empirically in different crops as well as at laboratory level, by the efficient absorption of radioactive labeled mineral ions in vegetables when they are carried by this synthetic organic matter in aqueous solution. Now, its effect has been tested by filtration of radioactively labeled 45Ca2+ and 32PO 4 3- ions from drinking water to blood serum through mice liver and kidneys. The results indicate that the filtration and diffusion of these mineral ions also improved, the same that in vegetables, in the presence of the synthetic carbon amino saccharides highly soluble in water. These results suggest the appropriateness of further research to evaluate their possible use either as a dietary complement or as auxiliaries in the treatment of liver and kidney diseases.

  1. Bartering for Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Kathie

    2002-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students are assigned occupations that rely on specific minerals. To obtain the needed minerals, students learn how to trade services and commodities. Includes details on preparation, modeling behaviors, and printed materials. (DDR)

  2. Adsorption of organic matter at mineral/water interfaces: I. ATR-FTIR spectroscopic and quantum chemical study of oxalate adsorbed at boehmite/water and corundum/water interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Tae Hyun; Johnson, Stephen B.; Musgrave, Charles B.; Brown, Gordon E.

    2004-11-01

    The types and structures of adsorption complexes formed by oxalate at boehmite (γ-AlOOH)/water and corundum (α-Al 2O 3)/water interfaces were determined using in situ attenuated total reflectance fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and quantum chemical simulation methods. At pH 5.1, at least four different oxalate species were found at or near the boehmite/water interface for oxalate surface coverages (Γ ox) ranging from 0.25 to 16.44 μmol/m 2. At relatively low coverages (Γ ox < 2.47), strongly adsorbed inner-sphere oxalate species (IR peaks at 1286, 1418, 1700, and 1720 cm -1) replace weakly adsorbed carbonate species, and a small proportion of oxalate anions are adsorbed in an outer-sphere mode (IR peaks at 1314 and 1591 cm -1). IR peaks indicative of inner-sphere adsorbed oxalate are also observed for oxalate at the corundum/water interface at Γ ox = 1.4 μmol/m 2. With increasing oxalate concentration (Γ ox > 2.47 μmol/m 2), the boehmite surface binding sites for inner-sphere adsorbed oxalate become saturated, and excess oxalate ions are present dominantly as aqueous species (IR peaks at 1309 and 1571 cm -1). In addition to these adsorption processes, oxalate-promoted dissolution of boehmite following inner-sphere oxalate adsorption becomes increasingly pronounced with increasing Γ ox and results in an aqueous Al(III)-oxalate species, as indicated by shifted IR peaks (1286 → 1297 cm -1 and 1418 → 1408 cm -1). At pH 2.5, no outer-sphere adsorbed oxalate or aqueous oxalate species were observed. The similarity of adsorbed oxalate spectral features at pH 2.5 and 5.1 implies that the adsorption mechanism of aqueous HOx - species involves loss of protons from this species during the ligand-exchange reaction. As a consequence, adsorbed inner-sphere oxalate and aqueous Al(III)-oxalate complexes formed at pH 2.5 have coordination geometries very similar to those formed at pH 5.1. The coordination geometry of inner-sphere adsorbed oxalate

  3. Citrate bridges between mineral platelets in bone.

    PubMed

    Davies, Erika; Müller, Karin H; Wong, Wai Ching; Pickard, Chris J; Reid, David G; Skepper, Jeremy N; Duer, Melinda J

    2014-04-01

    We provide evidence that citrate anions bridge between mineral platelets in bone and hypothesize that their presence acts to maintain separate platelets with disordered regions between them rather than gradual transformations into larger, more ordered blocks of mineral. To assess this hypothesis, we take as a model for a citrate bridging between layers of calcium phosphate mineral a double salt octacalcium phosphate citrate (OCP-citrate). We use a combination of multinuclear solid-state NMR spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and first principles electronic structure calculations to propose a quantitative structure for this material, in which citrate anions reside in a hydrated layer, bridging between apatitic layers. To assess the relevance of such a structure in native bone mineral, we present for the first time, to our knowledge, (17)O NMR data on bone and compare them with (17)O NMR data for OCP-citrate and other calcium phosphate minerals relevant to bone. The proposed structural model that we deduce from this work for bone mineral is a layered structure with thin apatitic platelets sandwiched between OCP-citrate-like hydrated layers. Such a structure can explain a number of known structural features of bone mineral: the thin, plate-like morphology of mature bone mineral crystals, the presence of significant quantities of strongly bound water molecules, and the relatively high concentration of hydrogen phosphate as well as the maintenance of a disordered region between mineral platelets. PMID:24706850

  4. Magnetic Resonance Microscopy of Collagen Mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Chesnick, Ingrid E.; Mason, Jeffrey T.; Giuseppetti, Anthony A.; Eidelman, Naomi; Potter, Kimberlee

    2008-01-01

    A model mineralizing system was subjected to magnetic resonance microscopy to investigate how water proton transverse (T2) relaxation times and magnetization transfer ratios can be applied to monitor collagen mineralization. In our model system, a collagen sponge was mineralized with polymer-stabilized amorphous calcium carbonate. The lower hydration and water proton T2 values of collagen sponges during the initial mineralization phase were attributed to the replacement of the water within the collagen fibrils by amorphous calcium carbonate. The significant reduction in T2 values by day 6 (p < 0.001) was attributed to the appearance of mineral crystallites, which were also detected by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. In the second phase, between days 6 and 13, magnetic resonance microscopy properties appear to plateau as amorphous calcium carbonate droplets began to coalesce within the intrafibrillar space of collagen. In the third phase, after day 15, the amorphous mineral phase crystallized, resulting in a reduction in the absolute intensity of the collagen diffraction pattern. We speculate that magnetization transfer ratio values for collagen sponges, with similar collagen contents, increased from 0.25 ± 0.02 for control strips to a maximum value of 0.31 ± 0.04 at day 15 (p = 0.03) because mineral crystals greatly reduce the mobility of the collagen fibrils. PMID:18487295

  5. Oriented quartz + calcic amphibole inclusions in omphacite from the Saualpe and Pohorje Mountain eclogites, Eastern Alps—An assessment of possible formation mechanisms based on IR- and mineral chemical data and water storage in Eastern Alpine eclogites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konzett, Jürgen; Libowitzky, Eugen; Hejny, Clivia; Miller, Christine; Zanetti, Alberto

    2008-12-01

    The composition of mineral phases and their modal proportions have been determined for three representative Eoalpine eclogites from the Saualpe type locality/Eastern Austria (sample SKP31) and the Pohorje Massif/Slovenia (CM31/03 and CM15/01) using electron microprobe, laser ICP-MS, IR spectroscopy and modal analysis to evaluate possible mechanisms for the formation of composite oriented calcic amphibole + quartz inclusions (COIs) in omphacite and to assess the relative importance of hydrous and nominally anhydrous phases as H 2O carriers in these eclogites. For omphacites in CM31/03 with a zonal distribution of COIs, a comparison of water and trace element concentrations of areas containing COIs and those free of COIs and a comparison with the trace element concentration of calcic amphibole indicate that COIs have formed through an open-system alteration of clinopyroxene and not through a closed system exsolution process. In sample SKP31, both textural and mineral chemical evidence suggests that COIs did not form by exsolution involving a Ca-Eskola component in clinopyroxene but formed by progressive growth under eclogite-facies P-T conditions and prior to the onset of retrogressive symplectite formation analogous to the formation of poikiloblastic quartz-calcic amphibole grains in the matrix. Bulk H 2O contents of the eclogites are between ca. 750 and 2150 ppm with 6-25% of the total water contributed by nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs). Because of high modal amounts of 37-65%, omphacite is the major nominally anhydrous water carrier, containing 145-580 ppm H 2O with significant concentration variations on a thin section scale. Due to their very low H 2O concentrations of < 5-10 ppm (garnet, kyanite) or insignificant modal amounts ≤ 3% (rutile) the remaining NAMs contribute less than 1.5% to the bulk eclogite H 2O content. Calcic amphibole forming part of COIs may be a major carrier of H 2O as evidenced by CM31/03 containing both COIs and texturally primary

  6. Experimental investigation of the role of thyrocalcitonin in the prophylaxis of disturbances in the water-salt and mineral metabolism during a 30-day hypokinesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shashkov, V. S.; Yegorov, B. B.; Dmitriyev, B. S.; Volozhin, A. N.; Krotov, B. P.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of thyrocalcitonin (TCT) injections on the metabolism of water and electrolytes in free-moving and immobilized chinchilla hares is described. Calcium excretion from immobilized animals was elevated, but normalized in those also receiving TCT injections. TCT also normalized water content and excretion rates.

  7. [Functioning biological activity of mean mineralized sodium bicarbonate in water from the "Pitoniakówka" source in Szczawnica, designed for health resort potable cures].

