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Sample records for low-frequency mammalian oscillator

  1. [Low-Frequency Flow Oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg, Michael B.

    1997-01-01

    The results of the research conducted under this grant are presented in detail in three Master theses, by Heinrich, Balow, and Broeren. Additional analysis of the experimental data can be found in two AIAA Journal articles and two conference papers. Citations for all of the studies' publications can be found in the bibliography which is attached. The objective of Heinrich's study was to document the low-frequency flow oscillation on the LRN-1007 airfoil, which had been previously observed at low Reynolds number, to determine its origin, and explore the phenomenon at higher Reynolds number. Heinrich performed detailed flow visualization on the airfoil using surface fluorescent oil and laser-sheet off-body visualization. A large leading-edge separation bubble and trailing-edge separation was identified on the airfoil just prior to the onset of the unsteady stall flow oscillation. From the laser-sheet data, the unsteady flow appeared as a massive boundary-layer separation followed by flow reattachment. Hot-wire data were taken in the wake to identify the presence of the flow oscillation and the dominant frequency. The oscillation was found in the flow from a Reynolds number of 0.3 to 1.3 x 10 exp 6. The Strouhal number based on airfoil projected height was nominally 0.02 and increased slightly with increasing Reynolds number and significantly with increasing airfoil angle of attack. Balow focused his research on the leading-edge separation bubble which was hypothesized to be the origin of the low-frequency oscillation. Initially, experimental measurements in the bubble at the onset of the low-frequency oscillation were attempted to study the characteristics of the bubble and explain possible relationships to the shear-layer-flapping phenomena. Unfortunately, the bubble proved to be extremely sensitive to the probe interference and it drastically reduced the size of the bubble. These detailed measurements were then abandoned by Balow. However, this led to a series of

  2. Low-frequency oscillations in Hall thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Li-Qiu; Han, Liang; Yu, Da-Ren; Guo, Ning

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we summarize the research development of low-frequency oscillations in the last few decades. The findings of physical mechanism, characteristics and stabilizing methods of low-frequency oscillations are discussed. It shows that it is unreasonable and incomplete to model an ionization region separately to analyze the physical mechanism of low-frequency oscillations. Electro-dynamics as well as the formation conditions of ionization distribution play an important role in characteristics and stabilizing of low-frequency oscillations. Understanding the physical mechanism and characteristics of low- frequency oscillations thoroughly and developing a feasible method stabilizing this instability are still important research subjects. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51477035), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. HIT.NSRIF 2015064), and the Open Research Fund Program of State Key Laboratory of Cryogenic Vacuum Technology and Physics, China (Grant No. ZDK201304).

  3. Hemodynamic responses can modulate the brain oscillations in low frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Feng-Mei; Wang, Yi-Feng; Yuan, Zhen

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have showed that the steady-state responses were able to be used as an effective index for modulating the neural oscillations in the high frequency ranges (> 1 Hz). However, the neural oscillations in low frequency ranges (<1 Hz) remain unknown. In this study, a series of fNIRS experimental tests were conducted to validate if the low frequency bands (0.1 Hz - 0.8 Hz) steady-state hemoglobin responses (SSHbRs) could be evoked and modulate the neural oscillation during a serial reaction time (SRT) task.

  4. Improvement of the low frequency oscillation model for Hall thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunsheng; Wang, Huashan

    2016-08-01

    The low frequency oscillation of the discharge current in Hall thrusters is a major aspect of these devices that requires further study. While the existing model captures the ionization mechanism of the low frequency oscillation, it unfortunately fails to express the dynamic characteristics of the ion acceleration. The analysis in this paper shows this is because of the simplification of the electron equation, which affects both the electric field distribution and the ion acceleration process. Additionally, the electron density equation is revised and a new model that is based on the physical properties of ion movement is proposed.

  5. Low-frequency oscillations in radiative-convective systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, QI; Randall, David A.

    1994-01-01

    Although eastward propagation has long been considered one of the essential features of the Madden-Julian waves, recent observations have revealed a stationary or quasi-stationary component in the oscillations, particularly in measures of the diabatic heating rate. Wave-CISK theories of the low-frequency oscillations have struggled to explain the observed period and vertical structure of the waves. On the other hand, theoretical and numerical studies have shown that low-frequency waves strongly resembling the observed oscillations can be excited by specified low-frequency oscillations of the convective heating. A problem with the latter set of theories is that the cause of the oscillatory heating has not been satisfactorily explained. It is proposed here that the observed low-frequency wave motions are the response to forcing by an essentially stationary, self-excited oscillating heat source that is produced by nonlinear interactions among radiation, cumulus convection, and the surface fluxes of sensible heat and moisture. Feedback of the large-scale motions on the latent heating is not required. Results from two very different one-dimensional models are presented to support this hypothesis. The physical processes included in the models are essentially the same, that is, radiation, cumulus convection, and the surface fluxes of sensible heat and moisture; the first model is highly simplified, however, while the second includes relatively sophisticated parameterizations of all the relevant physical processes. Results from both models show low-frequency oscillations of the latent heating, temperature, and moisture. Experiments show that the oscillations are favored by a warm sea surface and weak surface wind speeds, consistent with the observed conditions over the Indian Ocean and the tropical western Pacific Ocean.

  6. Stochastic regimes in very-low-frequency fluidic oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesař, Václav

    2016-03-01

    Paper discusses interesting unexpected stochastic regimes discovered in a fluidic oscillator designed for operation at very low oscillation frequencies - without the inconvenience of the long feedback loops needed in standard low-frequency oscillator designs. The new oscillator contains a pair of bistable turn-down active valves operating in anti-parallel — essentially analogous to Abraham & Bloch electric "multibrateur" invented in 1919. Three different self-excited oscillation regimes were found. In the order of increasing supplied flow rate, these regimes are characterised by: (A) generation of stochastic-duration multi-pulse packs, (B) generation of individual pulses with a degree of periodicity, and (C) regime with randomly appearing flow pulses separated by intervals of the order of seconds.

  7. Low-frequency oscillations in radiative-convective models

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Qi; Randall, D.A.

    1991-12-31

    Although eastward propagation is usually regarded as an essential feature of the low-frequency ``Madden-Julian oscillation`` observed in the tropical atmosphere, many observations indicate that there is an important stationary or quasi-stationary component of the oscillation. Yasunari (1979), for example, investigated the stationary 30--60 day variation in upper tropospheric cloudiness in the Asian summer monsoon region. In a case study of the 30--60 day oscillation. Hsu et al. (1990) found a strong stationary oscillation of the divergence, outgoing longwave mdiadon and other fields. A recent observational study by Weickmann and Khalsa (1990) offers further evidence that the Madden-Julian oscillation has an important stationary component. In this paper, we present evidence that intraseasonal oscillations can be produced by local radiative and convective processes. This suggests that the observed propagating Madden-Julian wave is produced by interactions between these local processes and the large scale motion field, and is not essential for the existence of the observed oscillation.

  8. Low-frequency oscillations in radiative-convective models

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Qi; Randall, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    Although eastward propagation is usually regarded as an essential feature of the low-frequency Madden-Julian oscillation'' observed in the tropical atmosphere, many observations indicate that there is an important stationary or quasi-stationary component of the oscillation. Yasunari (1979), for example, investigated the stationary 30--60 day variation in upper tropospheric cloudiness in the Asian summer monsoon region. In a case study of the 30--60 day oscillation. Hsu et al. (1990) found a strong stationary oscillation of the divergence, outgoing longwave mdiadon and other fields. A recent observational study by Weickmann and Khalsa (1990) offers further evidence that the Madden-Julian oscillation has an important stationary component. In this paper, we present evidence that intraseasonal oscillations can be produced by local radiative and convective processes. This suggests that the observed propagating Madden-Julian wave is produced by interactions between these local processes and the large scale motion field, and is not essential for the existence of the observed oscillation.

  9. Low-frequency oscillations of the level of enclosed sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotaev, G. K.

    2015-07-01

    This work studies the variable surface level of a small enclosed basin that is related to the problem of interpreting satellite altimetric data, which assist in observations only of a deviation of a marine basin from unknown average condition needed to be calculated for the reconstruction of the sea-level topography. The reconstruction of unknown average condition becomes especially uncertain for the enclosed basins with significant level oscillations due to a variable water balance and requires the attraction of a priori physical concepts. This work reveals the general principles of response of the sea level to the low-frequency changes of the water exchange through the boundary of the basin with a rather arbitrary morphology.

  10. Analysis of Low Frequency Oscillations in Magnetron Injection Guns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Youlei; Luo, Yong; Yan, Ran; Liu, Guo; Jiang, Wei

    2012-02-01

    In our gyro-TWT experiments, low-frequency oscillations (LFOs) had been observed. LFOs is a physical phenomenon usually caused by the electrons trapped between the magnetron injection guns (MIGs) and the interaction region. In this paper, the formation procedure and physical mechanism of LFOs are reported. Available methods including optimizing the magnetic field distribution in the beam compression region and loading bevel cuts on the second anode are involved to capture the trapped electrons, suppress the LFOs and improve the helical electron beam quality. Simulations and experimental results are in good agreement with each other and also reveal the reasonableness of this means. Finally, the influence of current capture ratio on LFOs and the beam quality are studied. With the current capture ratio increasing, the amplitude of LFOs decreases, the pitch factor maintains a constant about 1.2 and we also demonstrate a low transverse velocity spread about 3%.

  11. Endogenous modulation of low frequency oscillations by temporal expectations

    PubMed Central

    Cravo, Andre M.; Rohenkohl, Gustavo; Wyart, Valentin

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have associated increasing temporal expectations with synchronization of higher frequency oscillations and suppression of lower frequencies. In this experiment, we explore a proposal that low-frequency oscillations provide a mechanism for regulating temporal expectations. We used a speeded Go/No-go task and manipulated temporal expectations by changing the probability of target presentation after certain intervals. Across two conditions, the temporal conditional probability of target events differed substantially at the first of three possible intervals. We found that reactions times differed significantly at this first interval across conditions, decreasing with higher temporal expectations. Interestingly, the power of theta activity (4–8 Hz), distributed over central midline sites, also differed significantly across conditions at this first interval. Furthermore, we found a transient coupling between theta phase and beta power after the first interval in the condition with high temporal expectation for targets at this time point. Our results suggest that the adjustments in theta power and the phase-power coupling between theta and beta contribute to a central mechanism for controlling neural excitability according to temporal expectations. PMID:21900508

  12. Modulating action of low frequency oscillations on high frequency instabilities in Hall thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liqiu, Wei; Liang, Han; Ziyi, Yang; Jing, Li; Yong, Cao; Daren, Yu; Jianhua, Du

    2015-02-01

    It is found that the low frequency oscillations have modulating action on high frequency instabilities in Hall thrusters. The physical mechanism of this modulation is discussed and verified by numerical simulations. Theoretical analyses indicate that the wide-range fluctuations of plasma density and electric field associated with the low frequency oscillations affect the electron drift velocity and anomalous electron transport across the magnetic field. The amplitude and frequency of high frequency oscillations are modulated by low frequency oscillations, which show the periodic variation in the time scale of low frequency oscillations.

  13. Modulating action of low frequency oscillations on high frequency instabilities in Hall thrusters

    SciTech Connect

    Liqiu, Wei E-mail: weiliqiu@hit.edu.cn; Liang, Han; Ziyi, Yang; Jing, Li; Yong, Cao; Daren, Yu; Jianhua, Du

    2015-02-07

    It is found that the low frequency oscillations have modulating action on high frequency instabilities in Hall thrusters. The physical mechanism of this modulation is discussed and verified by numerical simulations. Theoretical analyses indicate that the wide-range fluctuations of plasma density and electric field associated with the low frequency oscillations affect the electron drift velocity and anomalous electron transport across the magnetic field. The amplitude and frequency of high frequency oscillations are modulated by low frequency oscillations, which show the periodic variation in the time scale of low frequency oscillations.

  14. LOW-FREQUENCY OSCILLATIONS IN XTE J1550-564

    SciTech Connect

    Rao Fengyun; Belloni, Tomaso; Stella, Luigi; Zhang Shuangnan; Li Tipei E-mail: tomaso.belloni@brera.inaf.i

    2010-05-10

    We present the results of a timing analysis of the low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) in the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer data of the black hole binary XTE J1550-564 during its 1998 outburst. The QPO frequency is observed to vary on timescales between {approx}100 s and days, correlated with the count rate contribution from the optically thick accretion disk: we studied this correlation and discuss its influence on the QPO width. In all observations, the quality factors ({nu}{sub 0}/FWHM) of the fundamental and second harmonic peaks were observed to be consistent, suggesting that the quasi-periodic nature of the oscillation is due to frequency modulation. In addition to the QPO and its harmonic peaks, a new 1.5{nu} component was detected in the power spectra. This component is broad, with a quality factor of {approx}0.6. From this, we argue that the peak observed at half the QPO frequency, usually referred to as 'sub-harmonic', could be the fundamental frequency, leading to the sequence 1:2:3:4. We also studied the energy dependence of the timing features and conclude that the two continuum components observed in the power spectrum, although both more intense at high energies, show a different dependence on energy. At low energies, the lowest-frequency component dominates, while at high energies the higher-frequency one has a higher fractional rms. An interplay between these two components was also observed as a function of their characteristic frequency. In this source, the transition between the low/hard state and the hard-intermediate state appears to be a smooth process.

  15. Low-frequency combustion oscillations in a model afterburner

    SciTech Connect

    Macquisten, M.A.; Dowling, A.P. )

    1993-08-01

    Low-frequency combustion oscillations, involving the interaction between longitudinal acoustic waves and unsteady combustion, are investigated for a model afterburner. An experimental rig, in which a confined flame is stabilized in the wake of a conical gutter, is run with inlet conditions representative of an engine afterburner. Results are presented for inlet Mach numbers in the range of 0.15--0.27, with inlet temperatures up to 630 K. Comparison is made between theory and experiment. Although the theory was developed from low Mach number data, it is found to apply equally well at these faster flow rates. The theory is able to predict the frequency of the instability and the mode shape, accurately reproducing the changes due to variations in the inlet Mach number and temperature. The effect of altering the downstream boundary condition by replacing the open end by a choked nozzle is also investigated. Such a change is found to be highly destabilizing, both experimentally and theoretically. Again, predictions from the theory are in good agreement with the observations.

  16. Peak luminosity correlated low-frequency oscillations in black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z. B.; Gao, H. Q.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, S.; Qu, J. L.; Zhang, C. M.; Song, L. M.

    2014-05-01

    Based on Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observational data, we study the timing and spectral properties of some peculiar low-frequency (LF) quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs), which have been found at the peak luminosity of the outburst of some transient black hole (BH) binaries: the 2005 outburst of GRO J1655-40, the 2003 outburst of H1743-322 and the 1998 outburst of XTE J1550-564. Appearing in the ultraluminous state, these QPOs from different sources show some common properties. The amplitude is very weak (less than 1 per cent) and the quality factor is larger than 6. Moreover, these QPOs (about several Hz) sometimes show up simultaneously with another QPO (about 10 Hz), but their frequencies are not harmonically related. We also find that the frequencies of these QPOs are inversely correlated with the mass of the BH, which implies that these QPOs might be correlated with the innermost stable circular orbit. The QPO frequency is also negative correlated with the inner disc radius among BHs. However, its frequency is too low to ascribe it to the Keperlian orbit frequency. Moreover, we discuss the physical origin of these QPOs and we suggest that they are not produced by the viscous variability of the inner disc either.

  17. Effect of preionization in Aton-type Hall thruster on low frequency oscillation

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Daren; Wei Liqiu; Zhao Zuoyang; Han Ke; Yan Guojun

    2008-04-15

    It was found through the experiments made with an Aton-type Hall thruster that some of the propellant was ionized in the buffer chamber by 'quick electrons'. This ionization is called 'preionization' to discriminate it from the ionization in the discharge channel. The effect of preionization on low frequency oscillation was experimentally studied by changing the electric field intensity in the buffer chamber. The relationship between low frequency oscillation and preionization ratio was investigated through numerical simulation using a one-dimensional quasineutrality hydrodynamic model. The results obtained indicate that the amplitude of low frequency oscillation decreases as the preionization ratio increases. It was found through the analysis and numerical simulation of the physical process of low frequency oscillation that the positive feedback of electron density was the main cause of low frequency oscillation. The increase of preionization ratio decreases the amplitude of the feedback variation thereby reducing the amplitude of low frequency oscillation.

  18. Abnormality of low frequency cerebral hemodynamics oscillations in TBI population.

    PubMed

    Chernomordik, Victor; Amyot, Franck; Kenney, Kimbra; Wassermann, Eric; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Gandjbakhche, Amir

    2016-05-15

    Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) can non-invasively capture dynamic cognitive activation and underlying physiological processes by measuring changes in oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin levels, correlated to brain activation. It is a portable, inexpensive and user-friendly device which is easily adapted to the outpatient setting for the assessment of cognitive functions after Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). Low frequency oscillations in hemodynamic signal, attributed in the literature to cerebral autoregulation, were assessed using recently introduced metrics, Oxygenation Variability (OV Index), obtained from oxy/deoxy-hemoglobin variations in response to mental tasks for a group of healthy control (HC, n=14) and TBI (n=29). Participants responded to an action complexity judgment task (evaluating the complexity of daily life activities by classifying the number of steps as "few" or "many") with a varying degree of cognitive load to produce brain activation. During the task, we measured blood variations with fNIRS and analyzed OV Index changes. Mean OV indices, corresponding to high complexity tasks, are higher than that of low complexity tasks in the HC group, revealing strong parametric effect (0.039±0.017 for low, 0.057±0.036 for high, p-value=0.069). However, no significant difference has been recorded for the OV indexes for two different loads in the TBI group (0.055±0.033 for low, 0.054±0.035 for high, p=0.9). OV index metrics proves to be sensitive to chronic TBI and can potentially be used to separate subpopulations TBI vs. HC. Noticeable differences in OV index spatial distributions between subpopulations have been observed. PMID:26996413

  19. Low Frequency High Amplitude Temperature Oscillations in Loop Heat Pipe Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung; Rodriguez, Jose

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on the low frequency high amplitude temperature oscillations observed in loop heat pipe operations. The topics include: 1) Proposed Theory; 2) Test Loop and Test Results; and 3) Effects of Various Parameters. The author also presents a short summary on the conditiions that must be met in order to sustain a low frequency high amplitude temperature oscillation.

  20. Hydrodynamic Force on a Cylinder Oscillating at Low Frequency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Robert F.; Yao, Minwu; Panzarella, Charles H.

    2007-01-01

    The hydrodynamic force on a cylinder oscillating transversely to its axis is a nonlinear function of the displacement amplitude x0. We report measurements and numerical calculations of the force at frequencies low enough that delta > R, where delta is the viscous penetration length and R is the cylinder radius. For small amplitudes, the numerically calculated Fourier transform of the force per unit length, F(sub small), agrees with Stokes' analytical calculation. For larger amplitudes, the force per unit length found by both calculation and measurement is F = F(sub small)C (x(sub 0)/delta,R/delta). The complex function C depends only weakly on R/delta, indicating that x0/delta is more appropriate as a scaling variable than the Keulegan-Carpenter number KC = pi*x(sub 0)/R. The measurements used a torsion oscillator driven at frequencies from 1 to 12 Hz while immersed in dense xenon. The oscillator comprised cylinders with an effective radius of R = 13.4 micron and oscillation amplitudes as large as x(sub 0)/delta = 4 (corresponding to KC as large as 71). The calculations used similar conditions except that the amplitudes were as large as x0/delta = 28.

  1. Synchronization of low-frequency oscillations in the human cardiovascular system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karavaev, A. S.; Prokhorov, M. D.; Ponomarenko, V. I.; Kiselev, A. R.; Gridnev, V. I.; Ruban, E. I.; Bezruchko, B. P.

    2009-09-01

    We investigate synchronization between the low-frequency oscillations of heart rate and blood pressure having in humans a basic frequency close to 0.1 Hz. A method is proposed for quantitative estimation of synchronization between these oscillating processes based on calculation of relative time of phase synchronization of oscillations. It is shown that healthy subjects exhibit on average substantially longer epochs of internal synchronization between the low-frequency oscillations in heart rate and blood pressure than patients after acute myocardial infarction.

  2. Seismology and geodesy of the sun: low-frequency oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Dicke, R.H.

    1981-04-01

    The hourly averages of the solar ellipticity measured from June 13 to September 17, 1966, are analyzed for indications of solar oscillations with periods in excess of 2 h ..nu.. < 0.5 h/sup -1/. Nothing significant is found for frequencies ..nu.. > 0.1 hr/sup -1/ but for lower frequencies the power spectrum shows a very complex structure containing about 20 strong narrow peaks. The complexity is illusionary. The signal apparently consists of only two frequencies. The complexity is due to aliasing by the window function with its basic 24-h period, with many observational days missing, and with different numbers of hourly averages for the various observational days. Both signal frequencies are apparently due to odd-degree spherical harmonic oscillations of the sun.

  3. Low-frequency calcium oscillations accompany deoxyhemoglobin oscillations in rat somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Du, Congwu; Volkow, Nora D; Koretsky, Alan P; Pan, Yingtian

    2014-10-28

    Spontaneous low-frequency oscillations (LFOs) of blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signals are used to map brain functional connectivity with functional MRI, but their source is not well understood. Here we used optical imaging to assess whether LFOs from vascular signals covary with oscillatory intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)i) and with local field potentials in the rat's somatosensory cortex. We observed that the frequency of Ca(2+)i oscillations in tissue (∼0.07 Hz) was similar to the LFOs of deoxyhemoglobin (HbR) and oxyhemoglobin (HbO2) in both large blood vessels and capillaries. The HbR and HbO2 fluctuations within tissue correlated with Ca(2+)i oscillations with a lag time of ∼5-6 s. The Ca(2+)i and hemoglobin oscillations were insensitive to hypercapnia. In contrast, cerebral-blood-flow velocity (CBFv) in arteries and veins fluctuated at a higher frequency (∼0.12 Hz) and was sensitive to hypercapnia. However, in parenchymal tissue, CBFv oscillated with peaks at both ∼0.06 Hz and ∼0.12 Hz. Although the higher-frequency CBFv oscillation (∼0.12 Hz) was decreased by hypercapnia, its lower-frequency component (∼0.06 Hz) was not. The sensitivity of the higher CBFV oscillations to hypercapnia, which triggers blood vessel vasodilation, suggests its dependence on vascular effects that are distinct from the LFOs detected in HbR, HbO2, Ca(2+)i, and the lower-frequency tissue CBFv, which were insensitive to hypercapnia. Hemodynamic LFOs correlated both with Ca(2+)i and neuronal firing (local field potentials), indicating that they directly reflect neuronal activity (perhaps also glial). These findings show that HbR fluctuations (basis of BOLD oscillations) are linked to oscillatory cellular activity and detectable throughout the vascular tree (arteries, capillaries, and veins). PMID:25313035

  4. Low-frequency calcium oscillations accompany deoxyhemoglobin oscillations in rat somatosensory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Du, Congwu; Volkow, Nora D.; Koretsky, Alan P.; Pan, Yingtian

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous low-frequency oscillations (LFOs) of blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signals are used to map brain functional connectivity with functional MRI, but their source is not well understood. Here we used optical imaging to assess whether LFOs from vascular signals covary with oscillatory intracellular calcium (Ca2+i) and with local field potentials in the rat’s somatosensory cortex. We observed that the frequency of Ca2+i oscillations in tissue (∼0.07 Hz) was similar to the LFOs of deoxyhemoglobin (HbR) and oxyhemoglobin (HbO2) in both large blood vessels and capillaries. The HbR and HbO2 fluctuations within tissue correlated with Ca2+i oscillations with a lag time of ∼5–6 s. The Ca2+i and hemoglobin oscillations were insensitive to hypercapnia. In contrast, cerebral-blood-flow velocity (CBFv) in arteries and veins fluctuated at a higher frequency (∼0.12 Hz) and was sensitive to hypercapnia. However, in parenchymal tissue, CBFv oscillated with peaks at both ∼0.06 Hz and ∼0.12 Hz. Although the higher-frequency CBFv oscillation (∼0.12 Hz) was decreased by hypercapnia, its lower-frequency component (∼0.06 Hz) was not. The sensitivity of the higher CBFV oscillations to hypercapnia, which triggers blood vessel vasodilation, suggests its dependence on vascular effects that are distinct from the LFOs detected in HbR, HbO2, Ca2+i, and the lower-frequency tissue CBFv, which were insensitive to hypercapnia. Hemodynamic LFOs correlated both with Ca2+i and neuronal firing (local field potentials), indicating that they directly reflect neuronal activity (perhaps also glial). These findings show that HbR fluctuations (basis of BOLD oscillations) are linked to oscillatory cellular activity and detectable throughout the vascular tree (arteries, capillaries, and veins). PMID:25313035

  5. Analytical theory of low-frequency space charge oscillations in gyrotrons

    SciTech Connect

    Yan Ran; Antonsen, T. M. Jr.; Nusinovich, G. S.

    2008-10-15

    Low-frequency oscillations attributed to reflected electrons bouncing adiabatically between the electron gun and the interaction space have been observed in many gyrotrons. An analytical model is considered which allows one to apply space-charge wave theory to the analysis of these oscillations. In the framework of the small-signal theory, the regions of low-frequency oscillations, the oscillation frequency and the temporal and spatial growth rates of low-frequency oscillations are determined in the relevant parameter space. The mode frequency is determined not only by the particle travel time, but by the travel time of charge waves on the reflected electron beam. This explains the existence of modes with noncommensurate frequencies.

  6. Characterizing low-frequency oscillation of Hall thrusters by dielectric wall temperature variation

    SciTech Connect

    Ning, Guo; Liqiu, Wei E-mail: weiliqiu@hit.edu.cn; Yongjie, Ding

    2014-05-15

    The low-frequency oscillation characteristics of a Hall thruster were investigated by varying the dielectric wall temperature. Experimental results indicate that increasing the dielectric wall temperature can result in an increase in the amplitude of low-frequency oscillation and a slight decrease in its frequency. Physical analysis revealed that this change is related to the secondary electron emissions at different dielectric wall temperatures. The evidence suggests that this technique can serve as an effective way for future studies to examine how secondary electron emissions affect a discharging thruster.

  7. Low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations in black hole and neutron star LMXBs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingram, Adam

    2016-07-01

    Low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) are routinely seen in the X-ray flux of accreting black holes and neutron stars. Since the QPO frequency correlates with the low frequency power spectral break in the same manner for both object classes, it is reasonable to believe that these oscillations have the same physical origin in neutron stars as they do in black holes. However, recent successes in modelling black hole low frequency QPOs as Lense-Thirring precession contrast sharply with failures of the same model in neutron stars. This could be attributable to the significant extra complexity, both in the physics and in the observed power spectra, of accreting neutron stars when compared with black holes. Alternatively, the QPO mechanism really is the same for the two object classes, but in that case, why does the Lense-Thirring model work so well for black holes? I will review the current state of this field.

  8. Steady-state BOLD Response to Higher-order Cognition Modulates Low-Frequency Neural Oscillations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Feng; Dai, Gang-Shu; Liu, Feng; Long, Zhi-Liang; Yan, Jin H; Chen, Hua-Fu

    2015-12-01

    Steady-state responses (SSRs) reflect the synchronous neural oscillations evoked by noninvasive and consistently repeated stimuli at the fundamental or harmonic frequencies. The steady-state evoked potentials (SSEPs; the representative form of the SSRs) have been widely used in the cognitive and clinical neurosciences and brain-computer interface research. However, the steady-state evoked potentials have limitations in examining high-frequency neural oscillations and basic cognition. In addition, synchronous neural oscillations in the low frequency range (<1 Hz) and in higher-order cognition have received a little attention. Therefore, we examined the SSRs in the low frequency range using a new index, the steady-state BOLD responses (SSBRs) evoked by semantic stimuli. Our results revealed that the significant SSBRs were induced at the fundamental frequency of stimuli and the first harmonic in task-related regions, suggesting the enhanced variability of neural oscillations entrained by exogenous stimuli. The SSBRs were independent of neurovascular coupling and characterized by sensorimotor bias, an indication of regional-dependent neuroplasticity. Furthermore, the amplitude of SSBRs may predict behavioral performance and show the psychophysiological relevance. Our findings provide valuable insights into the understanding of the SSRs evoked by higher-order cognition and how the SSRs modulate low-frequency neural oscillations. PMID:26284992

  9. Synchronization of low-frequency oscillations in the cardiovascular system: Application to medical diagnostics and treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomarenko, V. I.; Prokhorov, M. D.; Karavaev, A. S.; Kiselev, A. R.; Gridnev, V. I.; Bezruchko, B. P.

    2013-10-01

    We investigate synchronization between the low-frequency oscillations of heart rate and blood pressure having in humans a basic frequency close to 0.1 Hz. A quantitative estimation of this synchronization based on calculation of relative time of phase synchronization of oscillations is proposed. We show that assessment of synchronization between the considered oscillations can be useful for selecting an optimal dose of beta-blocker treatment in patients after acute myocardial infarction. It is found out that low value of synchronization between the low-frequency rhythms in heart rate and blood pressure at the first week after acute myocardial infarction is a sensitive marker of high risk of mortality during the subsequent 5 years.

  10. Low-frequency EEG oscillations associated with information processing in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Bates, Alan T; Kiehl, Kent A; Laurens, Kristin R; Liddle, Peter F

    2009-12-01

    Numerous studies have described attenuated event-related potential (ERP) component amplitudes in schizophrenia (e.g., P300, Mismatch Negativity (MMN), Error Negativity/Error-Related Negativity (Ne/ERN)). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have typically shown decreased recruitment of diverse brain areas during performance of tasks that elicit the above ERP components. Recent research suggests that phase-resetting of slow-oscillations (e.g., in the delta and theta bands) underlies the potentials observed in ERP averages. Several studies have reported that slow-oscillations are increased in amplitude in people with schizophrenia at rest. Few studies have examined event-related low-frequency oscillations in schizophrenia. We examined event-related evoked and induced delta and theta activity in 17 people with schizophrenia and 17 healthy controls in two go/no-go task variants. We analyzed stimulus-related and response-related oscillations associated with correct-hits, correct-rejects and false-alarms. Our results reveal a pattern of reduced delta and theta activity for task-relevant events in schizophrenia. The findings indicate that while low-frequency oscillations are increased in amplitude at rest, they are not coordinated effectively in schizophrenia during various information processing tasks including target-detection, response-inhibition and error-detection. This slow-oscillation coordination abnormality may help explain the decreased recruitment of brain areas seen in fMRI studies. PMID:19850450

  11. Low-Frequency Quasi-Periodic Oscillations and Iron Line Variability of Discoseismic Corrugation Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butsky, Iryna; Tsang, D.

    2013-01-01

    Using a fast semi-analytic raytracing code, we study the variability of iron lines due to discoseismic oscillations concentrated in the inner-most regions of accretion discs around black holes. The dependence of the relativistically broadened line profile on the oscillation-phase is studied for discoseismic corrugation modes. The corrugation mode, or c-mode, is of particular interest as their natural frequency corresponds well to the 0.1-10 Hz range observed for low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (LFQPOs) in X-ray binaries. Comparison of the oscillation phase dependent variability and QPO-phase stacked Fe-Kalpha line observations will allow such discoseismic models to be confirmed or ruled out as a source of LFQPOs.

  12. Mechanisms underlying very-low-frequency RR-interval oscillations in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, J. A.; Carr, D. L.; Myers, C. W.; Eckberg, D. L.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Survival of post-myocardial infarction patients is related inversely to their levels of very-low-frequency (0.003 to 0.03 Hz) RR-interval variability. The physiological basis for such oscillations is unclear. In our study, we used blocking drugs to evaluate potential contributions of sympathetic and vagal mechanisms and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system to very-low-frequency RR-interval variability in 10 young healthy subjects. METHODS AND RESULTS: We recorded RR intervals and arterial pressures during three separate sessions, with the patient in supine and 40 degree upright tilt positions, during 20-minute frequency (0.25 Hz) and tidal volume-controlled breathing after intravenous injections: saline (control), atenolol (0.2 mg/kg, beta-adrenergic blockade), atropine sulfate (0.04 mg/kg, parasympathetic blockade), atenolol and atropine (complete autonomic blockade), and enalaprilat (0.02 mg/kg, ACE blockade). We integrated fast Fourier transform RR-interval spectral power at very low (0.003 to 0.03 Hz), low (0.05 to 0. 15 Hz), and respiratory (0.2 to 0.3 Hz) frequencies. Beta-adrenergic blockade had no significant effect on very-low- or low-frequency RR-interval power but increased respiratory frequency power 2-fold. ACE blockade had no significant effect on low or respiratory frequency RR-interval power but modestly (approximately 21%) increased very-low-frequency power in the supine (but not upright tilt) position (P<0.05). The most profound effects were exerted by parasympathetic blockade: Atropine, given alone or with atenolol, abolished nearly all RR-interval variability and decreased very-low-frequency variability by 92%. CONCLUSIONS: Although very-low-frequency heart period rhythms are influenced by the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, as low and respiratory frequency RR-interval rhythms, they depend primarily on the presence of parasympathetic outflow. Therefore the prognostic value of very-low-frequency heart period oscillations may

  13. A preliminary analysis of low frequency pressure oscillations in hybrid rocket motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Rhonald M.

    1994-10-01

    Past research with hybrid rockets has suggested that certain motor operating conditions are conducive to the formation of pressure oscillations, or flow instabilities, within the motor combustion chamber. These combustion-related vibrations or pressure oscillations may be encountered in virtually any type of rocket motor and typically fall into three frequency ranges: low frequency oscillations (0-300 Hz); intermediate frequency oscillations (400-1000 Hz); and high frequency oscillations (greater than 1000 Hz). In general, combustion instability is characterized by organized pressure oscillations occurring at well-defined intervals with pressure peaks that may maintain themselves, grow, or die out. Usually, such peaks exceed +/- 5% of the mean chamber pressure. For hybrid motors, these oscillations have been observed to grow to a limiting amplitude which may be dependent on factors such as fuel characteristics, oxidizer injector characteristics, average chamber pressure, oxidizer mass flux, combustion chamber length, and grain geometry. The approach taken in the present analysis is to develop a modified chamber length, L, instability theory which accounts for the relationship between pressure and oxidizer to fuel concentration ratio in the motor.

  14. A preliminary analysis of low frequency pressure oscillations in hybrid rocket motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Rhonald M.