    PubMed

    Drobnik, M; Latour, T

    2001-01-01

    In the experiments on animals the biological activity of the water from its intake "Pitoniakówka" (outflow B + C + D + G) in Szczawnica has been determined. The basic investigations were carried out on rats whom in the course of 24 days the investigated water was being administered to drink ad libitum or by probe in a single daily dose of 10.7 ml/kg of body weight. It has been ascertained that the water caused a statistically significant increase of the concentration of sodium and a fall of the levels of potassium, magnesium, calcium, total cholesterol, the HDL fraction of cholesterol, total lipids in the blood serum, also of hematocrit, hemoglobin and erythrocytes. The investigated water inhibited the motor activity of the small intestine of the rabbit, caused increased urination and increased water turnover in the organism. A long-lasting application of the investigated water may lead to the genesis of metabolic acidosis. There was not observed any cholagonic and any chologenic activity of the investigated water in guinea pigs or any effect of that water on the elements of the carbohydrate metabolism, the protein metabolism or on the peripheral blood smear in rats. PMID:11452742

  8. Effects of large-scale Amazon forest degradation on climate and air quality through fluxes of carbon dioxide, water, energy, mineral dust and isoprene.

    PubMed

    Betts, Richard; Sanderson, Michael; Woodward, Stephanie

    2008-05-27

    Loss of large areas of Amazonian forest, through either direct human impact or climate change, could exert a number of influences on the regional and global climates. In the Met Office Hadley Centre coupled climate-carbon cycle model, a severe drying of this region initiates forest loss that exerts a number of feedbacks on global and regional climates, which magnify the drying and the forest degradation. This paper provides an overview of the multiple feedback process in the Hadley Centre model and discusses the implications of the results for the case of direct human-induced deforestation. It also examines additional potential effects of forest loss through changes in the emissions of mineral dust and biogenic volatile organic compounds. The implications of ecosystem-climate feedbacks for climate change mitigation and adaptation policies are also discussed. PMID:18267906

  9. Mineral particles, mineral fibers, and lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Churg, A.; Wiggs, B.

    1985-08-01

    The total fibrous and nonfibrous mineral content of the lung has been analyzed in a series of 14 men with lung cancer but no history of occupational dust exposure, and in a series of 14 control men matched for age, smoking history, and general occupational class. The lung cancer patients had an average of 525 +/- 369 X 10(6) exogenous mineral particles and 17.4 +/- 19.6 X 10(6) exogenous mineral fibers/g dry lung, while the controls had averages of 261 +/- 175 mineral particles and 4.7 +/- 3.2 X 10(6) mineral fibers/g dry lung. These differences are statistically significant for both particles and fibers. Kaolinite, talc, mica, feldspars, and crystalline silica comprised the majority of particles of both groups. Approximately 90% of the particles were smaller than 2 micron in diameter and approximately 60% smaller than 1 micron. In both groups, patients who had smoked more than 35 pack years had greater numbers of particles than patients who had smoked less than 35 pack years. It is concluded that, in this study, lungs from patients with lung cancer had statistically greater numbers of mineral particles and fibers than lungs from controls, and that smoking influences total long-term retention of particles from all sources.

  10. Thin Ice Films at Mineral Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Yeşilbaş, Merve; Boily, Jean-François

    2016-07-21

    Ice films formed at mineral surfaces are of widespread occurrence in nature and are involved in numerous atmospheric and terrestrial processes. In this study, we studied thin ice films at surfaces of 19 synthetic and natural mineral samples of varied structure and composition. These thin films were formed by sublimation of thicker hexagonal ice overlayers mostly produced by freezing wet pastes of mineral particles at -10 and -50 °C. Vibration spectroscopy revealed that thin ice films contained smaller populations of strongly hydrogen-bonded water molecules than in hexagonal ice and liquid water. Thin ice films at the surfaces of the majority of minerals considered in this work [i.e., metal (oxy)(hydr)oxides, phyllosilicates, silicates, volcanic ash, Arizona Test Dust] produced intense O-H stretching bands at ∼3400 cm(-1), attenuated bands at ∼3200 cm(-1), and liquid-water-like bending band at ∼1640 cm(-1) irrespective of structure and composition. Illite, a nonexpandable phyllosilicate, is the only mineral that stabilized a form of ice that was strongly resilient to sublimation in temperatures as low as -50 °C. As mineral-bound thin ice films are the substrates upon which ice grows from water vapor or aqueous solutions, this study provides new constraints from which their natural occurrences can be understood. PMID:27377606

  11. The prediction of mineral solubilities in natural waters: A chemical equilibrium model for the NaKCaMgClSO 4H 2O system at temperatures below 25°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Ronald J.; Møller, Nancy; Weare, John H.

    1990-03-01

    A low temperature thermochemical model for the system NaKCaMgClSO 4H 2O is presented. Aqueous species and standard chemical potentials of solid-solution reactions are modeled from published data for binary and ternary solutions. The temperature range below 25°C (to near -60°C) is emphasized, although the model parameters are fitted to merge smoothly with those of higher temperature models at temperatures between 25 and 100°C. Binary and ternary specific ion interaction terms vary independently with temperature and are modeled using freezing point depression and mineral solubility measurements. The standard chemical potential of the ice-water reaction is fitted independent of the model (from vapor pressure and free energy data). Remaining standard chemical potentials of solidsolution reactions are fitted along with the specific ion interaction terms. Model predictions are tested against published data for minerals formed and brine compositions obtained by chilling seawater to the eutectic (about -54°C). The model predicts the sequence of solid phases observed to precipitate from chilled seawater (mice-mirabilite-hydrohalite-sylvite-MgCl 2 · 12H 2Oantarcticite). For all but mirabilite model temperatures are within the uncertainty of the measured temperature. The compositions of brines predicted by the model also closely follow the observed compositions. The model allows accurate predictions of the freezing points of simple and complex solutions in the system. Low temperature phase equilibria and mineral solubilities may also be predicted. The model may be used to determine the composition of brines in fluid inclusions in the multicomponent system based on low temperature phase equilibria.

  12. Stable isotopes of soil water are affected by clay minerals: A post correction approach for dry soils based on physicochemical soil properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaj, Marcel; Kaufhold, Stephan; Koeniger, Paul; Matthias, Beyer; Himmelsbach, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The cryogenic vacuum extraction is commonly used to access soil water that will be subsequently analyzed for stable isotopes (18O and 2H). However, the analytical error associated with this method is high compared to that of stable isotopes measured directly from water samples. Additionally, the accuracy of data derived from soil water extractions decreases with the increasing presence of fine compounds such as silt and clay. To overcome these limitations an extended applicability of the cryogenic vacuum extraction method is demonstrated. This study proposes two new methods to improve isotope values using the cryogenic vacuum extraction method. First, by showing that the extraction temperature of 205 ° C improves the precision and the accuracy for all tested soil types. Secondly, that the post correction of data based on physicochemical soil properties and common extraction temperature will reduce errors. Results show a reduction in error of d-values of soil water derived from soils with clay content between 0.1 to 48 %. The analytical error could be significantly reduced compared to previous studies by increasing the extraction temperature even for soils with high clay content. Soil water extractions from sandy soils are improved by halving the analytical error. If soil material is available, the proposed correction scheme can be applied to past isotope data and will improve comparability between studies and heterogeneous soils. It is recommended to conduct spike experiments prior to unsaturated zone isotope studies. We encourage future experiments with extraction temperatures above 205 ° C. If previously oven dried substrate is used for standard preparation old water might remain in soil with a fine texture (i.e., high clay content) after oven drying at 105 ° C and that this old water will enrich any added calibration water resulting in the enrichment of all samples normalized using it.

  13. Field experience with a new installation for countercurrent ion-exchange treatment of low-mineralized natural water with high content of organic impurities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larin, B. M.; Larin, A. B.; Oparin, M. Yu.; Vinogradov, V. N.

    2009-06-01

    Results obtained from examination of the working characteristics of filters are presented together with the filtering material analysis data that were obtained on a new high-output plant for ion-exchange treatment of natural water with high content of organic impurities. Stable operation of the plant is pointed out, and difficulties are indicated that arise from the fact that the water treatment system does not contain a unit for coagulation in a clarifier.

  14. Mineral Selection for Multicomponent Equilibrium Geothermometry

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Plamer, C. D.; Ohly, S. R.; Smith, R. W.; Neupane, G.; McLing, T.; Mattson, E.