    1994-01-01

    Past research with hybrid rockets has suggested that certain motor operating conditions are conducive to the formation of pressure oscillations, or flow instabilities, within the motor combustion chamber. These combustion-related vibrations or pressure oscillations may be encountered in virtually any type of rocket motor and typically fall into three frequency ranges: low frequency oscillations (0-300 Hz); intermediate frequency oscillations (400-1000 Hz); and high frequency oscillations (greater than 1000 Hz). In general, combustion instability is characterized by organized pressure oscillations occurring at well-defined intervals with pressure peaks that may maintain themselves, grow, or die out. Usually, such peaks exceed +/- 5% of the mean chamber pressure. For hybrid motors, these oscillations have been observed to grow to a limiting amplitude which may be dependent on factors such as fuel characteristics, oxidizer injector characteristics, average chamber pressure, oxidizer mass flux, combustion chamber length, and grain geometry. The approach taken in the present analysis is to develop a modified chamber length, L, instability theory which accounts for the relationship between pressure and oxidizer to fuel concentration ratio in the motor.

  15. Low frequency electromagnetic oscillations in dense degenerate electron-positron pair plasma, with and without ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, S. A.; Ayub, M. K.; Ahmad, Ali

    2012-10-01

    Quantum plasma oscillations are studied in a strongly magnetized, ultra-dense plasma with degenerate electrons and positrons. The dispersive role of electron and positron quantum effects on low frequency (in comparison to electron cyclotron frequency) shear electromagnetic wave is investigated by employing hydrodynamic formulation. In the presence of ions, the density balance changes, and the electromagnetic wave (with frequency lower than the ion cyclotron frequency) is shown to couple with electrostatic ion mode under certain conditions. For such low frequency waves, it is also seen that the contribution of electron and positron degeneracy pressure is dominant as compared to their diffraction effects. The results are analyzed numerically for illustrative purpose pointing out their relevance to the dense laboratory (e.g., super-intense laser-dense matter interactions) and astrophysical plasmas.

  16. Low frequency electromagnetic oscillations in dense degenerate electron-positron pair plasma, with and without ions

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, S. A.; Ayub, M. K.; Ahmad, Ali

    2012-10-15

    Quantum plasma oscillations are studied in a strongly magnetized, ultra-dense plasma with degenerate electrons and positrons. The dispersive role of electron and positron quantum effects on low frequency (in comparison to electron cyclotron frequency) shear electromagnetic wave is investigated by employing hydrodynamic formulation. In the presence of ions, the density balance changes, and the electromagnetic wave (with frequency lower than the ion cyclotron frequency) is shown to couple with electrostatic ion mode under certain conditions. For such low frequency waves, it is also seen that the contribution of electron and positron degeneracy pressure is dominant as compared to their diffraction effects. The results are analyzed numerically for illustrative purpose pointing out their relevance to the dense laboratory (e.g., super-intense laser-dense matter interactions) and astrophysical plasmas.

  17. Temporal expectation enhances contrast sensitivity by phase entrainment of low-frequency oscillations in visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    CRAVO, André M.; ROHENKOHL, Gustavo; WYART, Valentin; NOBRE, Anna C.

    2013-01-01

    Although it is increasingly accepted that temporal expectation can modulate early perceptual processing, the underlying neural computations remain unknown. In the present study, we combined a psychophysical paradigm with electrophysiological recordings to investigate the putative contribution of low-frequency oscillatory activity in mediating the modulation of visual perception by temporal expectation. Human participants judged the orientation of brief targets (visual Gabor patterns tilted clockwise or counter-clockwise) embedded within temporally regular or irregular streams of noise-patches used as temporal cues. Psychophysical results indicated that temporal expectation enhanced the contrast sensitivity of visual targets. A diffusion model indicated that rhythmic temporal expectation modulated the signal-to-noise gain of visual processing. The concurrent electrophysiological data revealed that the phase of delta oscillations overlying human visual cortex (1 to 4 Hz) was predictive of the quality of target processing only in regular streams of events. Moreover, in the regular condition, the optimum phase of these perception-predictive oscillations occurred in anticipation of the expected events. Together, these results show a strong correspondence between psychophysical and neurophysiological data, suggesting that the phase entrainment of low-frequency oscillations to external sensory cues can serve as an important and flexible mechanism for enhancing sensory processing. PMID:23447609

  18. Measurements of the Plasma Parameters and Low Frequency Oscillations in the Fisk Plasma Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Edward, Jr.; Wallace, Kent; Lampkin, Gregory; Watson, Michael

    1998-01-01

    A new plasma device, the Fisk Plasma Source (FPS), has been developed at Fisk University. This plasma device is used to study the physics of low temperature plasmas and plasma-material interactions. The FPS device is a stainless steel vacuum 6-way cross vacuum vessel with at 10-inch inner diameter. Low temperature argon plasmas are generated using DC glow discharge and thermionic filament techniques. Spatial profiles of the plasma density, plasma potential, and electron temperature are measured using Langmuir probes. We present initial experimental measurements of density and temperature profiles in the FPS device. Experimental and theoretical studies of low frequency oscillations observed in the FPS device are also presented.

  19. Low Frequency High Amplitude Temperature Oscillations in Loop Heat Pipe Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung; Rodriquez, Jose; Simpson, Alda D. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a theory that explains low frequency, high amplitude temperature oscillations in loop heat pipe (LHP) operation. Oscillations of the CC temperature with amplitudes on the order of tens of degrees Kelvin and periods on the order of hours have been observed in some LHPs during ambient testing. There are presently no satisfactory explanations for such a phenomenon in the literature. It is well-known that the operating temperature of an LHP with a single evaporator is governed by the compensation chamber (CC) temperature, which in turn is a function of the evaporator heat load, sink temperature, and ambient temperature. As the operating condition changes, the CC temperature will change during the transient but eventually reach a new steady temperature. Under certain conditions, however, the LHP never really reaches a true steady state, but instead displays an oscillatory behavior. The proposed new theory describes why low frequency, high amplitude oscillations may occur when the LHP has a low evaporator power, a low heat sink temperature (below ambient temperature), and a large thermal mass attached to the evaporator. When this condition prevails, there are some complex interactions between the CC, condenser, thermal mass and ambient. The temperature oscillation is a result of the large movement of the vapor front inside the condenser, which is caused by a change in the net evaporator power modulated by the large thermal mass through its interaction with the sink and CC. The theory agrees very well with previously published test data. Effects of various parameters on the amplitude and frequency of the temperature oscillation are also discussed.

  20. Discomfort of seated persons exposed to low frequency lateral and roll oscillation: Effect of backrest height.

    PubMed

    Beard, George F; Griffin, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    Backrests influence the comfort of seated people. With 21 subjects sitting with three backrest heights (no backrest, short backrest, high backrest) discomfort caused by lateral, roll, and fully roll-compensated lateral oscillation was investigated at frequencies between 0.25 and 1.0 Hz. With lateral oscillation, the short backrest reduced discomfort at frequencies less than 0.63 Hz and the high backrest reduced discomfort at frequencies less than 1.0 Hz. With roll oscillation, the high backrest reduced discomfort at frequencies less than 0.63 Hz, but increased discomfort at 1.0 Hz. With fully roll-compensated lateral oscillation, the short backrest reduced discomfort at 0.4 Hz and the high backrest reduced discomfort at 0.5 and 0.63 Hz. As predicted by current standards, a backrest can increase discomfort caused by high frequencies of vibration. However, a backrest can reduce discomfort caused by low frequencies, with the benefit depending on the frequency and direction of oscillation and backrest height. PMID:26851464

  1. On The Low Frequency Quasi Periodic Oscillations Of X-Ray Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C. M.

    2005-09-01

    Based on the interpretation of the twin kilohertz Quasi Periodic Oscillations (kHz QPOs) of X-ray spectra of Low Mass X-Ray Binaries (LMXBs) ascribed to the Keplerian and the periastron precession frequencies at the inner disk respectively, we ascribe the low frequency (0.1 10 Hz) Quasi Periodic Oscillations (LFQPO) and HBO (15 60 Hz QPO for Z sources or Atoll sources) to the periastron precession at some outer disk radius. It is assumed that both radii are correlated by a scaling factor of 0.4. The conclusions obtained include: All QPO frequencies increase with increasing accretion rate. The theoretical relations between HBO (LFQPO) frequency and the kHz QPO frequencies are similar to the measured empirical formula.

  2. LOW-FREQUENCY OSCILLATIONS IN GLOBAL SIMULATIONS OF BLACK HOLE ACCRETION

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neill, Sean M.; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Coleman Miller, M.; Sorathia, Kareem A.

    2011-08-01

    We have identified the presence of large-scale, low-frequency dynamo cycles in a long-duration, global, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation of black hole accretion. Such cycles have previously been seen in local shearing box simulations, but we discuss their evolution over 1500 inner disk orbits of a global {pi}/4 disk wedge spanning two orders of magnitude in radius and seven scale heights in elevation above/below the disk midplane. The observed cycles manifest themselves as oscillations in azimuthal magnetic field occupying a region that extends into a low-density corona several scale heights above the disk. The cycle frequencies are 10-20 times lower than the local orbital frequency, making them potentially interesting sources of low-frequency variability when scaled to real astrophysical systems. Furthermore, power spectra derived from the full time series reveal that the cycles manifest themselves at discrete, narrowband frequencies that often share power across broad radial ranges. We explore possible connections between these simulated cycles and observed low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (LFQPOs) in galactic black hole binary systems, finding that dynamo cycles have the appropriate frequencies and are located in a spatial region associated with X-ray emission in real systems. Derived observational proxies, however, fail to feature peaks with rms amplitudes comparable to LFQPO observations, suggesting that further theoretical work and more sophisticated simulations will be required to form a complete theory of dynamo-driven LFQPOs. Nonetheless, this work clearly illustrates that global MHD dynamos exhibit quasi-periodic behavior on timescales much longer than those derived from test particle considerations.

  3. Hemodynamic low-frequency oscillation reflects resting-state neuronal activity in rodent brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Liu, Peng; Li, James; Pan, Yingtian; Du, Congwu

    2015-03-01

    Brain functional connectivity is mapped using spontaneous low-frequency oscillations (LFOs) in blood-oxygen-leveldependent (BOLD) signals using fMRI. However, the origin of spontaneous BOLD oscillations remains elusive. Specifically, the coupling of regional hemodynamic LFOs to neuronal activity in a resting brain is rarely examined directly. Here we present a method based on instantaneous-frequency (IF) analysis to detect regional LFOs of cerebral blood flow (CBF) along with local-field potential (LFP) changes of neurons in resting state to study neurovascular coupling. CBF and LFP were simultaneously acquired using laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) and electroencephalography in the rat's somatosensory cortex with high temporal resolution (i.e., 20Hz for CBF and 2kHz for LDF, respectively). Instead of fast Fourier transform analysis, a peak-detection algorithm was used to define the LFP activities and CBF spontaneous oscillations in the time domain and the time lapses were used to calculate the IFs of hemodynamic (i.e., CBF) oscillations and neuronal (i.e., LFP) activities. Our results showed that the CBF mostly oscillated at ~0.1Hz with a full-half-bandwidth of [0.08Hz, 0.15Hz]. In addition, the maximal frequency of LFP firings was also approximately at 0.1Hz, which collaborated with to the frequency of CBF oscillations. Interestingly, CBF increased linearly with the LFP activity up to 0.15Hz (r=0.93), and both signals then decreased rapidly as a function of activity frequency. This indicates the spontaneous hemodynamic LFOs were associated with neuronal activities, thus confirming the neuronal origin of the hemodynamic oscillations.

  4. The Forgotten Role of Central Volume in Low Frequency Oscillations of Heart Rate Variability

    PubMed Central

    Ferrario, Manuela; Moissl, Ulrich; Garzotto, Francesco; Cruz, Dinna N.; Tetta, Ciro; Signorini, Maria G.; Ronco, Claudio; Grassmann, Aileen; Cerutti, Sergio; Guzzetti, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    The hypothesis that central volume plays a key role in the source of low frequency (LF) oscillations of heart rate variability (HRV) was tested in a population of end stage renal disease patients undergoing conventional hemodialysis (HD) treatment, and thus subject to large fluid shifts and sympathetic activation. Fluid overload (FO) in 58 chronic HD patients was assessed by whole body bioimpedance measurements before the midweek HD session. Heart Rate Variability (HRV) was measured using 24-hour Holter electrocardiogram recordings starting before the same HD treatment. Time domain and frequency domain analyses were performed on HRV signals. Patients were retrospectively classified in three groups according to tertiles of FO normalized to the extracellular water (FO/ECW%). These groups were also compared after stratification by diabetes mellitus. Patients with the low to medium hydration status before the treatment (i.e. 1st and 2nd FO/ECW% tertiles) showed a significant increase in LF power during last 30 min of HD compared to dialysis begin, while no significant change in LF power was seen in the third group (i.e. those with high pre-treatment hydration values). In conclusion, several mechanisms can generate LF oscillations in the cardiovascular system, including baroreflex feedback loops and central oscillators. However, the current results emphasize the role played by the central volume in determining the power of LF oscillations. PMID:25793464

  5. Low Frequency Plasma Oscillations in a 6-kW Magnetically Shielded Hall Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorns, Benjamin A.; Hofery, Richard R.

    2013-01-01

    The oscillations from 0-100 kHz in a 6-kW magnetically shielded thruster are experimen- tally characterized. Changes in plasma parameters that result from the magnetic shielding of Hall thrusters have the potential to significantly alter thruster transients. A detailed investigation of the resulting oscillations is necessary both for the purpose of determin- ing the underlying physical processes governing time-dependent behavior in magnetically shielded thrusters as well as for improving thruster models. In this investigation, a high speed camera and a translating ion saturation probe are employed to examine the spatial extent and nature of oscillations from 0-100 kHz in the H6MS thruster. Two modes are identified at 8 kHz and 75-90 kHz. The low frequency mode is azimuthally uniform across the thruster face while the high frequency oscillation is concentrated close to the thruster centerline with an m = 1 azimuthal dependence. These experimental results are discussed in the context of wave theory as well as published observations from an unshielded variant of the H6MS thruster.

  6. Force Control Is Related to Low-Frequency Oscillations in Force and Surface EMG

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Hwasil; Kim, Changki; Kwon, Minhyuk; Chen, Yen Ting; Onushko, Tanya; Lodha, Neha; Christou, Evangelos A.

    2014-01-01

    Force variability during constant force tasks is directly related to oscillations below 0.5 Hz in force. However, it is unknown whether such oscillations exist in muscle activity. The purpose of this paper, therefore, was to determine whether oscillations below 0.5 Hz in force are evident in the activation of muscle. Fourteen young adults (21.07±2.76 years, 7 women) performed constant isometric force tasks at 5% and 30% MVC by abducting the left index finger. We recorded the force output from the index finger and surface EMG from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle and quantified the following outcomes: 1) variability of force using the SD of force; 2) power spectrum of force below 2 Hz; 3) EMG bursts; 4) power spectrum of EMG bursts below 2 Hz; and 5) power spectrum of the interference EMG from 10–300 Hz. The SD of force increased significantly from 5 to 30% MVC and this increase was significantly related to the increase in force oscillations below 0.5 Hz (R2 = 0.82). For both force levels, the power spectrum for force and EMG burst was similar and contained most of the power from 0–0.5 Hz. Force and EMG burst oscillations below 0.5 Hz were highly coherent (coherence = 0.68). The increase in force oscillations below 0.5 Hz from 5 to 30% MVC was related to an increase in EMG burst oscillations below 0.5 Hz (R2 = 0.51). Finally, there was a strong association between the increase in EMG burst oscillations below 0.5 Hz and the interference EMG from 35–60 Hz (R2 = 0.95). In conclusion, this finding demonstrates that bursting of the EMG signal contains low-frequency oscillations below 0.5 Hz, which are associated with oscillations in force below 0.5 Hz. PMID:25372038

  7. Systemic Low-Frequency Oscillations in BOLD Signal Vary with Tissue Type

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Yunjie; Hocke, Lia M.; Lindsey, Kimberly P.; Erdoğan, Sinem B.; Vitaliano, Gordana; Caine, Carolyn E.; Frederick, Blaise deB.

    2016-01-01

    Blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signals are widely used in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) as a proxy measure of brain activation. However, because these signals are blood-related, they are also influenced by other physiological processes. This is especially true in resting state fMRI, during which no experimental stimulation occurs. Previous studies have found that the amplitude of resting state BOLD is closely related to regional vascular density. In this study, we investigated how some of the temporal fluctuations of the BOLD signal also possibly relate to regional vascular density. We began by identifying the blood-bound systemic low-frequency oscillation (sLFO). We then assessed the distribution of all voxels based on their correlations with this sLFO. We found that sLFO signals are widely present in resting state BOLD signals and that the proportion of these sLFOs in each voxel correlates with different tissue types, which vary significantly in underlying vascular density. These results deepen our understanding of the BOLD signal and suggest new imaging biomarkers based on fMRI data, such as amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and sLFO, a combination of both, for assessing vascular density. PMID:27445680

  8. Study on Low-Frequency Oscillations in a Gyrotron Using a 3D CFDTD PIC Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, M. C.; Smithe, D. N.

    2010-11-01

    Low-frequency oscillations (LFOs) have been observed in a high average power gyrotron and the trapped electron population contributing to the oscillation has been measured. As high average power gyrotrons are the most promising millimeter wave source for thermonuclear fusion research, it is important to get a better understanding of this parasitic phenomenon to avoid any deterioration of the electron beam quality thus reducing the gyrotron efficiency. 2D Particle-in-cell simulations quasi-statically model the development of oscillations of the space charge in the adiabatic trap, but the physics of the electron dynamics in the adiabatic trap is only partially understood. Therefore, understanding of the LFOs remains incomplete and a full picture of this parasitic phenomenon has not been seen yet. In this work, we use a 3D conformal finite-difference time-domain (CFDTD) particle-in-cell (PIC) method to accurately and efficiently study the LFOs in a high average power gyrotron. As the CFDTD method exhibits a second order accuracy, complicated structures, such as a magnetron injection gun, can be well described. Employing a highly parallelized computation, the model can be simulated in time domain more realistically.

  9. The signature of low-frequency oceanic forcing in the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Reilly, Christopher H.; Huber, Markus; Woollings, Tim; Zanna, Laure

    2016-03-01

    The Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) significantly influences the climate of the surrounding continents and has previously been attributed to variations in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. Recently, however, similar multidecadal variability was reported in climate models without ocean circulation variability. We analyze the relationship between turbulent heat fluxes and sea surface temperatures (SSTs) over the midlatitude North Atlantic in observations and coupled climate model simulations, both with and without ocean circulation variability. SST anomalies associated with the AMO are positively correlated with heat fluxes on decadal time scales in both observations and models with varying ocean circulation, whereas in models without ocean circulation variability the anomalies are negatively correlated when heat flux anomalies lead. These relationships are captured in a simple stochastic model and rely crucially on low-frequency forcing of SST. The fully coupled models that better capture this signature more effectively reproduce the observed impact of the AMO on European summertime temperatures.

  10. Abnormal Excitability and Episodic Low-Frequency Oscillations in the Cerebral Cortex of the tottering Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Cramer, Samuel W.; Popa, Laurentiu S.; Carter, Russell E.; Chen, Gang

    2015-01-01

    The Ca2+ channelopathies caused by mutations of the CACNA1A gene that encodes the pore-forming subunit of the human Cav2.1 (P/Q-type) voltage-gated Ca2+ channel include episodic ataxia type 2 (EA2). Although, in EA2 the emphasis has been on cerebellar dysfunction, patients also exhibit episodic, nonmotoric abnormalities involving the cerebral cortex. This study demonstrates episodic, low-frequency oscillations (LFOs) throughout the cerebral cortex of tottering (tg/tg) mice, a widely used model of EA2. Ranging between 0.035 and 0.11 Hz, the LFOs in tg/tg mice can spontaneously develop very high power, referred to as a high-power state. The LFOs in tg/tg mice are mediated in part by neuronal activity as tetrodotoxin decreases the oscillations and cortical neuron discharge contain the same low frequencies. The high-power state involves compensatory mechanisms because acutely decreasing P/Q-type Ca2+ channel function in either wild-type (WT) or tg/tg mice does not induce the high-power state. In contrast, blocking l-type Ca2+ channels, known to be upregulated in tg/tg mice, reduces the high-power state. Intriguingly, basal excitatory glutamatergic neurotransmission constrains the high-power state because blocking ionotropic or metabotropic glutamate receptors results in high-power LFOs in tg/tg but not WT mice. The high-power LFOs are decreased markedly by acetazolamide and 4-aminopyridine, the primary treatments for EA2, suggesting disease relevance. Together, these results demonstrate that the high-power LFOs in the tg/tg cerebral cortex represent a highly abnormal excitability state that may underlie noncerebellar symptoms that characterize CACNA1A mutations. PMID:25855180

  11. Abnormal excitability and episodic low-frequency oscillations in the cerebral cortex of the tottering mouse.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Samuel W; Popa, Laurentiu S; Carter, Russell E; Chen, Gang; Ebner, Timothy J

    2015-04-01

    The Ca(2+) channelopathies caused by mutations of the CACNA1A gene that encodes the pore-forming subunit of the human Cav2.1 (P/Q-type) voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel include episodic ataxia type 2 (EA2). Although, in EA2 the emphasis has been on cerebellar dysfunction, patients also exhibit episodic, nonmotoric abnormalities involving the cerebral cortex. This study demonstrates episodic, low-frequency oscillations (LFOs) throughout the cerebral cortex of tottering (tg/tg) mice, a widely used model of EA2. Ranging between 0.035 and 0.11 Hz, the LFOs in tg/tg mice can spontaneously develop very high power, referred to as a high-power state. The LFOs in tg/tg mice are mediated in part by neuronal activity as tetrodotoxin decreases the oscillations and cortical neuron discharge contain the same low frequencies. The high-power state involves compensatory mechanisms because acutely decreasing P/Q-type Ca(2+) channel function in either wild-type (WT) or tg/tg mice does not induce the high-power state. In contrast, blocking l-type Ca(2+) channels, known to be upregulated in tg/tg mice, reduces the high-power state. Intriguingly, basal excitatory glutamatergic neurotransmission constrains the high-power state because blocking ionotropic or metabotropic glutamate receptors results in high-power LFOs in tg/tg but not WT mice. The high-power LFOs are decreased markedly by acetazolamide and 4-aminopyridine, the primary treatments for EA2, suggesting disease relevance. Together, these results demonstrate that the high-power LFOs in the tg/tg cerebral cortex represent a highly abnormal excitability state that may underlie noncerebellar symptoms that characterize CACNA1A mutations. PMID:25855180

  12. Spells of Low-Frequency Oscillations and Weather Regimes in the Northern Hemisphere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaut, Guy; Vautard, Robert

    1994-01-01

    The low-frequency variability in the midlatitudes is described through an analysis of the oscillatory phenomena. In order to isolate nearly periodic components of the atmospheric flow, the multichannel version of the singular spectrum analysis (M-SSA) is developed and applied to an NMC 32-year long set of 700-hPa geopotential heights. In the same way that principal component analysis identifies the spatial patterns dominating the variability, M-SSA identifies dynamically relevant space-time patterns and provides an adaptive filtering technique.Three major low-frequency oscillations (LFOs) are found, with periods of 70 days, 40-45 days, and 30-35 days. The 70-day oscillation consists of fluctuations in both position and amplitude of the Atlantic jet, with a poleward-propagating anomaly pattern. The 40-45-day oscillation is specific to the Pacific sector and has a pronounced Pacific/North American (PNA) structure in its high-amplitude phase. The 30-35-day mode is confined over the Atlantic region, and consists of the retrogression of a dipole pattern. All these oscillations are shown to be intermittently excited, and M-SSA allows the localization of their spells. The two Atlantic oscillations turn out to be frequently phase locked, so that the 30-35-day mode is likely to be a harmonic of the 70-day mode. The phase locking of the Pacific 40-45-day with the Atlantic 30-35-day oscillations is also studied.Next, the relationships between LFOs and weather regimes are studied. It is shown in particular that the occurrence of the Euro-Atlantic blocking regime is strongly favored, although not systematically caused, by particular phases of the 30-35-day mode. The LFOs themselves are able to produce high-amplitude persistent anomalies by interfering with each other.The transition from a zonal regime to a blocking regime is also shown to be highly connected to the life cycle of the 30-35-day mode, indicating that regime transitions do not result only from the random occurrence

  13. 3D CFDTD PIC Simulation Study on Low-Frequency Oscillations in a Gyrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, M. C.; Smithe, D. N.

    2011-10-01

    Low-frequency oscillations (LFOs) have been observed in a high average power gyrotron and the trapped electron population contributing to the oscillation has been measured. As high average power gyrotrons are the most promising millimeter wave source for thermonuclear fusion research, it is important to get a better understanding of this parasitic phenomenon to avoid any deterioration of the electron beam quality thus reducing the gyrotron efficiency. However, understanding of the LFOs remains incomplete and a full picture of this parasitic phenomenon has not been seen yet. In this work, we use a 3D conformal finite-difference time-domain (CFDTD) particle-in-cell (PIC) method to accurately and efficiently study the LFOs in a magnetron injection gun (MIG) of a high average power gyrotron. Employing a highly parallelized computation, the model can be simulated in time domain more realistically. LFOs have been obtained in a 3D time domain simulation for the first time. From our preliminary simulation studies, it is found that not only magnetic compression profile but initial velocity or velocity ratio play an important role in the operation of a MIG electron gun. In addition, the secondary emission effects on the LFOs are also studied. Detailed results will be presented. Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Grant No. DE-SC0004436.

  14. Respiratory calcium fluctuations in low-frequency oscillating astrocytes in the pre-Bötzinger complex.

    PubMed

    Oku, Yoshitaka; Fresemann, Jens; Miwakeichi, Fumikazu; Hülsmann, Swen

    2016-06-01

    Astrocytes have been found to modulate neuronal activity through calcium-dependent signaling in various brain regions. However, whether astrocytes of the pre-Bötzinger complex (preBötC) exhibit respiratory rhythmic fluctuations is still controversial. Here we evaluated calcium-imaging experiments within preBötC in rhythmically active medullary slices from TgN(hGFAP-EGFP) mice using advanced analyses. 13.8% of EGFP-negative cells, putative neurons, showed rhythmic fluorescent changes that were highly correlated to the respiratory rhythmic fluctuation (cross-correlation coefficient>0.5 and dF/F>0.2%). In contrast, a considerable number of astrocyte somata exhibited synchronized low-frequency (<0.03Hz) calcium oscillations. After band-pass filtering, signals that irregularly preceded the calcium signal of EGFP-negative cells were observed in 10.2% of astrocytes, indicating a functional coupling between astrocytes and neurons in preBötC. A model simulation confirmed that such preinspiratory astrocytic signals can arise from coupled neuronal and astrocytic oscillators, supporting a concept that slow oscillatory changes of astrocytic functions modulate neighboring neuronal activity to add variability in respiratory rhythm. PMID:25747384

  15. Low-Frequency Flow Oscillations on Stalled Wings Exhibiting Cellular Separation Topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Disotell, Kevin James

    One of the most pervasive threats to aircraft controllability is wing stall, a condition associated with loss of lift due to separation of air flow from the wing surface at high angles of attack. A recognized need for improved upset recovery training in extended-envelope flight simulators is a physical understanding of the post-stall aerodynamic environment, particularly key flow phenomena which influence the vehicle trajectory. Large-scale flow structures known as stall cells, which scale with the wing chord and are spatially-periodic along the span, have been previously observed on post-stall airfoils with trailing-edge separation present. Despite extensive documentation of stall cells in the literature, the physical mechanisms behind their formation and evolution have proven to be elusive. The undertaken study has sought to characterize the inherently turbulent separated flow existing above the wing surface with cell formation present. In particular, the question of how the unsteady separated flow may interact with the wing to produce time-averaged cellular surface patterns is considered. Time-resolved, two-component particle image velocimetry measurements were acquired at the plane of symmetry of a single stall cell formed on an extruded NACA 0015 airfoil model at chord Reynolds number of 560,000 to obtain insight into the time-dependent flow structure. The evolution of flow unsteadiness was analyzed over a static angle-of-attack range covering the narrow post-stall regime in which stall cells have been observed. Spectral analysis of velocity fields acquired near the stall angle confirmed a low-frequency flow oscillation previously detected in pointwise surface measurements by Yon and Katz (1998), corresponding to a Strouhal number of 0.042 based on frontal projected chord height. Probability density functions of the streamwise velocity component were used to estimate the convective speed of this mode at approximately half the free-stream velocity, in agreement

  16. The effect of low-frequency oscillations on cardio-respiratory synchronization. Observations during rest and exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenwright, D. A.; Bahraminasab, A.; Stefanovska, A.; McClintock, P. V. E.

    2008-10-01

    We show that the transitions which occur between close orders of synchronization in the cardiorespiratory system are mainly due to modulation of the cardiac and respiratory processes by low-frequency components. The experimental evidence is derived from recordings on healthy subjects at rest and during exercise. Exercise acts as a perturbation of the system that alters the mean cardiac and respiratory frequencies and changes the amount of their modulation by low-frequency oscillations. The conclusion is supported by numerical evidence based on a model of phase-coupled oscillators, with white noise and lowfrequency noise. Both the experimental and numerical approaches confirm that low-frequency oscillations play a significant role in the transitional behavior between close orders of synchronization.

  17. Deep level domain spectroscopy of low frequency oscillations in semi-insulating InP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backhouse, C.; Young, L.

    1992-11-01

    It is known that low frequency current oscillations occur in semi-insulating GaAs due to the formation and transit of high field domains caused by enhanced trapping of hot electrons by deep levels and that power density spectra of the current show peaks whose temperature dependence gives information on deep levels. In the present work Fe-compensated InP was investigated. The peaks rose from an approximately {1}/{f}{3}/{2} background and by estimating and removing this and by averaging many spectra, no less than 14 frequency peaks were resolved which gave straight lines on an Arrhenius plot of log( {T 2}/{2f}) vs{1}/{T}. Although the amplitude of the current oscillations is not so large as to preclude multiple domain propagation, it seems more likely that the domains are caused by hot electron trapping by one level only, rather than that several traps should have the necessary characteristics to launch domains. The multiplicity of peaks could be partly due to harmonics of the basic high field domain oscillation and partly due to conductivity modulation by other levels whose occupancies are changed by the passage of the domains: the task, if so, is to determine which peaks are which. The activation energies from the Arrhenius plots fell into groups close to 0.30, 0.39, 0.41, 0.44 and 0.49 eV. The 14 peaks thus are believed to arise from 5 deep levels. Evidence was found that the 0.49 eV level is iron-related and is responsible for producing the high field domains and for drain current drift in InP metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistors.

  18. Note: An approach to measurement of low frequency oscillation amplitude of discharge current of in-orbit Hall thruster.

    PubMed

    Han, Liang; Ding, Yongjie; Wei, Liqiu; Yu, Daren

    2014-06-01

    This paper provides a method to measure the amplitude of low frequency oscillation under the on-track working condition, and realizes the sampling by means of adding the circuit design of sampling, low pass filtering by 3 dB at 48.2 kHz, detection and integrating in the filtering unit. The experimental results prove that the measuring device of merely 0.8 g can quantitatively reflect the amplitude of low frequency oscillation in Hall thruster and the maximum deviation of experiment data and theory data is 10% FS. PMID:24985877

  19. Observation of multi-scale oscillation of laminar lifted flames with low-frequency AC electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Ryu, S.K.; Kim, Y.K.; Kim, M.K.; Won, S.H.; Chung, S.H.

    2010-01-15

    The oscillation behavior of laminar lifted flames under the influence of low-frequency AC has been investigated experimentally in coflow jets. Various oscillation modes were existed depending on jet velocity and the voltage and frequency of AC, especially when the AC frequency was typically smaller than 30 Hz. Three different oscillation modes were observed: (1) large-scale oscillation with the oscillation frequency of about 0.1 Hz, which was independent of the applied AC frequency, (2) small-scale oscillation synchronized to the applied AC frequency, and (3) doubly-periodic oscillation with small-scale oscillation embedded in large-scale oscillation. As the AC frequency decreased from 30 Hz, the oscillation modes were in the order of the large-scale oscillation, doubly-periodic oscillation, and small-scale oscillation. The onset of the oscillation for the AC frequency smaller than 30 Hz was in close agreement with the delay time scale for the ionic wind effect to occur, that is, the collision response time. Frequency-doubling behavior for the small-scale oscillation has also been observed. Possible mechanisms for the large-scale oscillation and the frequency-doubling behavior have been discussed, although the detailed understanding of the underlying mechanisms will be a future study. (author)

  20. Abnormal functional integration of thalamic low frequency oscillation in the BOLD signal after acute heroin treatment.

    PubMed

    Denier, Niklaus; Schmidt, André; Gerber, Hana; Vogel, Marc; Huber, Christian G; Lang, Undine E; Riecher-Rossler, Anita; Wiesbeck, Gerhard A; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Walter, Marc; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2015-12-01

    Heroin addiction is a severe relapsing brain disorder associated with impaired cognitive control, including deficits in attention allocation. The thalamus has a high density of opiate receptors and is critically involved in orchestrating cortical activity during cognitive control. However, there have been no studies on how acute heroin treatment modulates thalamic activity. In a cross-over, double-blind, vehicle-controlled study, 29 heroin-maintained outpatients were studied after heroin and placebo administration, while 20 healthy controls were included for the placebo condition only. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to analyze functional integration of the thalamus by three different resting state analysis techniques. Thalamocortical functional connectivity (FC) was analyzed by seed-based correlation, while intrinsic thalamic oscillation was assessed by analysis of regional homogeneity (ReHo) and the fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF). Relative to the placebo treatment and healthy controls, acute heroin administration reduced thalamocortical FC to cortical regions, including the frontal cortex, while the reductions in FC to the mediofrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, and frontal pole were positively correlated with the plasma level of morphine, the main psychoactive metabolite of heroin. Furthermore, heroin treatment was associated with increased thalamic ReHo and fALFF values, whereas fALFF following heroin exposure correlated negatively with scores of attentional control. The heroin-associated increase in fALFF was mainly dominated by slow-4 (0.027-0.073 Hz) oscillations. Our findings show that there are acute effects of heroin within the thalamocortical system and may shed new light on the role of the thalamus in cognitive control in heroin addiction. Future research is needed to determine the underlying physiological mechanisms and their role in heroin addiction. PMID:26441146

  1. On the modulation of low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations in black hole transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawar, Devraj D.; Motta, Sara; Shanthi, K.; Bhattacharya, Dipankar; Belloni, Tomaso

    2015-04-01

    We studied the properties of the low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations detected in a sample of six black hole candidates (XTE J1550-564, H 1743-322, XTE J1859+226, 4U 1630-47, GX 339-4, XTE J1650-500) observed by the Rossi XTE satellite. We analysed the relation between the full width at half-maximum and the frequency of all the narrow peaks detected in power density spectra where a type-C QPO is observed. Our goal was to understand the nature of the modulation of the signal by comparing the properties of different harmonic peaks in the power density spectrum. We find that for the sources in our sample the width of the fundamental and of the first harmonic are compatible with a frequency modulation, while that of the sub-harmonic is independent of frequency, possibly indicating the presence of an additional modulation in amplitude. We compare our results with those obtained earlier from GRS 1915+105 and XTE J1550-564.

  2. Noninvasive optical evaluation of low frequency oscillations in prefrontal cortex hemodynamics during verbal working memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ting; Zhao, Yue; Li, Kai; Sun, Yunlong

    2014-03-01

    The low frequency oscillation (LFO) around 0.1 Hz has been observed recently in cerebral hemodynamic signals during rest/sleep, enhanced breathing, and head- up-tilting, showing that cerebral autoregulation can be accessed by LFOs. However, many brain function researches require direct measurement of LFOs during specified brain function activities. This pilot study explored using near-infrared spectroscopy/imaging (NIRS) to noninvasively and simultaneously detect LFOs of prefrontal cerebral hemodynamics (i.e., oxygenated/deoxygenated/total hemoglobin concentration: △[oxy-Hb]/ △[deoxy-Hb]/ △[tot-Hb]) during N-back visual verbal working memory task. The LFOs were extracted from the measured variables using power spectral analysis. We found the brain activation sites struck clear LFOs while other sites did not. The LFO of △[deoxy-Hb] acted as a negative pike and ranged in (0.05, 0.1) Hz, while LFOs of △[oxy-Hb] and △[tot-Hb] acted as a positive pike and ranged in (0.1, 0.15) Hz. The amplitude difference and frequency lag between △[deoxy-Hb] and △[oxy-Hb]/ △[tot-Hb] produced a more focused and sensitive activation map compare to hemodynamic amplitude-quantified activation maps. This study observed LFOs in brain activities and showed strong potential of LFOs in accessing brain functions.

  3. A newly designed experimental system for exposure of mammalian cells to extremely low frequency magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Miyakoshi, J; Ohtsu, S; Tatsumi-Miyajima, J; Takebe, H

    1994-03-01

    To examine the biological effects of extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELFMF), we have designed and manufactured a new equipment for long-term and high-density exposure of cells to ELFMF. The ELFMF exposure system consists of a generator of magnets with a built-in CO2 incubator, an alternating current (AC) power supply, a gas compressor and a thermocontroller for the incubator, and a cooling unit for the magnets. The CO2 incubator made of acrylic resin is inserted into the inner-space of the silicon steel strip-cores. In this system, the temperature of the incubator is maintained at 37 +/- 0.5 degrees C. The maximum magnetic flux density on the exposure area of the incubator is 500 mT (T; tesla) at a current of 556 Arms (rms; root mean square) at 50 Hz. The long-term (up to 120 hr) exposure of 400 mT ELFMF did not affect the growth of both HL60RG and CCRF-CEM cells originated from human leukemia. The post-X-irradiation exposure of 400 mT ELFMF for 2 hr also did not affect the radiation sensitivity of GM0637 and TAT2SF cells originated from a normal human and an ataxia telangiectasia patient. PMID:8057268

  4. Neonatal total liquid ventilation: is low-frequency forced oscillation technique suitable for respiratory mechanics assessment?

    PubMed

    Bossé, Dominick; Beaulieu, Alexandre; Avoine, Olivier; Micheau, Philippe; Praud, Jean-Paul; Walti, Hervé

    2010-08-01

    This study aimed to implement low-frequency forced oscillation technique (LFFOT) in neonatal total liquid ventilation (TLV) and to provide the first insight into respiratory impedance under this new modality of ventilation. Thirteen newborn lambs, weighing 2.5 + or - 0.4 kg (mean + or - SD), were premedicated, intubated, anesthetized, and then placed under TLV using a specially design liquid ventilator and a perfluorocarbon. The respiratory mechanics measurements protocol was started immediately after TLV initiation. Three blocks of measurements were first performed: one during initial respiratory system adaptation to TLV, followed by two other series during steady-state conditions. Lambs were then divided into two groups before undergoing another three blocks of measurements: the first group received a 10-min intravenous infusion of salbutamol (1.5 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1)) after continuous infusion of methacholine (9 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1)), while the second group of lambs was chest strapped. Respiratory impedance was measured using serial single-frequency tests at frequencies ranging between 0.05 and 2 Hz and then fitted with a constant-phase model. Harmonic test signals of 0.2 Hz were also launched every 10 min throughout the measurement protocol. Airway resistance and inertance were starkly increased in TLV compared with gas ventilation, with a resonant frequency < or = 1.2 Hz. Resistance of 0.2 Hz and reactance were sensitive to bronchoconstriction and dilation, as well as during compliance reduction. We report successful implementation of LFFOT to neonatal TLV and present the first insight into respiratory impedance under this new modality of ventilation. We show that LFFOT is an effective tool to track respiratory mechanics under TLV. PMID:20538848

  5. Motor dysfunction in the tottering mouse is linked to cerebellar spontaneous low frequency oscillations revealed by flavoprotein autofluorescence optical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gang; Popa, Laurentiu S.; Wang, Xinming; Gao, Wangcai; Barnes, Justin; Hendrix, Claudia M.; Hess, Ellen J.; Ebner, Timothy J.

    2009-02-01

    Flavoprotein autofluorescence optical imaging is developing into a powerful research tool to study neural activity, particularly in vivo. In this study we used this imaging technique to investigate the neuronal mechanism underlying the episodic movement disorder that is characteristic of the tottering (tg) mouse, a model of episodic ataxia type 2. Both EA2 and the tg mouse are caused by mutations in the gene encoding Cav2.1 (P/Q-type) voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. These mutations result in a reduction in P/Q Ca2+ channel function. Both EA2 patients and tg mice have a characteristic phenotype consisting of transient motor attacks triggered by stress, caffeine or ethanol. The neural events underlying these episodes of dystonia are unknown. Flavoprotein autofluorescence optical imaging revealed spontaneous, transient, low frequency oscillations in the cerebellar cortex of the tg mouse. Lasting from 30 - 120 minutes, the oscillations originate in one area then spread to surrounding regions over 30 - 60 minutes. The oscillations are reduced by removing extracellular Ca2+ and blocking Cav 1.2/1.3 (L-type) Ca2+ channels. The oscillations are not affected by blocking AMPA receptors or by electrical stimulation of the parallel fiber - Purkinje cell circuit, suggesting the oscillations are generated intrinsically in the cerebellar cortex. Conversely, L-type Ca2+ agonists generate oscillations with similar properties. In the awake tg mouse, transcranial flavoprotein imaging revealed low frequency oscillations that are accentuated during caffeine induced attacks of dystonia. The oscillations increase during the attacks of dystonia and are coupled to oscillations in face and hindlimb EMG activity. These transient oscillations and the associated cerebellar dysfunction provide a novel mechanism by which an ion channel disorder results in episodic motor dysfunction.

  6. Frontal top-down signals increase coupling of auditory low-frequency oscillations to continuous speech in human listeners.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyojin; Ince, Robin A A; Schyns, Philippe G; Thut, Gregor; Gross, Joachim

    2015-06-15

    Humans show a remarkable ability to understand continuous speech even under adverse listening conditions. This ability critically relies on dynamically updated predictions of incoming sensory information, but exactly how top-down predictions improve speech processing is still unclear. Brain oscillations are a likely mechanism for these top-down predictions [1, 2]. Quasi-rhythmic components in speech are known to entrain low-frequency oscillations in auditory areas [3, 4], and this entrainment increases with intelligibility [5]. We hypothesize that top-down signals from frontal brain areas causally modulate the phase of brain oscillations in auditory cortex. We use magnetoencephalography (MEG) to monitor brain oscillations in 22 participants during continuous speech perception. We characterize prominent spectral components of speech-brain coupling in auditory cortex and use causal connectivity analysis (transfer entropy) to identify the top-down signals driving this coupling more strongly during intelligible speech than during unintelligible speech. We report three main findings. First, frontal and motor cortices significantly modulate the phase of speech-coupled low-frequency oscillations in auditory cortex, and this effect depends on intelligibility of speech. Second, top-down signals are significantly stronger for left auditory cortex than for right auditory cortex. Third, speech-auditory cortex coupling is enhanced as a function of stronger top-down signals. Together, our results suggest that low-frequency brain oscillations play a role in implementing predictive top-down control during continuous speech perception and that top-down control is largely directed at left auditory cortex. This suggests a close relationship between (left-lateralized) speech production areas and the implementation of top-down control in continuous speech perception. PMID:26028433

  7. Modulation of Cortical Oscillations by Low-Frequency Direct Cortical Stimulation Is State-Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Alagapan, Sankaraleengam; Schmidt, Stephen L.; Lefebvre, Jérémie; Hadar, Eldad; Shin, Hae Won; Frӧhlich, Flavio

    2016-01-01

    Cortical oscillations play a fundamental role in organizing large-scale functional brain networks. Noninvasive brain stimulation with temporally patterned waveforms such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) have been proposed to modulate these oscillations. Thus, these stimulation modalities represent promising new approaches for the treatment of psychiatric illnesses in which these oscillations are impaired. However, the mechanism by which periodic brain stimulation alters endogenous oscillation dynamics is debated and appears to depend on brain state. Here, we demonstrate with a static model and a neural oscillator model that recurrent excitation in the thalamo-cortical circuit, together with recruitment of cortico-cortical connections, can explain the enhancement of oscillations by brain stimulation as a function of brain state. We then performed concurrent invasive recording and stimulation of the human cortical surface to elucidate the response of cortical oscillations to periodic stimulation and support the findings from the computational models. We found that (1) stimulation enhanced the targeted oscillation power, (2) this enhancement outlasted stimulation, and (3) the effect of stimulation depended on behavioral state. Together, our results show successful target engagement of oscillations by periodic brain stimulation and highlight the role of nonlinear interaction between endogenous network oscillations and stimulation. These mechanistic insights will contribute to the design of adaptive, more targeted stimulation paradigms. PMID:27023427

  8. Modulation of Cortical Oscillations by Low-Frequency Direct Cortical Stimulation Is State-Dependent.

    PubMed

    Alagapan, Sankaraleengam; Schmidt, Stephen L; Lefebvre, Jérémie; Hadar, Eldad; Shin, Hae Won; Frӧhlich, Flavio

    2016-03-01

    Cortical oscillations play a fundamental role in organizing large-scale functional brain networks. Noninvasive brain stimulation with temporally patterned waveforms such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) have been proposed to modulate these oscillations. Thus, these stimulation modalities represent promising new approaches for the treatment of psychiatric illnesses in which these oscillations are impaired. However, the mechanism by which periodic brain stimulation alters endogenous oscillation dynamics is debated and appears to depend on brain state. Here, we demonstrate with a static model and a neural oscillator model that recurrent excitation in the thalamo-cortical circuit, together with recruitment of cortico-cortical connections, can explain the enhancement of oscillations by brain stimulation as a function of brain state. We then performed concurrent invasive recording and stimulation of the human cortical surface to elucidate the response of cortical oscillations to periodic stimulation and support the findings from the computational models. We found that (1) stimulation enhanced the targeted oscillation power, (2) this enhancement outlasted stimulation, and (3) the effect of stimulation depended on behavioral state. Together, our results show successful target engagement of oscillations by periodic brain stimulation and highlight the role of nonlinear interaction between endogenous network oscillations and stimulation. These mechanistic insights will contribute to the design of adaptive, more targeted stimulation paradigms. PMID:27023427

  9. Discomfort of seated persons exposed to low frequency lateral and roll oscillation: effect of seat cushion.

    PubMed

    Beard, George F; Griffin, Michael J

    2014-11-01

    The discomfort caused by lateral oscillation, roll oscillation, and fully roll-compensated lateral oscillation has been investigated at frequencies between 0.25 and 1.0 Hz when sitting on a rigid seat and when sitting on a compliant cushion, both without a backrest. Judgements of vibration discomfort and the transmission of lateral and roll oscillation through the seat cushion were obtained with 20 subjects. Relative to the rigid seat, the cushion increased lateral acceleration and roll oscillation at the lower frequencies and also increased discomfort during lateral oscillation (at frequencies less than 0.63 Hz), roll oscillation (at frequencies less than 0.4 Hz), and fully roll-compensated lateral oscillation (at frequencies between 0.315 and 0.5 Hz). The root-sums-of-squares of the frequency-weighted lateral and roll acceleration at the seat surface predicted the greater vibration discomfort when sitting on the cushion. The frequency-dependence of the predicted discomfort may be improved by adjusting the frequency weighting for roll acceleration at frequencies between 0.25 and 1.0 Hz. PMID:24947003

  10. Amplitude of low-frequency oscillations associated with emotional conflict control.

    PubMed

    Xue, Song; Wang, Xu; Chang, Jingjing; Liu, Jia; Qiu, Jiang

    2016-09-01

    Previous fMRI studies related to emotional conflict focused on task activation during the specific experimental paradigm. Yet, the underlying spontaneous neural activity was largely unknown. Here, this was the first study using resting-state fMRI to explore the spontaneous neural activity related to emotional conflict. We used the whole-brain analysis to investigate the association between emotional conflict and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) in a large sample. We found that the emotional conflict effect was negatively correlated with ALFF in the right AMY. These findings implied that AMY was the key region which plays a crucial role in emotional conflict. PMID:27142051

  11. Resonance condition and low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations of the outbursting source H1743-322

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, Sandip K.; Mondal, Santanu; Debnath, Dipak

    2015-10-01

    It has long been proposed that low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in stellar-mass black holes or their equivalents in supermassive black holes are the result of resonances between infall and cooling timescales. We explicitly compute these two timescales in a generic situation to show that resonances are easily achieved. During an outburst of a transient black hole candidate, the accretion rate of the Keplerian disc as well as the geometry of the Comptonizing cloud change very rapidly. During some period, a resonance condition between the cooling timescale (predominantly by Comptonization) and the infall timescale of the Comptonizing cloud is roughly satisfied. This leads to low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (LFQPOs) of the Compton cloud and the consequent oscillation of hard X-rays. In this paper, we explicitly follow black hole candidate H1743-322 during its 2010 outburst. We compute the Compton cooling time and infall time over several days and show that QPOs take place when these two roughly agree within ˜50 per cent, i.e., the resonance condition is generally satisfied. We also confirm that for the sharper LFQPOs (i.e. higher Q-factors) the ratio of the two timescales is very close to 1.

  12. Cortical drive of low-frequency oscillations in the human nucleus accumbens during action selection

    PubMed Central

    Litvak, Vladimir; Rutledge, Robb B.; Zaehle, Tino; Schmitt, Friedhelm C.; Voges, Jürgen; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2015-01-01

    The nucleus accumbens is thought to contribute to action selection by integrating behaviorally relevant information from multiple regions, including prefrontal cortex. Studies in rodents suggest that information flow to the nucleus accumbens may be regulated via task-dependent oscillatory coupling between regions. During instrumental behavior, local field potentials (LFP) in the rat nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex are coupled at delta frequencies (Gruber AJ, Hussain RJ, O'Donnell P. PLoS One 4: e5062, 2009), possibly mediating suppression of afferent input from other areas and thereby supporting cortical control (Calhoon GG, O'Donnell P. Neuron 78: 181–190, 2013). In this report, we demonstrate low-frequency cortico-accumbens coupling in humans, both at rest and during a decision-making task. We recorded LFP from the nucleus accumbens in six epilepsy patients who underwent implantation of deep brain stimulation electrodes. All patients showed significant coherence and phase-synchronization between LFP and surface EEG at delta and low theta frequencies. Although the direction of this coupling as indexed by Granger causality varied between subjects in the resting-state data, all patients showed a cortical drive of the nucleus accumbens during action selection in a decision-making task. In three patients this was accompanied by a significant coherence increase over baseline. Our results suggest that low-frequency cortico-accumbens coupling represents a highly conserved regulatory mechanism for action selection. PMID:25878159

  13. Oscillations Go the Distance: Low-Frequency Human Hippocampal Oscillations Code Spatial Distance in the Absence of Sensory Cues during Teleportation.

    PubMed

    Vass, Lindsay K; Copara, Milagros S; Seyal, Masud; Shahlaie, Kiarash; Farias, Sarah Tomaszewski; Shen, Peter Y; Ekstrom, Arne D

    2016-03-16

    Low-frequency (delta/theta band) hippocampal neural oscillations play prominent roles in computational models of spatial navigation, but their exact function remains unknown. Some theories propose they are primarily generated in response to sensorimotor processing, while others suggest a role in memory-related processing. We directly recorded hippocampal EEG activity in patients undergoing seizure monitoring while they explored a virtual environment containing teleporters. Critically, this manipulation allowed patients to experience movement through space in the absence of visual and self-motion cues. The prevalence and duration of low-frequency hippocampal oscillations were unchanged by this manipulation, indicating that sensorimotor processing was not required to elicit them during navigation. Furthermore, the frequency-wise pattern of oscillation prevalence during teleportation contained spatial information capable of classifying the distance teleported. These results demonstrate that movement-related sensory information is not required to drive spatially informative low-frequency hippocampal oscillations during navigation and suggest a specific function in memory-related spatial updating. PMID:26924436

  14. Low-frequency, self-sustained oscillations in inductively coupled plasmas used for optical pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Coffer, J.; Encalada, N.; Huang, M.; Camparo, J.

    2014-10-28

    We have investigated very low frequency, on the order of one hertz, self-pulsing in alkali-metal inductively-coupled plasmas (i.e., rf-discharge lamps). This self-pulsing has the potential to significantly vary signal-to-noise ratios and (via the ac-Stark shift) resonant frequencies in optically pumped atomic clocks and magnetometers (e.g., the atomic clocks now flying on GPS and Galileo global navigation system satellites). The phenomenon arises from a nonlinear interaction between the atomic physics of radiation trapping and the plasma's electrical nature. To explain the effect, we have developed an evaporation/condensation theory (EC theory) of the self-pulsing phenomenon.

  15. Low-frequency oscillations in precipitation, temperature, and runoff on a west facing mountain front: A hydrogeologic interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shun, Tongying; Duffy, Christopher J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines the space-time patterns of annual, interannual, and decadal components of precipitation, temperature, and runoff (P-T-R) using long-record time series across the steep topographic gradient of the Wasatch Front in northern Utah. This region forms the major drainage area to the Great Salt Lake. The approach is to use multichannel singular spectrum analysis as a means of detecting dominant oscillations and spatial patterns in the data and to discuss the relation to the unique mountain and basin hydrologic setting. Results of the analysis show that high-elevation runoff is dominated by the annual and seasonal harmonics, while low-elevation runoff exhibits strong interannual and decadal oscillations. For precipitation and temperature, only the annual/seasonal spectral peaks were found to be significantly different from the underlying noise floor, and these components increase with altitude similar to the mean orographic pattern. Spectral peaks in runoff show a more complex pattern with altitude, with increasing low-frequency components at intermediate and lower elevation. This pattern is then discussed in terms of basin storage effects and groundwater-stream interaction. A conceptual hydrogeologic model for the mountain and basin system proposes how losing streams and deep upwelling groundwater in the alluvial aquifer could explain the strong low-frequency component in streams entering the Great Salt Lake. The phase-plane trajectories of the dominant components for P-T-R are reconstructed as a function of altitude showing the relation of hydrogeologic conditions to the strongest oscillations in mountain runoff and discharge to the Great Salt Lake. The paper shows that weak interannual and decadal oscillations in the climate signal are strengthened where groundwater discharge dominates streamflow.

  16. Spontaneous low-frequency voltage oscillations in frog saccular hair cells

    PubMed Central

    Catacuzzeno, Luigi; Fioretti, Bernard; Perin, Paola; Franciolini, Fabio

    2004-01-01

    Spontaneous membrane voltage oscillations were found in 27 of 130 isolated frog saccular hair cells. Voltage oscillations had a mean peak-to-peak amplitude of 23 mV and a mean oscillatory frequency of 4.6 Hz. When compared with non-oscillatory cells, oscillatory cells had significantly greater hyperpolarization-activated and lower depolarization-activated current densities. Two components, the hyperpolarization-activated cation current, Ih, and the K+-selective inward-rectifier current, IK1, contributed to the hyperpolarization-activated current, as assessed by the use of the IK1-selective inhibitor Ba2+ and the Ih-selective inhibitor ZD-7288. Five depolarization-activated currents were present in these cells (transient IBK, sustained IBK, IDRK, IA, and ICa), and all were found to have significantly lower densities in oscillatory cells than in non-oscillatory cells (revealed by using TEA to block IBK, 4-AP to block IDRK, and prepulses at different voltages to isolate IA). Bath application of either Ba2+ or ZD-7288 suppressed spontaneous voltage oscillations, indicating that Ih and IK1 are required for generating this activity. On the contrary, TEA or Cd2+ did not inhibit this activity, suggesting that IBK and ICa do not contribute. A mathematical model has been developed to test the interpretation derived from the pharmacological and biophysical data. This model indicates that spontaneous voltage oscillations can be generated when the electrophysiological features of oscillatory cells are used. The oscillatory behaviour is principally driven by the activity of IK1 and Ih, with IA playing a modulatory role. In addition, the model indicates that the high densities of depolarization-activated currents expressed by non-oscillatory cells help to stabilize the resting membrane potential, thus preventing the spontaneous oscillations. PMID:15489251

  17. Short Meditation Trainings Enhance Non-REM Sleep Low-Frequency Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Dentico, Daniela; Ferrarelli, Fabio; Riedner, Brady A.; Smith, Richard; Zennig, Corinna; Lutz, Antoine; Tononi, Giulio; Davidson, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives We have recently shown higher parietal-occipital EEG gamma activity during sleep in long-term meditators compared to meditation-naive individuals. This gamma increase was specific for NREM sleep, was present throughout the entire night and correlated with meditation expertise, thus suggesting underlying long-lasting neuroplastic changes induced through prolonged training. The aim of this study was to explore the neuroplastic changes acutely induced by 2 intensive days of different meditation practices in the same group of practitioners. We also repeated baseline recordings in a meditation-naive cohort to account for time effects on sleep EEG activity. Design High-density EEG recordings of human brain activity were acquired over the course of whole sleep nights following intervention. Setting Sound-attenuated sleep research room. Patients or Participants Twenty-four long-term meditators and twenty-four meditation-naïve controls. Interventions Two 8-h sessions of either a mindfulness-based meditation or a form of meditation designed to cultivate compassion and loving kindness, hereafter referred to as compassion meditation. Measurements and Results We found an increase in EEG low-frequency oscillatory activities (1–12 Hz, centered around 7–8 Hz) over prefrontal and left parietal electrodes across whole night NREM cycles. This power increase peaked early in the night and extended during the third cycle to high-frequencies up to the gamma range (25–40 Hz). There was no difference in sleep EEG activity between meditation styles in long-term meditators nor in the meditation naïve group across different time points. Furthermore, the prefrontal-parietal changes were dependent on meditation life experience. Conclusions This low-frequency prefrontal-parietal activation likely reflects acute, meditation-related plastic changes occurring during wakefulness, and may underlie a top-down regulation from frontal and anterior parietal areas to the posterior

  18. Low-frequency Intensity Variation of the South Asian High and its relationship to Boreal Summer Intraseasonal Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Wei; Ren, Xuejuan

    2016-04-01

    The South Asian High (SAH) is an important member among the Asian summer monsoon circulations in the upper troposphere located over the Tibean Plateau and its surrounding areas during boreal summer. This research attempts to study the characteristics and mechanisms of low-frequency oscillation of SAH, using daily ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset and NECP/NCAR OLR data. The empirical orthogonal function (EOF)analysis is performed on 200hPa geopotential height low-frequency anomalies over the 20°-35°N, 35°-110°E for June, July and August from 1979 to 2013. The first EOF mode shows a monopole pattern capturing the strengthening or weakening of the SAH's body. The power spectrum analysis of the corresponding principal component (PC1) time series shows that the first mode has a period about 10-30 days. Positive anomalies appear in the 200hPa geopotential height and negative anomalies appear in their north side when SAH is in positive low-frequency phase. A band with negative outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) anomalies presents from the Arabian Sea, north of Indian Peninsula to Southeast China and Japan Island. Correspondingly, positive anomalous rainfall are contiguous in the north of Indian Peninsula, south of Tibetan Plateau, Southeast China and Japan Island. The lead-lag regression analysis demonstrates that from day -12 to day 0, negative OLR anomalies band move northward and northwest from the equatorial Indian Ocean, the Bay of Bengals, the South China sea and Western North Pacific to the Arabian Sea, north of Indian Peninsula, south of Tibetan Plateau, Southeast China and Japan Island. Corresponding to OLR anomalies, positive rainfall anomalies band have the similar evolution. The spatial pattern of anomalies in integrated apparent heat source and integrated apparent moisture sink resemble that of rainfall and OLR, which correspond more anomalous condensation heat release. The lead-lag regression analysis also shows that the OLR band moving northward

  19. Application of the floating-potential probe for studies of low frequency oscillations in a plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dzhakov, B. Y.

    1973-01-01

    The proper interpretation of the results obtained from measurements of the floating potential of an electrostatic probe may cause difficulties in time varying plasmas. The following limitations of the method are considered: the charge separation in the plasma, the influence of the input capacity of the measuring circuit, and the influence of the layer capacity near the probe. A detailed analysis is carried out in the cases of moving striations and ion acoustic waves. A simple measuring technique is suggested for ion acoustic studies, giving detailed information about ion density oscillations.

  20. Low frequency driven oscillations of cantilevers in viscous fluids at very low Reynolds number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cranch, G. A.; Lane, J. E.; Miller, G. A.; Lou, J. W.

    2013-05-01

    The motion of submerged cantilevers driven by viscous fluids is experimentally investigated and a previously published theoretical model is verified over a broad range of Reynolds number covering 4×10-3≤Re≤2000 at frequencies up to 1 kHz. Both planar and cylindrical cantilevers are implemented using short length (few centimeters) fiber lasers, which are also used to measure the deflections. The driving forces are analyzed in detail illustrating how the dominant force transitions from a pressure related force to a viscous force depending on the Reynolds number of the fluid flow around the cantilever. Simplified, approximate expressions for the tip displacement of cantilevers oscillating in the highly viscous regime are also presented. These results will enable accurate, a priori, calculation of the motion of driven cantilevers over a range of dimensions, geometries, and fluid properties.

  1. A temperature oscillation instrument to determine pyroelectric properties of materials at low frequencies: Towards elimination of lock-in methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanbareh, H.; Schelen, J. B. J.; van der Zwaag, S.; Groen, W. A.

    2015-10-01

    Pyroelectric properties of materials can be accurately determined by applying a new digital signal processing method on the discrete sampled data obtained with a temperature oscillation technique. The pyroelectric coefficient is calculated from the component of the generated current 90∘ out of phase with respect to the sinusoidal temperature wave. The novelty of the proposed approach lies in the signal analysis procedure which implements a simple Fast Fourier transform that filters residual noise through convolution, and calculates the phase difference between the peaks of the temperature and current waves. The new idea requires relatively simple hardware and enables very accurate measurement of the pyroelectric coefficient of materials at ultra low frequencies, 1-250 mHz, without using costly lock-in amplifiers.

  2. The quasi-periodic oscillations and very low frequency noise of Scorpius X-1 as transient chaos - A dripping handrail?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scargle, Jeffrey D.; Steiman-Cameron, Thomas; Young, Karl; Donoho, David L.; Crutchfield, James P.; Imamura, James

    1993-01-01

    We present evidence that the quasi-periodic oscillations (QPO) and very low frequency noise (VLFN) characteristic of many accretion sources are different aspects of the same physical process. We analyzed a long, high time resolution EXOSAT observation of the low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) Sco X-1. The X-ray luminosity varies stochastically on time scales from milliseconds to hours. The nature of this variability - as quantified with both power spectrum analysis and a new wavelet technique, the scalegram - agrees well with the dripping handrail accretion model, a simple dynamical system which exhibits transient chaos. In this model both the QPO and VLFN are produced by radiation from blobs with a wide size distribution, resulting from accretion and subsequent diffusion of hot gas, the density of which is limited by an unspecified instability to lie below a threshold.

  3. A temperature oscillation instrument to determine pyroelectric properties of materials at low frequencies: Towards elimination of lock-in methods.

    PubMed

    Khanbareh, H; Schelen, J B J; van der Zwaag, S; Groen, W A

    2015-10-01

    Pyroelectric properties of materials can be accurately determined by applying a new digital signal processing method on the discrete sampled data obtained with a temperature oscillation technique. The pyroelectric coefficient is calculated from the component of the generated current 90° out of phase with respect to the sinusoidal temperature wave. The novelty of the proposed approach lies in the signal analysis procedure which implements a simple Fast Fourier transform that filters residual noise through convolution, and calculates the phase difference between the peaks of the temperature and current waves. The new idea requires relatively simple hardware and enables very accurate measurement of the pyroelectric coefficient of materials at ultra low frequencies, 1-250 mHz, without using costly lock-in amplifiers. PMID:26520988

  4. Alleviation SSR and Low Frequency Power Oscillations in Series Compensated Transmission Line using SVC Supplementary Controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sanjiv; Kumar, Narendra

    2016-07-01

    In this work, supplementary sub-synchronous damping controllers (SSDC) are proposed for damping sub-synchronous oscillations in power systems with series compensated transmission lines. Series compensation have extensively been used as effective means of increasing the power transfer capability of a transmission lines and improving transient stability limits of power systems. Series compensation with transmission lines may cause sub-synchronous resonance (SSR). The eigenvalue investigation tool is used to ascertain the existence of SSR. It is shown that the addition of supplementary controller is able to stabilize all unstable modes for T-network model. Eigenvalue investigation and time domain transient simulation of detailed nonlinear system are considered to investigate the performance of the controllers. The efficacies of the suggested supplementary controllers are compared on the IEEE first benchmark model for computer simulations of SSR by means of time domain simulation in Matlab/Simulink environment. Supplementary SSDC are considered in order to compare effectiveness of SSDC during higher loading in alleviating the small signal stability problem.

  5. Low Frequency Oscillations in Assimilated Global Datasets Using TRMM Rainfall Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Li; Yang, Song; Zhang, Zhan; Hou, Arthur; Olson, William S.

    2004-01-01

    Global datasets for the period May-August 1998 from the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) data assimilation system (DAS) with/without assimilated Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation are analyzed against European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) output, NOAA observed outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) data, and TRMM measured rainfall. The purpose of this study is to investigate the representation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) in GEOS assimilated global datasets, noting the impact of TRMM observed rainfall on the MJO in GEOS data assimilations. A space-time analysis of the OLR data indicates that the observed OLR exhibits a spectral maximum for eastward-propagating wavenumber 1-3 disturbances with periods of 20-60 days in the 0deg-30degN latitude band. The assimilated OLR has a similar feature but with a smaller magnitude. However, OLR spectra from assimilations including TRMM rainfall data show better agreement with observed OLR spectra than spectra from assimilations without TRMM rainfall. Similar results are found for wavenumber 4-6 disturbances. There is a spectral peak for eastward-propagating wavenumber 4-6 disturbances with periods of 20-40 days near the equator, while for westward-moving disturbances, a spectral peak is noted for periods of 30-50 days near 25degN. To isolate the MJO, a 30-50 day band filter is selected for this study. It was found that the eastward-propagating waves from the band-filtered observed OLR between 10degs- 10degN are located in the eastern hemisphere. Similar patterns are evident in surface rainfall and the 850 hPa wind field. Assimilation of TRMM-observed rainfall reveals more distinct MJO features in the analysis than without rainfall assimilation. Similar analyses are also conducted over the Indian summer monsoon and East Asia summer monsoon regions, where the MJO is strongly related to the summer monsoon active-break patterns.

  6. Reduced Amplitude of Low-Frequency Brain Oscillations in the Psychosis Risk Syndrome and Early Illness Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Fryer, Susanna L; Roach, Brian J; Wiley, Katherine; Loewy, Rachel L; Ford, Judy M; Mathalon, Daniel H

    2016-08-01

    Low-frequency oscillations (LFOs) of the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal are gaining interest as potential biomarkers sensitive to neuropsychiatric pathology. Schizophrenia has been associated with alterations in intrinsic LFOs that covary with cognitive deficits and symptoms. However, the extent to which LFO dysfunction is present before schizophrenia illness onset remains unknown. Resting-state FMRI data were collected from clinical high-risk (CHR; n=45) youth, early illness schizophrenia (ESZ; n=74) patients, and healthy controls (HCs; n=85) aged 12-35 years. Age-adjusted voxelwise fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF; 0.01-0.08 Hz) of the BOLD signal was compared among the three groups. Main effects of Group (p<0.005 height threshold, familywise error cluster-level corrected p<0.05) were followed up via Tukey-corrected pairwise comparisons. Significant main effects of Group (p<0.05) revealed decreased fALFF in ESZ and CHR groups relative to HCs, with values in the CHR group falling between those of ESZ and HC groups. These differences were identified primarily in posterior cortex, including temporoparietal regions, extending into occipital and cerebellar lobes. Less LFO activity was related to greater symptom severity in both CHR and ESZ groups in several of these posterior cortical regions. These data support an intermediate phenotype of reduced posterior cortical LFO amplitude in CHR individuals, with resting fALFF values smaller than in HCs but higher than in ESZ patients. Findings indicate that LFO magnitude alterations relate to clinical symptoms and predate psychosis onset but are more pronounced in the early stages of schizophrenia. PMID:27067126

  7. Correlations between Kilohertz Quasi-periodic Oscillations and Low-Frequency Features Attributed to Radial Oscillations and Diffusive Propagation in the Viscous Boundary Layer around a Neutron Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titarchuk, Lev; Osherovich, Vladimir

    1999-06-01

    We present a dimensional analysis of two characteristic timescales in the boundary layer where the disk adjusts to the rotating neutron star (NS). The boundary layer is treated as a transition region between the NS surface and the first Keplerian orbit. The radial transport of the angular momentum in this layer is controlled by a viscous force defined by the Reynolds number, which in turn is related to the mass accretion rate. We show that the observed low-Lorentzian frequency is associated with radial oscillations in the boundary layer, where the observed break frequency is determined by the characteristic diffusion time of the inward motion of the matter in the accretion flow. Predictions of our model regarding relations between those two frequencies and the frequencies of kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillations (kHz QPOs) compare favorably with recent observations of the source 4U 1728-34. This Letter contains a theoretical classification of kHz QPOs in NS binaries and the related low-frequency features. Thus, results concerning the relationship between the low-Lorentzian frequency of viscous oscillations and the break frequency are presented in the framework of our model of kHz QPOs viewed as Keplerian oscillations in a rotating frame of reference.