    2015-04-01

    Multicomponent geothermometry requires knowledge of the mineral phases in the reservoir with which the geothermal fluids may be equilibrated. These minerals phases are most often alteration products rather than primary minerals. We have reviewed the literature on geothermal systems representing most major geologic environments typically associated with geothermal activity and identified potential alteration products in various environments. We have included this information in RTEst, a code we have developed to estimate reservoir conditions (temperature, CO2 fugacity) from the geochemistry of near-surface geothermal waters. The information has been included in RTEst through the addition of filters that decrease the potential numbermore » of minerals from all possibilities based on the basis species to those that are more relevant to the particular conditions in which the user is interested. The three groups of filters include host rock type (tholeiitic, calc-alkaline, silicic, siliciclastic, carbonate), water type (acidic, neutral), and the temperature range over which the alteration minerals were formed (low, medium, high). The user-chosen mineral assemblage is checked to make sure that it does not violate the Gibbs phase rule. The user can select one of three mineral saturation weighting schemes that decrease the chance the optimization from being skewed by reaction stoichiometry or analytical uncertainty.« less

  15. Mineral Selection for Multicomponent Equilibrium Geothermometry

    SciTech Connect

    Plamer, C. D.; Ohly, S. R.; Smith, R. W.; Neupane, G.; McLing, T.; Mattson, E.

    2015-04-01

    Multicomponent geothermometry requires knowledge of the mineral phases in the reservoir with which the geothermal fluids may be equilibrated. These minerals phases are most often alteration products rather than primary minerals. We have reviewed the literature on geothermal systems representing most major geologic environments typically associated with geothermal activity and identified potential alteration products in various environments. We have included this information in RTEst, a code we have developed to estimate reservoir conditions (temperature, CO2 fugacity) from the geochemistry of near-surface geothermal waters. The information has been included in RTEst through the addition of filters that decrease the potential number of minerals from all possibilities based on the basis species to those that are more relevant to the particular conditions in which the user is interested. The three groups of filters include host rock type (tholeiitic, calc-alkaline, silicic, siliciclastic, carbonate), water type (acidic, neutral), and the temperature range over which the alteration minerals were formed (low, medium, high). The user-chosen mineral assemblage is checked to make sure that it does not violate the Gibbs phase rule. The user can select one of three mineral saturation weighting schemes that decrease the chance the optimization from being skewed by reaction stoichiometry or analytical uncertainty.

  16. A Thermodynamic Model for Predicting Mineral Reactivity in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide: I. Phase Behavior of Carbon Dioxide - Water - Chloride Salt Systems Across the H2O-Rich to the CO2-Rich Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, Ronald D.; Wang, Zheming; Anderko, Andre; Wang, Peiming; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2012-09-05

    used to predict the effect of various salts on the water content and water activity in CO2-rich phases on the basis of parameters determined from the properties of aqueous systems. Given the importance of water activity in CO2-rich phases for mineral reactivity, the model can be used as a foundation for predicting mineral transformations across the entire CO2/H2O composition range from aqueous solution to anhydrous scCO2. An example application using the model is presented which involves the transformation of forsterite to nesquehonite as a function of temperature and water content in the CO2-rich phase.

  17. Applications of multi-season hyperspectral remote sensing for acid mine water characterization and mapping of secondary iron minerals associated with acid mine drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Gwendolyn E.

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) resulting from the oxidation of sulfides in mine waste is a major environmental issue facing the mining industry today. Open pit mines, tailings ponds, ore stockpiles, and waste rock dumps can all be significant sources of pollution, primarily heavy metals. These large mining-induced footprints are often located across vast geographic expanses and are difficult to access. With the continuing advancement of imaging satellites, remote sensing may provide a useful monitoring tool for pit lake water quality and the rapid assessment of abandoned mine sites. This study explored the applications of laboratory spectroscopy and multi-season hyperspectral remote sensing for environmental monitoring of mine waste environments. Laboratory spectral experiments were first performed on acid mine waters and synthetic ferric iron solutions to identify and isolate the unique spectral properties of mine waters. These spectral characterizations were then applied to airborne hyperspectral imagery for identification of poor water quality in AMD ponds at the Leviathan Mine Superfund site, CA. Finally, imagery varying in temporal and spatial resolutions were used to identify changes in mineralogy over weathering overburden piles and on dry AMD pond liner surfaces at the Leviathan Mine. Results show the utility of hyperspectral remote sensing for monitoring a diverse range of surfaces associated with AMD.

  18. Biology of Thrypticus truncatus and T. sagittatus (Diptera:Dolichopodidae), petiole miners of water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes, in Argentina. With morphological descriptions of larvae and pupae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mining flies Thyrpticus truncatus Bickel & Hernandez and T. sagittatus Bickel & Hernandez (Diptera: Dolichopodidae) are being evaluated as biological control agents for the water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Martius) Soms-Laubach (Pontederiaceae). The bahavior of adults and larvae of these sp...

  19. Reagan issues mineral policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The National Materials and Minerals Program plan and report that President Reagan sent to Congress on April 5 aims to ‘decrease America's minerals vulnerability’ while reducing future dependence on potentially unstable foreign sources of minerals. These goals would be accomplished by taking inventory of federal lands to determine mineral potential; by meeting the stockpile goals set by the Strategic and Critical Material Stockpiling Act; and by establishing a business and political climate that would encourage private-sector research and development on minerals.Now that the Administration has issued its plan, the Subcommittee on Mines and Mining of the House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs will consider the National Minerals Security Act (NMSA), which was introduced 1 year ago by subcommittee chairman Jim Santini (D-Nev.) [Eos, May 19, 1981, p. 497]. The bill calls for establishing a three-member White-House-level council to coordinate the development of a national minerals policy; amending tax laws to assist the mining industry to make capital investments to locate and produce strategic materials; and creating a revolving fund for the sale and purchase of strategic minerals. In addition, the NMSA bill would allow the secretary of the interior to make previously withdrawn public lands available for mineral development. The subcommittee will hold a hearing on the Administration's plan on May 11. Interior Secretary James Watt has been invited to testify.

  20. Water Purifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Floatron water purifier combines two space technologies - ionization for water purification and solar electric power generation. The water purification process involves introducing ionized minerals that kill microorganisms like algae and bacteria. The 12 inch unit floats in a pool while its solar panel collects sunlight that is converted to electricity. The resulting current energizes a specially alloyed mineral electrode below the waterline, causing release of metallic ions into the water. The electrode is the only part that needs replacing, and water purified by the system falls within EPA drinking water standards.

  1. South Pacific mineral cache

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recent deep-water sampling of mineral-rich crusts on the seafloor between the Hawaiian Islands and Samoa revealed deposits of cobalt, nickel, and manganese that are richer than previous samples, according to a team of scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Federal Republic of Germany aboard the research vessel S.P. Lee.Thin pieces of crust dredged from a seamount about 260 km northwest of Palmyra Atoll and Kingman Reef (U.S. territorial possessions roughly midway between Honolulu and American Samoa) had a cobalt concentration of 2.5%, or more than twice the concentration that earlier reconnaissance studies indicated would be found. The rock samples also contained 0.8% nickel and 32% manganese, compared to the estimated concentrations of 0.5% and 25%, respectively. The areas in which the deposits were found are part of the relatively unexplored ocean bottom included in the recently proclaimed 200-nautical-mile U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ).

  2. Distribution of Cu, Co, As, and Fe in mine waste, sediment, soil, and water in and around mineral deposits and mines of the Idaho Cobalt Belt, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, John E.; Eppinger, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of Cu, Co, As and Fe was studied downstream from mines and deposits in the Idaho Cobalt Belt (ICB), the largest Co resource in the USA. To evaluate potential contamination in ecosystems in the ICB, mine waste, stream sediment, soil, and water were collected and analyzed for Cu, Co, As and Fe in this area. Concentrations of Cu in mine waste and stream sediment collected proximal to mines in the ICB ranged from 390 to 19,000 μg/g, exceeding the USEPA target clean-up level and the probable effect concentration (PEC) for Cu of 149 μg/g in sediment; PEC is the concentration above which harmful effects are likely in sediment dwelling organisms. In addition concentrations of Cu in mine runoff and stream water collected proximal to mines were highly elevated in the ICB and exceeded the USEPA chronic criterion for aquatic organisms of 6.3 μg/L (at a water hardness of 50 mg/L) and an LC50 concentration for rainbow trout of 14 μg/L for Cu in water. Concentrations of Co in mine waste and stream sediment collected proximal to mines varied from 14 to 7400 μg/g and were highly elevated above regional background concentrations, and generally exceeded the USEPA target clean-up level of 80 μg/g for Co in sediment. Concentrations of Co in water were as high as in 75,000 μg/L in the ICB, exceeding an LC50 of 346 μg/L for rainbow trout for Co in water by as much as two orders of magnitude, likely indicating an adverse effect on trout. Mine waste and stream sediment collected in the ICB also contained highly elevated As concentrations that varied from 26 to 17,000 μg/g, most of which exceeded the PEC of 33 μg/g and the USEPA target clean-up level of 35 μg/g for As in sediment. Conversely, most water samples had As concentrations that were below the 150 μg/L chronic criterion for protection of aquatic organisms and the USEPA target clean-up level of 14 μg/L. There is abundant Fe oxide in streams in the ICB and several samples of mine runoff and stream water