  8. The mechanism of growth of the low-frequency East Asia-Pacific teleconnection and the triggering role of tropical intraseasonal oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiabao; Wen, Zhiping; Wu, Renguang; Guo, Yuanyuan; Chen, Zesheng

    2015-08-01

    The East Asia-Pacific (EAP) pattern is a well-known meridional teleconnection over East Asia during boreal summer. In this study, the mechanism for growth of the EAP on intraseasonal timescale is investigated through a vorticity budget. It is found that the beta-effect and high-frequency transient eddies have primary contributions to the growth of the low-frequency EAP. The former leads to a westward shift of disturbances associated with the low-frequency EAP and the latter favors an amplification of disturbances, respectively. The interaction between low-frequency disturbances and zonal flow has a damping effect by dragging disturbances eastward. The impact of boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation (BSISO) on the triggering of the low-frequency EAP is also examined in this study based on observational analysis and a linear model experiment. It is shown that an elongated anomalous convection band located in the vicinity of Philippines associated with the dominant mode of BSISO has a significant impact on the initiation of low-frequency EAP via Rossby wave propagation, whereas anomalous convection located over the North Indian Ocean has a limited impact. Based on the results of present study, the low-frequency EAP could be a self-sustained mode, and the BSISO plays a substantial role in triggering the low-frequency EAP.

  9. The mechanism of growth of the low-frequency East Asia-Pacific teleconnection and the triggering role of tropical intraseasonal oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiabao; Wen, Zhiping; Wu, Renguang; Guo, Yuanyuan; Chen, Zesheng

    2016-06-01

    The East Asia-Pacific (EAP) pattern is a well-known meridional teleconnection over East Asia during boreal summer. In this study, the mechanism for growth of the EAP on intraseasonal timescale is investigated through a vorticity budget. It is found that the beta-effect and high-frequency transient eddies have primary contributions to the growth of the low-frequency EAP. The former leads to a westward shift of disturbances associated with the low-frequency EAP and the latter favors an amplification of disturbances, respectively. The interaction between low-frequency disturbances and zonal flow has a damping effect by dragging disturbances eastward. The impact of boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation (BSISO) on the triggering of the low-frequency EAP is also examined in this study based on observational analysis and a linear model experiment. It is shown that an elongated anomalous convection band located in the vicinity of Philippines associated with the dominant mode of BSISO has a significant impact on the initiation of low-frequency EAP via Rossby wave propagation, whereas anomalous convection located over the North Indian Ocean has a limited impact. Based on the results of present study, the low-frequency EAP could be a self-sustained mode, and the BSISO plays a substantial role in triggering the low-frequency EAP.

  10. Motor Network Plasticity and Low-Frequency Oscillations Abnormalities in Patients with Brain Gliomas: A Functional MRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Chen; Zhang, Ming; Min, Zhigang; Rana, Netra; Zhang, Qiuli; Liu, Xin; Li, Min; Lin, Pan

    2014-01-01

    Brain plasticity is often associated with the process of slow-growing tumor formation, which remodels neural organization and optimizes brain network function. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether motor function plasticity would display deficits in patients with slow-growing brain tumors located in or near motor areas, but who were without motor neurological deficits. We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to probe motor networks in 15 patients with histopathologically confirmed brain gliomas and 15 age-matched healthy controls. All subjects performed a motor task to help identify individual motor activity in the bilateral primary motor cortex (PMC) and supplementary motor area (SMA). Frequency-based analysis at three different frequencies was then used to investigate possible alterations in the power spectral density (PSD) of low-frequency oscillations. For each group, the average PSD was determined for each brain region and a nonparametric test was performed to determine the difference in power between the two groups. Significantly reduced inter-hemispheric functional connectivity between the left and right PMC was observed in patients compared with controls (P<0.05). We also found significantly decreased PSD in patients compared to that in controls, in all three frequency bands (low: 0.01–0.02 Hz; middle: 0.02–0.06 Hz; and high: 0.06–0.1 Hz), at three key motor regions. These findings suggest that in asymptomatic patients with brain tumors located in eloquent regions, inter-hemispheric connection may be more vulnerable. A comparison of the two approaches indicated that power spectral analysis is more sensitive than functional connectivity analysis for identifying the neurological abnormalities underlying motor function plasticity induced by slow-growing tumors. PMID:24806463

  11. Interactive effect of beta-adrenergic stimulation and mechanical stretch on low-frequency oscillations of ventricular action potential duration in humans.

    PubMed

    Pueyo, Esther; Orini, Michele; Rodríguez, José F; Taggart, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Ventricular repolarization dynamics are crucial to arrhythmogenesis. Low-frequency oscillations of repolarization have recently been reported in humans and the magnitude of these oscillations proposed to be a strong predictor of sudden cardiac death. Available evidence suggests a role of the sympathetic nervous system. We have used biophysically detailed models integrating ventricular electrophysiology, calcium dynamics, mechanics and β-adrenergic signaling to investigate the underlying mechanisms. The main results were: (1) Phasic beta-adrenergic stimulation (β-AS) at a Mayer wave frequency between 0.03 and 0.15Hz resulted in a gradual decrease of action potential (AP) duration (APD) with concomitant small APD oscillations. (2) After 3-4minutes of phasic β-AS, the mean APD adapted and oscillations of APD became apparent. (3) Phasic changes in haemodynamic loading at the same Mayer wave frequency (a known accompaniment of enhanced sympathetic nerve activity), simulated as variations in the sarcomere length, also induced APD oscillations. (4) The effect of phasic β-AS and haemodynamic loading on the magnitude of APD oscillations was synergistic. (5) The presence of calcium overload and reduced repolarization reserve further enhanced the magnitude of APD oscillations and was accompanied by afterdepolarizations and/or spontaneous APs. In conclusion, low-frequency oscillations of repolarization recently reported in humans were induced by phasic β-AS and phasic mechanical loading, which acted synergistically, and were greatly enhanced by disease-associated conditions, leading to arrhythmogenic events. PMID:27178727

  12. LOW-FREQUENCY (11 mHz) OSCILLATIONS IN H1743-322: A NEW CLASS OF BLACK HOLE QUASI-PERIODIC OSCILLATIONS?

    SciTech Connect

    Altamirano, D.; Strohmayer, T.

    2012-08-01

    We report the discovery of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) at {approx}11 mHz in two RXTE and one Chandra observations of the black hole candidate H1743-322. The QPO is observed only at the beginning of the 2010 and 2011 outbursts at similar hard color and intensity, suggestive of an accretion state dependence for the QPO. Although its frequency appears to be correlated with X-ray intensity on timescales of a day, in successive outbursts eight months apart, we measure a QPO frequency that differs by less than Almost-Equal-To 2.2 mHz while the intensity had changed significantly. We show that this {approx}11 mHz QPO is different from the so-called Type C QPOs seen in black holes and that the mechanisms that produce the two flavors of variability are most probably independent. After comparing this QPO with other variability phenomena seen in accreting black holes and neutron stars, we conclude that it best resembles the so-called 1 Hz QPOs seen in dipping neutron star systems, although having a significantly lower (1-2 orders of magnitude) frequency. If confirmed, H1743-322 is the first black hole showing this type of variability. Given the unusual characteristics and the hard-state dependence of the {approx}11 mHz QPO, we also speculate whether these oscillations could instead be related to the radio jets observed in H1743-322. A systematic search for this type of low-frequency QPOs in similar systems is needed to test this speculation. In any case, it remains unexplained why these QPOs have only been seen in the last two outbursts of H1743-322.

  13. Fluidic low-frequency oscillator consisting of load-switched diverter and a pair of vortex chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesař, Václav; Peszynski, Kazimierz; Smyk, Emil

    2016-03-01

    Paper discusses a new configuration of fluidic oscillators, a subject of recent Patent application. There is some similarity with the standard Warren oscillator with its bistable jet-deflection diverter and two feedbacks - which is not suitable for situations demanding very low oscillation frequency. For these conditions the new design replaces jet-deflection switching in the diverter by load-switching effects, with the gradually increased loading by spin-up of fluid in the vortex chambers. The spin-up time also provides the needed time delays. Behaviour is characterised by the oscillation frequency increasing with increasing fluid flow rate - for which was derived a surprisingly simple theoretical solution.

  14. Relation between the quasi-periodic oscillations and the low-frequency noise of GX 5-1 in the horizontal branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Dotani, Tadayasu; Yoshida, Atsumasa; Vaughan, Brian; Norris, Jay P.

    1991-01-01

    Ginga observations of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) and the low-frequency noise (LFN) from GX 5-1 in its horizontal-branch spectral state are presented. Power spectral fits were attempted using model functions based on simple oscillating shot models. A clear second-harmonic peak of QPO was detected. Variations in the powers of QPO and LFN on timescales of 8-256 s were also studied. These variations were significant for all of the timescales studied, and were uncorrelated with each other on timescales shorter than a few tens of seconds, and correlated on longer timescales. From simulations based on a simple shot model, it was found that the variation amplitude and the lack of correlation on short timescales are not inconsistent with the oscillating shot models. A more complex model is necessary to fully explain the observed properties.

  15. Catalog of low frequency oscillations of the earth's magnetic field as observed at ATS-1 during January 1968

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cummings, W. D.; Lyons, D.

    1974-01-01

    A catalog of ATS-1 observed magnetic field oscillations is presented. The catalog holds only those events with a duration of at least ten minutes and with a frequency that remains roughly constant. Events are distinguished on the basis of the frequency of oscillations. A comparison was made between ATS-1 data and other ground and satellite magnetometer data.

  16. Regulation of endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ oscillations in mammalian eggs

    PubMed Central

    Wakai, Takuya; Zhang, Nan; Vangheluwe, Peter; Fissore, Rafael A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Changes in the intracellular concentration of free calcium ([Ca2+]i) regulate diverse cellular processes including fertilization. In mammalian eggs, the [Ca2+]i changes induced by the sperm unfold in a pattern of periodical rises, also known as [Ca2+]i oscillations. The source of Ca2+ during oscillations is the endoplasmic reticulum ([Ca2+]ER), but it is presently unknown how [Ca2+]ER is regulated. Here, we show using mouse eggs that [Ca2+]i oscillations induced by a variety of agonists, including PLCζ, SrCl2 and thimerosal, provoke simultaneous but opposite changes in [Ca2+]ER and cause differential effects on the refilling and overall load of [Ca2+]ER. We also found that Ca2+ influx is required to refill [Ca2+]ER, because the loss of [Ca2+]ER was accelerated in medium devoid of Ca2+. Pharmacological inactivation of the function of the mitochondria and of the Ca2+-ATPase pumps PMCA and SERCA altered the pattern of oscillations and abruptly reduced [Ca2+]ER, especially after inactivation of mitochondria and SERCA functions. We also examined the expression of SERCA2b protein and found that it was expressed throughout oocyte maturation and attained a conspicuous cortical cluster organization in mature eggs. We show that its overexpression reduces the duration of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate-induced [Ca2+]i rises, promotes initiation of oscillations and enhances refilling of [Ca2+]ER. Collectively, our results provide novel insights on the regulation of [Ca2+]ER oscillations, which underlie the unique Ca2+-signalling system that activates the developmental program in mammalian eggs. PMID:24101727

  17. Deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidus internus in the parkinsonian primate: local entrainment and suppression of low-frequency oscillations.

    PubMed

    McCairn, Kevin W; Turner, Robert S

    2009-04-01

    Competing theories seek to account for the therapeutic effects of high-frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the internal globus pallidus (GPi) for medically intractable Parkinson's disease. To investigate this question, we studied the spontaneous activity of 102 pallidal neurons during GPiDBS in two macaques rendered parkinsonian by administration of MPTP. Stimulation through macroelectrodes in the GPi (> or =200 microA at 150 Hz for 30 s) reduced rigidity in one animal and increased spontaneous movement in both. Novel artifact subtraction methods allowed uninterrupted single-unit recording during stimulation. GPiDBS induced phasic (78% of cells) or sustained (22%) peristimulus changes in firing in both pallidal segments. A subset of cells responded at short latency (<2 ms) in a manner consistent with antidromic driving. Later phasic increases clustered at 3- to 5-ms latency. Stimulation-induced decreases were either phasic, clustered at 1-3 ms, or sustained, showing no peristimulus modulation. Response latency and magnitude often evolved over 30 s of stimulation, but responses were relatively stable by the end of that time. GPiDBS reduced mean firing rates modestly and only in GPi (-6.9 spikes/s). Surprisingly, GPiDBS had no net effect on the prevalence or structure of burst firing. GPiDBS did reduce the prevalence of synchronized low-frequency oscillations. Some cell pairs became synchronized instead at the frequency of stimulation. Suppression of low-frequency oscillations did not require high-frequency synchronization, however, or even the presence of a significant peristimulus response. In summary, the therapeutic effects of GPiDBS may be mediated by an abolition of low-frequency synchronized oscillations as a result of phasic driving. PMID:19164104

  18. Low-Frequency Oscillations and Transport Processes Induced by Multiscale Transverse Structures in the Polar Wind Outflow: A Three-Dimensional Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganguli, Supriya B.; Gavrishchaka, Valeriy V.

    1999-01-01

    Multiscale transverse structures in the magnetic-field-aligned flows have been frequently observed in the auroral region by FAST and Freja satellites. A number of multiscale processes, such as broadband low-frequency oscillations and various cross-field transport effects are well correlated with these structures. To study these effects, we have used our three-dimensional multifluid model with multiscale transverse inhomogeneities in the initial velocity profile. Self-consistent-frequency mode driven by local transverse gradients in the generation of the low field-aligned ion flow and associated transport processes were simulated. Effects of particle interaction with the self-consistent time-dependent three-dimensional wave potential have been modeled using a distribution of test particles. For typical polar wind conditions it has been found that even large-scale (approximately 50 - 100 km) transverse inhomogeneities in the flow can generate low-frequency oscillations that lead to significant flow modifications, cross-field particle diffusion, and other transport effects. It has also been shown that even small-amplitude (approximately 10 - 20%) short-scale (approximately 10 km) modulations of the original large-scale flow profile significantly increases low-frequency mode generation and associated cross-field transport, not only at the local spatial scales imposed by the modulations but also on global scales. Note that this wave-induced cross-field transport is not included in any of the global numerical models of the ionosphere, ionosphere-thermosphere, or ionosphere-polar wind. The simulation results indicate that the wave-induced cross-field transport not only affects the ion outflow rates but also leads to a significant broadening of particle phase-space distribution and transverse particle diffusion.

  19. Synchronization, non-linear dynamics and low-frequency fluctuations: Analogy between spontaneous brain activity and networked single-transistor chaotic oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Minati, Ludovico E-mail: ludovico.minati@unitn.it

    2015-03-15

    In this paper, the topographical relationship between functional connectivity (intended as inter-regional synchronization), spectral and non-linear dynamical properties across cortical areas of the healthy human brain is considered. Based upon functional MRI acquisitions of spontaneous activity during wakeful idleness, node degree maps are determined by thresholding the temporal correlation coefficient among all voxel pairs. In addition, for individual voxel time-series, the relative amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations and the correlation dimension (D{sub 2}), determined with respect to Fourier amplitude and value distribution matched surrogate data, are measured. Across cortical areas, high node degree is associated with a shift towards lower frequency activity and, compared to surrogate data, clearer saturation to a lower correlation dimension, suggesting presence of non-linear structure. An attempt to recapitulate this relationship in a network of single-transistor oscillators is made, based on a diffusive ring (n = 90) with added long-distance links defining four extended hub regions. Similarly to the brain data, it is found that oscillators in the hub regions generate signals with larger low-frequency cycle amplitude fluctuations and clearer saturation to a lower correlation dimension compared to surrogates. The effect emerges more markedly close to criticality. The homology observed between the two systems despite profound differences in scale, coupling mechanism and dynamics appears noteworthy. These experimental results motivate further investigation into the heterogeneity of cortical non-linear dynamics in relation to connectivity and underline the ability for small networks of single-transistor oscillators to recreate collective phenomena arising in much more complex biological systems, potentially representing a future platform for modelling disease-related changes.

  20. Circadian Redox and Metabolic Oscillations in Mammalian Systems

    PubMed Central

    Feeney, Kevin A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: A substantial proportion of mammalian physiology is organized around the day/night cycle, being regulated by the co-ordinated action of numerous cell-autonomous circadian oscillators throughout the body. Disruption of internal timekeeping, by genetic or environmental perturbation, leads to metabolic dysregulation, whereas changes in metabolism affect timekeeping. Recent Advances: While gene expression cycles are essential for the temporal coordination of normal physiology, it has become clear that rhythms in metabolism and redox balance are cell-intrinsic phenomena, which may regulate gene expression cycles reciprocally, but persist in their absence. For example, a circadian rhythm in peroxiredoxin oxidation was recently observed in isolated human erythrocytes, fibroblast cell lines in vitro, and mouse liver in vivo. Critical Issues: Mammalian timekeeping is a cellular phenomenon. While we understand many of the cellular systems that contribute to this biological oscillation's fidelity and robustness, a comprehensive mechanistic understanding remains elusive. Moreover, the formerly clear distinction between “core clock components” and rhythmic cellular outputs is blurred since several outputs, for example, redox balance, can feed back to regulate timekeeping. As with any cyclical system, establishing causality becomes problematic. Future Directions: A detailed molecular understanding of the temporal crosstalk between cellular systems, and the coincidence detection mechanisms that allow a cell to discriminate clock-relevant from irrelevant stimuli, will be essential as we move toward an integrated model of how this daily biological oscillation works. Such knowledge will highlight new avenues by which the functional consequences of circadian timekeeping can be explored in the context of human health and disease. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 2966–2981. PMID:24063592

  1. Low Frequency (11 mHz) Oscillations in H1743-322: A New Class of Black Hole QPOs?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altamirano, D.; Strohmayer, T.

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPO) at approx 11 mHz in two RXTE observations and one Chandra observation of the black hole candidate HI743-322. The QPO is observed only at the beginning of the 2010 and 2011 outbursts at similar hard color and intensity, suggestive of an accretion state dependence for the QPO. Although its frequency appears to be correlated with Xray intensity on timescales of a day, in successive outbursts eight months apart we measure a QPO frequency that differs by less than approximately equals 0.0015 Hz while the intensity had changed significantly. We show that this 11 mHz QPO is different from the so-called Type-C QPOs seen in black holes and that the mechanisms that produce the two flavors of variability are most probably independent. We compare the 11 mHz QPO with other variability phenomena seen in accreting black holes and neutron stars and conclude that although at 1-2 orders of magnitude lower in frequency, they best resemble the so-called "1 Hz" QPOs seen in dipping neutron star systems. If confirmed, H1743-322 is the first black hole showing this type of variability. Given the unusual characteristics and the hard-state dependence of the 11 mHz QPO, we speculate that these oscillations might instead be related to the radio jets observed in HI743-322. It remains unexplained, however, why similar QPOs have not yet been identified in other black holes and why they have only been seen in the last two outbursts of HI743-322.

  2. Discovery of a low-frequency broad quasi-periodic oscillation peak in the power density spectrum of Cygnus X-1 with Granat/SIGMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vikhlinin, A.; Churazov, E.; Gilfanov, M.; Sunyaev, R.; Dyachkov, A.; Khavenson, N.; Kremnev, R.; Sukhanov, K.; Ballet, J.; Laurent, P.; Salotti, L.; Claret, A.; Olive, J. F.; Denis, M.; Mandrou, P.; Roques, J. P.

    1994-03-01

    A transient broad (delta(f)/f = 0.8 approximately 1) very low frequency (approximately 0.04-0.07 Hz) and strong (fractional rms variations are at the level of approximately 10-15% of total source intensity) quasi-periodic oscillations (QPO) feature was discovered by the SIGMA telescope onboard the Granat observatory in the power density spectra of Cygnus X-1; the source was during all the observations carried out in 1990-1992 in its standard (low or hard) spectral state (Sunyaev & Truemper 1979) with average 40-150 keV flux, corresponding appproximately to the 'nominal' gamma2 level of the source (Ling et al. 1979). The power density spectra, obtained in the 4 x 10-4-10 Hz frequency range, typically exhibit strong very low frequency noise below a few millihertz increasing toward lower frequencies, a nearly flat region from a few millihertz up to a break frequency fbr = 0.04 approximately 0.1 Hz and a power-law spectrum as f-1 above the break frequency. The QPO feature, when observed, was centered below or near the break frequency fbr.

  3. The energy dependence of the three types of low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations in the black hole candidate H1743-322

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z. B.; Zhang, S.; Qu, J. L.; Gao, H. Q.; Zhao, H. H.; Huang, C. P.; Song, L. M.

    2013-07-01

    We investigate the properties of the centroid frequency of low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillation (LF QPOs, 0.1-30 Hz) during the 2003 outburst of H1743-322, by using the observational data of the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. We find that the frequency shows different energy dependences for each of the sub-classes of LF QPOs: the QPO frequency is proportional to photon energy for the type C QPOs while it is ambiguous for the type A and B QPOs. For type C QPOs, the slope of the frequency-energy relation versus frequency plot can be well described by a power law with frequency till ˜7.5 Hz. Beyond ˜7.5 Hz the slope goes down. The LF QPO amplitude decreases monotonically with the frequency for the type C but increases for the other two types. These properties provide a joint diagnostic for discriminating the different types of LF QPO.

  4. Removing entorhinal cortex input to the dentate gyrus does not impede low frequency oscillations, an EEG-biomarker of hippocampal epileptogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Martin; Kienzler-Norwood, Friederike; Bauer, Sebastian; Rosenow, Felix; Norwood, Braxton A.

    2016-01-01

    Following prolonged perforant pathway stimulation (PPS) in rats, a seizure-free “latent period” is observed that lasts around 3 weeks. During this time, aberrant neuronal activity occurs, which has been hypothesized to contribute to the generation of an “epileptic” network. This study was designed to 1) examine the pathological network activity that occurs in the dentate gyrus during the latent period, and 2) determine whether suppressing this activity by removing the main input to the dentate gyrus could stop or prolong epileptogenesis. Immediately following PPS, continuous video-EEG monitoring was used to record spontaneous neuronal activity and detect seizures. During the latent period, low frequency oscillations (LFOs), occurring at a rate of approximately 1 Hz, were detected in the dentate gyrus of all rats that developed epilepsy. LFO incidence was apparently random, but often decreased in the hour preceding a spontaneous seizure. Bilateral transection of the perforant pathway did not impact the incidence of hippocampal LFOs, the latency to epilepsy, or hippocampal neuropathology. Our main findings are: 1) LFOs are a reliable biomarker of hippocampal epileptogenesis, and 2) removing entorhinal cortex input to the hippocampus neither reduces the occurrence of LFOs nor has a demonstrable antiepileptogenic effect. PMID:27160925

  5. Low-frequency oscillations measured in the periphery with near-infrared spectroscopy are strongly correlated with blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Yunjie; Hocke, Lia Maria; Licata, Stephanie C.; deB. Frederick, Blaise

    2012-10-01

    Low-frequency oscillations (LFOs) in the range of 0.01-0.15 Hz are commonly observed in functional imaging studies, such as blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD fMRI) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Some of these LFOs are nonneuronal and are closely related to autonomic physiological processes. In the current study, we conducted a concurrent resting-state fMRI and NIRS experiment with healthy volunteers. LFO data was collected simultaneously at peripheral sites (middle fingertip and big toes) by NIRS, and centrally in the brain by BOLD fMRI. The cross-correlations of the LFOs collected from the finger, toes, and brain were calculated. Our data show that the LFOs measured in the periphery (NIRS signals) and in the brain (BOLD fMRI) were strongly correlated with varying time delays. This demonstrates that some portion of the LFOs actually reflect systemic physiological circulatory effects. Furthermore, we demonstrated that NIRS is effective for measuring the peripheral LFOs, and that these LFOs and the temporal shifts between them are consistent in healthy participants and may serve as useful biomarkers for detecting and monitoring circulatory dysfunction.

  6. Spontaneous Low-Frequency Cerebral Hemodynamics Oscillations in Restless Legs Syndrome with Periodic Limb Movements During Sleep: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Jung-Ick; Lee, Gwan-Taek; Kim, Choong-Ki

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Periodic limb movements (PLM) during sleep (PLMS) are associated with cortical and cardiovascular activation. Changes in cerebral hemodynamics caused by cortical activity can be measured using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). We investigated oscillatory components of cerebral hemodynamics during PLM and different sleep stages in restless legs syndrome (RLS) patients with PLMS. Methods Four female RLS patients with PLMS, and four age- and sex-matched normal controls were included. PLM and sleep stages were scored using polysomnography, while the spontaneous cerebral hemodynamics was measured by NIRS. The phase and amplitude of the cerebral oxyhemoglobin concentration [HbO] and the deoxyhemoglobin concentration [Hb] low-frequency oscillations (LFOs) were evaluated during each sleep stage [waking, light sleep (LS; stages N1 and N2), slow-wave sleep (stage N3), and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep]. In RLS patients with PLMS, the cerebral hemodynamics during LS was divided into LS with and without PLM. Results The cerebral hemodynamics activity varied among the different sleep stages. There were changes in phase differences between [HbO] and [Hb] LFOs during the different sleep stages in the normal controls but not in the RLS patients with PLMS. The [HbO] and [Hb] LFO amplitudes were higher in the patient group than in controls during both LS with PLM and REM sleep. Conclusions The present study has demonstrated the presence of cerebral hemodynamics disturbances in RLS patients with PLMS, which may contribute to an increased risk of cerebrovascular events. PMID:26754783

  7. Investigating univariate temporal patterns for intrinsic connectivity networks based on complexity and low-frequency oscillation: a test-retest reliability study.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Jiao, Y; Tang, T; Wang, H; Lu, Z

    2013-12-19

    Intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) are composed of spatial components and time courses. The spatial components of ICNs were discovered with moderate-to-high reliability. So far as we know, few studies focused on the reliability of the temporal patterns for ICNs based their individual time courses. The goals of this study were twofold: to investigate the test-retest reliability of temporal patterns for ICNs, and to analyze these informative univariate metrics. Additionally, a correlation analysis was performed to enhance interpretability. Our study included three datasets: (a) short- and long-term scans, (b) multi-band echo-planar imaging (mEPI), and (c) eyes open or closed. Using dual regression, we obtained the time courses of ICNs for each subject. To produce temporal patterns for ICNs, we applied two categories of univariate metrics: network-wise complexity and network-wise low-frequency oscillation. Furthermore, we validated the test-retest reliability for each metric. The network-wise temporal patterns for most ICNs (especially for default mode network, DMN) exhibited moderate-to-high reliability and reproducibility under different scan conditions. Network-wise complexity for DMN exhibited fair reliability (ICC<0.5) based on eyes-closed sessions. Specially, our results supported that mEPI could be a useful method with high reliability and reproducibility. In addition, these temporal patterns were with physiological meanings, and certain temporal patterns were correlated to the node strength of the corresponding ICN. Overall, network-wise temporal patterns of ICNs were reliable and informative and could be complementary to spatial patterns of ICNs for further study. PMID:24042040

  8. Energy dependence of r.m.s amplitude of low frequency broadband noise and kHz quasi periodic oscillations in 4U 1608-52

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Soma

    2016-07-01

    The neutron star low mass X-ray binary 4U 1608-52 is known to show kHz QPOs as well as low frequency broad band noise. The energy dependence of the fractional r.m.s of these variations reflect the underlying radiative mechanism responsible for the phenomena. In this work we compute the energy depedence for 26 instances of kHz QPO observed by RXTE. We typically find as reported before, that the r.m.s increases with energy with slope of ˜0.5. This indicates that the variation is in the hot thermal compotonization component and in particular the QPO is likely to be driven by variation in the thermal heating rate of the hot plasma. For the same data, we compute the energy dependent r.m.s variability of the low frequency broad band noise component by considering the light curves. In contrast to the behaviour seen for the kHz QPO, the energy dependence is nearly flat i.e. the r.m.s. is energy independent. This indicates that the driver here may be the soft photon source. Thus the radiative mechanism driving the low frequency broad band noise and the high frequency QPO are different in nature.

  9. Low-frequency sound exposure causes reversible long-term changes of cochlear transfer characteristics.

    PubMed

    Drexl, Markus; Otto, Larissa; Wiegrebe, Lutz; Marquardt, Torsten; Gürkov, Robert; Krause, Eike

    2016-02-01

    Intense, low-frequency sound presented to the mammalian cochlea induces temporary changes of cochlear sensitivity, for which the term 'Bounce' phenomenon has been coined. Typical manifestations are slow oscillations of hearing thresholds or the level of otoacoustic emissions. It has been suggested that these alterations are caused by changes of the mechano-electrical transducer transfer function of outer hair cells (OHCs). Shape estimates of this transfer function can be derived from low-frequency-biased distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE). Here, we tracked the transfer function estimates before and after triggering a cochlear Bounce. Specifically, cubic DPOAEs, modulated by a low-frequency biasing tone, were followed over time before and after induction of the cochlear Bounce. Most subjects showed slow, biphasic changes of the transfer function estimates after low-frequency sound exposure relative to the preceding control period. Our data show that the operating point changes biphasically on the transfer function with an initial shift away from the inflection point followed by a shift towards the inflection point before returning to baseline values. Changes in transfer function and operating point lasted for about 180 s. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that intense, low-frequency sound disturbs regulatory mechanisms in OHCs. The homeostatic readjustment of these mechanisms after low-frequency offset is reflected in slow oscillations of the estimated transfer functions. PMID:26706707

  10. Low frequency cultural noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheen, Dong-Hoon; Shin, Jin Soo; Kang, Tae-Seob; Baag, Chang-Eob

    2009-09-01

    Abnormal cultural seismic noise is observed in the frequency range of 0.01-0.05 Hz. Cultural noise generated by human activities is generally observed in frequencies above 1 Hz, and is greater in the daytime than at night. The low-frequency noise presented in this paper exhibits a characteristic amplitude variation and can be easily identified from time domain seismograms in the frequency range of interest. The amplitude variation is predominantly in the vertical component, but the horizontal components also show variations. Low-frequency noise is markedly periodic, which reinforces its interpretation as cultural noise. Such noise is observed world-wide, but is limited to areas in the vicinity of railways. The amplitude variation in seismograms correlates strongly with railway timetables, and the waveform shows a wavelength shift associated with the Doppler effect, which indicates that the origin of seismic background noise in the frequency range 0.01-0.05 Hz is railways.

  11. Noncontact imaging of plethysmographic pulsation and spontaneous low-frequency oscillation in skin perfusion with a digital red-green-blue camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishidate, Izumi; Hoshi, Akira; Aoki, Yuta; Nakano, Kazuya; Niizeki, Kyuichi; Aizu, Yoshihisa

    2016-03-01

    A non-contact imaging method with a digital RGB camera is proposed to evaluate plethysmogram and spontaneous lowfrequency oscillation. In vivo experiments with human skin during mental stress induced by the Stroop color-word test demonstrated the feasibility of the method to evaluate the activities of autonomic nervous systems.

  12. Circadian oscillations of protein-coding and regulatory RNAs in a highly dynamic mammalian liver epigenome

    PubMed Central

    Vollmers, Christopher; Schmitz, Robert J.; Nathanson, Jason; Yeo, Gene; Ecker, Joseph R.; Panda, Satchidananda

    2012-01-01

    In the mouse liver, circadian transcriptional rhythms are necessary for metabolic homeostasis. Whether dynamic epigenomic modifications are associated with transcript oscillations has not been systematically investigated. We found in addition to mRNAs, several antisense-, linc- and micro-RNA transcripts showed circadian oscillations in adult mouse livers. Robust transcript oscillations were often accompanied by temporally correlated rhythmic histone modifications in promoters, gene bodies or enhancers, although promoter DNA methylation levels were relatively stable. Such integrative analyses identified oscillating expression of a previously undetected antisense transcript (asPer2) to the gene encoding the circadian oscillator component Per2. Robustness of transcript oscillations often accompanied rhythms in multiple histone modifications and recruitment of multiple chromatin-associated clock components. In summary, coupling of the locations of cycling histone modifications with one or more oscillating transcripts within their proximity enabled establishment of a temporal relationship between enhancers, genes and transcripts on a genome-wide, base-resolution scale in a mammalian liver. The results offer a framework to understand intricate dynamic regulation among metabolism, circadian clock, and chromatin modifications to maintain metabolic homeostasis. PMID:23217262

  13. Low-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) Modulates Evoked-Gamma Frequency Oscillations in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    PubMed Central

    Baruth, Joshua M.; Casanova, Manuel F.; El-Baz, Ayman; Horrell, Tim; Mathai, Grace; Sears, Lonnie; Sokhadze, Estate

    2010-01-01

    Introduction It has been reported that individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have abnormal reactions to the sensory environment and visuo-perceptual abnormalities. Electrophysiological research has provided evidence that gamma band activity (30-80 Hz) is a physiological indicator of the co-activation of cortical cells engaged in processing visual stimuli and integrating different features of a stimulus. A number of studies have found augmented and indiscriminative gamma band power at early stages of visual processing in ASD; this may be related to decreased inhibitory processing and an increase in the ratio of cortical excitation to inhibition. Low frequency or ‘slow’ (≤1HZ) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been shown to increase inhibition of stimulated cortex by the activation of inhibitory circuits. Methods We wanted to test the hypothesis of gamma band abnormalities at early stages of visual processing in ASD by investigating relative evoked (i.e. ~ 100 ms) gamma power in 25 subjects with ASD and 20 age-matched controls using Kanizsa illusory figures. Additionally, we wanted to assess the effects of 12 sessions of bilateral ‘slow’ rTMS to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) on evoked gamma activity using a randomized controlled design. Results In individuals with ASD evoked gamma activity was not discriminative of stimulus type, whereas in controls early gamma power differences between target and non-target stimuli were highly significant. Following rTMS individuals with ASD showed significant improvement in discriminatory gamma activity between relevant and irrelevant visual stimuli. We also found significant improvement in the responses on behavioral questionnaires (i.e., irritability, repetitive behavior) as a result of rTMS. Conclusion We proposed that ‘slow’ rTMS may have increased cortical inhibitory tone which improved discriminatory gamma activity at early stages of visual processing. rTMS has the

  14. Transport in GaAs/Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As superlattices with narrow forbidden minibands: Low-frequency negative differential conductivity and current oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Andronov, A. A. Dodin, E. P.; Zinchenko, D. I.; Nozdrin, Yu. N.

    2009-02-15

    Current-voltage characteristics have been measured and low-frequency current instabilities have been studied for GaAs/Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As superlattices with narrow forbidden minibands. At relatively low electric fields, a saw-like structure for current-voltage characteristics with alternating portions of positive and negative differential conductivity and spontaneous generation of low-frequency current oscillations with a complex frequency spectrum (varying from discrete to continuous) are observed. It is shown that the observed specific features of electron transport are caused by the spatial-temporal dynamics of electric-field domains (dipoles and monopoles). The effects of the bifurcation, hysteresis, and multistability of current-voltage characteristics are also observed. At high fields, regular features are observed and identified in the current-voltage characteristics; these features are caused by resonance tunneling of electrons between the levels of the Wannier-Stark ladders belonging to quantum wells separated by several periods.

  15. Low Frequency Sky Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubin, Philip M.

    2015-08-01

    We propose to survey the sky from 10-100 GHz covering greater than 50% of the sky in intensity and polarizatiton. This will allow us to mep out the synchrotron and free - free background as well as the spinning dust component to sufficient sensitivity to allow detailed modeling and removal of the galactic foregrounds allowing for deeper polarization surveys searching for signatures of inflation. While most measurements have concentrated on the region above 100 GHz this reggion is more complex in dust contmination that originally thought. Dust is best measured at high frequencies but the atmosphere greatly hinders extremely deep dust surveys due to water vapor. Surveys ar low frequency will be complimentary to the higher frequency measurements.

  16. Robust synchronization of coupled circadian and cell cycle oscillators in single mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Bieler, Jonathan; Cannavo, Rosamaria; Gustafson, Kyle; Gobet, Cedric; Gatfield, David; Naef, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Circadian cycles and cell cycles are two fundamental periodic processes with a period in the range of 1 day. Consequently, coupling between such cycles can lead to synchronization. Here, we estimated the mutual interactions between the two oscillators by time-lapse imaging of single mammalian NIH3T3 fibroblasts during several days. The analysis of thousands of circadian cycles in dividing cells clearly indicated that both oscillators tick in a 1:1 mode-locked state, with cell divisions occurring tightly 5 h before the peak in circadian Rev-Erbα-YFP reporter expression. In principle, such synchrony may be caused by either unidirectional or bidirectional coupling. While gating of cell division by the circadian cycle has been most studied, our data combined with stochastic modeling unambiguously show that the reverse coupling is predominant in NIH3T3 cells. Moreover, temperature, genetic, and pharmacological perturbations showed that the two interacting cellular oscillators adopt a synchronized state that is highly robust over a wide range of parameters. These findings have implications for circadian function in proliferative tissues, including epidermis, immune cells, and cancer. PMID:25028488

  17. Robust synchronization of coupled circadian and cell cycle oscillators in single mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Bieler, Jonathan; Cannavo, Rosamaria; Gustafson, Kyle; Gobet, Cedric; Gatfield, David; Naef, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Circadian cycles and cell cycles are two fundamental periodic processes with a period in the range of 1 day. Consequently, coupling between such cycles can lead to synchronization. Here, we estimated the mutual interactions between the two oscillators by time-lapse imaging of single mammalian NIH3T3 fibroblasts during several days. The analysis of thousands of circadian cycles in dividing cells clearly indicated that both oscillators tick in a 1:1 mode-locked state, with cell divisions occurring tightly 5 h before the peak in circadian Rev-Erbα-YFP reporter expression. In principle, such synchrony may be caused by either unidirectional or bidirectional coupling. While gating of cell division by the circadian cycle has been most studied, our data combined with stochastic modeling unambiguously show that the reverse coupling is predominant in NIH3T3 cells. Moreover, temperature, genetic, and pharmacological perturbations showed that the two interacting cellular oscillators adopt a synchronized state that is highly robust over a wide range of parameters. These findings have implications for circadian function in proliferative tissues, including epidermis, immune cells, and cancer. PMID:25028488

  18. Low-Frequency Radioastronomy Basics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarka, P.

    2011-04-01

    With the many large instruments in construction or in project, the present epoch corresponds to a renewal of low-frequency radioastronomy. The field will attract new researchers and students not expert of the radioastronomy techniques. With this audience in mind, we present here a very brief introduction to radioastronomy basics, including propagation and polarization of low-frequency radio waves as well as instrumental aspects. Basic formulas are given. The references and internet links will allow the interested reader to go further.

  19. LOFAR, the low frequency array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeulen, R. C.

    2012-09-01

    LOFAR, the Low Frequency Array, is a next-generation radio telescope designed by ASTRON, with antenna stations concentrated in the north of the Netherlands and currently spread into Germany, France, Sweden and the United Kingdom; plans for more LOFAR stations exist in several other countries. Utilizing a novel, phased-array design, LOFAR is optimized for the largely unexplored low frequency range between 30 and 240 MHz. Digital beam-forming techniques make the LOFAR system agile and allow for rapid re-pointing of the telescopes as well as the potential for multiple simultaneous observations. Processing (e.g. cross-correlation) takes place in the LOFAR BlueGene/P supercomputer, and associated post-processing facilities. With its dense core (inner few km) array and long (more than 1000 km) interferometric baselines, LOFAR reaches unparalleled sensitivity and resolution in the low frequency radio regime. The International LOFAR Telescope (ILT) is now issuing its first call for observing projects that will be peer reviewed and selected for observing starting in December. Part of the allocations will be made on the basis of a fully Open Skies policy; there are also reserved fractions assigned by national consortia in return for contributions from their country to the ILT. In this invited talk, the gradually expanding complement of operationally verified observing modes and capabilities are reviewed, and some of the exciting first astronomical results are presented.

  20. Low Frequency Radio Experiment (LORE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manoharan, P. K.; Naidu, Arun; Joshi, B. C.; Roy, Jayashree; Kate, G.; Pethe, Kaiwalya; Galande, Shridhar; Jamadar, Sachin; Mahajan, S. P.; Patil, R. A.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we present a case study of Low Frequency Radio Experiment (LORE) payload to probe the corona and the solar disturbances at solar offsets greater than 2 solar radii, i.e., at frequencies below 30 MHz. The LORE can be complimentary to the planned Indian solar mission, “Aditya-L1” and its other payloads as well as synergistic to ground-based interplanetary scintillation (IPS) observations, which are routinely carried out by the Ooty Radio Telescope. We discuss the baseline design and technical details of the proposed LORE and its particular suitability for providing measurements on the detailed time and frequency structure of fast drifting type-III and slow drifting type-II radio bursts with unprecedented time and frequency resolutions. We also brief the gonio-polarimetry, which is possible with better-designed antennas and state-of-the-art electronics, employing FPGAs and an intelligent data management system. These would enable us to make a wide range of studies, such as nonlinear plasma processes in the Sun-Earth distance, in-situ radio emission from coronal mass ejections (CMEs), interplanetary CME driven shocks, nature of ICMEs driving decelerating IP shocks and space weather effects of solar wind interaction regions.

  1. Low frequency AC waveform generator

    DOEpatents

    Bilharz, Oscar W.

    1986-01-01

    Low frequency sine, cosine, triangle and square waves are synthesized in circuitry which allows variation in the waveform amplitude and frequency while exhibiting good stability and without requiring significant stabilization time. A triangle waveform is formed by a ramped integration process controlled by a saturation amplifier circuit which produces the necessary hysteresis for the triangle waveform. The output of the saturation circuit is tapped to produce the square waveform. The sine waveform is synthesized by taking the absolute value of the triangular waveform, raising this absolute value to a predetermined power, multiplying the raised absolute value of the triangle wave with the triangle wave itself and properly scaling the resultant waveform and subtracting it from the triangular waveform itself. The cosine is synthesized by squaring the triangular waveform, raising the triangular waveform to a predetermined power and adding the squared waveform raised to the predetermined power with a DC reference and subtracting the squared waveform therefrom, with all waveforms properly scaled. The resultant waveform is then multiplied with a square wave in order to correct the polarity and produce the resultant cosine waveform.

  2. Low frequency ac waveform generator

    DOEpatents

    Bilharz, O.W.

    1983-11-22

    Low frequency sine, cosine, triangle and square waves are synthesized in circuitry which allows variation in the waveform amplitude and frequency while exhibiting good stability and without requiring significant stablization time. A triangle waveform is formed by a ramped integration process controlled by a saturation amplifier circuit which produces the necessary hysteresis for the triangle waveform. The output of the saturation circuit is tapped to produce the square waveform. The sine waveform is synthesized by taking the absolute value of the triangular waveform, raising this absolute value to a predetermined power, multiplying the raised absolute value of the triangle wave with the triangle wave itself and properly scaling the resultant waveform and subtracting it from the triangular waveform to a predetermined power and adding the squared waveform raised to the predetermined power with a DC reference and subtracting the squared waveform therefrom, with all waveforms properly scaled. The resultant waveform is then multiplied with a square wave in order to correct the polarity and produce the resultant cosine waveform.

  3. Ionospheric very low frequency transmitter

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, Spencer P.

    2015-02-15

    The theme of this paper is to establish a reliable ionospheric very low frequency (VLF) transmitter, which is also broad band. Two approaches are studied that generate VLF waves in the ionosphere. The first, classic approach employs a ground-based HF heater to directly modulate the high latitude ionospheric, or auroral electrojet. In the classic approach, the intensity-modulated HF heater induces an alternating current in the electrojet, which serves as a virtual antenna to transmit VLF waves. The spatial and temporal variations of the electrojet impact the reliability of the classic approach. The second, beat-wave approach also employs a ground-based HF heater; however, in this approach, the heater operates in a continuous wave mode at two HF frequencies separated by the desired VLF frequency. Theories for both approaches are formulated, calculations performed with numerical model simulations, and the calculations are compared to experimental results. Theory for the classic approach shows that an HF heater wave, intensity-modulated at VLF, modulates the electron temperature dependent electrical conductivity of the ionospheric electrojet, which, in turn, induces an ac electrojet current. Thus, the electrojet becomes a virtual VLF antenna. The numerical results show that the radiation intensity of the modulated electrojet decreases with an increase in VLF radiation frequency. Theory for the beat wave approach shows that the VLF radiation intensity depends upon the HF heater intensity rather than the electrojet strength, and yet this approach can also modulate the electrojet when present. HF heater experiments were conducted for both the intensity modulated and beat wave approaches. VLF radiations were generated and the experimental results confirm the numerical simulations. Theory and experimental results both show that in the absence of the electrojet, VLF radiation from the F-region is generated via the beat wave approach. Additionally, the beat wave approach

  4. Low Frequency Radio Experiment (LORE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manoharan, Periasamy K.; Joshi, Bhal Chandra; Naidu, Arun Kumar

    High temporal and frequency resolution observations of solar generated disturbances below 15 MHz in the near-Sun region and at Sun-Earth distances in conjunction with optical and high energy observations of Sun are essential to understand the structure and evolution of eruptions, such as, flares, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and their associated solar wind disturbances at heights above the photosphere and their consequences in the interplanetary medium. This talk presents a case study of Low Frequency Radio Experiment (LORE) payload to probe the corona and the solar disturbances at solar offsets greater than 2 solar radii below 30 MHz. The LORE, although not part of Aditya-L1 mission, can be complimentary to planned Aditya-L1 coronagraph and its other on-board payloads as well as synergistic to ground based observations, which are routinely carried out by Ooty Radio Telescope. We discuss the baseline design and technical details of the proposed LORE and it is particularly suitable for providing data on the detailed time and frequency structure of fast drifting Type-III and slow drifting Type-II radio bursts with unprecedented time and frequency resolution as well as goniopolarimetry, made possible with better designed antennas and state-of-art electronics, employing FPGAs and an intelligent data management system. This would enable wide ranging studies such as studies of nonlinear plasma processes, CME in-situ radio emission, CME driven phenomena, interplanetary CME driven shocks, ICMEs driven by decelerating IP shocks and space weather effects of Solar Wind interaction regions. The talk will highlight the science objectives as well as the proposed technical design features.

  5. Neuropsin (OPN5)-mediated photoentrainment of local circadian oscillators in mammalian retina and cornea

    PubMed Central

    Buhr, Ethan D.; Yue, Wendy W. S.; Ren, Xiaozhi; Jiang, Zheng; Liao, Hsi-Wen Rock; Mei, Xue; Vemaraju, Shruti; Nguyen, Minh-Thanh; Reed, Randall R.; Lang, Richard A.; Yau, King-Wai; Van Gelder, Russell N.

    2015-01-01

    The molecular circadian clocks in the mammalian retina are locally synchronized by environmental light cycles independent of the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) in the brain. Unexpectedly, this entrainment does not require rods, cones, or melanopsin (OPN4), possibly suggesting the involvement of another retinal photopigment. Here, we show that the ex vivo mouse retinal rhythm is most sensitive to short-wavelength light but that this photoentrainment requires neither the short-wavelength–sensitive cone pigment [S-pigment or cone opsin (OPN1SW)] nor encephalopsin (OPN3). However, retinas lacking neuropsin (OPN5) fail to photoentrain, even though other visual functions appear largely normal. Initial evidence suggests that OPN5 is expressed in select retinal ganglion cells. Remarkably, the mouse corneal circadian rhythm is also photoentrainable ex vivo, and this photoentrainment likewise requires OPN5. Our findings reveal a light-sensing function for mammalian OPN5, until now an orphan opsin. PMID:26392540

  6. Low frequency dynamical stabilisation in optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Christopher J.; Smart, Thomas J.; Jones, Philip H.; Cubero, David

    2015-08-01

    It is well known that a rigid pendulum with minimal friction will occupy a stable equilibrium position vertically upwards when its suspension point is oscillated at high frequency. The phenomenon of the inverted pendulum was explained by Kapitza by invoking a separation of timescales between the high frequency modulation and the much lower frequency pendulum motion, resulting in an effective potential with a minimum in the inverted position. We present here a study of a microscopic optical analogue of Kapitza's pendulum that operates in different regimes of both friction and driving frequency. The pendulum is realized using a microscopic particle held in a scanning optical tweezers and subject to a viscous drag force. The motion of the optical pendulum is recorded and analyzed by digital video microscopy and particle tracking to extract the trajectory and stable orientation of the particle. In these experiments we enter the regime of low driving frequency, where the period of driving is comparable to the characteristic relaxation time of the radial motion of the pendulum with finite stiffness. In this regime we find stabilization of the pendulum at angles other than the vertical (downwards) is possible for modulation amplitudes exceeding a threshold value where, unlike the truly high frequency case studied previously, both the threshold amplitude and equilibrium position are found to be functions of friction. Experimental results are complemented by an analytical theory for induced stability in the low frequency driving regime with friction.

  7. Free electron maser experiments in the low-frequency limit

    SciTech Connect

    Drori, R.; Jerby, E.; Shahadi, A.

    1995-12-31

    Table-top free-electron maser (FEM) experiments operating in the low-frequency (< 1 GHz) low-energy ({approximately} 1 keV) limit are reported. These FEM devices employ parallel-stripline non-dispersive waveguides (which support TEM-modes), and planar folded-foil wigglers. Thermionic cathodes and carbon-fiber cold-cathodes are used in these experiments. Results of oscillator and amplifier experiments are presented and compared with theory.

  8. Low-frequency electromagnetic field in a Wigner crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Stupka, Anton

    2013-03-15

    Long-wave low-frequency oscillations are described in a Wigner crystal by generalization of the reverse continuum model for the case of electronic lattice. The internal self-consistent long-wave electromagnetic field is used to describe the collective motions in the system. The eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the obtained system of equations are derived. The velocities of longitudinal and transversal sound waves are found.

  9. Theta oscillation coupled spike latencies yield computational vigour in a mammalian sensory system

    PubMed Central

    Margrie, Troy W; Schaefer, Andreas T

    2003-01-01

    Theoretical work carried out almost a decade ago proposed that subthreshold oscillations in membrane potential could be used to convert synaptic current strength into a code reliant on action potential (AP) latencies. Using whole-cell recordings we present experimental evidence for the occurrence of prominent network-driven subthreshold theta oscillations in mitral cells of the mouse olfactory bulb. Activity induced by both injected current and sensory input was accurately reflected in initial AP latency from the beginning of each oscillation cycle. In a network model we found that an AP latency code rather than AP number or instantaneous firing rate provided computational speed and high resolution, and was easily implemented. This coding strategy was also found to be invariant to the total input current as long as the relative input intensities to glomeruli remained constant. However, it was highly sensitive to changes in the ratios of the input currents and improved by lateral inhibitory mechanisms. Since the AP latency-based coding scheme was dependent on the subthreshold oscillation we conclude that the theta rhythm serves a functional role in temporally reformatting the strengths and patterns of synaptic input in this sensory system. PMID:12527724

  10. Energy scavenging from low frequency vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galchev, Tzeno V.

    The development of three energy conversion devices that are able to transform vibrations in their surroundings to electrical energy is discussed in this thesis. These energy harvesters are based upon a newly invented architecture called the Parametric Frequency Increased Generator (PFIG). The PFIG structure is designed to efficiently convert low frequency and non-periodic vibrations into electrical power. The three PFIG devices have a combined operating range covering two orders of magnitude in acceleration (0.54--19.6m/s 2) and a frequency range spanning up to 60Hz; making them some of the most versatile generators in existence. The PFIG utilizes a bi-stable mechanical structure to initiate high-frequency mechanical oscillations in an electromechanical scavenger. By up-converting the ambient vibration frequency to a higher internal operation frequency, the PFIG achieves better electromechanical coupling. The fixed internal displacement and dynamics of the PFIG allow it to operate more efficiently than resonant generators when the ambient vibration amplitude is higher than the internal displacement limit of the device. The PFIG structure is capable of efficiently converting mechanical vibrations with variable characteristics including amplitude and frequency, into electrical power. The first electromagnetic harvester can generate a peak power of 163microW and an average power of 13.6microW from an input acceleration of 9.8m/s 2 at 10Hz, and it can operate up to 60Hz. The internal volume of the generator is 2.12cm3 (3.75 including casing). It sets the state-of-the-art in efficiency in the <20Hz range. The volume figure of merit is 0.068%, which is a 10x improvement over other published works. It has a record high bandwidth figure of merit (0.375%). A second piezoelectric implementation generates 3.25microW of average power under the same excitation conditions, while the volume of the generator is halved (1.2cm3). A third PFIG was developed for critical

  11. Sensitivity Measures for Oscillating Systems: Application to Mammalian Circadian Gene Network

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Stephanie R.; Gunawan, Rudiyanto; Petzold, Linda R.; Doyle, Francis J.

    2009-01-01

    Vital physiological behaviors exhibited daily by bacteria, plants, and animals are governed by endogenous oscillators called circadian clocks. The most salient feature of the circadian clock is its ability to change its internal time (phase) to match that of the external environment. The circadian clock, like many oscillators in nature, is regulated at the cellular level by a complex network of interacting components. As a complementary approach to traditional biological investigation, we utilize mathematical models and systems theoretic tools to elucidate these mechanisms. The models are systems of ordinary differential equations exhibiting stable limit cycle behavior. To study the robustness of circadian phase behavior, we use sensitivity analysis. As the standard set of sensitivity tools are not suitable for the study of phase behavior, we introduce a novel tool, the parametric impulse phase response curve (pIPRC). PMID:19593456

  12. The influence of cochlear shape on low-frequency hearing

    PubMed Central

    Manoussaki, Daphne; Chadwick, Richard S.; Ketten, Darlene R.; Arruda, Julie; Dimitriadis, Emilios K.; O'Malley, Jen T.

    2008-01-01

    The conventional theory about the snail shell shape of the mammalian cochlea is that it evolved essentially and perhaps solely to conserve space inside the skull. Recently, a theory proposed that the spiral's graded curvature enhances the cochlea's mechanical response to low frequencies. This article provides a multispecies analysis of cochlear shape to test this theory and demonstrates that the ratio of the radii of curvature from the outermost and innermost turns of the cochlear spiral is a significant cochlear feature that correlates strongly with low-frequency hearing limits. The ratio, which is a measure of curvature gradient, is a reflection of the ability of cochlear curvature to focus acoustic energy at the outer wall of the cochlear canal as the wave propagates toward the apex of the cochlea. PMID:18413615

  13. Phase locking and multiple oscillating attractors for the coupled mammalian clock and cell cycle

    PubMed Central

    Feillet, Céline; Krusche, Peter; Tamanini, Filippo; Janssens, Roel C.; Downey, Mike J.; Martin, Patrick; Teboul, Michèle; Saito, Shoko; Lévi, Francis A.; Bretschneider, Till; van der Horst, Gijsbertus T. J.; Delaunay, Franck; Rand, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Daily synchronous rhythms of cell division at the tissue or organism level are observed in many species and suggest that the circadian clock and cell cycle oscillators are coupled. For mammals, despite known mechanistic interactions, the effect of such coupling on clock and cell cycle progression, and hence its biological relevance, is not understood. In particular, we do not know how the temporal organization of cell division at the single-cell level produces this daily rhythm at the tissue level. Here we use multispectral imaging of single live cells, computational methods, and mathematical modeling to address this question in proliferating mouse fibroblasts. We show that in unsynchronized cells the cell cycle and circadian clock robustly phase lock each other in a 1:1 fashion so that in an expanding cell population the two oscillators oscillate in a synchronized way with a common frequency. Dexamethasone-induced synchronization reveals additional clock states. As well as the low-period phase-locked state there are distinct coexisting states with a significantly higher period clock. Cells transition to these states after dexamethasone synchronization. The temporal coordination of cell division by phase locking to the clock at a single-cell level has significant implications because disordered circadian function is increasingly being linked to the pathogenesis of many diseases, including cancer. PMID:24958884

  14. Phase locking and multiple oscillating attractors for the coupled mammalian clock and cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Feillet, Céline; Krusche, Peter; Tamanini, Filippo; Janssens, Roel C; Downey, Mike J; Martin, Patrick; Teboul, Michèle; Saito, Shoko; Lévi, Francis A; Bretschneider, Till; van der Horst, Gijsbertus T J; Delaunay, Franck; Rand, David A

    2014-07-01

    Daily synchronous rhythms of cell division at the tissue or organism level are observed in many species and suggest that the circadian clock and cell cycle oscillators are coupled. For mammals, despite known mechanistic interactions, the effect of such coupling on clock and cell cycle progression, and hence its biological relevance, is not understood. In particular, we do not know how the temporal organization of cell division at the single-cell level produces this daily rhythm at the tissue level. Here we use multispectral imaging of single live cells, computational methods, and mathematical modeling to address this question in proliferating mouse fibroblasts. We show that in unsynchronized cells the cell cycle and circadian clock robustly phase lock each other in a 1:1 fashion so that in an expanding cell population the two oscillators oscillate in a synchronized way with a common frequency. Dexamethasone-induced synchronization reveals additional clock states. As well as the low-period phase-locked state there are distinct coexisting states with a significantly higher period clock. Cells transition to these states after dexamethasone synchronization. The temporal coordination of cell division by phase locking to the clock at a single-cell level has significant implications because disordered circadian function is increasingly being linked to the pathogenesis of many diseases, including cancer. PMID:24958884

  15. Understanding the low-frequency variability in hydroclimatic attributes over the southeastern US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Sankarasubramanian, A.; Ranjithan, R. S.

    2015-02-01

    Most studies on evaluating the potential in developing seasonal to interannual hydroclimatic forecasts have focused on associating low-frequency climatic conditions with basin-level precipitation/streamflow. The motivation of this study is to provide an understanding on how land surface characteristics modulate the low-frequency (interannual to decadal) variability in precipitation to develop low-frequency signal in streamflow. For this purpose, we consider basins with minimum anthropogenic impacts over southeastern United States and apply Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA), a data-driven spectrum analysis tool, on annual precipitation and streamflow time series for detecting the dominant frequencies and for estimating the associated variability with them. Hypothesis test against an AR(1) process is carried out via Monte Carlo SSA for detecting significant (at 90% confidence level) low-frequency oscillations. Thus, the study investigates how the observed low-frequency oscillations in precipitation/streamflow vary over the southeastern United States and also their associations with climatic conditions. For most study basins, precipitation exhibits higher low-frequency oscillations than that of streamflow primarily due to reduction in variability by basin storage. Investigating this further, we found that the percentage variance accounted by low-frequency oscillations in streamflow being higher for larger basins which primarily indicates the increased role of climate and basin storage. To develop a fundamental understanding on how basin storage controls the low-frequency oscillations in streamflow, a simple annual hydrological model is employed to explore how the given low-frequency signal in precipitation being modified under different baseflow index conditions and groundwater residence time. Implications of these analyses relating to streamflow predictions and model calibration are also discussed.

  16. Low-frequency cosmology from the moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein Wolt, M.; Aminaei, A.; Pourshaghaghi, H.; Koopmans, L.; Falcke, H.

    2013-09-01

    From a low-frequency point of view, the moon provides excess to the virtually unexplored radio frequency domain below 30 MHz that is not accessible from Earth due to the atmospheric cutoff and interference from man-made RFI. We show that with a single low-frequency radio antenna the detection of the 21-cm Dark Ages signal is possible within integration times of months, and address the size and integration times required for a future low-frequency array to perform detailed tomography and power spectral analysis of the Dark Ages signal.

  17. Robust network oscillations during mammalian respiratory rhythm generation driven by synaptic dynamics.

    PubMed

    Guerrier, Claire; Hayes, John A; Fortin, Gilles; Holcman, David

    2015-08-01

    How might synaptic dynamics generate synchronous oscillations in neuronal networks? We address this question in the preBötzinger complex (preBötC), a brainstem neural network that paces robust, yet labile, inspiration in mammals. The preBötC is composed of a few hundred neurons that alternate bursting activity with silent periods, but the mechanism underlying this vital rhythm remains elusive. Using a computational approach to model a randomly connected neuronal network that relies on short-term synaptic facilitation (SF) and depression (SD), we show that synaptic fluctuations can initiate population activities through recurrent excitation. We also show that a two-step SD process allows activity in the network to synchronize (bursts) and generate a population refractory period (silence). The model was validated against an array of experimental conditions, which recapitulate several processes the preBötC may experience. Consistent with the modeling assumptions, we reveal, by electrophysiological recordings, that SF/SD can occur at preBötC synapses on timescales that influence rhythmic population activity. We conclude that nondeterministic neuronal spiking and dynamic synaptic strengths in a randomly connected network are sufficient to give rise to regular respiratory-like rhythmic network activity and lability, which may play an important role in generating the rhythm for breathing and other coordinated motor activities in mammals. PMID:26195782

  18. Characterization of Low-Frequency Combustion Stability of the Fastrac Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rocker, Marvin; Jones, Preston (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A series of tests were conducted to measure the combustion performance of the Fastrac engine thrust chamber. During mainstage, the thrust chamber exhibited no large-amplitude chamber pressure oscillations that could be identified as low-frequency combustion instability or 'chug'. However, during start-up and shutdown, the thrust chamber very briefly exhibited large-amplitude chamber pressure oscillations that were identified as chug. These instabilities during start-up and shutdown were regarded as benign due to their brevity. Linear models of the thrust chamber and the propellant feed systems were formulated for both the thrust chamber component tests and the flight engine tests. These linear models determined the frequency and decay rate of chamber pressure oscillations given the design and operating conditions of the thrust chamber and feed system. The frequency of chamber pressure oscillations determined from the model closely matched the frequency of low-amplitude, low-frequency chamber pressure oscillations exhibited in some of the later thrust chamber mainstage tests. The decay rate of the chamber pressure oscillations determined from the models indicated that these low-frequency oscillations were stable. Likewise, the decay rate, determined from the model of the flight engine tests indicated that the low-frequency chamber pressure oscillations would be stable.

  19. Online detection of low-frequency functional connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltier, Scott J.; LaConte, Stephen M.; Hu, Xiaoping

    2004-04-01

    Synchronized oscillations in resting state timecourses have been detected in recent fMRI studies. These oscillations are low frequency in nature (<0.08 Hz), and seem to be a property of symmetric cortices. These fluctuations are important as a pontential signal of interest, which could indicate connectivity between functionally related areas of the brain. It has also been shown that the synchronized oscillations decrease in some spontaneous pathological states (such as cocaine injection). Thus, detection of these functional connectivity patterns may help to serve as a guage of normal brain activity. Currently, functional connectivity detection is applied only in offline post-processing analysis. Online detection methods have been applied to detect task activation in functional MRI. This allows real-time analysis of fMRI results, and could be important in detecting short-term changes in functional states. In this work, we develop an outline algorithm to detect low frequency resting state functional connectivity in real time. This will extend connectivity analysis to allow online detection of changes in "resting state" brain networks.

  20. CROSS-DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: A new mammalian circadian oscillator model including the cAMP module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun-Wei; Zhou, Tian-Shou

    2009-12-01

    In this paper, we develop a new mathematical model for the mammalian circadian clock, which incorporates both transcriptional/translational feedback loops (TTFLs) and a cAMP-mediated feedback loop. The model shows that TTFLs and cAMP signalling cooperatively drive the circadian rhythms. It reproduces typical experimental observations with qualitative similarities, e.g. circadian oscillations in constant darkness and entrainment to light-dark cycles. In addition, it can explain the phenotypes of cAMP-mutant and Rev-erbα-/--mutant mice, and help us make an experimentally-testable prediction: oscillations may be rescued when arrhythmic mice with constitutively low concentrations of cAMP are crossed with Rev-erbα-/- mutant mice. The model enhances our understanding of the mammalian circadian clockwork from the viewpoint of the entire cell.

  1. Improved low frequency stability of bolometric detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilbanks, T.; Devlin, M.; Lange, A. E.; Beeman, J. W.; Sato, S.

    1990-01-01

    An ac bridge readout system has been developed that greatly improves the low-frequency stability of bolometric detectors. The readout can be implemented with a simple circuit appropriate for use in space applications. A matched pair of detectors was used in the readout to achieve system noise within a factor of two of the fundamental noise limit of the detectors at frequencies as low as 10 mHz. The low-frequency stability of the readout system allows slower, more sensitive detectors to be used in many applications, and it facilitates observing strategies that are well suited to spaceborne observations.

  2. Low frequency acoustic and electromagnetic scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hariharan, S. I.; Maccamy, R. C.

    1986-01-01

    This paper deals with two classes of problems arising from acoustics and electromagnetics scattering in the low frequency stations. The first class of problem is solving Helmholtz equation with Dirichlet boundary conditions on an arbitrary two dimensional body while the second one is an interior-exterior interface problem with Helmholtz equation in the exterior. Low frequency analysis show that there are two intermediate problems which solve the above problems accurate to 0(k/2/ log k) where k is the frequency. These solutions greatly differ from the zero frequency approximations. For the Dirichlet problem numerical examples are shown to verify the theoretical estimates.

  3. Low frequency acoustic and electromagnetic scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hariharan, S. I.; Maccamy, R. C.

    1983-01-01

    This paper deals with two classes of problems arising from acoustics and electromagnetics scattering in the low frequency stations. The first class of problem is solving Helmholtz equation with Dirichlet boundary conditions on an arbitrary two dimensional body while the second one is an interior-exterior interface problem with Helmholtz equation in the exterior. Low frequency analysis show that there are two intermediate problems which solve the above problems accurate to 0(k(2) log k) where k is the frequency. These solutions greatly differ from the zero frequency approximations. For the Dirichlet problem numerical examples are shown to verify the theoretical estimates.

  4. Hearing Foreign Languages through Low Frequencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberge, Claude

    A study to assess the feasibility of the use of low frequencies for teaching foreign language to the hearing impaired is described. The subjects were unimpaired Japanese students, aged 18 and 19, in beginning French language study. Recorded sentences translated into English, French, and Mandarin Chinese were combined in various ways and presented…

  5. Is low frequency ocean sound increasing globally?

    PubMed

    Miksis-Olds, Jennifer L; Nichols, Stephen M

    2016-01-01

    Low frequency sound has increased in the Northeast Pacific Ocean over the past 60 yr [Ross (1993) Acoust. Bull. 18, 5-8; (2005) IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 30, 257-261; Andrew, Howe, Mercer, and Dzieciuch (2002) J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 129, 642-651; McDonald, Hildebrand, and Wiggins (2006) J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 120, 711-717; Chapman and Price (2011) J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 129, EL161-EL165] and in the Indian Ocean over the past decade, [Miksis-Olds, Bradley, and Niu (2013) J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 134, 3464-3475]. More recently, Andrew, Howe, and Mercer's [(2011) J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 129, 642-651] observations in the Northeast Pacific show a level or slightly decreasing trend in low frequency noise. It remains unclear what the low frequency trends are in other regions of the world. In this work, data from the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test Ban Treaty Organization International Monitoring System was used to examine the rate and magnitude of change in low frequency sound (5-115 Hz) over the past decade in the South Atlantic and Equatorial Pacific Oceans. The dominant source observed in the South Atlantic was seismic air gun signals, while shipping and biologic sources contributed more to the acoustic environment at the Equatorial Pacific location. Sound levels over the past 5-6 yr in the Equatorial Pacific have decreased. Decreases were also observed in the ambient sound floor in the South Atlantic Ocean. Based on these observations, it does not appear that low frequency sound levels are increasing globally. PMID:26827043

  6. Analyzing low frequency waves associated with plasma sheet flow channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, X.; Liang, J.; Wang, C. P.; Lyons, L. R.; Angelopoulos, V.

    2014-12-01

    Low frequency (0.006~0.02 Hz) magnetic oscillations are frequently observed to be associated with the substorm-related dipolarization in the near-Earth plasma sheet. It has been suggested that these oscillations are possibly triggered by ballooning instability in the transition region. However, our multi-point observations using THEMIS spacecraft have shown that similar oscillations are observed to be associated with the earthward moving flow channels as they penetrate from middle tail to the transition region. Linear MHD wave analysis suggested that these oscillations ahead of the dipolarization front are magnetosonic waves. For most of the cases, the thermal pressure and magnetic pressures variations are anti-phase, indicating slow mode waves. However, by taking advantage of the spacecraft located very close in X-Y plane and slightly away from the central plasma sheet, we found that for many events the phase relation between the thermal and magnetic pressure variations is Z-dependent, which suggests that the observational evidence for slow mode may not be applicable. In order to further examine these waves, we performed a MHD analysis in inhomogeneous plasma sheet. The calculation shows that for Harris Sheet configuration, the thermal and magnetic pressures variations can be anti-phase for any wave other than slow mode waves where the vertical velocity disturbance reaches its maximum, thus this phase relation may not be used as an identifier of magnetosonic wave modes. We will show the dispersion relation and wave generated disturbances obtained from the numerical calculations.

  7. The AKR emission cone at low frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calvert, W.

    1981-01-01

    It is noted that certain of the ISEE-1 observations between the plasmasphere and the auroral zone have revealed the emission cone of auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) unaffected by plasmaspheric refraction. At some distance from the source, the cone produced a sharp low-frequency boundary in the AKR signals, which was displaced above the cyclotron frequency. The variation of this boundary, together with other aspects of the AKR signals, suggested that the AKR emission cone closed toward a hollow, roughly 45 deg limit cone with decreasing frequency, duplicating the behavior previously found with ISIS-1 at the opposite end of the AKR spectrum. It is pointed out that the hollow limit cone at low frequencies is a new feature, not previously reported.