  3. Bulk and interfacial glass transitions of water.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Deepanjan; Payne, Candace N; Sadtchenko, Vlad

    2011-06-16

    Fast scanning calorimetry (FSC) was employed to investigate glass softening dynamics in bulk-like and ultrathin glassy water films. Bulk-like water samples were prepared by vapor-deposition on the surface of a tungsten filament near 140 K where vapor-deposition results in low enthalpy glassy water films. The vapor-deposition approach was also used to grow multiple nanoscale (approximately 50 nm thick) water films alternated with benzene and methanoic films of similar dimensions. When heated from cryogenic temperatures, the ultrathin water films underwent a well manifested glass softening transition at temperatures 20 K below the onset of crystallization. However, no such transition was observed in bulk-like samples prior to their crystallization. These results indicate that thin-film water demonstrates glass softening dynamics that are dramatically distinct from those of the bulk phase. We attribute these differences to water's interfacial glass transition, which occurs at temperatures tens of degrees lower than that in the bulk. Implications of these findings for past studies of glass softening dynamics in various glassy water samples are discussed. PMID:21401034

  4. Recovery of mineral salts and potable water from desalting plant effluents by evaporation. Part II. Proposed simulation system for salt recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel-Aal, H.K.; Ba-Lubaid, K.M.; Shaikh, A.A.; Al-Harbi, D.K. )

    1990-04-01

    Salt recovery from rejected brines of the Al-Khobar Water Desalination Plant, Saudi Arabia, is studied through the simulation of a modified MSF system. Two phases of concentrations are planned: Phase I will concentrate the main effluent from 6.4 wt% total salt to 28.8%, while Phase II will use the effluents from Phase I as a feed to undergo further evaporation and cooling. NaCl and water are produced throughout this phase, while the end residue product will be essentially MgCl{sub 2}, since it is the most soluble. A mathematical model is developed and used to perform stage-to-stage material and heat balance calculations. Concentrations of NaCl and MgCl{sub 2} in the streams entering and leaving a stage are determined by using the solubility correlation developed in Part I. Simulation results show that by using 5,210 tons/h brine as a feed for Phase I, they can recover 4,430 tons/h fresh water, 277 tons/h NaCl, and 502 tons/h bittern (in which the ratio of MgCl{sub 2}/NaCl is increased to 12) as the very final products of the integrated scheme. This bittern provides 30 tons/h MgCl{sub 2} as an end product.

  5. 36 CFR 293.14 - Mineral leases and mineral permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mineral leases and mineral... AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.14 Mineral leases and mineral permits. (a) All laws pertaining to mineral leasing shall extend to each National Forest Wilderness for the period specified in the...

  6. 36 CFR 293.14 - Mineral leases and mineral permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mineral leases and mineral... AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.14 Mineral leases and mineral permits. (a) All laws pertaining to mineral leasing shall extend to each National Forest Wilderness for the period specified in the...

  7. 36 CFR 293.14 - Mineral leases and mineral permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mineral leases and mineral... AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.14 Mineral leases and mineral permits. (a) All laws pertaining to mineral leasing shall extend to each National Forest Wilderness for the period specified in the...

  8. 36 CFR 293.14 - Mineral leases and mineral permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mineral leases and mineral... AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.14 Mineral leases and mineral permits. (a) All laws pertaining to mineral leasing shall extend to each National Forest Wilderness for the period specified in the...

  9. 36 CFR 293.14 - Mineral leases and mineral permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mineral leases and mineral... AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.14 Mineral leases and mineral permits. (a) All laws pertaining to mineral leasing shall extend to each National Forest Wilderness for the period specified in the...

  10. Mineral Wool Insulation Binders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowatsch, Stefan

    Mineral wool is considered the best known insulation type among the wide variety of insulation materials. There are three types of mineral wool, and these consist of glass, stone (rock), and slag wool. The overall manufacturing processes, along with features such as specifications and characteristics for each of these types, as well as the role of the binder within the process are described.

  11. Digging into Minnesota Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Natural Resources, St. Paul.

    This publication presents students with facts about geology and several learning activities. Topics covered include rocks and minerals, volcanoes and earthquakes, fossils, exploration geology, mining in Minnesota, environmental issues related to mining, mineral uses, mining history, and the geology of Minnesota's state parks. A geologic timetable…

  12. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2011-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2011 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2010 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2011 contains new chapters on iron oxide pigments, wollastonite, and zeolites. The chapters on mica (natural), scrap and flake and mica (natural), sheet have been combined into a single chapter - mica (natural). Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. "Appendix C - Reserves and Resources" has been divided into "Part A - Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals" and "Part B - Sources of Reserves Data," including some information that was previously in this introduction. A directory of USGS minerals information country specialists and their responsibilities is Appendix D. The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the MCS 2011 are welcomed.

  13. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2003-01-01

    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials.

  14. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2007-01-01

    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials.

  15. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2005-01-01

    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials.

  16. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2000-01-01

    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials.

  17. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2002-01-01

    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials.

  18. Mineral Commodity Summaries 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1997-01-01

    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials

  19. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2006-01-01

    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials.

  20. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2001-01-01

    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials.

  1. Mineral Commodity Summaries 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1998-01-01

    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials.

  2. Mineral Commodity Summaries 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1999-01-01

    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials.

  3. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2004-01-01

    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials.

  4. Mineral commodity summaries 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, Joyce A.

    2016-01-01

    This report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering 2015 nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for more than 90 individual minerals and materials

  5. Vitamins, Minerals, and Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Crawford, Susan G.; Field, Catherine J.; Simpson, J. Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the breadth and depth of published research linking dietary vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) to mood. Since the 1920s, there have been many studies on individual vitamins (especially B vitamins and Vitamins C, D, and E), minerals (calcium, chromium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and vitamin-like…

  6. Mineral Fiber Toxicology

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chemical and physical properties of different forms of mineral fibers impact biopersistence and pathology in the lung. Fiber chemistry, length, aspect ratio, surface area and dose are critical factors determining mineral fiber-associated health effects including cancer and as...

  7. The Miner's Canary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guinier, Lani

    2005-01-01

    Miners used canaries as early warning signals: when a canary gasped for breath, the miners knew there was a problem with the atmosphere in the mine. The experience of people of color in higher education can be used similarly as a diagnostic tool.

  8. Mineral oxide transformation of antimicrobial contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, B.; Kendall, T. A.

    2008-12-01

    The quality of our water supply is dependent on the organic-mineral interface. Organics contain reactive groups that dissolve minerals, and release surface associated contaminants into aquifers and reservoirs. Conversely, minerals may transform organic pollutants, including antimicrobial drugs that are potentially deleterious to aquatic ecosystems or human health. Under aqueous conditions typical of soils and natural waters, the antibiotic agent sulfamethoxazole (SMX) is transformed in the presence of pyrolusite, presumably on the MnO2 surface. At least 50 percent loss of SMX was observed after 269 h, in both acidic and basic solutions (pH 3-9). Nearly 100 percent loss is recorded at pH 3 and 66 percent loss was recorded at circumneutral pH. Initial mass spectrometry of the reaction products suggests an oxidative pathway where hydroxylation and oxidation occurs at the aniline moiety and isoxazolamine ring of SMX. Concomitant increases in aqueous manganese concentrations suggest reductive transformation of the mineral surface. Ongoing electric force spectroscopy and force microscopy experiments probe potential mineral surface alteration associated with the SMX-MnO2 reaction. Coupling bulk aqueous observations and mass spectrometry with molecular-scale force microscopy should further elucidate sulfonamide reactivity as influenced by mineral surface chemistry and topography. Moreover, the observed transformation suggests manganese oxides likely play an important role in the fate of SMX in the environment.

  9. Elastic Properties of Clay Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanorio, T.; Prasad, M.; Nur, A.

    2001-12-01

    We present ultrasonic P- and S-waves velocity measurements on pure clay samples using three different experiment setups. These experiments provided petrophysical and acoustic properties of clay minerals as a function both of mineralogy and compaction. In the first experiment, acoustic measurements were performed on cold-pressed clay aggregates at ambient and at hydrostatic pressure conditions. Porosity and grain density values of the different clay mineralogy aggregates ranged from 4 to 43% and 2.13 to 2.83 g cm-3, respectively. In the second experiment, we measured P-wave velocity and attenuation in a kaolinite-water suspension in which clay concentration was increased up to 60%. In the third experiment, P- and S- wave velocities were measured during uniaxial stress compaction of clay powders. Results from all three experiments revealed low bulk (K) and shear (μ ) moduli for kaolinite, montmorillonite, and smectite; the values range between 6-12 GPa for K and 4-6 GPa for μ , respectively. Using these clay moduli values in effective medium and granular porous media models, velocity is predicted in saturated pure kaolinite samples, kaolinite suspension and shaly sandstones fairly well. Experimental results also showed that water interlayers play an important role in the compaction and strength of clay aggregates. Clay minerals carrying on water interlayers in their structure showed high compaction and strength. This study is relevant for a more reliable assessment of the seismic response in reservoirs and/or basins characterized by clay-bearing formations.