  8. Analysis of Jovian low frequency radio emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    The density of ions in the Io plasma torus and the scattering of these ions by low frequency electromagnetic emissions detected by Voyager 1 were studied. The ion density profile was investigated using whistler dispersion measurements provided by the Voyager plasma instrument. The scale height and absolute density of H+ ions in the vicinity of the plasma torus were determined by combining the measured plasma densities with the whistler dispersion measurements. A theoretical analysis of the modes of propagation of low frequency electromagnetic emissions in the torus was undertaken. Polarization reversal effects and rough estimates of the ion diffusion coefficient were utilized. Numerical evaluation of the ion diffusion coefficients in the torus were made using the observed Voyager 1 wave intensities. Results show that the observed wave intensities produce significant ion diffusion effects in the ion torus.

  9. Extreme low frequency acoustic measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Zuckerwar, Allan J. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention is an extremely low frequency (ELF) microphone and acoustic measurement system capable of infrasound detection in a portable and easily deployable form factor. In one embodiment of the invention, an extremely low frequency electret microphone comprises a membrane, a backplate, and a backchamber. The backchamber is sealed to allow substantially no air exchange between the backchamber and outside the microphone. Compliance of the membrane may be less than ambient air compliance. The backplate may define a plurality of holes and a slot may be defined between an outer diameter of the backplate and an inner wall of the microphone. The locations and sizes of the holes, the size of the slot, and the volume of the backchamber may be selected such that membrane motion is substantially critically damped.

  10. Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Backscattering from Tunnels

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, K; Pao, H

    2007-01-16

    Low-frequency electromagnetic scattering from one or more tunnels in a lossy dielectric half-space is considered. The tunnel radii are assumed small compared to the wavelength of the electromagnetic field in the surrounding medium; a tunnel can thus be modeled as a thin scatterer, described by an equivalent impedance per unit length. We examine the normalized backscattering width for cases in which the air-ground interface is either smooth or rough.

  11. Low frequency propagation in the earth's magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennison, Brian; Ananthakrishnan, S.; Desch, M.; Kaiser, M. L.; Weiler, K. W.

    1990-01-01

    Using a model to simulate wave propagation, estimates were obtained on the effect of the earth's magnetosphere on the imaging potential of the Low-Frequency Space Array mission for observations above the ionosphere at frequencies below about 10 MHz. Results of this simulation show that, for imaging at 1.5 MHz, large orbital radii will be required. It is concluded that successful imaging from within the plasmasphere may depend upon the feasibility of correction schemes.

  12. LOFAR: The LOw-Frequency ARray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Haarlem, M. P.; Wise, M. W.; Gunst, A. W.; Heald, G.; McKean, J. P.; Hessels, J. W. T.; de Bruyn, A. G.; Nijboer, R.; Swinbank, J.; Fallows, R.; Brentjens, M.; Nelles, A.; Beck, R.; Falcke, H.; Fender, R.; Hörandel, J.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Mann, G.; Miley, G.; Röttgering, H.; Stappers, B. W.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Zaroubi, S.; van den Akker, M.; Alexov, A.; Anderson, J.; Anderson, K.; van Ardenne, A.; Arts, M.; Asgekar, A.; Avruch, I. M.; Batejat, F.; Bähren, L.; Bell, M. E.; Bell, M. R.; van Bemmel, I.; Bennema, P.; Bentum, M. J.; Bernardi, G.; Best, P.; Bîrzan, L.; Bonafede, A.; Boonstra, A.-J.; Braun, R.; Bregman, J.; Breitling, F.; van de Brink, R. H.; Broderick, J.; Broekema, P. C.; Brouw, W. N.; Brüggen, M.; Butcher, H. R.; van Cappellen, W.; Ciardi, B.; Coenen, T.; Conway, J.; Coolen, A.; Corstanje, A.; Damstra, S.; Davies, O.; Deller, A. T.; Dettmar, R.-J.; van Diepen, G.; Dijkstra, K.; Donker, P.; Doorduin, A.; Dromer, J.; Drost, M.; van Duin, A.; Eislöffel, J.; van Enst, J.; Ferrari, C.; Frieswijk, W.; Gankema, H.; Garrett, M. A.; de Gasperin, F.; Gerbers, M.; de Geus, E.; Grießmeier, J.-M.; Grit, T.; Gruppen, P.; Hamaker, J. P.; Hassall, T.; Hoeft, M.; Holties, H. A.; Horneffer, A.; van der Horst, A.; van Houwelingen, A.; Huijgen, A.; Iacobelli, M.; Intema, H.; Jackson, N.; Jelic, V.; de Jong, A.; Juette, E.; Kant, D.; Karastergiou, A.; Koers, A.; Kollen, H.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Kooistra, E.; Koopman, Y.; Koster, A.; Kuniyoshi, M.; Kramer, M.; Kuper, G.; Lambropoulos, P.; Law, C.; van Leeuwen, J.; Lemaitre, J.; Loose, M.; Maat, P.; Macario, G.; Markoff, S.; Masters, J.; McFadden, R. A.; McKay-Bukowski, D.; Meijering, H.; Meulman, H.; Mevius, M.; Middelberg, E.; Millenaar, R.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Mohan, R. N.; Mol, J. D.; Morawietz, J.; Morganti, R.; Mulcahy, D. D.; Mulder, E.; Munk, H.; Nieuwenhuis, L.; van Nieuwpoort, R.; Noordam, J. E.; Norden, M.; Noutsos, A.; Offringa, A. R.; Olofsson, H.; Omar, A.; Orrú, E.; Overeem, R.; Paas, H.; Pandey-Pommier, M.; Pandey, V. N.; Pizzo, R.; Polatidis, A.; Rafferty, D.; Rawlings, S.; Reich, W.; de Reijer, J.-P.; Reitsma, J.; Renting, G. A.; Riemers, P.; Rol, E.; Romein, J. W.; Roosjen, J.; Ruiter, M.; Scaife, A.; van der Schaaf, K.; Scheers, B.; Schellart, P.; Schoenmakers, A.; Schoonderbeek, G.; Serylak, M.; Shulevski, A.; Sluman, J.; Smirnov, O.; Sobey, C.; Spreeuw, H.; Steinmetz, M.; Sterks, C. G. M.; Stiepel, H.-J.; Stuurwold, K.; Tagger, M.; Tang, Y.; Tasse, C.; Thomas, I.; Thoudam, S.; Toribio, M. C.; van der Tol, B.; Usov, O.; van Veelen, M.; van der Veen, A.-J.; ter Veen, S.; Verbiest, J. P. W.; Vermeulen, R.; Vermaas, N.; Vocks, C.; Vogt, C.; de Vos, M.; van der Wal, E.; van Weeren, R.; Weggemans, H.; Weltevrede, P.; White, S.; Wijnholds, S. J.; Wilhelmsson, T.; Wucknitz, O.; Yatawatta, S.; Zarka, P.; Zensus, A.; van Zwieten, J.

    2013-08-01

    LOFAR, the LOw-Frequency ARray, is a new-generation radio interferometer constructed in the north of the Netherlands and across europe. Utilizing a novel phased-array design, LOFAR covers the largely unexplored low-frequency range from 10-240 MHz and provides a number of unique observing capabilities. Spreading out from a core located near the village of Exloo in the northeast of the Netherlands, a total of 40 LOFAR stations are nearing completion. A further five stations have been deployed throughout Germany, and one station has been built in each of France, Sweden, and the UK. Digital beam-forming techniques make the LOFAR system agile and allow for rapid repointing of the telescope as well as the potential for multiple simultaneous observations. With its dense core array and long interferometric baselines, LOFAR achieves unparalleled sensitivity and angular resolution in the low-frequency radio regime. The LOFAR facilities are jointly operated by the International LOFAR Telescope (ILT) foundation, as an observatory open to the global astronomical community. LOFAR is one of the first radio observatories to feature automated processing pipelines to deliver fully calibrated science products to its user community. LOFAR's new capabilities, techniques and modus operandi make it an important pathfinder for the Square Kilometre Array (SKA). We give an overview of the LOFAR instrument, its major hardware and software components, and the core science objectives that have driven its design. In addition, we present a selection of new results from the commissioning phase of this new radio observatory.

  13. Low Frequency Seiche in a Large Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacMahan, J. H.; Thornton, E. B.; Gallagher, E. L.; Reniers, A.

    2014-12-01

    Short-term observations of sea surface elevations (η) along the 10m isobath, and long-term observations inside and outside of a large bay (Monterey Bay, CA) were obtained to describe the nodal structure of the mode 0-3 seiches within the bay and the low frequency (<346 cpd) seiche forcing mechanism. The measured nodal pattern validates previous numerical estimates associated with a northern amplitude bias, though variability exists across the modal frequency band, particularly for mode 0 and 1. Low frequency oceanic η white noise within seiche frequency bands (24-69 cpd) provides a continuous forcing of the bay seiche with a η2 (variance) amplification of 16-40 for the different modes. The temporal variation of the oceanic η white noise is significantly correlated (R2=0.86) at the 95% confidence interval with the bay seiche η that varies seasonally. The oceanic η white noise is hypothesized as being from low frequency, free, infragravity waves that are forced by short waves. This work was funded by NPS, ONR, & NSF.

  14. Transient Modeling of Hybrid Rocket Low Frequency Instabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karabeyoglu, M. Arif; DeZilwa, Shane; Cantwell, Brian; Zilliac, Greg

    2003-01-01

    A comprehensive dynamic model of a hybrid rocket has been developed in order to understand and predict the transient behavior including instabilities. A linearized version of the transient model predicted the low-frequency chamber pressure oscillations that are commonly observed in hybrids. The source of the instabilities is based on a complex coupling of thermal transients in the solid fuel, wall heat transfer blocking due to fuel regression rate and the transients in the boundary layer that forms on the fuel surface. The oscillation frequencies predicted by the linearized theory are in very good agreement with 43 motor test results obtained from the hybrid propulsion literature. The motor test results used in the comparison cover a very wide spectrum of parameters including: 1) four separate research and development programs, 2) three different oxidizers (LOX, GOX, N2O), 3) a wide range of motor dimensions (i.e. from 5 inch diameter to 72 inch diameter) and operating conditions and 4) several fuel formulations. A simple universal scaling formula for the frequency of the primary oscillation mode is suggested.

  15. Low-frequency ac electro-flow-focusing microfluidic emulsification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Peng; Kim, Haejune; Luo, Dawei; Marquez, Manuel; Cheng, Zhengdong

    2010-04-01

    Applications of electric field, using either dc or high-frequency ac field, have shown many advantages in emulsification. We further develop this technique by a detailed study on low-frequency ac electro-flow-focusing (EFF) microfluidic emulsification. Counter-intuitively, the droplet size variation is not monotonic with the electric field, in contrary to the dc-EFF emulsification. This phenomenon originates from a relaxation oscillation of flow rate through the Taylor cone. Particularly, a continuous droplet size decrease was obtained at the voltage ramp-up stage. This emulsification process was modeled in analog to the accumulation and release of charges in an RC electric circuit with an adjustable resistor.

  16. Low frequency electric and magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaniol, Craig

    1989-01-01

    Following preliminary investigations of the low frequency electric and magnetic fields that may exists in the Earth-ionospheric cavity, measurements were taken with state-of-the art spectrum analyzers. As a follow up to this activity, an investigation was initiated to determine sources and values for possible low frequency signal that would appear in the cavity. The lowest cavity resonance is estimated at about 8 Hz, but lower frequencies may be an important component of our electromagnetic environment. The potential field frequencies produced by the electron were investigated by a classical model that included possible cross coupling of the electric and gravitation fields. During this work, an interesting relationship was found that related the high frequency charge field with the extremely low frequency of the gravitation field. The results of numerical calculations were surprisingly accurate and this area of investigation is continuing. The work toward continued development of a standardized monitoring facility is continuing with the potential of installing the prototype at West Virginia State College early in 1990. This installation would be capable of real time monitoring of ELF signals in the Earth-ionoshpere cavity and would provide some directional information. A high gain, low noise, 1/f frequency corrected preamplifier was designed and tested for the ferrite core magnetic sensor. The potential application of a super conducting sensor for the ELF magnetic field detection is under investigation. It is hoped that a fully operational monitoring network could pinpoint the location of ELF signal sources and provide new information on where these signals originate and what causes them, assuming that they are natural in origin.

  17. Minimization of nanosatellite low frequency magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Belyayev, S M; Dudkin, F L

    2016-03-01

    Small weight and dimensions of the micro- and nanosatellites constrain researchers to place electromagnetic sensors on short booms or on the satellite body. Therefore the electromagnetic cleanliness of such satellites becomes a central question. This paper describes the theoretical base and practical techniques for determining the parameters of DC and very low frequency magnetic interference sources. One of such sources is satellite magnetization, the reduction of which improves the accuracy and stability of the attitude control system. We present design solutions for magnetically clean spacecraft, testing equipment, and technology for magnetic moment measurements, which are more convenient, efficient, and accurate than the conventional ones. PMID:27036801

  18. Minimization of nanosatellite low frequency magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyayev, S. M.; Dudkin, F. L.

    2016-03-01

    Small weight and dimensions of the micro- and nanosatellites constrain researchers to place electromagnetic sensors on short booms or on the satellite body. Therefore the electromagnetic cleanliness of such satellites becomes a central question. This paper describes the theoretical base and practical techniques for determining the parameters of DC and very low frequency magnetic interference sources. One of such sources is satellite magnetization, the reduction of which improves the accuracy and stability of the attitude control system. We present design solutions for magnetically clean spacecraft, testing equipment, and technology for magnetic moment measurements, which are more convenient, efficient, and accurate than the conventional ones.

  19. Gauribidanur Low-Frequency Solar Spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishore, P.; Kathiravan, C.; Ramesh, R.; Rajalingam, M.; Barve, Indrajit V.

    2014-10-01

    A new radio spectrograph, dedicated to observe the Sun, has been recently commissioned by the Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA) at the Gauribidanur Radio Observatory, about 100 km North of Bangalore. The instrument, called the Gauribidanur Low-frequency Solar Spectrograph (GLOSS), operates in the frequency range≈40 - 440 MHz. Radio emission in this frequency range originates close to the Sun, typically in the radial distance range r≈1.1 - 2.0 R⊙. This article describes the characteristics of the GLOSS and the first results.

  20. Experimental study of low frequency drift instability

    SciTech Connect

    Ioffe, M.S.; Kanaev, B.I.; Pastukhov, V.P.

    1994-05-01

    Experimental studies of nondissipative low frequency drift instability are reported; the plasma of a long mirror trap with edge casp anchors was investigated. The instability growth was found to take place only in a limited number of operation modes even in the case of all the growth requirements being satisfied. Furthermore, the instability development is rather moderate, and the associated anomalous losses appear to be small compared to the classical Coulomb losses. Possible factors accounting for the {open_quotes}soft{close_quotes} instability evolution are discussed. 13 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Low-frequency vibrational modes of glutamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei-Ning; Wang, Guo; Zhang, Yan

    2011-12-01

    High-resolution terahertz absorption and Raman spectra of glutamine in the frequency region 0.2 THz-2.8 THz are obtained by using THz time domain spectroscopy and low-frequency Raman spectroscopy. Based on the experimental and the computational results, the vibration modes corresponding to the terahertz absorption and Raman scatting peaks are assigned and further verified by the theoretical calculations. Spectral investigation of the periodic structure of glutamine based on the sophisticated hybrid density functional B3LYP indicates that the vibrational modes come mainly from the inter-molecular hydrogen bond in this frequency region.

  2. Predictability and Diagnosis of Low Frequency Climate Processes in the Pacific, Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Niklas Schneider

    2009-06-17

    The report summarized recent findings with respect to Predictability and Diagnosis of Low Frequency Climate Processes in the Pacific, with focus on the dynamics of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, oceanic adjustments and the coupled feedback in the western boundary current of the North and South Pacific, decadal dynamics of oceanic salinity, and tropical processes with emphasis on the Indonesian Throughflow.

  3. Low-Frequency Waves in Space Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keiling, Andreas; Lee, Dong-Hun; Nakariakov, Valery

    2016-02-01

    Low-frequency waves in space plasmas have been studied for several decades, and our knowledge gain has been incremental with several paradigm-changing leaps forward. In our solar system, such waves occur in the ionospheres and magnetospheres of planets, and around our Moon. They occur in the solar wind, and more recently, they have been confirmed in the Sun's atmosphere as well. The goal of wave research is to understand their generation, their propagation, and their interaction with the surrounding plasma. Low-frequency Waves in Space Plasmas presents a concise and authoritative up-to-date look on where wave research stands: What have we learned in the last decade? What are unanswered questions? While in the past waves in different astrophysical plasmas have been largely treated in separate books, the unique feature of this monograph is that it covers waves in many plasma regions, including: Waves in geospace, including ionosphere and magnetosphere Waves in planetary magnetospheres Waves at the Moon Waves in the solar wind Waves in the solar atmosphere Because of the breadth of topics covered, this volume should appeal to a broad community of space scientists and students, and it should also be of interest to astronomers/astrophysicists who are studying space plasmas beyond our Solar System.

  4. Low Frequency Interstellar Scattering and Pulsar Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordes, James M.

    1992-01-01

    Radio astronomy at frequencies from 2 to 30 MHz challenges time tested methods for extracting usable information from observations. One fundamental reason for this is that propagation effects due to the magnetoionic ionosphere, interplanetary medium, and interstellar matter (ISM) increase strongly with wavelength. The problems associated with interstellar scattering off of small scale irregularities in the electron density are addressed. What is known about interstellar scattering is summarized on the basis of high frequency observations, including scintillation and temporal broadening of pulsars and angular broadening of various galactic and extragalactic radio sources. Then those high frequency phenomena are addressed that are important or detectable at low frequencies. The radio sky becomes much simpler at low frequencies, most pulsars will not be seen as time varying sources, intensity variations will be quenched or will occur on time scales much longer than a human lifetime, and many sources will be angularly broadened and/or absorbed into the noise. Angular broadening measurements will help delineate the galactic distribution and power spectrum of small scale electron density irregularities.

  5. Generation of unusually low frequency plasmaspheric hiss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lunjin; Thorne, Richard M.; Bortnik, Jacob; Li, Wen; Horne, Richard B.; Reeves, G. D.; Kletzing, C. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Spence, H. E.; Blake, J. B.; Fennell, J. F.

    2014-08-01

    It has been reported from Van Allen Probe observations that plasmaspheric hiss intensification in the outer plasmasphere, associated with a substorm injection on 30 September 2012, occurred with a peak frequency near 100 Hz, well below the typical plasmaspheric hiss frequency range, extending down to ˜20 Hz. We examine this event of unusually low frequency plasmaspheric hiss to understand its generation mechanism. Quantitative analysis is performed by simulating wave raypaths via the HOTRAY ray tracing code with measured plasma density and calculating raypath-integrated wave gain evaluated using the measured energetic electron distribution. We demonstrate that the growth rate due to substorm-injected electrons is positive but rather weak, leading to small wave gain (˜10 dB) during a single equatorial crossing. Propagation characteristics aided by the sharp density gradient associated with the plasmapause, however, can enable these low-frequency waves to undergo cyclic raypaths, which return to the unstable region leading to repeated amplification to yield sufficient net wave gain (>40 dB) to allow waves to grow from the thermal noise.

  6. Low-frequency cloud-radiation interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randall, David A.

    1990-01-01

    The observed 30 to 60 day oscillation of the tropical winds, often referred to as the Madden Julian (MJ) oscillation, has excited lots of interest in recent years, because its existence suggests the possibility that the behavior of the atmosphere is at least partially predictable on such relatively long time scales. Most theories of the MJ oscillation have been based on the wave instability theories, such as wave-CISK (conditional instability of second kind). As discussed by Hu and Stevens (HS), these theories have not yet satisfactorily explained the observations. Recently, HS have suggested that the MJ oscillation is actually a forced response to periodic heating. They suggest that the forced oscillations originates in the hydrologic cycle, without the active participation of large scale dynamics. According to their model, the oscillation originates in a progressive build up of atmospheric water vapor, which continues until a (prescribed) threshold is reached, after which precipitation begins and rapidly dries the atmosphere. The drying due to a precipitation episode is followed by renewed gradual moistening, and the cycle continues indefinitely in this way. Preliminary results are presented from a 1-D version of the Randall et al. GCM, which lends further support to the ideas of HS. The present 1-D results also differ in important ways from those of HS, however. In particular, cloud radiation effects are essential for the oscillatory behavior of the model, although they are not essential in the model of HS.

  7. Model helicopter rotor low frequency broadband noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humbad, N. G.; Harris, W. L.

    1982-01-01

    The results of an experimental investigation of low frequency broadband noise (LFBN) radiated from model helicopter rotors are presented. The results up to tip Mach number of 0.50 suggest that the peak sound pressure level (SPL) of LFBN appears to follow tip Mach number to a fourth power law and rms velocity of turbulence to a second power law. The experimental results on the effect of tip speed and advance ratio on the peak SPL of LFBN can be explained on the basis of a simple scaling law. However, the experimental results on the effect of blade loading on the peak SPL of LFBN is still not clearly understood. A simple peak SPL scaling law for noise from a helicopter in forward flight encountering a sinusoidal gust is also developed. The trends predicted by the scaling law with the experimental results are found satisfactory for the cases of variation of the peak SPL of LFBN with tip speed and advance ratio.

  8. On helicopter rotor low frequency broadband noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Morgan; Harris, Wesley L.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of shear-layer-type inflow turbulence on the low-frequency broadband noise of a model helicopter rotor is experimentally studied. The measurements and the one-dimensional energy spectral density indicate that the upstream airfoil wake turbulence is nonisotropic, but approaches isotropy at high wavenumbers. Turbulence measurements also indicate that the wake turbulence is weak. The effect of the inflow turbulence intensity on the peak sound pressure level follows an intensity-velocity squared scaling law. A number of length scales and turbulence intensities exist which can be measured in the airfoil wake depending on the position at which the measurements are taken. Comparison of experimental and theoretical sound pressure power spectral densities indicates that the initial anisotropy of the inflow turbulence does not invalidate the isotropic turbulence assumption made in noise prediction models as long as measured turbulence intensities and length scales are used.

  9. Low-frequency radio navigation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallis, D. E. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A method of continuous wave navigation using four transmitters operating at sufficiently low frequencies to assure essentially pure groundwave operation is described. The transmitters are keyed to transmit constant bursts (1/4 sec) in a time-multiplexed pattern with phase modulation of at least one transmitter for identification of the transmitters and with the ability to identify the absolute phase of the modulated transmitter and the ability to modulate low rate data for transmission. The transmitters are optimally positioned to provide groundwave coverage over a service region of about 50 by 50 km for the frequencies selected in the range of 200 to 500 kHz, but their locations are not critical because of the beneficial effect of overdetermination of position of a receiver made possible by the fourth transmitter. Four frequencies are used, at least two of which are selected to provide optimal resolution. All transmitters are synchronized to an average phase as received by a monitor receiver.

  10. Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Investigation on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozakiewicz, Joanna; Kulak, Andrzej; Kubisz, Jerzy; Zietara, Krzysztof

    2016-07-01

    Natural electromagnetic (EM) signals of extremely low frequencies (ELF, 3 Hz-3 kHz) can be used to study many of the electromagnetic processes and properties occurring in the Martian environment. Sources of these signals, related to electrical activity in the atmosphere, are very significant since they can influence radio wave propagation on the planet, the atmospheric composition, and the ionospheric structure. In addition, such EM signals can be employed in many purposes such as: surveying the subsurface of Mars or studying the impact of the space weather on the Martian ionosphere. As ELF waves propagate on very long distances, it is possible to explore properties of the entire planet using single-station recordings. In this study, we propose an experiment that allows measuring ELF signals from the Martian surface. Such measurements can be used for detection of electric discharges in the atmosphere and water reservoirs in the planetary subsurface.

  11. Low Frequency Electromagnetic Pulse and Explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, J J

    2011-02-01

    This paper reviews and summarizes prior work related to low frequency (< 100 Hz) EMP (ElectroMagnetic Pulse) observed from explosions. It focuses on how EMP signals might, or might not, be useful in monitoring underground nuclear tests, based on the limits of detection, and physical understanding of these signals. In summary: (1) Both chemical and nuclear explosions produce an EMP. (2) The amplitude of the EMP from underground explosions is at least two orders of magnitude lower than from above ground explosions and higher frequency components of the signal are rapidly attenuated due to ground conductivity. (3) In general, in the near field, that is distances (r) of less than 10s of kilometers from the source, the amplitude of the EMP decays approximately as 1/r{sup 3}, which practically limits EMP applications to very close (<{approx}1km) distances. (4) One computational model suggests that the EMP from a decoupled nuclear explosion may be enhanced over the fully coupled case. This has not been validated with laboratory or field data. (5) The magnitude of the EMP from an underground nuclear explosion is about two orders of magnitude larger than that from a chemical explosion, and has a larger component of higher frequencies. In principle these differences might be used to discriminate a nuclear from a chemical explosion using sensors at very close (<{approx}1 km) distances. (6) Arming and firing systems (e.g. detonators, exploding bridge wires) can also produce an EMP from any type of explosion. (7) To develop the understanding needed to apply low frequency EMP to nuclear explosion monitoring, it is recommended to carry out a series of controlled underground chemical explosions with a variety of sizes, emplacements (e.g. fully coupled and decoupled), and arming and firing systems.

  12. USP7 and TDP-43: Pleiotropic Regulation of Cryptochrome Protein Stability Paces the Oscillation of the Mammalian Circadian Clock

    PubMed Central

    Yoshitane, Hikari; Oyama, Masaaki; Kozuka-Hata, Hiroko; Lanjakornsiripan, Darin; Fukada, Yoshitaka

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian Cryptochromes, CRY1 and CRY2, function as principal regulators of a transcription-translation-based negative feedback loop underlying the mammalian circadian clockwork. An F-box protein, FBXL3, promotes ubiquitination and degradation of CRYs, while FBXL21, the closest paralog of FBXL3, ubiquitinates CRYs but leads to stabilization of CRYs. Fbxl3 knockout extremely lengthened the circadian period, and deletion of Fbxl21 gene in Fbxl3-deficient mice partially rescued the period-lengthening phenotype, suggesting a key role of CRY protein stability for maintenance of the circadian periodicity. Here, we employed a proteomics strategy to explore regulators for the protein stability of CRYs. We found that ubiquitin-specific protease 7 (USP7 also known as HAUSP) associates with CRY1 and CRY2 and stabilizes CRYs through deubiquitination. Treatment with USP7-specific inhibitor or Usp7 knockdown shortened the circadian period of the cellular rhythm. We identified another CRYs-interacting protein, TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43), an RNA-binding protein. TDP-43 stabilized CRY1 and CRY2, and its knockdown also shortened the circadian period in cultured cells. The present study identified USP7 and TDP-43 as the regulators of CRY1 and CRY2, underscoring the significance of the stability control process of CRY proteins for period determination in the mammalian circadian clockwork. PMID:27123980

  13. Interim prediction method for low frequency core engine noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, R. G.; Clark, B. J.; Dorsch, R. G.

    1974-01-01

    A literature survey on low-frequency core engine noise is presented. Possible sources of low frequency internally generated noise in core engines are discussed with emphasis on combustion and component scrubbing noise. An interim method is recommended for predicting low frequency core engine noise that is dominant when jet velocities are low. Suggestions are made for future research on low frequency core engine noise that will aid in improving the prediction method and help define possible additional internal noise sources.

  14. Imaging Jupiter Radiation Belts At Low Frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, J. N.; de Pater, I.; Zarka, P.; Santos-Costa, D.; Sault, R.; Hess, S.; Cecconi, B.; Fender, R.; Pewg, Lofar

    2014-04-01

    , at different epochs only provided, each time, glimpses of the spectral content in different observational configurations. As the synchrotron emission frequency peaks at Vmax / E2B (with Vmax in MHz, E, the electron energy in MeV and B, the magnetic field in Gauss), the low frequency content of this emission is associated with low energy electron populations inside the inner belt and the energetic electrons located in regions of weaker magnetic field (at few jovian radii). Therefore, there is much interest in extending and completing the current knowledge of the synchrotron emission from the belts, with low frequency resolved observations. LOFAR, the LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) [6], is a giant flexible and digital ground-based radio interferometer operating in the 30-250 MHz band. It brings very high time (~ μs), frequency (~ kHz) and angular resolutions (~1") and huge sensitivity (mJy). In November 2011, a single 10-hour track enabled to cover an entire planetary rotation and led to the first resolved image of the radiation belts between 127- 172 MHz [7,8]. In Feb 2013, an 2×5h30 joint LOFAR/ WSRT observing campaign seized the state of the radiation belts from 45 MHz up to 5 GHz. We will present the current state of the study (imaging, reconstruction method and modeling) of the radiation belts dynamic with this current set of observations. LOFAR can contribute to the understanding of the physics taking place in the inner belt as well as possibly providing a fast and a systematic "diagnostic" of the state of the belts. The latter represents an opportunity to give context and ground-based support for the arrival of JUNO (NASA) scheduled in July 2016 and also for future missions, such as JUICE (ESA), at the vicinity of Jupiter by the exploration of its icy satellites.

  15. Chimeras of sperm PLCζ reveal disparate protein domain functions in the generation of intracellular Ca2+ oscillations in mammalian eggs at fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Theodoridou, Maria; Nomikos, Michail; Parthimos, Dimitris; Gonzalez-Garcia, J. Raul; Elgmati, Khalil; Calver, Brian L.; Sideratou, Zili; Nounesis, George; Swann, Karl; Lai, F. Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Phospholipase C-zeta (PLCζ) is a sperm-specific protein believed to cause Ca2+ oscillations and egg activation during mammalian fertilization. PLCζ is very similar to the somatic PLCδ1 isoform but is far more potent in mobilizing Ca2+ in eggs. To investigate how discrete protein domains contribute to Ca2+ release, we assessed the function of a series of PLCζ/PLCδ1 chimeras. We examined their ability to cause Ca2+ oscillations in mouse eggs, enzymatic properties using in vitro phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) hydrolysis and their binding to PIP2 and PI(3)P with a liposome interaction assay. Most chimeras hydrolyzed PIP2 with no major differences in Ca2+ sensitivity and enzyme kinetics. Insertion of a PH domain or replacement of the PLCζ EF hands domain had no deleterious effect on Ca2+ oscillations. In contrast, replacement of either XY-linker or C2 domain of PLCζ completely abolished Ca2+ releasing activity. Notably, chimeras containing the PLCζ XY-linker bound to PIP2-containing liposomes, while chimeras containing the PLCζ C2 domain exhibited PI(3)P binding. Our data suggest that the EF hands are not solely responsible for the nanomolar Ca2+ sensitivity of PLCζ and that membrane PIP2 binding involves the C2 domain and XY-linker of PLCζ. To investigate the relationship between PLC enzymatic properties and Ca2+ oscillations in eggs, we have developed a mathematical model that incorporates Ca2+-dependent InsP3 generation by the PLC chimeras and their levels of intracellular expression. These numerical simulations can for the first time predict the empirical variability in onset and frequency of Ca2+ oscillatory activity associated with specific PLC variants. PMID:24152875

  16. The LWA1 Low Frequency Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowell, Jayce; Taylor, Gregory B.; LWA Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The LWA1 Low Frequency Sky Survey is a survey of the sky visible from the first station of the Long Wavelength Array (LWA1) across the frequency range of 35 to 80 MHz. The primary motivation behind this effort is to improve our understanding of the sky at these frequencies. In particular, an understanding of the low frequency foreground emission is necessary for work on detecting the epoch of reionization and the cosmic dark ages where the foreground signal dwarfs the expected redshifted HI signal by many orders of magnitude (Pritchard & Loeb 2012, Rep. Prog. Phys., 75, 086901). The leading model for the sky in the frequency range of 20 to 200 MHz is the Global Sky Model (GSM) by de Oliveria-Costas et al. (2008, MNRAS, 288, 247). This model is based upon a principle component analysis of 11 sky maps ranging in frequency from 10 MHz to 94 GHz. Of these 11 maps, only four are below 1 GHz; 10 MHz from Caswell (1976, MNRAS, 177, 601), 22 MHz from Roger et al. (1999, A&AS, 137, 7), 45 MHz from Alvarez et al. (1997, A&AS, 124, 315) and Maeda et al. (1999, A&AS, 140, 145), and 408 MHz from Haslam et al. (1982, A&AS, 47, 1). Thus, within this model, the region of interest to both cosmic dawn and the epoch of reionization is largely unconstrained based on the available survey data, and are also limited in terms of the spatial coverage and calibration. A self-consistent collection of maps is necessary for both our understanding of the sky and the removal of the foregrounds that mask the redshifted 21-cm signal.We present the current state of the survey and discuss the imaging and calibration challenges faced by dipole arrays that are capable of imaging nearly 2π steradians of sky simultaneously over a large fractional bandwidth.Construction of the LWA has been supported by the Office of Naval Research under Contract N00014-07-C-0147. Support for operations and continuing development of the LWA1 is provided by the National Science Foundation under grants AST-1139963 and AST

  17. The Challenge of Low-Frequency ENSO Variability (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, J. E.; Ault, T. R.; Thompson, D. M.

    2010-12-01

    The tropical Pacific is connected to patterns of drought and flooding throughout the world. Global climate models give ambiguous projections about changes in this region, yet anticipating these changes will be crucial to adaptation strategies during the coming decades. Here, we use proxy, observational, and climate model data to address two fundamental questions that are not resolved in our view. First, what is the relationship between frequency and variance in the tropical Pacific? And, second, do observations, climate models, and proxy records provide a consistent view of tropical Pacific SST variability across interannual, decadal, and centennial timescales? To explore these questions, we analyze the power spectra of proxy records from the tropical Pacific as well as observational and climate model data from the same region. Observations suggest that variance is concentrated within the canonical 2-7 year window, but results are ambiguous on longer timescales due to the shortness of the records and other limitations of instrumental data. High-resolution coral δ18O records suggest that the window of ENSO variance extends through multidecadal periods, with exceptionally strong variability concentrated in the decadal band during the late 19th century. Lower-resolution proxy records imply a continuum of variance that increases at lower frequencies through the multicentury time scale. These paleoclimatic analyses suggest that the 20th century does not capture the full range of ENSO variability, even in the last millennium. Climate models, in contrast, support ENSO variability at timescales of 2-5 years, with many models exhibiting overly regular oscillations between El Niño and La Niña conditions. Proxies and observations argue for more energetic low-frequency variability than is seen in the variance spectra of simulated tropical Pacific SST, suggesting that GCMs may be missing key low-frequency behaviors in their internal variability. GCMs that do not capture the

  18. A Sub-Hertz, Low-Frequency Vibration Isolation Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, Gerardo, G.; Farr, William H.; Sannibale, Virginio

    2011-01-01

    One of the major technical problems deep-space optical communication (DSOC) systems need to solve is the isolation of the optical terminal from vibrations produced by the spacecraft navigational control system and by the moving parts of onboard instruments. Even under these vibration perturbations, the DSOC transceivers (telescopes) need to be pointed l000 fs of times more accurately than an RF communication system (parabolic antennas). Mechanical resonators have been extensively used to provide vibration isolation for groundbased, airborne, and spaceborne payloads. The effectiveness of these isolation systems is determined mainly by the ability of designing a mechanical oscillator with the lowest possible resonant frequency. The Low-Frequency Vibration Isolation Platform (LFVIP), developed during this effort, aims to reduce the resonant frequency of the mechanical oscillators into the sub-Hertz region in order to maximize the passive isolation afforded by the 40 dB/decade roll-off response of the resonator. The LFVIP also provides tip/tilt functionality for acquisition and tracking of a beacon signal. An active control system is used for platform positioning and for dampening of the mechanical oscillator. The basic idea in the design of the isolation platform is to use a passive isolation strut with an approximately equal to 100-mHz resonance frequency. This will extend the isolation range to lower frequencies. The harmonic oscillator is a second-order lowpass filter for mechanical disturbances. The resonance quality depends on the dissipation mechanisms, which are mainly hysteretic because of the low resonant frequency and the absence of any viscous medium. The LFVIP system is configured using the well-established Stewart Platform, which consists of a top platform connected to a base with six extensible struts (see figure). The struts are attached to the base and to the platform via universal joints, which permit the extension and contraction of the struts. The

  19. Low-Frequency Earthquakes in Cascadia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweet, J. R.; Creager, K. C.; Ghosh, A.; Vidale, J. E.

    2009-12-01

    Low-frequency earthquakes (LFEs) are a recently identified class of earthquakes that have been observed to occur coincidentally with non-volcanic tremor in time and space. These LFEs also have a frequency spectra that is nearly identical to that of tremor—implying a common source for these two phenomena. Indeed, it has been proposed that tremor may simply be a superposition of many individual LFEs (Shelly et al., 2006, 2007, Nature). As such, LFEs have been used to constrain the location of tremor. We first reported LFEs in Cascadia last year, following the deployment of an 80-station, 1-km aperture seismic array on the Olympic Peninsula of western Washington State. This past year we have deployed 8 small aperture, 3-component seismic arrays across the northern Olympic Peninsula in the hopes of recording and locating additional tremor and LFEs. These arrays are composed of 10 3-component and 10 vertical component EarthScope seismometers. We use a combination of methods to identify and locate LFEs in our new, expanded dataset. Potential LFEs are first flagged by searching for peaks in the cross correlation of vertical and horizontal components that correspond to S minus P times of arriving energy (La Rocca, 2009, Science). These targets are then used as template events and are cross correlated with several hours of continuous data to find matching events. Using stacking and correlation we obtain accurate S minus P times for some arrays, and differential S and P times between arrays. We use these times to obtain robust estimates of LFE hypocenters. Unfortunately none of the 2009 data from the array of arrays covers a period of Episodic Tremor and Slip (ETS), but several smaller tremor bursts were recorded.

  20. Investigating Low-Frequency Earthquake Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweet, J. R.; Creager, K. C.

    2013-12-01

    Low-frequency earthquakes (LFEs) have been associated with tectonic tremor and slow slip on the deep extension of subduction zones faults and major strike-slip faults. These tiny earthquakes are thought to represent small amounts of slip on the plate interface in places with high pore fluid pressure and low effective stress. Some tectonic tremor has been shown to consist of the superposition of many LFEs occurring at nearly the same time [Shelly et al., 2007]. In northern Cascadia, we use data from the Array of Arrays and CAFE experiments to detect and study properties of a curious LFE family on the downdip extension of the transition zone. This family--the deepest we've yet discovered in Cascadia--occurs in small swarms of ~1 hour duration every 1 to 2 weeks. Over our 6-year dataset we have identified ~9000 individual repeats of this LFE. Using double-difference techniques on one swarm, we have found that the LFEs lie on a dipping plane (<300m thick) that locates on the inferred plate interface [McCrory et al., 2012; Preston et al., 2003]. Individual LFE locations have errors of order 100m. Interestingly, we also find that over the course of an hour the LFEs migrate updip over a distance of ~2km in a narrow channel parallel to the plate convergence direction. We suggest this migration represents the movement of a slow slip front, and may be similar to previously described tremor streaks, also seen in Cascadia [Ghosh et al., 2010]; however our migration velocity of 2km/hr would be intermediate between the slower reported velocities of rapid tremor reversals [Houston et al., 2010] and the much faster tremor streaks. We find that amplitudes for this LFE family occupy a relatively narrow range, with louder events equally likely to occur at the beginning, middle, or end of a swarm of LFEs. We estimate LFE magnitudes of -0.8 to +0.8 by comparing peak-to-peak amplitudes and PNSN assigned magnitudes for 8 small earthquakes within 10km of the LFEs. Amplitudes below about

  1. Extremely Low Frequency Signal Acquisition, Recording and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zantis, Franz P.; Hribik, Ján; Ďuračková, Daniela

    2016-05-01

    Our environment is permeated by electrical and magnetic alternating waves in the frequency range above the AC voltage of 50 Hz and also in the radio frequency range. Much attention from the public is given to these waves. Through numerous studies and publications about this type of oscillations and waves it is largely known from which sources they occur and which impact they have. However, very little information could be found about electrical and magnetic alternating waves in the frequency range below 50 Hz. The aim of this research is to demonstrate that these signals exist and also to show how the signals look like and where and when they occur. This article gives an overview of the occurrence of these ELF (Extremely Low Frequencies) signals, their specific properties in view of the time domain and in view of the frequency domain and of the possible sources of these waves. Precise knowledge of the structures of the ELF signals allows conclusions about their potential to cause electromagnetic interference in electronic systems. Also other effects in our environment, eg on flora and fauna could be explained.

  2. Modeling low frequency vibrational modes of large biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankey, Otto; Dykeman, Eric

    2008-03-01

    Mechanical oscillations of proteins in their native state are relevant to understanding the flexibility of the protein assembly, the binding of substrates, the mechanical action involved in enzymatic activity, and the vibrational response to light scattering. Often, only the low frequency modes are of interest and coarse grained methods or other approximations are used due to the large size of the dynamical matrix. We introduce a computational approach, which exploits the methodology from electronic structure Order N methods, to find the vibrational modes below some frequency threshold (analogous to a Fermi-level in electronic structure theory). The approach allows systems to be described in atomistic detail. We use a generalized Born force field to model the interactions. Examples of normal modes for icosahedral viruses (e.g. satellite tobacco necrosis virus), tubular viruses (e.g. M13), and enzymes (e.g. lysozyme, HIV-protease, alpha-lytic protease) will be discussed. This effort is motivated by recent experimental work to produce high amplitude vibrations of viruses from impulsive stimulated Raman scattering.

  3. Examining Low Frequency Molecular Modulations from the High Frequency Vantage Point: Anharmonically-Coupled Low Frequency Modes in PCET Model Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Anthony

    Proton-coupled electron transfer model systems (PCET) are examined using polarization selective femtosecond infrared pump-probe spectroscopy to determine how the structural modes are coupled to the OH/OD stretching vibrational mode by monitoring low frequency oscillations in the OH/OD vibrational mode using pump-probe techniques. For all of the systems discussed in this dissertation, low frequency modes are anharmonically coupled to the OH/OD stretching vibration. The OH/OD stretching vibration discussed in this dissertation have complex and broad lineshapes in the infrared region (IR) that are difficult to decipher. A broadband IR (BBIR) source, when used as part of a third order nonlinear infrared pump-probe spectroscopy, gains access into the electronic ground state potential energy surface. This information reveals the molecular dynamics that give rise to the complex structure in an IR spectra. The BBIR used for these experiments is generated by focusing 800 nm/400 nm pulses into compressed air and is tunable from 2 -- 5 microns with a FWHM greater than 1200 wavenumbers. The BBIR is a crucial mid-IR source in subsequent chapters for examining the broad lineshapes of the OH/OD stretching mode, which often exceeds 200 wavenumbers. The coupling of low frequency structural modulations to hydrogen bonding dynamics in PCET systems is explored by using the OH/OD stretching vibration in CCl4 or CHCl3. Third order nonlinear ultrafast infrared pump-probe spectroscopy is used to gather information on the high frequency OH/OD stretching vibrational modes in the ground state such as vibrational relaxation time and anharmonic vibrational coupling to low frequency structural modulations. At least one anharmonically coupled low frequency mode between 120 and 250 wavenumbers has been observed in all systems. To better understand and visualize how the low frequency mode may contribute to the PCET chemistry, we calculated the fundamental frequencies and third order coupling

  4. Electroporation of mammalian cells by nanosecond electric field oscillations and its inhibition by the electric field reversal

    PubMed Central

    Gianulis, Elena C.; Lee, Jimo; Jiang, Chunqi; Xiao, Shu; Ibey, Bennet L.; Pakhomov, Andrei G.

    2015-01-01

    The present study compared electroporation efficiency of bipolar and unipolar nanosecond electric field oscillations (NEFO). Bipolar NEFO was a damped sine wave with 140 ns first phase duration at 50% height; the peak amplitude of phases 2–4 decreased to 35%, 12%, and 7% of the first phase. This waveform was rectified to produce unipolar NEFO by cutting off phases 2 and 4. Membrane permeabilization was quantified in CHO and GH3 cells by uptake of a membrane integrity marker dye YO-PRO-1 (YP) and by the membrane conductance increase measured by patch clamp. For treatments with 1–20 unipolar NEFO, at 9.6–24 kV/cm, 10 Hz, the rate and amount of YP uptake were consistently 2-3-fold higher than after bipolar NEFO treatments, despite delivering less energy. However, the threshold amplitude was about 7 kV/cm for both NEFO waveforms. A single 14.4 kV/cm unipolar NEFO caused a 1.5–2 times greater increase in membrane conductance (p < 0.05) than bipolar NEFO, along with a longer and less frequent recovery. The lower efficiency of bipolar NEFO was preserved in Ca2+-free conditions and thus cannot be explained by the reversal of electrophoretic flows of Ca2+. Instead, the data indicate that the electric field polarity reversals reduced the pore yield. PMID:26348662

  5. The Low-Frequency Variability of the Tropical Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haekkinen, Sirpa; Mo, Kingtse C.; Koblinsky, Chester J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Upper ocean temperature variability in the tropical Atlantic is examined from the Comprehensive Ocean Atmosphere Data Set (COADS) as well as from an ocean model simulation forced by COADS anomalies appended to a monthly climatology. Our findings are as follows: Only the sea surface temperatures (SST) in the northern tropics are driven by heat fluxes, while the southern tropical variability arises from wind driven ocean circulation changes. The subsurface temperatures in the northern and southern tropics are found to have a strong linkage to buoyancy forcing changes in the northern North Atlantic. Evidence for Kelvin-like boundary wave propagation from the high latitudes is presented from the model simulation. This extratropical influence is associated with wintertime North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) forcing and manifests itself in the northern and southern tropical temperature anomalies of the same sign at depth of 100-200 meters as result of a Rossby wave propagation away from the eastern boundary in the wake of the boundary wave passage. The most apparent association of the southern tropical sea surface temperature anomalies (STA) arises with the anomalous cross-equatorial winds which can be related to both NAO and the remote influence from the Pacific equatorial region. These teleconnections are seasonal so that the NAO impact on the tropical SST is the largest it mid-winter but in spring and early summer the Pacific remote influence competes with NAO. However, NAO appears to have a more substantial role than the Pacific influence at low frequencies during the last 50 years. The dynamic origin of STA is indirectly confirmed from the SST-heat flux relationship using ocean model experiments which remove either anomalous wind stress forcing or atmospheric forcing anomalies contributing to heat exchange.

  6. Does Cooling Magma Drive Deep Low-Frequency Earthquakes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aso, N.; Ide, S.; Tsai, V. C.

    2013-12-01

    = Introduction = One major type of deep low-frequency earthquakes (LFEs) is tectonic LFEs that locate around plate boundaries, and are thought to be slip events. Another type of LFEs is volcanic LFEs that locate around the Moho mostly beneath active or Quaternary volcanoes, and their physical mechanism is not well established. We recently suggested that the volcanic LFEs in eastern Shimane can be interpreted as a resonant oscillation within an old magma conduit of 1600 m in length, which produces a focal mechanism that is equivalent to a compensated linear vector dipole (CLVD) oriented in the direction of the conduit [Aso et al., in prep. for re-submission]. However, a remaining question is what excites the resonance. In the present study, we suggest that cooling magma acts as a trigger for the resonant oscillation of volcanic LFEs, with the idea that thermal contraction of magma produces an anisotropic strain rate and the resulting brittle failure would trigger oscillation. To verify this, we calculated strain rates produced by this effect both analytically and numerically. = Model Setting and Method = We set the initial extent of magma as a 1600-m-long 400-m-wide pipe as is inferred from the distribution of hypocenters in eastern Shimane. The initial perturbation is set to be 400 K uniformly within the pipe. Thermal strain rate is calculated using the thermal stress potential of Timoshenko and Goodier [1970]. First, we estimated the strain rate without the effect of latent heat release. Assuming a cuboid pipe, it can be solved easily analytically. Next, to account for latent heat release, we use the enthalpy method [Eyres et al., 1946] to numerically solve the problem, assuming a cylindrical pipe. = Results = For the case without latent heat release, the strain rate remains higher than than 10-14/s for 600 years at the center of the pipe. For the case with latent heat release, although the latent heat delays the thermal evolution and decreases the strain rate, it

  7. Low-frequency VLBI in space and interstellar refraction

    SciTech Connect

    Dennison, B.; Booth, R.S.

    1986-08-01

    The proposed orbiting Quasat antenna, equipped with a low-frequency capability (e.g. 327 MHz), would be uniquely suited for studying refractive focusing (slow scintillation) in the interstellar medium, which is suspected of being responsible for at least some apparent low-frequency variability of extragalactic sources. The authors consider in some detail various technical considerations, including the decorrelating effects of the ionosphere and interplanetary medium, and conclude that low-frequency VLBI observations involving Quasat and Earth-based antennas would be feasible, particularly if sources are observed when they are in the anti-solar hemisphere.

  8. Assessing Low Frequency Climate Signals in Global Circulation Models using an Integrated Hydrologic Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niswonger, R. G.; Huntington, J. L.

    2010-12-01

    Climate signals with periodicities of approximately one decade are pervasive in long-term streamflow records for streams in the western United States that receive significant baseflow. The driver of these signals is unknown but hypotheses have been presented, such as variations in solar input to the Earth, or harmonics of internal (i.e., processes in the ocean and troposphere) forcings like the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Climate signals of about 1 decade are important for several reasons, including their relation to climate extremes (i.e., droughts and floods), and because the drivers of these climate signals are clearly important for projecting future climate conditions. Furthermore, identifying the drivers of these climate signals is important for separating the relative impacts of human production of greenhouse gases on global warming verses external drivers of climate change, such as sunspot cycles. Studies using Global Circulation Models (GCMs) that do not incorporate solar forcings associated with sun spots have identified oscillations of about a decade long in certain model output. However, these oscillations can be difficult to identify in simulated precipitation data due to high frequency variations (less than 1 year) that obscure low frequency (decade) signals. We have found that simulations using an integrated hydrologic model (IHM) called GSFLOW reproduce decade-long oscillations in streamflow when driven by measured precipitation records, and that these oscillations are also present in simulated streamflow when driven by temperature and precipitation data projected by GCMs. Because the IHM acts as a low-pass filter that reveals low frequency signals (i.e. decadal oscillations), they can be used to assess GCMs in terms of their ability to reproduce important low-frequency climate oscillations. We will present results from GSFLOW applied to three basins in the eastern Sierra Nevada driven by 100 years of

  9. Low-frequency band gap mechanism of torsional vibration of lightweight elastic metamaterial shafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lixia; Cai, Anjiang

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the low-frequency band gap mechanism of torsional vibration is investigated for a kind of light elastic metamaterial (EM) shafts architecture comprised of a radial double-period element periodically as locally resonant oscillators with low frequency property. The dispersion relations are calculated by a method combining the transfer matrix and a lumped-mass method. The theoretical results agree well with finite method simulations, independent of the density of the hard material ring. The effects of the material parameters on the band gaps are further explored numerically. Our results show that in contrast to the traditional EM shaft, the weight of our proposed EM shaft can be reduced by 27% in the same band gap range while the vibration attenuation is kept unchanged, which is very convenient to instruct the potential engineering applications. Finally, the band edge frequencies of the lower band gaps for this light EM shaft are expressed analytically using physical heuristic models.

  10. The low frequency 2D vibration sensor based on flat coil element

    SciTech Connect

    Djamal, Mitra; Sanjaya, Edi; Islahudin; Ramli

    2012-06-20

    Vibration like an earthquake is a phenomenon of physics. The characteristics of these vibrations can be used as an early warning system so as to reduce the loss or damage caused by earthquakes. In this paper, we introduced a new type of low frequency 2D vibration sensor based on flat coil element that we have developed. Its working principle is based on position change of a seismic mass that put in front of a flat coil element. The flat coil is a part of a LC oscillator; therefore, the change of seismic mass position will change its resonance frequency. The results of measurements of low frequency vibration sensor in the direction of the x axis and y axis gives the frequency range between 0.2 to 1.0 Hz.

  11. Low-frequency broadband noise generated by a model rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aravamudan, K. S.; Harris, W. L.

    1979-01-01

    Low-frequency broadband noise generated by model rotors is attributed to the interaction of ingested turbulence with the rotor blades. The influence of free-stream turbulence in the low-frequency broadband noise radiation from model rotors has been experimentally investigated. The turbulence was generated in the M.I.T. anechoic wind tunnel facility with the aid of bipolar grids of various sizes. The spectra and the intensity of the low-frequency broadband noise have been studied as a function of parameters which characterize the turbulence and of helicopter performance parameters. The location of the peak intensity was observed to be strongly dependent on the rotor-tip velocity and on the longitudinal integral scale of turbulence. The size scale of turbulence had negligible effect on the intensity of low-frequency broadband noise. The experimental data show good agreement with an ad hoc model based on unsteady aerodynamics.

  12. 7. Survivable low frequency communication system pathway, looking east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Survivable low frequency communication system pathway, looking east - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  13. The Vestibular System Mediates Sensation of Low-Frequency Sounds in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Gareth P.; Lukashkina, Victoria A.; Lukashkin, Andrei N.

    2010-01-01

    The mammalian inner ear contains sense organs responsible for detecting sound, gravity and linear acceleration, and angular acceleration. Of these organs, the cochlea is involved in hearing, while the sacculus and utriculus serve to detect linear acceleration. Recent evidence from birds and mammals, including humans, has shown that the sacculus, a hearing organ in many lower vertebrates, has retained some of its ancestral acoustic sensitivity. Here we provide not only more evidence for the retained acoustic sensitivity of the sacculus, but we also found that acoustic stimulation of the sacculus has behavioral significance in mammals. We show that the amplitude of an elicited auditory startle response is greater when the startle stimuli are presented simultaneously with a low-frequency masker, including masker tones that are outside the sensitivity range of the cochlea. Masker-enhanced auditory startle responses were also observed in otoconia-absent Nox3 mice, which lack otoconia but have no obvious cochlea pathology. However, masker enhancement was not observed in otoconia-absent Nox3 mice if the low-frequency masker tones were outside the sensitivity range of the cochlea. This last observation confirms that otoconial organs, most likely the sacculus, contribute to behavioral responses to low-frequency sounds in mice. PMID:20821033

  14. Searching for Low-Frequency Radio Transients from Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai-Wei, Jr.; Cutchin, Sean; Kothari, Manthan; Schmitt, Christian; Kavic, Michael; Simonetti, John

    2011-10-01

    Supernovae events may be accompanied by prompt emission of a low-frequency electromagnetic transient. These transient events are created by the interaction of a shock wave of charged particles created by SN core-collapse with a stars ambient magnetic field. Such events can be detected in low-frequency radio array. Here we discuss an ongoing search for such events using two radio arrays: the Long Wavelength Array (LWA) and Eight-meter-wavelength Transient Array (ETA).

  15. Compensation Low-Frequency Errors in TH-1 Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianrong; Wang, Renxiang; Hu, Xin

    2016-06-01

    The topographic mapping products at 1:50,000 scale can be realized using satellite photogrammetry without ground control points (GCPs), which requires the high accuracy of exterior orientation elements. Usually, the attitudes of exterior orientation elements are obtained from the attitude determination system on the satellite. Based on the theoretical analysis and practice, the attitude determination system exists not only the high-frequency errors, but also the low-frequency errors related to the latitude of satellite orbit and the time. The low-frequency errors would affect the location accuracy without GCPs, especially to the horizontal accuracy. In SPOT5 satellite, the latitudinal model was proposed to correct attitudes using approximately 20 calibration sites data, and the location accuracy was improved. The low-frequency errors are also found in Tian Hui 1 (TH-1) satellite. Then, the method of compensation low-frequency errors is proposed in ground image processing of TH-1, which can detect and compensate the low-frequency errors automatically without using GCPs. This paper deal with the low-frequency errors in TH-1: First, the analysis about low-frequency errors of the attitude determination system is performed. Second, the compensation models are proposed in bundle adjustment. Finally, the verification is tested using data of TH-1. The testing results show: the low-frequency errors of attitude determination system can be compensated during bundle adjustment, which can improve the location accuracy without GCPs and has played an important role in the consistency of global location accuracy.

  16. Low-Frequency Combustion Instability Induced by the Combustion Time Lag of Liquid Oxidizer in Hybrid Rocket Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, Takakazu; Kitagawa, Koki; Yuasa, Saburo; Yamaguchi, Shigeru; Shimada, Toru

    This paper deals with a theoretical analysis of the low-frequency combustion instability induced by the combustion time lag of liquid oxidizer in small-scale hybrid rocket motors. We obtained the determined linear stability limit using the following parameters: the combustion time delay of liquid oxidizer, the residence time of a combustion chamber, injector pressure, chamber pressure, mass flux exponent, O/F, and the polytropic exponent of mixture gas in a combustion chamber. Kitagawa and Yuasa sometimes observed low-frequency oscillations, such as chugging, in their swirling-oxidizer-flow-type hybrid rocket engine. The obtained theoretical stability limit was compared with these experimental data.

  17. Universal low-frequency asymptotes of dynamic conic nanopore rectification: An ionic nanofluidic inductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yu; Schiffbauer, Jarrod; Yossifon, Gilad; Chang, Hsueh-Chia

    2015-12-01

    We report the first nanofluidic inductor (L) to complement the known nanofluidic capacitors (C), resistors (R), and diodes for ion currents. Under negative bias, the nanopore behaves like a parallel RC circuit at low frequencies; however, under positive bias, the asymptotic dynamics is that of a serial RL circuit. This new ionic circuit element can lead to nanofluidic RLC or diode-inductor oscillator circuits and new intrapore biosensing/rapid sequencing strategies. A universal theory, with explicit estimates for the capacitance and inductance at opposite biases, is derived to collapse the rectified dynamics of all conic nanopores to facilitate design of this new nanofluidic circuit.

  18. Real time observation of low frequency heme protein vibrations using femtosecond coherence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, L.; Li, P.; Huang, M.; Sage, J. T.; Champion, P. M.

    1994-01-01

    Femtosecond laser pulses, resonant with the Soret bands of myoglobin (Mb) and cytochrome c, are used to probe coherent low frequency nuclear motion of the heme group. The time domain analysis is in good agreement with frequencies obtained independently using spontaneous resonance Raman spectroscopy. The deoxyMb data reveal a strong oscillation near 300 fs (~ 100 cm-1) and a persistent feature also appears near 50 cm-1. This is near the frequency expected for heme doming motion, which has been associated with the ligand binding reaction coordinate of Mb.

  19. Nonlinear low-frequency electrostatic wave dynamics in a two-dimensional quantum plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Samiran; Chakrabarti, Nikhil

    2016-08-01

    The problem of two-dimensional arbitrary amplitude low-frequency electrostatic oscillation in a quasi-neutral quantum plasma is solved exactly by elementary means. In such quantum plasmas we have treated electrons quantum mechanically and ions classically. The exact analytical solution of the nonlinear system exhibits the formation of dark and black solitons. Numerical simulation also predicts the possible periodic solution of the nonlinear system. Nonlinear analysis reveals that the system does have a bifurcation at a critical Mach number that depends on the angle of propagation of the wave. The small-amplitude limit leads to the formation of weakly nonlinear Kadomstev-Petviashvili solitons.

  20. Universal low-frequency asymptotes of dynamic conic nanopore rectification: An ionic nanofluidic inductor.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yu; Schiffbauer, Jarrod; Yossifon, Gilad; Chang, Hsueh-Chia

    2015-12-14

    We report the first nanofluidic inductor (L) to complement the known nanofluidic capacitors (C), resistors (R), and diodes for ion currents. Under negative bias, the nanopore behaves like a parallel RC circuit at low frequencies; however, under positive bias, the asymptotic dynamics is that of a serial RL circuit. This new ionic circuit element can lead to nanofluidic RLC or diode-inductor oscillator circuits and new intrapore biosensing/rapid sequencing strategies. A universal theory, with explicit estimates for the capacitance and inductance at opposite biases, is derived to collapse the rectified dynamics of all conic nanopores to facilitate design of this new nanofluidic circuit. PMID:26671394

  1. Low-frequency sound affects active micromechanics in the human inner ear

    PubMed Central

    Kugler, Kathrin; Wiegrebe, Lutz; Grothe, Benedikt; Kössl, Manfred; Gürkov, Robert; Krause, Eike; Drexl, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss is one of the most common auditory pathologies, resulting from overstimulation of the human cochlea, an exquisitely sensitive micromechanical device. At very low frequencies (less than 250 Hz), however, the sensitivity of human hearing, and therefore the perceived loudness is poor. The perceived loudness is mediated by the inner hair cells of the cochlea which are driven very inadequately at low frequencies. To assess the impact of low-frequency (LF) sound, we exploited a by-product of the active amplification of sound outer hair cells (OHCs) perform, so-called spontaneous otoacoustic emissions. These are faint sounds produced by the inner ear that can be used to detect changes of cochlear physiology. We show that a short exposure to perceptually unobtrusive, LF sounds significantly affects OHCs: a 90 s, 80 dB(A) LF sound induced slow, concordant and positively correlated frequency and level oscillations of spontaneous otoacoustic emissions that lasted for about 2 min after LF sound offset. LF sounds, contrary to their unobtrusive perception, strongly stimulate the human cochlea and affect amplification processes in the most sensitive and important frequency range of human hearing. PMID:26064536

  2. Low-frequency sound affects active micromechanics in the human inner ear.

    PubMed

    Kugler, Kathrin; Wiegrebe, Lutz; Grothe, Benedikt; Kössl, Manfred; Gürkov, Robert; Krause, Eike; Drexl, Markus

    2014-10-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss is one of the most common auditory pathologies, resulting from overstimulation of the human cochlea, an exquisitely sensitive micromechanical device. At very low frequencies (less than 250 Hz), however, the sensitivity of human hearing, and therefore the perceived loudness is poor. The perceived loudness is mediated by the inner hair cells of the cochlea which are driven very inadequately at low frequencies. To assess the impact of low-frequency (LF) sound, we exploited a by-product of the active amplification of sound outer hair cells (OHCs) perform, so-called spontaneous otoacoustic emissions. These are faint sounds produced by the inner ear that can be used to detect changes of cochlear physiology. We show that a short exposure to perceptually unobtrusive, LF sounds significantly affects OHCs: a 90 s, 80 dB(A) LF sound induced slow, concordant and positively correlated frequency and level oscillations of spontaneous otoacoustic emissions that lasted for about 2 min after LF sound offset. LF sounds, contrary to their unobtrusive perception, strongly stimulate the human cochlea and affect amplification processes in the most sensitive and important frequency range of human hearing. PMID:26064536

  3. Low-frequency otolith and semicircular canal interactions after canal inactivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelaki, D. E.; Merfeld, D. M.; Hess, B. J.

    2000-01-01

    During sustained constant velocity and low-frequency off-vertical axis rotations (OVAR), otolith signals contribute significantly to slow-phase eye velocity. The adaptive plasticity of these responses was investigated here after semicircular canal plugging. Inactivation of semicircular canals results in a highly compromised and deficient vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). Based on the VOR enhancement hypothesis, one could expect an adaptive increase of otolith-borne angular velocity signals due to combined otolith/canal inputs after inactivation of the semicircular canals. Contrary to expectations, however, the steady-state slow-phase velocity during constant velocity OVAR decreased in amplitude over time. A similar progressive decrease in VOR gain was also observed during low-frequency off-vertical axis oscillations. This response deterioration was present in animals with either lateral or vertical semicircular canals inactivated and was limited to the plane(s) of the plugged canals. The results are consistent with the idea that the low-frequency otolith signals do not simply enhance VOR responses. Rather, the nervous system appears to correlate vestibular sensory information from the otoliths and the semicircular canals to generate an integral response to head motion.

  4. Characterization and Impact of Low Frequency Wind Turbine Noise Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finch, James

    Wind turbine noise is a complex issue that requires due diligence to minimize any potential impact on quality of life. This study enhances existing knowledge of wind turbine noise through focused analyses of downwind sound propagation, directionality, and the low frequency component of the noise. Measurements were conducted at four wind speeds according to a design of experiments at incremental distances and angles. Wind turbine noise is shown to be highly directional, while downwind sound propagation is spherical with limited ground absorption. The noise is found to have a significant low frequency component that is largely independent of wind speed over the 20-250 Hz range. The generated low frequency noise is shown to be audible above 40 Hz at the MOE setback distance of 550 m. Infrasound levels exhibit higher dependency on wind speed, but remain below audible levels up to 15 m/s.

  5. Directivity and prediction of low frequency rotor noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, C. L.; Marcolini, M. A.; Jones, H. E.; Splettstoesser, W. R.

    1991-01-01

    Acoustic data obtained over a large horizontal plane under the model rotor and digitally filtered in order to determine the low-frequency content near the blade passage frequency is analyzed. Focus is placed on the directivity of low-frequency noise, and the changes in directivity as a function of the descent glide slope angle and advance ratio are presented and compared with predicted directivity results. The differences between the data and prediction are discussed for two observer positions, one below and on the rotor axis, and the other 60 degrees down from the horizontal. It is demonstrated that for the latter position, blade-vortex interaction noise is strong when it occurs, and the loading at the low frequencies is significantly affected during blade-vortex interactions.

  6. Atomic Oxygen Energy in Low Frequency Hyperthermal Plasma Ashers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Miller, Sharon K R.; Kneubel, Christian A.

    2014-01-01

    Experimental and analytical analysis of the atomic oxygen erosion of pyrolytic graphite as well as Monte Carlo computational modeling of the erosion of Kapton H (DuPont, Wilmington, DE) polyimide was performed to determine the hyperthermal energy of low frequency (30 to 35 kHz) plasma ashers operating on air. It was concluded that hyperthermal energies in the range of 0.3 to 0.9 eV are produced in the low frequency air plasmas which results in texturing similar to that in low Earth orbit (LEO). Monte Carlo computational modeling also indicated that such low energy directed ions are fully capable of producing the experimentally observed textured surfaces in low frequency plasmas.

  7. Minimal basilar membrane motion in low-frequency hearing.

    PubMed

    Warren, Rebecca L; Ramamoorthy, Sripriya; Ciganović, Nikola; Zhang, Yuan; Wilson, Teresa M; Petrie, Tracy; Wang, Ruikang K; Jacques, Steven L; Reichenbach, Tobias; Nuttall, Alfred L; Fridberger, Anders

    2016-07-26

    Low-frequency hearing is critically important for speech and music perception, but no mechanical measurements have previously been available from inner ears with intact low-frequency parts. These regions of the cochlea may function in ways different from the extensively studied high-frequency regions, where the sensory outer hair cells produce force that greatly increases the sound-evoked vibrations of the basilar membrane. We used laser interferometry in vitro and optical coherence tomography in vivo to study the low-frequency part of the guinea pig cochlea, and found that sound stimulation caused motion of a minimal portion of the basilar membrane. Outside the region of peak movement, an exponential decline in motion amplitude occurred across the basilar membrane. The moving region had different dependence on stimulus frequency than the vibrations measured near the mechanosensitive stereocilia. This behavior differs substantially from the behavior found in the extensively studied high-frequency regions of the cochlea. PMID:27407145

  8. Minimal basilar membrane motion in low-frequency hearing

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Rebecca L.; Ramamoorthy, Sripriya; Ciganović, Nikola; Zhang, Yuan; Wilson, Teresa M.; Petrie, Tracy; Wang, Ruikang K.; Jacques, Steven L.; Reichenbach, Tobias; Nuttall, Alfred L.; Fridberger, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Low-frequency hearing is critically important for speech and music perception, but no mechanical measurements have previously been available from inner ears with intact low-frequency parts. These regions of the cochlea may function in ways different from the extensively studied high-frequency regions, where the sensory outer hair cells produce force that greatly increases the sound-evoked vibrations of the basilar membrane. We used laser interferometry in vitro and optical coherence tomography in vivo to study the low-frequency part of the guinea pig cochlea, and found that sound stimulation caused motion of a minimal portion of the basilar membrane. Outside the region of peak movement, an exponential decline in motion amplitude occurred across the basilar membrane. The moving region had different dependence on stimulus frequency than the vibrations measured near the mechanosensitive stereocilia. This behavior differs substantially from the behavior found in the extensively studied high-frequency regions of the cochlea. PMID:27407145

  9. Present and Future Modes of Low Frequency Climate Variability

    SciTech Connect

    Cane, Mark A.

    2014-02-20

    This project addressed area (1) of the FOA, “Interaction of Climate Change and Low Frequency Modes of Natural Climate Variability”. Our overarching objective is to detect, describe and understand the changes in low frequency variability between model simulations of the preindustrial climate and simulations of a doubled CO2 climate. The deliverables are a set of papers providing a dynamical characterization of interannual, decadal, and multidecadal variability in coupled models with attention to the changes in this low frequency variability between pre-industrial concentrations of greenhouse gases and a doubling of atmospheric concentrations of CO2. The principle mode of analysis, singular vector decomposition, is designed to advance our physical, mechanistic understanding. This study will include external natural variability due to solar and volcanic aerosol variations as well as variability internal to the climate system. An important byproduct is a set of analysis tools for estimating global singular vector structures from the archived output of model simulations.