  10. Why Mineral Interfaces Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putnis, Andrew; Putnis, Christine V.

    2015-04-01

    While it is obvious that reactions between a mineral and an aqueous solution take place at the mineral-fluid interface it is only relatively recently that high spatial resolution studies have demonstrated how the local structure of the mineral surface and the chemical composition of the fluid at the interface control both the short-range and the long-range consequences of mineral-fluid interaction. Long-range consequences of fluid-mineral interaction control element cycles in the earth, the formation of ore-deposits, the chemical composition of the oceans through weathering of rocks and hence climate changes. Although weathering is clearly related to mineral dissolution, to what extent do experimentally measured dissolution rates of minerals help to understand weathering, especially weathering mechanisms? This question is related to the short-range, local reactions that take place when a mineral, that is not stable in the fluid, begins to dissolve. In this case the fluid composition at the interface will become supersaturated with respect to a different phase or phases. This may be a different composition of the same mineral e.g. a Ca-rich feldspar dissolving in a Na-rich solution results in a fluid at the interface which may be supersaturated with respect to an Na-rich feldspar. Alternatively, the interfacial fluid could be supersaturated with respect to a different mineral e.g. an Na-rich zeolite, depending on the temperature. Numerous experiments have shown that the precipitation of a more stable phase at the mineral-fluid interface results in a coupling between the dissolution and the precipitation, and the replacement of one mineral by another. This process separates the short-range mechanisms which depend only on the composition of the interfacial solution, and the long-range consequences that depend on the composition of the residual fluid released from the reacting parent mineral. Typically such residual fluids may carry metal ions tens to hundreds of

  11. Sorption Energy Maps of Clay Mineral Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Cygan, Randall T.; Kirkpatrick, R. James

    1999-07-19

    A molecular-level understanding of mineral-water interactions is critical for the evaluation and prediction of the sorption properties of clay minerals that may be used in various chemical and radioactive waste disposal methods. Molecular models of metal sorption incorporate empirical energy force fields, based on molecular orbital calculations and spectroscopic data, that account for Coulombic, van der Waals attractive, and short-range repulsive energies. The summation of the non-bonded energy terms at equally-spaced grid points surrounding a mineral substrate provides a three dimensional potential energy grid. The energy map can be used to determine the optimal sorption sites of metal ions on the exposed surfaces of the mineral. By using this approach, we have evaluated the crystallographic and compositional control of metal sorption on the surfaces of kaolinite and illite. Estimates of the relative sorption energy and most stable sorption sites are derived based on a rigid ion approximation.

  12. Minerals Yearbook, centennial edition 1981. Volume I. Metals and minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    This edition of the Minerals Yearbook Marks the centennial of the first annual publication of comprehensive mineral industry statistics by the Federal Government. This volume of the Minerals Yearbook, covering metals and minerals, contains 71 commodity or commodity group chapters with data on approximately 90 minerals that were obtained as a result of the mineral information gathering activities of the Bureau of Mines. In addition, the volume contains a chapter on mining and quarrying trends and a statistical summary.

  13. Minerals yearbook, 1993. Volume 1. Metals and minerals. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    This edition of the Mineral Yearbook discusses the performance of the worlwide minerals and materials industry during 1993 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Volume 1, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. A chapter on survey methods with a statistical summary of nonfuel minerals, and a chapters on trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries are also included.

  14. Elastic properties of minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksandrov, K.S.; Prodaivoda, G.T.

    1993-09-01

    Investigations of the elastic properties of the main rock-forming minerals were begun by T.V. Ryzhova and K.S. Aleksandrov over 30 years ago on the initiative of B.P. Belikov. At the time, information on the elasticity of single crystals in general, and especially of minerals, was very scanty. In the surveys of that time there was information on the elasticity of 20 or 30 minerals. These, as a rule, did not include the main rock-forming minerals; silicates were represented only by garnets, quartz, topaz, tourmaline, zircon, beryl, and staurolite, which are often found in nature in the form of large and fairly high-quality crystals. Then and even much later it was still necessary to prove a supposition which now seems obvious: The elastic properties of rocks, and hence the velocities of elastic (seismic) waves in the earth`s crust, are primarily determined by the elastic characteristics of the minerals composing these rocks. Proof of this assertion, with rare exceptions of mono-mineralic rocks (marble, quartzite, etc.) cannot be obtained without information on the elasticities of a sufficiently large number of minerals, primarily framework, layer, and chain silicates which constitute the basis of most rocks. This also served as the starting point and main problem of the undertakings of Aleksandrov, Ryzhova, and Belikov - systematic investigations of the elastic properties of minerals and then of various rocks. 108 refs., 7 tabs.

  15. Mineral facilities of Europe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Almanzar, Francisco; Baker, Michael S.; Elias, Nurudeen; Guzman, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This map displays over 1,700 records of mineral facilities within the countries of Europe and western Eurasia. Each record represents one commodity and one facility type at a single geographic location. Facility types include mines, oil and gas fields, and plants, such as refineries, smelters, and mills. Common commodities of interest include aluminum, cement, coal, copper, gold, iron and steel, lead, nickel, petroleum, salt, silver, and zinc. Records include attributes, such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity (if applicable), and latitude and longitude geographical coordinates (in both degrees-minutes-seconds and decimal degrees). The data shown on this map and in table 1 were compiled from multiple sources, including (1) the most recently available data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook (Europe and Central Eurasia volume), (2) mineral statistics and information from the USGS Minerals Information Web site (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/europe.html), and (3) data collected by the USGS minerals information country specialists from sources, such as statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies, and trade journals. Data reflect the most recently published table of industry structure for each country at the time of this publication. Additional information is available from the country specialists listed in table 2.

  16. Composition of the amino acid and amino sugar for molecular weight fractions of hot-water extractable soil organic matters from soils with plant residue compost or mineral fertilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriizumi, M.; Matsunaga, T.; Uezono, I.; Kato, N.

    2009-04-01

    The hot-water extractable organic nitrogen is well known as a laboratory index of mineralizable nitrogen. This available nitrogen is indispensable for growth of plants because of being absorbed in crops. We measured the composition of the amino acid and amino sugar for molecular weight fractions in hot-water extractable organic matters to understand the source of the available nitrogen in soils inserted a compost. Two soil samples were collected from fields (Soil Type; Andosol) in National Agricultural Research Center in Tsukuba, Japan. A plant residue compost of 2 kga-1y-1 during 25 year has been applied to a soil and another soil was under the mineral fertilization. Organic matters were extracted from the soils of 3 g in the water of 50 ml at 80 degree centigrade for16 hours. The molecular size distribution of the hot-water extractable organic matters was analyzed by HPSCE (column YMC Diol-120, elution; 50mM phosphate buffer under pH=7.0, flow rate 1 mlmin-1), and 20 fractions were collected at regular intervals in the retention time. The chromatograms were monitored under the absorbance at 280 nm and fluorescence intensity at Ex.280 nm: Em.330nm. The concentrations of the 15 amino acids and three amino sugars (muramic acid, glucosamine, and galactosamine) for the molecule weight fractions were measured by HPLC as o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) derivatives after the vapor HCl hydrolysis. Organic nitrogen concentrations of the hot-water extractable organic matters in the soil inserted the compost (C-soil) and the mineral fertilization soil (M-soil) were 133 and 35 mgkg-1, respectively. The extracted organic matters had the variable molecule weight (103- 104 Da). The concentrations of the amino acid and amino sugar of organic nitrogen in the C-soil were higher than those in the M-soil in all fractions. The fractions were classified into 3 groups (LW, MW, and SW) based on the molecule weight and spectroscopic characteristics. Each group had unique composition of the amino

  17. Definitions of Health Terms: Minerals

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/definitions/mineralsdefinitions.html Definitions of Health Terms : Minerals To use the sharing features on this page, ... National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements Minerals Minerals are those elements on the earth and ...

  18. Mineral Commodity Profiles -- Rubidium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butterman, W.C.; Reese, R.G., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Overview -- Rubidium is a soft, ductile, silvery-white metal that melts at 39.3 ?C. One of the alkali metals, it is positioned in group 1 (or IA) of the periodic table between potassium and cesium. Naturally occurring rubidium is slightly radioactive. Rubidium is an extremely reactive metal--it ignites spontaneously in the presence of air and decomposes water explosively, igniting the liberated hydrogen. Because of its reactivity, the metal and several of its compounds are hazardous materials, and must be stored and transported in isolation from possible reactants. Although rubidium is more abundant in the earth?s crust than copper, lead, or zinc, it forms no minerals of its own, and is, or has been, produced in small quantities as a byproduct of the processing of cesium and lithium ores taken from a few small deposits in Canada, Namibia, and Zambia. In the United States, the metal and its compounds are produced from imported raw materials by at least one company, the Cabot Corporation (Cabot, 2003). Rubidium is used interchangeably or together with cesium in many uses. Its principal application is in specialty glasses used in fiber optic telecommunication systems. Rubidium?s photoemissive properties have led to its use in night-vision devices, photoelectric cells, and photomultiplier tubes. It has several uses in medical science, such as in positron emission tomographic (PET) imaging, the treatment of epilepsy, and the ultracentrifugal separation of nucleic acids and viruses. A dozen or more other uses are known, which include use as a cocatalyst for several organic reactions and in frequency reference oscillators for telecommunications network synchronization. The market for rubidium is extremely small, amounting to 1 to 2 metric tons per year (t/yr) in the United States. World resources are vast compared with demand.

  19. Minerals Management Service: Strategic plan

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-30

    This plan addresses the management of the mineral resources on the Outer Continental Shelf in an environmentally sound and safe manner and the timely collection, verification, and distribution of mineral revenues from Federal and Indian lands. The Minerals Management Service (MMS) manages the Nation`s natural gas, oil and other mineral resources on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), and collects, accounts for, and disburses revenues from offshore federal mineral leases and from onshore mineral leases on Federal and Indian lands.

  20. Vitamins and Minerals

    MedlinePlus

    ... Also, many nutrients interact with each other. Most nutritionists believe in designing an overall program of supplements. ... SUPPLEMENTS? In addition to vitamins and minerals, some nutritionists suggest that people with HIV take supplements of ...

  1. Mineral spirits poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... substances may be found in: Mineral spirits ( Stoddard solvent ) Some paints Some floor and furniture waxes and ... for recovery. Swallowing such poisons can have severe effects on many parts of the body. The ultimate ...

  2. Minerals and mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, B.M.; Turney, W.R.

    1996-11-01

    This paper provides a review of literature published in 1995 on the subject of wastewater related to minerals and mine drainage. Topics covered include: environmental regulations and impacts; and characterization, prevention, treatment and reclamation. 65 refs.

  3. Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... Shopping Tips Food Safety Common Questions Learn More Water Printer-friendly It’s important for your body to have plenty of fluids each day. Water helps you digest food, absorb nutrients from food, ...

  4. Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... water (like a lake) or to groundwater (the fresh water found under the Earth’s surface that supplies wells ... Too much harmful algae (say: AL-jay) in freshwater or seawater can make beaches unsafe for people. ...

  5. Arsenic Adsorption Onto Iron Oxides Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aredes, S.; Klein, B.; Pawlik, M.

    2004-12-01

    The predominant form of arsenic in water is as an inorganic ion. Under different redox conditions arsenic in water is stable in the +5 and +3 oxidation states. Arsenic oxidation state governs its toxicity, chemical form and solubility in natural and disturbed environments. As (III) is found in anoxic environments such as ground water , it is toxic and the common species is the neutral form, H3AsO3. As (V) is found in aerobic conditions such as surface water, it is less toxic and the common species in water are: H2AsO4 - and HAsO4 {- 2}. The water pH determines the predominant arsenate or arsenite species, however, both forms of arsenic can be detected in natural water systems. Iron oxides minerals often form in natural waters and sediments at oxic-anoxic boundaries. Over time they undergo transformation to crystalline forms, such as goethite or hematite. Both As(V) and As(III) sorbs strongly to iron oxides, however the sorption behavior of arsenic is dependent on its oxidation state and the mineralogy of the iron oxides. Competition between arsenic and others ions, such fluoride, sulphate and phosphate also play a role. On the other hand, calcium may increase arsenic adsorption onto iron oxides. Electrokinetic studies and adsorption experiments were carried out in order to determine which conditions favour arsenic adsorption. Hematite, goethite and magnetite as iron based sorbents were used. Test were also conducted with a laterite soil rich in iron minerals. The focus of this study is to evaluate physical and chemical conditions which favour arsenic adsorption onto iron oxides minerals, the results contribute to an understanding of arsenic behaviour in natural and disturbed environments. Furthermore, results could contribute in developing an appropriate remediation technology for arsenic removal in water using iron oxides minerals.

  6. Fluorescent minerals, a review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Modreski, P.J.; Aumente-Modreski, R.

    1996-01-01

    Fluorescent minerals are more than just an attractive novelty, and collecting them is a speciality for thousands of individuals who appreciate their beauty, rarity, and scientific value. Fluorescent properties can be used as an aid to mineral identification, locality determination, and distinction between natural and synthetic gemstones. This article gives an overview of those aspects of fluorescence that are of most interest to collectors, hobbyists, and mineralogists. -from Authors

  7. Synthesis of Minerals with Iron Oxide and Hydroxide Contents as a Sorption Medium to Remove Arsenic from Water for Human Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Garrido-Hoyos, Sofia; Romero-Velazquez, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic has been classified as a toxic and carcinogenic chemical element. It therefore presents a serious environmental problem in different regions of the country and the world. In the present work, two adsorbent media were developed and evaluated to remove arsenic from water in the Pájaro Verde mine shaft, Huautla, Tlaquiltenango, Morelos. The media were synthesized and characterized, obtaining a surface area of 43.04 m2·g−1 for the goethite and 2.44 m2·g−1 for silica sand coated with Fe(III). To conduct the sorption kinetics and isotherms, a 23 factorial design was performed for each medium in order to obtain the optimal conditions for the factors of arsenic concentration, pH and mass of the adsorbent. The best results were obtained for goethite, with a removal efficiency of 98.61% (C0 of As(V) 0.360 mg·L−1), and an effluent concentration of 0.005 mg·L−1, a value that complies with the modified Official Mexican Standard NOM-127-SSA1-1994 [1] and WHO guidelines (2004) [2]. The kinetic equation that best fit the experimental data was the pseudo-second-order, resulting in the highest values for the constants for synthetic goethite, with a rate constant sorption of 4.019·g·mg−1·min−1. With respect to the sorption isotherms, both media were fitted to the Langmuir-II linear model with a sorption capacity (qm) of 0.4822 mg·g−1 for goethite and 0.2494 mg·g−1 for silica sand coated with Fe(III). PMID:26703707

  8. Synthesis of Minerals with Iron Oxide and Hydroxide Contents as a Sorption Medium to Remove Arsenic from Water for Human Consumption.

    PubMed

    Garrido-Hoyos, Sofia; Romero-Velazquez, Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic has been classified as a toxic and carcinogenic chemical element. It therefore presents a serious environmental problem in different regions of the country and the world. In the present work, two adsorbent media were developed and evaluated to remove arsenic from water in the Pájaro Verde mine shaft, Huautla, Tlaquiltenango, Morelos. The media were synthesized and characterized, obtaining a surface area of 43.04 m²·g(-1) for the goethite and 2.44 m²·g(-1) for silica sand coated with Fe(III). To conduct the sorption kinetics and isotherms, a 2³ factorial design was performed for each medium in order to obtain the optimal conditions for the factors of arsenic concentration, pH and mass of the adsorbent. The best results were obtained for goethite, with a removal efficiency of 98.61% (C₀ of As(V) 0.360 mg·L(-1)), and an effluent concentration of 0.005 mg·L(-1), a value that complies with the modified Official Mexican Standard NOM-127-SSA1-1994 [1] and WHO guidelines (2004) [2]. The kinetic equation that best fit the experimental data was the pseudo-second-order, resulting in the highest values for the constants for synthetic goethite, with a rate constant sorption of 4.019·g·mg(-1)·min(-1). With respect to the sorption isotherms, both media were fitted to the Langmuir-II linear model with a sorption capacity (qm) of 0.4822 mg·g(-1) for goethite and 0.2494 mg·g(-1) for silica sand coated with Fe(III). PMID:26703707

  9. Mineral commodity summaries 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2013-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2013 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2012 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. “Appendix C—Reserves and Resources” includes “Part A—Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals” and “Part B—Sources of Reserves Data.” A directory of USGS minerals information country specialists and their responsibilities is Appendix D. The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the MCS 2013 are welcomed.

  10. Mineral commodity summaries 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2014-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2014 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2013 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. “Appendix C—Reserves and Resources” includes “Part A—Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals” and “Part B—Sources of Reserves Data.” A directory of USGS minerals information country specialists and their responsibilities is Appendix D. The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the MCS 2014 are welcomed.

  11. Minerals yearbook, 1982. volume 1. metals and minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This volume of the Minerals Yearbook, covering metals and minerals, contains 73 commodity or commodity group chapters with data on approximately 90 minerals that were obtained as a result of the mineral information gathering activities of the Bureau of Mines. In addition, the volume contains a chapter on mining and quarrying trends and a statistical summary.