  10. Attentional selection of location and modality in vision and touch modulates low-frequency activity in associated sensory cortices

    PubMed Central

    Kennett, Steffan; Driver, Jon

    2012-01-01

    Selective attention allows us to focus on particular sensory modalities and locations. Relatively little is known about how attention to a sensory modality may relate to selection of other features, such as spatial location, in terms of brain oscillations, although it has been proposed that low-frequency modulation (α- and β-bands) may be key. Here, we investigated how attention to space (left or right) and attention to modality (vision or touch) affect ongoing low-frequency oscillatory brain activity over human sensory cortex. Magnetoencephalography was recorded while participants performed a visual or tactile task. In different blocks, touch or vision was task-relevant, whereas spatial attention was cued to the left or right on each trial. Attending to one or other modality suppressed α-oscillations over the corresponding sensory cortex. Spatial attention led to reduced α-oscillations over both sensorimotor and occipital cortex contralateral to the attended location in the cue-target interval, when either modality was task-relevant. Even modality-selective sensors also showed spatial-attention effects for both modalities. The visual and sensorimotor results were generally highly convergent, yet, although attention effects in occipital cortex were dominant in the α-band, in sensorimotor cortex, these were also clearly present in the β-band. These results extend previous findings that spatial attention can operate in a multimodal fashion and indicate that attention to space and modality both rely on similar mechanisms that modulate low-frequency oscillations. PMID:22323628

  11. Listening to the low-frequency gravitational-wave band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Scott

    2016-03-01

    Ground-based gravitational-wave detectors are beginning to explore the high-frequency band of roughly 10 to 1000 Hz. These three decades in frequency represent one of several astrophysically important wavebands. In this talk, I will focus on the astrophysics of the low-frequency band, from roughly 30 microhertz to 0.1 Hz. This band is expected to be particularly rich with very loud sources. I will survey what we expect to be important sources of low-frequency gravitational waves, and review the scientific payoff that would come from measuring them.

  12. Excitation of low-frequency waves by auroral electron beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, C. S.; Wong, H. K.; Koga, J.; Burch, J. L.

    1989-01-01

    The electron distribution functions measured by the Dynamics Explorer 1 satellite during an auroral pass in 1981 are used in a linear instability analysis of low-frequency electromagnetic and electrostatic waves near and below the hydrogen gyrofrequency. It is suggested that the low-frequency electric and magnetic noise in the auroral zone might be explained by O and H electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves excited by energetic electron beams. An instability analysis suggests that upward and downward streaming electrons throughout the central plasma sheet region provide the free energy for heating oxygen ion through oxygen electrostatic ion cyclotron waves.

  13. Improvement of Space Shuttle Main Engine Low Frequency Acceleration Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stec, Robert C.

    1999-01-01

    The noise floor of low frequency acceleration data acquired on the Space Shuttle Main Engines is higher than desirable. Difficulties of acquiring high quality acceleration data on this engine are discussed. The approach presented in this paper for reducing the acceleration noise floor focuses on a search for an accelerometer more capable of measuring low frequency accelerations. An overview is given of the current measurement system used to acquire engine vibratory data. The severity of vibration, temperature, and moisture environments are considered. Vibratory measurements from both laboratory and rocket engine tests are presented.

  14. Low-frequency vibrational modes of riboflavin and related compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Masae; Ishikawa, Yoichi; Nishizawa, Jun-ichi; Ito, Hiromasa

    2005-01-01

    The low-frequency vibrations of riboflavin and related compounds (alloxazine, lumichrome, lumiflavin as the ring system and D-mannitol as the side-chain system) were observed by far-infrared (terahertz) spectroscopy. Vibrational mode assignments in this spectrally congested range were made using high precision quantum chemical calculations. These resonance frequencies located below 200 cm -1 indicate the existence of motions important for biological reactions. The observed absorption bands in the low-frequency region of riboflavin are assigned to the in-plane and out-of-plane-ring deformations of pyrimidine and isoalloxazine, and to the torsion modes of the ribityl chain.

  15. The auditory nerve overlapped waveform (ANOW): A new objective measure of low-frequency hearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichtenhan, Jeffery T.; Salt, Alec N.; Guinan, John J.

    2015-12-01

    One of the most pressing problems today in the mechanics of hearing is to understand the mechanical motions in the apical half of the cochlea. Almost all available measurements from the cochlear apex of basilar membrane or other organ-of-Corti transverse motion have been made from ears where the health, or sensitivity, in the apical half of the cochlea was not known. A key step in understanding the mechanics of the cochlear base was to trust mechanical measurements only when objective measures from auditory-nerve compound action potentials (CAPs) showed good preparation sensitivity. However, such traditional objective measures are not adequate monitors of cochlear health in the very low-frequency regions of the apex that are accessible for mechanical measurements. To address this problem, we developed the Auditory Nerve Overlapped Waveform (ANOW) that originates from auditory nerve output in the apex. When responses from the round window to alternating low-frequency tones are averaged, the cochlear microphonic is canceled and phase-locked neural firing interleaves in time (i.e., overlaps). The result is a waveform that oscillates at twice the probe frequency. We have demonstrated that this Auditory Nerve Overlapped Waveform - called ANOW - originates from auditory nerve fibers in the cochlear apex [8], relates well to single-auditory-nerve-fiber thresholds, and can provide an objective estimate of low-frequency sensitivity [7]. Our new experiments demonstrate that ANOW is a highly sensitive indicator of apical cochlear function. During four different manipulations to the scala media along the cochlear spiral, ANOW amplitude changed when either no, or only small, changes occurred in CAP thresholds. Overall, our results demonstrate that ANOW can be used to monitor cochlear sensitivity of low-frequency regions during experiments that make apical basilar membrane motion measurements.

  16. Search for solar normal modes in low-frequency seismic spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caton, Ross C.

    We use seismic array processing methods to attempt to enhance very low frequency harmonic signals (0-400 microhertz, also ?Hz or uHz) recorded on broadband seismic arrays. Since the discovery of this phenomenon in the 1990s, harmonic signals at these very low frequencies have come to be known as the Earth's "hum." A number of hypotheses have been suggested for the Earth's hum, including forcing by atmospheric turbulence, ocean waves, and, most recently, the Sun. We test the solar hypothesis by searching for statistically significant harmonic lines that correlate with independently observed solar free oscillations. The solar model assumes that free oscillations of the sun modulate the solar wind, producing pure harmonic components of Earth's magnetic field that are postulated to couple to the ground by electromagnetic induction. In this thesis we search the multitaper spectrum of stacks of seismic instruments for solar normal frequencies. We use a median stack instead of the more conventional mean because a more robust estimate of center is required for these low signal-to-noise data with occasional transients. A key advantage of a stack is that data gaps are easily ignored when computing the beam. Results from a stack of 18 Transportable Array stations show multiple possible g-mode detections at the 95-99% confidence level. We are presently applying this method to data from the Homestake Mine array, and may also do so with data from a broadband borehole array currently operating at Pinon Flats, California.

  17. Low-frequency scattering from two-dimensional perfect conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Thorkild B.; Yaghjian, Arthur D.

    1992-11-01

    Exact expressions are derived for the leading terms in the low-frequency expansions of the far field scattered by an arbitrarily shaped cylinder with finite cross section, an arbitrarily shaped cylindrical bump on a ground plane, and arbitrarily shaped cylindrical dent in a ground plane. For the cylinder with finite cross section, an expression that is independent of the cylinder shape is derived to describe the leading term in the low-frequency expansion of the TM scattered far field. The explicit expression for the low-frequency TE scattered far field is based on three constants that depend only on the shape of the cylinder. The explicit expressions for the low-frequency diffracted fields of a bump or dent contain one constant that depends only on the shape of the bump or dent. It is noted, that this single constant is the same for both TM and TE polarization and can be derived from the solution to either electrostatic or magnetostatic problem.

  18. Low Frequency Guided Plate Waves Propagation in Fiber Reinforced Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lih, S-S.; Bar-Cohen, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Conventional destructive techniques for the determination of the elastic stiffness constants of composite materials can be costly and often inaccurate. Reliable nondestructive evaluation methods for monitoring the integrity of composite materials and structures are needed. Guided wave propagation in isotropic plate have been studied. Studies on the low frequency symmetric guide waves are presented.

  19. Is Reaction Time Variability in ADHD Mainly at Low Frequencies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karalunas, Sarah L.; Huang-Pollock, Cynthia L.; Nigg, Joel T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Intraindividual variability in reaction times (RT variability) has garnered increasing interest as an indicator of cognitive and neurobiological dysfunction in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Recent theory and research has emphasized specific low-frequency patterns of RT variability. However, whether…

  20. Low-frequency switching voltage regulators for terrestrial photovoltaic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delombard, R.

    1984-01-01

    The photovoltaic technology project and the stand alone applications project are discussed. Two types of low frequency switching type regulators were investigated. The design, operating characteristics and field application of these regulators is described. The regulators are small in size, low in cost, very low in power dissipation, reliable and allow considerable flexibility in system design.

  1. Long range downwind propagation of low-frequency sound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willshire, W. L., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The propagation of low-frequency noise outdoors was studied using as the source a large (80-m diameter) 4-megawatt horizontal axis wind turbine. Acoustic measurements were made with low-frequency microphone systems placed on the ground at five downwind sites ranging from 300 m to 10,000 m (6.3 mile) away from the wind turbine. The wind turbine fundamental was 1 Hz and the wind speed was generally 12 - 15 m/s at the hub height (80 m). The harmonic levels, when plotted versus propagation distance, exhibit a 3 dB per doubling of distance divergence. Two plausible explanations identified for this cylindrical spreading behavior were propagation of the low frequency wind turbine noise via a surface wave and downwind refraction. Surface was amplitude predictions were found to be more than 20 dB smaller than the measured levels. Ray-tracing results were used to qualitatively explain measured trends. A normal mode approach was identified as a candidate method for low-frequency acoustic refraction prediction.

  2. Intrinsic low-frequency variability of the Gulf Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quattrocchi, G.; Pierini, S.; Dijkstra, H. A.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper a process study aimed at analyzing the low-frequency variability of intrinsically oceanic origin of the Gulf Stream (GS) and GS extension (GSE) is presented. An eddy-permitting reduced-gravity nonlinear shallow water model is implemented in an idealized North Atlantic Ocean, with schematic boundaries including the essential geometric features of the coastline and a realistic zonal basin width at all latitudes. The forcing is provided by a time-independent climatological surface wind stress obtained from 41 years of monthly ECMWF fields. The model response yields strong intrinsic low-frequency fluctuations on the interannual to decadal time scales. The modelled time-averaged GS/GSE flows are found to exhibit several features that can also be deduced from satellite altimeter data, such as the Florida Current seaward deflection, the GS separation at Cape Hatteras, and the overall structure of the GSE. The intrinsic low-frequency variability yields two preferred states of the GSE differing in latitudinal location that also have their counterpart in the altimeter data. A preliminary analysis of the variability in terms of dynamical systems theory is carried out by using the lateral eddy viscosity as the control parameter. A complex transition sequence from a steady state to irregular low-frequency variability emerges, in which Hopf and global bifurcations can be identified.

  3. Probing a chemical compass: novel variants of low-frequency reaction yield detected magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Kiminori; Storey, Jonathan G; Liddell, Paul A; Gust, Devens; Hore, P J; Wedge, C J; Timmel, Christiane R

    2015-02-01

    We present a study of a carotenoid-porphyrin-fullerene triad previously shown to function as a chemical compass: the photogenerated carotenoid-fullerene radical pair recombines at a rate sensitive to the orientation of an applied magnetic field. To characterize the system we develop a time-resolved Low-Frequency Reaction Yield Detected Magnetic Resonance (tr-LF-RYDMR) technique; the effect of varying the relative orientation of applied static and 36 MHz oscillating magnetic fields is shown to be strongly dependent on the strength of the oscillating magnetic field. RYDMR is a diagnostic test for involvement of the radical pair mechanism in the magnetic field sensitivity of reaction rates or yields, and has previously been applied in animal behavioural experiments to verify the involvement of radical-pair-based intermediates in the magnetic compass sense of migratory birds. The spectroscopic selection rules governing RYDMR are well understood at microwave frequencies for which the so-called 'high-field approximation' is valid, but at lower frequencies different models are required. For example, the breakdown of the rotating frame approximation has recently been investigated, but less attention has so far been given to orientation effects. Here we gain physical insights into the interplay of the different magnetic interactions affecting low-frequency RYDMR experiments performed in the challenging regime in which static and oscillating applied magnetic fields as well as internal electron-nuclear hyperfine interactions are of comparable magnitude. Our observations aid the interpretation of existing RYDMR-based animal behavioural studies and will inform future applications of the technique to verify and characterize further the biological receptors involved in avian magnetoreception. PMID:25537133

  4. Ionization oscillations in Hall accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barral, S.; Peradzyński, Z.

    2010-01-01

    The underlying mechanism of low-frequency oscillations in Hall accelerators is investigated theoretically. It is shown that relaxation oscillations arise from a competition between avalanche ionization and the advective transport of the working gas. The model derived recovers the slow progression and fast recession of the ionization front. Analytical approximations of the shape of current pulses and of the oscillation frequency are provided for the case of large amplitude oscillations.

  5. Low-Frequency Waves in HF Heating of the Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, A. S.; Eliasson, B.; Milikh, G. M.; Najmi, A.; Papadopoulos, K.; Shao, X.; Vartanyan, A.

    2016-02-01

    Ionospheric heating experiments have enabled an exploration of the ionosphere as a large-scale natural laboratory for the study of many plasma processes. These experiments inject high-frequency (HF) radio waves using high-power transmitters and an array of ground- and space-based diagnostics. This chapter discusses the excitation and propagation of low-frequency waves in HF heating of the ionosphere. The theoretical aspects and the associated models and simulations, and the results from experiments, mostly from the HAARP facility, are presented together to provide a comprehensive interpretation of the relevant plasma processes. The chapter presents the plasma model of the ionosphere for describing the physical processes during HF heating, the numerical code, and the simulations of the excitation of low-frequency waves by HF heating. It then gives the simulations of the high-latitude ionosphere and mid-latitude ionosphere. The chapter also briefly discusses the role of kinetic processes associated with wave generation.

  6. Diatom response to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Parkinson, W.C.; Sulik, G.L. )

    1992-06-01

    Reports that extremely low-frequency magnetic fields can interfere with normal biological cell function continue to stimulate experimental activity as well as investigations into the possible mechanism of the interaction. The cyclotron resonance' model of Liboff has been tested by Smith et al. using as the biological test system the diatom Amphora coffeiformis. They report enhanced motility of the diatom in response to a low-frequency electromagnetic field tuned to the cyclotron resonance condition for calcium ions. We report here an attempt to reproduce their results. Following their protocol diatoms were seeded onto agar plates containing varying amounts of calcium and exposed to colinear DC and AC magnetic fields tuned to the cyclotron resonant condition for frequencies of 16, 30, and 60 Hz. The fractional motility was compared with that of control plates seeded at the same time from the same culture. We find no evidence of a cyclotron resonance effect.

  7. The very low frequency power spectrum of Centaurus X-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruber, D. E.

    1988-01-01

    The long-term variability of Cen X-3 on time scales ranging from days to years has been examined by combining data obtained by the HEAO 1 A-4 instrument with data from Vela 5B. A simple interpretation of the data is made in terms of the standard alpha-disk model of accretion disk structure and dynamics. Assuming that the low-frequency variance represents the inherent variability of the mass transfer from the companion, the decline in power at higher frequencies results from the leveling of radial structure in the accretion disk through viscous mixing. The shape of the observed power spectrum is shown to be in excellent agreement with a calculation based on a simplified form of this model. The observed low-frequency power spectrum of Cen X-3 is consistent with a disk in which viscous mixing occurs about as rapidly as possible and on the largest scale possible.

  8. Theory of low frequency noise transmission through turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matta, R. K.; Mani, R.

    1979-01-01

    Improvements of the existing theory of low frequency noise transmission through turbines and development of a working prediction tool are described. The existing actuator-disk model and a new finite-chord model were utilized in an analytical study. The interactive effect of adjacent blade rows, higher order spinning modes, blade-passage shocks, and duct area variations were considered separately. The improved theory was validated using the data acquired in an earlier NASA program. Computer programs incorporating the improved theory were produced for transmission loss prediction purposes. The programs were exercised parametrically and charts constructed to define approximately the low frequency noise transfer through turbines. The loss through the exhaust nozzle and flow(s) was also considered.

  9. An evolutionary sequence of low frequency radio astronomy missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Dayton L.

    1990-01-01

    Many concepts for space-based low frequency radio astronomy missions are being developed, ranging from simple single-satellite experiments to large arrays on the far side of the moon. Each concept involves a different tradeoff between the range of scientific questions it can answer and the technical complexity of the experiment. Since complexity largely determines the development time, risk, launch vehicle requirements, cost, and probability of approval, it is important to see where the ability to expand the scientific return justifies a major increase in complexity. An evolutionary series of increasingly capable missions, similar to the series of missions for infrared or X-ray astronomy, is advocated. These would range from inexpensive 'piggy-back' experiments on near-future missions to a dedicated low frequency array in earth orbit (or possibly on the lunar nearside) and eventually to an array on the lunar farside.

  10. Low-frequency noise reduction of lightweight airframe structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Getline, G. L.

    1976-01-01

    The results of an experimental study to determine the noise attenuation characteristics of aircraft type fuselage structural panels were presented. Of particular interest was noise attenuation at low frequencies, below the fundamental resonances of the panels. All panels were flightweight structures for transport type aircraft in the 34,050 to 45,400 kg (75,000 to 100,000 pounds) gross weight range. Test data include the results of vibration and acoustic transmission loss tests on seven types of isotropic and orthotropically stiffened, flat and curved panels. The results show that stiffness controlled acoustically integrated structures can provide very high noise reductions at low frequencies without significantly affecting their high frequency noise reduction capabilities.

  11. Method for sputtering with low frequency alternating current

    DOEpatents

    Timberlake, John R.

    1996-01-01

    Low frequency alternating current sputtering is provided by connecting a low frequency alternating current source to a high voltage transformer having outer taps and a center tap for stepping up the voltage of the alternating current. The center tap of the transformer is connected to a vacuum vessel containing argon or helium gas. Target electrodes, in close proximity to each other, and containing material with which the substrates will be coated, are connected to the outer taps of the transformer. With an applied potential, the gas will ionize and sputtering from the target electrodes onto the substrate will then result. The target electrodes can be copper or boron, and the substrate can be stainless steel, aluminum, or titanium. Copper coatings produced are used in place of nickel and/or copper striking.

  12. Computer simulation of low-frequency electromagnetic data acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    SanFilipo, W.A.; Hohmann, G.W.

    1982-02-01

    Computer simulation of low frequency electromagnetic (LFEM) digital data acquisition in the presence of natural field noise demonstrates several important limitations and considerations. Without the use of a remote reference noise removal scheme it is difficult to obtain an adequate ratio of signal to noise below 0.1 Hz for frequency domain processing and below 0.3 Hz base frequency for time domain processing for a typical source-receiver configuration. A digital high-pass filter substantially facilitates rejection of natural field noise above these frequencies but, at lower frequencies where much longer stacking times are required, it becomes ineffective. Use of a remote reference to subtract natural field noise extends these low-frequency limits a decade, but this technique is limited by the resolution and dynamic range of the instrumentation. Gathering data in short segments so that natural field drift can be offset for each segment allows a higher gain setting to minimize dynamic range problems.

  13. Method for sputtering with low frequency alternating current

    DOEpatents

    Timberlake, J.R.

    1996-04-30

    Low frequency alternating current sputtering is provided by connecting a low frequency alternating current source to a high voltage transformer having outer taps and a center tap for stepping up the voltage of the alternating current. The center tap of the transformer is connected to a vacuum vessel containing argon or helium gas. Target electrodes, in close proximity to each other, and containing material with which the substrates will be coated, are connected to the outer taps of the transformer. With an applied potential, the gas will ionize and sputtering from the target electrodes onto the substrate will then result. The target electrodes can be copper or boron, and the substrate can be stainless steel, aluminum, or titanium. Copper coatings produced are used in place of nickel and/or copper striking. 6 figs.

  14. TorPeDO: A Low Frequency Gravitational Force Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McManus, D. J.; Yap, M. J.; Ward, R. L.; Shaddock, D. A.; McClelland, D. E.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.

    2016-05-01

    Second generation gravitational wave detectors are likely to be limited by Newtonian Noise at low frequencies. A dual torsion pendulum sensor aimed at exploring low- frequency gravitational-force noise is being studied at the ANU. This sensor is designed to measure local gravitational forces to high precision and will be limited by Newtonian noise. We report on a controls prototype which has been constructed and suspended, along with initial characterisation and testing of the two torsion pendulums. Large weights at the end of each bar reposition the centres of mass to the same point in space external to both bars. Since both bars have a common suspension point, resonant frequency (≈33.4 mHz), and centre of mass, mechanical disturbances and other noise will affect both bars in the same manner, providing a large mechanical common mode rejection.

  15. Low-frequency noise assessment metrics -- What do we know?

    SciTech Connect

    Broner, N.

    1994-12-31

    The issue of sound quality in offices and other occupied spaces has been of continuing interest since the 1950s. Existing assessment methods do not adequately account for the low-frequency background sound (< 250 Hz) produced by operating heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems, in particular, low-frequency rumble. This paper discusses the results of ASHRAE-sponsored research in which more than 75 HVAC noise samples were collected, normalized, and categorized in terms of sound quality. The results support previous findings that a neutral curve has a slope of approximately {minus}5 decibels (dB) per octave. There is also support for the contention that the balanced noise criterion B (NCB) curves are overly conservative in the region from 63 to 500 Hz and overly permissive below 63 Hz when compared with the room criteria (RC) curves. A modified set of room sound quality (RSQ) curves -- the room sound quality (RSQ) curves -- is proposed.

  16. A lunar far-side very low frequency array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Jack O. (Editor); Duric, Nebojsa (Editor); Johnson, Stewart (Editor); Taylor, G. Jeffrey (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Papers were presented to consider very low frequency (VLF) radio astronomical observations from the moon. In part 1, the environment in which a lunar VLF radio array would function is described. Part 2 is a review of previous and proposed low-frequency observatories. The science that could be conducted with a lunar VLF array is described in part 3. The design of a lunar VLF array and site selection criteria are considered, respectively, in parts 4 and 5. Part 6 is a proposal for precursor lunar VLF observations. Finally, part 7 is a summary and statement of conclusions, with suggestions for future science and engineering studies. The workshop concluded with a general consensus on the scientific goals and preliminary design for a lunar VLF array.

  17. Low-frequency computational electromagnetics for antenna analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, E.K. ); Burke, G.J. )

    1991-01-01

    An overview of low-frequency, computational methods for modeling the electromagnetic characteristics of antennas is presented here. The article presents a brief analytical background, and summarizes the essential ingredients of the method of moments, for numerically solving low-frequency antenna problems. Some extensions to the basic models of perfectly conducting objects in free space are also summarized, followed by a consideration of some of the same computational issues that affect model accuracy, efficiency and utility. A variety of representative computations are then presented to illustrate various modeling aspects and capabilities that are currently available. A fairly extensive bibliography is included to suggest further reference material to the reader. 90 refs., 27 figs.

  18. Low Frequency Waves at and Upstream of Collisionless Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, L. B.

    2016-02-01

    This chapter focuses on the range of low frequency electromagnetic modes observed at and upstream of collisionless shocks in the heliosphere. It discusses a specific class of whistler mode wave observed immediately upstream of collisionless shock ramps, called a whistler precursor. Though these modes have been (and are often) observed upstream of quasi-parallel shocks, the authors limit their discussion to those observed upstream of quasi-perpendicular shocks. The chapter discusses the various ion velocity distributions observed at and upstream of collisionless shocks. It also introduces some terminology and relevant instabilities for ion foreshock waves. The chapter discusses the most common ultra-low frequency (ULF) wave types, their properties, and their free energy sources. It discusses modes that are mostly Alfvénic (i.e., mostly transverse but can be compressive) in nature.

  19. Length sensing and control for Einstein Telescope Low Frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adya, Vaishali; Leavey, Sean; Lück, Harald; Gräf, Christian; Hild, Stefan

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we describe a feasible length sensing and control scheme for the low frequency interferometers of the Einstein Telescope (ET-LF) along with the techniques used to optimise several optical parameters, including the length of the recycling cavities and the modulation frequencies, using two numerical interferometer simulation packages: Optickle and Finesse. The investigations have suggested the use of certain combinations of sidebands to obtain independent information about the different degrees of freedom.

  20. Spatial structure of low-frequency wind noise.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D Keith; Greenfield, Roy J; White, Michael J

    2007-12-01

    The distinguishing spatial properties of low-frequency microphone wind noise (turbulent pressure disturbances) are examined with a planar, 49-element array. Individual, propagating transient pressure disturbances are imaged by wavelet processing to the array data. Within a given frequency range, the wind disturbances are much smaller and less spatially coherent than sound waves. Conventional array processing techniques are particularly sensitive to wind noise when sensor separations are small compared to the acoustic wavelengths of interest. PMID:18247645

  1. Low-frequency noise in hot-carrier detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, N. I.; Petko, G. V.

    1981-01-01

    The low-frequency noise of hot-carrier detectors has been studied theoretically and experimentallyywith reference to the contributions of each of the following noise sources: thermal noise, shot effect, flicker noise, and noise generated in the input waveguide which is converted to thermoelectromotive force during detection. It is shown that hot-carrier detectors can be used for low-noise detection of electromagnetic radiation in the centimeter and millimeter ranges for various radioelectronic and measurements applications.

  2. A kinetic-MHD model for low frequency phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, C.Z.

    1991-07-01

    A hybrid kinetic-MHD model for describing low-frequency phenomena in high beta anisotropic plasmas that consist of two components: a low energy core component and an energetic component with low density. The kinetic-MHD model treats the low energy core component by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) description, the energetic component by kinetic approach such as the gyrokinetic equation, and the coupling between the dynamics of these two components through plasma pressure in the momentum equation. The kinetic-MHD model optimizes both the physics contents and the theoretical efforts in studying low frequency MHD waves and transport phenomena in general magnetic field geometries, and can be easily modified to include the core plasma kinetic effects if necessary. It is applicable to any magnetized collisionless plasma system where the parallel electric field effects are negligibly small. In the linearized limit two coupled eigenmode equations for describing the coupling between the transverse Alfven type and the compressional Alfven type waves are derived. The eigenmode equations are identical to those derived from the full gyrokinetic equation in the low frequency limit and were previously analyzed both analytically nd numerically to obtain the eigenmode structure of the drift mirror instability which explains successfully the multi-satellite observation of antisymmetric field-aligned structure of the compressional magnetic field of Pc 5 waves in the magnetospheric ring current plasma. Finally, a quadratic form is derived to demonstrate the stability of the low-frequency transverse and compressional Alfven type instabilities in terms of the pressure anisotropy parameter {tau} and the magnetic field curvature-pressure gradient parameter. A procedure for determining the stability of a marginally stable MHD wave due to wave-particle resonances is also presented.

  3. Loads and low frequency dynamics - An ENVIRONET data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garba, John A.

    1988-01-01

    The loads and low frequency dynamics data base, part of Environet, is described with particular attention given to its development and contents. The objective of the data base is to provide the payload designer with design approaches and design data to meet STS safety requirements. Currently the data base consists of the following sections: abstract, scope, glossary, requirements, interaction with other environments, summary of the loads analysis process, design considerations, guidelines for payload design loads, information data base, and references.

  4. Anomalous low frequency dissipation processes in metal springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeSalvo, Riccardo; Di Cintio, Arianna; Marchesoni, Fabio; Bhawal, Abhik

    2010-05-01

    The dissipation processes of leaf springs used in seismic isolation chains of Gravitational Wave detectors have been studied. A low frequency phase transition from visco us-like to fractal-like dissipation, controlled by Self Organized Criticality of dislocations, was observed. The new understandings suggest different best practices for the operations of the seismic isolation chains of the second generation of Gravitational Wave observatories and require new techniques and materials for the third generation.

  5. The reduction of low frequency fluctuations in RFP experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.A.; Baker, D.A.; Gribble, R.F.

    1998-09-01

    The low frequency fluctuations seen in RFP experiments are found to be correlated with changes in the toroidal flux measured by diamagnetic loops surrounding the discharge. The correlation of the onset of impurity radiation and x-rays with the crash seen in experiments is caused by plasma bombarding the metal liner associated with this loss of flux. Efforts should be made to design improved stabilizing shells that will reduce the loss of flux and give improved RFP energy confinement times.

  6. Large-N correlator systems for low frequency radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Griffin

    Low frequency radio astronomy has entered a second golden age driven by the development of a new class of large-N interferometric arrays. The low frequency array (LOFAR) and a number of redshifted HI Epoch of Reionization (EoR) arrays are currently undergoing commission and regularly observing. Future arrays of unprecedented sensitivity and resolutions at low frequencies, such as the square kilometer array (SKA) and the hydrogen epoch of reionization array (HERA), are in development. The combination of advancements in specialized field programmable gate array (FPGA) hardware for signal processing, computing and graphics processing unit (GPU) resources, and new imaging and calibration algorithms has opened up the oft underused radio band below 300 MHz. These interferometric arrays require efficient implementation of digital signal processing (DSP) hardware to compute the baseline correlations. FPGA technology provides an optimal platform to develop new correlators. The significant growth in data rates from these systems requires automated software to reduce the correlations in real time before storing the data products to disk. Low frequency, widefield observations introduce a number of unique calibration and imaging challenges. The efficient implementation of FX correlators using FPGA hardware is presented. Two correlators have been developed, one for the 32 element BEST-2 array at Medicina Observatory and the other for the 96 element LOFAR station at Chilbolton Observatory. In addition, calibration and imaging software has been developed for each system which makes use of the radio interferometry measurement equation (RIME) to derive calibrations. A process for generating sky maps from widefield LOFAR station observations is presented. Shapelets, a method of modelling extended structures such as resolved sources and beam patterns has been adapted for radio astronomy use to further improve system calibration. Scaling of computing technology allows for the

  7. Low Frequency Electromagnetic Background Radiation From Electron Acceleration Above Thunderclouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullekrug, Martin; Mezentsev, Andrew; Soula, Serge; van der Velde, Oscar; Farges, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    It was recently proposed that the acceleration of electrons during the growth and branching of streamers above thunderclouds initiated by intense lightning discharges could result in detectable low frequency electromagnetic radiation from several tens of kHz up to several hundreds of kHz (Qin et al., GRL, 2012). The intensity of the predicted radiation scales with the streamer density which is particularly large during spectacular sprite occurrences such as jellyfish sprites and/or dancing sprites. Dancing sprites are up to one second long sequences of consecutive sprites or sprite groups which are typically separated by some hundreds of milliseconds and which tend to follow the spatial development of large scale intracloud lightning discharges. A particularly spectacular series of 10 dancing sprite events over a Mediterranean mesoscale convective system was recorded with a low light video camera in south-eastern France during the early morning hours of August 31, 2012. Each dancing sprite event was composed of ~3-4 consecutive sprites or groups of sprites. All of these sprite occurrences were associated with a sudden enhancement ~2 uV/m/Hz-1/2 of the low frequency electromagnetic background radiation as measured with a radio receiver in south-west England. It is estimated that ~1000 streamers at a height of ~40 km are necessary to epxlain the observed electric field strengths. These sudden enhancements are superimposed on a more continuous low frequency electromagnetic background radiation which accompanies each dancing sprite event. It is speculated that this low frequency 'radio glow' results from filamentary streamers near the cloud top as a result of the large scale electrostatic charging of the thundercloud and that it may be used as an indicator for sprite occurrences in future studies.

  8. Propagation of a low-frequency rectangular pulse in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Ronold W. P.

    1993-05-01

    As a necessary preliminary to the determination of the electromagnetic field scattered by a metal cylinder submerged in the ocean, the propagation of a low frequency pulse with a rectangular envelope is evaluated numerically as a function of the distance of travel. Graphs of the three component terms and their sum are shown for four distances. The very significant changes in shape and amplitude of the pulse are discussed.

  9. Relativistic runaway breakdown in low-frequency radio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Füllekrug, Martin; Roussel-Dupré, Robert; Symbalisty, Eugene M. D.; Chanrion, Olivier; Odzimek, Anna; van der Velde, Oscar; Neubert, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    The electromagnetic radiation emitted by an electron avalanche beam resulting from relativistic runaway breakdown within the Earth's atmosphere is investigated. It is found from theoretical modeling with a computer simulation that the electron beam emits electromagnetic radiation which is characterized by consecutive broadband pulses in the low-frequency radio range from ˜10 to 300 kHz at a distance of ˜800 km. Experimental evidence for the existence of consecutive broadband pulses is provided by low-frequency radio observations of sprite-producing lightning discharges at a distance of ˜550 km. The measured broadband pulses occur ˜4-9 ms after the sprite-producing lightning discharge, they exhibit electromagnetic radiation which mainly spans the frequency range from ˜50 to 350 kHz, and they exhibit complex waveforms without the typical ionospheric reflection of the first hop sky wave. Two consecutive pulses occur ˜4.5 ms and ˜3 ms after the causative lightning discharge and coincide with the sprite luminosity. It is concluded that relativistic runaway breakdown within the Earth's atmosphere can emit broadband electromagnetic pulses and possibly generates sprites. The source location of the broadband pulses can be determined with an interferometric network of wideband low-frequency radio receivers to lend further experimental support to the relativistic runaway breakdown theory.

  10. Solar observations with a low frequency radio telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myserlis, I.; Seiradakis, J.; Dogramatzidis, M.

    2012-01-01

    We have set up a low frequency radio monitoring station for solar bursts at the Observatory of the Aristotle University in Thessaloniki. The station consists of a dual dipole phased array, a radio receiver and a dedicated computer with the necessary software installed. The constructed radio receiver is based on NASA's Radio Jove project. It operates continuously, since July 2010, at 20.1 MHz (close to the long-wavelength ionospheric cut-off of the radio window) with a narrow bandwidth (~5 kHz). The system is properly calibrated, so that the recorded data are expressed in antenna temperature. Despite the high interference level of an urban region like Thessaloniki (strong broadcasting shortwave radio stations, periodic experimental signals, CBs, etc), we have detected several low frequency solar radio bursts and correlated them with solar flares, X-ray events and other low frequency solar observations. The received signal is monitored in ordinary ASCII format and as audio signal, in order to investigate and exclude man-made radio interference. In order to exclude narrow band interference and calculate the spectral indices of the observed events, a second monitoring station, working at 36 MHz, is under construction at the village of Nikiforos near the town of Drama, about 130 km away of Thessaloniki. Finally, we plan to construct a third monitoring station at 58 MHz, in Thessaloniki. This frequency was revealed to be relatively free of interference, after a thorough investigation of the region.