  12. Minerals yearbook, 1983. Volume 1. Metals and minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This volume of the Minerals Yearbook, covering metals and minerals, contains 73 commodity or commodity group chapters with data on approximately 90 minerals that were obtained as a result of the mineral information gathering activities of the Bureau of Mines. In addition, the volume contains a chapter on mining and quarrying trends and a statistical summary.

  13. Mathematical model for bone mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Komarova, Svetlana V.; Safranek, Lee; Gopalakrishnan, Jay; Ou, Miao-jung Yvonne; McKee, Marc D.; Murshed, Monzur; Rauch, Frank; Zuhr, Erica

    2015-01-01

    Defective bone mineralization has serious clinical manifestations, including deformities and fractures, but the regulation of this extracellular process is not fully understood. We have developed a mathematical model consisting of ordinary differential equations that describe collagen maturation, production and degradation of inhibitors, and mineral nucleation and growth. We examined the roles of individual processes in generating normal and abnormal mineralization patterns characterized using two outcome measures: mineralization lag time and degree of mineralization. Model parameters describing the formation of hydroxyapatite mineral on the nucleating centers most potently affected the degree of mineralization, while the parameters describing inhibitor homeostasis most effectively changed the mineralization lag time. Of interest, a parameter describing the rate of matrix maturation emerged as being capable of counter-intuitively increasing both the mineralization lag time and the degree of mineralization. We validated the accuracy of model predictions using known diseases of bone mineralization such as osteogenesis imperfecta and X-linked hypophosphatemia. The model successfully describes the highly nonlinear mineralization dynamics, which includes an initial lag phase when osteoid is present but no mineralization is evident, then fast primary mineralization, followed by secondary mineralization characterized by a continuous slow increase in bone mineral content. The developed model can potentially predict the function for a mutated protein based on the histology of pathologic bone samples from mineralization disorders of unknown etiology. PMID:26347868

  14. Scientists observe fungi-dissolving minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Atreyee

    2012-10-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) live in moist dark recesses and never see daylight. They cling to the roots of trees in boreal forests, break down soil minerals and supply essential elements and nutrients to the trees. Along the way, they play a distinct but not yet well-understood role in bioweathering, a process in which water, air, and organisms interact to break down soil minerals within the first few meters of Earth's surface. In a synthetically designed and controlled laboratory environment, Gazzè et al. cultured EMF; the researchers monitored the process as the fungi colonized a soil mineral on a petri dish over a period of 7 months. The authors then extracted individual grains of chlorite, a common soil-forming clay mineral, and cleaned the mineral surfaces to look at how the fungi had affected the mineral surfaces they came in contact with. Using atomic force microscopy, a specialized process that allows observations of three-dimensional features at nanometer (10-9 meter) scales, the authors found numerous primary channels, of the order of a micron (10-6 meters) in width and up to 50 nanometers in depth, from which smaller secondary channels extended outward. The network of channels resembled a herringbone-like pattern—evidence of dissolution by EMF.

  15. Minerals Yearbook, 1989. Volume i. Metals and Minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The edition of the Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide mineral industry during 1989 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. A chapter on advanced materials also has been added to the Minerals Yearbook series beginning with the 1989 volume. In addition, a chapter on survey methods used in data collection with a statistical summary of nonfuel minerals and a chapter on trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries are included.

  16. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Outbreak Linked to Mineral Water Bottles in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: Fast Typing by Use of High-Resolution Melting Analysis of a Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Locus▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Naze, F.; Jouen, E.; Randriamahazo, R. T.; Simac, C.; Laurent, P.; Blériot, A.; Chiroleu, F.; Gagnevin, L.; Pruvost, O.; Michault, A.

    2010-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that causes nosocomial infections in intensive care units. Determining a system of typing that is discriminatory is essential for epidemiological surveillance of P. aeruginosa. We developed a method for the typing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, namely, multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) typing with high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA). The technology was used to genotype a collection of 43 environmental and clinical strains isolated during an outbreak in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) that we report. Nineteen strains isolated in other departments or outside the hospital were also tested. The genetic diversity of this collection was determined using VNTR-HRMA, with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis as a reference. Twenty-five and 28 genotypes were identified, respectively, and both techniques produced congruent data. VNTR-HRMA established clonal relationships between the strains of P. aeruginosa isolated during the outbreak in the NICU and proved, for the first time, the role of mineral water as the inoculum source. VNTR typing with one primer pair in association with HRMA is highly reproducible and discriminative, easily portable among laboratories, fast, and inexpensive, and it demonstrated excellent typeability in this study. VNTR-HRMA represents a promising tool for the molecular surveillance of P. aeruginosa and perhaps for molecular epidemiologic analysis of other hospital infections. PMID:20573865

  17. Integrated Spectroscopic Studies of Anhydrous Sulfate Minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, M. D.; Bishop, J. L.; Dyar, M. D.; Cloutis, E.; Forray, F. L.; Hiroi, T.

    2005-01-01

    Sulfates have been identified in Martian soils and bedrock and are emerging as an important indicator for aqueous activity on Mars. Sulfate minerals can form in a variety of low-temperature (evaporitic; chemical-weathering) and high-temperature (volcanic/fumarolic; hydrothermal) environments and their formational environments can range from alkaline to acidic. Although sulfates generally form in the presence of water, not all sulfates are hydrous or contain water in their structures. Many of these anhydrous sulfates (Dana group 28; Strunz class 67A) are minerals that form as accompanying phases to the main minerals in ore deposits or as replacement deposits in sedimentary rocks. However, some form from thermal decomposition of OH or H2O-bearing sulfates, such as from the reaction [1]: jarosite = yavapaiite + Fe2O3 + H2O. Where known, the stability fields of these minerals all suggest that they would be stable under martian surface conditions [2]. Thus, anhydrous sulfate minerals may contribute to martian surface mineralogy, so they must be well-represented in spectral libraries used for interpretation of the Martian surface. We present here the preliminary results of an integrated study of emittance, reflectance, and Mossbauer spectroscopy of a suite of wel-lcharacterized anhydrous sulfates.

  18. Abscisic Acid in relation to mineral deprivation.

    PubMed

    Mizrahi, Y; Richmond, A E

    1972-12-01

    Tobacco (Nicotiana rustica) plants growing in half-strength Hoagland solution were deprived of nutrients by being transferred to distilled water. The abscisic acid content of leaves in the mineral-deprived plants rose continuously throughout the 7 days of the experimental period. However, although the content of ABA rose within 24 hours, a decline in growth and leaf-chlorophyll were discernible only after the 4th day of mineral deprivation. As anticipated, mineral-deprived (stressed) plants exhibit "resistance" to lack of aeration in the root medium, similar to that shown in salt-stressed plants or plants that were pretreated with absiscic acid. When the mineral-deprived plants were returned to half-strength Hoagland, the content of leaf abscisic acid declined to the prestressed level and the "resistance" to lack of root aeration disappeared.These results indicate that an increase in abscisic acid may be induced by conditions unfavorable to growth and not exclusively by conditions affecting the plant's water balance. In addition, the work also indicates that mineral deficiency is associated with significant modification in the hormonal balance of the plant. PMID:16658239

  19. REACTIVE MINERALS IN AQUIFERS: FORMATION PROCESSES AND QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation will focus on the occurrence, form, and characterization of reactive iron minerals in aquifers and soils. The potential for abiotic reductive transformations of contaminants at the mineral-water interface will be discussed along with available tools for site min...

  20. Activation of Hydrogen Peroxide by Iron-Containing Minerals and Catalysts in Circumneutral pH Solutions: Implications for ex situ and in situ Treatment of Contaminated Water and Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Anh Le Tuan

    based on size exclusion. However, a major drawback of the mesoporous silica-based catalysts is their instability under circumneutral conditions (Chapter 6). The dissolution of mesoporous silica materials raises questions about their use for water treatment, because silica dissolution might compromise the behavior of the material. To gain insight into factors that control H2O2 persistence and •OH yield in in situ processes, the decomposition of H2O2 and transformation of contaminants were investigated in the presence of iron-containing minerals and aquifer materials (Chapter 3). Consistent with the observation described in Chapter 2, iron-containing aluminosilicates were more effective than iron oxides in converting H2O2 into •OH. In both iron-containing mineral and aquifer material systems, the yield of •OH was inversely correlated with the rate of H 2O2 decomposition. In the aquifer material systems, the yield also inversely correlated with the Mn content, consistent with the fact that the decomposition of H2O2 on manganese oxides does not produce •OH. The inverse correlation between Mn content and H2O2 loss rate and •OH yield suggests that the amount of Mn in aquifer materials could serve as a proxy for predicting H2O2 decomposition rates and contaminant oxidation efficiency. In addition to the surface and structure properties of iron solids, the presence of solutes, such as dissolved silica, also affected the decomposition of H2O2 (Chapter 4). The adsorption of dissolved silica onto mineral surfaces altered the catalytic sites, thereby decreasing the reactivity of iron- and manganese-containing minerals with H2O 2. Therefore, the presence of dissolved SiO2 could lead to greater persistence of H2O2 in groundwater, which should be considered in the design of in situ H2O 2-based treatment systems. In addition to in situ treatment, dissolved silica also can affect the reactivity of iron-containing catalysts used in ex situ processes. Therefore, its presence in

  1. Precise determination of δ88Sr in rocks, minerals, and waters by double-spike TIMS: A powerful tool in the study of chemical, geologic, hydrologic and biologic processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neymark, Leonid A.; Premo, Wayne R.; Mel'nikov, Nikolay N.; Emsbo, Poul

    2014-01-01

    We present strontium isotopic (88Sr/86Sr and 87Sr/86Sr) results obtained by 87Sr–84Sr double spike thermal ionization mass-spectrometry (DS-TIMS) for several standards as well as natural water samples and mineral samples of abiogenic and biogenic origin. The detailed data reduction algorithm and a user-friendly Sr-specific stand-alone computer program used for the spike calibration and the data reduction are also presented. Accuracy and precision of our δ88Sr measurements, calculated as permil (‰) deviations from the NIST SRM-987 standard, were evaluated by analyzing the NASS-6 seawater standard, which yielded δ88Sr = 0.378 ± 0.009‰. The first DS-TIMS data for the NIST SRM-607 potassium feldspar standard and for several US Geological Survey carbonate, phosphate, and silicate standards (EN-1, MAPS-4, MAPS-5, G-3, BCR-2, and BHVO-2) are also reported. Data obtained during this work for Sr-bearing solids and natural waters show a range of δ88Sr values of about 2.4‰, the widest observed so far in terrestrial materials. This range is easily resolvable analytically because the demonstrated external error (±SD, standard deviation) for measured δ88Sr values is typically ≤0.02‰. It is shown that the “true” 87Sr/86Sr value obtained by the DS-TIMS or any other external normalization method combines radiogenic and mass-dependent mass-fractionation effects, which cannot be separated. Therefore, the “true” 87Sr/86Sr and the δ87Sr parameter derived from it are not useful isotope tracers. Data presented in this paper for a wide range of naturally occurring sample types demonstrate the potential of the δ88Sr isotope tracer in combination with the traditional radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr tracer for studying a variety of biological, hydrological, and geological processes.

  2. Minerals yearbook, 1993. Volume 1. Metals and minerals. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    This edition of the Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industry during 1993 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. It contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. A chapter on survey methods with a statistical summary of nonfuel minerals, and a chapter on trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries are also included.

  3. Minerals yearbook, 1994. Volume 1. Metals and minerals. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The edition of the Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industry during 1994 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. The volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. The volume also contains chapters on Survey Methods, a Statistical Summary of Nonfuel Minerals, and Trends in Mining and Quarrying.

  4. The mineral economy of Brazil--Economia mineral do Brasil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gurmendi, Alfredo C.; Barboza, Frederico Lopes; Thorman, Charles H.

    1999-01-01

    This study depicts the Brazilian government structure, mineral legislation and investment policy, taxation, foreign investment policies, environmental laws and regulations, and conditions in which the mineral industry operates. The report underlines Brazil's large and diversified mineral endowment. A total of 37 mineral commodities, or groups of closely related commodities, is discussed. An overview of the geologic setting of the major mineral deposits is presented. This report is presented in English and Portuguese in pdf format.

  5. Infrared Extinction Spectra of Mineral Dust Aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleiber, P.; Laskina, O.; Alexander, J. M.; Young, M.; Grassian, V. H.

    2012-12-01

    Mineral dust aerosol affects the atmosphere by absorbing and scattering radiation and plays an important role in the Earth's radiative budget. The effect of atmospheric dust on climate is studied by various remote sensing techniques that use measurements from narrow band IR channels of satellites to determine key atmospheric properties. Therefore, it is essential to take radiative effects of mineral dust aerosol into account to correctly process remote sensing data. As aerosols are transported through the atmosphere they undergo aging and heterogeneous chemistry. This leads to changes in their optical properties and their effects on climate. In this study we carried out spectral simulations using both Mie theory and solutions derived in the Rayleigh regime for authentic dust samples and several processed components of mineral dust. Simulations of the extinction based on Mie theory shows that it does not accurately reproduce the peak position and band shape of the prominent IR resonance features. Errors in the simulated peak position and the line shape associated with Mie theory can adversely affect determination of mineral composition based on IR satellite data. Analytic solutions for various shapes derived from Rayleigh theory offer a better fit to the major band features of the spectra, therefore the accuracy of modeling atmospheric dust properties can be improved by using these analytic solutions. It is also important to take aging of mineral dust into account. We investigated the effect of chemical processing on the optical properties. It was shown that interactions of components of mineral dust (calcite, quartz and kaolinite) with humic and organic acids cause a shift of the IR resonance bands of these minerals. It may indicate changes in shape of the particles as well as changes in hygroscopicity and, as the result, the water content in these samples. Therefore, care should be taken when modeling optical properties of aged mineral dust.

  6. Measuring the Hardness of Minerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushby, Jessica

    2005-01-01

    The author discusses Moh's hardness scale, a comparative scale for minerals, whereby the softest mineral (talc) is placed at 1 and the hardest mineral (diamond) is placed at 10, with all other minerals ordered in between, according to their hardness. Development history of the scale is outlined, as well as a description of how the scale is used…

  7. Animal...Vegetable...or Mineral?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Eugene

    1973-01-01

    Outlines the problems facing the United States with mineral reserves being depleted, and the consumption of minerals outstripping production. Expresses concern about the deteriorating mineral position, and the ignorance and confusion of the public with respect to mineral production and supply, energy requirements, and environmental consequences.…

  8. The mineral industry of Ethiopia: present conditions and future prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assefa, Getaneh

    Despite a record of mineral activity that dates back to Biblical times and the occurrence of a wide variety of minerals, as well as continuing efforts to discover major ore deposits, Ethiopia's mineral resources ahve remained of minor importance in the world economy. Mineral production in the last 20 years, for example, forms less than 1% of the estimated GDP. Well known minerals andmineral products available in the country in commercial quantities are: gold, platinum, manganese ore, natural agas, clays and clay products, feldspars, gypsum and anhydrite, slat, lime, limestone, cement, sand, structural and crushed stones, marble, mineral water and pumice. There are also vast reserves of water and geothermal power. Recently discovered deposits (over the last 20 years), with major reserves that may attain an important role in mineral production in the future, include potash salts, copper ore and diatomites. Minerals which are known to occur in Ethiopia, but of which supplies are deficient, or which have not yet been proved to exist in economic quantities are: nickel, iron, chromium, mineral fuels (oil, coal and uranium), sulphur, asbesttos, mica, talc, barytes, fluorites, borates, soda-ash, phosphates, wolframite, abrasives (garnet), molybdenite and vanadium. Within the last few years there has been an increasing appreciation of the economic significance of a mineral industry and a definite attempt to foster it. Mineral ownership is vested in the state are cotnrolled by the MInistry of Mines, Energy and Water Resources. The law relating to foreign investment in mines is liberal. The plans for the future have to provide for detailed and intensive exploration of the country's mineral resources, manufacture and fabrication.

  9. [Mineralization of heart valves].

    PubMed

    Pawlikowski, M; Pfitzner, R

    1992-01-01

    Mineralization (calcification) of heart valves (mitral, aortic and aortic bioprosthesis) have been analyzed using; histology, x-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, scanning microscopy, atomic absorption and electron microprobe. Obtained results showed the presence of two type of mineralization. First type is represented by grains composed of hydroxyapatite containing admixture of carbonates. This mineralization is seen macroscopically. Second type of mineralization is possible to determine only using chemical methods. It is represented by biological structures containing amount of Ca, P and other elements higher then normal heart valves. This second type of the mineralization conducts to the changes of physical features of the tissue. Both types of calcification develops because of the defects of atomic structure of biological components of heart valves (mainly collagen). These defects show the presence of free atomic bindings i.e. electric potential. Because of this, they are able to react with surrounding free joints, starting calcification. Defects of biological structures of heart valves are the results of infections, mechanical destruction of the valves etc. Calcification may be stopped on different stages of its development: or as secret calcification or may pass to the stage seen as apatite grains. PMID:1342999

  10. American Strategic Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeYoung, John H., Jr.; Chidester, Alfred H.

    American Strategic Minerals is a collection of six papers that were presented in December 1982 at a conference organized by the Center for the Study of Marine Policy at the University of Delaware. According to editor Gerard J. Mangone, director of the center, the papers were commissioned “to investigate not only the objective resource situation, but also past United States policy on strategic minerals and future options open to Washington.” The authors and their chapter titles are John C. Kraft, University of Del